WorldWideScience

Sample records for international satellite cloud

  1. International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) focuses on the distribution and variation of cloud radiative properties to improve the understanding of the...

  2. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1, Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from derived International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1 observations of tropical cyclones worldwide. The B1 data...

  3. International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Climate Data Record, H-Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) focuses on the distribution and variation of cloud radiative properties to improve the understanding of...

  4. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) - The first project of the World Climate Research Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, R. A.; Rossow, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    The first project of the World Climate Research Program is the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, (ISCCP) whose objective is the collection and analysis of satellite radiance data in order to infer the global distribution of cloud radiative properties and improve the modeling of cloud effects on climate. The operational component of ISCCP takes advantage of the global coverage provided by the current and planned international array of geostationary and polar-orbiting meteorological satellites in the 1980s. It will produce a five-year global radiance and cloud data set. The research component of ISCCP will coordinate studies to validate climatology, improve cloud analysis algorithms, improve cloud effects modelling, and investigate the role of clouds in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle.

  5. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project H-Series climate data record product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alisa H.; Knapp, Kenneth R.; Inamdar, Anand; Hankins, William; Rossow, William B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the new global long-term International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) H-series climate data record (CDR). The H-series data contain a suite of level 2 and 3 products for monitoring the distribution and variation of cloud and surface properties to better understand the effects of clouds on climate, the radiation budget, and the global hydrologic cycle. This product is currently available for public use and is derived from both geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite imaging radiometers with common visible and infrared (IR) channels. The H-series data currently span July 1983 to December 2009 with plans for continued production to extend the record to the present with regular updates. The H-series data are the longest combined geostationary and polar orbiter satellite-based CDR of cloud properties. Access to the data is provided in network common data form (netCDF) and archived by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) under the satellite Climate Data Record Program (https://doi.org/10.7289/V5QZ281S). The basic characteristics, history, and evolution of the dataset are presented herein with particular emphasis on and discussion of product changes between the H-series and the widely used predecessor D-series product which also spans from July 1983 through December 2009. Key refinements included in the ISCCP H-series CDR are based on improved quality control measures, modified ancillary inputs, higher spatial resolution input and output products, calibration refinements, and updated documentation and metadata to bring the H-series product into compliance with existing standards for climate data records.

  6. Galactic cosmic ray and El Nino Southern Oscillation trends in International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 low-cloud properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    [1] The recently reported correlation between clouds and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) implies the existence of a previously unknown process linking solar variability and climate. An analysis of the interannual variability of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 (ISCCP-D2) low...

  7. 4-D display of satellite cloud images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, William L.

    1987-01-01

    A technique has been developed to display GOES satellite cloud images in perspective over a topographical map. Cloud heights are estimated using temperatures from an infrared (IR) satellite image, surface temperature observations, and a climatological model of vertical temperature profiles. Cloud levels are discriminated from each other and from the ground using a pattern recognition algorithm based on the brightness variance technique of Coakley and Bretherton. The cloud regions found by the pattern recognizer are rendered in three-dimensional perspective over a topographical map by an efficient remap of the visible image. The visible shades are mixed with an artificial shade based on the geometry of the cloud-top surface, in order to enhance the texture of the cloud top.

  8. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  9. Development of methods for inferring cloud thickness and cloud-base height from satellite radiance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L., Jr.; Minnis, Patrick; Alvarez, Joseph M.; Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Clothiaux, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Cloud-top height is a major factor determining the outgoing longwave flux at the top of the atmosphere. The downwelling radiation from the cloud strongly affects the cooling rate within the atmosphere and the longwave radiation incident at the surface. Thus, determination of cloud-base temperature is important for proper calculation of fluxes below the cloud. Cloud-base altitude is also an important factor in aircraft operations. Cloud-top height or temperature can be derived in a straightforward manner using satellite-based infrared data. Cloud-base temperature, however, is not observable from the satellite, but is related to the height, phase, and optical depth of the cloud in addition to other variables. This study uses surface and satellite data taken during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Phase-2 Intensive Field Observation (IFO) period (13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991, to improve techniques for deriving cloud-base height from conventional satellite data.

  10. Towards the objective analysis of clouds from satellite imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Baldwin, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    It is suspected that clouds play a major role in climate dynamics. However, conclusive studies regarding the effects related to the cloud cover appear difficult because there is a lack of objective data. The present investigation is concerned with an objective scheme for deriving clouds and their properties from satellite imagery data for the oceans. The objective analysis makes use of the spatial coherence method for retrieving cloud cover from satellite imagery data. This method has advantages over other techniques often applied to imagery data. It is not necessary that clouds fill completely the observing instrument's field-of-view, and a priori or satellite derived knowledge of the cloud radiative properties is not needed.

  11. Satellite retrieval of cloud condensation nuclei concentrations by using clouds as CCN chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zheng, Youtong; Hashimshoni, Eyal; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Jefferson, Anne; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yu, Xing; Zhu, Yannian; Liu, Guihua; Yue, Zhiguo; Fischman, Baruch; Li, Zhanqing; Giguzin, David; Goren, Tom; Artaxo, Paulo; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and cloud base updraft velocities (Wb). Hitherto, the inability to do so has been a major cause of high uncertainty regarding anthropogenic aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative forcing. This can be addressed by the emerging capability of estimating CCN and Wb of boundary layer convective clouds from an operational polar orbiting weather satellite. Our methodology uses such clouds as an effective analog for CCN chambers. The cloud base supersaturation (S) is determined by Wb and the satellite-retrieved cloud base drop concentrations (Ndb), which is the same as CCN(S). Validation against ground-based CCN instruments at Oklahoma, at Manaus, and onboard a ship in the northeast Pacific showed a retrieval accuracy of ±25% to ±30% for individual satellite overpasses. The methodology is presently limited to boundary layer not raining convective clouds of at least 1 km depth that are not obscured by upper layer clouds, including semitransparent cirrus. The limitation for small solar backscattering angles of <25° restricts the satellite coverage to ∼25% of the world area in a single day. PMID:26944081

  12. Satellite retrieval of cloud condensation nuclei concentrations by using clouds as CCN chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zheng, Youtong; Hashimshoni, Eyal; Pöhlker, Mira L; Jefferson, Anne; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yu, Xing; Zhu, Yannian; Liu, Guihua; Yue, Zhiguo; Fischman, Baruch; Li, Zhanqing; Giguzin, David; Goren, Tom; Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O

    2016-05-24

    Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and cloud base updraft velocities (Wb). Hitherto, the inability to do so has been a major cause of high uncertainty regarding anthropogenic aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative forcing. This can be addressed by the emerging capability of estimating CCN and Wb of boundary layer convective clouds from an operational polar orbiting weather satellite. Our methodology uses such clouds as an effective analog for CCN chambers. The cloud base supersaturation (S) is determined by Wb and the satellite-retrieved cloud base drop concentrations (Ndb), which is the same as CCN(S). Validation against ground-based CCN instruments at Oklahoma, at Manaus, and onboard a ship in the northeast Pacific showed a retrieval accuracy of ±25% to ±30% for individual satellite overpasses. The methodology is presently limited to boundary layer not raining convective clouds of at least 1 km depth that are not obscured by upper layer clouds, including semitransparent cirrus. The limitation for small solar backscattering angles of <25° restricts the satellite coverage to ∼25% of the world area in a single day.

  13. An Automatic Cloud Detection Method for ZY-3 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Zhenwei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic cloud detection for optical satellite remote sensing images is a significant step in the production system of satellite products. For the browse images cataloged by ZY-3 satellite, the tree discriminate structure is adopted to carry out cloud detection. The image was divided into sub-images and their features were extracted to perform classification between clouds and grounds. However, due to the high complexity of clouds and surfaces and the low resolution of browse images, the traditional classification algorithms based on image features are of great limitations. In view of the problem, a prior enhancement processing to original sub-images before classification was put forward in this paper to widen the texture difference between clouds and surfaces. Afterwards, with the secondary moment and first difference of the images, the feature vectors were extended in multi-scale space, and then the cloud proportion in the image was estimated through comprehensive analysis. The presented cloud detection algorithm has already been applied to the ZY-3 application system project, and the practical experiment results indicate that this algorithm is capable of promoting the accuracy of cloud detection significantly.

  14. Nonlinear electron cloud modification of satellite modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stettner, R.; Sveum, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    A one-dimensional circuit analog of the modes of a triaxial satellite is derived. Self consistent one-dimensional particle calculations utilizing this model are presented. The results suggest that electrons arriving at the satellite from tank walls and damper in an SGEMP experiment, can under some circumstances, materially affect the response of the satellite

  15. Verifying Air Force Weather Passive Satellite Derived Cloud Analysis Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    Air Force Weather (AFW) has developed an hourly World-Wide Merged Cloud Analysis (WWMCA) using imager data from 16 geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. The analysis product contains information on cloud fraction, height, type and various optical properties including optical depth and integrated water path. All of these products are derived using a suite of algorithms which rely exclusively on passively sensed data from short, mid and long wave imager data. The system integrates satellites with a wide-range of capabilities, from the relatively simple two-channel OLS imager to the 16 channel ABI/AHI to create a seamless global analysis in real time. Over the last couple of years, AFW has started utilizing independent verification data from active sensed cloud measurements to better understand the performance limitations of the WWMCA. Sources utilized include space based lidars (CALIPSO, CATS) and radar (CloudSat) as well as ground based lidars from the Department of Energy ARM sites and several European cloud radars. This work will present findings from our efforts to compare active and passive sensed cloud information including comparison techniques/limitations as well as performance of the passive derived cloud information against the active.

  16. Using Deep Learning Model for Meteorological Satellite Cloud Image Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X.

    2017-12-01

    A satellite cloud image contains much weather information such as precipitation information. Short-time cloud movement forecast is important for precipitation forecast and is the primary means for typhoon monitoring. The traditional methods are mostly using the cloud feature matching and linear extrapolation to predict the cloud movement, which makes that the nonstationary process such as inversion and deformation during the movement of the cloud is basically not considered. It is still a hard task to predict cloud movement timely and correctly. As deep learning model could perform well in learning spatiotemporal features, to meet this challenge, we could regard cloud image prediction as a spatiotemporal sequence forecasting problem and introduce deep learning model to solve this problem. In this research, we use a variant of Gated-Recurrent-Unit(GRU) that has convolutional structures to deal with spatiotemporal features and build an end-to-end model to solve this forecast problem. In this model, both the input and output are spatiotemporal sequences. Compared to Convolutional LSTM(ConvLSTM) model, this model has lower amount of parameters. We imply this model on GOES satellite data and the model perform well.

  17. Satellite remote sensing of cloud-base updrafts for convective clouds and stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Rosenfeld, D.

    2016-12-01

    Updraft speeds of thermals have always been notoriously difficult to measure, despite significant roles they play in transporting pollutants and in cloud formation and precipitation. To our knowledge, no attempt to date has been made to estimate updraft speed from satellite information. In this study, we introduce three methods of retrieving updraft speeds at cloud base () for convective clouds and marine stratocumulus with VIIRS onboard Suomi-NPP satellite. The first method uses ground-air temperature difference to characterize the surface sensible heat flux, which is found to be correlated with updraft speeds measured by the Doppler lidar over the Southern Great Plains (SGP). Based on the relationship, we use the satellite-retrieved surface skin temperature and reanalysis surface air temperature to estimate the updrafts. The second method is based on a good linear correlation between cloud base height and updrafts, which was found over the SGP, the central Amazon, and on board a ship sailing between Honolulu and Los Angeles. We found a universal relationship for both land and ocean. The third method is for marine stratocumulus. A statistically significant relationship between Wb and cloud-top radiative cooling rate (CTRC) is found from measurements over northeastern Pacific and Atlantic. Based on this relation, satellite- and reanalysis-derived CTRC is utilized to infer the Wb of stratocumulus clouds.

  18. The Effect of Satellite Track Masking on Simulated Cloud Satellite Data in a Global Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, A.; da Silva, A.; Norris, P. M.; Molod, A.; Auer, B.

    2013-12-01

    The CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP) simulates data provided by cloud-observing satellites and products based on the hydrometeor properties in an atmospheric model in order to provide an objective means to compare cloud properties between models. COSP also facilitates comparisons between models and satellite products, but as provided it examines the entire model domain whereas satellites cover only the swath of their respective orbital tracks. This temporal and spatial mismatch in data coverage may introduce biases in time-averaged model cloud fields. Here the data generated by COSP from a year-long integration of the GEOS-5 Earth System Model are masked with the respective orbital tracks of the satellites and compared to the unmasked fields to determine what biases domain-wide coverage may induce.

  19. Visualizing Cloud Properties and Satellite Imagery: A Tool for Visualization and Information Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.; Bedka, K. M.; Minnis, P.; Thieman, M. M.; Nordeen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Providing public access to research products including cloud macro and microphysical properties and satellite imagery are a key concern for the NASA Langley Research Center Cloud and Radiation Group. This work describes a web based visualization tool and API that allows end users to easily create customized cloud product and satellite imagery, ground site data and satellite ground track information that is generated dynamically. The tool has two uses, one to visualize the dynamically created imagery and the other to provide access to the dynamically generated imagery directly at a later time. Internally, we leverage our practical experience with large, scalable application practices to develop a system that has the largest potential for scalability as well as the ability to be deployed on the cloud to accommodate scalability issues. We build upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite cloud product information, satellite imagery, ground site data and satellite track information accessible and easily searchable. This tool is the culmination of our prior experience with dynamic imagery generation and provides a way to build a "mash-up" of dynamically generated imagery and related kinds of information that are visualized together to add value to disparate but related information. In support of NASA strategic goals, our group aims to make as much scientific knowledge, observations and products available to the citizen science, research and interested communities as well as for automated systems to acquire the same information for data mining or other analytic purposes. This tool and the underlying API's provide a valuable research tool to a wide audience both as a standalone research tool and also as an easily accessed data source that can easily be mined or used with existing tools.

  20. Evidence for climate change in the satellite cloud record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Joel R; Allen, Robert J; Evan, Amato T; Zelinka, Mark D; O'Dell, Christopher W; Klein, Stephen A

    2016-08-04

    Clouds substantially affect Earth's energy budget by reflecting solar radiation back to space and by restricting emission of thermal radiation to space. They are perhaps the largest uncertainty in our understanding of climate change, owing to disagreement among climate models and observational datasets over what cloud changes have occurred during recent decades and will occur in response to global warming. This is because observational systems originally designed for monitoring weather have lacked sufficient stability to detect cloud changes reliably over decades unless they have been corrected to remove artefacts. Here we show that several independent, empirically corrected satellite records exhibit large-scale patterns of cloud change between the 1980s and the 2000s that are similar to those produced by model simulations of climate with recent historical external radiative forcing. Observed and simulated cloud change patterns are consistent with poleward retreat of mid-latitude storm tracks, expansion of subtropical dry zones, and increasing height of the highest cloud tops at all latitudes. The primary drivers of these cloud changes appear to be increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and a recovery from volcanic radiative cooling. These results indicate that the cloud changes most consistently predicted by global climate models are currently occurring in nature.

  1. Properties of multilayered cloud systems from satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The spatial coherence method for obtaining fractional cloud cover from satellite imagery is extended to the case of multilayered cloud systems. Examples are presented in which simultaneous observations at 3.7 microns and 11 microns are used to solve a system of linear equations for the nonoverlapped fractional cover contributed by each of two layers. The retrieval relies on the assumption that the clouds reside in distinct, well-defined layers and are optically thick at the wavelengths of observation. Simultaneous observations at 3.7 microns and 11 microns of the separate layers indicate that the assumptions are generally valid. Owing to the reflection of solar radiation at 3.7 microns by low-level water clouds, the method is limited to nighttime observations.

  2. Identification of a debris cloud from the nuclear powered SNAPSHOT satellite with haystack radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, C. L.; Stansbery, E. G.

    Data from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory Long Range Imaging Radar (known as the Haystack radar) have been used in the past to examine families of objects from individual satellite breakups or families of orbiting objects that can be isolated in altitude and inclination. This is possible because, for some time after a breakup, the debris cloud of particles can remain grouped together in similar orbit planes. This cloud will be visible to the radar, in fixed staring mode, for a short time twice each day, as the orbit plane moves through the field of view. There should be a unique three-dimensional pattern in observation time, range, and range rate which can identify the cloud. Eventually, through slightly differing precession rates of the right ascension of ascending node of the debris cloud, the observation time becomes distributed so that event identification becomes much more difficult. Analyses of the patterns in observation time, range, and range rate have identified good debris candidates released from the polar orbiting SNAPSHOT satellite (International Identifier: 1965-027A). For orbits near 90° inclination, there is essentially no precession of the orbit plane. The SNAPSHOT satellite is a well known nuclear powered satellite launched in 1965 to a near circular 1300 km orbit with an inclination of 90.3°. This satellite began releasing debris in 1979, with new pieces being discovered and cataloged over the years. Fifty-one objects are still being tracked by the United States Space Surveillance Network. An analysis of the Haystack data has identified at least 60 pieces of debris separate from the 51 known tracked debris pieces, where all but 2 of the 60 pieces have a size less than 10 cm. The altitude and inclination (derived from range-rate with a circular orbit assumption) are consistent with the SNAPSHOT satellite and its tracked debris cloud.

  3. Pattern recognition of satellite cloud imagery for improved weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Catherine; Somerville, Richard C. J.; Volfson, Leonid B.

    1986-01-01

    The major accomplishment was the successful development of a method for extracting time derivative information from geostationary meteorological satellite imagery. This research is a proof-of-concept study which demonstrates the feasibility of using pattern recognition techniques and a statistical cloud classification method to estimate time rate of change of large-scale meteorological fields from remote sensing data. The cloud classification methodology is based on typical shape function analysis of parameter sets characterizing the cloud fields. The three specific technical objectives, all of which were successfully achieved, are as follows: develop and test a cloud classification technique based on pattern recognition methods, suitable for the analysis of visible and infrared geostationary satellite VISSR imagery; develop and test a methodology for intercomparing successive images using the cloud classification technique, so as to obtain estimates of the time rate of change of meteorological fields; and implement this technique in a testbed system incorporating an interactive graphics terminal to determine the feasibility of extracting time derivative information suitable for comparison with numerical weather prediction products.

  4. The retrieval of cloud microphysical properties using satellite measurements and an in situ database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Poix

    Full Text Available By combining AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites with information from a database of in situ measurements, large-scale maps can be generated of the microphysical parameters most immediately significant for the modelling of global circulation and climate. From the satellite data, the clouds can be classified into cumuliform, stratiform and cirrus classes and then into further sub-classes by cloud top temperature. At the same time a database of in situ measurements made by research aircraft is classified into the same sub-classes and a statistical analysis is used to derive relationships between the sub-classes and the cloud microphysical properties. These two analyses are then linked to give estimates of the microphysical properties of the satellite observed clouds. Examples are given of the application of this technique to derive maps of the probability of occurrence of precipitating clouds and of precipitating water content derived from a case study within the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE held in 1989 over the North Sea.

  5. Comparisons of cloud ice mass content retrieved from the radar-infrared radiometer method with aircraft data during the second international satellite cloud climatology project regional experiment (FIRE-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matrosov, S.Y. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Heymsfield, A.J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Kropfli, R.A.; Snider, J.B. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Comparisons of remotely sensed meteorological parameters with in situ direct measurements always present a challenge. Matching sampling volumes is one of the main problems for such comparisons. Aircraft usually collect data when flying along a horizontal leg at a speed of about 100 m/sec (or even greater). The usual sampling time of 5 seconds provides an average horizontal resolution of the order of 500 m. Estimations of vertical profiles of cloud microphysical parameters from aircraft measurements are hampered by sampling a cloud at various altitudes at different times. This paper describes the accuracy of aircraft horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the location of the ground-based instruments.

  6. Accessing Cloud Properties and Satellite Imagery: A tool for visualization and data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.

    2016-12-01

    Providing public access to imagery of cloud macro and microphysical properties and the underlying satellite imagery is a key concern for the NASA Langley Research Center Cloud and Radiation Group. This work describes a tool and system that allows end users to easily browse cloud information and satellite imagery that is otherwise difficult to acquire and manipulate. The tool has two uses, one to visualize the data and the other to access the data directly. It uses a widely used access protocol, the Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map and Processing Services, to encourage user to access the data we produce. Internally, we leverage our practical experience with large, scalable application practices to develop a system that has the largest potential for scalability as well as the ability to be deployed on the cloud. One goal of the tool is to provide a demonstration of the back end capability to end users so that they can use the dynamically generated imagery and data as an input to their own work flows or to set up data mining constraints. We build upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite cloud product information and satellite imagery accessible and easily searchable. Increasingly, information is used in a "mash-up" form where multiple sources of information are combined to add value to disparate but related information. In support of NASA strategic goals, our group aims to make as much cutting edge scientific knowledge, observations and products available to the citizen science, research and interested communities for these kinds of "mash-ups" as well as provide a means for automated systems to data mine our information. This tool and access method provides a valuable research tool to a wide audience both as a standalone research tool and also as an easily accessed data source that can easily be mined or used with existing tools.

  7. Assimilation of satellite cloud data into the DAO finite volume Data Assimilation System using a parameter adjustment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P.; da Silva, A.

    2003-04-01

    Cloud fraction and optical depth data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and cloud liquid water path retrievals from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instrument are assimilated into the NASA Data Assimilation Office finite volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS) using a parameter adjustment method. The rationale behind this adjustment method is that there are several empirical parameters in the model cloud/radiation parameterizations (e.g., ``critical relative humidity'') that are not in-fact universal but have remaining spatial and temporal dependencies. These parameters can be slowly adjusted in space and time to improve the model's representation of cloud properties. In this study, the Slingo-type relative-humidity-based diagnostic cloud fraction of the Community Climate Model (CCM3) is generalized to a two parameter S-shaped dependence of cloud fraction on relative humidity. These two parameters are adjusted in both low and mid-high cloud bands using observed cloud fractions in these bands derived from ISCCP DX data. This procedure greatly improves the representation of cloud fraction in the model as compared with ISCCP data. It also significantly improves mid-latitude longwave cloud radiative forcing, as independently validated against Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data, and mid-latitude column-averaged liquid water path (LWP) over ocean, as validated against TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data. The cloud fraction assimilation, by itself, degrades the shortwave cloud radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere, but this is recovered (as validated against CERES) by assimilating SSM/I LWP and ISCCP optical depth data via adjustment of the CCM3 diagnostic cloud liquid water parameterization and the dependence of the CCM3 column optical depth on layer cloud fractions. The net effect of this promising cloud data assimilation method is to improve forecast skill for cloud cover and optical depth. Other

  8. Validation of Satellite-Based Objective Overshooting Cloud-Top Detection Methods Using CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedka, Kristopher M.; Dworak, Richard; Brunner, Jason; Feltz, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Two satellite infrared-based overshooting convective cloud-top (OT) detection methods have recently been described in the literature: 1) the 11-mm infrared window channel texture (IRW texture) method, which uses IRW channel brightness temperature (BT) spatial gradients and thresholds, and 2) the water vapor minus IRW BT difference (WV-IRW BTD). While both methods show good performance in published case study examples, it is important to quantitatively validate these methods relative to overshooting top events across the globe. Unfortunately, no overshooting top database currently exists that could be used in such study. This study examines National Aeronautics and Space Administration CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar data to develop an OT detection validation database that is used to evaluate the IRW-texture and WV-IRW BTD OT detection methods. CloudSat data were manually examined over a 1.5-yr period to identify cases in which the cloud top penetrates above the tropopause height defined by a numerical weather prediction model and the surrounding cirrus anvil cloud top, producing 111 confirmed overshooting top events. When applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager proxy data, the IRW-texture (WV-IRW BTD) method offered a 76% (96%) probability of OT detection (POD) and 16% (81%) false-alarm ratio. Case study examples show that WV-IRW BTD.0 K identifies much of the deep convective cloud top, while the IRW-texture method focuses only on regions with a spatial scale near that of commonly observed OTs. The POD decreases by 20% when IRW-texture is applied to current geostationary imager data, highlighting the importance of imager spatial resolution for observing and detecting OT regions.

  9. Airborne and satellite imager retrievals of clouds and above-cloud aerosols during ORACLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, T.; Riedi, J.

    2017-12-01

    The 2016 deployment of the NASA ObseRvations of CLouds above Aerosols and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign included wide swath, high spatial resolution imagery from the Enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS) flown onboard the ER-2 high altitude research aircraft. eMAS, with a 37km wide swath and 50m spatial resolution from a 20km flight altitude, measures reflected solar and emitted terrestrial radiation at 38 narrowband channels covering the 0.47 - 14µm spectral range. Here we present a brief overview of the eMAS cloud retrieval science that supported ORACLES, namely the cloud products sharing heritage with the space-borne MODIS operational cloud product (MOD06). We will also present first results of the MOD06ACAERO algorithm applied to eMAS; this at present research-level algorithm provides simultaneous retrievals of above-cloud absorbing aerosol and the unbiased underlying cloud optical thickness and effective particle size from reflectance at multiple spectral channels in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared spectra. Comparisons with other ORACLES cloud and aerosol observations will be shown. Satellite observations, namely MOD06 (Terra/Aqua MODIS) and the MODIS-like SEV06 (geostationary Meteosat SEVIRI) and Terra/Aqua MOD06ACAERO, will provide context for the eMAS retrievals.

  10. Classification of Clouds in Satellite Imagery Using Adaptive Fuzzy Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Gong, Fei; Zeng, Xingbin; Fu, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Automatic cloud detection and classification using satellite cloud imagery have various meteorological applications such as weather forecasting and climate monitoring. Cloud pattern analysis is one of the research hotspots recently. Since satellites sense the clouds remotely from space, and different cloud types often overlap and convert into each other, there must be some fuzziness and uncertainty in satellite cloud imagery. Satellite observation is susceptible to noises, while traditional cloud classification methods are sensitive to noises and outliers; it is hard for traditional cloud classification methods to achieve reliable results. To deal with these problems, a satellite cloud classification method using adaptive fuzzy sparse representation-based classification (AFSRC) is proposed. Firstly, by defining adaptive parameters related to attenuation rate and critical membership, an improved fuzzy membership is introduced to accommodate the fuzziness and uncertainty of satellite cloud imagery; secondly, by effective combination of the improved fuzzy membership function and sparse representation-based classification (SRC), atoms in training dictionary are optimized; finally, an adaptive fuzzy sparse representation classifier for cloud classification is proposed. Experiment results on FY-2G satellite cloud image show that, the proposed method not only improves the accuracy of cloud classification, but also has strong stability and adaptability with high computational efficiency. PMID:27999261

  11. Reconstruction of cloud-free time series satellite observations of land surface temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafarian Malamiri, H.R.; Menenti, M.; Jia, L.; den Ouden, H.

    2012-01-01

    Time series satellite observations of land surface properties, like Land Surface Temperature (LST), often feature missing data or data with anomalous values due to cloud coverage, malfunction of sensor, atmospheric aerosols, defective cloud masking and retrieval algorithms. Preprocessing procedures

  12. The Application of the Technology of 3D Satellite Cloud Imaging in Virtual Reality Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fang Xie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite cloud images to simulate clouds is one of the new visual simulation technologies in Virtual Reality (VR. Taking the original data of satellite cloud images as the source, this paper depicts specifically the technology of 3D satellite cloud imaging through the transforming of coordinates and projection, creating a DEM (Digital Elevation Model of cloud imaging and 3D simulation. A Mercator projection was introduced to create a cloud image DEM, while solutions for geodetic problems were introduced to calculate distances, and the outer-trajectory science of rockets was introduced to obtain the elevation of clouds. For demonstration, we report on a computer program to simulate the 3D satellite cloud images.

  13. An automated satellite cloud classification scheme using self-organizing maps: Alternative ISCCP weather states

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Adrian J.; Cassano, John J.; Jolly, Ben; Parsons, Simon; Schuddeboom, Alex

    2016-11-01

    This study explores the application of the self-organizing map (SOM) methodology to cloud classification. In particular, the SOM is applied to the joint frequency distribution of the cloud top pressure and optical depth from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) D1 data set. We demonstrate that this scheme produces clusters which have geographical and seasonal patterns similar to those produced in previous studies using the k-means clustering technique but potentially provides complementary information. For example, this study identifies a wider range of clusters representative of low cloud cover states with distinct geographic patterns. We also demonstrate that two rather similar clusters, which might be considered the same cloud regime in other classifications, are distinct based on the seasonal variation of their geographic distributions and their cloud radiative effect in the shortwave. Examination of the transitions between regimes at particular geographic positions between one day and the next also shows that the SOM produces an objective organization of the various cloud regimes that can aid in their interpretation. This is also supported by examination of the SOM's Sammon map and correlations between neighboring nodes geographic distributions. Ancillary ERA-Interim reanalysis output also allows us to demonstrate that the clusters, identified based on the joint histograms, are related to an ordered continuum of vertical velocity profiles and two-dimensional vertical velocity versus lower tropospheric stability histograms which have a clear structure within the SOM. The different nodes can also be separated by their longwave and shortwave cloud radiative effect at the top of the atmosphere.

  14. A technique for determining cloud free vs cloud contaminated pixels in satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlman, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the first earth orbiting satellite sent pictures of the earth back to them, atmospheric scientists have been focused on the possibilities of using that information as both a forecasting tool and as a meteorological research tool. With the latest generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) now entering service, that view of the earth yields views at a frequency and resolution never before available. These satellites have imagers with a five band multi-spectral capability with high spatial resolution. In addition, the sounder has eighteen thermal infrared (IR) channels plus one low-resolution visible band. With a resolution as small as one kilometer, GOES provides scientists with a powerful eye on the atmosphere. Menzel and Purdom (1994) detail both the imager and sounder capability as well as other systems on the GOES satellites. Immediately apparent in the visible channel are the patterns of clouds swirling over both oceans and continents. These clouds range in size from huge planetary systems covering thousands of kilometers to puffy fair weather cumulus clouds on the order of half a kilometer in size. With the IR sensors temperature patterns are observed. High clouds appear very cold, while low stratus field show temperatures near that of the surface. The surface, in turn, generally appears warmer than the clouds. It would seem then a simple manner to determine cloud and surface temperature from the imagery, but such is not the case. While most of the atmospheric constituents are well mixed and homogeneous, water vapor is not. The water molecule, because of its unique structure and vibration modes, affects the transmittance of the atmosphere most notably in the infrared regions. There are regions of the IR spectrum where water vapor acts as a strong absorber, and at others it is nearly transparent. The transparent wavelengths are called windows, and one such window occurs at 11.2 microns. Adjacent to this window at 12.7 microns

  15. Climate studies from satellite observations - Special problems in the verification of earth radiation balance, cloud climatology, and related climate experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.

    1982-01-01

    A body of techniques that have been developed and planned for use during the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), and related climate experiments of the 1980's are reviewed. Validation and verification methods must apply for systems of satellites. They include: (1) use of a normalization or intercalibration satellite, (2) special intensive observation areas located over ground-truth sites, and (3) monitoring of sun and earth by several satellites and/or several instruments at the same time. Since each climate application area has a hierarchy of user communities, validation techniques vary from very detailed methods to those that simply assure high relative accuracy in detecting space and time variations for climate studies. It is shown that climate experiments generally require more emphasis on long-term stability and internal consistency of satellite data sets than high absolute accuracy.

  16. Polar clouds and radiation in satellite observations, reanalyses, and climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, JTM; Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; L'Ecuyer, T.S.

    2017-01-01

    Clouds play a pivotal role in the surface energy budget of the polar regions. Here we use two largely independent data sets of cloud and surface downwelling radiation observations derived by satellite remote sensing (2007–2010) to evaluate simulated clouds and radiation over both polar ice sheets

  17. Statistical Analyses of Satellite Cloud Object Data From CERES. Part 4; Boundary-layer Cloud Objects During 1998 El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Wong, Takmeng; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Parker, Lindsay

    2006-01-01

    Three boundary-layer cloud object types, stratus, stratocumulus and cumulus, that occurred over the Pacific Ocean during January-August 1998, are identified from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System) single scanner footprint (SSF) data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite. This study emphasizes the differences and similarities in the characteristics of each cloud-object type between the tropical and subtropical regions and among different size categories and among small geographic areas. Both the frequencies of occurrence and statistical distributions of cloud physical properties are analyzed. In terms of frequencies of occurrence, stratocumulus clouds dominate the entire boundary layer cloud population in all regions and among all size categories. Stratus clouds are more prevalent in the subtropics and near the coastal regions, while cumulus clouds are relatively prevalent over open ocean and the equatorial regions, particularly, within the small size categories. The largest size category of stratus cloud objects occurs more frequently in the subtropics than in the tropics and has much larger average size than its cumulus and stratocumulus counterparts. Each of the three cloud object types exhibits small differences in statistical distributions of cloud optical depth, liquid water path, TOA albedo and perhaps cloud-top height, but large differences in those of cloud-top temperature and OLR between the tropics and subtropics. Differences in the sea surface temperature (SST) distributions between the tropics and subtropics influence some of the cloud macrophysical properties, but cloud microphysical properties and albedo for each cloud object type are likely determined by (local) boundary-layer dynamics and structures. Systematic variations of cloud optical depth, TOA albedo, cloud-top height, OLR and SST with cloud object sizes are pronounced for the stratocumulus and stratus types, which are related to systematic

  18. Climate variability and atmospheric teleconnection from satellite observed cloud fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K. M.; Chan, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the low-frequency variability of the large-scale circulation over the tropics and its relationship with different regions of the globe, statistics of cloud fluctuations, as inferred from outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) are used. The data consists of seven years of global OLR in a 2.5 x 2.5-deg grid derived from NOAA polar orbiting satellite observations. The time series of area-averaged monthly deviation from the seven-year mean of OLR over an equatorial Central Pacific region is presented. It is shown that positive and negative deviations reflect local drier and wetter than normal conditions, respectively. Consideration is given to teleconnection based on the Central Pacific variations and to southern oscillation contributions.

  19. How well does cloud correction of satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munassar, Saqr; Richter, Andreas; Hilboll, Andreas; Behrens, Lisa K.; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Satellite observations of tropospheric trace gases are limited by the presence of clouds which block part of the troposphere from the satellite view (shielding effect). They also enhance the sensitivity of satellite observations to absorbers located above clouds (albedo effect). In order to correct for these effects, most satellite data products use cloud correction schemes which apply cloud fraction and cloud height retrieved from measurements of columns of O2 or the O2-O2 dimer in combination with radiative transfer calculations. If the vertical profile of the trace gas of interest is known, such correction approaches can in theory remove most of the cloud dependence from the retrieved tropospheric columns. In practice however, neither the cloud parameters nor the vertical distribution of reactive gases such as NO2 are well known, and it is therefore useful to investigate how well the current approaches used for cloud correction work on real data. In this study, several versions of the FRESCO+ and O2-O2 cloud retrievals are applied to GOME2a and OMI data. The retrieved cloud parameters as well as the resulting tropospheric NO2 columns are compared between algorithm versions and between instruments for a number of selected regions in polluted, background and biomass burning regions. In addition, different sources are used for the a priori NO2 profiles used in the retrieval. The results show that differences in cloud parameters between algorithm versions and instruments can be quite large, but effects on tropospheric NO2 columns are limited. Comparison of model predicted and observed cloud fraction dependency of tropospheric NO2 slant columns disagrees in many regions in particular over China, where the largest NO2 columns are not observed at smallest cloud fractions as expected. As a result, tropospheric NO2 vertical columns have a significant cloud fraction dependency, indicating that improvements are needed to further reduce cloud related uncertainties.

  20. Intercomparison of independent estimates of cloud properties from simultaneous satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Chahine, M. T.; Susskind, J.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported from comparisons between two techniques for determining the cloud cover fraction within a satellite remote sensing scene. One method (PRM) quantifies cloud-free and cloud-filled areas on the bases of physical relationships between temperature, humidity, cloud optical properties and emitted radiation. The other approach (RSSM) derives the fractional cover from the spatial structure of radiances detected by the sensor. The HIRS (PRM) and the AVHRR (RSSM) instruments, tuned to IR wavelengths, on the TIROS-N polar-orbiting satellite furnished the trial data. Sample results are provided from scans at 15 and 11 microns over the Pacific Ocean.

  1. The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2012 will be held at Academia Sinica in Taipei from 26 February to 2 March 2012, with co-located events and workshops. The conference is hosted by the Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre (ASGC). 2012 is the decennium anniversary of the ISGC which over the last decade has tracked the convergence, collaboration and innovation of individual researchers across the Asia Pacific region to a coherent community. With the continuous support and dedication from the delegates, ISGC has provided the primary international distributed computing platform where distinguished researchers and collaboration partners from around the world share their knowledge and experiences. The last decade has seen the wide-scale emergence of e-Infrastructure as a critical asset for the modern e-Scientist. The emergence of large-scale research infrastructures and instruments that has produced a torrent of electronic data is forcing a generational change in the scientific process and the mechanisms used to analyse the resulting data deluge. No longer can the processing of these vast amounts of data and production of relevant scientific results be undertaken by a single scientist. Virtual Research Communities that span organisations around the world, through an integrated digital infrastructure that connects the trust and administrative domains of multiple resource providers, have become critical in supporting these analyses. Topics covered in ISGC 2012 include: High Energy Physics, Biomedicine & Life Sciences, Earth Science, Environmental Changes and Natural Disaster Mitigation, Humanities & Social Sciences, Operations & Management, Middleware & Interoperability, Security and Networking, Infrastructure Clouds & Virtualisation, Business Models & Sustainability, Data Management, Distributed Volunteer & Desktop Grid Computing, High Throughput Computing, and High Performance, Manycore & GPU Computing.

  2. Sensitivities of simulated satellite views of clouds to subgrid-scale overlap and condensate heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillman, Benjamin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marchand, Roger T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ackerman, Thomas P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Satellite simulators are often used to account for limitations in satellite retrievals of cloud properties in comparisons between models and satellite observations. The purpose of the simulator framework is to enable more robust evaluation of model cloud properties, so that di erences between models and observations can more con dently be attributed to model errors. However, these simulators are subject to uncertainties themselves. A fundamental uncertainty exists in connecting the spatial scales at which cloud properties are retrieved with those at which clouds are simulated in global models. In this study, we create a series of sensitivity tests using 4 km global model output from the Multiscale Modeling Framework to evaluate the sensitivity of simulated satellite retrievals when applied to climate models whose grid spacing is many tens to hundreds of kilometers. In particular, we examine the impact of cloud and precipitation overlap and of condensate spatial variability. We find the simulated retrievals are sensitive to these assumptions. Specifically, using maximum-random overlap with homogeneous cloud and precipitation condensate, which is often used in global climate models, leads to large errors in MISR and ISCCP-simulated cloud cover and in CloudSat-simulated radar reflectivity. To correct for these errors, an improved treatment of unresolved clouds and precipitation is implemented for use with the simulator framework and is shown to substantially reduce the identified errors.

  3. Cloud parameters from zenith transmittances measured by sky radiometer at surface: Method development and satellite product validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Pradeep; Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Takamura, Tamio; Irie, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Takashi Y.; Letu, Husi; Kai, Qin

    2017-04-01

    Clouds are known to have profound impacts on atmospheric radiation and water budget, climate change, atmosphere-surface interaction, and so on. Cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective radius (Re) are two fundamental cloud parameters required to study clouds from climatological and hydrological point of view. Large spatial-temporal coverages of those cloud parameters from space observation have proved to be very useful for cloud research; however, validation of space-based products is still a challenging task due to lack of reliable data. Ground-based remote sensing instruments, such as sky radiometers distributed around the world through international observation networks of SKYNET (http://atmos2.cr.chiba-u.jp/skynet/) and AERONET (https://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) have a great potential to produce ground-truth cloud parameters at different parts of the globe to validate satellite products. Focusing to the sky radiometers of SKYNET and AERONET, a few cloud retrieval methods exists, but those methods have some difficulties to address the problem when cloud is optically thin. It is because the observed transmittances at two wavelengths can be originated from more than one set of COD and Re, and the choice of the most plausible set is difficult. At the same time, calibration issue, especially for the wavelength of near infrared (NIR) region, which is important to retrieve Re, is also a difficult task at present. As a result, instruments need to be calibrated at a high mountain or calibration terms need to be transferred from a standard instrument. Taking those points on account, we developed a new retrieval method emphasizing to overcome above-mentioned difficulties. We used observed transmittances of multiple wavelengths to overcome the first problem. We further proposed a method to obtain calibration constant of NIR wavelength channel using observation data. Our cloud retrieval method is found to produce relatively accurate COD and Re when validated them using

  4. Landsat 7 ETM/1G satellite imagery - Hawaiian Islands cloud-free mosaics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cloud-free Landsat satellite imagery mosaics of the islands of the main 8 Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Maui, Kahoolawe, Lanai, Molokai, Oahu, Kauai and Niihau). Landsat...

  5. Providing Access and Visualization to Global Cloud Properties from GEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.; Ayers, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Providing public access to cloud macro and microphysical properties is a key concern for the NASA Langley Research Center Cloud and Radiation Group. This work describes a tool and method that allows end users to easily browse and access cloud information that is otherwise difficult to acquire and manipulate. The core of the tool is an application-programming interface that is made available to the public. One goal of the tool is to provide a demonstration to end users so that they can use the dynamically generated imagery as an input into their own work flows for both image generation and cloud product requisition. This project builds upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite cloud product imagery accessible and easily searchable. As we see the increasing use of virtual supply chains that provide additional value at each link there is value in making satellite derived cloud product information available through a simple access method as well as allowing users to browse and view that imagery as they need rather than in a manner most convenient for the data provider. Using the Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Processing Service as our access method, we describe a system that uses a hybrid local and cloud based parallel processing system that can return both satellite imagery and cloud product imagery as well as the binary data used to generate them in multiple formats. The images and cloud products are sourced from multiple satellites and also "merged" datasets created by temporally and spatially matching satellite sensors. Finally, the tool and API allow users to access information that spans the time ranges that our group has information available. In the case of satellite imagery, the temporal range can span the entire lifetime of the sensor.

  6. Estimating seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration over the boreal forest from satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. H. Janssen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration (NCD in low-level stratiform clouds over the boreal forest are estimated from MODIS observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties, using a sub-adiabatic cloud model to interpret vertical profiles of cloud properties. An uncertainty analysis of the cloud model is included to reveal the main sensitivities of the cloud model. We compared the seasonal cycle in NCD, obtained using 9 yr of satellite data, to surface concentrations of potential cloud activating aerosols, measured at the SMEAR II station at Hyytiälä in Finland. The results show that NCD and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations have no clear correlation at seasonal time scale. The fraction of aerosols that actually activate as cloud droplet decreases sharply with increasing aerosol concentrations. Furthermore, information on the stability of the atmosphere shows that low NCD is linked to stable atmospheric conditions. Combining these findings leads to the conclusion that cloud droplet activation for the studied clouds over the boreal forest is limited by convection. Our results suggest that it is important to take the strength of convection into account when studying the influence of aerosols from the boreal forest on cloud formation, although they do not rule out the possibility that aerosols from the boreal forest affect other types of clouds with a closer coupling to the surface.

  7. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellidol, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Mirarrionti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, T. J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud. identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger

  8. Using Information From Prior Satellite Scans to Improve Cloud Detection Near the Day-Night Terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher R.; Minnis, Patrick; Trepte, Qing Z.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Ayers, Jeffrey K.; Spangenberg, Doulas A.

    2012-01-01

    With geostationary satellite data it is possible to have a continuous record of diurnal cycles of cloud properties for a large portion of the globe. Daytime cloud property retrieval algorithms are typically superior to nighttime algorithms because daytime methods utilize measurements of reflected solar radiation. However, reflected solar radiation is difficult to accurately model for high solar zenith angles where the amount of incident radiation is small. Clear and cloudy scenes can exhibit very small differences in reflected radiation and threshold-based cloud detection methods have more difficulty setting the proper thresholds for accurate cloud detection. Because top-of-atmosphere radiances are typically more accurately modeled outside the terminator region, information from previous scans can help guide cloud detection near the terminator. This paper presents an algorithm that uses cloud fraction and clear and cloudy infrared brightness temperatures from previous satellite scan times to improve the performance of a threshold-based cloud mask near the terminator. Comparisons of daytime, nighttime, and terminator cloud fraction derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) radiance measurements show that the algorithm greatly reduces the number of false cloud detections and smoothes the transition from the daytime to the nighttime clod detection algorithm. Comparisons with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data show that using this algorithm decreases the number of false detections by approximately 20 percentage points.

  9. A method for retrieving clouds with satellite infrared radiances using the particle filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble-based techniques have been widely utilized in estimating uncertainties in various problems of interest in geophysical applications. A new cloud retrieval method is proposed based on the particle filter (PF by using ensembles of cloud information in the framework of Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI system. The PF cloud retrieval method is compared with the Multivariate Minimum Residual (MMR method that was previously established and verified. Cloud retrieval experiments involving a variety of cloudy types are conducted with the PF and MMR methods with measurements of infrared radiances on multi-sensors onboard both geostationary and polar satellites, respectively. It is found that the retrieved cloud masks with both methods are consistent with other independent cloud products. MMR is prone to producing ambiguous small-fraction clouds, while PF detects clearer cloud signals, yielding closer heights of cloud top and cloud base to other references. More collections of small-fraction particles are able to effectively estimate the semi-transparent high clouds. It is found that radiances with high spectral resolutions contribute to quantitative cloud top and cloud base retrievals. In addition, a different way of resolving the filtering problem over each model grid is tested to better aggregate the weights with all available sensors considered, which is proven to be less constrained by the ordering of sensors. Compared to the MMR method, the PF method is overall more computationally efficient, and the cost of the model grid-based PF method scales more directly with the number of computing nodes.

  10. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

  11. Quantifying Above-Cloud Aerosols through Integrating Multi-Sensor Measurements from A-Train Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying above-cloud aerosols can help improve the assessment of aerosol intercontinental transport and climate impacts. Large-scale measurements of aerosol above low-level clouds had been generally unexplored until very recently when CALIPSO lidar started to acquire aerosol and cloud profiles in June 2006. Despite CALIPSO s unique capability of measuring above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD), such observations are substantially limited in spatial coverage because of the lidar s near-zero swath. We developed an approach that integrates measurements from A-Train satellite sensors (including CALIPSO lidar, OMI, and MODIS) to extend CALIPSO above-cloud AOD observations to substantially larger areas. We first examine relationships between collocated CALIPSO above-cloud AOD and OMI absorbing aerosol index (AI, a qualitative measure of AOD for elevated dust and smoke aerosol) as a function of MODIS cloud optical depth (COD) by using 8-month data in the Saharan dust outflow and southwest African smoke outflow regions. The analysis shows that for a given cloud albedo, above-cloud AOD correlates positively with AI in a linear manner. We then apply the derived relationships with MODIS COD and OMI AI measurements to derive above-cloud AOD over the whole outflow regions. In this talk, we will present spatial and day-to-day variations of the above-cloud AOD and the estimated direct radiative forcing by the above-cloud aerosols.

  12. Quantifying Arctic Cloud Biases in Global Models Using Active Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Sledd, A.; Mateling, M.; Schlegel, N.; Christensen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from active sensors aboard polar orbiting satellites have yielded valuable new insights into the character and impacts of clouds and precipitation in polar regions. For example, recent analyses of CloudSat and CALIPSO datasets have quantified the influence of clouds on ice sheet energy balance and confirmed the importance of super-cooled liquid clouds in modulating surface melt processes. Perhaps more importantly, new observation-based reconstructions of the Arctic energy budget and its annual cycle have revealed that reanalyses and climate models exhibit significant biases in several key energy flows in the region. These biases, in turn, lead to discrepancies in the seasonal cycle of implied surface heat storage and energy transport into the Arctic from lower latitudes. To begin to diagnose possible sources of these biases, a new multi-satellite, multi-model combined Arctic dataset will be used to explore variability in the Arctic cloud radiative effects associated with changes in sea ice and snow cover.

  13. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  14. Statistical Analyses of Satellite Cloud Object Data from CERES. Part III; Comparison with Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations of Tropical Convective Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yali; Xu, Kuan-Man; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Wong, Takmeng; Eitzen, Zachary A.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluates the ability of a cloud-resolving model (CRM) to simulate the physical properties of tropical deep convective cloud objects identified from a Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data product. The emphasis of this study is the comparisons among the small-, medium- and large-size categories of cloud objects observed during March 1998 and between the large-size categories of cloud objects observed during March 1998 (strong El Ni o) and March 2000 (weak La Ni a). Results from the CRM simulations are analyzed in a way that is consistent with the CERES retrieval algorithm and they are averaged to match the scale of the CERES satellite footprints. Cloud physical properties are analyzed in terms of their summary histograms for each category. It is found that there is a general agreement in the overall shapes of all cloud physical properties between the simulated and observed distributions. Each cloud physical property produced by the CRM also exhibits different degrees of disagreement with observations over different ranges of the property. The simulated cloud tops are generally too high and cloud top temperatures are too low except for the large-size category of March 1998. The probability densities of the simulated top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) albedos for all four categories are underestimated for high albedos, while those of cloud optical depth are overestimated at its lowest bin. These disagreements are mainly related to uncertainties in the cloud microphysics parameterization and inputs such as cloud ice effective size to the radiation calculation. Summary histograms of cloud optical depth and TOA albedo from the CRM simulations of the large-size category of cloud objects do not differ significantly between the March 1998 and 2000 periods, consistent with the CERES observations. However, the CRM is unable to reproduce the significant differences in the observed cloud top height while it overestimates the differences in the

  15. Quantification of accuracy of precipitation estimates from MSG data suing using CloudSat satellite observations in Europe and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoni, E.; Su, Z.; Timmermans, J.

    2010-05-01

    . This is attributed to affordability as these radars are costly, thus an alternative approach is urgently needed.. The CloudSat satellite was introduced into orbit by NASA on 26 April 2006 as polar-orbiting experimental satellite. It applies active radar to penetrate the cloud and analyze its internal cloud properties. This satellite radar technology can be used to improve on the rainfall intensity estimation especially for those countries that are yet to acquire ground radar technology. However, being polar orbiting, the satellite also has its limitations, one which is its poor temporal resolution with a return cycle of between 14 - 16 days. Nevertheless, a synergetic use of the CloudSat and MSG products can be used to enhance the accuracy rainfall forecasts. In this study, data from different clouds in several countries of Western Europe during the summer season was used, due to their advantage of having a network of weather radars under the OPERA system. Different cloud classes were tested, and the results showed that some properties of the clouds, namely the cloud ice water path (IWP), ice water content (IWC) and ice effective radius are important in the confirmation of rainfall clouds. The thresholds were computed as IWP ≥ 30 gmˉ², IWC≥ 4.2 mgmˉ³ and ice effective radius ≥ 5.6 µm to sufficiently classify a cloud as a "rainy" cloud. The methodology was tested for the case of the Ewaso Nyiro catchment in the Kenya. The thresholds were tested for one rainy day, 24 October 2006, where the hypothesis was confirmed. More similar tests could, however not be carried out due to lack of sufficient data.

  16. A cloud-ozone data product from Aura OMI and MLS satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Ziemke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozone within deep convective clouds is controlled by several factors involving photochemical reactions and transport. Gas-phase photochemical reactions and heterogeneous surface chemical reactions involving ice, water particles, and aerosols inside the clouds all contribute to the distribution and net production and loss of ozone. Ozone in clouds is also dependent on convective transport that carries low-troposphere/boundary-layer ozone and ozone precursors upward into the clouds. Characterizing ozone in thick clouds is an important step for quantifying relationships of ozone with tropospheric H2O, OH production, and cloud microphysics/transport properties. Although measuring ozone in deep convective clouds from either aircraft or balloon ozonesondes is largely impossible due to extreme meteorological conditions associated with these clouds, it is possible to estimate ozone in thick clouds using backscattered solar UV radiation measured by satellite instruments. Our study combines Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS satellite measurements to generate a new research product of monthly-mean ozone concentrations in deep convective clouds between 30° S and 30° N for October 2004–April 2016. These measurements represent mean ozone concentration primarily in the upper levels of thick clouds and reveal key features of cloud ozone including: persistent low ozone concentrations in the tropical Pacific of  ∼ 10 ppbv or less; concentrations of up to 60 pphv or greater over landmass regions of South America, southern Africa, Australia, and India/east Asia; connections with tropical ENSO events; and intraseasonal/Madden–Julian oscillation variability. Analysis of OMI aerosol measurements suggests a cause and effect relation between boundary-layer pollution and elevated ozone inside thick clouds over landmass regions including southern Africa and India/east Asia.

  17. A cloud-ozone data product from Aura OMI and MLS satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Strode, Sarah A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Oman, Luke D.; Liu, Junhua; Strahan, Susan E.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Haffner, David P.

    2017-11-01

    Ozone within deep convective clouds is controlled by several factors involving photochemical reactions and transport. Gas-phase photochemical reactions and heterogeneous surface chemical reactions involving ice, water particles, and aerosols inside the clouds all contribute to the distribution and net production and loss of ozone. Ozone in clouds is also dependent on convective transport that carries low-troposphere/boundary-layer ozone and ozone precursors upward into the clouds. Characterizing ozone in thick clouds is an important step for quantifying relationships of ozone with tropospheric H2O, OH production, and cloud microphysics/transport properties. Although measuring ozone in deep convective clouds from either aircraft or balloon ozonesondes is largely impossible due to extreme meteorological conditions associated with these clouds, it is possible to estimate ozone in thick clouds using backscattered solar UV radiation measured by satellite instruments. Our study combines Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) satellite measurements to generate a new research product of monthly-mean ozone concentrations in deep convective clouds between 30° S and 30° N for October 2004-April 2016. These measurements represent mean ozone concentration primarily in the upper levels of thick clouds and reveal key features of cloud ozone including: persistent low ozone concentrations in the tropical Pacific of ˜ 10 ppbv or less; concentrations of up to 60 pphv or greater over landmass regions of South America, southern Africa, Australia, and India/east Asia; connections with tropical ENSO events; and intraseasonal/Madden-Julian oscillation variability. Analysis of OMI aerosol measurements suggests a cause and effect relation between boundary-layer pollution and elevated ozone inside thick clouds over landmass regions including southern Africa and India/east Asia.

  18. Do clouds save the great barrier reef? satellite imagery elucidates the cloud-SST relationship at the local scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah M Leahy

    Full Text Available Evidence of global climate change and rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs is now well documented in the scientific literature. With corals already living close to their thermal maxima, increases in SSTs are of great concern for the survival of coral reefs. Cloud feedback processes may have the potential to constrain SSTs, serving to enforce an "ocean thermostat" and promoting the survival of coral reefs. In this study, it was hypothesized that cloud cover can affect summer SSTs in the tropics. Detailed direct and lagged relationships between cloud cover and SST across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR shelf were investigated using data from satellite imagery and in situ temperature and light loggers during two relatively hot summers (2005 and 2006 and two relatively cool summers (2007 and 2008. Across all study summers and shelf positions, SSTs exhibited distinct drops during periods of high cloud cover, and conversely, SST increases during periods of low cloud cover, with a three-day temporal lag between a change in cloud cover and a subsequent change in SST. Cloud cover alone was responsible for up to 32.1% of the variation in SSTs three days later. The relationship was strongest in both El Niño (2005 and La Niña (2008 study summers and at the inner-shelf position in those summers. SST effects on subsequent cloud cover were weaker and more variable among study summers, with rising SSTs explaining up to 21.6% of the increase in cloud cover three days later. This work quantifies the often observed cloud cooling effect on coral reefs. It highlights the importance of incorporating local-scale processes into bleaching forecasting models, and encourages the use of remote sensing imagery to value-add to coral bleaching field studies and to more accurately predict risks to coral reefs.

  19. Do clouds save the great barrier reef? satellite imagery elucidates the cloud-SST relationship at the local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Susannah M; Kingsford, Michael J; Steinberg, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of global climate change and rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is now well documented in the scientific literature. With corals already living close to their thermal maxima, increases in SSTs are of great concern for the survival of coral reefs. Cloud feedback processes may have the potential to constrain SSTs, serving to enforce an "ocean thermostat" and promoting the survival of coral reefs. In this study, it was hypothesized that cloud cover can affect summer SSTs in the tropics. Detailed direct and lagged relationships between cloud cover and SST across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR) shelf were investigated using data from satellite imagery and in situ temperature and light loggers during two relatively hot summers (2005 and 2006) and two relatively cool summers (2007 and 2008). Across all study summers and shelf positions, SSTs exhibited distinct drops during periods of high cloud cover, and conversely, SST increases during periods of low cloud cover, with a three-day temporal lag between a change in cloud cover and a subsequent change in SST. Cloud cover alone was responsible for up to 32.1% of the variation in SSTs three days later. The relationship was strongest in both El Niño (2005) and La Niña (2008) study summers and at the inner-shelf position in those summers. SST effects on subsequent cloud cover were weaker and more variable among study summers, with rising SSTs explaining up to 21.6% of the increase in cloud cover three days later. This work quantifies the often observed cloud cooling effect on coral reefs. It highlights the importance of incorporating local-scale processes into bleaching forecasting models, and encourages the use of remote sensing imagery to value-add to coral bleaching field studies and to more accurately predict risks to coral reefs.

  20. Using satellites and global models to investigate aerosol-cloud interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, E.; Quaas, J.; Goren, T.; Sourdeval, O.; Mülmenstädt, J.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols are known to impact liquid cloud properties, through both microphysical and radiative processes. Increasing the number concentration of aerosol particles can increase the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC). Through impacts on precipitation processes, this increase in CDNC may also be able to impact the cloud fraction (CF) and the cloud liquid water path (LWP). Several studies have looked into the effect of aerosols on the CDNC, but as the albedo of a cloudy scene depends much more strongly on LWP and CF, an aerosol influence on these properties could generate a significant radiative forcing. While the impact of aerosols on cloud properties can be seen in case studies involving shiptracks and volcanoes, producing a global estimate of these effects remains challenging due to the confounding effect of local meteorology. For example, relative humidity significantly impacts the aerosol optical depth (AOD), a common satellite proxy for CCN, as well as being a strong control on cloud properties. This can generate relationships between AOD and cloud properties, even when there is no impact of aerosol-cloud interactions. In this work, we look at how aerosol-cloud interactions can be distinguished from the effect of local meteorology in satellite studies. With a combination global climate models and multiple sources of satellite data, we show that the choice of appropriate mediating variables and case studies can be used to develop constraints on the aerosol impact on CF and LWP. This will lead to improved representations of clouds in global climate models and help to reduce the uncertainty in the global impact of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud properties.

  1. Observational Constraints on Cloud Feedbacks: The Role of Active Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, David; Chepfer, Helene; Noel, Vincent; Cai, Xia

    2017-11-01

    Cloud profiling from active lidar and radar in the A-train satellite constellation has significantly advanced our understanding of clouds and their role in the climate system. Nevertheless, the response of clouds to a warming climate remains one of the largest uncertainties in predicting climate change and for the development of adaptions to change. Both observation of long-term changes and observational constraints on the processes responsible for those changes are necessary. We review recent progress in our understanding of the cloud feedback problem. Capabilities and advantages of active sensors for observing clouds are discussed, along with the importance of active sensors for deriving constraints on cloud feedbacks as an essential component of a global climate observing system.

  2. Ice cloud backscatter study and comparison with CALIPSO and MODIS satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiachen; Yang, Ping; Holz, Robert E; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry G; Vaughan, Mark A; Hu, Yongxiang; King, Michael D

    2016-01-11

    An invariant imbedding T-matrix (II-TM) method is used to calculate the single-scattering properties of 8-column aggregate ice crystals. The II-TM based backscatter values are compared with those calculated by the improved geometric-optics method (IGOM) to refine the backscattering properties of the ice cloud radiative model used in the MODIS Collection 6 cloud optical property product. The integrated attenuated backscatter-to-cloud optical depth (IAB-ICOD) relation is derived from simulations using a CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite) lidar simulator based on a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. By comparing the simulation results and co-located CALIPSO and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) observations, the non-uniform zonal distribution of ice clouds over ocean is characterized in terms of a mixture of smooth and rough ice particles. The percentage of the smooth particles is approximately 6% and 9% for tropical and midlatitude ice clouds, respectively.

  3. Estimating precipitation susceptibility in warm marine clouds using multi-sensor aerosol and cloud products from A-Train satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation susceptibility to aerosol perturbation plays a key role in understanding aerosol–cloud interactions and constraining aerosol indirect effects. However, large discrepancies exist in the previous satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility. In this paper, multi-sensor aerosol and cloud products, including those from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO, CloudSat, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E from June 2006 to April 2011 are analyzed to estimate precipitation frequency susceptibility SPOP, precipitation intensity susceptibility SI, and precipitation rate susceptibility SR in warm marine clouds. We find that SPOP strongly depends on atmospheric stability, with larger values under more stable environments. Our results show that precipitation susceptibility for drizzle (with a −15 dBZ rainfall threshold is significantly different than that for rain (with a 0 dBZ rainfall threshold. Onset of drizzle is not as readily suppressed in warm clouds as rainfall while precipitation intensity susceptibility is generally smaller for rain than for drizzle. We find that SPOP derived with respect to aerosol index (AI is about one-third of SPOP derived with respect to cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC. Overall, SPOP demonstrates relatively robust features throughout independent liquid water path (LWP products and diverse rain products. In contrast, the behaviors of SI and SR are subject to LWP or rain products used to derive them. Recommendations are further made for how to better use these metrics to quantify aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions in observations and models.

  4. The 'INMARSAT' international maritime satellite communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atserov, Iu. S.

    1982-12-01

    The history, design, operating characteristics, achievements, and prospects of INMARSAT are discussed. More than 1300 ships are presently equipped to operate within the system, and this number is expected to rise to about 5000 by 1986. The principle of operation involves single coordinating earth stations allocating telephone channels in their zones between other earth stations. The messages reach a common signalling channel with which all ship stations keep in touch. The ship stations are connected to the international telex network. The INMARSAT system enables ships in the automated mode of operation to establish telephone and telegraph comunication with any subscriber on the shore of any country. The quality of the communication is practically independent of the distance between ship and shore at any time of year and under any meteorological conditions. Estimates indicate that the use of satellite communication with ships reduces losses from accidents by 10 percent per year.

  5. Automatic Cloud Detection for Chinese High Resolution Remote Sensing Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAN Kai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud detection is always an arduous problem in satellite imagery processing, especially the thin cloud which has the similar spectral characteristics as ground surfacehas long been the obstacle of the production of imagery product. In this paper, an automatic cloud detection method for Chinese high resolution remote sensing satellite imagery is introduced to overcome this problem.Firstly, the image is transformed from RGB to HIS color space by an improved color transformation model. The basic cloud coverage figure is obtained by using the information of intensity and saturation,followed by getting the modified figure with the information of near-infrared band and hue. Methods of histogram equalization and bilateral filtering, combined with conditioned Otsu thresholding are adopted to generate texture information. Then the cloud seed figureis obtained by using texture information to eliminate the existed errors in the modified figure. Finally, cloud covered areas are accurately extracted by integration of intensity information from the HIS color space and cloud seed figure. Compared to the detection results of other automatic and interactive methods, the overall accuracy of our proposed method achieves nearly 10% improvement, and it is capable of improving the efficiency of cloud detection significantly.

  6. Convective and stratiform components of a Winter Monsoon Cloud Cluster determined from geosynchronous infrared satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.; Churchill, Dean D.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontal precipitation structure of cloud clusters observed over the South China Sea during the Winter Monsoon Experiment (WMONEX) is analyzed using a convective-stratiform technique (CST) developed by Adler and Negri (1988). The technique was modified by altering the method for identifying convective cells in the satellite data, accounting for the extremely cold cloud tops characteristic of the WMONEX region, and modifying the threshold infrared temperature for the boundary of the stratiform rain area. The precipitation analysis was extended to the entire history of the cloud cluster by applying the modified CST to IR imagery from geosynchronous-satellite observations. The ship and aircraft data from the later period of the cluster's lifetime make it possible to check the locations of convective and stratiform precipitation identified by the CST using in situ observations. The extended CST is considered to be effective for determining the climatology of the convective-stratiform structure of tropical cloud clusters.

  7. CloudSat Anomaly and Return to the A-Train: Lessons Learned for Satellite Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In April 2011, CloudSat suffered a severe battery anomaly, leaving the space-craft in emergency mode without the ability to command or maneuver the spacecraft. Before the team was able to recover spacecraft operability, CloudSat passed close to the Aqua satellite in the A-Train and then exited the A-Train. A new mode of operations, termed Daylight Only Operations (DO-Op) mode was developed to enable CloudSat to resume science operations in an orbit under the A-Train by November 2011, and in July 2012 CloudSat re-entered the A-Train. This paper describes challenges and lessons-learned during the anomaly, the exit from the A-Train and the return to the A-Train. These lessons-learned may ap-ply to other current and future satellite constellations in Earth orbit.

  8. Long-term Satellite Observations of Cloud and Aerosol Radiative Effects Using the (A)ATSR Satellite Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M.; McGarragh, G.; Thomas, G.; Povey, A.; Proud, S.; Poulsen, C. A.; Grainger, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Radiative forcing by clouds, aerosols, and their interactions constitute some of the largest sources of uncertainties in the climate system (Chapter 7 IPCC, 2013). It is essential to understand the past through examination of long-term satellite observation records to provide insight into the uncertainty characteristics of these radiative forcers. As part of the ESA CCI (Climate Change Initiative) we have recently implemented a broadband radiative flux algorithm (known as BUGSrad) into the Optimal Retrieval for Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC) scheme. ORAC achieves radiative consistency of its aerosol and cloud products through an optimal estimation scheme and is highly versatile, enabling retrievals for numerous satellite sensors: ATSR, MODIS, VIIRS, AVHRR, SLSTR, SEVIRI, and AHI. An analysis of the 17-year well-calibrated Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) data is used to quantify trends in cloud and aerosol radiative effects over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. The El Niño Southern Oscillation stands out as the largest contributing mode of variability to the radiative energy balance (long wave and shortwave fluxes) at the top of the atmosphere. Furthermore, trends in planetary albedo show substantial decreases across the Arctic Ocean (likely due to the melting of sea ice and snow) and modest increases in regions dominated by stratocumulus (e.g., off the coast of California) through notable increases in cloud fraction and liquid water path. Finally, changes in volcanic activity and biomass burning aerosol over this period show sizeable radiative forcing impacts at local-scales. We will demonstrate that radiative forcing from aerosols and clouds have played a significant role in the identified key climate processes using 17 years of satellite observational data.

  9. Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS satellite data and global aerosol models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Myhre

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We have used the MODIS satellite data and two global aerosol models to investigate the relationships between aerosol optical depth (AOD and cloud parameters that may be affected by the aerosol concentration. The relationships that are studied are mainly between AOD, on the one hand, and cloud cover, cloud liquid water path, and water vapour, on the other. Additionally, cloud droplet effective radius, cloud optical depth, cloud top pressure and aerosol Ångström exponent, have been analysed in a few cases. In the MODIS data we found, as in earlier studies, an enhancement in the cloud cover with increasing AOD. We find it likely that most of the strong increase in cloud cover with AOD, at least for AOD<0.2, is a result of aerosol-cloud interactions and a prolonged cloud lifetime. Large and mesoscale weather systems seem not to be a cause for the increase in cloud cover with AOD in this range. Sensitivity simulations show that when water uptake of the aerosols is not taken into account in the models the modelled cloud cover mostly decreases with AOD. Part of the relationship found in the MODIS data for AOD>0.2 can be explained by larger water uptake close to the clouds since relative humidity is higher in regions with higher cloud cover. The efficiency of the hygroscopic growth depends on aerosol type, the hygroscopic nature of the aerosol, the relative humidity, and to some extent the cloud screening. By analysing the Ångström exponent we find that the hygroscopic growth of the aerosol is not likely to be a main contributor to the cloud cover increase with AOD. Since the largest increase in cloud cover with AOD is for low AOD (~0.2 and thus also for low cloud cover, we argue that cloud contamination is not likely to play a large role. However, interpretation of the complex relationships between AOD and cloud parameters should be made with great care and further work is clearly needed.

  10. Polar clouds and radiation in satellite observations, reanalyses, and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, Stef; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2017-04-01

    Clouds play a pivotal role in the surface energy budget of the polar regions. Here we use two largely independent data sets of cloud and surface downwelling radiation observations derived by satellite remote sensing (2007-2010) to evaluate simulated clouds and radiation over both polar ice sheets and oceans in state-of-the-art atmospheric reanalyses (ERA-Interim and Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications-2) and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model ensemble. First, we show that, compared to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System-Energy Balanced and Filled, CloudSat-CALIPSO better represents cloud liquid and ice water path over high latitudes, owing to its recent explicit determination of cloud phase that will be part of its new R05 release. The reanalyses and climate models disagree widely on the amount of cloud liquid and ice in the polar regions. Compared to the observations, we find significant but inconsistent biases in the model simulations of cloud liquid and ice water, as well as in the downwelling radiation components. The CMIP5 models display a wide range of cloud characteristics of the polar regions, especially with regard to cloud liquid water, limiting the representativeness of the multimodel mean. A few CMIP5 models (CNRM, GISS, GFDL, and IPSL_CM5b) clearly outperform the others, which enhances credibility in their projected future cloud and radiation changes over high latitudes. Given the rapid changes in polar regions and global feedbacks involved, future climate model developments should target improved representation of polar clouds. To that end, remote sensing observations are crucial, in spite of large remaining observational uncertainties, which is evidenced by the substantial differences between the two data sets.

  11. Determination of the horizontal and vertical distribution of clouds from infrared satellite sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, M. T.; Susskind, J.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical algorithm, based on a physical inversion of the radiative transfer equation, is developed to retrieve the global distribution of the horizontal cloud cover, the cloud-top pressure levels and their temperature. The algorithm makes use of infrared and microwave temperature sounding data to derive the clear-column vertical temperature profiles and then uses the same infrared sounding data to obtain the corresponding cloud parameters. Experimental verification of this method is carried out using data from the High resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS) and the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) operating on the NOAA weather satellite system.

  12. Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S, Motty G, E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Satyanarayana, M., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Krishnakumar, V., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Dhaman, Reji k., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum-695 581, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5{sup 0} N, 79.2{sup 0} E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

  13. Effects of instrument characteristics on cloud properties retrieved from satellite imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D. G.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Zhang, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    The relationships between sensor resolution and derived cloud properties in satellite remote sensing were studied by comparisons of cloud characteristics determined by spatial coherence analysis of AVHRR and GOES data. The latter data were simulated from 11 microns AVHRR data and were assigned a resolution (8 sq km) half that of the AVHRR. Day and nighttime passes were considered for single-layer maritime cloud systems. Sample radiance vs local standard deviation plots of 1024 points are provided for the same area from AVHRR and GOES-East sensors, demonstrating a qualitative agreement.

  14. Optimizing cloud removal from satellite remotely sensed data for monitoring vegetation dynamics in humid tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, M; Pour, A B; Onn, C H

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing technology is an important tool to analyze vegetation dynamics, quantifying vegetation fraction of Earth's agricultural and natural vegetation. In optical remote sensing analysis removing atmospheric interferences, particularly distribution of cloud contaminations, are always a critical task in the tropical climate. This paper suggests a fast and alternative approach to remove cloud and shadow contaminations for Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM + ) multi temporal datasets. Band 3 and Band 4 from all the Landsat ETM + dataset are two main spectral bands that are very crucial in this study for cloud removal technique. The Normalise difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalised difference soil index (NDSI) are two main derivatives derived from the datasets. Change vector analysis is used in this study to seek the vegetation dynamics. The approach developed in this study for cloud optimizing can be broadly applicable for optical remote sensing satellite data, which are seriously obscured with heavy cloud contamination in the tropical climate

  15. Alpine cloud climatology using long-term NOAA-AVHRR satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, M.; Kriebel, K.T.

    2000-07-01

    Three different climates have been identified by our evaluation of AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer) data using APOLLO (AVHRR processing scheme over land, clouds and ocean) for a five-years cloud climatology of the Alpine region. The cloud cover data from four layers were spatially averaged in boxes of 15 km by 14 km. The study area only comprises 540 km by 560 km, but contains regions with moderate, Alpine and Mediterranean climate. Data from the period July 1989 until December 1996 have been considered. The temporal resolution is one scene per day, the early afternoon pass, yielding monthly means of satellite derived cloud coverages 5% to 10% above the daily mean compared to conventional surface observation. At nonvegetated sites the cloudiness is sometimes significantly overestimated. Averaging high resolution cloud data seems to be superior to low resolution measurements of cloud properties and averaging is favourable in topographical homogeneous regions only. The annual course of cloud cover reveals typical regional features as foehn or temporal singularities as the so-called Christmas thaw. The cloud cover maps in spatially high resolution show local luff/lee features which outline the orography. Less cloud cover is found over the Alps than over the forelands in winter, an accumulation of thick cirrus is found over the High Alps and an accumulation of thin cirrus north of the Alps. (orig.)

  16. The Impact of Time Difference between Satellite Overpass and Ground Observation on Cloud Cover Performance Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej S. Bojanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud property data sets derived from passive sensors onboard the polar orbiting satellites (such as the NOAA’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer have global coverage and now span a climatological time period. Synoptic surface observations (SYNOP are often used to characterize the accuracy of satellite-based cloud cover. Infrequent overpasses of polar orbiting satellites combined with the 3- or 6-h SYNOP frequency lead to collocation time differences of up to 3 h. The associated collocation error degrades the cloud cover performance statistics such as the Hanssen-Kuiper’s discriminant (HK by up to 45%. Limiting the time difference to 10 min, on the other hand, introduces a sampling error due to a lower number of corresponding satellite and SYNOP observations. This error depends on both the length of the validated time series and the SYNOP frequency. The trade-off between collocation and sampling error call for an optimum collocation time difference. It however depends on cloud cover characteristics and SYNOP frequency, and cannot be generalized. Instead, a method is presented to reconstruct the unbiased (true HK from HK affected by the collocation differences, which significantly (t-test p < 0.01 improves the validation results.

  17. Satellite-based climatology of Mediterranean cloud systems and their association with large-scale circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Claud, Chantal

    2006-01-01

    The variability of Mediterranean cloud systems is investigated using 8.5 years (from January 1987 to June 1995) of TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) observations acquired aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) series of operational polar satellites. Cloud systems and troughs are automatically detected with the retrievals of the cloud top pressure (CTP) and the temperature of lower stratosphere (TLS). Observed cloud systems have a typical size of few hundred kilometres with a larger occurrence between March and October. A threefold cloud system typology reveals the presence of an upper-level anomaly for about 30% of the cloud systems in winter, 26% in spring and 7% in autumn (but 23% in October). During summer, in contrast, the forcing is very likely local, and according to the composite analysis, weakly related to upper-level anomaly. During the cold seasons (15 October to 15 April), more cloud systems are found during negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase when the north Atlantic storm track takes its southernmost position. Consistently, more systems are observed during the Greenland Anticyclone and the Atlantic Ridge regimes, compared to the Zonal and Blocking regimes. Finally, severe precipitation events over the Alpine region are associated with a warm TLS anomaly upstream the cloud system, showing once more the impact of the upper levels on the weather over this area.

  18. Evaluating Cloud and Precipitation Processes in Numerical Models using Current and Potential Future Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, S. C.; Tao, W. K.; Skofronick Jackson, G.; Tanelli, S.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Petersen, W. A.; Kummerow, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud, aerosol and precipitation processes play a fundamental role in the water and energy cycle. It is critical to accurately represent these microphysical processes in numerical models if we are to better predict cloud and precipitation properties on weather through climate timescales. Much has been learned about cloud properties and precipitation characteristics from NASA satellite missions such as TRMM, CloudSat, and more recently GPM. Furthermore, data from these missions have been successfully utilized in evaluating the microphysical schemes in cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and global models. However, there are still many uncertainties associated with these microphysics schemes. These uncertainties can be attributed, at least in part, to the fact that microphysical processes cannot be directly observed or measured, but instead have to be inferred from those cloud properties that can be measured. Evaluation of microphysical parameterizations are becoming increasingly important as enhanced computational capabilities are facilitating the use of more sophisticated schemes in CRMs, and as future global models are being run on what has traditionally been regarded as cloud-resolving scales using CRM microphysical schemes. In this talk we will demonstrate how TRMM, CloudSat and GPM data have been used to evaluate different aspects of current CRM microphysical schemes, providing examples of where these approaches have been successful. We will also highlight CRM microphysical processes that have not been well evaluated and suggest approaches for addressing such issues. Finally, we will introduce a potential NASA satellite mission, the Cloud and Precipitation Processes Mission (CAPPM), which would facilitate the development and evaluation of different microphysical-dynamical feedbacks in numerical models.

  19. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Vaughan, M. A.; Schmidt, S.; Flynn, C. J.; Song, S.; Schmid, B.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  20. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  1. Ozone mixing ratios inside tropical deep convective clouds from OMI satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Ziemke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new technique for estimating ozone mixing ratio inside deep convective clouds. The technique uses the concept of an optical centroid cloud pressure that is indicative of the photon path inside clouds. Radiative transfer calculations based on realistic cloud vertical structure as provided by CloudSat radar data show that because deep convective clouds are optically thin near the top, photons can penetrate significantly inside the cloud. This photon penetration coupled with in-cloud scattering produces optical centroid pressures that are hundreds of hPa inside the cloud. We combine measured column ozone and the optical centroid cloud pressure derived using the effects of rotational-Raman scattering to estimate O3 mixing ratio in the upper regions of deep convective clouds. The data are obtained from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA's Aura satellite. Our results show that low O3 concentrations in these clouds are a common occurrence throughout much of the tropical Pacific. Ozonesonde measurements in the tropics following convective activity also show very low concentrations of O3 in the upper troposphere. These low amounts are attributed to vertical injection of ozone poor oceanic boundary layer air during convection into the upper troposphere followed by convective outflow. Over South America and Africa, O3 mixing ratios inside deep convective clouds often exceed 50 ppbv which are comparable to mean background (cloud-free amounts and are consistent with higher concentrations of injected boundary layer/lower tropospheric O3 relative to the remote Pacific. The Atlantic region in general also consists of higher amounts of O3 precursors due to both biomass burning and lightning. Assuming that O3 is well mixed (i.e., constant mixing ratio with height up to the tropopause, we can estimate the stratospheric column O3 over

  2. Satellite Cloud and Radiative Property Processing and Distribution System on the NASA Langley ASDC OpenStack and OpenShift Cloud Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Bedka, K. M.; Spangenberg, D.; Vakhnin, A.; Lutz, N. E.; Walter, J.; Kusterer, J.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud Computing offers new opportunities for large-scale scientific data producers to utilize Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) IT resources to process and deliver data products in an operational environment where timely delivery, reliability, and availability are critical. The NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) is building and testing a private and public facing cloud for users in the Science Directorate to utilize as an everyday production environment. The NASA SatCORPS (Satellite ClOud and Radiation Property Retrieval System) team processes and derives near real-time (NRT) global cloud products from operational geostationary (GEO) satellite imager datasets. To deliver these products, we will utilize the public facing cloud and OpenShift to deploy a load-balanced webserver for data storage, access, and dissemination. The OpenStack private cloud will host data ingest and computational capabilities for SatCORPS processing. This paper will discuss the SatCORPS migration towards, and usage of, the ASDC Cloud Services in an operational environment. Detailed lessons learned from use of prior cloud providers, specifically the Amazon Web Services (AWS) GovCloud and the Government Cloud administered by the Langley Managed Cloud Environment (LMCE) will also be discussed.

  3. Covariance between Arctic sea ice and clouds within atmospheric state regimes at the satellite footprint level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C; Kato, Seiji; Xu, Kuan-Man; Cai, Ming

    2015-12-27

    Understanding the cloud response to sea ice change is necessary for modeling Arctic climate. Previous work has primarily addressed this problem from the interannual variability perspective. This paper provides a refined perspective of sea ice-cloud relationship in the Arctic using a satellite footprint-level quantification of the covariance between sea ice and Arctic low cloud properties from NASA A-Train active remote sensing data. The covariances between Arctic low cloud properties and sea ice concentration are quantified by first partitioning each footprint into four atmospheric regimes defined using thresholds of lower tropospheric stability and midtropospheric vertical velocity. Significant regional variability in the cloud properties is found within the atmospheric regimes indicating that the regimes do not completely account for the influence of meteorology. Regional anomalies are used to account for the remaining meteorological influence on clouds. After accounting for meteorological regime and regional influences, a statistically significant but weak covariance between cloud properties and sea ice is found in each season for at least one atmospheric regime. Smaller average cloud fraction and liquid water are found within footprints with more sea ice. The largest-magnitude cloud-sea ice covariance occurs between 500 m and 1.2 km when the lower tropospheric stability is between 16 and 24 K. The covariance between low cloud properties and sea ice is found to be largest in fall and is accompanied by significant changes in boundary layer temperature structure where larger average near-surface static stability is found at larger sea ice concentrations.

  4. Covariance Between Arctic Sea Ice and Clouds Within Atmospheric State Regimes at the Satellite Footprint Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.; Kato, Seiji; Xu, Kuan-Man; Cai, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the cloud response to sea ice change is necessary for modeling Arctic climate. Previous work has primarily addressed this problem from the interannual variability perspective. This paper provides a refined perspective of sea ice-cloud relationship in the Arctic using a satellite footprint-level quantification of the covariance between sea ice and Arctic low cloud properties from NASA A-Train active remote sensing data. The covariances between Arctic low cloud properties and sea ice concentration are quantified by first partitioning each footprint into four atmospheric regimes defined using thresholds of lower tropospheric stability and mid-tropospheric vertical velocity. Significant regional variability in the cloud properties is found within the atmospheric regimes indicating that the regimes do not completely account for the influence of meteorology. Regional anomalies are used to account for the remaining meteorological influence on clouds. After accounting for meteorological regime and regional influences, a statistically significant but weak covariance between cloud properties and sea ice is found in each season for at least one atmospheric regime. Smaller average cloud fraction and liquid water are found within footprints with more sea ice. The largest-magnitude cloud-sea ice covariance occurs between 500m and 1.2 km when the lower tropospheric stability is between 16 and 24 K. The covariance between low cloud properties and sea ice is found to be largest in fall and is accompanied by significant changes in boundary layer temperature structure where larger average near-surface static stability is found at larger sea ice concentrations.

  5. Satellite observation of aerosol - cloud interactions over semi-arid and arid land regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klüser, L.; Holzer-Popp, T.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite observations from three different sources are used to study the interactions between aerosol and ice clouds in five semi-arid and arid land regions over Africa and Asia, reaching from the South-African Kalahari to the Taklimakan and Gobi in Mongolia. (1) Six years of Aqua MODIS cloud and aerosol observations (including "Deep Blue" retrievals) which contain a qualitative separation into coarse and fine mode aerosol are analysed. (2) Five years of APOLLO cloud observations and SYNAER aerosol retrievals which allow discriminating between mineral dust and soot dominated cases from AATSR and SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT are exploited. (3) Moreover IASI provides one year of ice cloud and mineral dust observations over land retrieved with a newly developed method based on singular vector decomposition. Cloud top temperature observations are used to asses the state of convection and to statistically re-project observation distributions of cloud properties to background conditions. Then the difference between observation density distributions of background and re-projected aerosol-contaminated samples can be evaluated. By such way of analysis the influence of different cloud development stages, which also manifest in seasonal cycles of cloud properties, can be minimised. The analysis of the various observation density distributions shows that liquid water and ice effective radius is mainly decreased for increased total aerosol content for both aerosol types, biomass burning aerosols and mineral dust, separately. Two different modes of aerosol impacts on cloud optical depth can be shown. Optical depth is mainly increased, directly following the theory of the so-called "Twomey effect". In the West African Sahel a decrease of cloud water path (for both liquid water and ice) under the influence of absorbing aerosols results also in decreased optical depth. As at the same time the cloud fraction does not decrease under aerosol influence, the statistical decrease of mean

  6. Satellite Technologies and Services: Implications for International Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Anna

    1987-01-01

    This examination of international distance education and open university applications of communication satellites at the postsecondary level notes activities in less developed countries (LDCs); presents potential models for cooperation; and describes technical systems for distance education, emphasizing satellite technology and possible problems…

  7. Statistical Analyses of Satellite Cloud Object Data from CERES. Part II; Tropical Convective Cloud Objects During 1998 El Nino and Validation of the Fixed Anvil Temperature Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Wong, Takmeng; Wielicki, Bruce a.; Parker, Lindsay; Lin, Bing; Eitzen, Zachary A.; Branson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of tropical deep convective cloud objects observed over the tropical Pacific during January-August 1998 are examined using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission/ Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System single scanner footprint (SSF) data. These characteristics include the frequencies of occurrence and statistical distributions of cloud physical properties. Their variations with cloud-object size, sea surface temperature (SST), and satellite precessing cycle are analyzed in detail. A cloud object is defined as a contiguous patch of the Earth composed of satellite footprints within a single dominant cloud-system type. It is found that statistical distributions of cloud physical properties are significantly different among three size categories of cloud objects with equivalent diameters of 100 - 150 km (small), 150 - 300 km (medium), and > 300 km (large), respectively, except for the distributions of ice particle size. The distributions for the larger-size category of cloud objects are more skewed towards high SSTs, high cloud tops, low cloud-top temperature, large ice water path, high cloud optical depth, low outgoing longwave (LW) radiation, and high albedo than the smaller-size category. As SST varied from one satellite precessing cycle to another, the changes in macrophysical properties of cloud objects over the entire tropical Pacific were small for the large-size category of cloud objects, relative to those of the small- and medium-size categories. This result suggests that the fixed anvil temperature hypothesis of Hartmann and Larson may be valid for the large-size category. Combining with the result that a higher percentage of the large-size category of cloud objects occurs during higher SST subperiods, this implies that macrophysical properties of cloud objects would be less sensitive to further warming of the climate. On the other hand, when cloud objects are classified according to SSTs where large-scale dynamics plays important roles

  8. Cirrus clouds as seen by the CALIPSO satellite and ECHAM-HAM global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Blaz; Meyer, Angela; Neubauer, David; Münch, Steffen; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    Ice clouds impact the planetary energy balance and upper tropospheric water vapour transport and are therefore relevant for climate. In this study ice clouds at temperatures below -40°C simulated by the ECHAM-HAM global climate model are compared to CALIPSO/CALIOP satellite data. The model reproduces well the mean occurrence of ice clouds, while the ice water path, ice crystal radius, cloud optical depth and extinction are overestimated in terms of annual means and temperature dependent frequency histograms. Two distinct types of cirrus clouds are found: in-situ formed cirrus dominating at temperatures below -60°C and liquid-origin cirrus, dominating at temperatures warmer than -55°C. The latter form in anvils of deep convective clouds or by glaciation of mixed-phase clouds. They are associated with ice water contents of up to 0.1 g m-3 and extinctions of up to 0.1 km-1, while the in-situ formed cirrus are optically thinner and contain at least an order of magnitude less ice. The ice cloud properties do not differ significantly between the southern and the northern hemisphere. In-situ formed ice clouds are further divided into homogeneously and heterogeneously nucleated ones. The simulated liquid-origin ice crystals mainly form in convective outflow in large number concentrations, similar to in-situ homogeneously nucleated ice crystals. On the contrary, heterogeneously nucleated ice crystals are associated with smaller number concentrations. However, ice crystal aggregation and depositional growth smooth the differences between several formation mechanisms making the attribution to a specific ice nucleation mechanism challenging.

  9. Evaluation of the shortwave cloud radiative effect over the ocean by use of ship and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanschmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the shortwave cloud radiative effect (SWCRE over ocean calculated by the ECHAM 5 climate model is evaluated for the cloud property input derived from ship based measurements and satellite based estimates and compared to ship based radiation measurements. The ship observations yield cloud fraction, liquid water path from a microwave radiometer, cloud bottom height as well as temperature and humidity profiles from radiosonde ascents. Level-2 products of the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM~SAF from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI have been used to characterize clouds. Within a closure study six different experiments have been defined to find the optimal set of measurements to calculate downward shortwave radiation (DSR and the SWCRE from the model, and their results have been evaluated under seven different synoptic situations. Four of these experiments are defined to investigate the advantage of including the satellite-based cloud droplet effective radius as additional cloud property. The modeled SWCRE based on satellite retrieved cloud properties has a comparable accuracy to the modeled SWCRE based on ship data. For several cases, an improvement through introducing the satellite-based estimate of effective radius as additional information to the ship based data was found. Due to their different measuring characteristics, however, each dataset shows best results for different atmospheric conditions.

  10. Is ozone model bias driven by errors in cloud predictions? A quantitative assessment using satellite cloud retrievals in WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Y. H.; Hodzic, A.; Barré, J.; Descombes, G.; Minnis, P.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds play a key role in radiation and hence O3 photochemistry by modulating photolysis rates and light-dependent emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). It is not well known, however, how much of the bias in O3 predictions is caused by inaccurate cloud predictions. This study quantifies the errors in surface O3 predictions associated with clouds in summertime over CONUS using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Cloud fields used for photochemistry are corrected based on satellite cloud retrievals in sensitivity simulations. It is found that the WRF-Chem model is able to detect about 60% of clouds in the right locations and generally underpredicts cloud optical depths. The errors in hourly O3 due to the errors in cloud predictions can be up to 60 ppb. On average in summertime over CONUS, the errors in 8-h average O3 of 1-6 ppb are found to be attributable to those in cloud predictions under cloudy sky conditions. The contribution of changes in photolysis rates due to clouds is found to be larger ( 80 % on average) than that of light-dependent BVOC emissions. The effects of cloud corrections on O­3 are about 2 times larger in VOC-limited than NOx-limited regimes, suggesting that the benefits of accurate cloud predictions would be greater in VOC-limited than NOx-limited regimes.

  11. Applications for Near-Real Time Satellite Cloud and Radiation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Chee, T.; Bedka, K. M.; Smith, W.; Ayers, J.; Benjamin, S.; Chang, F.; Jones, T. A.; Nguyen, L.; Norris, P. M.; Reichle, R. H.; Rienecker, M. M.; da Silva, A.; Yost, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    At NASA Langley Research Center, a variety of cloud, clear-sky, and radiation products are being derived at different scales from regional to global using geostationary satellite (GEOSat) and lower Earth-orbiting (LEOSat) imager data. With growing availability, these products are becoming increasingly valuable for weather forecasting and nowcasting. These products include, but are not limited to, cloud-top and base heights, cloud water path and particle size, cloud temperature and phase, surface skin temperature and albedo, and top-of-atmosphere radiation budget. Some of these data products are currently assimilated operationally in a numerical weather prediction model. Others are used unofficially for nowcasting, while testing is underway for other applications. These applications include the use of cloud water path in an NWP model, cloud optical depth for detecting convective initiation in cirrus-filled skies, and aircraft icing condition diagnoses among others. This paper briefly describes a currently operating system that analyzes data from GEOSats around the globe (GOES, Meteosat, MTSAT, FY-2) and LEOSats (AVHRR and MODIS) and makes the products available in near-real time through a variety of media. Current potential future use of these products is discussed.

  12. On the remote sensing of cloud properties from satellite infrared sounder data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H. Y. M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for remote sensing of cloud parameters by using infrared sounder data has been developed on the basis of the parameterized infrared transfer equation applicable to cloudy atmospheres. The method is utilized for the retrieval of the cloud height, amount, and emissivity in 11 micro m region. Numerical analyses and retrieval experiments have been carried out by utilizing the synthetic sounder data for the theoretical study. The sensitivity of the numerical procedures to the measurement and instrument errors are also examined. The retrieved results are physically discussed and numerically compared with the model atmospheres. Comparisons reveal that the recovered cloud parameters agree reasonably well with the pre-assumed values. However, for cases when relatively thin clouds and/or small cloud fractional cover within a field of view are present, the recovered cloud parameters show considerable fluctuations. Experiments on the proposed algorithm are carried out utilizing High Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS/2) data of NOAA 6 and TIROS-N. Results of experiments show reasonably good comparisons with the surface reports and GOES satellite images.

  13. Satellite Cloud Assimilation in the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) Model and its Impact on Air Quality Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Biazar, Arastoo; White, Andrew; McNider, Richard; Khan, Maudood; Dornblaser, Bright; Wu, Yuling

    2017-04-01

    Clouds have a significant role in air quality simulations as they modulate biogenic hydrocarbon emissions and photolysis rates, impact boundary-layer development, lead to deep vertical mixing of pollutants and precursors, and induce aqueous phase chemistry. Unfortunately, numerical meteorological models still have difficulty in creating clouds in the right place and time compared to observed clouds. This is especially the case when synoptic-scale forcing is weak, as often is the case during air pollution episodes in the Southeast United States. Thus, poor representation of clouds impacts the photochemical model's ability in simulating the air quality. However, since satellites provide the best observational platform for defining the formation and location of clouds, satellite observations can be of great value in retrospective simulations. Here, we present results from a recent activity in which the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) derived cloud fields are assimilated within Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to improve simulated clouds. The assimilation technique dynamically support cloud formation/dissipation within WRF based on GOES observations. The technique uses observations to identify model cloud errors, estimates a target vertical velocity and moisture to create/remove clouds, and adjust the flow field accordingly. The technique was implemented and tested in WRF for a month-long simulation during August 2006, and was tested in an air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). The cloud assimilation on the average improved model cloud simulation by 15%. The cloud correction not only improved the spatial and temporal distribution of clouds, it also improved boundary layer temperature, humidity, and wind speed. These improvements in meteorological fields directly impacted the air quality simulations and altered trace gas concentrations. For air quality simulations, WRF

  14. The analysis of polar clouds from AVHRR satellite data using pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L.; Ebert, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The cloud cover in a set of summertime and wintertime AVHRR data from the Arctic and Antarctic regions was analyzed using a pattern recognition algorithm. The data were collected by the NOAA-7 satellite on 6 to 13 Jan. and 1 to 7 Jul. 1984 between 60 deg and 90 deg north and south latitude in 5 spectral channels, at the Global Area Coverage (GAC) resolution of approximately 4 km. This data embodied a Polar Cloud Pilot Data Set which was analyzed by a number of research groups as part of a polar cloud algorithm intercomparison study. This study was intended to determine whether the additional information contained in the AVHRR channels (beyond the standard visible and infrared bands on geostationary satellites) could be effectively utilized in cloud algorithms to resolve some of the cloud detection problems caused by low visible and thermal contrasts in the polar regions. The analysis described makes use of a pattern recognition algorithm which estimates the surface and cloud classification, cloud fraction, and surface and cloudy visible (channel 1) albedo and infrared (channel 4) brightness temperatures on a 2.5 x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude grid. In each grid box several spectral and textural features were computed from the calibrated pixel values in the multispectral imagery, then used to classify the region into one of eighteen surface and/or cloud types using the maximum likelihood decision rule. A slightly different version of the algorithm was used for each season and hemisphere because of differences in categories and because of the lack of visible imagery during winter. The classification of the scene is used to specify the optimal AVHRR channel for separating clear and cloudy pixels using a hybrid histogram-spatial coherence method. This method estimates values for cloud fraction, clear and cloudy albedos and brightness temperatures in each grid box. The choice of a class-dependent AVHRR channel allows for better separation of clear and cloudy pixels than

  15. Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Diak, George R.; Hayden, Cristopher M.; Young, John A.

    1995-01-01

    These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation. The assimilation of satellite-observed moisture and cloud water, together withy three-mode diabatic initialization, significantly alleviates the model precipitation spinup problem, especially in the first 3 h of the forecast. Experimental forecasts indicate that the impact of satellite-observed temperature and water vapor profiles and cloud water alone in the initialization procedure shortens the spinup time for precipitation rates by 1-2 h and for regeneration of the areal coverage by 3 h. The diabatic initialization further reduces the precipitation spinup time (compared to adiabatic initialization) by 1 h.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING OF CLOUDS AND RADIATION USING ARM DATA, FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

    2013-06-28

    During the period, March 1997 – February 2006, the Principal Investigator and his research team co-authored 47 peer-reviewed papers and presented, at least, 138 papers at conferences, meetings, and workshops that were supported either in whole or in part by this agreement. We developed a state-of-the-art satellite cloud processing system that generates cloud properties over the Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) surface sites and surrounding domains in near-real time and outputs the results on the world wide web in image and digital formats. When the products are quality controlled, they are sent to the ARM archive for further dissemination. These products and raw satellite images can be accessed at http://cloudsgate2.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/site/showdoc?docid=4&cmd=field-experiment-homepage&exp=ARM and are used by many in the ARM science community. The algorithms used in this system to generate cloud properties were validated and improved by the research conducted under this agreement. The team supported, at least, 11 ARM-related or supported field experiments by providing near-real time satellite imagery, cloud products, model results, and interactive analyses for mission planning, execution, and post-experiment scientific analyses. Comparisons of cloud properties derived from satellite, aircraft, and surface measurements were used to evaluate uncertainties in the cloud properties. Multiple-angle satellite retrievals were used to determine the influence of cloud structural and microphysical properties on the exiting radiation field.

  17. A cloud pattern recognition algorithm to automate the estimation of mass eruption rates from an umbrella cloud or downwind plume observed via satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansons, E.; Pouget, S.; Bursik, M. I.; Patra, A. K.; Pitman, E. B.; Tupper, A.

    2013-12-01

    The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in April and May, 2010, brought to light the importance of Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion models (VATD) to the estimation of the position and concentration of ash with time, and how vital it is for Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) to be able to detect and track ash clouds with both observations and models. The VATD needs to get Eruption Source Parameters (ESP), including mass eruption rate through time, as input, which ultimately relies on the detection of the eruption regardless of the meteorological conditions. Volcanic cloud recognition is especially difficult when meteorological clouds are also present, which is typically the case in the tropics. Given the fact that meteorological clouds and volcanic clouds behave differently, we developed an agent-based pattern definition algorithm to detect and define volcanic clouds on satellite imagery. We have combined this with a plume growth rate methodology to automate the estimation of volumetric and mass growth with time using plume geometry provided by satellite imagery. This allows an estimation of the mass eruption rate (MER) with time. To test our approach, we used the examples of two eruptions of different source strength, in two different climatic regimes and for which therefore the weather during eruption was quite different: Grímsvötn (Iceland) May 21, 2011, which produced an umbrella cloud readily seen above the cloud deck, and Manam (Papua New Guinea) October 24, 2004, which produced a stratospheric umbrella cloud that rapidly turned into a downwind plume, and was difficult to distinguish from meteorological clouds. The new methods may in the future allow for fast, easy and automated detection of volcanic clouds as well as a remote assessment of the mass eruption rate with time, even for inaccessible volcanoes. The methods may thus provide an additional path to estimation of the ESP and the forecasting of ash cloud propagation.

  18. Satellite-derived attributes of cloud vortex systems and their application to climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Andrew M.

    1987-01-01

    Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) visible and infrared mosaics are analyzed in conjunction with synoptic meteorological observations of sea level pressure (SLP) and upper-air height to derive composite patterns of cyclonic cloud vortices for the Northern Hemisphere. The patterns reveal variations in the structure and implied dynamics of cyclonic systems at different stages of development that include: (1) increasing vertical symmetry of the lower-level and upper-air circulations and (2) decreasing lower-tropospheric thicknesses and temperature advection, associated with increasing age of the vortex. Cloud vortices are more intense in winter than in summer and typically reach maximum intensity in the short-lived prespiral signature stage. There are major structural differences among frontal wave, polar air, and 'instant occlusion' cyclogenesis types. Cyclones in the dissipation stage may reintensify (deepen), as denoted by the appearance in the imagery of an asymmetric cloud band or a tightened spiral vortex. The satellite-derived statistics on cloud vortex intensity, which are seasonal- and latitude- as well as type-dependent, are applied to a preliminary examination of the synoptic manifestations of seasonal climate variability. An apparently close relationship is found, for two winter and spring seasons, between Northern Hemisphere cyclonic activity and variations in cryosphere variables, particularly the extent of Arctic sea ice. The results may indicate that increased snow and ice extent accompany a southward displacement of cyclonic activity and/or a predominance of deeper systems. However, there is also a strong regional dependence to the ice-synoptics feedback. This study demonstrates the utility of high resolution meteorological satellite imagery for studies of climate variations (climate dynamics).

  19. Satellite Sounder-Based OLR-, Cloud- and Atmospheric Temperature Climatologies for Climate Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Gyula I.; Susskind, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Global energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system may change due to natural and man-made climate variations. For example, changes in the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) can be regarded as a crucial indicator of climate variations. Clouds play an important role -still insufficiently assessed in the global energy balance on all spatial and temporal scales, and satellites provide an ideal platform to measure cloud and large-scale atmospheric variables simultaneously. The TOVS series of satellites were the first to provide this type of information since 1979. OLR [Mehta and Susskind], cloud cover and cloud top pressure [Susskind et al] are among the key climatic parameters computed by the TOVS Pathfinder Path-A algorithm using mainly the retrieved temperature and moisture profiles. AIRS, regarded as the new and improved TOVS , has a much higher spectral resolution and greater S/N ratio, retrieving climatic parameters with higher accuracy. First we present encouraging agreements between MODIS and AIRS cloud top pressure (C(sub tp) and effective (A(sub eff), a product of infrared emissivity at 11 microns and physical cloud cover or A(sub c)) cloud fraction seasonal and interannual variabilities for selected months. Next we present validation efforts and preliminary trend analyses of TOVS-retrieved C(sub tp) and A(sub eff). For example, decadal global trends of the TOVS Path-A and ISCCP-D2 P(sub c), and A(sub eff)/A(sub c), values are similar. Furthermore, the TOVS Path-A and ISCCP-AVHRR [available since 19831 cloud fractions correlate even more strongly, including regional trends. We also present TOVS and AIRS OLR validation effort results and (for the longer-term TOVS Pathfinder Path-A dataset) trend analyses. OLR interannual spatial variabilities from the available state-of-the-art CERES measurements and both from the AIRS [Susskind et al] and TOVS OLR computations are in remarkably good agreement. Global monthly mean CERES and TOVS OLR time series show very good

  20. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  1. Cloud Detection from Satellite Imagery: A Comparison of Expert-Generated and Automatically-Generated Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Smadar

    2004-01-01

    Automated cloud detection and tracking is an important step in assessing global climate change via remote sensing. Cloud masks, which indicate whether individual pixels depict clouds, are included in many of the data products that are based on data acquired on- board earth satellites. Many cloud-mask algorithms have the form of decision trees, which employ sequential tests that scientists designed based on empirical astrophysics studies and astrophysics simulations. Limitations of existing cloud masks restrict our ability to accurately track changes in cloud patterns over time. In this study we explored the potential benefits of automatically-learned decision trees for detecting clouds from images acquired using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 weather satellite of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We constructed three decision trees for a sample of 8km-daily AVHRR data from 2000 using a decision-tree learning procedure provided within MATLAB(R), and compared the accuracy of the decision trees to the accuracy of the cloud mask. We used ground observations collected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy Systems S COOL project as the gold standard. For the sample data, the accuracy of automatically learned decision trees was greater than the accuracy of the cloud masks included in the AVHRR data product.

  2. Cloud Masking and Surface Temperature Distribution in the Polar Regions Using AVHRR and other Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Joey C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface temperature is one of the key variables associated with weather and climate. Accurate measurements of surface air temperatures are routinely made in meteorological stations around the world. Also, satellite data have been used to produce synoptic global temperature distributions. However, not much attention has been paid on temperature distributions in the polar regions. In the polar regions, the number of stations is very sparse. Because of adverse weather conditions and general inaccessibility, surface field measurements are also limited. Furthermore, accurate retrievals from satellite data in the region have been difficult to make because of persistent cloudiness and ambiguities in the discrimination of clouds from snow or ice. Surface temperature observations are required in the polar regions for air-sea-ice interaction studies, especially in the calculation of heat, salinity, and humidity fluxes. They are also useful in identifying areas of melt or meltponding within the sea ice pack and the ice sheets and in the calculation of emissivities of these surfaces. Moreover, the polar regions are unique in that they are the sites of temperature extremes, the location of which is difficult to identify without a global monitoring system. Furthermore, the regions may provide an early signal to a potential climate change because such signal is expected to be amplified in the region due to feedback effects. In cloud free areas, the thermal channels from infrared systems provide surface temperatures at relatively good accuracies. Previous capabilities include the use of the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite which was launched in 1978. Current capabilities include the use of the Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard NOAA satellites. Together, these two systems cover a span of 16 years of thermal infrared data. Techniques for retrieving surface temperatures with these sensors in the polar regions have

  3. Revisiting the iris effect of tropical cirrus clouds with TRMM and A-Train satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong-Sang; Kim, WonMoo; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Masunaga, Hirohiko; Kwon, Min-Jae; Jo, Hyun-Su; Huang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Just as the iris of human eye controls the light influx (iris effect), tropical anvil cirrus clouds may regulate the Earth's surface warming by controlling outgoing longwave radiation. This study examines this possible effect with monthly satellite observations such as Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cirrus fraction, and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System top-of-the-atmosphere radiative fluxes averaged over different tropical domains from March 2000 to October 2014. To confirm that high-level cirrus is relevant to this study, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization high cloud observations were also analyzed from June 2006 to December 2015. Our analysis revealed that the increase in sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific tends to concentrate convective cloud systems. This concentration effect very likely induces the significant reduction of both stratiform rain rate and cirrus fraction, without appreciable change in the convective rain rate. This reduction of stratiform rain rate and cirrus fraction cannot be found over its subregion or the tropical eastern Pacific, where the concentration effect of anvil cirrus is weak. Consistently, over the tropical western Pacific, the higher ratio of convective rain rate to total rain rate (i.e., precipitation efficiency) significantly correlates with warmer sea surface temperature and lower cirrus fraction. The reduced cirrus eventually increased outgoing longwave radiation to a greater degree than absorbed solar radiation. Finally, the negative relationship between precipitation efficiency and cirrus fraction tends to correspond to a low global equilibrium climate sensitivity in the models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. This suggests that tropical anvil cirrus clouds exert a negative climate feedback in strong association with precipitation efficiency.

  4. Proposed Use of the NASA Ames Nebula Cloud Computing Platform for Numerical Weather Prediction and the Distribution of High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    The development of the Nebula Cloud Computing Platform at NASA Ames Research Center provides an open-source solution for the deployment of scalable computing and storage capabilities relevant to the execution of real-time weather forecasts and the distribution of high resolution satellite data to the operational weather community. Two projects at Marshall Space Flight Center may benefit from use of the Nebula system. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center facilitates the use of unique NASA satellite data and research capabilities in the operational weather community by providing datasets relevant to numerical weather prediction, and satellite data sets useful in weather analysis. SERVIR provides satellite data products for decision support, emphasizing environmental threats such as wildfires, floods, landslides, and other hazards, with interests in numerical weather prediction in support of disaster response. The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Environmental Modeling System (WRF-EMS) has been configured for Nebula cloud computing use via the creation of a disk image and deployment of repeated instances. Given the available infrastructure within Nebula and the "infrastructure as a service" concept, the system appears well-suited for the rapid deployment of additional forecast models over different domains, in response to real-time research applications or disaster response. Future investigations into Nebula capabilities will focus on the development of a web mapping server and load balancing configuration to support the distribution of high resolution satellite data sets to users within the National Weather Service and international partners of SERVIR.

  5. H31G-1596: DeepSAT's CloudCNN: A Deep Neural Network for Rapid Cloud Detection from Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Subodh; Ganguly, Sangram; Li, Shuang; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.

    2017-01-01

    Cloud and cloud shadow detection has important applications in weather and climate studies. It is even more crucial when we introduce geostationary satellites into the field of terrestrial remote sensing. With the challenges associated with data acquired in very high frequency (10-15 mins per scan), the ability to derive an accurate cloud shadow mask from geostationary satellite data is critical. The key to the success for most of the existing algorithms depends on spatially and temporally varying thresholds,which better capture local atmospheric and surface effects.However, the selection of proper threshold is difficult and may lead to erroneous results. In this work, we propose a deep neural network based approach called CloudCNN to classify cloudshadow from Himawari-8 AHI and GOES-16 ABI multispectral data. DeepSAT's CloudCNN consists of an encoderdecoder based architecture for binary-class pixel wise segmentation. We train CloudCNN on multi-GPU Nvidia Devbox cluster, and deploy the prediction pipeline on NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Pleiades supercomputer. We achieved an overall accuracy of 93.29% on test samples. Since, the predictions take only a few seconds to segment a full multispectral GOES-16 or Himawari-8 Full Disk image, the developed framework can be used for real-time cloud detection, cyclone detection, or extreme weather event predictions.

  6. Satellite approach based on cloud cover classification: Estimation of hourly global solar radiation from meteosat images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mefti, A.; Adane, A.; Bouroubi, M.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Hourly global solar irradiation data useful for the design of solar energy conversion systems is generated using a new satellite based model called SICIC (solar irradiation from cloud image classification). It is a model built by processing high resolution visible Meteosat images and ground measurements of solar radiation flux collected in various locations of France during the 1994/95 period. Taking into account the hourly variability of solar radiation flux, SICIC begins by sorting the sun elevation angles into representative classes. For each location and each class, the clearness index is then computed, and the grey levels of the pixels of the visible Meteosat images are converted into cloud cover indexes. Next, two adjustable thresholds are used to split the set of cloud cover indices into three subsets representing clear, partly covered and overcast skies, respectively. Finally, three regression equations linking the clearness and cloud cover indices are obtained for the three sky categories. In these equations, the SICIC parameters (the regression coefficients and both thresholds) vary against the solar elevation angle. SICIC then yields a good estimate of the hourly global solar irradiation flux for every site displayed in the Meteosat images. This model is compared to GISTEL, which is another model governed by the same hypotheses as SICIC but differing by the invariability of its parameters in time. SICIC is found to be more accurate than GISTEL. In particular, the hourly solar data are estimated with an error (RMSE) varying from 32% to 12% for SICIC and 44% to 14% for GISTEL when the sun altitude increases from 15 o to 75 o . At the daily scale, SICIC is also more efficient than GISTEL. It has been satisfactorily applied to other sites of France and Algeria. The tests made on Wefax and B2 Meteosat images show that this model can be easily extended to other satellite images

  7. Satellite Cloud Data Validation through MAGIC Ground Observation and the S'COOL Project: Scientific Benefits grounded in Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecelius, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Rogerson, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Students' Cloud Observation On-Line (S'COOL) Project was launched in 1997 as the Formal Education and Public Outreach arm of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Mission. ROVER, the Citizen Scientist area of S'COOL, started in 2007 and allows participants to make 'roving' observations from any location as opposed to a fixed, registered classroom. The S'COOL Project aids the CERES Mission in trying to answer the research question: 'What is the Effect of Clouds on the Earth's Climate'. Participants from all 50 states, most U.S. Territories, and 63 countries have reported more than 100,500 observations to the S'COOL Project over the past 16 years. The Project is supported by an intuitive website that provides curriculum support and guidance through the observation steps; 1) Request satellite overpass schedule, 2) Observe clouds, and 3) Report cloud observations. The S'COOL Website also hosts a robust database housing all participants' observations as well as the matching satellite data. While the S'COOL observation parameters are based on the data collected by 5 satellite missions, ground observations provide a unique perspective to data validation. Specifically, low to mid level clouds can be obscured by overcast high-level clouds, or difficult to observe from a satellite's perspective due to surface cover or albedo. In these cases, ground observations play an important role in filling the data gaps and providing a better, global picture of our atmosphere and clouds. S'COOL participants, operating within the boundary layer, have an advantage when observing low-level clouds that affect the area we live in, regional weather patterns, and climate change. S'COOL's long-term data set provides a valuable resource to the scientific community in improving the "poorly characterized and poorly represented [clouds] in climate and weather prediction models'. The MAGIC Team contacted S'COOL in early 2012 about making cloud observations as part of the MAGIC

  8. International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, D-Series (Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ISCCP D-Series has been superseded by a newer version. Users should not use ISCCP D-Series except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that used...

  9. Improving Satellite Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Using GOES-Retrieved Cloud Optical Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenz, Ronald; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Feng, Zhe; Kuligowski, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    To address significant gaps in ground-based radar coverage and rain gauge networks in the U.S., geostationary satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) such as the Self-Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrievals (SCaMPR) can be used to fill in both the spatial and temporal gaps of ground-based measurements. Additionally, with the launch of GOES-R, the temporal resolution of satellite QPEs may be comparable to that of Weather Service Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) volume scans as GOES images will be available every five minutes. However, while satellite QPEs have strengths in spatial coverage and temporal resolution, they face limitations particularly during convective events. Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) have large cloud shields with similar brightness temperatures (BTs) over nearly the entire system, but widely varying precipitation rates beneath these clouds. Geostationary satellite QPEs relying on the indirect relationship between BTs and precipitation rates often suffer from large errors because anvil regions (little/no precipitation) cannot be distinguished from rain-cores (heavy precipitation) using only BTs. However, a combination of BTs and optical depth (τ) has been found to reduce overestimates of precipitation in anvil regions (Stenz et al. 2014). A new rain mask algorithm incorporating both τ and BTs has been developed, and its application to the existing SCaMPR algorithm was evaluated. The performance of the modified SCaMPR was evaluated using traditional skill scores and a more detailed analysis of performance in individual DCS components by utilizing the Feng et al. (2012) classification algorithm. SCaMPR estimates with the new rain mask applied benefited from significantly reduced overestimates of precipitation in anvil regions and overall improvements in skill scores.

  10. Evaluation of the Cloud Fields in the UK Met Office HadGEM3-UKCA Model Using the CCCM Satellite Data Product to Advance Our Understanding of the Influence of Clouds on Tropospheric Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sunil; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Liu, Hongyu; Crawford, James H.; White, James

    2016-01-01

    To determine the role of clouds in driving inter-annual and inter-seasonal variability of trace gases in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with a particular focus on the importance of cloud modification of photolysis. To evaluate the cloud fields and their vertical distribution in the HadGEM3 model utilizing CCCM, a unique 3-D cloud data product merged from multiple A-Train satellites (CERES, CloudSat, CALIPSO, and MODIS) developed at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  11. International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2014 will be held at Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan from 23-28 March 2014, with co-located events and workshops. The conference is hosted by the Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre (ASGC).“Bringing the data scientist to global e-Infrastructures” is the theme of ISGC 2014. The last decade has seen the phenomenal growth in the production of data in all forms by all research communities to produce a deluge of data from which information and knowledge need to be extracted. Key to this success will be the data scientist - educated to use advanced algorithms, applications and infrastructures - collaborating internationally to tackle society’s challenges. ISGC 2014 will bring together researchers working in all aspects of data science from different disciplines around the world to collaborate and educate themselves in the latest achievements and techniques being used to tackle the data deluge. In addition to the regular workshops, technical presentations and plenary keynotes, ISGC this year will focus on how to grow the data science community by considering the educational foundation needed for tomorrow’s data scientist. Topics of discussion include Physics (including HEP) and Engineering Applications, Biomedicine & Life Sciences Applications, Earth & Environmental Sciences & Biodiversity Applications, Humanities & Social Sciences Application, Virtual Research Environment (including Middleware, tools, services, workflow, ... etc.), Data Management, Big Data, Infrastructure & Operations Management, Infrastructure Clouds and Virtualisation, Interoperability, Business Models & Sustainability, Highly Distributed Computing Systems, and High Performance & Technical Computing (HPTC).

  12. Feature extraction and classification of clouds in high resolution panchromatic satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharghi, Elan

    The development of sophisticated remote sensing sensors is rapidly increasing, and the vast amount of satellite imagery collected is too much to be analyzed manually by a human image analyst. It has become necessary for a tool to be developed to automate the job of an image analyst. This tool would need to intelligently detect and classify objects of interest through computer vision algorithms. Existing software called the Rapid Image Exploitation Resource (RAPIER®) was designed by engineers at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC PAC) to perform exactly this function. This software automatically searches for anomalies in the ocean and reports the detections as a possible ship object. However, if the image contains a high percentage of cloud coverage, a high number of false positives are triggered by the clouds. The focus of this thesis is to explore various feature extraction and classification methods to accurately distinguish clouds from ship objects. An examination of a texture analysis method, line detection using the Hough transform, and edge detection using wavelets are explored as possible feature extraction methods. The features are then supplied to a K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) or Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Parameter options for these classifiers are explored and the optimal parameters are determined.

  13. Aerosol-cloud interactions over major urban clusters of China using MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Stavros; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Alexandri, Georgia; Georgoulias, Aristeidis; Wang, Pucai

    2014-05-01

    Urban clusters are a prominent political and economic issue in China. Increased numbers of cities of different sizes and intensive urbanization characterize these regions, which extend over hundreds of kilometers. We study here the interactions between aerosols and clouds under different synoptic regimes over major urban clusters of China, using a decade (2003 - 2013) of MODIS observations from Terra and Aqua satellites. The relationships which are studied are mainly between the aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) and cloud cover (CC), cloud water path (CWP) and water vapour (WV). The region of China was separated in 5 climatic zones which are primarily influenced by the Asian monsoon systems and the Tibetan Plateau. Over all urban clusters and in all seasons, CC is found to increase with AOD550. On the other hand, CWP-AOD550 and WV-AOD550 relationships appear more complicated and are discussed also in view of their impact on CC. This research has been financed by EPAN II and PEP under the national action "Bilateral, multilateral and regional R&T cooperations" (AEROVIS Sino-Greek project).

  14. Insights on the Feasibility, Modeling and Field Testing of Cirrus Cloud Thinning from Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Garnier, A.; Mejia, J.; Avery, M. A.; Erfani, E.

    2016-12-01

    To date, it is not clear whether the climate intervention method known as cirrus cloud thinning (CCT) can be viable since it requires cirrus clouds to form through homogeneous ice nucleation (henceforth hom) and some recent GCM studies predict cirrus are formed primarily through heterogeneous ice nucleation (henceforth het). A new CALIPSO infrared retrieval method has been developed for single-layer cirrus cloud that measures the temperature dependence of their layer-averaged number concentration N, effective diameter De and ice water content for optical depths (OD) between 0.3 and 3.0. Based on N, the prevailing ice nucleation mechanism (hom or het) can be estimated as a function of temperature, season, latitude and surface type. These satellite results indicate that seeding cirrus clouds at high latitudes during winter may produce significant global surface cooling. This is because hom often appears to dominate over land during winter north of 30°N latitude while the same appears true for most of the Southern Hemisphere (south of 30°S) during all seasons. Moreover, the sampled cirrus cloud frequency of occurrence in the Arctic is at least twice as large during winter relative to other seasons, while frequency of occurrence in the Antarctic peaks in the spring and is second-highest during winter. During Arctic winter, a combination of frequent hom cirrus, maximum cirrus coverage and an extreme or absent sun angle produces the maximum seasonal cirrus net radiative forcing (warming). Thus a reduction in OD and coverage (via CCT) for these cirrus clouds could yield a significant net cooling effect. From these CALIPSO retrievals, De-T relationships are generated as a function of season, latitude and surface type (land vs. ocean). These will be used in CAM5 to estimate De and the ice fall speed, from which the cirrus radiative forcing will be estimated during winter north of 30°latitude, where hom cirrus are common. Another CAM5 simulation will replace the hom

  15. International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2016 will be held at Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan from 13-18 March 2016, with co-located events and workshops. The conference is hosted by the Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre (ASGC). The theme of ISGC 2016 focuses on“Ubiquitous e-infrastructures and Applications”. Contemporary research is impossible without a strong IT component - researchers rely on the existence of stable and widely available e-infrastructures and their higher level functions and properties. As a result of these expectations, e-Infrastructures are becoming ubiquitous, providing an environment that supports large scale collaborations that deal with global challenges as well as smaller and temporal research communities focusing on particular scientific problems. To support those diversified communities and their needs, the e-Infrastructures themselves are becoming more layered and multifaceted, supporting larger groups of applications. Following the call for the last year conference, ISGC 2016 continues its aim to bring together users and application developers with those responsible for the development and operation of multi-purpose ubiquitous e-Infrastructures. Topics of discussion include Physics (including HEP) and Engineering Applications, Biomedicine & Life Sciences Applications, Earth & Environmental Sciences & Biodiversity Applications, Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) Applications, Virtual Research Environment (including Middleware, tools, services, workflow, etc.), Data Management, Big Data, Networking & Security, Infrastructure & Operations, Infrastructure Clouds and Virtualisation, Interoperability, Business Models & Sustainability, Highly Distributed Computing Systems, and High Performance & Technical Computing (HPTC), etc.

  16. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment TWP-ICE Cloud and rain characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, P.T., Jakob, C., and Mather, J.H.

    2004-05-31

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them.

  17. Satellite retrieval of the liquid water fraction in tropical clouds between −20 and −38 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Mitchell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a satellite remote sensing method for directly retrieving the liquid water fraction in mixed phase clouds, and appears unique in this respect. The method uses MODIS split-window channels for retrieving the liquid fraction from cold clouds where the liquid water fraction is less than 50% of the total condensate. This makes use of the observation that clouds only containing ice exhibit effective 12-to-11 μm absorption optical thickness ratios (βeff that are quasi-constant with retrieved cloud temperature T. This observation was made possible by using two CO2 channels to retrieve T and then using the 12 and 11 μm channels to retrieve emissivities and βeff. Thus for T < −40 °C, βeff is constant, but for T > −40 °C, βeff slowly increases due to the presence of liquid water, revealing mean liquid fractions of ~ 10% around −22 °C from tropical clouds identified as cirrus by the cloud mask. However, the uncertainties for these retrievals are large, and extensive in situ measurements are needed to refine and validate these retrievals. Such liquid levels are shown to reduce the cloud effective diameter De such that cloud optical thickness will increase by more than 50% for a given water path, relative to De corresponding to pure ice clouds. Such retrieval information is needed for validation of the cloud microphysics in climate models. Since low levels of liquid water can dominate cloud optical properties, tropical clouds between −25 and −20 °C may be susceptible to the first aerosol indirect effect.

  18. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Tománková, L.; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    50-52, Dec (2013), s. 92-101 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB111003; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : ultra-high energy * cosmic rays * Pierre Auger Observatory * extensive air showers * atmospheric monitoring * clouds * satellites Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.450, year: 2013 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0927650513001461/1-s2.0-S0927650513001461-main.pdf?_tid=4b00c808-76c4-11e3-b670-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1389007299_31196c76f30ae652

  19. A new technique to infer convective rainfall from satellite infrared cloud observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, A. J.; Adler, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    GLAS-2, a modified version of the GLAS-1 technique developed by Negri et al. (1984) for estimating convective precipitation from GEO-satellite IR data, is introduced and demonstrated on the data set for the Florida Area Cumulus Experiment in 1980. In GLAS-2, rain cells are located by identification of all local blackbody-temperature minima below 253 K in an array of GOES digital data, and rain parameters are assigned on the basis of the one-dimensional cloud model of Adler and Mack (1984). The demonstration results are presented in graphs and tables and compared with those of GLAS-1 and a number of other methods as well as radar and rain-gage measurements. The false-alarm rate for GLAS-2 is found to be 0.54, somewhat better than that of other satellihte methods; further improvements are suggested.

  20. Automated estimation of mass eruption rate of volcanic eruption on satellite imagery using a cloud pattern recognition algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, Solene; Jansons, Emile; Bursik, Marcus; Tupper, Andrew; Patra, Abani; Pitman, Bruce; Carn, Simon

    2014-05-01

    The need to detect and track the position of ash in the atmosphere has been highlighted in the past few years following the eruption Eyjafjallajokull. As a result, Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) are using Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion models (VATD) to estimate and predict the whereabouts of the ash in the atmosphere. However, these models require inputs of eruption source parameters, such as the mass eruption rate (MER), and wind fields, which are vital to properly model the ash movements. These inputs might change with time as the eruption enters different phases. This implies tracking the ash movement as conditions change, and new satellite imagery comes in. Thus, ultimately, the eruption must be detectable, regardless of changing eruption source and meteorological conditions. Volcanic cloud recognition can be particularly challenging, especially when meteorological clouds are present, which is typically the case in the tropics. Given the fact that a large fraction of the eruptions in the world happen in a tropical environment, we have based an automated volcanic cloud recognition algorithm on the fact that meteorological clouds and volcanic clouds behave differently. As a result, the pattern definition algorithm detects and defines volcanic clouds as different object types from meteorological clouds on satellite imagery. Following detection and definition, the algorithm then estimates the area covered by the ash. The area is then analyzed with respect to a plume growth rate methodology to get estimation of the volumetric and mass growth with time. This way, we were able to get an estimation of the MER with time, as plume growth is dependent on MER. To test our approach, we used the examples of two eruptions of different source strength, in two different climatic regimes, and for which therefore the weather during the eruption was quite different: Manam (Papua New Guinea) January 27 2005, which produced a stratospheric umbrella cloud and was

  1. What do satellite backscatter ultraviolet and visible spectrometers see over snow and ice? A study of clouds and ozone using the A-train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Vasilkov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine how clouds over snow and ice affect ozone absorption and how these effects may be accounted for in satellite retrieval algorithms. Over snow and ice, the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Raman cloud pressure algorithm derives an effective scene pressure. When this scene pressure differs appreciably from the surface pressure, the difference is assumed to be caused by a cloud that is shielding atmospheric absorption and scattering below cloud-top from satellite view. A pressure difference of 100 hPa is used as a crude threshold for the detection of clouds that significantly shield tropospheric ozone absorption. Combining the OMI effective scene pressure and the Aqua MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS cloud top pressure, we can distinguish between shielding and non-shielding clouds.

    To evaluate this approach, we performed radiative transfer simulations under various observing conditions. Using cloud vertical extinction profiles from the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR, we find that clouds over a bright surface can produce significant shielding (i.e., a reduction in the sensitivity of the top-of-the-atmosphere radiance to ozone absorption below the clouds. The amount of shielding provided by clouds depends upon the geometry (solar and satellite zenith angles and the surface albedo as well as cloud optical thickness. We also use CloudSat observations to qualitatively evaluate our approach. The CloudSat, Aqua, and Aura satellites fly in an afternoon polar orbit constellation with ground overpass times within 15 min of each other.

    The current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS total column ozone algorithm (that has also been applied to the OMI assumes no clouds over snow and ice. This assumption leads to errors in the retrieved ozone column. We show that the use of OMI effective scene pressures over snow and ice reduces these errors and leads to a more homogeneous spatial

  2. A comparison of ground and satellite observations of cloud cover to saturation pressure differences during a cold air outbreak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliss, R.J.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The role of clouds in the atmospheric general circulation and the global climate is twofold. First, clouds owe their origin to large-scale dynamical forcing, radiative cooling in the atmosphere, and turbulent transfer at the surface. In addition, they provide one of the most important mechanisms for the vertical redistribution of momentum and sensible and latent heat for the large scale, and they influence the coupling between the atmosphere and the surface as well as the radiative and dynamical-hydrological balance. In existing diagnostic cloudiness parameterization schemes, relative humidity is the most frequently used variable for estimating total cloud amount or stratiform cloud amount. However, the prediction of relative humidity in general circulation models (GCMs) is usually poor. Even for the most comprehensive GCMs, the predicted relative humidity may deviate greatly from that observed, as far as the frequency distribution of relative humidity is concerned. Recently, there has been an increased effort to improve the representation of clouds and cloud-radiation feedback in GCMs, but the verification of cloudiness parameterization schemes remains a severe problem because of the lack of observational data sets. In this study, saturation pressure differences (as opposed to relative humidity) and satellite-derived cloud heights and amounts are compared with ground determinations of cloud cover over the Gulf Stream Locale (GSL) during a cold air outbreak.

  3. The Potential Impact of Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Parameters on Ground-Level PM2.5 Mass and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Jessica H.; Chang, Howard H.; Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xuefei; Lyapustin, Alexei; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties have been extensively used to estimate ground-level fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in support of air pollution health effects research and air quality assessment at the urban to global scales. However, a large proportion, approximately 70%, of satellite observations of aerosols are missing as a result of cloud-cover, surface brightness, and snow-cover. The resulting PM2.5 estimates could therefore be biased due to this non-random data missingness. Cloud-cover in particular has the potential to impact ground-level PM2.5 concentrations through complex chemical and physical processes. We developed a series of statistical models using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) aerosol product at 1 km resolution with information from the MODIS cloud product and meteorological information to investigate the extent to which cloud parameters and associated meteorological conditions impact ground-level aerosols at two urban sites in the US: Atlanta and San Francisco. We find that changes in temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, planetary boundary layer height, convective available potential energy, precipitation, cloud effective radius, cloud optical depth, and cloud emissivity are associated with changes in PM2.5 concentration and composition, and the changes differ by overpass time and cloud phase as well as between the San Francisco and Atlanta sites. A case-study at the San Francisco site confirmed that accounting for cloud-cover and associated meteorological conditions could substantially alter the spatial distribution of monthly ground-level PM2.5 concentrations.

  4. The Potential Impact of Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Parameters on Ground-Level PM2.5Mass and Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Jessica H; Chang, Howard H; Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xuefei; Lyapustin, Alexei; Liu, Yang

    2017-10-18

    Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties have been extensively used to estimate ground-level fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations in support of air pollution health effects research and air quality assessment at the urban to global scales. However, a large proportion, ~70%, of satellite observations of aerosols are missing as a result of cloud-cover, surface brightness, and snow-cover. The resulting PM 2.5 estimates could therefore be biased due to this non-random data missingness. Cloud-cover in particular has the potential to impact ground-level PM 2.5 concentrations through complex chemical and physical processes. We developed a series of statistical models using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) aerosol product at 1 km resolution with information from the MODIS cloud product and meteorological information to investigate the extent to which cloud parameters and associated meteorological conditions impact ground-level aerosols at two urban sites in the US: Atlanta and San Francisco. We find that changes in temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, planetary boundary layer height, convective available potential energy, precipitation, cloud effective radius, cloud optical depth, and cloud emissivity are associated with changes in PM 2.5 concentration and composition, and the changes differ by overpass time and cloud phase as well as between the San Francisco and Atlanta sites. A case-study at the San Francisco site confirmed that accounting for cloud-cover and associated meteorological conditions could substantially alter the spatial distribution of monthly ground-level PM 2.5 concentrations.

  5. The Potential Impact of Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Parameters on Ground-Level PM2.5 Mass and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H. Belle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties have been extensively used to estimate ground-level fine particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations in support of air pollution health effects research and air quality assessment at the urban to global scales. However, a large proportion, ~70%, of satellite observations of aerosols are missing as a result of cloud-cover, surface brightness, and snow-cover. The resulting PM2.5 estimates could therefore be biased due to this non-random data missingness. Cloud-cover in particular has the potential to impact ground-level PM2.5 concentrations through complex chemical and physical processes. We developed a series of statistical models using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC aerosol product at 1 km resolution with information from the MODIS cloud product and meteorological information to investigate the extent to which cloud parameters and associated meteorological conditions impact ground-level aerosols at two urban sites in the US: Atlanta and San Francisco. We find that changes in temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, planetary boundary layer height, convective available potential energy, precipitation, cloud effective radius, cloud optical depth, and cloud emissivity are associated with changes in PM2.5 concentration and composition, and the changes differ by overpass time and cloud phase as well as between the San Francisco and Atlanta sites. A case-study at the San Francisco site confirmed that accounting for cloud-cover and associated meteorological conditions could substantially alter the spatial distribution of monthly ground-level PM2.5 concentrations.

  6. Diurnal cycle and seasonal variation of cloud cover over the Tibetan Plateau as determined from Himawari-8 new-generation geostationary satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Huazhe; Letu, Husi; Nakajima, Takashi Y; Wang, Ziming; Ma, Run; Wang, Tianxing; Lei, Yonghui; Ji, Dabin; Li, Shenshen; Shi, Jiancheng

    2018-01-18

    Analysis of cloud cover and its diurnal variation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is highly reliant on satellite data; however, the accuracy of cloud detection from both polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites over this area remains unclear. The new-generation geostationary Himawari-8 satellites provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information about clouds over the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the cloud detection of MODIS and AHI is investigated and validated against CALIPSO measurements. For AHI and MODIS, the false alarm rate of AHI and MODIS in cloud identification over the TP was 7.51% and 1.94%, respectively, and the cloud hit rate was 73.55% and 80.15%, respectively. Using hourly cloud-cover data from the Himawari-8 satellites, we found that at the monthly scale, the diurnal cycle in cloud cover over the TP tends to increase throughout the day, with the minimum and maximum cloud fractions occurring at 10:00 a.m. and 18:00 p.m. local time. Due to the limited time resolution of polar-orbiting satellites, the underestimation of MODIS daytime average cloud cover is approximately 4.00% at the annual scale, with larger biases during the spring (5.40%) and winter (5.90%).

  7. Investigating Gravity Waves in Polar Mesospheric Clouds Using Tomographic Reconstructions of AIM Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, V. P.; Taylor, M. J.; Doyle, T. E.; Zhao, Y.; Pautet, P.-D.; Carruth, B. L.; Rusch, D. W.; Russell, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    This research presents the first application of tomographic techniques for investigating gravity wave structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) imaged by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument on the NASA AIM satellite. Albedo data comprising consecutive PMC scenes were used to tomographically reconstruct a 3-D layer using the Partially Constrained Algebraic Reconstruction Technique algorithm and a previously developed "fanning" technique. For this pilot study, a large region (760 × 148 km) of the PMC layer (altitude 83 km) was sampled with a 2 km horizontal resolution, and an intensity weighted centroid technique was developed to create novel 2-D surface maps, characterizing the individual gravity waves as well as their altitude variability. Spectral analysis of seven selected wave events observed during the Northern Hemisphere 2007 PMC season exhibited dominant horizontal wavelengths of 60-90 km, consistent with previous studies. These tomographic analyses have enabled a broad range of new investigations. For example, a clear spatial anticorrelation was observed between the PMC albedo and wave-induced altitude changes, with higher-albedo structures aligning well with wave troughs, while low-intensity regions aligned with wave crests. This result appears to be consistent with current theories of PMC development in the mesopause region. This new tomographic imaging technique also provides valuable wave amplitude information enabling further mesospheric gravity wave investigations, including quantitative analysis of their hemispheric and interannual characteristics and variations.

  8. Aerosol and cloud microphysics covariability in the northeast Pacific boundary layer estimated with ship-based and satellite remote sensing observations: NE Pacific Aerosol-Cloud Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painemal, David [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton Virginia USA; NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; Chiu, J. -Y. Christine [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading UK; Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; Yost, Christopher [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton Virginia USA; Zhou, Xiaoli [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal Quebec Canada; Cadeddu, Maria [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont Illinois USA; Eloranta, Edwin [Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison Wisconsin USA; Lewis, Ernie R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Ferrare, Richard [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; Kollias, Pavlos [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook New York USA

    2017-02-27

    Ship measurements collected over the northeast Pacific along transects between the port of Los Angeles (33.7°N, 118.2°W) and Honolulu (21.3°N, 157.8°W) during May to August 2013 were utilized to investigate the covariability between marine low cloud microphysical and aerosol properties. Ship-based retrievals of cloud optical depth (τ) from a Sun photometer and liquid water path (LWP) from a microwave radiometer were combined to derive cloud droplet number concentration Nd and compute a cloud-aerosol interaction (ACI) metric defined as ACICCN = ∂ ln(Nd)/∂ ln(CCN), with CCN denoting the cloud condensation nuclei concentration measured at 0.4% (CCN0.4) and 0.3% (CCN0.3) supersaturation. Analysis of CCN0.4, accumulation mode aerosol concentration (Na), and extinction coefficient (σext) indicates that Na and σext can be used as CCN0.4 proxies for estimating ACI. ACICCN derived from 10 min averaged Nd and CCN0.4 and CCN0.3, and CCN0.4 regressions using Na and σext, produce high ACICCN: near 1.0, that is, a fractional change in aerosols is associated with an equivalent fractional change in Nd. ACICCN computed in deep boundary layers was small (ACICCN = 0.60), indicating that surface aerosol measurements inadequately represent the aerosol variability below clouds. Satellite cloud retrievals from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and GOES-15 data were compared against ship-based retrievals and further analyzed to compute a satellite-based ACICCN. Satellite data correlated well with their ship-based counterparts with linear correlation coefficients equal to or greater than 0.78. Combined satellite Nd and ship-based CCN0.4 and Na yielded a maximum ACICCN = 0.88–0.92, a value slightly less than the ship-based ACICCN, but still consistent with aircraft-based studies in the eastern Pacific.

  9. BEASTS OF THE SOUTHERN WILD: DISCOVERY OF NINE ULTRA FAINT SATELLITES IN THE VICINITY OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koposov, Sergey E.; Belokurov, Vasily; Torrealba, Gabriel; Evans, N. Wyn, E-mail: koposov@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: vasily@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-01

    We have used the publicly released Dark Energy Survey (DES) data to hunt for new satellites of the Milky Way (MW) in the southern hemisphere. Our search yielded a large number of promising candidates. In this paper, we announce the discovery of nine new unambiguous ultra-faint objects, whose authenticity can be established with the DES data alone. Based on the morphological properties, three of the new satellites are dwarf galaxies, one of which is located at the very outskirts of the MW, at a distance of 380 kpc. The remaining six objects have sizes and luminosities comparable to the Segue 1 satellite and cannot be classified straightforwardly without follow-up spectroscopic observations. The satellites we have discovered cluster around the LMC and the SMC. We show that such spatial distribution is unlikely under the assumption of isotropy, and, therefore, conclude that at least some of the new satellites must have been associated with the Magellanic Clouds in the past.

  10. Estimating seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration over the boreal forest from satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kabat, P.; Kulmala, M.; Nieminen, T.; Roebeling, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration (NCD) in low-level stratiform clouds over the boreal forest are estimated from MODIS observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties, using a sub-adiabatic cloud model to interpret vertical profiles of cloud properties. An

  11. Assessment on spatiotemporal relationship between rainfall and cloud top temperature from new generation weather satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiang; Yeh, Hui-Chung; Chen, Yen-Chang

    2017-04-01

    This study addressed the relationship between rainfall and cloud top temperature (CCT) from new generation satellite Himawari-8 imagery at different spatiotemporal scale. This satellite provides higher band, more bits for data format, spatial and temporal resolution compared with previous GMS series. The multi-infrared channels with 10-minute and 1-2 km resolution make it possible for rainfall estimating/forecasting in small/medium watershed. The preliminary result investigated at Chenyulan watershed (443.6 square kilometer) of Central Taiwan in 2016 Typhoon Megi shows the regression coefficient fitted by negative exponential equation of largest rainfall vs. CCT (B8 band) at pixel scale increases as time scales enlarges and reach 0.462 for 120-minute accumulative rainfall; the value (CTT of B15 band) decreases from 0.635 for 10-minute to 0.423 for 120-minute accumulative rainfall at basin-wide scale. More rainfall events for different regime are yet to evaluate to get solid results.

  12. Influence of turbidity and clouds on satellite total ozone data over Madrid (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, J.L. [Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Anton, M. [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Loyola, D. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (DE). Remote Sensing Technology Inst. (IMF); Hernandez, E. [Madrid Univ. Complutense (Spain). Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II

    2010-07-01

    This article focuses on the comparison of the total ozone column data from three satellite instruments; Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS) on board the Earth Probe (EP), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board AURA and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board ERS/2, with ground-based measurement recorded by a well calibrated Brewer spectrophotometer located in Madrid during the period 1996-2008. A cluster classification based on solar radiation (global, direct and diffuse), cloudiness and aerosol index allow selecting hazy, cloudy, very cloudy and clear days. Thus, the differences between Brewer and satellite total ozone data for each cluster have been analyzed. The accuracy of EP-TOMS total ozone data is affected by moderate cloudiness, showing a mean absolute bias error (MABE) of 2.0%. In addition, the turbidity also has a significant influence on EP-TOMS total ozone data with a MABE {proportional_to}1.6%. Those data are in contrast with clear days with MABE {proportional_to}1.2%. The total ozone data derived from the OMI instrument show clear bias at clear and hazy days with small uncertainties ({proportional_to}0.8%). Finally, the total ozone observations obtained with the GOME instrument show a very smooth dependence with respect to clouds and turbidity, showing a robust retrieval algorithm over these conditions. (orig.)

  13. Climatology Analysis of Aerosol Effect on Marine Water Cloud from Long-Term Satellite Climate Data Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuepeng Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite aerosol and cloud climate data records (CDRs have been used successfully to study the aerosol indirect effect (AIE. Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR now span more than 30 years and allow these studies to be conducted from a climatology perspective. In this paper, AVHRR data are used to study the AIE on water clouds over the global oceans. Correlation analysis between aerosol optical thickness (AOT and cloud parameters, including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER, cloud optical depth (COD, cloud water path (CWP, and cloud cover fraction (CCF, is performed. For the first time from satellite observations, the long-term trend in AIE over the global oceans is also examined. Three regimes have been identified: (1 AOT < 0.08, where CDER increases with AOT; (2 0.08 < AOT < 0.3, where CDER generally decreases when AOT increases; and (3 AOT > 0.3, where CDER first increases with AOT and then levels off. AIE is easy to manifest in the CDER reduction in the second regime (named Regime 2, which is identified as the AIE sensitive/effective regime. The AIE manifested in the consistent changes of all four cloud variables (CDER, COD, CWP, and CCF together is located only in limited areas and with evident seasonal variations. The long-term trend of CDER changes due to the AIE of AOT changes is detected and falls into three scenarios: Evident CDER decreasing (increasing with significant AOT increasing (decreasing and evident CDER decreasing with limited AOT increasing but AOT values fall in the AIE sensitive Regime 2.

  14. Examining the Impact of Smoke on Frontal Clouds and Precipitation During the 2002 Yakutsk Wildfires Using the WRF-Chem-SMOKE Model and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng; Sokolik, Irina N.

    2017-12-01

    In 2002, an enormous amount of smoke has been emitted from Yakutsk wildfires. In this study, we examine the impact of smoke on cloud properties and precipitation associated with frontal systems using the WRF-Chem-SMOKE model and satellite data. The smoke emissions are computed using the fire radiative power technique. Smoke particles are represented as an internal mixture of organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), and other inorganic matter, and their microphysical and radiative effects are explicitly modeled. After examining the fire activities, we identified two fire periods (FP1 and FP2). During FP1, in the cloud deck with the high cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), but the relatively small amount of ice nuclei (IN), the rain and snow water contents (RWC and SWC) were strongly reduced, because of suppressed collision-coalescence and riming processes. The cloud cells acquired the longer lifetime and traveled farther downwind. During FP2, in the cloud deck with relatively high CDNC and IN, RWC was reduced; however, the large amounts of IN triggered the glaciation indirect effect and leaded to increased SWC. Due to the competing effects of CDNC and IN, changes in the cloud lifetime were small. Consequently, smoke-induced changes in the total cloudiness cause a dipole feature. After the smoke was nearly consumed during FP1, the large-scale dynamics of the frontal system was altered by smoke. The onset of the precipitation was delayed by 1 day. In FP2, the onset of the precipitation was not delayed but occurred at different locations, and the area-averaged precipitation was slightly reduced ( 0.5 mm/day).

  15. Validation of Cloud Parameters Derived from Geostationary Satellites, AVHRR, MODIS, and VIIRS Using SatCORPS Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Bedka, K. M.; Yost, C. R.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Painemal, D.; Chen, Y.; Palikonda, R.; Dong, X.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Validation is a key component of remote sensing that can take many different forms. The NASA LaRC Satellite ClOud and Radiative Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) is applied to many different imager datasets including those from the geostationary satellites, Meteosat, Himiwari-8, INSAT-3D, GOES, and MTSAT, as well as from the low-Earth orbiting satellite imagers, MODIS, AVHRR, and VIIRS. While each of these imagers have similar sets of channels with wavelengths near 0.65, 3.7, 11, and 12 micrometers, many differences among them can lead to discrepancies in the retrievals. These differences include spatial resolution, spectral response functions, viewing conditions, and calibrations, among others. Even when analyzed with nearly identical algorithms, it is necessary, because of those discrepancies, to validate the results from each imager separately in order to assess the uncertainties in the individual parameters. This paper presents comparisons of various SatCORPS-retrieved cloud parameters with independent measurements and retrievals from a variety of instruments. These include surface and space-based lidar and radar data from CALIPSO and CloudSat, respectively, to assess the cloud fraction, height, base, optical depth, and ice water path; satellite and surface microwave radiometers to evaluate cloud liquid water path; surface-based radiometers to evaluate optical depth and effective particle size; and airborne in-situ data to evaluate ice water content, effective particle size, and other parameters. The results of comparisons are compared and contrasted and the factors influencing the differences are discussed.

  16. Several thoughts for using new satellite remote sensing and global modeling for aerosol and cloud climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; Hashimoto, Makiko; Takenaka, Hideaki; Goto, Daisuke; Oikawa, Eiji; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Uchida, Junya; Dai, Tie; Shi, Chong

    2017-04-01

    The rapid growth of satellite remote sensing technologies in the last two decades widened the utility of satellite data for understanding climate impacts of aerosols and clouds. The climate modeling community also has received the benefit of the earth observation and nowadays closed-collaboration of the two communities make us possible to challenge various applications for societal problems, such as for global warming and global-scale air pollution and others. I like to give several thoughts of new algorithm developments, model use of satellite data for climate impact studies and societal applications related with aerosols and clouds. Important issues are 1) Better aerosol detection and solar energy application using expanded observation ability of the third generation geostationary satellites, i.e. Himawari-8, GOES-R and future MTG, 2) Various observation functions by directional, polarimetric, and high resolution near-UV band by MISR, POLDER&PARASOL, GOSAT/CAI and future GOSAT2/CAI2, 3) Various applications of general purpose-imagers, MODIS, VIIRS and future GCOM-C/SGLI, and 4) Climate studies of aerosol and cloud stratification and convection with active and passive sensors, especially climate impact of BC aerosols using CLOUDSAT&CALIPSO and future Earth Explorer/EarthCARE.

  17. NASA's Impacts Towards Improving International Water Management Using Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Searby, N. D.; Entin, J. K.; Lawford, R. G.; Mohr, K. I.; Lee, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Key objectives of the NASA's Water Resources and Capacity Building Programs are to discover and demonstrate innovative uses and practical benefits of NASA's advanced system technologies for improved water management. This presentation will emphasize NASA's water research, applications, and capacity building activities using satellites and models to contribute to water issues including water availability, transboundary water, flooding and droughts to international partners, particularly developing countries. NASA's free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications that are especially useful in data sparse regions of most developing countries. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and internationally to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. The event will help demonstrate the strong partnering and the use of satellite data to provide synoptic and repetitive spatial coverage helping water managers' deal with complex issues. This presentation will outline and describe NASA's international water related research, applications and capacity building programs' efforts to address developing countries critical water challenges in Asia, African and Latin America. This will specifically highlight impacts and case studies from NASA's programs in Water Resources (e.g., drought, snow

  18. Non-Stationary Internal Tides Observed with Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal variability of the internal tide is inferred from a 17-year combined record of Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeters. A global sampling of along-track sea-surface height wavenumber spectra finds that non-stationary variance is generally 25% or less of the average variance at wavenumbers characteristic of mode-l tidal internal waves. With some exceptions the non-stationary variance does not exceed 0.25 sq cm. The mode-2 signal, where detectable, contains a larger fraction of non-stationary variance, typically 50% or more. Temporal subsetting of the data reveals interannual variability barely significant compared with tidal estimation error from 3-year records. Comparison of summer vs. winter conditions shows only one region of noteworthy seasonal changes, the northern South China Sea. Implications for the anticipated SWOT altimeter mission are briefly discussed.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched aboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have enabled over twelve years of continuous observations of cloud properties from Terra and over nine years from Aqua. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as latitudinal distributions of cloud top pressure and cloud top temperature. MODIS finds the cloud fraction, as derived by the cloud mask, is nearly identical during the day and night, with only modest diurnal variation. Globally, the cloud fraction derived by the MODIS cloud mask is approx.67%, with somewhat more clouds over land during the afternoon and less clouds over ocean in the afternoon, with very little difference in global cloud cover between Terra and Aqua. Overall, cloud fraction over land is approx.55%, with a distinctive seasonal cycle, whereas the ocean cloudiness is much higher, around 72%, with much reduced seasonal variation. Cloud top pressure and temperature have distinct spatial and temporal patterns, and clearly reflect our understanding of the global cloud distribution. High clouds are especially prevalent over the northern hemisphere continents between 30 and 50 . Aqua and Terra have comparable zonal cloud top pressures, with Aqua having somewhat higher clouds (cloud top pressures lower by 100 hPa) over land due to

  20. Using Long‐Term Satellite Observations to Identify Sensitive Regimes and Active Regions of Aerosol Indirect Effects for Liquid Clouds Over Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangang; Yu, Fangquan; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Long‐term (1981–2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol‐cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long‐term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT). An aerosol optical thickness (AOT) range of 0.13 cloud variables. The first AIE that manifests as the change of long‐term averaged CDER appears only in limited oceanic regions. The signature of aerosol invigoration of water clouds as revealed by the increase of cloud cover fraction (CCF) and CTH with increasing AOT at the middle/high latitudes of both hemispheres is identified for a pristine atmosphere (AOT  0.3) in the tropical convergence zones. The regions where the second AIE is likely to manifest in the CCF change are limited to several oceanic areas with high CCF of the warm water clouds near the western coasts of continents. The second AIE signature as represented by the reduction of the precipitation efficiency with increasing AOT is more likely to be observed in the AOT regime of 0.08 cloud interaction in cloud model simulations. PMID:29527427

  1. Using Long-Term Satellite Observations to Identify Sensitive Regimes and Active Regions of Aerosol Indirect Effects for Liquid Clouds Over Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuepeng; Liu, Yangang; Yu, Fangquan; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT). An aerosol optical thickness (AOT) range of 0.13 cloud variables. The first AIE that manifests as the change of long-term averaged CDER appears only in limited oceanic regions. The signature of aerosol invigoration of water clouds as revealed by the increase of cloud cover fraction (CCF) and CTH with increasing AOT at the middle/high latitudes of both hemispheres is identified for a pristine atmosphere (AOT 0.3) in the tropical convergence zones. The regions where the second AIE is likely to manifest in the CCF change are limited to several oceanic areas with high CCF of the warm water clouds near the western coasts of continents. The second AIE signature as represented by the reduction of the precipitation efficiency with increasing AOT is more likely to be observed in the AOT regime of 0.08 cloud interaction in cloud model simulations.

  2. Using Long-Term Satellite Observations to Identify Sensitive Regimes and Active Regions of Aerosol Indirect Effects for Liquid Clouds Over Global Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuepeng; Liu, Yangang; Yu, Fangquan; Heidinger, Andrew K

    2018-01-16

    Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT). An aerosol optical thickness (AOT) range of 0.13 cloud variables. The first AIE that manifests as the change of long-term averaged CDER appears only in limited oceanic regions. The signature of aerosol invigoration of water clouds as revealed by the increase of cloud cover fraction (CCF) and CTH with increasing AOT at the middle/high latitudes of both hemispheres is identified for a pristine atmosphere (AOT  0.3) in the tropical convergence zones. The regions where the second AIE is likely to manifest in the CCF change are limited to several oceanic areas with high CCF of the warm water clouds near the western coasts of continents. The second AIE signature as represented by the reduction of the precipitation efficiency with increasing AOT is more likely to be observed in the AOT regime of 0.08 cloud interaction in cloud model simulations.

  3. Clouds and Water Vapor in the Climate System: Remotely Piloted Aircraft and Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work was to attack unanswered questions that lie at the intersection of radiation, dynamics, chemistry and climate. Considerable emphasis was placed on scientific collaboration and the innovative development of instruments required to address these scientific issues. The specific questions addressed include: Water vapor distribution in the Tropical Troposphere: An understanding of the mechanisms that dictate the distribution of water vapor in the middle-upper troposphere; Atmospheric Radiation: In the spectral region between 200 and 600/cm that encompasses the water vapor rotational and continuum structure, where most of the radiative cooling of the upper troposphere occurs, there is a critical need to test radiative transfer calculations using accurate, spectrally resolved radiance observations of the cold atmosphere obtained simultaneously with in situ species concentrations; Thin Cirrus: Cirrus clouds play a central role in the energy and water budgets of the tropical tropopause region; Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange: Assessment of our ability to predict the behavior of the atmosphere to changes in the boundary conditions defined by thermal, chemical or biological variables; Correlative Science with Satellite Observations: Linking this research to the developing series of EOS observations is critical for scientific progress.

  4. Effects of externally-through-internally-mixed soot inclusions within clouds and precipitation on global climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z

    2006-06-01

    This paper examines the incremental global climate response of black carbon (BC), the main component of soot, due to absorption and scattering by BC inclusions within cloud and precipitation particles. Modeled soot is emitted as an externally mixed aerosol particle. It evolves to an internal mixture through condensation, hydration, dissolution, dissociation, crystallization, aqueous chemistry, coagulation, and cloud processing. Size-resolved cloud liquid and ice particles grow by condensation onto size-resolved soot and other particles. Cloud particles grow to precipitation by coagulation and the Bergeron process. Cloud and precipitation particles also undergo freezing, melting, evaporation, sublimation, and coagulation with interstitial aerosol particles. Soot, which is tracked in cloud and precipitation particles of all sizes, is removed by rainout, washout, sedimentation, and dry deposition. Two methods of treating the optics of BC in size-resolved cloud liquid, ice and graupel are compared: the core-shell approximation (CSA) and the iterative dynamic effective medium approximation (DEMA). The 10-year global near-surface incremental temperature response due to fossil fuel (ff), biofuel (bf), and biomass burning (bb) BC within clouds with the DEMA was slightly stronger than that with the CSA, but both enhancements were clouds may enhance the near-surface temperature response of ff+bf soot due to all processes (estimated as approximately 0.27 K), by climate impact of BC. BC cloud absorption was also found to increase water vapor, decrease precipitation, and decrease cloud fraction. The increase in water vapor at the expense of precipitation contributed to warming in addition to that of the cloud BC absorption itself. Aerosol-hydrometeor coagulation followed by hydrometeor evaporation may have caused almost twice the BC internal mixing as aerosol-aerosol coagulation.

  5. Remote sensing by satellite - Technical and operational implications for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    International cooperation in the U.S. Space Program is discussed and related to the NASA program for remote sensing of the earth. Satellite remote sensing techniques are considered along with the selection of the best sensors and wavelength bands. The technology of remote sensing satellites is considered with emphasis on the Landsat system configuration. Future aspects of remote sensing satellites are considered.

  6. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE): Cloud and Rain Characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PT May; C Jakob; JH Mather

    2004-05-30

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Commission DG RTD-1.2, and several United States, Australian, Canadian, and European Universities. This experiment will be undertaken over a 4-week period in early 2006. January and February corresponds to the wet phase of the Australia monsoon. This season has been selected because, despite Darwin’s coastal location, the convection that occurs over and near Darwin at this time is largely of maritime origin with a large fetch over water

  7. Cloud attenuation studies of the six major climatic zones of Africa for Ka and V satellite system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temidayo Victor Omotosho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Cloud cover statistics, cloud base and top height, cloud temperature, frequency of precipitation, freezing height, total cloud liquid water content (TCLWC and cloud attenuation data have been obtained for the six major climatic zones of Africa. The present results reveal a strong positive correlation between the monthly distribution of low cloud cover, cloud top height, cloud temperature, and frequency of precipitation in the six zones. The cumulative distribution of the TCLWC derived from radiosonde measurement in each climatic zone shows a departure from the TCLWC recommended by the ITU Study Group 3 data, with an exceedance percentage difference of 32% to 90% occurring 0.01% to 10% of the time. The underestimation of the TCLWC is greatest in the tropical rain forest. A comparison of the cloud attenuation cumulative distribution in the Ka and V bands reveals that the International Telecommunication Union – Region (ITU-R is an intergovernmental organization that develops rain model based on collected data around the world. This model underestimates the cloud attenuation in all of the six climatic zones by 2.0 dB and 4.7 dB for the arid Sahara desert, 1.3 dB and 3.0 dB in semi-arid North Africa, 1.3 dB and 1.5 dB in savannah North Africa, 2.0 dB and 3.6 dB in the tropical rain forest, 1.3 dB and 2.9 dB in savannah South Africa and 0.9 dB and 2.6 dB in semi-arid South Africa, respectively, at 30 and 50 GHz. Overall, the cloud attenuation in the tropical rain-forest zone is very high because of the high annual total cloud cover (98%, high annual frequency of precipitation (4.5, low annual clear sky amount (8%, high cloud depth (10,937 m, high 0°C isotherm height (4.7 km, high TCLWC (4.0 kg/m2 at 0.01% and low seasonal cloud base height (356 m.

  8. Using satellite-derived optical thickness to assess the influence of clouds on terrestrial carbon uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Cheng; A.L. Steiner; D.Y. Hollinger; G. Bohrer; K.J. Nadelhoffer

    2016-01-01

    Clouds scatter direct solar radiation, generating diffuse radiation and altering the ratio of direct to diffuse light. If diffuse light increases plant canopy CO2 uptake, clouds may indirectly influence climate by altering the terrestrial carbon cycle. However, past research primarily uses proxies or qualitative categories of clouds to connect...

  9. First validation of satellite microwave liquid water path with ship-based observations in marine low clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painemal, D.; Cadeddu, M. P.; Greenwald, T. J.; Minnis, P.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first validation study of satellite microwave liquid water path, from four operational sensors, against in-situ observations from a ship-borne three-channel microwave radiometer collected over the northeast Pacific during May-August of 2013, along a ship transect length of 40˚ (33.7˚N, 118.2˚W - 21.3˚N, 157.8˚W). The satellite sensors analyzed here are: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F16 and F17 satellites, and The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-2) on board the Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1). Satellite retrievals show an overall correlation with hourly-averaged in-situ observations of 0.86 and a positive bias of 10.0 gm2, which decreases to 1.0 gm2 and a correlation that increases to 0.91 when selecting overcast scenes. The satellite bias for broken scenes remains below 22.2 gm2, although the removal of clear-sky in-situ samples yields an unbiased relationship. Satellites produce a diurnal cycle with amplitudes (35-47 gm2) consistent with ship-based observations. Longitudinal biases remain below 17.4 gm2, and they are negligible in overcast scenes and when clear-sky samples are removed from the in-situ hourly average. Our study indicates that satellite microwave retrievals are a reliable dataset for climate studies in marine warm low clouds. The implications for satellite visible/infrared retrievals will be also discussed.

  10. An Evaluation of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Property Simulations in the Community Atmosphere Model Using Satellite Observations: Conventional Subgrid Parameterization versus CLUBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hua [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Zhang, Zhibo [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, and Physics Department, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Ma, Po-Lun [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Ghan, Steven J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Wang, Minghuai [Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a two-step evaluation of the marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud properties from two Community Atmospheric Model (version 5.3, CAM5) simulations, one based on the CAM5 standard parameterization schemes (CAM5-Base), and the other on the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) scheme (CAM5-CLUBB). In the first step, we compare the cloud properties directly from model outputs between the two simulations. We find that the CAM5-CLUBB run produces more MBL clouds in the tropical and subtropical large-scale descending regions. Moreover, the stratocumulus (Sc) to cumulus (Cu) cloud regime transition is much smoother in CAM5-CLUBB than in CAM5-Base. In addition, in CAM5-Base we find some grid cells with very small low cloud fraction (<20%) to have very high in-cloud water content (mixing ratio up to 400mg/kg). We find no such grid cells in the CAM5-CLUBB run. However, we also note that both simulations, especially CAM5-CLUBB, produce a significant amount of “empty” low cloud cells with significant cloud fraction (up to 70%) and near-zero in-cloud water content. In the second step, we use satellite observations from CERES, MODIS and CloudSat to evaluate the simulated MBL cloud properties by employing the COSP satellite simulators. We note that a feature of the COSP-MODIS simulator to mimic the minimum detection threshold of MODIS cloud masking removes much more low clouds from CAM5-CLUBB than it does from CAM5-Base. This leads to a surprising result — in the large-scale descending regions CAM5-CLUBB has a smaller COSP-MODIS cloud fraction and weaker shortwave cloud radiative forcing than CAM5-Base. A sensitivity study suggests that this is because CAM5-CLUBB suffers more from the above-mentioned “empty” clouds issue than CAM5-Base. The COSP-MODIS cloud droplet effective radius in CAM5-CLUBB shows a spatial increase from coastal St toward Cu, which is in qualitative agreement with MODIS observations. In contrast, COSP-MODIS cloud droplet

  11. Potential for a biogenic influence on cloud microphysics over the ocean: a correlation study with satellite-derived data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols have a large potential to influence climate through their effects on the microphysics and optical properties of clouds and, hence, on the Earth's radiation budget. Aerosol–cloud interactions have been intensively studied in polluted air, but the possibility that the marine biosphere plays an important role in regulating cloud brightness in the pristine oceanic atmosphere remains largely unexplored. We used 9 yr of global satellite data and ocean climatologies to derive parameterizations of the temporal variability of (a production fluxes of sulfur aerosols formed by the oxidation of the biogenic gas dimethylsulfide emitted from the sea surface; (b production fluxes of secondary organic aerosols from biogenic organic volatiles; (c emission fluxes of biogenic primary organic aerosols ejected by wind action on sea surface; and (d emission fluxes of sea salt also lifted by the wind upon bubble bursting. Series of global monthly estimates of these fluxes were correlated to series of potential cloud condensation nuclei (CCN numbers derived from satellite (MODIS. More detailed comparisons among weekly series of estimated fluxes and satellite-derived cloud droplet effective radius (re data were conducted at locations spread among polluted and clean regions of the oceanic atmosphere. The outcome of the statistical analysis was that positive correlation to CCN numbers and negative correlation to re were common at mid and high latitude for sulfur and organic secondary aerosols, indicating both might be important in seeding cloud droplet activation. Conversely, primary aerosols (organic and sea salt showed widespread positive correlations to CCN only at low latitudes. Correlations to re were more variable, non-significant or positive, suggesting that, despite contributing to large shares of the marine aerosol mass, primary aerosols are not widespread major drivers of the variability of cloud

  12. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  13. A dynamic threshold method for obtaining cloud cover from satellite imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, James A., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Errors in cloud cover derived by using a fixed threshold applied to imagery data depend not only on the fractional cover but also on cloud size. As a result, a fixed threshold applied to two scenes having the same cloud cover will produce different estimates of the cover when the clouds in the two scenes have different sizes. To allow for this influence due to cloud size, a dynamic threshold method is presented. In this method an infrared threshold is adjusted to achieve the highest correlation between the threshold-derived cloud cover and the mean emitted radiance for mesoscale-sized subregions within the scene. For single-layered cloud systems this threshold achieves a cancellation of errors in the cloud cover for the subregions so that the resulting cloud cover for the region and the associated estimates of cloud properties are in fair agreement with estimates obtained using the spatial coherence method. The agreement illustrates the validity of the layered cloud model used in different ways by the two methods. The performance of the dynamic threshold method is contrasted with that of a fixed threshold applied to the same data in order to illustrate the merits of applying a scene-dependent threshold.

  14. The effect of cloud sides on reflected solar radiation as deduced from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Davies, R.

    1986-01-01

    The observation of a feature that is characteristic of the reflection of solar radiation from absorbing finite clouds is reported. When absorption takes place, more radiation can be reflected by broken cloud fields than by extensive unbroken cloud fields. This feature is observed in solar radiation at 3.7 microns reflected by low-level, single-layered systems of water clouds over the Pacific Ocean. Interpreting the effect as due to geometrical factors, it is noted that absorption causes the reflected radiances to be highly anisotropic, so that they are generally greater from the sun-facing cloud sides than from the cloud tops. Diffusive leakage of radiation through the cloud sides is also reduced, and as a result maximum reflectivities occur in situations that maximize the contributions to the reflected radiation from the sides relative to that from the tops. Interpreting the effect as due to changes in liquid water content and cloud droplet sizes, it is noted that the observations at 0.63, 3.7, and 11 microns are consistent with a cloud model in which the liquid water content and droplet sizes are greater in the cloud centers and smaller at their edges. Theoretical calculations that qualitatively support both interpretations are presented.

  15. Radiative Transfer Through Clouds and Its Applications in Support of the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, which contain enough ice to raise sea level by about 7 and 60 m, respectively, are losing mass at an increasing rate. To acquire continuous information of the cryosphere, after the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (2003-2010), NASA is actively planning for the ICESat-2 mission. Both ICESat and ICESat-2 are space-borne lidar altimetry systems. The systems measure the time of flight of the arriving photons that are reflected by the surface to deduce the elevation of the underlying terrain. As one of NASA's top priority missions, ICESat-2 is scheduled to launch in 2016. One of the major science goals of ICESat-2 is to quantify the ice sheet mass balance to determine its contributions to the sea level change and its impacts on ocean circulation (Abdalati et al. 2010). Compared to ICESat, which operates at 40 Hz and records the reflected laser energy as a waveform, the significantly improved ICESat-2 lidar employs a 532 nm micro-pulse photon counting system that operates at a high frequency of 10kHz with single photon detectability (Yang et al. 2012). To achieve its science goals, ICESat-2 requires the ability of detecting the elevation change with an accuracy of 0.2 cm/year over the entire ice sheet. Since every photon emitted by the lidar system will travel through the atmosphere, clouds can certainly affect the flight time of the arriving photons. Forward scattering by cloud particles increases the photon path length, thus resulting in biases in ice sheet elevation measurements known as atmospheric path delay (Duta et al. 2001, Yang et al. 2010, 2011). To ensure the accuracy of ICESat-2 surface elevation measurements, it is critical to understand how clouds would affect the travel time of arriving photons. In this talk, we will first present a framework that simulates the behavior of a space-borne 532 mn micro-pulse photon counting lidar in cloudy and clear atmospheres. To investigate the process of laser

  16. The Matsu Wheel: A Cloud-Based Framework for Efficient Analysis and Reanalysis of Earth Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Maria T.; Anderson, Nicholas; Bennett, Collin; Bruggemann, Jacob; Grossman, Robert L.; Handy, Matthew; Ly, Vuong; Mandl, Daniel J.; Pederson, Shane; Pivarski, James; hide

    2016-01-01

    Project Matsu is a collaboration between the Open Commons Consortium and NASA focused on developing open source technology for cloud-based processing of Earth satellite imagery with practical applications to aid in natural disaster detection and relief. Project Matsu has developed an open source cloud-based infrastructure to process, analyze, and reanalyze large collections of hyperspectral satellite image data using OpenStack, Hadoop, MapReduce and related technologies. We describe a framework for efficient analysis of large amounts of data called the Matsu "Wheel." The Matsu Wheel is currently used to process incoming hyperspectral satellite data produced daily by NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. The framework allows batches of analytics, scanning for new data, to be applied to data as it flows in. In the Matsu Wheel, the data only need to be accessed and preprocessed once, regardless of the number or types of analytics, which can easily be slotted into the existing framework. The Matsu Wheel system provides a significantly more efficient use of computational resources over alternative methods when the data are large, have high-volume throughput, may require heavy preprocessing, and are typically used for many types of analysis. We also describe our preliminary Wheel analytics, including an anomaly detector for rare spectral signatures or thermal anomalies in hyperspectral data and a land cover classifier that can be used for water and flood detection. Each of these analytics can generate visual reports accessible via the web for the public and interested decision makers. The result products of the analytics are also made accessible through an Open Geospatial Compliant (OGC)-compliant Web Map Service (WMS) for further distribution. The Matsu Wheel allows many shared data services to be performed together to efficiently use resources for processing hyperspectral satellite image data and other, e.g., large environmental datasets that may be analyzed for

  17. 3rd International Symposium on Big Data and Cloud Computing Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Neelanarayanan, V

    2016-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains selected papers that were presented in the 3rd International Symposium on Big data and Cloud Computing Challenges, 2016 held at VIT University, India on March 10 and 11. New research issues, challenges and opportunities shaping the future agenda in the field of Big Data and Cloud Computing are identified and presented throughout the book, which is intended for researchers, scholars, students, software developers and practitioners working at the forefront in their field. This book acts as a platform for exchanging ideas, setting questions for discussion, and sharing the experience in Big Data and Cloud Computing domain.

  18. Tropical echo-top height for precipitating clouds observed by multiple active instruments aboard satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yilun; Fu, Yunfei

    2018-01-01

    The echo-top height observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) has been used by some studies as an approximate calculation of the precipitating-cloud-top height to simulate radiative forcing or to identify overshooting convection. However, due to the low sensitivity ( 17 dBZ) of PR, the PR-echo-top height is lower than the actual precipitating-cloud-top height. Here, the echo-top heights of the tropical precipitating cloud detected by PR, the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) were investigated to evaluate the underestimation of the PR-echo-top height to the actual precipitating-cloud-top height. The results show that there were significant spatial variations in the underestimates of precipitating-cloud-top height by PR. The model simulation showed that these underestimates led to an underestimation of the radiative forcing of the Earth system, the relative error of which was 10% with 1-km underestimation and 20% to 80% with 7-km underestimation when the cloud optical thickness was fixed to 10. Therefore, the underestimates of precipitating-cloud-top height by PR should be taken into consideration when using PR-echo-top height.

  19. Lxcloud: a prototype for an internal cloud in HEP. Experiences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goasguen, Sebastien; Moreira, Belmiro; Roche, Ewan; Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Born out of the desire to virtualize our batch compute farm CERN has developed an internal cloud known as lxcloud. Since December 2010 it has been used to run a small but sufficient part of our batch workload thus allowing operational and development experience to be gained. Recently, this service has evolved to a public cloud allowing selected physics users an alternate way of accessing resources.

  20. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  1. The Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2): Science Requirements, Concept, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Thorsten; Neumann, Tom; Martino, Anthony; Abdalati, Waleed; Brunt, Kelly; Csatho, Beata; Farrell, Sinead; Fricker, Helen; Gardner, Alex; Harding, David; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission used laser altimetry measurements to determine changes in elevations of glaciers and ice sheets, as well as sea ice thickness distribution. These measurements have provided important information on the response of the cryosphere (Earths frozen surfaces) to changes in atmosphere and ocean condition. ICESat operated from 2003-2009 and provided repeat altimetry measurements not only to the cryosphere scientific community but also to the ocean, terrestrial and atmospheric scientific communities. The conclusive assessment of significant ongoing rapid changes in the Earths ice cover, in part supported by ICESat observations, has strengthened the need for sustained, high accuracy, repeat observations similar to what was provided by the ICESat mission. Following recommendations from the National Research Council for an ICESat follow-on mission, the ICESat-2 mission is now under development for planned launch in 2018. The primary scientific aims of the ICESat-2 mission are to continue measurements of sea ice freeboard and ice sheet elevation to determine their changes at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet, and from 10s of meters to the entire polar oceans for sea ice freeboard. ICESat carried a single beam profiling laser altimeter that produced approximately 70 m diameter footprints on the surface of the Earth at approximately 150 m along-track intervals. In contrast, ICESat-2 will operate with three pairs of beams, each pair separated by about 3 km across-track with a pair spacing of 90 m. Each of the beams will have a nominal 17 m diameter footprint with an along-track sampling interval of 0.7 m. The differences in the ICESat-2 measurement concept are a result of overcoming some limitations associated with the approach used in the ICESat mission. The beam pair configuration of ICESat-2 allows for the determination of local cross-track slope, a significant factor in measuring elevation change

  2. Asymptotic Behavior of an Elastic Satellite with Internal Friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, E.; Bambusi, D.

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics of an elastic body whose shape and position evolve due to the gravitational forces exerted by a pointlike planet. The main result is that, if all the deformations of the satellite dissipate some energy, then under a suitable nondegeneracy condition there are only three possible outcomes for the dynamics: (i) the orbit of the satellite is unbounded, (ii) the satellite falls on the planet, (iii) the satellite is captured in synchronous resonance i.e. its orbit is asymptotic to a motion in which the barycenter moves on a circular orbit, and the satellite moves rigidly, always showing the same face to the planet. The result is obtained by making use of LaSalle’s invariance principle and by a careful kinematic analysis showing that energy stops dissipating only on synchronous orbits. We also use in quite an extensive way the fact that conservative elastodynamics is a Hamiltonian system invariant under the action of the rotation group

  3. On Variability in Satellite Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements: Relationships with Phenology and Ecosystem-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange, Vegetation Structure, Clouds, and Sun-Satellite Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Guanter, L.; Zhang, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Schaefer, K. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Middleton, E.; Koehler, P.; Jung, M.; Tucker, C. J.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Frankenberg, C.; Berry, J. A.; Koster, R. D.; Reichle, R. H.; Lee, J. E.; Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Walker, G. K.; Van der Tol, C.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past several years, there have been several breakthroughs in our ability to detect the very small fluorescence emitted by chlorophyll in vegetation globally from space. There are now multiple instruments in space capable of measuring this signal at varying temporal and spatial resolutions. We will review the state-of-the-art with respect to these relatively new satellite measurements and ongoing studies that examine the relationships with photosynthesis. Now that we have a data record spanning more than seven years, we can examine variations due to seasonal carbon uptake, interannual variability, land-use changes, and water and temperature stress. In addition, we examine how clouds and satellite viewing geometry impact the signal. We compare and contrast these variations with those from popular vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), related to the potential photosynthesis as well as with measurements from flux tower gas exchange measurements and other model-based estimates of Global Primary Productivity (GPP). Vegetation fluorescence can be simulated in global vegetation models as well as with 1D canopy radiative transport models. We will describe how the satellite fluorescence data are being used to evaluate and potentially improve these models.

  4. Automatic Tracking and Characterization of Cumulonimbus Clouds from FY-2C Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated method to track cumulonimbus (Cb clouds based on cloud classification and characterizes Cb behavior from FengYun-2C (FY-2C. First, a seeded region growing (SRG algorithm is used with artificial neural network (ANN cloud classification as preprocessing to identify consistent homogeneous Cb patches from infrared images. Second, a cross-correlation-based approach is used to track Cb patches within an image sequence. Third, 7 pixel parameters and 19 cloud patch parameters of Cb are derived. To assess the performance of the proposed method, 8 cases exhibiting different life stages and the temporal evolution of a single case are analyzed. The results show that (1 the proposed method is capable of locating and tracking Cb until dissipation and can account for the eventual splitting or merging of clouds; (2 compared to traditional brightness temperature (TB thresholds-based cloud tracking methods, the proposed method reduces the uncertainty stemming from TB thresholds by classifying clouds with multichannel data in an advanced manner; and (3 the configuration and developmental stages of Cb that the method identifies are close to reality, suggesting that the characterization of Cb can provide detailed insight into the study of the motion and development of thunderstorms.

  5. From BASE-ASIA toward 7-SEAS: A satellite-surface perspective of boreal spring biomass-burning aerosols and clouds in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Lau, William K.-M.; Li, Can; Gabriel, Philip M.; Ji, Qiang; Holben, Brent N.; Judd Welton, E.; Nguyen, Anh X.; Janjai, Serm; Lin, Neng-Huei; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Boonjawat, Jariya; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Fu, Joshua S.; Hansell, Richard A.; Sayer, Andrew M.; Gautam, Ritesh; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Goodloe, Colby S.; Miko, Laddawan R.; Shu, Peter K.; Loftus, Adrian M.; Huang, Jingfeng; Kim, Jin Young; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Pantina, Peter

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present recent field studies conducted by NASA's SMART-COMMIT (and ACHIEVE, to be operated in 2013) mobile laboratories, jointly with distributed ground-based networks (e.g., AERONET, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/ and MPLNET, http://mplnet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and other contributing instruments over northern Southeast Asia. These three mobile laboratories, collectively called SMARTLabs (cf. http://smartlabs.gsfc.nasa.gov/, Surface-based Mobile Atmospheric Research &Testbed Laboratories) comprise a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that are pivotal in providing high spectral and temporal measurements, complementing the collocated spatial observations from various Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. A satellite-surface perspective and scientific findings, drawn from the BASE-ASIA (2006) field deployment as well as a series of ongoing 7-SEAS (2010-13) field activities over northern Southeast Asia are summarized, concerning (i) regional properties of aerosols from satellite and in-situ measurements, (ii) cloud properties from remote sensing and surface observations, (iii) vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds, and (iv) regional aerosol radiative effects and impact assessment. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning, exhibits highly consistent spatial and temporal distribution patterns, with major variability arising from changes in the magnitude of the aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from the source regions, the tightly coupled-aerosol-cloud system provides a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring the micro- and macro-scale relationships of the complex interactions. The climatic significance is presented through large-scale anti-correlations between aerosol and precipitation anomalies, showing spatial and seasonal variability, but their precise cause-and-effect relationships

  6. Mobile satellite services: International co-ordination, co-operation and competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Olof

    1988-01-01

    In the context of a discussion of international cooperation, coordination and competition regarding mobile satellite services, it is asserted that: there will be more than one civil mobile satellite service in the 1990's; competition between these separate mobile satellite systems is inevitable; no system should enjoy monopoly protection or subsidies; and coordination and cooperation are desirable and necessary, since the available L-band spectrum is in short supply.

  7. Outlook for research on subtropical marine stratiform clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D. A.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Lenschow, D. H.; Fairall, C. W.; Kropfli, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of the goals and methodology of the First International Satellite Cloud Cover Project Regional Experiment (FIRE) is presented. The purpose of the experiment is to develop physical models and parameterizations of fractional cloud cover over the Pacific Basin. In order to determine fractional cloud cover parameters, satellite observations by radar and lidar instruments will be combined with in situ measurements of the cloud-capped marine boundary layer. A description of a candidate experiment for the program is presented, and some general problems connected with the statistical characterization of satellite imagery are discussed.

  8. Impact of aerosols on marine cloud microphysics over the Indian Ocean using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sofiya; Dey, Sagnik

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction is the one of the least understood and largest sources of uncertainty in quantifying climate forcing. Despite progress, the problem remains unresolved because of the buffering effect of meteorology and therefore it is suggested to separate the meteorological forcing from aerosol forcing focusing on different cloud types (Stevens and Feingold 2009). However, most of the previous studies on aerosol-cloud interaction over the Indian Ocean (including INDOEX) are limited to either one particular season or short period. We examine relationships between aerosol and cloud parameters using MODIS data sets for 15 years (2000-2015) period over Indian Ocean. We separated the meteorological forcing from aerosol forcing. In both the Arabian Sea (AS) and Bay of Bengal (BOB), the meteorological forcing is largest in the monsoon. In all the four seasons, cloud microphysical properties are more sensitive to aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the AS compared to BOB. Further analysis reveals presence of semi-direct effect in the winter season. Influence of aerosols on liquid water path (LWP) - cloud effective radius (Reff) relation is quantified. Cloud albedo (Rc) dependency on LWP and Reff is examined in view of changing aerosol load. Cloud drop growth is facilitated in presence of high moisture content. This is evident from the fact that Reff is found to broadly increase with an increase in LWP in every season over Arabian Sea as well as over Bay of Bengal. It is also noted that Reff is larger across a wide range of LWP in 'clean' condition (AOD 0.4). This clearly demonstrate that in more polluted conditions, growth of cloud drops are restricted. This is the evidence of classic aerosol indirect effect. However, we notice a saturation in the decrease in Reff with an increase in AOD beyond 0.4. The results provide robust observational evidence of aerosol-cloud interaction in the Indian Ocean region that can be helpful in evaluating the climate model performance

  9. Evaluating regional cloud-permitting simulations of the WRF model for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE, Darwin 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Long, Charles N.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Dudhia, Jimy; McFarlane, Sally A.; Mather, James H.; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaodong

    2009-11-05

    Data from the Tropical Warm Pool I5 nternational Cloud Experiment (TWPICE) were used to evaluate two suites of high-resolution (4-7 km, convection-resolving) simulations of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a focus on the performance of different cloud microphysics (MP) schemes. The major difference between these two suites of simulations is with and without the reinitializing process. Whenreinitialized every three days, the four cloud MP schemes evaluated can capture the general profiles of cloud fraction, temperature, water vapor, winds, and cloud liquid and ice water content (LWC and IWC, respectively). However, compared with surface measurements of radiative and moisture fluxes and satellite retrieval of top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) fluxes, disagreements do exist. Large discrepancies with observed LWC and IWC and derived radiative heating profiles can be attributed to both the limitations of the cloud property retrievals and model performance. The simulated precipitation also shows a wide range of uncertainty as compared with observations, which could be caused by the cloud MP schemes, complexity of land-sea configuration, and the high temporal and spatial variability. In general, our result indicates the importance of large-scale initial and lateral boundary conditions in re-producing basic features of cloudiness and its vertical structures. Based on our case study, we find overall the six-hydrometer single-moment MP scheme(WSM6) [Hong and Lim, 2006] in the WRF model si25 mulates the best agree- ment with the TWPICE observational analysis.

  10. Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why Has It Been Do Difficult to Quantify Aerosol-Cloud Interactions for Climate Assessment, and How Can We Make Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-01-01

    The organizers of the National Academy of Sciences Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia Series on Improving Our Fundamental Understanding of the Role of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the Climate System would like to post Ralph Kahn's presentation entitled Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why has it been so difficult to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions for climate assessment, and how can we make progress? to their public website.

  11. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Mathew J.; Yorks. John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064,532,355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time (NRT) data capability ofthe ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as aerosol and air quality forecasting and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a

  12. Satellite Data Assimilation in Regional Numerical Weather Prediction as a Key for Better Cloud Cover Forecasts in Tropical Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kurzrock , Frederik; Cros , Sylvain; Chane-Ming , Fabrice; Potthast , Roland; Linguet , Laurent ,; Lajoie , Gilles

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Although the high amount of solar irradiance in the tropics is an advantage for a profitable PV production, the local meteorological conditions induce a very high variability which is problematic for a safe and gainful injection into the power grid. This issue is even more critical in non-interconnected territories where network stability is an absolute necessity and the injection of PV power has to be limited. The basis for precise cloud evolution and subsequent irrad...

  13. Analysis of the Interaction and Transport of Aerosols with Cloud or Fog during Dragon Campaigns from Aeronet and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Schafer, J.; Giles, D. M.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sano, I.; Lynch, P.; Pickering, K. E.; Crawford, J. H.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.; Trevino, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ground-based remote sensing observations from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-sky radiometers have recently shown several instances where cloud-aerosol interaction had resulted in modification of aerosol properties and/or in difficulty identifying some major pollution transport events due to aerosols being imbedded in cloud systems. AERONET has established Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) during field campaigns that are short-term (~2-3 months) relatively dense spatial networks of ~15 to 45 sun and sky scanning photometers. Recent major DRAGON field campaigns in Japan and South Korea (Spring 2012) and California (Winter 2013) have yielded observations of aerosol transport associated with clouds and/or aerosol properties modification as a result of fog interaction. Analysis of data from the Korean and Japan DRAGON campaigns shows that major fine-mode aerosol transport events are sometimes associated with extensive cloud cover and that cloud-screening of observations often filter out significant pollution aerosol transport events. The Spectral De-convolution Algorithm (SDA) algorithm was utilized to isolate and analyze the fine-mode aerosol optical depth signal for these cases of persistent and extensive cloud cover. Satellite retrievals of AOD from MODIS sensors were also investigated to assess the issue of detectability of high AOD events associated with high cloud fraction. AERONET is updating the cloud-screening algorithm applied to AOD data in the upcoming Version 3 database. Comparisons of cloud screening from Versions 2 and 3 of cases with high AOD associated with clouds will be studied. Additionally, extensive fog that was coincident with aerosol layer height on some days in both Korea and California resulted in large increases in fine mode aerosol radius, with a mode of cloud-processed or residual aerosol of radius ~0.4-0.5 micron sometimes observed. Cloud processed aerosol may occur much more frequently than AERONET

  14. Direct Measurements of Laser Communication Point-Ahead Angles from the Artemis Geostationary Satellite Through Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzkov, V.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser experiments with ARTEMIS geostationary satellite have been performed in partly cloudy weather using the developed system for the telescope. It has been found that the part of the laser beam is observed simultaneously at the points in direction of the velocity vector where the satellite would arrive at when the laser light reaches the telescope. These results agree with the theory of relativity for light aberration in transition from fixed to moving coordinate system. Observation results open the way for research and development of systems to compensate atmospheric turbulence in laser communications between ground stations and satellites through the atmosphere.

  15. Artificial intelligence techniques applied to hourly global irradiance estimation from satellite-derived cloud index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzalejo, L.F.; Ramirez, L.; Polo, J. [DER-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Renewable Energy Dept.

    2005-07-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic and neural networks, have been used for estimating hourly global radiation from satellite images. The models have been fitted to measured global irradiance data from 15 Spanish terrestrial stations. Both satellite imaging data and terrestrial information from the years 1994, 1995 and 1996 were used. The results of these artificial intelligence models were compared to a multivariate regression based upon Heliosat I model. A general better behaviour was observed for the artificial intelligence models. (author)

  16. Artificial intelligence techniques applied to hourly global irradiance estimation from satellite-derived cloud index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Ramirez, Lourdes; Polo, Jesus

    2005-01-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic and neural networks, have been used for estimating hourly global radiation from satellite images. The models have been fitted to measured global irradiance data from 15 Spanish terrestrial stations. Both satellite imaging data and terrestrial information from the years 1994, 1995 and 1996 were used. The results of these artificial intelligence models were compared to a multivariate regression based upon Heliosat I model. A general better behaviour was observed for the artificial intelligence models

  17. International law and regulation of aeronautical public correspondence by satellite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisibe, Tare

    2006-01-01

    This work covers the evolution of satellite based Aeronautical Public Correspondence and the operational environment in which services are being offered. Followed by an examination of applicable rules, including the relevant institutions from which they emanate, attention is devoted to questions on

  18. Global, Persistent, Real-time Multi-sensor Automated Satellite Image Analysis and Crop Forecasting in Commercial Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, S. P.; Warren, M. S.; Keisler, R.; Chartrand, R.; Skillman, S.; Franco, E.; Kontgis, C.; Moody, D.; Kelton, T.; Mathis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing, combined with recent advances in machine learning for computer vision, is enabling understanding of the world at a scale and at a level of space and time granularity never before feasible. Multi-decadal Earth remote sensing datasets at the petabyte scale (8×10^15 bits) are now available in commercial cloud, and new satellite constellations will generate daily global coverage at a few meters per pixel. Public and commercial satellite observations now provide a wide range of sensor modalities, from traditional visible/infrared to dual-polarity synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This provides the opportunity to build a continuously updated map of the world supporting the academic community and decision-makers in government, finanace and industry. We report on work demonstrating country-scale agricultural forecasting, and global-scale land cover/land, use mapping using a range of public and commercial satellite imagery. We describe processing over a petabyte of compressed raw data from 2.8 quadrillion pixels (2.8 petapixels) acquired by the US Landsat and MODIS programs over the past 40 years. Using commodity cloud computing resources, we convert the imagery to a calibrated, georeferenced, multiresolution tiled format suited for machine-learning analysis. We believe ours is the first application to process, in less than a day, on generally available resources, over a petabyte of scientific image data. We report on work combining this imagery with time-series SAR collected by ESA Sentinel 1. We report on work using this reprocessed dataset for experiments demonstrating country-scale food production monitoring, an indicator for famine early warning. We apply remote sensing science and machine learning algorithms to detect and classify agricultural crops and then estimate crop yields and detect threats to food security (e.g., flooding, drought). The software platform and analysis methodology also support monitoring water resources, forests and other general

  19. Cloud cover and UV index estimates in Chile from satellite-derived and ground-based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, A.; Cordero, R. R.; Cabrera, S.; Laurenza, M.; Rafanelli, C.

    2014-03-01

    Data of Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (LER) in ultraviolet (UV)-A range recorded by Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) series aboard Nimbus 7 and Earth Probe and by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura have been analyzed over eight Chilean locations spanning from about 18° to 62° S (i.e. including Profesor Julio Escudero station, Antarctic peninsula), covering years 1978-2011. Generally the distribution of the reflectivity is similar for both TOMS datasets. A slightly better agreement has been found for the most southern locations while a small discordance appears for northern locations. The latter could be partly due to actual differences in the cloud cover conditions. On the other hand, OMI LER data differ from TOMS ones in almost all locations. Daily cloud modification factor (CMF) values from ground-based global solar irradiance measurements have been compared with OMI LER-based CMF data. The northernmost and southernmost locations characterized by prevalent clear sky and winter snow conditions, respectively, showed the worse agreement with a correlation coefficient r = 0.63 and 0.71, while other stations showed a better correlation (i.e. r = 0.83 and r = 85). Clear sky ground UV index values for Santiago de Chile have been estimated for years 1979-2011 by means of an empirical reconstruction model based on data recorded by a multichannel radiometer. It allowed computing a ground-based CMF for years 1996-2011 and comparing it with satellite data. Results show that OMI CMF based on gridded cell LER data introduces significant differences with respect to equivalent TOMS CMF. On the contrary, the use of overpass LER data allows to evaluate changes in cloudiness and, by using the model, reconstructing the actual UV index. Nevertheless, LER CMF overestimates actual cloud cover conditions in winter. The trend in reconstructed satellite (ground) based UV index during summer months is + 3.3 ± 0.9% (+ 11.9 ± 2.5%)/decade for years 1979-2011 (1997

  20. Predicting decadal trends in cloud droplet number concentration using reanalysis and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Daniel T.; Bender, Frida A.-M.; Grosvenor, Daniel P.; Mohrmann, Johannes K.; Hartmann, Dennis L.; Wood, Robert; Field, Paul R.

    2018-02-01

    Cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) is the key state variable that moderates the relationship between aerosol and the radiative forcing arising from aerosol-cloud interactions. Uncertainty related to the effect of anthropogenic aerosol on cloud properties represents the largest uncertainty in total anthropogenic radiative forcing. Here we show that regionally averaged time series of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed CDNC of low, liquid-topped clouds is well predicted by the MERRA2 reanalysis near-surface sulfate mass concentration over decadal timescales. A multiple linear regression between MERRA2 reanalyses masses of sulfate (SO4), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), sea salt (SS), and dust (DU) shows that CDNC across many different regimes can be reproduced by a simple power-law fit to near-surface SO4, with smaller contributions from BC, OC, SS, and DU. This confirms previous work using a less sophisticated retrieval of CDNC on monthly timescales. The analysis is supported by an examination of remotely sensed sulfur dioxide (SO2) over maritime volcanoes and the east coasts of North America and Asia, revealing that maritime CDNC responds to changes in SO2 as observed by the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI). This investigation of aerosol reanalysis and top-down remote-sensing observations reveals that emission controls in Asia and North America have decreased CDNC in their maritime outflow on a decadal timescale.

  1. Analysis of the Interaction and Transport of Aerosols with Cloud or Fog in East Asia from AERONET and Satellite Remote Sensing: 2012 DRAGON Campaigns and Climatological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Lynch, P.; Schafer, J.; Giles, D. M.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sano, I.; Arola, A. T.; Munchak, L. A.; O'Neill, N. T.; Lyapustin, A.; Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Govindaraju, R.; Hyer, E. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Crawford, J. H.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based remote sensing observations from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-sky radiometers have recently shown several instances where cloud-aerosol interaction had resulted in modification of aerosol properties and/or in difficulty identifying some major pollution transport events due to aerosols being imbedded in cloud systems. Major Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) field campaigns involving multiple AERONET sites in Japan and South Korea during Spring of 2012 have yielded observations of aerosol transport associated with clouds and/or aerosol properties modification as a result of fog interaction. Analysis of data from the Korean and Japan DRAGON campaigns shows that major fine-mode aerosol transport events are sometimes associated with extensive cloud cover and that cloud-screening of observations often filter out significant pollution aerosol transport events. The Spectral De-convolution Algorithm (SDA) algorithm was utilized to isolate and analyze the fine-mode aerosol optical depth (AODf) signal from AERONET data for these cases of persistent and extensive cloud cover. Satellite retrievals of AOD from MODIS sensors (from Dark Target, Deep Blue and MAIAC algorithms) were also investigated to assess the issue of detectability of high AOD events associated with high cloud fraction. Underestimation of fine mode AOD by the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) and by the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis For Research And Applications Aerosol Re-analysis (MERRAaero) models at very high AOD at sites in China and Korea was observed, especially for observations that are cloud screened by AERONET (Level 2 data). Additionally, multi-year monitoring at several AERONET sites are examined for climatological statistics of cloud screening of fine mode aerosol events. Aerosol that has been affected by clouds or the near-cloud environment may be more prevalent than AERONET data suggest due to inherent difficulty in

  2. Impact of spatial resolution on cirrus infrared satellite retrievals in the presence of cloud heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchez, T.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Zhang, Z.; Cornet, C.; Szczap, F.; Dubuisson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cirrus clouds are an important part of the Earth radiation budget but an accurate assessment of their role remains highly uncertain. Cirrus optical properties such as Cloud Optical Thickness (COT) and ice crystal effective particle size are often retrieved with a combination of Visible/Near InfraRed (VNIR) and ShortWave-InfraRed (SWIR) reflectance channels. Alternatively, Thermal InfraRed (TIR) techniques, such as the Split Window Technique (SWT), have demonstrated better accuracy for thin cirrus effective radius retrievals with small effective radii. However, current global operational algorithms for both retrieval methods assume that cloudy pixels are horizontally homogeneous (Plane Parallel Approximation (PPA)) and independent (Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA)). The impact of these approximations on ice cloud retrievals needs to be understood and, as far as possible, corrected. Horizontal heterogeneity effects in the TIR spectrum are mainly dominated by the PPA bias that primarily depends on the COT subpixel heterogeneity; for solar reflectance channels, in addition to the PPA bias, the IPA can lead to significant retrieval errors due to a significant photon horizontal transport between cloudy columns, as well as brightening and shadowing effects that are more difficult to quantify. Furthermore TIR retrievals techniques have demonstrated better retrieval accuracy for thin cirrus having small effective radii over solar reflectance techniques. The TIR range is thus particularly relevant in order to characterize, as accurately as possible, thin cirrus clouds. Heterogeneity effects in the TIR are evaluated as a function of spatial resolution in order to estimate the optimal spatial resolution for TIR retrieval applications. These investigations are performed using a cirrus 3D cloud generator (3DCloud), a 3D radiative transfer code (3DMCPOL), and two retrieval algorithms, namely the operational MODIS retrieval algorithm (MOD06) and a research-level SWT algorithm.

  3. 11th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Barolli, Leonard; Amato, Flora

    2017-01-01

    P2P, Grid, Cloud and Internet computing technologies have been very fast established as breakthrough paradigms for solving complex problems by enabling aggregation and sharing of an increasing variety of distributed computational resources at large scale. The aim of this volume is to provide latest research findings, innovative research results, methods and development techniques from both theoretical and practical perspectives related to P2P, Grid, Cloud and Internet computing as well as to reveal synergies among such large scale computing paradigms. This proceedings volume presents the results of the 11th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud And Internet Computing (3PGCIC-2016), held November 5-7, 2016, at Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Korea.

  4. From BASE-ASIA Toward 7-SEAS: A Satellite-Surface Perspective of Boreal Spring Biomass-Burning Aerosols and Clouds in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Lau, William K.-M.; Li, Can; Gabriel, Philip M.; Ji, Qiang; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, E. Judd; Nguyen, Anh X.; Janjai, Serm; hide

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent field studies conducted by NASA's SMART-COMMIT (and ACHIEVE, to be operated in 2013) mobile laboratories, jointly with distributed ground-based networks (e.g., AERONET, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/ and MPLNET, http://mplnet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and other contributing instruments over northern Southeast Asia. These three mobile laboratories, collectively called SMARTLabs (cf. http://smartlabs.gsfc.nasa.gov/, Surface-based Mobile Atmospheric Research & Testbed Laboratories) comprise a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that are pivotal in providing high spectral and temporal measurements, complementing the collocated spatial observations from various Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. A satellite-surface perspective and scientific findings, drawn from the BASE-ASIA (2006) field deployment as well as a series of ongoing 7-SEAS (2010-13) field activities over northern Southeast Asia are summarized, concerning (i) regional properties of aerosols from satellite and in situ measurements, (ii) cloud properties from remote sensing and surface observations, (iii) vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds, and (iv) regional aerosol radiative effects and impact assessment. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning, exhibits highly consistent spatial and temporal distribution patterns, with major variability arising from changes in the magnitude of the aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from the source regions, the tightly coupled-aerosolecloud system provides a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring the micro- and macro-scale relationships of the complex interactions. The climatic significance is presented through large-scale anti-correlations between aerosol and precipitation anomalies, showing spatial and seasonal variability, but their precise cause-and-effect relationships

  5. Estimating errors in fractional cloud cover obtained with infrared threshold methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Coakley, J.A. Jr. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

    1993-05-20

    The authors address the question of detecting cloud coverage from satellite imagery. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), and NIMBUS-7 have constructed cloud climatologies, but they differ substantially in the global mean cloud cover. Here the authors address problems in the application of threshold methods to the infrared detection of cloud cover. They look in particular at single-layered cloud cover, and compare the threshold IR detection method with a spatial coherence method. One of the problems is that the pixel size of satellite imagery, namely 4-8km on a side is not particularly small compared to cloud features, or even breaks in cloud cover, and there can be severe error in estimating cloud cover because of this difficulty.

  6. Evaluating Satellite Retrievals of Smoke Aerosol above Clouds using Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements during ORACLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Vaughan, M.; Hu, Y.; Fenn, M. A.; Clayton, M.; Scarino, A. J.; Jethva, H. T.; Sayer, A. M.; Meyer, K.; Torres, O.; Josset, D. B.; Redemann, J.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) provided extensive measurements of smoke above shallow marine clouds while deployed from the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the NASA EV-S Observations of Aerosols above Clouds and their Interactions (ORACLES) mission. During the first ORACLES field campaign in September 2016, the ER-2 was deployed from Walvis Bay, Namibia and conducted flights over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. HSRL-2 measured profiles of aerosol backscattering, extinction and aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 355 and 532 nm and aerosol backscattering and depolarization at 1064 nm and so provided an excellent characterization of the widespread smoke layers above shallow marine clouds. OMI, MODIS, and CALIOP satellite retrievals of above cloud AOD (ACAOD) are compared to the HSRL-2 measurements. The OMI above-cloud aerosols data product (OMACA) ACAOD product relies on the spectral contrast produced by aerosol absorption in two near-UV measurements (354 and 388 nm) to derive ACAOD. Two MODIS ACAOD products are examined; the first ("multichannel') relies on the spectral contrast in aerosol absorption derived from reflectance measurements at six MODIS channels from the visible to the shortwave infrared (swIR). The second method is an extension of the "Deep Blue" method and differs from the multichannel method in that it does not use swIR channels. The CALIOP V4 operational and "depolarization ratio (DR)" methods of retrieving ACAOD are also examined. The MODIS and OMI ACAOD values were well correlated (r2>0.6) with the HSRL-2 ACAOD values; bias differences were generally less than about 0.1 at 532 nm (10-30%). The CALIOP operational retrievals missed a significant amount of aerosol and so were biased low by 50-75% compared to HSRL-2. In contrast, the CALIOP DR method produced ACAOD values in excellent agreement (bias differences less than 0.03 (5%)) with HSRL-2. Aerosol extinction profiles computed for the smoke layer using

  7. Unveiling aerosol-cloud interactions - Part 2: Minimising the effects of aerosol swelling and wet scavenging in ECHAM6-HAM2 for comparison to satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, David; Christensen, Matthew W.; Poulsen, Caroline A.; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2017-11-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACIs) are uncertain and the estimates of the ACI effective radiative forcing (ERFaci) magnitude show a large variability. Within the Aerosol_cci project the susceptibility of cloud properties to changes in aerosol properties is derived from the high-resolution AATSR (Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) data set using the Cloud-Aerosol Pairing Algorithm (CAPA) (as described in our companion paper) and compared to susceptibilities from the global aerosol climate model ECHAM6-HAM2 and MODIS-CERES (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) data. For ECHAM6-HAM2 the dry aerosol is analysed to mimic the effect of CAPA. Furthermore the analysis is done for different environmental regimes. The aerosol-liquid water path relationship in ECHAM6-HAM2 is systematically stronger than in AATSR-CAPA data and cannot be explained by an overestimation of autoconversion when using diagnostic precipitation but rather by aerosol swelling in regions where humidity is high and clouds are present. When aerosol water is removed from the analysis in ECHAM6-HAM2 the strength of the susceptibilities of liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentration and cloud albedo as well as ERFaci agree much better with those of AATSR-CAPA or MODIS-CERES. When comparing satellite-derived to model-derived susceptibilities, this study finds it more appropriate to use dry aerosol in the computation of model susceptibilities. We further find that the statistical relationships inferred from different satellite sensors (AATSR-CAPA vs. MODIS-CERES) as well as from ECHAM6-HAM2 are not always of the same sign for the tested environmental conditions. In particular the susceptibility of the liquid water path is negative in non-raining scenes for MODIS-CERES but positive for AATSR-CAPA and ECHAM6-HAM2. Feedback processes like cloud-top entrainment that are missing or not well represented in the model are therefore not well

  8. Homogenizing Surface and Satellite Observations of Cloud. Aspects of Bias in Surface Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-10

    configuration, as well as the experience, location and procedure adopted by the observer. Where the clouds exhibit vertical development the observer includes the...Australasia which was thus removed from the list of analysis areas. 2.4 Discuuios of Ressite Figures 3 to 6 illustrate diurnal plots of the frequency of...a small group of stations may be expected to exhibit more marked variability compaed to the mean result for a larger number of stations. Figure 7 to

  9. Snow Grain Size Retrieval over the Polar Ice Sheets with the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Han, Mei; Palm, Stephen P.; Harding, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Snow grain size is an important parameter for cryosphere studies. As a proof of concept, this paper presents an approach to retrieve this parameter over Greenland, East and West Antarctica ice sheets from surface reflectances observed with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) at 1064 nanometers. Spaceborne lidar observations overcome many of the disadvantages in passive remote sensing, including difficulties in cloud screening and low sun angle limitations; hence tend to provide more accurate and stable retrievals. Results from the GLAS L2A campaign, which began on 25 September and lasted until 19 November, 2003, show that the mode of the grain size distribution over Greenland is the largest (approximately 300 microns) among the three, West Antarctica is the second (220 microns) and East Antarctica is the smallest (190 microns). Snow grain sizes are larger over the coastal regions compared to inland the ice sheets. These results are consistent with previous studies. Applying the broadband snow surface albedo parameterization scheme developed by Garder and Sharp (2010) to the retrieved snow grain size, ice sheet surface albedo is also derived. In the future, more accurate retrievals can be achieved with multiple wavelengths lidar observations.

  10. Promoting competition between international telecommunication cables and satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwerel, E. R.; McNally, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence that the services of international telecommunication facilities have not been provided in the most economically efficient way is presented. Distorted investment decisions may be the result of the Commission's policies of allocating traffic among international facilities and applying rate-of-return regulation to international businesses. Alternative policies that rely on restructuring private incentives rather than increasing the Commission's direct involvement in facility planning are suggested.

  11. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2: Locating clouds tops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    A comparison is made of the vertical distribution of high-level cloud tops derived from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements and from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for all Julys and Januarys in 1985 to 1990. The results suggest that ISCCP overestimates the pressure of high-level clouds by up to 50-150 mbar, particularly at low latitudes. This is caused by the frequent presence of clouds with diffuse tops (greater than 50% time when cloudy events are observed). The averaged vertical extent of the diffuse top is about 1.5 km. At midlatitudes where the SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressure agree best, clouds with distinct tops reach a maximum relative proportion of the total level cloud amount (about 30-40%), and diffuse-topped clouds are reduced to their minimum (30-40%). The ISCCP-defined cloud top pressure should be regarded not as the material physical height of the clouds but as the level which emits the same infrared radiance as observed. SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressures agree for clouds with distinct tops. There is also an indication that the cloud top pressures of optically thin clouds not overlying thicker clouds are poorly estimated by ISCCP at middle latitudes. The average vertical extent of these thin clouds is about 2.5 km.

  12. Unveiling aerosol–cloud interactions – Part 2: Minimising the effects of aerosol swelling and wet scavenging in ECHAM6-HAM2 for comparison to satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neubauer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs are uncertain and the estimates of the ACI effective radiative forcing (ERFaci magnitude show a large variability. Within the Aerosol_cci project the susceptibility of cloud properties to changes in aerosol properties is derived from the high-resolution AATSR (Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer data set using the Cloud–Aerosol Pairing Algorithm (CAPA (as described in our companion paper and compared to susceptibilities from the global aerosol climate model ECHAM6-HAM2 and MODIS–CERES (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer – Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System data. For ECHAM6-HAM2 the dry aerosol is analysed to mimic the effect of CAPA. Furthermore the analysis is done for different environmental regimes. The aerosol–liquid water path relationship in ECHAM6-HAM2 is systematically stronger than in AATSR–CAPA data and cannot be explained by an overestimation of autoconversion when using diagnostic precipitation but rather by aerosol swelling in regions where humidity is high and clouds are present. When aerosol water is removed from the analysis in ECHAM6-HAM2 the strength of the susceptibilities of liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentration and cloud albedo as well as ERFaci agree much better with those of AATSR–CAPA or MODIS–CERES. When comparing satellite-derived to model-derived susceptibilities, this study finds it more appropriate to use dry aerosol in the computation of model susceptibilities. We further find that the statistical relationships inferred from different satellite sensors (AATSR–CAPA vs. MODIS–CERES as well as from ECHAM6-HAM2 are not always of the same sign for the tested environmental conditions. In particular the susceptibility of the liquid water path is negative in non-raining scenes for MODIS–CERES but positive for AATSR–CAPA and ECHAM6-HAM2. Feedback processes like cloud-top entrainment that are missing or not well represented

  13. Analysis on BDS Satellite Internal Multipath and Its Impact on Wide-lane FCB Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUAN Rengui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To the issue of the satellite internal multipath (SIMP of BeiDou satellites, it proposed and emphasized that the SIMP model should be established as a function of the nadir angle with respect to the observed satellite rather than the elevation of the measurement, so that it can be used for receivers at various altitude. BDS data from global distributed stations operated by the International Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS and the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX of the International GNSS Service (IGS are collected and a new SIMP model as a piece-wise linear function of the nadir angle is released for the IGSO-and MEO-satellite groups and for B1, B2 and B3 frequency band individually. The SIMP of GEO,IGSO and MEO satellites is further analyzed with B1/B2 dual-frequency data onboard the FengYun-3 C(FY3C satellite at an altitude of~830 km, and it showed that, for nadir angles smaller than 7°, the SIMP values for GEO is quite close to the IGSO's, especially for B2, which may suggest that the SIMP model for IGSO satellites possibly also works for GEO satellites. It also demonstrated that, when the nadir angle is smaller than 12°for the MEO and 7°for the IGSO, the estimated SIMP model with data from FY3C is considerable consistent with that estimated with data collected at ground stations. Experiments are carried out to investigate the impacts of the SIMP on wide-lane fractional cycle bias (FCB estimation for BDS satellites. The result indicates that, with the correction of the estimated SIMP, the repeatability of the FCB series is significantly improved by more than 60% for all satellites. Specifically, for the MEO and IGSO satellites, the repeatability is smaller than 0.05 cycle; the repeatability of 0.023 and 0.068 cycles achieved for GEO satellites C01 and C02 respectively with the estimated SIMP model for IGSO satellites.

  14. Satellite-observed cold-ring-shaped features atop deep convective clouds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Setvák, M.; Lindsey, D. T.; Novák, P.; Wang, P. K.; Radová, Michaela; Kerkmann, J.; Grasso, L.; Su, S.-H.; Rabin, R. M.; Šťástka, J.; Charvát, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, 1-2 (2010), s. 80-96 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0905; GA MŠk ME09033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : convective storm * storm top * cloud top height * cold-ring shape * cold-U shape * enhanced-V feature * overshooting top * lower stratosphere * Meteosat second generation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016980951000058X

  15. Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) International Directory Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CEOS IDN is an international effort developed to assist researchers in locating information on available datasets and services. The directory is sponsored as a...

  16. Automatic Cloud and Shadow Detection in Optical Satellite Imagery Without Using Thermal Bands—Application to Suomi NPP VIIRS Images over Fennoscandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Parmes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In land monitoring applications, clouds and shadows are considered noise that should be removed as automatically and quickly as possible, before further analysis. This paper presents a method to detect clouds and shadows in Suomi NPP satellite’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite satellite images. The proposed cloud and shadow detection method has two distinct features when compared to many other methods. First, the method does not use the thermal bands and can thus be applied to other sensors which do not contain thermal channels, such as Sentinel-2 data. Secondly, the method uses the ratio between blue and green reflectance to detect shadows. Seven hundred and forty-seven VIIRS images over Fennoscandia from August 2014 to April 2016 were processed to train and develop the method. Twenty four points from every tenth of the images were used in accuracy assessment. These 1752 points were interpreted visually to cloud, cloud shadow and clear classes, then compared to the output of the cloud and shadow detection. The comparison on VIIRS images showed 94.2% correct detection rates and 11.1% false alarms for clouds, and respectively 36.1% and 82.7% for shadows. The results on cloud detection were similar to state-of-the-art methods. Shadows showed correctly on the northern edge of the clouds, but many shadows were wrongly assigned to other classes in some cases (e.g., to water class on lake and forest boundary, or with shadows over cloud. This may be due to the low spatial resolution of VIIRS images, where shadows are only a few pixels wide and contain lots of mixed pixels.

  17. International two-way satellite time transfers using INTELSAT space segment and small Earth stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Lester B.

    1990-05-01

    The satellite operated by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) provides new and unique capabilities for the coordinates of international time scales on a world wide basis using the two-way technique. A network of coordinated clocks using small earth stations collocated with the scales is possible. Antennas as small as 1.8 m at K-band and 3 m at C-band transmitting powers of less than 1 W will provide signals with time jitters of less than 1 ns existing spread spectrum modems. One way time broadcasting is also possible, under the INTELSAT INTELNET system, possibly using existing international data distribution (press and financial) systems that are already operating spread spectrum systems. The technical details of the satellite and requirements on satellite earth stations are given. The resources required for a regular operational international time transfer service are analyzed with respect to the existing international digital service offerings of the INTELSAT Business Service (IBS) and INTELNET. Coverage areas, typical link budgets, and a summary of previous domestic and international work using this technique are provided. Administrative procedures for gaining access to the space segment are outlined. Contact information for local INTELSAT signatories is listed.

  18. Global energy transports and the influence of clouds on transport requirements - A satellite analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    This report investigates the impact of differential net radiative heating on 2D energy transports within the atmosphere ocean system and the role of clouds on this process. The 2D mean energy transports, in answer to zonal and meridional gradients in the net radiation field, show an east-west coupled dipole structure in which the Pacific acts as the major energy source and North Africa as the major energy sink. It is demonstrated that the dipole is embedded in the secondary energy transports arising mainly from the differential heating between land and oceans in the tropics in which the tropical east-west (zonal) transports are up to 30 percent of the tropical north-south (meridional) transports.

  19. The Use of Remote Sensing Satellites for Verification in International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettling, J. K.

    The contribution is a very sensitive topic which is currently about to gain significance and importance in the international community. It implies questions of international law as well as the contemplation of new developments and decisions in international politics. The paper will begin with the meaning and current status of verification in international law as well as the legal basis of satellite remote sensing in international treaties and resolutions. For the verification part, this implies giving a definition of verification and naming its fields of application and the different means of verification. For the remote sensing part, it involves the identification of relevant provisions in the Outer Space Treaty and the United Nations General Assembly Principles on Remote Sensing. Furthermore it shall be looked at practical examples: in how far have remote sensing satellites been used to verify international obligations? Are there treaties which would considerably profit from the use of remote sensing satellites? In this respect, there are various examples which can be contemplated, such as the ABM Treaty (even though out of force now), the SALT and START Agreements, the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Conventional Test Ban Treaty. It will be mentioned also that NGOs have started to verify international conventions, e.g. Landmine Monitor is verifying the Mine-Ban Convention. Apart from verifying arms control and disarmament treaties, satellites can also strengthen the negotiation of peace agreements (such as the Dayton Peace Talks) and the prevention of international conflicts from arising. Verification has played an increasingly prominent role in high-profile UN operations. Verification and monitoring can be applied to the whole range of elements that constitute a peace implementation process, ranging from the military aspects through electoral monitoring and human rights monitoring, from negotiating an accord to finally monitoring it. Last but not least the

  20. The significance of cloud-radiative forcing to the general circulation on climate time scales - A satellite interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of cloud- and surface-atmosphere forcing on the net radiation balance and their potential impact on the general circulation at climate time scales. The globally averaged cloud-forcing estimates and cloud sensitivity values taken from various recent studies are summarized. It is shown that the net radiative heating over the tropics is principally due to high clouds, while the net cooling in mid- and high latitudes is dominated by low and middle clouds.

  1. Paving the Way for Small Satellite Access to Orbit: Cyclops' Deployment of SpinSat, the Largest Satellite Ever Deployed from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Matthew P.; Newswander, Daniel R.; Smith, James P.; Lamb, Craig R.; Ballard, Perry G.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital Payload Systems (SSIKLOPS), known as "Cyclops" to the International Space Station (ISS) community, successfully deployed the largest satellite ever (SpinSat) from the ISS on November 28, 2014. Cyclops, a collaboration between the NASA ISS Program, NASA Johnson Space Center Engineering, and Department of Defense Space Test Program (DoD STP) communities, is a dedicated 10-100 kg class ISS small satellite deployment system. This paper will showcase the successful deployment of SpinSat from the ISS. It will also outline the concept of operations, interfaces, requirements, and processes for satellites to utilize the Cyclops satellite deployment system.

  2. Celebrate with SATELLITES: An International Polar Year Partnership to Study Earth's Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Mikell Lynne; Czajkowski, Kevin; Struble, Janet; Benko, Terri; Shellito, Brad; Sheridan, Scott; Stasiuk, Mandy Munroe

    2009-01-01

    The SATELLITES program uses geospatial technologies to study surface temperatures of Earth's materials, such as sand, soil, grass, and water. Data are collected using Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) protocols, which are then used in research projects that are a part of the International Polar Year (IPY).…

  3. 77 FR 42419 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Global Navigation Satellite Sensor Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... investigation of a software problem that occurred during flight test trials of SBAS-capable aircraft using a... prompted by a report and follow-up investigation of a software problem that occurred during flight test... Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Global Navigation Satellite Sensor Units AGENCY: Federal...

  4. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF USING CLOUD SERVICES FOR THE INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL SUPPORT OF THE ORGANIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign experience of using cloud services for the information-analytical support of the organization of international cooperation of universities is presented in the article. The best practices of using cloud services like new analytical tools and platforms for solving complex problems of optimization of the management of scientific and international activities of universities are analyzed. Architecture of the cloud computing environment as a system is analysed; it consists of 4 blocks: hardware; infrastructure; platforms and applications and cloud taxonomy for the organization of the scientific, academic and international activities of the University support, as well as taxonomy of the main cloud technologies to support the University's academic and international activities. The activities of the leading universities of the world for 2016-2017 are monitored and the expert results of Quacquarelli Symonds specialists’ are presented according to the World University Ratings. The evaluation was carried out based on more than 50 different indicators, such as: academic reputation; employer's reputation; faculty / student rate; reference (quotation about the faculty; international correlation of faculties; international student rate; assessment of the quality of researches of scientists and determination of productivity of the university; number of quotes; graduate university rewards; assessment of teaching quality; employment opportunity; Internationalization, which includes statistical indicators for the number of foreign students styding at University; number of exchange students; number of international partnership Agreements with other universities; accessibility; the possibility of distance learning; social responsibility; innovation; art and culture; inclusiveness, etc.

  5. Using Satellite Observations to Evaluate the AeroCOM Volcanic Emissions Inventory and the Dispersal of Volcanic SO2 Clouds in MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Eric J.; Krotkov, Nickolay; da Silva, Arlindo; Colarco, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of volcanic emissions in climate models requires information that describes the eruption of the emissions into the atmosphere. While the total amount of gases and aerosols released from a volcanic eruption can be readily estimated from satellite observations, information about the source parameters, like injection altitude, eruption time and duration, is often not directly known. The AeroCOM volcanic emissions inventory provides estimates of eruption source parameters and has been used to initialize volcanic emissions in reanalysis projects, like MERRA. The AeroCOM volcanic emission inventory provides an eruptions daily SO2 flux and plume top altitude, yet an eruption can be very short lived, lasting only a few hours, and emit clouds at multiple altitudes. Case studies comparing the satellite observed dispersal of volcanic SO2 clouds to simulations in MERRA have shown mixed results. Some cases show good agreement with observations Okmok (2008), while for other eruptions the observed initial SO2 mass is half of that in the simulations, Sierra Negra (2005). In other cases, the initial SO2 amount agrees with the observations but shows very different dispersal rates, Soufriere Hills (2006). In the aviation hazards community, deriving accurate source terms is crucial for monitoring and short-term forecasting (24-h) of volcanic clouds. Back trajectory methods have been developed which use satellite observations and transport models to estimate the injection altitude, eruption time, and eruption duration of observed volcanic clouds. These methods can provide eruption timing estimates on a 2-hour temporal resolution and estimate the altitude and depth of a volcanic cloud. To better understand the differences between MERRA simulations and volcanic SO2 observations, back trajectory methods are used to estimate the source term parameters for a few volcanic eruptions and compared to their corresponding entry in the AeroCOM volcanic emission inventory. The nature of

  6. Comparing Two Independent Satellite-Based Algorithms for Detecting and Tracking Ash Clouds by Using SEVIRI Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconieri, Alfredo; Cooke, Michael C; Filizzola, Carolina; Marchese, Francesco; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2018-01-27

    The Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) volcanic eruption of April-May 2010 caused unprecedented air-traffic disruption in Northern Europe, revealing some important weaknesses of current operational ash-monitoring and forecasting systems and encouraging the improvement of methods and procedures for supporting the activities of Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) better. In this work, we compare two established satellite-based algorithms for ash detection, namely RST ASH and the operational London VAAC method, both exploiting sensor data of the spinning enhanced visible and infrared imager (SEVIRI). We analyze similarities and differences in the identification of ash clouds during the different phases of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The work reveals, in some cases, a certain complementary behavior of the two techniques, whose combination might improve the identification of ash-affected areas in specific conditions. This is indicated by the quantitative comparison of the merged SEVIRI ash product, achieved integrating outputs of the RST ASH and London VAAC methods, with independent atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) DDA (dust-detection algorithm) observations.

  7. NASA Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 Applications - Advancing Dialogue for More Effective Decisions and Societal benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Arias, S.; Brown, M. E.; Escobar, V. M.; Jasinski, M. F.; Neumann, T.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2012, the NASA Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Applications Program has worked to understand how future mission observations can be effectively used to inform operational sea ice forecasting for Arctic shipping, global flood risk monitoring, fire fuel mapping, and other applications. The ICESat-2 Applications Program has implemented various engagement and outreach activities, as well as an Early Adopter program, to facilitate dialogue between potential users, project scientists, science definition team members, NASA Headquarters and the mission's data distribution center. This dialogue clarifies how ICESat-2's science data can be integrated, improved or leveraged to advance science objectives aligned with or beyond those of the mission, and in support of a range of decisions and actions of benefit to communities across the globe. In this presentation, we will present an overview of the Program initiatives and highlight the research-to-applications chains that mission Early Adopters are helping build for ICESat-2. With a total of 19 Early Adopters and more than 400 people engaged as part of the applications community, ICESat-2 has positioned itself to ensure applications where its observations are used to meet the needs of decision makers, policy makers and managers at different scales. For more information visit: http://icesat-2.gsfc.nasa.gov/applications

  8. Comparing Airborne and Satellite Retrievals of Optical and Microphysical Properties of Cirrus and Deep Convective Clouds using a Radiance Ratio Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Krisna, Trismono C.; Wendisch, Manfred; Ehrlich, André; Jäkel, Evelyn; Werner, Frank; Weigel, Ralf; Borrmann, Stephan; Mahnke, Christoph; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Voigt, Christiane; Machado, Luiz A. T.

    2017-01-01

    Solar radiation reflected by cirrus and deep convective clouds (DCCs) was measured by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation Measurement System (SMART) installed on the German HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft) during the ML-CIRRUS and the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaigns. In particular flights, HALO performed closely collocated measurements with overpasses of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board of Aqua satellite. Based on the nadir upward radian...

  9. Processes limiting the emergence of detectable aerosol indirect effects on tropical warm clouds in global aerosol-climate model and satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Peters

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We use data from simulations performed with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM to test the proposition that shipping emissions do not have a statistically significant effect on water clouds over tropical oceans on climate scales put forward in earlier satellite based work. We analyse a total of four sensitivity experiments, three of which employ global shipping emissions and one simulation which only employs shipping emissions in the mid-Atlantic Ocean. To ensure comparability to earlier results from observations, we sample the model data using a method previously applied to satellite data aimed at separating ‘clean’ from ‘polluted’ oceanic regions based on i the location of main shipping routes and ii wind direction at 10 m above sea level. The model simulations run with realistic present-day shipping emissions show changes in the lower tropospheric aerosol population attributable to shipping emissions across major shipping corridors over tropical oceans. However, we find the resulting effect on cloud properties to be non-distinguishable from natural gradients and variability, that is, gradients of cloud properties sampled across major shipping corridors over tropical oceans are very similar among those simulations. Our results therefore compare well to the earlier findings from satellite observations. Substantial changes of the aerosol population and cloud properties only occur when shipping emissions are increased 10-fold. We find that aerosol advection and rapid aerosol removal from the atmosphere play an important role in determining the non-significant response in i column integrated aerosol properties and ii cloud microphysical properties in the realistic simulations. Additionally, high variability and infrequent occurrence of simulated low-level clouds over tropical oceans in ECHAM5-HAM limit the development of aerosol indirect effects because i in-cloud production of sulphate from ship-emitted sulphuric species via

  10. Influence of the Arctic Oscillation on the vertical distribution of clouds as observed by the A-Train constellation of satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devasthale

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the Arctic Oscillation (AO, the dominant mode of natural variability over the northerly high latitudes, on the spatial (horizontal and vertical distribution of clouds in the Arctic. To that end, we use a suite of sensors onboard NASA's A-Train satellites that provide accurate observations of the distribution of clouds along with information on atmospheric thermodynamics. Data from three independent sensors are used (AQUA-AIRS, CALIOP-CALIPSO and CPR-CloudSat covering two time periods (winter half years, November through March, of 2002–2011 and 2006–2011, respectively along with data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis.

    We show that the zonal vertical distribution of cloud fraction anomalies averaged over 67–82° N to a first approximation follows a dipole structure (referred to as "Greenland cloud dipole anomaly", GCDA, such that during the positive phase of the AO, positive and negative cloud anomalies are observed eastwards and westward of Greenland respectively, while the opposite is true for the negative phase of AO. By investigating the concurrent meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity and winds, we show that differences in the meridional energy and moisture transport during the positive and negative phases of the AO and the associated thermodynamics are responsible for the conditions that are conducive for the formation of this dipole structure. All three satellite sensors broadly observe this large-scale GCDA despite differences in their sensitivities, spatio-temporal and vertical resolutions, and the available lengths of data records, indicating the robustness of the results. The present study also provides a compelling case to carry out process-based evaluation of global and regional climate models.

  11. Analysis of aerosol effects on warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta from multi-sensor satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqin; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhou, Putian; Nie, Wei; Qi, Ximeng; Hong, Juan; Wang, Yonghong; Ding, Aijun; Guo, Huadong; Krüger, Olaf; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka

    2017-05-01

    Aerosol effects on low warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, eastern China) are examined using co-located MODIS, CALIOP and CloudSat observations. By taking the vertical locations of aerosol and cloud layers into account, we use simultaneously observed aerosol and cloud data to investigate relationships between cloud properties and the amount of aerosol particles (using aerosol optical depth, AOD, as a proxy). Also, we investigate the impact of aerosol types on the variation of cloud properties with AOD. Finally, we explore how meteorological conditions affect these relationships using ERA-Interim reanalysis data. This study shows that the relation between cloud properties and AOD depends on the aerosol abundance, with a different behaviour for low and high AOD (i.e. AOD 0.35). This applies to cloud droplet effective radius (CDR) and cloud fraction (CF), but not to cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud top pressure (CTP). COT is found to decrease when AOD increases, which may be due to radiative effects and retrieval artefacts caused by absorbing aerosol. Conversely, CTP tends to increase with elevated AOD, indicating that the aerosol is not always prone to expand the vertical extension. It also shows that the COT-CDR and CWP (cloud liquid water path)-CDR relationships are not unique, but affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. Furthermore, separation of cases with either polluted dust or smoke aerosol shows that aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust, which is ascribed to the higher absorption efficiency of smoke than dust. The variation of cloud properties with AOD is analysed for various relative humidity and boundary layer thermodynamic and dynamic conditions, showing that high relative humidity favours larger cloud droplet particles and increases cloud formation, irrespective of vertical or horizontal level. Stable atmospheric conditions enhance cloud cover horizontally

  12. Dust aerosol impact on North Africa climate: a GCM investigation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions using A-Train satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa have been investigated using the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM developed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA. The model includes an efficient and physically based radiation parameterization scheme developed specifically for application to clouds and aerosols. Parameterization of the effective ice particle size in association with the aerosol first indirect effect based on ice cloud and aerosol data retrieved from A-Train satellite observations have been employed in climate model simulations. Offline simulations reveal that the direct solar, IR, and net forcings by dust aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA generally increase with increasing aerosol optical depth. When the dust semi-direct effect is included with the presence of ice clouds, positive IR radiative forcing is enhanced since ice clouds trap substantial IR radiation, while the positive solar forcing with dust aerosols alone has been changed to negative values due to the strong reflection of solar radiation by clouds, indicating that cloud forcing associated with aerosol semi-direct effect could exceed direct aerosol forcing. With the aerosol first indirect effect, the net cloud forcing is generally reduced in the case for an ice water path (IWP larger than 20 g m−2. The magnitude of the reduction increases with IWP.

    AGCM simulations show that the reduced ice crystal mean effective size due to the aerosol first indirect effect results in less OLR and net solar flux at TOA over the cloudy area of the North Africa region because ice clouds with smaller size trap more IR radiation and reflect more solar radiation. The precipitation in the same area, however, increases due to the aerosol indirect effect on ice clouds, corresponding to the enhanced convection as indicated by reduced OLR. Adding the aerosol direct effect into the model simulation reduces the precipitation in the

  13. Cloud Properties Observed From the Surface and by Satellite at the Northern Edge of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, S. P.; Protat, A.

    2018-01-01

    A Raman depolarization lidar was deployed at Cape Grim, Australia (40.7°S, 144.7°E), at the northern edge of the Southern Ocean from July 2013 to February 2014 from which we determine cloud boundaries, cloud phase, ice virga, and cloud effective top heights. We compare surface-based lidar with results from the raDAR/liDAR (DARDAR) data set within 1,000 km of Cape Grim. DARDAR combines information from the CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instruments. We extract single-layer clouds that are sufficiently thin for signal to be present on the farside of the cloud and which have a liquid cloud top phase. These conditions maximize the likelihood that both surface-based lidar and DARDAR are observing the full vertical extent of the same clouds. Differences in low-level cloud occurrence frequencies for these single-layer clouds reveal that DARDAR underestimates cloud at 0.2-1.0 km altitude by a factor of 3 compared with the surface-based lidar. When multiple cloud decks are present, the underestimate in this altitude region is around 2.5 times. Heterogeneous glaciation observed by the Cape Grim lidar in midlevel stratiform supercooled water clouds is similar to that reported by previous surface-based observations adjacent to the Southern Ocean, with half of these clouds precipitating ice at cloud top temperatures of -20°C. This transition occurs around -15°C in the DARDAR data set, and this difference is likely due to the reduced sensitivity of surface-based lidar in detecting precipitating ice compared with what a surface-based radar could observe.

  14. The ENSO Effects on Tropical Clouds and Top-of-Atmosphere Cloud Radiative Effects in CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenying; Wang, Hailan

    2015-01-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on tropical clouds and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative effects (CREs) in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase5 (CMIP5) models are evaluated using satellite-based observations and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project satellite simulator output. Climatologically, most CMIP5 models produce considerably less total cloud amount with higher cloud top and notably larger reflectivity than observations in tropical Indo-Pacific (60 degrees East - 200 degrees East; 10 degrees South - 10 degrees North). During ENSO, most CMIP5 models considerably underestimate TOA CRE and cloud changes over western tropical Pacific. Over central tropical Pacific, while the multi-model mean resembles observations in TOA CRE and cloud amount anomalies, it notably overestimates cloud top pressure (CTP) decreases; there are also substantial inter-model variations. The relative effects of changes in cloud properties, temperature and humidity on TOA CRE anomalies during ENSO in the CMIP5 models are assessed using cloud radiative kernels. The CMIP5 models agree with observations in that their TOA shortwave CRE anomalies are primarily contributed by total cloud amount changes, and their TOA longwave CRE anomalies are mostly contributed by changes in both total cloud amount and CTP. The model biases in TOA CRE anomalies particularly the strong underestimations over western tropical Pacific are, however, mainly explained by model biases in CTP and cloud optical thickness (tau) changes. Despite the distinct model cloud biases particularly in tau regime, the TOA CRE anomalies from cloud amount changes are comparable between the CMIP5 models and observations, because of the strong compensations between model underestimation of TOA CRE anomalies from thin clouds and overestimation from medium and thick clouds.

  15. The influence of rain and clouds on a satellite dual frequency radar altimeter system operating at 13 and 35 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E. J.; Monaldo, F. M.; Goldhirsh, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of inhomogeneous spatial attenuation resulting from clouds and rain on the altimeter estimate of the range to mean sea level are modelled. It is demonstrated that typical cloud and rain attenuation variability at commonly expected spatial scales can significantly degrade altimeter range precision. Rain cell and cloud scale sizes and attenuations are considered as factors. The model simulation of altimeter signature distortion is described, and the distortion of individual radar pulse waveforms by different spatial scales of attenuation is considered. Examples of range errors found for models of a single cloud, a rain cell, and cloud streets are discussed.

  16. Global Free Tropospheric NO2 Abundances Derived Using a Cloud Slicing Technique Applied to Satellite Observations from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Choi, Y.; Duncan, B. N.; Bucsela, E.

    2014-01-01

    We derive free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) and stratospheric column amounts of NO2 by applying a cloud slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column versus the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. In this work, we use a sample of nearby OMI pixel data from a single orbit for the linear fit. The OMI data include cloud scene pressures from the rotational-Raman algorithm and above-cloud NO2 vertical column density (VCD) (defined as the NO2 column from the cloud scene pressure to the top-of-the-atmosphere) from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm. Estimates of stratospheric column NO2 are obtained by extrapolating the linear fits to the tropopause. We compare OMI-derived NO2 VMRs with in situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in 2006. The agreement is generally within the estimated uncertainties when appropriate data screening is applied. We then derive a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in the free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the boundary layer and then horizontally away from the source. Signatures of lightning NO2 are also shown throughout low and middle latitude regions in summer months. A profile analysis of our cloud slicing data indicates signatures of uplifted and transported anthropogenic NO2 in the middle troposphere as well as lightning-generated NO2 in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the climatology with simulations from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) for cloudy conditions (cloud optical thicknesses > 10) shows similarities in the spatial patterns of continental pollution outflow. However, there are also some differences in

  17. Cloud Statistics for NASA Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Donald P.

    1999-01-01

    the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE). A summary of eight years of HIRS data will be published in late 1998. Important information from this study are: 1) cirrus clouds cover most of the earth, 2) they are found about 40% of the time globally, 3) in the tropics cirrus cloud frequencies are even higher, from 80-100%, 4) there is slight evidence that cirnis cloud cover is increasing in the northern hemisphere at about 0.5% per year, and 5) cirrus clouds have an average infrared transmittance of about 40% of the terrestrial radiation. (5) Global Cloud Frequency Statistics published on the Principal Investigator's web page have been used in the planning of the future CRYSTAL experiment and have been used for refinements of a global numerical model operated at the Colorado State University.

  18. An overview of the combined second sage iii ozone loss and validation experiment (solve-ii) and the validations of international ozone loss - european polar stratospheric cloud and lee wave experiment (vintersol-euplex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P.; Stroh, F.; Solve-Ii / Vintersol-Euplex Science Teams

    2003-04-01

    The SOLVE II/VINTERSOL-EUPLEX Field mission was an international field campaign designed to investigate polar ozone loss, polar stratospheric clouds, processes that lead to ozone loss, the dynamics of the polar stratosphere, and to acquire correlative data needed to validate satellite measurements of the polar stratosphere. The campaign was staged over the course of the winter of 2002-2003. Measurements were made from both aircraft (the NASA DC-8, the DLR Falcon, and the Russian M55 Geophysica), ozonesondes and other balloon payloads, ground-based instruments, and satellites. In particular SOLVE-II was designed to validate the Meteor-3M/Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III satellite mission. In this presentation we will review the overall objectives of the combined campaigns, discuss some of the broad observations of the winter of 2002-2003, and highlight the major findings of this campaign.

  19. Dynamics of pulsed expansion of polyatomic gas cloud: Internal-translational energy transfer contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyatomic gas cloud expansion under pulsed laser evaporation is studied on the basis of one-dimensional direct Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of rotational-translational (RT) and vibrational-translational (VT) energy transfer on dynamics of the cloud expansion is considered. Efficiency of VT energy transfer dependence on the amount of evaporated matter is discussed. To analyze VT energy transfer impact, the number of collisions per molecule during the expansion is calculated. The data are generally in good agreement with available analytical and numerical predictions. Dependencies of the effective number of vibrational degrees of freedom on the number of vibrationally inelastic collisions are obtained and generalized. The importance of the consideration of energy transfer from the internal degrees of freedom to the translational ones is illustrated by an example of pulsed laser evaporation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Based on the obtained regularities, analysis of experimental data on pulsed laser evaporation of aniline is performed. The calculated aniline vibrational temperature correlates well with the experimentally measured one

  20. Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S. -P.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...... occultations with CALIPSO profiles over deep convection. Results show a sharp spike in GPS bending angle highly correlated to the top of the clouds, corresponding to anomalously cold temperatures within the clouds. Above the clouds the temperatures return to background conditions, and there is a strong...

  1. Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...... occultations with CALIPSO profiles over deep convection. Results show a sharp spike in GPS bending angle highly correlated to the top of the clouds, corresponding to anomalously cold temperatures within the clouds. Above the clouds the temperatures return to background conditions, and there is a strong...

  2. Cloud-radiation interactions and their parameterization in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers from the International Workshop on Cloud-Radiation Interactions and Their Parameterization in Climate Models met on 18-20 October 1993 in Camp Springs, Maryland, USA. It was organized by the Joint Working Group on Clouds and Radiation of the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences. Recommendations were grouped into three broad areas: (1) general circulation models (GCMs), (2) satellite studies, and (3) process studies. Each of the panels developed recommendations on the themes of the workshop. Explicitly or implicitly, each panel independently recommended observations of basic cloud microphysical properties (water content, phase, size) on the scales resolved by GCMs. Such observations are necessary to validate cloud parameterizations in GCMs, to use satellite data to infer radiative forcing in the atmosphere and at the earth's surface, and to refine the process models which are used to develop advanced cloud parameterizations.

  3. A Fragment-Cloud Approach for Modeling Atmospheric Breakup of Asteroids with Varied Internal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan; NASA Engineering Risk Assessment Team, NASA Asteroid Threat Assessment Project

    2016-10-01

    As an asteroid descends toward Earth, it deposits energy in the atmosphere through aerodynamic drag and ablation. Asteroid impact risk assessments rely on energy deposition estimates to predict blast overpressures and ground damage that may result from an airburst, such as the one that occurred over Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013. The rates and altitudes at which energy is deposited along the entry trajectory depend upon how the bolide fragments, which in turn depends upon its internal structure and composition. In this work, an analytic asteroid fragmentation model has been developed to model the atmospheric breakup and resulting energy deposition of asteroids with a range of internal structures. The modeling approach combines successive fragmentation of larger independent pieces with aggregate debris clouds released with each fragmentation event. The model can vary the number and masses of fragments produced, the amount of mass released as debris clouds, and the size-strength scaling used to increase the robustness of smaller fragments. The initial asteroid body can be seeded with a distribution of independent fragment sizes amid a remaining debris mass to represent loose rubble pile conglomerations, or can be defined as a monolith with an outer regolith layer. This approach enables the model to represent a range of breakup behaviors and reproduce detailed energy deposition features such as multiple flares due to successive burst events, high-altitude regolith blow-off, or initial disruption of rubble piles followed by more energetic breakup of the constituent boulders. These capabilities provide a means to investigate sensitivities of ground damage to potential variations in asteroid structure.

  4. Near Real Time Vertical Profiles of Clouds and Aerosols from the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Nowottnick, E. P.

    2015-12-01

    Plumes from hazardous events, such as ash from volcanic eruptions and smoke from wildfires, can have a profound impact on the climate system, human health and the economy. Global aerosol transport models are very useful for tracking hazardous plumes and predicting the transport of these plumes. However aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties are a major weakness of global aerosol transport models, yet a key component of tracking and forecasting smoke and ash. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is an elastic backscatter lidar designed to provide vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols while also demonstrating new in-space technologies for future Earth Science missions. CATS has been operating on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS) since early February 2015. The ISS orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three-day repeat cycle. The ISS orbit also provides CATS with excellent coverage over the primary aerosol transport tracks, mid-latitude storm tracks, and tropical convection. Data from CATS is used to derive properties of clouds and aerosols including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The measurements of atmospheric clouds and aerosols provided by the CATS payload have demonstrated several science benefits. CATS provides near-real-time observations of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions that can be used as inputs to global models. The infrastructure of the ISS allows CATS data to be captured, transmitted, and received at the CATS ground station within several minutes of data collection. The CATS backscatter and vertical feature mask are part of a customized near real time (NRT) product that the CATS processing team produces within 6 hours of collection. The continuous near real time CATS data

  5. IBM Demonstrates a General-Purpose, High-Performance, High-Availability Cloud-Hosted Data Distribution System With Live GOES-16 Weather Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, P. L.; Brown, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    IBM has created a general purpose, data-agnostic solution that provides high performance, low data latency, high availability, scalability, and persistent access to the captured data, regardless of source or type. This capability is hosted on commercially available cloud environments and uses much faster, more efficient, reliable, and secure data transfer protocols than the more typically used FTP. The design incorporates completely redundant data paths at every level, including at the cloud data center level, in order to provide the highest assurance of data availability to the data consumers. IBM has been successful in building and testing a Proof of Concept instance on our IBM Cloud platform to receive and disseminate actual GOES-16 data as it is being downlinked. This solution leverages the inherent benefits of a cloud infrastructure configured and tuned for continuous, stable, high-speed data dissemination to data consumers worldwide at the downlink rate. It also is designed to ingest data from multiple simultaneous sources and disseminate data to multiple consumers. Nearly linear scalability is achieved by adding servers and storage.The IBM Proof of Concept system has been tested with our partners to achieve in excess of 5 Gigabits/second over public internet infrastructure. In tests with live GOES-16 data, the system routinely achieved 2.5 Gigabits/second pass-through to The Weather Company from the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC. Simulated data was also transferred from the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites — North Carolina to The Weather Company, as well. The storage node allocated to our Proof of Concept system as tested was sized at 480 Terabytes of RAID protected disk as a worst case sizing to accommodate the data from four GOES-16 class satellites for 30 days in a circular buffer. This shows that an abundance of performance and capacity headroom exists in the IBM design that can be applied to additional missions.

  6. 1ST International Conference on Small Satellites: New Technologies, Achievements, Problems and Prospects for International Co-Operation in the New Millenium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The Final Proceedings for Small Satellites: New technologies, achievements, problems and prospects for international co-operation in the new millenium, 16 November 1998 - 20 November 1998 This is an interdisciplinary conference...

  7. Global Navigation Satellite Systems and Space Weather: Building upon the International Space Weather Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadimova, S. H.; Haubold, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Globally there is growing interest in better unders tanding solar-terrestrial interactions, particularly patterns and trends in space weather. This is not only for scientific reasons, but also because the reliable operation of ground-based and space-based assets and infrastructures is increasingly dependent on their robustness against the detrimental effects of space weather. Consequently, in 2009, the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) proposed the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI), as a follow-up activity to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007), to be implemented under a three-year workplan from 2010 to 2012 (UNGA Document, A/64/20). All achievements of international cooperation and coordination for ISWI, including instrumentation, data analysis, modelling, education, training and public outreach, are made a vailable through the ISWI Newsletter and the ISWI Website (http://www.iswi-secretariat.org/). Since the last solar maximum in 2000, societal dependence on global navigation satellite system (GNSS) has increased substantially. This situation has brought increasing attention to the subject of space weather and its effects on GNSS systems and users. Results concerning the impact of space weather on GNSS are made available at the Information Portal (www.unoosa.org) of the International Committee on Global Navigati on Satellite Systems (ICG). This paper briefly reviews the curre nt status of ISWI with regard to GNSS.

  8. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Summary Mission Timeline and Performance Relative to Pre-Launch Mission Success Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Charles E.; Zwally H. Jay; Abdalati, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    The Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission was conceived, primarily, to quantify the spatial and temporal variations in the topography of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. It carried on board the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which measured the round-trip travel time of a laser pulse emitted from the satellite to the surface of the Earth and back. Each range derived from these measurements was combined with precise, concurrent orbit and pointing information to determine the location of the laser spot centroid on the Earth. By developing a time series of precise topographic maps for each ice sheet, changes in their surface elevations can be used to infer their mass balances.

  9. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-06-20

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs.

  10. Internal and external potential-field estimation from regional vector data at varying satellite altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Alain; Simons, Frederik J.

    2017-10-01

    When modelling satellite data to recover a global planetary magnetic or gravitational potential field, the method of choice remains their analysis in terms of spherical harmonics. When only regional data are available, or when data quality varies strongly with geographic location, the inversion problem becomes severely ill-posed. In those cases, adopting explicitly local methods is to be preferred over adapting global ones (e.g. by regularization). Here, we develop the theory behind a procedure to invert for planetary potential fields from vector observations collected within a spatially bounded region at varying satellite altitude. Our method relies on the construction of spatiospectrally localized bases of functions that mitigate the noise amplification caused by downward continuation (from the satellite altitude to the source) while balancing the conflicting demands for spatial concentration and spectral limitation. The `altitude-cognizant' gradient vector Slepian functions (AC-GVSF) enjoy a noise tolerance under downward continuation that is much improved relative to the `classical' gradient vector Slepian functions (CL-GVSF), which do not factor satellite altitude into their construction. Furthermore, venturing beyond the realm of their first application, published in a preceding paper, in the present article we extend the theory to being able to handle both internal and external potential-field estimation. Solving simultaneously for internal and external fields under the limitation of regional data availability reduces internal-field artefacts introduced by downward-continuing unmodelled external fields, as we show with numerical examples. We explain our solution strategies on the basis of analytic expressions for the behaviour of the estimation bias and variance of models for which signal and noise are uncorrelated, (essentially) space- and band-limited, and spectrally (almost) white. The AC-GVSF are optimal linear combinations of vector spherical harmonics

  11. A Fragment-Cloud Model for Breakup of Asteroids with Varied Internal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan; Stokan, Ed; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    As an asteroid descends toward Earth, it deposits energy in the atmosphere through aerodynamic drag and ablation. Asteroid impact risk assessments rely on energy deposition estimates to predict blast overpressures and ground damage that may result from an airburst, such as the one that occurred over Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013. The rates and altitudes at which energy is deposited along the entry trajectory depend upon how the bolide fragments, which in turn depends upon its internal structure and composition. In this work, we have developed an analytic asteroid fragmentation model to assess the atmospheric energy deposition of asteroids with a range of structures and compositions. The modeling approach combines successive fragmentation of larger independent pieces with aggregate debris clouds released with each fragmentation event. The model can vary the number and masses of fragments produced, the amount of mass released as debris clouds, the size-strength scaling used to increase the robustness of smaller fragments, and other parameters. The initial asteroid body can be seeded with a distribution of independent fragment sizes amid a remaining debris mass to represent loose rubble pile conglomerations, can be given an outer regolith later, or can be defined as a coherent or fractured monolith. This approach enables the model to represent a range of breakup behaviors and reproduce detailed energy deposition features such as multiple flares due to successive burst events, high-altitude regolith blow-off, or initial disruption of rubble piles followed by more energetic breakup of the constituent boulders. These capabilities provide a means to investigate sensitivities of ground damage to potential variations in asteroid structure.

  12. GIO-EMS and International Collaboration in Satellite based Emergency Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Jan; Lemoine, Guido; Broglia, Marco

    2013-04-01

    During the last decade, satellite based emergency mapping has developed into a mature operational stage. The European Union's GMES Initial Operations - Emergency Management Service (GIO-EMS), is operational since April 2012. It's set up differs from other mechanisms (for example from the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters"), as it extends fast satellite tasking and delivery with the value adding map production as a single service, which is available, free of charge, to the authorized users of the service. Maps and vector datasets with standard characteristics and formats ranging from post-disaster damage assessment to recovery and disaster prevention are covered by this initiative. Main users of the service are European civil protection authorities and international organizations active in humanitarian aid. All non-sensitive outputs of the service are accessible to the public. The European Commission's in-house science service Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the technical and administrative supervisor of the GIO-EMS. The EC's DG ECHO Monitoring and Information Centre acts as the service's focal point and DG ENTR is responsible for overall service governance. GIO-EMS also aims to contribute to the synergy with similar existing mechanisms at national and international level. The usage of satellite data for emergency mapping has increased during the last years and this trend is expected to continue because of easier accessibility to suitable satellite and other relevant data in the near future. Furthermore, the data and analyses coming from volunteer emergency mapping communities are expected to further enrich the content of such cartographic products. In the case of major disasters the parallel activity of more providers is likely to generate non-optimal use of resources, e.g. unnecessary duplication; whereas coordination may lead to reduced time needed to cover the disaster area. Furthermore the abundant number of geospatial products of different

  13. Clouds and Aerosols in the Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of cloud and aerosol properties from space is reviewed for present and planned international satellite sensors. Techniques that are being used to enhance our ability to characterize the global distribution of cloud and aerosol properties include well-calibrated multispectral radiometers that rely on visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared channels, sometimes including polarization as well. The availability of thermal channels to aid in cloud screening for aerosol properties is an important additional piece of information that has not always been incorporated into sensor designs. In this paper, we describe the radiative properties of clouds as currently determined from satellites (cloud fraction, optical thickness, cloud top pressure, and cloud effective radius), and highlight the global and regional cloud microphysical properties currently available for assessing climate variability and forcing. In addition, we will frustrate the radiative and microphysical properties of aerosol particles that are currently available from space-based observations, as well as enhancements to aerosol remote sensing over bright-reflecting surfaces that is anticipated in the next couple of years. Finally, we will describe the aerosol optical and radiative properties available from the globally distributed AERONET network of ground-based sun-sky radiometers.

  14. International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Keyes, C D

    1980-03-01

    Observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite were combined with extensive ground-based data to obtain electron densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and ionic concentrations. We then employed a network of theoretical model nebulae to estimate the factors by which observed ionic concentrations must be multiplied to obtain elemental abundances. Comparison with a large sample of nebulae for which extensive ground-based observations have been obtained shows nitrogen to be markedly enhanced in some of these objects. Possibly most, if not all, high-excitation nebulae evolve from stars that have higher masses than progenitors of nebulae of low-to-moderate excitation.

  15. GEWEX assessment of global cloud climatologies: cloud properties and their variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    and GEWEX Cloud Assessment Team Satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the whole globe. One GEWEX activity is to assess the quality and reliability of available global cloud data sets for climate studies (http://climserv.ipsl.polytechnique.fr/gewexca). GEWEX cloud products are provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), using data from a combination of polar orbiting and geostationary imagers. There are two cloud analyses (HIRS-NOAA and TOVS Path-B) using TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder Operational (TOVS) observations onboard the NOAA polar orbiting satellites. The relatively high spectral resolution of these instruments provides reliable cirrus identification, day and night. Recently, the NOAA PATMOS-x project has reanalyzed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data onboard the same satellites. Cloud occurrence climatologies using sun occultation measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and from surface observations also participate in the assessment, as well as analyses using the second generation instruments MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) and AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) aboard the NASA the Earth Observing System (EOS). Since summer 2006 data are available from two active instruments aboard the A-Train: the lidar of the CALIPSO mission and the CloudSat radar, giving for the first time a global insight on cloud layering. Recently, also cloud climatologies from PARASOL and ATSR (Along-Track-Scanning Radiometer) joined this project. Climatological averages of cloud properties, their regional, seasonal and diurnal variations as well as time series of these climatologies are presented. One outcome of this study was, that the different datasets compared better when high, midlevel and lowlevel cloud amount were scaled by total cloud amount. This approach might also be

  16. Gravity current model of the volumetric growth of volcanic clouds: remote assessment with satellite imagery and estimation of mass eruption rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, S.; Bursik, M. I.; Sparks, R. S.; Hogg, A. J.; Johnson, C. G.; Singh, T.; Pavolonis, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in April and May, 2010, brought to light the hazards of airborne volcanic ash and the importance of being able to estimate the concentration of ash with time. This can be done using Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion models (VATD). These models require Eruption Source Parameters (ESP) such as the mass eruption rate (MER), as input. MER can be estimated from volumetric flux assuming gravity current behavior of the atmospheric intrusion. We used a gravity current model for the umbrella cloud and downwind plume in which the predominantly horizontal spreading through the atmosphere is driven by buoyancy forces and wind drag. Ash is advected by these atmospheric motions and settles out relatively slowly under the action of gravity. Given the importance of knowing ESP for VATD, we explored the use of the gravity current model applied to satellite imagery, using the geometric characteristics of ash clouds. To test the gravity current model on the use of satellite imagery, we estimated ESP from five well-studied and well-characterized historical eruptions: Mount St. Helens, 1980; Pinatubo, 1991, Redoubt, 1990; Hekla, 2000 and Eyjafjallajökull, 2010. These tests show that the methodologies yield results comparable to currently accepted methodologies of ESP estimation. We then applied the methodology to umbrella clouds produced by the eruptions of Okmok, 12 July 2008, and Sarychev Peak, 12 June 2009, and to the downwind plume produced by the eruptions of Hekla, 2000; Kliuchevsko'i, 1 October 1994; Kasatochi 7-8 August 2008 and Bezymianny, 1 September 2012; none of which had previous estimates of MER.

  17. Some cloud population statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, J. William

    1985-01-01

    Photographs of cloud scenes taken from the orbiting space shuttle are being used to assess the overestimation in the amount of cloud cover sensed by satellites at angles other than nadir. Also these photographs and Landsat images indicate that the frequency distributions of clear and of cloudy intervals, at least in simple tropical cloud scenes, may be approximated by common distribution functions.

  18. Land cover and forest formation distributions for St. Kitts, Nevis, St. Eustatius, Grenada and Barbados from decision tree classification of cloud-cleared satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, E.H.; Kennaway, T.A.; Pedreros, D.H.; Clark, M.L.; Marcano-Vega, H.; Tieszen, L.L.; Ruzycki, T.R.; Schill, S.R.; Carrington, C.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite image-based mapping of tropical forests is vital to conservation planning. Standard methods for automated image classification, however, limit classification detail in complex tropical landscapes. In this study, we test an approach to Landsat image interpretation on four islands of the Lesser Antilles, including Grenada and St. Kitts, Nevis and St. Eustatius, testing a more detailed classification than earlier work in the latter three islands. Secondly, we estimate the extents of land cover and protected forest by formation for five islands and ask how land cover has changed over the second half of the 20th century. The image interpretation approach combines image mosaics and ancillary geographic data, classifying the resulting set of raster data with decision tree software. Cloud-free image mosaics for one or two seasons were created by applying regression tree normalization to scene dates that could fill cloudy areas in a base scene. Such mosaics are also known as cloud-filled, cloud-minimized or cloud-cleared imagery, mosaics, or composites. The approach accurately distinguished several classes that more standard methods would confuse; the seamless mosaics aided reference data collection; and the multiseason imagery allowed us to separate drought deciduous forests and woodlands from semi-deciduous ones. Cultivated land areas declined 60 to 100 percent from about 1945 to 2000 on several islands. Meanwhile, forest cover has increased 50 to 950%. This trend will likely continue where sugar cane cultivation has dominated. Like the island of Puerto Rico, most higher-elevation forest formations are protected in formal or informal reserves. Also similarly, lowland forests, which are drier forest types on these islands, are not well represented in reserves. Former cultivated lands in lowland areas could provide lands for new reserves of drier forest types. The land-use history of these islands may provide insight for planners in countries currently considering

  19. SPATIOTEMPORAL VISUALIZATION OF TIME-SERIES SATELLITE-DERIVED CO2 FLUX DATA USING VOLUME RENDERING AND GPU-BASED INTERPOLATION ON A CLOUD-DRIVEN DIGITAL EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ocean carbon cycle has a significant influence on global climate, and is commonly evaluated using time-series satellite-derived CO2 flux data. Location-aware and globe-based visualization is an important technique for analyzing and presenting the evolution of climate change. To achieve realistic simulation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of ocean carbon, a cloud-driven digital earth platform is developed to support the interactive analysis and display of multi-geospatial data, and an original visualization method based on our digital earth is proposed to demonstrate the spatiotemporal variations of carbon sinks and sources using time-series satellite data. Specifically, a volume rendering technique using half-angle slicing and particle system is implemented to dynamically display the released or absorbed CO2 gas. To enable location-aware visualization within the virtual globe, we present a 3D particlemapping algorithm to render particle-slicing textures onto geospace. In addition, a GPU-based interpolation framework using CUDA during real-time rendering is designed to obtain smooth effects in both spatial and temporal dimensions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method, a series of satellite data is applied to simulate the air-sea carbon cycle in the China Sea. The results show that the suggested strategies provide realistic simulation effects and acceptable interactive performance on the digital earth.

  20. The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds and the Open Grid Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds 20111 was held at Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan on 19th to 25th March 2011. A series of workshops and tutorials preceded the symposium. The aim of ISGC is to promote the use of grid and cloud computing in the Asia Pacific region. Over the 9 years that ISGC has been running, the programme has evolved to become more user community focused with subjects reaching out to a larger population. Research communities are making widespread use of distributed computing facilities. Linking together data centers, production grids, desktop systems or public clouds, many researchers are able to do more research and produce results more quickly. They could do much more if the computing infrastructures they use worked together more effectively. Changes in the way we approach distributed computing, and new services from commercial providers, mean that boundaries are starting to blur. This opens the way for hybrid solutions that make it easier for researchers to get their job done. Consequently the theme for ISGC2011 was the opportunities that better integrated computing infrastructures can bring, and the steps needed to achieve the vision of a seamless global research infrastructure. 2011 is a year of firsts for ISGC. First the title - while the acronym remains the same, its meaning has changed to reflect the evolution of computing: The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds. Secondly the programming - ISGC 2011 has always included topical workshops and tutorials. But 2011 is the first year that ISGC has been held in conjunction with the Open Grid Forum2 which held its 31st meeting with a series of working group sessions. The ISGC plenary session included keynote speakers from OGF that highlighted the relevance of standards for the research community. ISGC with its focus on applications and operational aspects complemented well with OGF's focus on standards development. ISGC brought to OGF real-life use cases and needs to be

  1. A further study of the method for estimation of SAGE II opaque cloud occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Veiga, Robert E.; Vann, Lelia B.; Minnis, Patrick; Kent, Geoffrey S.

    2001-01-01

    Information on vertical cloud distribution is important to atmospheric radiative calculation, general circulation modeling, and climate study. The method used for estimating the vertical structure of opaque cloud occurrence from the solar occultation observations obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II has been reviewed for further understanding of the nature of the derived cloud statistics. Most importantly, based on the SAGE II tropical observations (1985-1998), the present study illustrates that the derived opaque cloud occurrence at a given altitude is generally independent of the cloud occurrence at other altitudes, except for some anticorrelation between high-level (12.5 km) and low-level (1-3 km) clouds. This feature of the layer cloud frequency independence is also evident when regional data over the Pacific warm pool and the eastern Pacific are examined. The independent information of the layer cloud frequency is significant and makes it possible to use the derived vertical distribution of cloud occurrence to estimate the probability of multilayer clouds. The limitation is that it is difficult to determine how frequently the multilayer clouds are actually overlapping or how frequently thick cloud (>1 km) really occurs based on the SAGE II observations alone. A discussion of the SAGE II tropical opaque cloud occurrence in relation to the cloud climatology based on visual observations from surface stations and ships, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data, and the cloud statistics using rawinsonde records is also provided.

  2. Internal waves in the Black Sea: satellite observations and in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga Yu.; Mityagina, Marina I.; Serebryany, Andrey N.; Sabinin, Konstantin D.; Kalashnikova, Nina A.; Krayushkin, Evgeny V.; Khymchenko, Ielizaveta

    2014-10-01

    Satellite radar (SAR) and visible band data from Envisat ASAR, ERS-2 SAR, Lansat-5,7,8 sensors were used to investigate internal waves (IWs) in the Black Sea. The three main areas of the Black Sea where surface manifestations of internal waves (SMIWs) were mostly observed are: the Danube Delta, Crimea Peninsula and the northeastern region near Novorossiysk. The main goal of our investigation was to define the mechanisms of IW generation in the non-tidal sea. In the first area, IWs are observed rather often due to surface intrusions of fresh waters of the Danube River. In contrast to usual soliton-like IW trains caused by river plumes, soliton trains near the Danuba Delta propagate in different directions and often subject to nonlinear interactions. The interrelation between location and orientation of IW trains and fresh water fronts is discussed. In the area off Crimea, in our opinion, IWs are generated mainly by upwelling relaxation and interaction between internal inertial waves and bottom topography features. SMIW in the northeastern part of the Black Sea are scarce, though IWs are regularly revealed by in-situ measurements. Field measurements were conducted in the northeastern part of the Black Sea from a small boat and from scientific sea platform near Crimea employing CTD probes, thermistor chain and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP). ADCP measurements allowed us to detect a number of IW trains. Their amplitudes were estimated to reach 5-8 m. Joint analysis of satellite SAR and subsatellite data gave an assessment of their typical wavelength at 90-100 m.

  3. Major Characteristics of Southern Ocean Cloud Regimes and Their Effects on the Energy Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, John M.; Jakob, Christian; Rossow, William B.; Tselioudis, George; Brown, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are often poorly represented by climate models, but they make a significant contribution to the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation balance, particularly in the shortwave portion of the energy spectrum. This study seeks to better quantify the organization and structure of Southern Hemisphere midlatitude clouds by combining measurements from active and passive satellite-based datasets. Geostationary and polar-orbiter satellite data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are used to quantify large-scale, recurring modes of cloudiness, and active observations from CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) are used to examine vertical structure, radiative heating rates, and precipitation associated with these clouds. It is found that cloud systems are organized into eight distinct regimes and that ISCCP overestimates the midlevel cloudiness of these regimes. All regimes contain a relatively high occurrence of low cloud, with 79%of all cloud layers observed having tops below 3 km, but multiple-layered clouds systems are present in approximately 34% of observed cloud profiles. The spatial distribution of regimes varies according to season, with cloud systems being geometrically thicker, on average, during the austral winter. Those regimes found to be most closely associated with midlatitude cyclones produce precipitation the most frequently, although drizzle is extremely common in low-cloud regimes. The regimes associated with cyclones have the highest in-regime shortwave cloud radiative effect at the TOA, but the low-cloud regimes, by virtue of their high frequency of occurrence over the oceans, dominate both TOA and surface shortwave effects in this region as a whole.

  4. Biases in Long-term NO2 Averages Inferred from Satellite Observations Due to Cloud Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; O'Brien, Jason M.; Celarier, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrievals of atmospheric trace gas column densities from space are compromised by the presence of clouds, requiring most studies to exclude observations with significant cloud fractions in the instrument's field of view. Using NO2 observations at three ground stations representing urban, suburban, and rural environments, and tropospheric vertical column densities measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over each site, we show that the observations from space represent monthly averaged ground-level pollutant conditions well (R=0.86) under relatively cloud-free conditions. However, by analyzing the ground-level data and applying the OMI cloud fraction as a filter, we show there is a significant bias in long-term averaged NO2 as a result of removing the data during cloudy conditions. For the ground-based sites considered in this study, excluding observations on days when OMI-derived cloud fractions were greater than 0.2 causes 12:00-14:00 mean summer mixing ratios to be underestimated by 12%+/-6%, 20%+/-7%, and 40%+/-10% on average (+/-1 standard deviation) at the urban, suburban, and rural sites respectively. This bias was investigated in particular at the rural site, a region where pollutant transport is the main source of NO2, and where longterm observations of NOy were also available. Evidence of changing photochemical conditions and a correlation between clear skies and the transport of cleaner air masses play key roles in explaining the bias. The magnitude of a bias is expected to vary from site to site depending on meteorology and proximity to NOx sources, and decreases when longer averaging times of ground station data (e.g. 24-h) are used for the comparison.

  5. Computing patient data in the cloud: practical and legal considerations for genetics and genomics research in Europe and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár-Gábor, Fruzsina; Lueck, Rupert; Yakneen, Sergei; Korbel, Jan O

    2017-06-20

    Biomedical research is becoming increasingly large-scale and international. Cloud computing enables the comprehensive integration of genomic and clinical data, and the global sharing and collaborative processing of these data within a flexibly scalable infrastructure. Clouds offer novel research opportunities in genomics, as they facilitate cohort studies to be carried out at unprecedented scale, and they enable computer processing with superior pace and throughput, allowing researchers to address questions that could not be addressed by studies using limited cohorts. A well-developed example of such research is the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes project, which involves the analysis of petabyte-scale genomic datasets from research centers in different locations or countries and different jurisdictions. Aside from the tremendous opportunities, there are also concerns regarding the utilization of clouds; these concerns pertain to perceived limitations in data security and protection, and the need for due consideration of the rights of patient donors and research participants. Furthermore, the increased outsourcing of information technology impedes the ability of researchers to act within the realm of existing local regulations owing to fundamental differences in the understanding of the right to data protection in various legal systems. In this Opinion article, we address the current opportunities and limitations of cloud computing and highlight the responsible use of federated and hybrid clouds that are set up between public and private partners as an adequate solution for genetics and genomics research in Europe, and under certain conditions between Europe and international partners. This approach could represent a sensible middle ground between fragmented individual solutions and a "one-size-fits-all" approach.

  6. International Conference on Digital Satellite Communications, 6th, Phoenix, AZ, September 19-23, 1983, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Aspects of transmission and interference analysis are discussed, taking into account laboratory hardware simulation measurements of 120-Mbit/s QPSK/TDMA transmission performance in the Intelsat V system, a transmission analysis for the Intelsat VI 120 Mbit/s TDMA system, the monitoring and equalization of in-service QPSK/TDMA links by means of burst-mode channel impulse response measurement, and an investigation of 9.6-kbit/s data transmission via a PCM link at 64 kbit/s with and without link errors. Other topics explored are related to field tests, specialized services and networks, operational aspects, integration with terrestrial networks, modem design, TV and audio coding, networks, TDMA systems and technology, SS/TDMA, on-board processing, and error control. Attention is given to business services, verification tests of a prototype Intelsat TDMA/DSI terminal, a second-generation SCPC system for business satellite communications, an integrated digital satellite communication system, and an international video TDMA concept.

  7. M2 Internal Tides and Their Observed Wavenumber Spectra from Satellite Altimetry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2015-01-01

    A near-global chart of surface elevations associated with the stationary M2 internal tide is empirically constructed from multi-mission satellite altimeter data. An advantage of a strictly empirical mapping approach is that results are independent of assumptions about ocean wave dynamics and, in fact, can be used to test such assumptions. A disadvantage is that present-day altimeter coverage is only marginally adequate to support mapping such short-wavelength features. Moreover, predominantly north-south ground-track orientations and contamination from nontidal oceanographic variability can lead to deficiencies in mapped tides. Independent data from Cryosphere Satellite-2 (CryoSat-2) and other altimeters are used to test the solutions and show positive reduction in variance except in regions of large mesoscale variability. The tidal fields are subjected to two-dimensional wavenumber spectral analysis, which allows for the construction of an empirical map of modal wavelengths. Mode-1 wavelengths show good agreement with theoretical wavelengths calculated from the ocean's mean stratification, with a few localized exceptions (e.g., Tasman Sea). Mode-2 waves are detectable in much of the ocean, with wavelengths in reasonable agreement with theoretical expectations, but their spectral signatures grow too weak to map in some regions.

  8. 2nd International Workshop on Learning Technology for Education in Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Yu-Hui; Yang, Hsin-Chang; Ting, I-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2013 LTEC conference in Kaohsiung,Taiwan. The papers examine diverse aspects of Learning Technology for Education in Cloud environments, including social, technical and infrastructure implications. Also addressed is the question of how cloud computing can be used to design applications to support real time on demand learning using technologies. The workshop proceedings provide opportunities for delegates to discuss the latest research in TEL (Technology Enhanced Learning) and its impacts for learners and institutions, using cloud technolgies.

  9. Satellite and ground detection of very dense smoke clouds produced on the islands of the Paraná river delta that affected a large region in Central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipiña, A.; Salum, G. M.; Crinó, E.; Piacentini, R. D.

    2012-03-01

    Intense fires were produced on the Paraná river delta islands, Argentina, during most part of 2008, by a combination of an exceptionally dry period and the farmers' use of a fire land-cleaning technique. In April 2008, those fires significantly affected the nearby regions and their inhabitants, from Rosario city to Buenos Aires mega-city. In this work we present satellite as well as ground Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 550 nm data obtained during the propagation of pollution clouds to the central zone of Argentina. The highest value (1.18) was registered at Buenos Aires by atmospheric remote sensing, using the satellite instrument MODIS/Terra on April 18th 2008 at 10:35 local time (= UT - 3 h). On the same day, ground air quality detectors also measured in this city the highest Total Suspended Particle (TSP) value of the month, 2.02 mg/m3. The AOD(550) daily variation at Rosario Astronomical Observatory, which is located near the Paraná riverside, was derived by combining solar ultraviolet erythemal irradiance data (measured with a YES biometre) with model calculations. On April 25th 2008, from 12:00 to 15:30 local time, a rather high and constant AOD(550) value was registered, with a mean value of (0.90 ± 0.21). Cities located on the side of the Rosario-Buenos Aires highway (San Nicolás, Baradero and San Pedro) were also affected, showing a mean AOD(550) between the Rosario and Buenos Aires values. The particulate matter was collected with gridded samplers placed on the Paraná river islands as well as at the Rosario Observatory. They were analysed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and mainly showed a biological origin. Even if normally large particles travel small distances from the source, organic aerosol in the range of 40-100 μm and complex asymmetric structures were registered several kilometres away from the aerosol sources on the islands. Another event of intense UV index attenuation (98.6%) occurred on September 18th 2008, due to very dense

  10. Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility. Part 1; Technique, Validation, and Comparison to Satellite-derived Diagnostic Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Benson, Sally; Sonntag, Karen L.; Kato, Seiji; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Twohy, Cynthia H.; Poellot, Michael; Dong, Xiquan; Long, Charles; hide

    2006-01-01

    line. In addition to a case study where we examine the cloud radiative effects at the TOA, surface and atmosphere by a middle latitude synoptic-scale cyclone, we examine the cloud top pressure and optical depth retrievals of ISCCP and LBTM over a period of 1 year. Using overcast period from the year 2000, we find that the satellite algorithms tend to bias cloud tops into the middle troposphere and underestimate optical depth in high optical depth events (greater than 100) by as much as a factor of 2.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of mini-satellite respinup by weak internal controllable torques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somov, Yevgeny, E-mail: e-somov@mail.ru [Samara State Technical University, Department for Guidance, Navigation and Control, 244 Molodogvardeyskaya Str., Samara 443100 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-10

    Contemporary space engineering advanced new problem before theoretical mechanics and motion control theory: a spacecraft directed respinup by the weak restricted control internal forces. The paper presents some results on this problem, which is very actual for energy supply of information mini-satellites (for communication, geodesy, radio- and opto-electronic observation of the Earth et al.) with electro-reaction plasma thrusters and gyro moment cluster based on the reaction wheels or the control moment gyros. The solution achieved is based on the methods for synthesis of nonlinear robust control and on rigorous analytical proof for the required spacecraft rotation stability by Lyapunov function method. These results were verified by a computer simulation of strongly nonlinear oscillatory processes at respinuping of a flexible spacecraft.

  12. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  13. Removal of Optically Thick Clouds from Multi-Spectral Satellite Images Using Multi-Frequency SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Eckardt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method for the reconstruction of pixels contaminated by optical thick clouds in multi-spectral Landsat images using multi-frequency SAR data. A number of reconstruction techniques have already been proposed in the scientific literature. However, all of the existing techniques have certain limitations. In order to overcome these limitations, we expose the Closest Spectral Fit (CSF method proposed by Meng et al. to a new, synergistic approach using optical and SAR data. Therefore, the term Closest Feature Vector (CFV is introduced. The technique facilitates an elegant way to avoid radiometric distortions in the course of image reconstruction. Furthermore the cloud cover removal is independent from underlying land cover types and assumptions on seasonality, etc. The methodology is applied to mono-temporal, multi-frequency SAR data from TerraSAR-X (X-Band, ERS (C-Band and ALOS Palsar (L-Band. This represents a way of thinking about Radar data not as foreign, but as additional data source in multi-spectral remote sensing. For the assessment of the image restoration performance, an experimental framework is established and a statistical evaluation protocol is designed. The results show the potential of a synergistic usage of multi-spectral and SAR data to overcome the loss of data due to cloud cover.

  14. Transformation of internal solitary waves at the "deep" and "shallow" shelf: satellite observations and laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Shishkina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An interaction of internal solitary waves with the shelf edge in the time periods related to the presence of a pronounced seasonal pycnocline in the Red Sea and in the Alboran Sea is analysed via satellite photos and SAR images. Laboratory data on transformation of a solitary wave of depression while passing along the transverse bottom step were obtained in a tank with a two-layer stratified fluid. The certain difference between two characteristic types of hydrophysical phenomena was revealed both in the field observations and in experiments. The hydrological conditions for these two processes were named the "deep" and the "shallow" shelf respectively. The first one provides the generation of the secondary periodic short internal waves – "runaway" edge waves – due to change in the polarity of a part of a soliton approaching the shelf normally. Another one causes a periodic shear flow in the upper quasi-homogeneous water layer with the period of incident solitary wave. The strength of the revealed mechanisms depends on the thickness of the water layer between the pycnocline and the shelf bottom as well as on the amplitude of the incident solitary wave.

  15. Multiple scattering of light by water cloud droplets with external and internal mixing of black carbon aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hai-Hua; Sun Xian-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The mixture of water cloud droplets with black carbon impurities is modeled by external and internal mixing models. The internal mixing model is modeled with a two-layered sphere (water cloud droplets containing black carbon (BC) inclusions), and the single scattering and absorption characteristics are calculated at the visible wavelength of 0.55 μm by using the Lorenz—Mie theory. The external mixing model is developed assuming that the same amount of BC particles are mixed with the water droplets externally. The multiple scattering characteristics are computed by using the Monte Carlo method. The results show that when the size of the BC aerosol is small, the reflection intensity of the internal mixing model is bigger than that of the external mixing model. However, if the size of the BC aerosol is big, the absorption of the internal mixing model will be larger than that of the external mixing model. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. Assimilation of GOES satellite-based convective initiation and cloud growth observations into the Rapid Refresh and HRRR systems to improve aviation forecast guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecikalski, John; Smith, Tracy; Weygandt, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Latent heating profiles derived from GOES satellite-based cloud-top cooling rates are being assimilated into a retrospective version of the Rapid Refresh system (RAP) being run at the Global Systems Division. Assimilation of these data may help reduce the time lag for convection initiation (CI) in both the RAP model forecasts and in 3-km High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model runs that are initialized off of the RAP model grids. These data may also improve both the location and organization of developing convective storm clusters, especially in the nested HRRR runs. These types of improvements are critical for providing better convective storm guidance around busy hub airports and aviation corridor routes, especially in the highly congested Ohio Valley - Northeast - Mid-Atlantic region. Additional work is focusing on assimilating GOES-R CI algorithm cloud-top cooling-based latent heating profiles directly into the HRRR model. Because of the small-scale nature of the convective phenomena depicted in the cloud-top cooling rate data (on the order of 1-4 km scale), direct assimilation of these data in the HRRR may be more effective than assimilation in the RAP. The RAP is an hourly assimilation system developed at NOAA/ESRL and was implemented at NCEP as a NOAA operational model in May 2012. The 3-km HRRR runs hourly out to 15 hours as a nest within the ESRL real-time experimental RAP. The RAP and HRRR both use the WRF ARW model core, and the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) is used within an hourly cycle to assimilate a wide variety of observations (including radar data) to initialize the RAP. Within this modeling framework, the cloud-top cooling rate-based latent heating profiles are applied as prescribed heating during the diabatic forward model integration part of the RAP digital filter initialization (DFI). No digital filtering is applied on the 3-km HRRR grid, but similar forward model integration with prescribed heating is used to assimilate

  17. A Unified Satellite-Observation Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) Database for Long-Term Climate-Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Michael; Pitts, Michael; Alfred, Jerome

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the project team's activity and accomplishments during the period 12 February, 1999 - 12 February, 2000. The primary objective of this project was to create and test a generic algorithm for detecting polar stratospheric clouds (PSC), an algorithm that would permit creation of a unified, long term PSC database from a variety of solar occultation instruments that measure aerosol extinction near 1000 nm The second objective was to make a database of PSC observations and certain relevant related datasets. In this report we describe the algorithm, the data we are making available, and user access options. The remainder of this document provides the details of the algorithm and the database offering.

  18. High-resolution satellite-based cloud-coupled estimates of total downwelling surface radiation for hydrologic modelling applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Forman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple satellite-based radiation model yielding high-resolution (in space and time downwelling longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes at the Earth's surface is presented. The primary aim of the approach is to provide a basis for deriving physically consistent forcing fields for distributed hydrologic models using satellite-based remote sensing data. The physically-based downwelling radiation model utilises satellite inputs from both geostationary and polar-orbiting platforms and requires only satellite-based inputs except that of a climatological lookup table derived from a regional climate model. Comparison against ground-based measurements over a 14-month simulation period in the Southern Great Plains of the United States demonstrates the ability to reproduce radiative fluxes at a spatial resolution of 4 km and a temporal resolution of 1 h with good accuracy during all-sky conditions. For hourly fluxes, a mean difference of −2 W m−2 with a root mean square difference of 21 W m−2 was found for the longwave fluxes whereas a mean difference of −7 W m−2 with a root mean square difference of 29 W m−2 was found for the shortwave fluxes. Additionally, comparison against advanced downwelling longwave and solar insolation products during all-sky conditions showed comparable uncertainty in the longwave estimates and reduced uncertainty in the shortwave estimates. The relatively simple form of the model enables future usage in ensemble-based applications including data assimilation frameworks in order to explicitly account for input uncertainties while providing the potential for conditioning estimates from other readily available products derived from more sophisticated retrieval algorithms.

  19. Cloud Base Height Estimation from ISCCP Cloud-Type Classification Applied to A-Train Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud base height (CBH is an important cloud macro parameter that plays a key role in global radiation balance and aviation flight. Building on a previous algorithm, CBH is estimated by combining measurements from CloudSat/CALIPSO and MODIS based on the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP cloud-type classification and a weighted distance algorithm. Additional constraints on cloud water path (CWP and cloud top height (CTH are introduced. The combined algorithm takes advantage of active and passive remote sensing to effectively estimate CBH in a wide-swath imagery where the cloud vertical structure details are known only along the curtain slice of the nonscanning active sensors. Comparisons between the estimated and observed CBHs show high correlation. The coefficient of association (R2 is 0.8602 with separation distance between donor and recipient points in the range of 0 to 100 km and falls off to 0.5856 when the separation distance increases to the range of 401 to 600 km. Also, differences are mainly within 1 km when separation distance ranges from 0 km to 600 km. The CBH estimation method was applied to the 3D cloud structure of Tropical Cyclone Bill, and the method is further assessed by comparing CTH estimated by the algorithm with the MODIS CTH product.

  20. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  1. Radiative Effect of Clouds on Tropospheric Chemistry: Sensitivity to Cloud Vertical Distributions and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Pierce, R. B.; Considine, D. B.; Logan, J. A.; Duncan, B. N.; Norris, P.; Platnick, S. E.; Chen, G.; Yantosca, R. M.; Evans, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Representation of clouds in global models poses a significant challenge since most cloud processes occur on sub-grid scales and must be parameterized. Uncertainties in cloud distributions and optical properties are therefore a limiting factor in model assessments of the radiative effect of clouds on global tropospheric chemistry. We present an analysis of the sensitivity of the radiative effect of clouds to cloud vertical distributions and optical properties with the use of the GEOS-CHEM global 3-D chemistry transport model coupled with the Fast-J radiative transfer algorithm. GEOS-CHEM was driven with a series of meteorological archives (GEOS1-STRAT, GEOS-3, and GEOS-4) generated by the Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation system (GEOS DAS) at the NASA global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), which have significantly different cloud optical depths and vertical distributions. The column cloud optical depths in GEOS-3 generally agree with the satellite retrieval products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) within ±10%, while those in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-4 are too low by factors of about 5 and 2, respectively. With respect to vertical distribution, clouds in GEOS-4 are optically much thinner in the tropical upper troposphere compared to those in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3. Assuming linear scaling of cloud optical depth with cloud fraction in a grid-box, our model calculations indicate that the changes in global mean hydroxyl radical (OH) due to the radiative effect of clouds in June are about -1% (GEOS1-STRAT), 1% (GEOS-3), and 14% (GEOS-4), respectively. The effects on global mean OH are similar for GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3 due to similar vertical distributions of clouds, even though the column cloud optical depths in the two archives differ by a factor of about 5. Clouds in GEOS-4 have a much larger impact on global mean OH because more solar radiation is

  2. External Influences on Modeled and Observed Cloud Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Kate; Zelinka, Mark; Klein, Stephen A.; Bonfils, Celine; Caldwell, Peter; Doutriaux, Charles; Santer, Benjamin D.; Taylor, Karl E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the cloud response to external forcing is a major challenge for climate science. This crucial goal is complicated by intermodel differences in simulating present and future cloud cover and by observational uncertainty. This is the first formal detection and attribution study of cloud changes over the satellite era. Presented herein are CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 5) model-derived fingerprints of externally forced changes to three cloud properties: the latitudes at which the zonally averaged total cloud fraction (CLT) is maximized or minimized, the zonal average CLT at these latitudes, and the height of high clouds at these latitudes. By considering simultaneous changes in all three properties, the authors define a coherent multivariate fingerprint of cloud response to external forcing and use models from phase 5 of CMIP (CMIP5) to calculate the average time to detect these changes. It is found that given perfect satellite cloud observations beginning in 1983, the models indicate that a detectable multivariate signal should have already emerged. A search is then made for signals of external forcing in two observational datasets: ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) and PATMOS-x (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Pathfinder Atmospheres - Extended). The datasets are both found to show a poleward migration of the zonal CLT pattern that is incompatible with forced CMIP5 models. Nevertheless, a detectable multivariate signal is predicted by models over the PATMOS-x time period and is indeed present in the dataset. Despite persistent observational uncertainties, these results present a strong case for continued efforts to improve these existing satellite observations, in addition to planning for new missions.

  3. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest. A First Multiyear Assessment Based on Data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hongbin [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Chin, Mian [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Yuan, Tianle [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bian, Huisheng [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Remer, L. A. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Prospero, J. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Omar, Ali [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Winker, D. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Yang, Yuekui [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); Zhang, Yan [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); Zhang, Zhibo [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8~48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8~50) kg ha-1 a-1. The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006~0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7~39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input is comparable to the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  4. November 17-18, 1975: A clue to an internal structure of magnetic clouds?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandas, Marek; Geranios, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 106, A2 (2001), s. 1849-1858 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/1712; GA AV ČR KSK1042603; GA MŠk ME 183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : magnetic cloud s * coronal mass ejections * interplanetary magnetic filed Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.609, year: 2001

  5. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  6. A Novel Satellite Mission Concept for Upper Air Water Vapour, Aerosol and Cloud Observations Using Integrated Path Differential Absorption LiDAR Limb Sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Weitnauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new satellite mission to deliver high quality measurements of upper air water vapour. The concept centres around a LiDAR in limb sounding by occultation geometry, designed to operate as a very long path system for differential absorption measurements. We present a preliminary performance analysis with a system sized to send 75 mJ pulses at 25 Hz at four wavelengths close to 935 nm, to up to 5 microsatellites in a counter-rotating orbit, carrying retroreflectors characterized by a reflected beam divergence of roughly twice the emitted laser beam divergence of 15 µrad. This provides water vapour profiles with a vertical sampling of 110 m; preliminary calculations suggest that the system could detect concentrations of less than 5 ppm. A secondary payload of a fairly conventional medium resolution multispectral radiometer allows wide-swath cloud and aerosol imaging. The total weight and power of the system are estimated at 3 tons and 2,700 W respectively. This novel concept presents significant challenges, including the performance of the lasers in space, the tracking between the main spacecraft and the retroreflectors, the refractive effects of turbulence, and the design of the telescopes to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio for the high precision measurements. The mission concept was conceived at the Alpbach Summer School 2010.

  7. Limits to Cloud Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, James A., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    1-kilometer AVHRR observations of ship tracks in low-level clouds off the west coast of the U S. were used to determine limits for the degree to which clouds might be altered by increases in anthropogenic aerosols. Hundreds of tracks were analyzed to determine whether the changes in droplet radii, visible optical depths, and cloud top altitudes that result from the influx of particles from underlying ships were consistent with expectations based on simple models for the indirect effect of aerosols. The models predict substantial increases in sunlight reflected by polluted clouds due to the increases in droplet numbers and cloud liquid water that result from the elevated particle concentrations. Contrary to the model predictions, the analysis of ship tracks revealed a 15-20% reduction in liquid water for the polluted clouds. Studies performed with a large-eddy cloud simulation model suggested that the shortfall in cloud liquid water found in the satellite observations might be attributed to the restriction that the 1-kilometer pixels be completely covered by either polluted or unpolluted cloud. The simulation model revealed that a substantial fraction of the indirect effect is caused by a horizontal redistribution of cloud water in the polluted clouds. Cloud-free gaps in polluted clouds fill in with cloud water while the cloud-free gaps in the surrounding unpolluted clouds remain cloud-free. By limiting the analysis to only overcast pixels, the current study failed to account for the gap-filling predicted by the simulation model. This finding and an analysis of the spatial variability of marine stratus suggest new ways to analyze ship tracks to determine the limit to which particle pollution will alter the amount of sunlight reflected by clouds.

  8. High-Velocity Cloud Complex H and Weaver's "Jet": Two candidate dwarf satellite galaxies for which dark matter halo models indicate distances of ~27 kpc and ~108 kpc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, S. Christian

    2018-04-01

    Two anomalous-velocity H I features, High-Velocity Cloud Complex H (HVC H) (Blitz et al. 1999), and Weaver's "jet" (Weaver 1974), appear to be good candidates for dwarf satellites. In this work they are modeled as H I disks in dark matter halos that move in 3D orbits in the combined time-dependent gravitational fields of the Milky Way and M31. As they orbit in the Local Group they develop tidal distortions and produce debris. The current l,b,V appearance of the tidal features as they approach the Milky Way indicate distances of 27 ± 9 kpc for HVC H and 108 ± 36 kpc for Weaver's "jet". As these are within the distances to known Milky Way satellites, finding stellar components would be of interest for the star formation history of the Milky Way. This work uses recent Hubble Space Telescope results on M31 (van der Marel et al. 2012) to calculate the center-of-mass (COM) locations and the dark matter mass distributions of the Milky-Way—M31 system since the Big Bang. Time-dependent COM orbits of the satellites have been computed in 3D, along with rings of test particles representing their disks. Tidal effects that develop on these rings have been compared with published 21-cm line data from Lockman (2003) and Simonson (1975). For HVC H at l = 130.5°, b = +1.5°, V = -200 km/s, the dark matter mass (in solar masses) is estimated as 5.2 ± 3.5E8. The previously estimated H I mass is 6.4E6, or 1.2% of the newly derived satellite mass. For Weaver's "jet", which covers 2° by 7° at l = 197.3°, b = +2.1°, V = -30 to -87 km/s, the dark matter mass is estimated as 1.8 ± 0.6E9. The H I mass is 1.8 ± 1.1E8, or 6% to 12% of the satellite mass. In the case of HVC H, owing to its disk angle of 45°, tidal debris is thrown upward. This would presumably contribute to a halo star stream. In the case of Weaver's "jet", the streamer represents accreting material for the disk. I am grateful to Leo Blitz for bringing Lockman's work on HVC H to my attention and for many helpful

  9. Synchronized Position and Hold Reorient Experimental Satellites - International Space Station (SPHERES-ISS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. (PSI) and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory (MIT-SSL) propose an innovative research program entitled SPHERES-ISS that uses their satellite...

  10. Synchronized Position and Hold Reorient Experimental Satellites - International Space Station (SPHERES-ISS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. (PSI) and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory (MIT-SSL) propose an innovative research program entitled SPHERES-ISS that uses their satellite...

  11. 27-day solar forcing of mesospheric temperature, water vapor and polar mesospheric clouds from the AIM SOFIE and CIPS satellite experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; Thurairajah, Brentha; von Savigny, Christian; Hervig, Mark; Snow, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Solar cycle variations of ultraviolet radiation have been implicated in the 11-year and 27-day variations of Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) properties. Both of these variations have been attributed to variable solar ultraviolet heating and photolysis, but no definitive studies of the mechanisms are available. The solar forcing issue is critical toward answering the broader question of whether PMC's have undergone long-term changes, and if so, what is the nature of the responsible long-term climate forcings? One of the principal goals of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite mission was to answer the question: "How does changing solar irradiance affect PMCs and the environment in which they form?" We describe an eight-year data set from the AIM Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) and the AIM Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) experiment. Together, these instruments provide high-precision measurements of high-latitude summertime temperature (T), water vapor (H2O), and PMC ice properties for the period 2007-present. The complete temporal coverage of the summertime polar cap region for both the primary atmospheric forcings of PMC (T and H2O), together with a continually updated time series of Lyman-alpha solar irradiance, allows an in-depth study of the causes and effects of 27-day PMC variability. The small responses of these variables, relative to larger day-to-day changes from gravity waves, tides, inter-hemispheric coupling, etc. require a careful statistical analysis to isolate the solar influence. We present results for the 27-day responses of T, H2O and PMC for a total of 15 PMC seasons, (30 days before summer solstice to 60 days afterward, for both hemispheres). We find that the amplitudes and phase relationships are not consistent with the expected mechanisms of solar UV heating and photolysis - instead we postulate a primarily dynamical response, in which a periodic vertical wind heats/cools the upper mesosphere, and modulates PMC

  12. Accounting for the Effects of Surface BRDF on Satellite Cloud and Trace-Gas Retrievals: A New Approach Based on Geometry-Dependent Lambertian-Equivalent Reflectivity Applied to OMI Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Qin, Wenhan; Krotkov, Nickolay; Lamsal, Lok; Spurr, Robert; Haffner, David; Joiner, Joanna; Yang, Eun-Su; Marchenko, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Most satellite nadir ultraviolet and visible cloud, aerosol, and trace-gas algorithms make use of climatological surface reflectivity databases. For example, cloud and NO2 retrievals for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) use monthly gridded surface reflectivity climatologies that do not depend upon the observation geometry. In reality, reflection of incoming direct and diffuse solar light from land or ocean surfaces is sensitive to the sun-sensor geometry. This dependence is described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). To account for the BRDF, we propose to use a new concept of geometry-dependent Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (LER). Implementation within the existing OMI cloud and NO2 retrieval infrastructure requires changes only to the input surface reflectivity database. The geometry-dependent LER is calculated using a vector radiative transfer model with high spatial resolution BRDF information from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over land and the Cox-Munk slope distribution over ocean with a contribution from water-leaving radiance. We compare the geometry-dependent and climatological LERs for two wavelengths, 354 and 466 nm, that are used in OMI cloud algorithms to derive cloud fractions. A detailed comparison of the cloud fractions and pressures derived with climatological and geometry-dependent LERs is carried out. Geometry-dependent LER and corresponding retrieved cloud products are then used as inputs to our OMI NO2 algorithm. We find that replacing the climatological OMI-based LERs with geometry-dependent LERs can increase NO2 vertical columns by up to 50% in highly polluted areas; the differences include both BRDF effects and biases between the MODIS and OMI-based surface reflectance data sets. Only minor changes to NO2 columns (within 5 %) are found over unpolluted and overcast areas.

  13. Determine precipitation rates from visible and infrared satellite images of clouds by pattern recognition technique. Progress Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Mar. 1987 Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, James A.; Garan, Louis

    1987-01-01

    A more advanced cloud pattern analysis algorithm was subsequently developed to take the shape and brightness of the various clouds into account in a manner that is more consistent with the human analyst's perception of GOES cloud imagery. The results of that classification scheme were compared with precipitation probabilities observed from ships of opportunity off the U.S. east coast to derive empirical regressions between cloud types and precipitation probability. The cloud morphology was then quantitatively and objectively used to map precipitation probabilities during two winter months during which severe cold air outbreaks were observed over the northwest Atlantic. Precipitation probabilities associated with various cloud types are summarized. Maps of precipitation probability derived from the cloud morphology analysis program for two months and the precipitation probability derived from thirty years of ship observation were observed.

  14. Application of the CERES Flux-by-Cloud Type Simulator to GCM Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzen, Zachary; Su, Wenying; Xu, Kuan-Man; Loeb, Norman G.; Sun, Moguo; Doelling, David R.; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The CERES Flux By CloudType data product produces CERES top-of-atmosphere (TOA) fluxes by region and cloud type. Here, the cloud types are defined by cloud optical depth (t) and cloud top pressure (pc), with bins similar to those used by ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project). This data product has the potential to be a powerful tool for the evaluation of the clouds produced by climate models by helping to identify which physical parameterizations have problems (e.g., boundary-layer parameterizations, convective clouds, processes that affect surface albedo). Also, when the flux-by-cloud type and frequency of cloud types are simultaneously used to evaluate a model, the results can determine whether an unrealistically large or small occurrence of a given cloud type has an important radiative impact for a given region. A simulator of the flux-by-cloud type product has been applied to three-hourly data from the year 2008 from the UK Met Office HadGEM2-A model using the Langley Fu-Lour radiative transfer model to obtain TOA SW and LW fluxes.

  15. Scale analysis of convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Gryschka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution of cumulus clouds due to shallow and deep convection is analyzed using satellite pictures, LES model results and data from the German rain radar network. The size distributions found can be described by simple power laws as has also been proposed for other cloud data in the literature. As the observed precipitation at ground stations is finally determined by cloud numbers in an area and individual sizes and rain rates of single clouds, the cloud size distributions might be used for developing empirical precipitation forecasts or for validating results from cloud resolving models being introduced to routine weather forecasts.

  16. Single-Bunch Instability Driven by the Electron Cloud Effect in the Positron Damping Ring of the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, Mauro; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Ghalam, Ali; Harkay, Katherine; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Collective instabilities caused by the formation of an electron cloud (EC) are a potential limitation to the performances of the damping rings for a future linear collider. In this paper, we present recent simulation results for the electron cloud build-up in damping rings of different circumferences and discuss the single-bunch instabilities driven by the electron cloud

  17. Cloud condensation nucleus activity of internally mixed ammonium sulfate/organic acid aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatt, J. P. D.; Broekhuizen, K.; Pradeep Kumar, P.

    The ability of mixed ammonium sulfate/organic acid particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) has been studied in the laboratory using a continuous flow, thermal-gradient diffusion chamber operated at supersaturations between 0.3% and 0.6%. The organic acids studied were malonic acid, azelaic acid, hexanoic acid, cis-pinonic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid, and the particles were largely prepared by condensation of the organic vapor onto a dry ammonium sulfate core. For malonic acid and hexanoic acid, the mixed particles activated as predicted by a simple Köhler theory model where both species are assumed to be fully soluble and the droplet has the surface tension of water. Three low-solubility species, cis-pinonic acid, azelaic acid and oleic acid, are well modeled where the acid was assumed to be either partially or fully insoluble. Interestingly, although thin coats of stearic acid behaved in a manner similar to that displayed by oleic and cis-pinonic acid, we observed that thick coats led to a complete deactivation of the ammonium sulfate, presumably because the water vapor could not diffuse through the solid stearic acid. We observed no CCN behavior that could be clearly attributed to a lowering of the surface tension of the growing droplet by the presence of the organic constituents, some of which are highly surface active.

  18. Internal structure and stability of an interstellar cloud heated by an external flux of soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabano, Yutaka; Tosa, Makoto

    1975-01-01

    We study the properties of an interstellar gas cloud which is heated by an external flux of soft X-rays and has a uniform pressure distribution. The heating flux is significantly attenuated inside the cloud even for a rather small cloud, and the central region of the cloud is much cooler and denser than that heated uniformly, hence the cloud can be compressed easier. The stability of such a gas cloud and its implications for the process of star formation are discussed on the basis of the two-phase model of the interstellar medium. The large scale galactic shock seems important as a triggering mechanism for the formation of a dense cloud and for the gravitational collapse leading to star formation. (author)

  19. Small Earth Observing Satellites Flying with Large Satellites in the A-Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Loverro, Adam; Case, Warren F.; Queruel, Nadege; Marechal, Chistophe; Barroso, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This paper/poster presents a real-life example of the benefits of flying small satellites with other satellites, large or small, and vice versa. Typically, most small satellites fly payloads consisting of one or two instruments and fly in orbits that are independent from that of other satellites. The science data from these satellites are either used in isolation or correlated with instrument data from other satellites. Data correlation with other satellites is greatly improved when the measurements of the same point or air mass are taken at approximately the same time. Scientists worldwide are beginning to take advantage of the opportunities for improved data correlation, or coincidental science, offered by the international Earth Observing Constellation known as the A-Train (sometimes referred to as the Afternoon Constellation). Most of the A-Train satellites are small - the A-Train is anchored by two large NASA satellites (EOS-Aqua and EOS-Aura), but consists also of 5 small satellites (CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, OCO and Glory these last two will join in 2009). By flying in a constellation, each mission benefits from coincidental observations from instruments on the other satellites in the constellation. Essentially, from a data point of view, the A-Train can be envisioned as a single, virtual science platform with multiple instruments. Satellites in the A-Train fly at 705 km in sun-synchronous orbits. Their mean local times at the equator are within seconds to a few minutes of each other. This paper describes the challenges of operating an international constellation of independent satellites from the U.S. and Europe to maximize the coincidental science opportunities while at the same time minimizing the level of operational interactions required between team members. The A-Train mission teams have been able to demonstrate that flying as members of an international constellation does not take away the flexibility to accommodate new requirements. Specific

  20. Cloud GIS Based Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediroğlu, G.; Colak, H. E.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service) and DAAS (Data as a Service). We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries). We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes), Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  1. CLOUD GIS BASED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bediroğlu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service and DAAS (Data as a Service. We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries. We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes, Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  2. Micro/mini Satellites for Earthquake Studies — Toward International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J. Y.; Chen, C. Y.; Kodama, T.

    2010-05-01

    Past studies show that the effects of earthquakes appear in the ionosphere prior to large earthquakes, and recently the number of the papers which report the precursor effect has rapidly increased and the content of these papers is becoming more compelling. However the results are still not fully convincing, because the number of the events, which are studied from ground as well as satellite based measurements, are not sufficient to deduce the morphology of the effects; the data presented is still not fully persuasive. In the first part of this paper, we describe the precursor behavior obtained by the Japanese satellite “HINOTORI” as well as the US satellite “Dynamic Explorer-2”. We then discuss the problems, which we encountered in deducing the morphology associated with earthquake precursors. To establish he morphology is the first step in solving the mechanism for earthquakes to influence the ionosphere. Since the data which have been reported suggest a high probability for large earthquake to be forecast, we propose collaborating to launch micro-/minisatellites, especially among the countries who suffer from earthquake disasters, and to share the mission costs. Key issues, which should be taken into account for the mission, are also discussed.

  3. Intraseasonal variability of the cloud amount in the mid-latitude during the boreal winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, R.; Nishi, N.; Mukougawa, H.

    2016-12-01

    Global cloud data observed by geostationary satellites has been archived over 30 years and is long enough to conduct statistical analyses of low frequency variabilities of various cloud properties such as cloud amount. We investigate the intraseasonal variability of cloud properties in the boreal winter to clarify whether the variation is related to large-scale intraseasonal disturbances including quasi-stationary Rossby waves and blockings, by using Reanalysis Interim (ERA-interim) data from European Centre Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and D1 data obtained from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). By examining correlation coefficients among the time series of geopotential height (Φ), temperature (T), and the cloud amount fields which are band-pass filtered with a period of 15-60 days, we find a significant relationship among them over a region extending from the south of the Caspian Sea to Japan; the cloud amount attains a maximum when T near the surface and Φ at 500 hPa have maximum decreasing rates in time. The cloud amount also has a significant relationship with the zonal gradient of Φ in this region: a trough is located to the west of the maximum of the cloud amount. Moreover, the correlation between the tendency of Φ at 500hPa and the cloud amount is larger in the years when eastward moving Rossby waves are conspicuous, which suggests a controlling effect of eastward moving Rossby waves on the cloud amount over the region. In contrast, the phase relationship among the cloud amount, Φ, and T is found to be fairly different over the Pacific and the North America. Hence, we will discuss the regionality of the relationship in terms of spatio-temporal characteristics of large-scale intraseasonal distrurbances and climatic environment to affect the cloud properties.

  4. Defining a Communications Satellite Policy System for the 21st Century: A Model for a International Legal Framework and A New _Code of Conduct_

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper addresses the changing international communications environment and explores the key elements of a new policy framework for the 21st Century. It addresses the issues related to changing markets, trade considerations, standards, regulatory changes and international institutions and law. The most important aspects will related to new international policy and regulatory frameworks and in particular to a new international code of ethics and behavior in the field of satellite communications. A new communications satellite policy framework requires systematically addressing the following points: • Multi-lateral agreements at the nation state and the operating entity level • Systematic means to access both private and public capital • Meshing ITU regulations with regional and national policy guidelines including • landing rights" and national allocation procedures. • Systematic approach to local partnerships • Resolving the issue of the relative standing of various satellite systems (i.e. GEO, MEO, and LEO systems) • Resolving the rights, duties, and priorities of satellite facility providers versus types of service prviders. Beyond this policy framework and generalized legal infrastructure there is also another need. This is a need that arises from both increased globalism and competitive international markets. This is what might quite simply be called a "code of reasonable conduct:" To provide global and international communications services effectively and well in the 21st Century will require more than meeting minimum international legal requirements. A new "code of conduct" for global satellite communications will thus likely need to address: • Privacy and surveillance • Ethics of transborder data flow • Censorship and moral values • Cultural and linguistic sensitivity • Freedom of the press and respect for journalistic standards As expanding global information and telecommunications systems grow and impact every aspect of modern

  5. Observations of regional and local variability in the optical properties of maritime clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.B. [Univ. of Colorado at Boulder/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W. [Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    White and Fairall (1995) calculated the optical properties of the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) and compared their results with the results obtained by Fairall et al. for the MBL clouds observed during the First International Satellite Climatology Program (ISSCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE). They found a factor of two difference in the optical depth versus liquid water relationship that applies to the clouds observed in each case. In the present study, we present evidence to support this difference. We also investigate the local variability exhibited in the ASTEX optical properties using measurements of the boundary layer aerosol concentration.

  6. Comparison of cloud statistics from spaceborne lidar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Berthier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of clouds in a vertical column is assessed on the global scale through analysis of lidar measurements obtained from three spaceborne lidar systems: LITE (Lidar In-space Technology Experiment, NASA, GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System, NASA, and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization. Cloud top height (CTH is obtained from the LITE profiles based on a simple algorithm that accounts for multilayer cloud structures. The resulting CTH results are compared to those obtained by the operational algorithms of the GLAS and CALIOP instruments. Based on our method, spaceborne lidar data are analyzed to establish statistics on the cloud top height. The resulting columnar results are used to investigate the inter-annual variability in the lidar cloud top heights. Statistical analyses are performed for a range of CTH (high, middle, low and latitudes (polar, middle latitude and tropical. Probability density functions of CTH are developed. Comparisons of CTH developed from LITE, for 2 weeks of data in 1994, with ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud products show that the cloud fraction observed from spaceborne lidar is much higher than that from ISCCP. Another key result is that ISCCP products tend to underestimate the CTH of optically thin cirrus clouds. Significant differences are observed between LITE-derived cirrus CTH and both GLAS and CALIOP-derived cirrus CTH. Such a difference is due primarily to the lidar signal-to-noise ratio that is approximately a factor of 3 larger for the LITE system than for the other lidars. A statistical analysis for a full year of data highlights the influence of both the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone and polar stratospheric clouds.

  7. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  8. A comparison of cirrus clouds determined by ISCCP and SAGE-II and their relation to convection in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    Results of tropical thin cirrus cloud retrievals using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gaseous Experiment (SAGE-II) data from January 1985 are presented. A preliminary analysis of the results shows that thin cirrus increases with increasing height in both data sets, and SAGE-II exhibits a high frequency of occurrence. The thin cirrus extinction coefficient shows maxima around the convective regions of South America and the western Pacific Ocean.

  9. Solar variability and clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2000-01-01

    Satellite observations have revealed a surprising imprint of the 11- year solar cycle on global low cloud cover. The cloud data suggest a correlation with the intensity of Galactic cosmic rays. If this apparent connection between cosmic rays and clouds is real, variations of the cosmic ray flux caused by long-term changes in the solar wind could have a significant influence on the global energy radiation budget and the climate. However a direct link between cosmic rays and clouds has not been unambiguously established and, moreover, the microphysical mechanism is poorly understood. New experiments are being planned to find out whether cosmic rays can affect cloud formation, and if so how. (37 refs).

  10. The effect of cloud type on earth's energy balance - Results for selected regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockert-Bell, Maureen E.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    1992-01-01

    International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) C1 cloud information is compared with planetary albedo, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation measured at the top of the atmosphere by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Principal component analysis indicates that the day-to-day variations of the abundances of the 35 cloud types of the C1 data are correlated with each other, so that for many purposes the data set can be well represented by about five cloud types. Using stepwise multiple regression, the ISCCP C1 data can be used to predict the day-to-day variations of the energy balance measured by ERBE for 2.5-deg regions. Total fractional area coverage of cloudiness is a relatively poor predictor of radiation budget quantities. If the total fractional area coverage by clouds is divided into contributions from several distinct cloud types, the fractional coverages by these several cloud types will together form a much better prediction of radiation budget quantities than the single variable of total fractional-area cloud coverage. The regression equations can be used to estimate the net effect of clouds on the radiation balance and the contributions from particular types of clouds to albedo, OLR, and net radiation.

  11. When electrons meet molecular ions and what happens next: dissociative recombination from interstellar molecular clouds to internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of matter with its environment is the driving force behind the evolution of 99% of the observed matter in the universe. The majority of the visible universe exists in a state of weak ionization, the so called fourth state of matter: plasma. Plasmas are ubiquitous, from those occurring naturally; interstellar molecular clouds, cometary comae, circumstellar shells, to those which are anthropic in origin; flames, combustion engines and fusion reactors. The evolution of these plasmas is driven by the interaction of the plasma constituents, the ions, and the electrons. One of the most important subsets of these reactions is electron-molecular ion recombination. This process is significant for two very important reasons. It is an ionization reducing reaction, removing two ionised species and producing neutral products. Furthermore, these products may themselves be reactive radical species which can then further drive the evolution of the plasma. The rate at which the electron reacts with the ion depends on many parameters, for examples the collision energy, the internal energy of the ion, and the structure of the ion itself. Measuring these properties together with the manner in which the system breaks up is therefore critical if the evolution of the environment is to be understood at all. Several techniques have been developed to study just such reactions to obtain the necessary information on the parameters. In this paper the focus will be on one the most recently developed of these, the Ion Storage Ring, together with the detection tools and techniques used to extract the necessary information from the reaction. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of cloud boundaries on reflected radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, James A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of cloud boundaries on cloud reflectivity are evaluated by comparing satellite-observed reflectivities for layered clouds that are uniform over scales that are large compared with the field of view of the satellite radiometer and those of the same clouds where they are broken on scales which are small compared with the field of view. Results are given for 1 km AVHRR data. The reflectivities are compared at 0.63 micron for which droplets in stratiform water clouds are nonabsorbing, and at 3.7 microns where the single-scattering albedo of the droplets is typically about 0.9 micron.

  13. Advances in Understanding the Role of Aerosols on Ice Clouds from the Fifth International Ice Nucleation (FIN) Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziczo, D. J.; Moehler, O.; DeMott, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    The relationship of ambient aerosol particles to the formation of ice-containing clouds is one of the largest uncertainties in understanding climate. This is due to several poorly understood processes including the microphysics of how particles nucleate ice, the number of effective heterogeneous ice nuclei and their atmospheric distribution, the role of anthropogenic activities in producing or changing the behavior of ice forming particles and the interplay between effective heterogeneous ice nuclei and homogeneous ice formation. Our team recently completed a three-part international workshop to improve our understanding of atmospheric ice formation. Termed the Fifth International Ice Nucleation (FIN) Workshops, our motivation was the limited number of measurements and a lack of understanding of how to compare data acquired by different groups. The first activity, termed FIN1, addressed the characterization of ice nucleating particle size, number and chemical composition. FIN2 addressed the determination of ice nucleating particle number density. Groups modeling ice nucleation joined FIN2 to provide insight on measurements critically needed to model atmospheric ice nucleation and to understand the performance of ice chambers. FIN1 and FIN2 took place at the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. A particular emphasis of FIN1 and FIN2 was the use of 'blind' intercomparisons using a highly characterized, but unknown to the instrument operators, aerosol sample. The third activity, FIN3, took place at the Desert Research Institute's Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL). A high elevation site not subject to local emissions, SPL allowed for a comparison of ice chambers and subsequent analysis of the ice residuals under the challenging conditions of low particle loading, temperature and pressure found in the atmosphere. The presentation focuses on the improvement in understanding how mass spectra from different

  14. Satellite myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David

    2008-01-01

    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  15. SPARC Data Initiative: A comparison of ozone climatologies from international satellite limb sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeier, S.; Hegglin, M. I.; Anderson, J.; Bourassa, A.; Brohede, S.; Degenstein, D.; Froidevaux, L.; Fuller, R.; Funke, B.; Gille, J.; Jones, A.; Kasai, Y.; Krüger, K.; Kyrölä, E.; Lingenfelser, G.; Lumpe, J.; Nardi, B.; Neu, J.; Pendlebury, D.; Remsberg, E.; Rozanov, A.; Smith, L.; Toohey, M.; Urban, J.; von Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, R. H. J.

    2013-11-01

    comprehensive quality assessment of the ozone products from 18 limb-viewing satellite instruments is provided by means of a detailed intercomparison. The ozone climatologies in form of monthly zonal mean time series covering the upper troposphere to lower mesosphere are obtained from LIMS, SAGE I/II/III, UARS-MLS, HALOE, POAM II/III, SMR, OSIRIS, MIPAS, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY, ACE-FTS, ACE-MAESTRO, Aura-MLS, HIRDLS, and SMILES within 1978-2010. The intercomparisons focus on mean biases of annual zonal mean fields, interannual variability, and seasonal cycles. Additionally, the physical consistency of the data is tested through diagnostics of the quasi-biennial oscillation and Antarctic ozone hole. The comprehensive evaluations reveal that the uncertainty in our knowledge of the atmospheric ozone mean state is smallest in the tropical and midlatitude middle stratosphere with a 1σ multi-instrument spread of less than ±5%. While the overall agreement among the climatological data sets is very good for large parts of the stratosphere, individual discrepancies have been identified, including unrealistic month-to-month fluctuations, large biases in particular atmospheric regions, or inconsistencies in the seasonal cycle. Notable differences between the data sets exist in the tropical lower stratosphere (with a spread of ±30%) and at high latitudes (±15%). In particular, large relative differences are identified in the Antarctic during the time of the ozone hole, with a spread between the monthly zonal mean fields of ±50%. The evaluations provide guidance on what data sets are the most reliable for applications such as studies of ozone variability, model-measurement comparisons, detection of long-term trends, and data-merging activities.

  16. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Luo, Zhiguo; Du, Yujian; Guo, Leitao

    In order to support the maximum number of user and elastic service with the minimum resource, the Internet service provider invented the cloud computing. within a few years, emerging cloud computing has became the hottest technology. From the publication of core papers by Google since 2003 to the commercialization of Amazon EC2 in 2006, and to the service offering of AT&T Synaptic Hosting, the cloud computing has been evolved from internal IT system to public service, from cost-saving tools to revenue generator, and from ISP to telecom. This paper introduces the concept, history, pros and cons of cloud computing as well as the value chain and standardization effort.

  17. Cloud climatology at the Andes/Amazon Transition in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, K.; New, M. G.; Malhi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The climate of tropical montane regions is complex but may be sensitive to global change. We examine the local and regional cloud climatology of a region of the tropical Andes in Peru using corrected ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) DX cloud product (1983-2008), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) MOD35 visible cloud flags (2000-2008) and ground-based cloud observations. The results were compared for three zones: highlands (grassland), eastern slope (the montane forest) and lowlands (tropical forest). We found that in the dry season (JJA) the study area is part of a localised region of increased cloud frequency relative to the highlands, lowlands and other parts the eastern slope, which is likely to result from the mean low-level wind trajectory and diurnal upslope flow. The highlands exhibited the greatest amplitude mean annual cycle of cloud frequency, with a minimum in June for all times of day. This was linked to the effect of the annual cycle of upper level zonal winds, with persistent westerlies in the austral winter suppressing cloud formation at higher elevations. Higher lowland cloud frequencies than those on the eastern slope in the morning in May and June suggest the persistence of nighttime downslope flows and low-level convergence at lower altitudes. We also examined trends and variability in cloud cover for the three zones, and their relationship to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Lowland cloud frequencies were significantly correlated with tropical North Atlantic (TNA) SSTs in February, March, August and September, but this was reduced after detrending, whereas the eastern slope and the highlands were not significantly correlated with tropical North Atlantic SSTs. Pacific SST correlations were highest for the eastern slope and highlands from February to April. Indian Ocean SST anomalies were significantly correlated with dry season cloud frequency for the lowlands and

  18. Use of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite to Promote International Distance Education Programs for Georgetown University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Harold; Kauffman, Amy

    1996-01-01

    Georgetown's distance education program is designed to demonstrate to faculty and administrators the feasibility and desirability of using two-way video transmission for international education. These programs will extend the reach of Georgetown's educational offerings; enrich the curriculum and content of Georgetown's offerings by interaction with institutions in other nations; enhance the world view of the School of Business Administration; enable Georgetown to share its resources with other institutions outside of the United States; and promote Commerce within the Americas. The primary reason for this pilot program is to evaluate the effectiveness and economic viability of offering academic courses and Small Business Development training.

  19. SPARC Data Initiative: Comparison of water vapor climatologies from international satellite limb sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegglin, M. I.; Tegtmeier, S.; Anderson, J.; Froidevaux, L.; Fuller, R.; Funke, B.; Jones, A.; Lingenfelser, G.; Lumpe, J.; Pendlebury, D.; Remsberg, E.; Rozanov, A.; Toohey, M.; Urban, J.; von Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, R.; Weigel, K.

    2013-10-01

    Within the SPARC Data Initiative, the first comprehensive assessment of the quality of 13 water vapor products from 11 limb-viewing satellite instruments (LIMS, SAGE II, UARS-MLS, HALOE, POAM III, SMR, SAGE III, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, ACE-FTS, and Aura-MLS) obtained within the time period 1978-2010 has been performed. Each instrument's water vapor profile measurements were compiled into monthly zonal mean time series on a common latitude-pressure grid. These time series serve as basis for the "climatological" validation approach used within the project. The evaluations include comparisons of monthly or annual zonal mean cross sections and seasonal cycles in the tropical and extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere averaged over one or more years, comparisons of interannual variability, and a study of the time evolution of physical features in water vapor such as the tropical tape recorder and polar vortex dehydration. Our knowledge of the atmospheric mean state in water vapor is best in the lower and middle stratosphere of the tropics and midlatitudes, with a relative uncertainty of ±2-6% (as quantified by the standard deviation of the instruments' multiannual means). The uncertainty increases toward the polar regions (±10-15%), the mesosphere (±15%), and the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere below 100 hPa (±30-50%), where sampling issues add uncertainty due to large gradients and high natural variability in water vapor. The minimum found in multiannual (1998-2008) mean water vapor in the tropical lower stratosphere is 3.5 ppmv (±14%), with slightly larger uncertainties for monthly mean values. The frequently used HALOE water vapor data set shows consistently lower values than most other data sets throughout the atmosphere, with increasing deviations from the multi-instrument mean below 100 hPa in both the tropics and extratropics. The knowledge gained from these comparisons and regarding the quality of the individual data sets in different regions

  20. Evaluation of cloud prediction and determination of critical relative humidity for a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, N.L.; Guo, Z.; Ackerman, T.P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Predictions of cloud occurrence and vertical location from the Pennsylvannia State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) were evaluated statistically using cloud observations obtained at Coffeyville, Kansas, as part of the Second International satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment campaign. Seventeen cases were selected for simulation during a November-December 1991 field study. MM5 was used to produce two sets of 36-km simulations, one with and one without four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA), and a set of 12-km simulations without FDDA, but nested within the 36-km FDDA runs.

  1. Lost in Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.; Shetye, Sandeep D.; Chilukuri, Sri; Sturken, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing can reduce cost significantly because businesses can share computing resources. In recent years Small and Medium Businesses (SMB) have used Cloud effectively for cost saving and for sharing IT expenses. With the success of SMBs, many perceive that the larger enterprises ought to move into Cloud environment as well. Government agency s stove-piped environments are being considered as candidates for potential use of Cloud either as an enterprise entity or pockets of small communities. Cloud Computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than as a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network. Underneath the offered services, there exists a modern infrastructure cost of which is often spread across its services or its investors. As NASA is considered as an Enterprise class organization, like other enterprises, a shift has been occurring in perceiving its IT services as candidates for Cloud services. This paper discusses market trends in cloud computing from an enterprise angle and then addresses the topic of Cloud Computing for NASA in two possible forms. First, in the form of a public Cloud to support it as an enterprise, as well as to share it with the commercial and public at large. Second, as a private Cloud wherein the infrastructure is operated solely for NASA, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The paper addresses the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms of public and private Clouds, in both internally and externally operated settings. The content of the paper is from a NASA perspective but is applicable to any large enterprise with thousands of employees and contractors.

  2. Tropical cloud and precipitation structures and regimes from multiple space-borne active sensors: New insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Luo, Z. J.; Rossow, W. B.; Anderson, R.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly five years of satellite observations provide a total of 15,986 intersect lines between TRMM and CloudSat/CALIPSO with all measurements made within 20 min of each other. This presents a rare opportunity for studying tropical cloud and precipitation regimes and their internal vertical structure from space-borne active sensors. We apply k-mean cluster analysis to these simultaneous observations and identify repetitive cloud/precipitation patterns and regimes. These radar-lidar based cloud regimes are then compared with ISCCP Weather States (WSs) for the extended tropics; results are generally positive with small discrepancies which can be attributed to the different sampling strategies between ISCCP and active sensors. In this presentation, we emphasize new insights and lessons learned from the study. First, the synergy between TRMM PR (Ku band) and CloudSat CPR (W-band) in depicting tropical convective cloud structures is revealed through the clustering analysis of the joint Height-Reflectivity Histograms. This finding has important implications for future satellite mission designs. Second, we explored a new data analysis approach, namely, a nested cluster analysis or sub-cluster. It is interesting to see that this new way of conducting cluster analysis yield fresh new insights into the structure and distribution of tropical clouds and precipitation. We will also discuss follow-up research that grows from this initial study.

  3. Active sensor synergy for arctic cloud microphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Kaori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on the retrieval of liquid and ice-phase cloud microphysics from spaceborne and ground-based lidar-cloud radar synergy. As an application of the cloud retrieval algorithm developed for the EarthCARE satellite mission (JAXA-ESA [1], the derived statistics of cloud microphysical properties in high latitudes and their relation to the Arctic climate are investigated.

  4. Clouds in GEOS-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacmeister, J.; Rienecker, M. M.; Suarez, M. J.; Norris, P. M.

    2007-05-01

    The GEOS-5 atmospheric model is being developed as a weather-and-climate capable model. It must perform well in assimilation mode as well as in weather and climate simulations and forecasts and in coupled chemistry-climate simulations. In developing GEOS-5, attention has focused on the representation of moist processes. The moist physics package uses a single phase prognostic condensate and a prognostic cloud fraction. Two separate cloud types are distinguished by their source: "anvil" cloud originates in detraining convection, and large-scale cloud originates in a PDF-based condensation calculation. Ice and liquid phases for each cloud type are considered. Once created, condensate and fraction from the anvil and statistical cloud types experience the same loss processes: evaporation of condensate and fraction, auto-conversion of liquid or mixed phase condensate, sedimentation of frozen condensate, and accretion of condensate by falling precipitation. The convective parameterization scheme is the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert, or RAS, scheme. Satellite data are used to evaluate the performance of the moist physics packages and help in their tuning. In addition, analysis of and comparisons to cloud-resolving models such as the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model are used to help improve the PDFs used in the moist physics. The presentation will show some of our evaluations including precipitation diagnostics.

  5. Concept for a Lunar Transfer Vehicle for Small Satellite Delivery to the Moon from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John; Alkalai, Leon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has developed as a very capable center for scientific research in Lower Earth Orbit. An additional potential of the ISS that has not thus far been exploited, is the use of this orbiting plat-form for the assembly and launching of vehicles that could be sent to more distant destinations. This paper reports the results of a recent study that looked at an architecture and conceptual flight system design for a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) that could be delivered to the ISS in segments, assembled, loaded with payload and launched from the ISS with the objective of delivering multiple small and micro satellites to lunar orbit. The design of the LTV was optimized for low cost and high payload capability, as well as ease of assembly. The resulting design would use solar electric propulsion (SEP) to carry a total payload mass of 250 kg from the ISS to a 100 km lunar orbit. A preliminary concept of operations was developed considering currently available delivery options and ISS capabili-ties that should prove flexible enough to accommodate a variety of payloads and missions. This paper will present an overview of the study, including key trades, mission and flight system design, and notional operational concept.

  6. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  7. Are Cloud Environments Ready for Scientific Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, P.; Shackleford, K.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud computing environments are becoming widely available both in the commercial and government sectors. They provide flexibility to rapidly provision resources in order to meet dynamic and changing computational needs without the customers incurring capital expenses and/or requiring technical expertise. Clouds also provide reliable access to resources even though the end-user may not have in-house expertise for acquiring or operating such resources. Consolidation and pooling in a cloud environment allow organizations to achieve economies of scale in provisioning or procuring computing resources and services. Because of these and other benefits, many businesses and organizations are migrating their business applications (e.g., websites, social media, and business processes) to cloud environments-evidenced by the commercial success of offerings such as the Amazon EC2. In this paper, we focus on the feasibility of utilizing cloud environments for scientific workloads and workflows particularly of interest to NASA scientists and engineers. There is a wide spectrum of such technical computations. These applications range from small workstation-level computations to mid-range computing requiring small clusters to high-performance simulations requiring supercomputing systems with high bandwidth/low latency interconnects. Data-centric applications manage and manipulate large data sets such as satellite observational data and/or data previously produced by high-fidelity modeling and simulation computations. Most of the applications are run in batch mode with static resource requirements. However, there do exist situations that have dynamic demands, particularly ones with public-facing interfaces providing information to the general public, collaborators and partners, as well as to internal NASA users. In the last few months we have been studying the suitability of cloud environments for NASA's technical and scientific workloads. We have ported several applications to

  8. Surface radiation budget in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) effort and in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, Thomas P.; Smith, G. L.; Rose, Fred G.

    1990-01-01

    The surface radiation budget (SRB) and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (ARD) are vital components of the weather and climate system. The importance of radiation in a complex international scientific endeavor, the GEWEX of the World Climate Research Programme is explained. The radiative transfer techniques and satellite instrumentation that will be used to retrieve the SRB and ARD later in this decade with the CERES are discussed; CERES is a component of the Earth Observing System satellite program. Examples of consistent SRB and ARD retrievals made with Nimbus-7 and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data from July 1983 are presented.

  9. Determination of clouds in MSG data for the validation of clouds in a regional climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Huckle, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Regional climate models (e.g. CLM) can help to asses the influence of the antropogenic climate change on the different regions of the earth. Validation of these models is very important. Satellite data are of great benefit, as data on a global scale and high temporal resolution is available. In this thesis a cloud detection and object based cloud classification for Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) was developed and used to validate CLM clouds. Results show sometimes too many clouds in the CLM.

  10. The effect of cloud type on Earth's energy balance - Global analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen E.; Michelsen, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The role of fractional area coverage by cloud types in the energy balance of the earth is investigated through joint use of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) C1 cloud data and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) broadband energy flux data for the one-year period March 1985 through February 1986. Multiple linear regression is used to relate the radiation budget data to the cloud data. Comparing cloud forcing estimates obtained from the ISCCP-ERBE regression with those derived from the ERBE scene identification shows generally good agreement except over snow, in tropical convective regions, and in regions that are either nearly cloudless or always overcast. It is suggested that a substantial fraction of the disagreement in longwave cloud forcing in tropical convective regions is associated with the fact that the ERBE scene identification does not take into account variations in upper-tropospheric water vapor. On a global average basis, low clouds make the largest contribution to the net energy balance of the Earth, because they cover such a large area and because their albedo effect dominates their effect on emitted thermal radiation. High, optically thick clouds can also very effectively reduce the energy balance, however, because their very high albedos overcome their low emission temperatures.

  11. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd

  12. Advances in Volcanic Ash Cloud Photogrammetry from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaksek, K.; von der Lieth, J.; Merucci, L.; Hort, M. K.; Gerst, A.; Carboni, E.; Corradini, S.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of ash dispersion prediction is limited by the lack of high quality information on eruption source parameters. One of the most important one is the ash cloud top height (ACTH). Because of well-known uncertainties of currently operational methods, photogrammetric methods can be used to improve height estimates. Some satellites have on board multiangular instruments that can be used for photogrammetrical observations. Volcanic ash clouds, however, can move with velocities over several m/s making these instruments inappropriate for accurate ACTH estimation. Thus we propose here two novel methods tested on different case studies (Etna 2013/11/23, Zhupanovsky 2014/09/10). The first method is based on NASA program Crew Earth observations from International Space Station (ISS). ISS has a lower orbit than most operational satellites, resulting in a shorter minimal time between two images required to produce a suitable parallax. In addition, images made by the ISS crew are taken by a full frame sensor and not a line scanner that most operational satellites use. Such data make possible to observe also short time evolution of clouds. The second method is based on the parallax between data retrieved from two geostationary instruments. We implemented a combination of MSG SEVIRI (HRV band; 1000 m nadir spatial resolution, 5 min temporal resolution) and METEOSAT7 MVIRI (VIS band, 2500 m nadir spatial resolution, 30 min temporal resolution). The procedure works well if the data from both satellites are retrieved nearly simultaneously. However, MVIRI does not retrieve the data at exactly the same time as SEVIRI. To compensate for advection in the atmosphere we use two sequential SEVIRI images (one before and one after the MVIRI retrieval) and interpolate the cloud position from SEVIRI data to the time of MVIRI retrieval.

  13. The MJO Transition from Shallow to Deep Convection in CloudSat/CALIPSO Data and GISS GCM Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGenio, Anthony G.; Chen, Yonghua; Kim, Daehyun; Yao, Mao-Sung

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between convective penetration depth and tropospheric humidity is central to recent theories of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). It has been suggested that general circulation models (GCMs) poorly simulate the MJO because they fail to gradually moisten the troposphere by shallow convection and simulate a slow transition to deep convection. CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) data are analyzed to document the variability of convection depth and its relation to water vapor during the MJO transition from shallow to deep convection and to constrain GCM cumulus parameterizations. Composites of cloud occurrence for 10MJO events show the following anticipatedMJO cloud structure: shallow and congestus clouds in advance of the peak, deep clouds near the peak, and upper-level anvils after the peak. Cirrus clouds are also frequent in advance of the peak. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EarthObserving System (EOS) (AMSR-E) columnwater vapor (CWV) increases by;5 mmduring the shallow- deep transition phase, consistent with the idea of moisture preconditioning. Echo-top height of clouds rooted in the boundary layer increases sharply with CWV, with large variability in depth when CWV is between;46 and 68 mm. International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud classifications reproduce these climatological relationships but correctly identify congestus-dominated scenes only about half the time. A version of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E2 (GISS-E2) GCM with strengthened entrainment and rain evaporation that produces MJO-like variability also reproduces the shallow-deep convection transition, including the large variability of cloud-top height at intermediate CWV values. The variability is due to small grid-scale relative humidity and lapse rate anomalies for similar values of CWV. 1.

  14. Tracking Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics in Cloud Prone Areas Using Moderate Resolution Satellite Data: A Case Study in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Basnet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud prone areas with complex mountainous terrain is an important challenge facing the Earth Science community. One such region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. We developed a processing chain to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land use/land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps with overall accuracies of 90% and higher. Subsequent change analysis between these years found extensive conversions of the natural environment as a result of human related activities. The gross forest cover loss for 1988–2001 and 2001–2011 period was 216.4 and 130.5 thousand hectares, respectively, signifying significant deforestation in the period of civil war and a relatively stable and lower deforestation rate later, possibly due to conservation and reforestation efforts in the region. The other dominant land cover changes in the region were aggressive subsistence farming and urban expansion displacing natural vegetation and arable lands. Despite limited data availability, this study fills the gap of much needed detailed and updated land cover change information for this biologically important region of Central Africa. These multi-temporal datasets will be a valuable baseline for land use managers in the region interested in developing ecologically sustainable land management strategies and measuring the impacts of biodiversity conservation efforts.

  15. Investigating cloud absorption effects: Global absorption properties of black carbon, tar balls, and soil dust in clouds and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2012-03-01

    This study examines modeled properties of black carbon (BC), tar ball (TB), and soil dust (SD) absorption within clouds and aerosols to understand better Cloud Absorption Effects I and II, which are defined as the effects on cloud heating of absorbing inclusions in hydrometeor particles and of absorbing aerosol particles interstitially between hydrometeor particles at their actual relative humidity (RH), respectively. The globally and annually averaged modeled 550 nm aerosol mass absorption coefficient (AMAC) of externally mixed BC was 6.72 (6.3-7.3) m2/g, within the laboratory range (6.3-8.7 m2/g). The global AMAC of internally mixed (IM) BC was 16.2 (13.9-18.2) m2/g, less than the measured maximum at 100% RH (23 m2/g). The resulting AMAC amplification factor due to internal mixing was 2.41 (2-2.9), with highest values in high RH regions. The global 650 nm hydrometeor mass absorption coefficient (HMAC) due to BC inclusions was 17.7 (10.6-19) m2/g, ˜9.3% higher than that of the IM-AMAC. The 650 nm HMACs of TBs and SD were half and 1/190th, respectively, that of BC. Modeled aerosol absorption optical depths were consistent with data. In column tests, BC inclusions in low and mid clouds (CAE I) gave column-integrated BC heating rates ˜200% and 235%, respectively, those of interstitial BC at the actual cloud RH (CAE II), which itself gave heating rates ˜120% and ˜130%, respectively, those of interstitial BC at the clear-sky RH. Globally, cloud optical depth increased then decreased with increasing aerosol optical depth, consistent with boomerang curves from satellite studies. Thus, CAEs, which are largely ignored, heat clouds significantly.

  16. Summary of the Geocarto International Special Issue on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health" to be Published in Early 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2013-01-01

    At the 2011 Applied Science Public Health review held in Santa Fe, NM, it was announced that Dr. Dale Quattrochi from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, John Haynes, Program Manager for the Applied Sciences Public Health program at NASA Headquarters, and Sue Estes, Deputy Program Manager for the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program located at the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL, would edit a special issue of the journal Geocarto International on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health". This issue would be focused on compiling research papers that use NASA Earth Science satellite data for applications to public health. NASA's Public Health Program concentrates on advancing the realization of societal and economic benefits from NASA Earth Science in the areas of infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health (e.g., air quality). This application area as a focus of the NASA Applied Sciences program, has engaged public health institutions and officials with research scientists in exploring new applications of Earth Science satellite data as an integral part of public health decision- and policy-making at the local, state and federal levels. Of interest to this special issue are papers submitted on are topics such as epidemiologic surveillance in the areas of infectious disease, environmental health, and emergency response and preparedness, national and international activities to improve skills, share data and applications, and broaden the range of users who apply Earth Science satellite data in public health decisions, or related focus areas.. This special issue has now been completed and will be published n early 2014. This talk will present an overview of the papers that will be published in this special Geocarto International issue.

  17. Cloud Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthing, Hans Henrik

    Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing.......Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing....

  18. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS LPVEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  19. Cloud Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... decade in computing. In this article we define cloud computing, various services available on the cloud infrastructure, and the different types of cloud. We then discuss the technological trends which have led to its emergence, its advantages and disadvan- tages, and the applications which are appropriate ...

  20. Reflectivities of uniform and broken layered clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, James A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Differences between the reflectivities of uniform layered clouds and of broken clouds taken from the same layers of the Californian coast were investigated using 1 km data obtained by the AVHRRs on the NOAA-9 and -10 satellites during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observations (June 29 - July 18, 1987). The reflectivities are compared at 0.63 micron, where cloud droplets are nonabsorbing, and at 3.7 micron, where the cloud droplets absorb and the single-scattering albedo is about 0.9. It was found that, at visible wavelengths, the reflectivities of broken clouds were only 80-85 percent of those of the same clouds where they formed regions of extensive uniform layers. The radiation not reflected was transmitted to the surface. The results suggest that the presatellite estimates of the planetary albedo may be too large because they failed to allow for the effects of cloud boundaries on cloud reflectivities.

  1. Progress in Understanding the Impacts of 3-D Cloud Structure on MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals for Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Werner, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Andrew; DiGirolamo, Larry; Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Wind, Galina; Zhao, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Theory: A novel framework based on 2-D Tayler expansion for quantifying the uncertainty in MODIS retrievals caused by sub-pixel reflectance inhomogeneity. (Zhang et al. 2016). How cloud vertical structure influences MODIS LWP retrievals. (Miller et al. 2016). Observation: Analysis of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals. (Cho et al. 2015). Cloud property retrievals from 15m resolution ASTER observations. (Werner et al. 2016). Modeling: LES-Satellite observation simulator (Zhang et al. 2012, Miller et al. 2016).

  2. Examining the NZESM Cloud representation with Self Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuddeboom, Alex; McDonald, Adrian; Parsons, Simon; Morgenstern, Olaf; Harvey, Mike

    2017-04-01

    Several different cloud regimes are identified from MODIS satellite data and the representation of these regimes within the New Zealand Earth System Model (NZESM) is examined. For the development of our cloud classification we utilize a neural network algorithm known as self organizing maps (SOMs) on MODIS cloud top pressure - cloud optical thickness joint histograms. To evaluate the representation of the cloud within NZESM, the frequency and geographical distribution of the regimes is compared between the NZESM and satellite data. This approach has the advantage of not only identifying differences, but also potentially giving additional information about the discrepancy such as in which regions or phases of cloud the differences are most prominent. To allow for a more direct comparison between datasets, the COSP satellite simulation software is applied to NZESM output. COSP works by simulating the observational processes linked to a satellite, within the GCM, so that data can be generated in a way that shares the particular observational bias of specific satellites. By taking the COSP joint histograms and comparing them to our existing classifications we can easily search for discrepancies between the observational data and the simulations without having to be cautious of biases introduced by the satellite. Preliminary results, based on data for 2008, show a significant decrease in overall cloud fraction in the NZESM compared to the MODIS satellite data. To better understand the nature of this discrepancy, the cloud fraction related to different cloud heights and phases were also analysed.

  3. Internal Impedance of the Lithium-Ion Secondary Cells Used for Reimei Satellite after the Eleven Years Operation in Space

    OpenAIRE

    Sone Yoshitsugu; Watanabe Hiromi; Tanaka Kohei; Mendoza-Hernandez Omar Samuel; Fukuda Seisuke; Itagaki Masayuki; Ogawa Keita; Asamura Kazushi; Yamazaki Atsushi; Nagamatsu Hiroyuki; Fukushima Yosuke; Saito Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    The lithium-ion secondary batteries have been widely used for the space programs, today. Among them, REIMEI was one of the first satellites using lithium-ion secondary battery. In 2005, the satellite was launched, and injected into the low earth polar orbit. Eleven years has passed since the launch and over 60,000 cycles of charge and discharge was experienced in space. The lithium-ion secondary cell of the REIMEI battery was designed using spinel manganese oxide type material for the posi...

  4. Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Satellite Instrument (CERES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nine months of CERES/TRMM broadband fluxes combined with VIRS high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the tropics of 4.6 +/- 1 W/sq m. The magnitude is approx.2 W/sq m smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth retrievals inferred from 0.63 microns VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is approx. -32 W/sq m/t over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches -25 W sq m to -30 W/sq m. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear-it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g. sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g. due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is approx. 1 W/sq m (approx. 20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the ERBE and CERES "ERBE-Like" products are a factor of 3 to 5 larger.

  5. Cirrus Cloud Properties from a Cloud-Resolving Model Simulation Compared to Cloud Radar Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yali; Krueger, Steven K.; Mace, Gerald G.; Xu, Kuan-Man

    2003-02-01

    Cloud radar data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains site were used to evaluate the properties of cirrus clouds that occurred in a cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation of the 29-day summer 1997 intensive observation period (IOP). The simulation was `forced' by the large-scale advective temperature and water vapor tendencies, horizontal wind velocity, and turbulent surface fluxes observed at the Southern Great Plains site. The large-scale advective condensate tendency was not observed. The correlation of CRM cirrus amount with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) high cloud amount was 0.70 for the subperiods during which cirrus formation and decay occurred primarily locally, but only 0.30 for the entire IOP. This suggests that neglecting condensate advection has a detrimental impact on the ability of a model (CRM or single-column model) to properly simulate cirrus cloud occurrence.The occurrence, vertical location, and thickness of cirrus cloud layers, as well as the bulk microphysical properties of thin cirrus cloud layers, were determined from the cloud radar measurements for June, July, and August 1997. The composite characteristics of cirrus clouds derived from this dataset are well suited for evaluating CRMs because of the close correspondence between the timescales and space scales resolved by the cloud radar measurements and by CRMs. The CRM results were sampled at eight grid columns spaced 64 km apart using the same definitions of cirrus and thin cirrus as the cloud radar dataset. The composite characteristics of cirrus clouds obtained from the CRM were then compared to those obtained from the cloud radar.Compared with the cloud radar observations, the CRM cirrus clouds occur at lower heights and with larger physical thicknesses. The ice water paths in the CRM's thin cirrus clouds are similar to those observed. However, the corresponding cloud-layer-mean ice water contents are

  6. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  7. ISDN - The case for satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J. N.; McDougal, P. J.

    1987-05-01

    The role of satellites in the proposed Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is examined. ISDN is to be a unified global network providing international telecommunication services. The delay time connected with satellite communications is considered. The advantages of using satellites in ISDN are: (1) the digital services available with satellites (time-division multiple access, intermediate data rate, and Intelsat business services); (2) satellite networking features; (3) flexibility; and (4) global interconnectivity. It is noted that with the use of powerful transmitters on satellites, the growth of small earth stations, and developments in band switching and intersatellite links that satellites are applicable to ISDN.

  8. A Cloud Top Pressure Algorithm for DSCOVR-EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Q.; Morgan, E. C.; Yang, Y.; Marshak, A.; Davis, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) sensor on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) satellite presents unique opportunities to derive cloud properties of the entire daytime Earth. In particular, the Oxygen A- and B-band and corresponding reference channels provide cloud top pressure information. In order to address the in-cloud penetration depth issue—and ensuing retrieval bias—a comprehensive sensitivity study has been conducted to simulate satellite-observed radiances for a wide variety of cloud structures and optical properties. Based on this sensitivity study, a cloud top pressure algorithm for DSCOVR-EPIC has been developed. Further, the algorithm has been applied to EPIC measurements.

  9. The Future of Satellite Communications Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowland, Wayne

    1985-01-01

    Discusses technical advances in satellite technology since the 1960s, and the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization's role in these developments; describes how AUSSAT, Australia's domestic satellite system, exemplifies the latest developments in satellite technology; and reviews satellite system features, possible future…

  10. Model simulations of the chemical and aerosol microphysical evolution of the Sarychev Peak 2009 eruption cloud compared to in situ and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurton, Thibaut; Jégou, Fabrice; Berthet, Gwenaël; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Clarisse, Lieven; Schmidt, Anja; Brogniez, Colette; Roberts, Tjarda J.

    2018-03-01

    Volcanic eruptions impact climate through the injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2), which is oxidized to form sulfuric acid aerosol particles that can enhance the stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD). Besides large-magnitude eruptions, moderate-magnitude eruptions such as Kasatochi in 2008 and Sarychev Peak in 2009 can have a significant impact on stratospheric aerosol and hence climate. However, uncertainties remain in quantifying the atmospheric and climatic impacts of the 2009 Sarychev Peak eruption due to limitations in previous model representations of volcanic aerosol microphysics and particle size, whilst biases have been identified in satellite estimates of post-eruption SAOD. In addition, the 2009 Sarychev Peak eruption co-injected hydrogen chloride (HCl) alongside SO2, whose potential stratospheric chemistry impacts have not been investigated to date. We present a study of the stratospheric SO2-particle-HCl processing and impacts following Sarychev Peak eruption, using the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1) Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) - Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) sectional aerosol microphysics model (with no a priori assumption on particle size). The Sarychev Peak 2009 eruption injected 0.9 Tg of SO2 into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), enhancing the aerosol load in the Northern Hemisphere. The post-eruption evolution of the volcanic SO2 in space and time are well reproduced by the model when compared to Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite data. Co-injection of 27 Gg HCl causes a lengthening of the SO2 lifetime and a slight delay in the formation of aerosols, and acts to enhance the destruction of stratospheric ozone and mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) compared to the simulation with volcanic SO2 only. We therefore highlight the need to account for volcanic halogen chemistry when simulating the impact of eruptions such as Sarychev on

  11. Model simulations of the chemical and aerosol microphysical evolution of the Sarychev Peak 2009 eruption cloud compared to in situ and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lurton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions impact climate through the injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2, which is oxidized to form sulfuric acid aerosol particles that can enhance the stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD. Besides large-magnitude eruptions, moderate-magnitude eruptions such as Kasatochi in 2008 and Sarychev Peak in 2009 can have a significant impact on stratospheric aerosol and hence climate. However, uncertainties remain in quantifying the atmospheric and climatic impacts of the 2009 Sarychev Peak eruption due to limitations in previous model representations of volcanic aerosol microphysics and particle size, whilst biases have been identified in satellite estimates of post-eruption SAOD. In addition, the 2009 Sarychev Peak eruption co-injected hydrogen chloride (HCl alongside SO2, whose potential stratospheric chemistry impacts have not been investigated to date. We present a study of the stratospheric SO2–particle–HCl processing and impacts following Sarychev Peak eruption, using the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1 Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM – Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA sectional aerosol microphysics model (with no a priori assumption on particle size. The Sarychev Peak 2009 eruption injected 0.9 Tg of SO2 into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS, enhancing the aerosol load in the Northern Hemisphere. The post-eruption evolution of the volcanic SO2 in space and time are well reproduced by the model when compared to Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI satellite data. Co-injection of 27 Gg HCl causes a lengthening of the SO2 lifetime and a slight delay in the formation of aerosols, and acts to enhance the destruction of stratospheric ozone and mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx compared to the simulation with volcanic SO2 only. We therefore highlight the need to account for volcanic halogen chemistry when simulating the impact of eruptions

  12. Cloud computing and services science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Shishkov, Boris

    2012-01-01

    This book is essentially a collection of the best papers of the International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER), which was held in Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands on May 7–9, 2011. The conference addressed technology trends in the domain of cloud computing in relation to a

  13. Plane-parallel biases computed from inhomogeneous Arctic clouds and sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozwadowska, Anna; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2002-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the expected influence of nonuniformity in cloud structure and surface albedo on shortwave radiative fluxes in the Arctic atmosphere are presented. In particular, plane-parallel biases in cloud albedo and transmittance are studied for nonabsorbing, low-level, all-liquid stratus clouds over sea ice. The "absolute bias" is defined as the difference between the cloud albedo or transmittance for the uniform or plane-parallel case, and the albedo or transmittance for nonuniform conditions with the same mean cloud optical thickness and the same mean surface albedo, averaged over a given area (i.e., bias > 0 means plane-parallel overestimates). Ranges of means and standard deviations of input parameters typical of Arctic conditions are determined from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment Artic Cloud Experiment (FIRE/ACE)/Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA)/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) experiment, a cooperative effort of the Department of Energy, NASA, NSF, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Office of Naval Research, and the Atmospheric Environment Service. We determine the sensitivity of the bias with respect to the following: domain averaged means and spatial variances of cloud optical thickness and surface albedo, shape of the surface reflectance function, presence of a scattering layer under the clouds, and solar zenith angle. The simulations show that the biases in Arctic conditions are generally lower than in subtropical stratocumulus. The magnitudes of the absolute biases are unlikely to exceed 0.02 for albedo and 0.05 for transmittance. The "relative bias" expresses the absolute bias as a percentage of the actual cloud albedo or transmittance. The magnitude of the relative bias in albedo is typically below 2% over the reflective Arctic surface, while the magnitude of the relative bias in transmittance can exceed 10%.

  14. Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the co-variations of tropospheric water vapor, its isotopic composition and cloud types and relate these distributions to tropospheric mixing and distillation models using satellite observations from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES over the summertime tropical ocean. Interpretation of these process distributions must take into account the sensitivity of the TES isotope and water vapor measurements to variations in cloud, water, and temperature amount. Consequently, comparisons are made between cloud-types based on the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISSCP classification; these are clear sky, non-precipitating (e.g., cumulus, boundary layer (e.g., stratocumulus, and precipitating clouds (e.g. regions of deep convection. In general, we find that the free tropospheric vapor over tropical oceans does not strictly follow a Rayleigh model in which air parcels become dry and isotopically depleted through condensation. Instead, mixing processes related to convection as well as subsidence, and re-evaporation of rainfall associated with organized deep convection all play significant roles in controlling the water vapor distribution. The relative role of these moisture processes are examined for different tropical oceanic regions.

  15. Reconciling Simulated and Observed Views of Clouds: MODIS, ISCCP, and the Limits of Instrument Simulators in Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Robert; Platnick, Steven E.; Ackerman, Steve; Hemler, Richard; Hofmann, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The properties of clouds that may be observed by satellite instruments, such as optical depth and cloud top pressure, are only loosely related to the way clouds are represented in models of the atmosphere. One way to bridge this gap is through "instrument simulators," diagnostic tools that map the model representation to synthetic observations so that differences between simulator output and observations can be interpreted unambiguously as model error. But simulators may themselves be restricted by limited information available from the host model or by internal assumptions. This work examines the extent to which instrument simulators are able to capture essential differences between MODIS and ISCCP, two similar but independent estimates of cloud properties. We focus on the stark differences between MODIS and ISCCP observations of total cloudiness and the distribution of cloud optical thickness can be traced to different approaches to marginal pixels, which MODIS excludes and ISCCP treats as homogeneous. These pixels, which likely contain broken clouds, cover about 15% of the planet and contain almost all of the optically thinnest clouds observed by either instrument. Instrument simulators can not reproduce these differences because the host model does not consider unresolved spatial scales and so can not produce broken pixels. Nonetheless, MODIS and ISCCP observation are consistent for all but the optically-thinnest clouds, and models can be robustly evaluated using instrument simulators by excluding ambiguous observations.

  16. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a subject of substantial industrial and academic interest, though its meaning and scope is hotly debated. For some researchers, clouds are a natural evolution towards the full commercialisation of grid systems, while others dismiss the term as a mere re-branding of existing pay-per-use technologies. From either perspective, 'cloud' is now the label of choice for accountable pay-per-use access to third party applications and computational resources on a massive scale. Clouds support patterns of less predictable resource use for applications and services a

  17. An improved algorithm for calculating cloud radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guibin; Sun Xiaogang; Dai Jingmin

    2005-01-01

    Clouds radiation characteristic is very important in cloud scene simulation, weather forecasting, pattern recognition, and other fields. In order to detect missiles against cloud backgrounds, to enhance the fidelity of simulation, it is critical to understand a cloud's thermal radiation model. Firstly, the definition of cloud layer infrared emittance is given. Secondly, the discrimination conditions of judging a pixel of focal plane on a satellite in daytime or night time are shown and equations are given. Radiance such as reflected solar radiance, solar scattering, diffuse solar radiance, solar and thermal sky shine, solar and thermal path radiance, cloud blackbody and background radiance are taken into account. Thirdly, the computing methods of background radiance for daytime and night time are given. Through simulations and comparison, this algorithm is proved to be an effective calculating algorithm for cloud radiation

  18. Infrared Cloud Imager Development for Atmospheric Optical Communication Characterization, and Measurements at the JPL Table Mountain Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, P. W.; Shaw, J. A.; Piazzolla, S.

    2013-02-01

    The continuous demand for high data return in deep space and near-Earth satellite missions has led NASA and international institutions to consider alternative technologies for high-data-rate communications. One solution is the establishment of wide-bandwidth Earth-space optical communication links, which require (among other things) a nearly obstruction-free atmospheric path. Considering the atmospheric channel, the most common and most apparent impairments on Earth-space optical communication paths arise from clouds. Therefore, the characterization of the statistical behavior of cloud coverage for optical communication ground station candidate sites is of vital importance. In this article, we describe the development and deployment of a ground-based, long-wavelength infrared cloud imaging system able to monitor and characterize the cloud coverage. This system is based on a commercially available camera with a 62-deg diagonal field of view. A novel internal-shutter-based calibration technique allows radiometric calibration of the camera, which operates without a thermoelectric cooler. This cloud imaging system provides continuous day-night cloud detection with constant sensitivity. The cloud imaging system also includes data-processing algorithms that calculate and remove atmospheric emission to isolate cloud signatures, and enable classification of clouds according to their optical attenuation. Measurements of long-wavelength infrared cloud radiance are used to retrieve the optical attenuation (cloud optical depth due to absorption and scattering) in the wavelength range of interest from visible to near-infrared, where the cloud attenuation is quite constant. This article addresses the specifics of the operation, calibration, and data processing of the imaging system that was deployed at the NASA/JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Data are reported from July 2008 to July 2010. These data describe seasonal variability in cloud cover at the TMF site

  19. Photogrammetry and photo interpretation applied to analyses of cloud cover, cloud type, and cloud motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    A determination was made of the areal extent of terrain obscured by clouds and cloud shadows on a portion of an Apollo 9 photograph at the instant of exposure. This photogrammetrically determined area was then compared to the cloud coverage reported by surface weather observers at approximately the same time and location, as a check on result quality. Stereograms prepared from Apollo 9 vertical photographs, illustrating various percentages of cloud coverage, are presented to help provide a quantitative appreciation of the degradation of terrain photography by clouds and their attendant shadows. A scheme, developed for the U.S. Navy, utilizing pattern recognition techniques for determining cloud motion from sequences of satellite photographs, is summarized. Clouds, turbulence, haze, and solar altitude, four elements of our natural environment which affect aerial photographic missions, are each discussed in terms of their effects on imagery obtained by aerial photography. Data of a type useful to aerial photographic mission planners, expressing photographic ground coverage in terms of flying height above terrain and camera focal length, for a standard aerial photograph format, are provided. Two oblique orbital photographs taken during the Apollo 9 flight are shown, and photo-interpretations, discussing the cloud types imaged and certain visible geographical features, are provided.

  20. Cloud MicroAtlas∗

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL ARTICLE. Cloud MicroAtlas∗. Rama Govindarajan and S Ravichandran (Croor Singh). Rama Govindarajan works at the International Centre for. Theoretical Sciences, TIFR,. Bengaluru. Her research area is fluid mechanics. Croor Singh is Rama's PhD student, at the TIFR Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences,.

  1. Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-12-23

    Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and cloud base updraft velocities (Wb). Hitherto, the inability to do so has been a major cause of high uncertainty regarding anthropogenic aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative forcing. This can be addressed by the emerging capability of estimating CCN and Wb of boundary layer convective clouds from an operational polar orbiting weather satellite. Our methodology uses such clouds as an effective analog for CCN chambers. The cloud base supersaturation (S) is determined by Wb and the satellite-retrieved cloud base drop concentrations (Ndb), which is the same as CCN(S). Developing and validating this methodology was possible thanks to the ASR/ARM measurements of CCN and vertical updraft profiles. Validation against ground-based CCN instruments at the ARM sites in Oklahoma, Manaus, and onboard a ship in the northeast Pacific showed a retrieval accuracy of ±25% to ±30% for individual satellite overpasses. The methodology is presently limited to boundary layer not raining convective clouds of at least 1 km depth that are not obscured by upper layer clouds, including semitransparent cirrus. The limitation for small solar backscattering angles of <25º restricts the satellite coverage to ~25% of the world area in a single day. This methodology will likely allow overcoming the challenge of quantifying the aerosol indirect effect and facilitate a substantial reduction of the uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing.

  2. Watershed image segmentation and cloud classification from multispectral MSG-SEVIRI imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Albano; Mendez, Zebensui; Munoz, Jonathan; Perez, Juan C.; Armas Padilla, Montserrat

    Clouds play an important role in the Earth's climate system, modulating the radiative energy budget. Consequently, a good knowledge of their radiative properties and of the spatial and temporal distribution of cloud cover is necessary. Earth observation satellites provide us with long time-series data on a global scale and they have become essential tools for the continuous monitoring of cloud properties. Thus, for example, ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project), ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) or CERES (Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System) projects have provided essential datasets to improve our understanding of the effects of atmospheric cloud radiative forcing on climate. The problem of cloud segmentation and classification from multispectral satellite imagery is considered in this work. Many methods, based on both supervised and unsupervised classi- fication, have been developed previously, but most of them are based on independent pixel processing. In this study, a segmentation algorithm is applied as a first step, in order to get a partition of the original image into a set of meaningful objects. This segmentation is performed through order-invariant watershed algorithms, based on immersion and toboggan approaches. The multi-scale gradient magnitude has been obtained using a multi-resolution morphological operator from spectral data and texture information, computed through fractal and local binary patterns (LBP) methods. To reduce the oversegmentation produced by the watershed technique, a fast region merging is applied, using region dissimilarity functions that takes into account internal and boundary features.Once the objects present in the image have been segmented, they are classified using a multi-threshold classification method based on physical considerations and radiative and texture features. The proposed technique is applied to MSG-SEVIRI multispectral data, including both daylight and nighttime images. This

  3. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  4. Cloud Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina

    Cloud Chamber takes its roots in a performance project, titled The Guests 做东, devised by Verina Gfader for the 11th Shanghai Biennale, ‘Why Not Ask Again: Arguments, Counter-arguments, and Stories’. Departing from the inclusion of the biennale audience to write a future folk tale, Cloud Chamber...

  5. Cloud Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  6. Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  7. Screaming Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikke, Svein; Egill Kristjánsson, Jón; Nordli, Øyvind

    2017-04-01

    "Mother-of-pearl clouds" appear irregularly in the winter stratosphere at high northern latitudes, about 20-30 km above the surface of the Earth. The size range of the cloud particles is near that of visible light, which explains their extraordinary beautiful colours. We argue that the Norwegian painter Edvard Munch could well have been terrified when the sky all of a sudden turned "bloodish red" after sunset, when darkness was expected. Hence, there is a high probability that it was an event of mother-of-pearl clouds which was the background for Munch's experience in nature, and for his iconic Scream. Currently, the leading hypothesis for explaining the dramatic colours of the sky in Munch's famous painting is that the artist was captivated by colourful sunsets following the enormous Krakatoa eruption in 1883. After carefully considering the historical accounts of some of Munch's contemporaries, especially the physicist Carl Störmer, we suggest an alternative hypothesis, namely that Munch was inspired by spectacular occurrences of mother-of-pearl clouds. Such clouds, which have a wave-like structure akin to that seen in the Scream were first observed and described only a few years before the first version of this motive was released in 1892. Unlike clouds related to conventional weather systems in the troposphere, mother-of-pearl clouds appear in the stratosphere, where significantly different physical conditions prevail. This result in droplet sizes within the range of visible light, creating the spectacular colour patterns these clouds are famous for. Carl Störmer observed such clouds, and described them in minute details at the age of 16, but already with a profound interest in science. He later noted that "..these mother-of-pearl clouds was a vision of indescribable beauty!" The authors find it logical that the same vision could appear scaring in the sensible mind of a young artist unknown to such phenomena.

  8. Cloud Motion in the GOCI COMS Ocean Colour Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Wayne D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Mannino, Antonio; Ahn, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Colour Imager (GOCI) instrument, on Koreas Communications, Oceans, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), can produce a spectral artefact arising from the motion of clouds the cloud is spatially shifted and the amount of shift varies by spectral band. The length of time it takes to acquire all eight GOCI bands for a given slot (portion of a scene) is sucient to require that cloud motion be taken into account to fully mask or correct the eects of clouds in all bands. Inter-band correlations can be used to measure the amount of cloud shift, which can then be used to adjust the cloud mask so that the union of all shifted masks can act as a mask for all bands. This approach reduces the amount of masking required versus a simple expansion of the mask in all directions away from clouds. Cloud motion can also aect regions with unidentied clouds thin or fractional clouds that evade the cloud identication process yielding degraded quality in retrieved ocean colour parameters. Areas with moving and unidentied clouds require more elaborate masking algo-rithms to remove these degraded retrievals. Correction for the eects of moving fractional clouds may also be possible. The cloud shift information can be used to determine cloud motion and thus wind at the cloud levels on sub-minute timescales. The benecial and negative eects of moving clouds should be con-sidered for any ocean colour instrument design and associated data processing plans.

  9. Observational and Modeling Studies of Clouds and the Hydrological Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Our approach involved validating parameterizations directly against measurements from field programs, and using this validation to tune existing parameterizations and to guide the development of new ones. We have used a single-column model (SCM) to make the link between observations and parameterizations of clouds, including explicit cloud microphysics (e.g., prognostic cloud liquid water used to determine cloud radiative properties). Surface and satellite radiation measurements were used to provide an initial evaluation of the performance of the different parameterizations. The results of this evaluation will then used to develop improved cloud and cloud-radiation schemes, which were tested in GCM experiments.

  10. Numerical framework and performance of the new multiple-phase cloud microphysics scheme in RegCM4.5: precipitation, cloud microphysics, and cloud radiative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogherotto, Rita; Tompkins, Adrian Mark; Giuliani, Graziano; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-07-01

    We implement and evaluate a new parameterization scheme for stratiform cloud microphysics and precipitation within regional climate model RegCM4. This new parameterization is based on a multiple-phase one-moment cloud microphysics scheme built upon the implicit numerical framework recently developed and implemented in the ECMWF operational forecasting model. The parameterization solves five prognostic equations for water vapour, cloud liquid water, rain, cloud ice, and snow mixing ratios. Compared to the pre-existing scheme, it allows a proper treatment of mixed-phase clouds and a more physically realistic representation of cloud microphysics and precipitation. Various fields from a 10-year long integration of RegCM4 run in tropical band mode with the new scheme are compared with their counterparts using the previous cloud scheme and are evaluated against satellite observations. In addition, an assessment using the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observational Simulator Package (COSP) for a 1-year sub-period provides additional information for evaluating the cloud optical properties against satellite data. The new microphysics parameterization yields an improved simulation of cloud fields, and in particular it removes the overestimation of upper level cloud characteristics of the previous scheme, increasing the agreement with observations and leading to an amelioration of a long-standing problem in the RegCM system. The vertical cloud profile produced by the new scheme leads to a considerably improvement of the representation of the longwave and shortwave components of the cloud radiative forcing.

  11. A Multi-Model Assessment for the 2006 and 2010 Simulations under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 over North America: Part II. Evaluation of Column Variable Predictions Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative phase 2 (AQMEII2) project, this part II paper performs a multi-model assessment of major column abundances of gases, radiation, aerosol, and cloud variables for 2006 and 2010 simulations with three on...

  12. CALIPSO Lidar L2 5 km Cloud Profile Data V3-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  13. CALIPSO Lidar L2 5 km Cloud Layer Data V3-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  14. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1 km Cloud Layer Data V3-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  15. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1/3 km Cloud Layer Data V2-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  16. CALIPSO Lidar L2 5 km Cloud Profile Data V2-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  17. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1 km Cloud Layer Data V1-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  18. CALIPSO Lidar L2 5 km Cloud Layer Data V2-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  19. CALIPSO Lidar L2 5 km Cloud Profile Data V2-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  20. CALIPSO Lidar L2 5 km Cloud Layer Data V2-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  1. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1 km Cloud Layer Data V3-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  2. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1 km Cloud Layer Data V1-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  3. CALIPSO Lidar L2 5 km Cloud Layer Data V1-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  4. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1 km Cloud Layer Data V2-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  5. CALIPSO Lidar L2 5 km Cloud Layer Data V3-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  6. CALIPSO Lidar L2 5 km Cloud Layer Data V3-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  7. CALIPSO Lidar L2 5 km Cloud Profile Data V3-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  8. CALIPSO Lidar L2 5 km Cloud Profile Data V3-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  9. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1/3 km Cloud Layer Data V2-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  10. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1/3 km Cloud Layer Data V3-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  11. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1/3 km Cloud Layer Data V3-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  12. CALIPSO Lidar L2 Polar Stratospheric Cloud Data V1-00

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  13. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1 km Cloud Layer Data V3-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  14. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1/3 km Cloud Layer Data V1-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  15. CALIPSO Lidar L2 1/3 km Cloud Layer Data V1-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  16. Observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties regulated by cloud/aerosol types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Su, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds (consisting only of ice) represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. The observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties has been quite limited and showed conflicting results, partly because previous observational studies did not consider the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types. Using 9-year satellite observations, we find that, for ice clouds generated from deep convection, cloud thickness, cloud optical thickness (COT), and ice cloud fraction increase and decrease with small-to-moderate and high aerosol loadings, respectively. For in-situ formed ice clouds, however, the preceding cloud properties increase monotonically and more sharply with aerosol loadings. The case is more complicated for ice crystal effective radius (Rei). For both convection-generated and in-situ ice clouds, the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters, but the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols under the same water vapor amount differ remarkably between the two ice cloud types. As a result, overall Rei slightly increases with aerosol loading for convection-generated ice clouds, but decreases for in-situ ice clouds. When aerosols are decomposed into different types, an increase in the loading of smoke aerosols generally leads to a decrease in COT of convection-generated ice clouds, while the reverse is true for dust and anthropogenic pollution. In contrast, an increase in the loading of any aerosol type can significantly enhance COT of in-situ ice clouds. The modulation of the aerosol impacts by cloud/aerosol types is demonstrated and reproduced by simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Adequate and accurate representations of the impact of different cloud/aerosol types in climate models are crucial for reducing the

  17. CGILS: Results from the First Phase of an International Project to Understand the Physical Mechanisms of Low Cloud Feedbacks in Single Column Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghua; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter N.; Austin, Phillip H.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Bony, Sandrine; Brient, Florent; Cheedela, Suvarchal K.; Cheng, Anning; DelGenio, Anthony; hide

    2013-01-01

    1] CGILS-the CFMIP-GASS Intercomparison of Large Eddy Models (LESs) and single column models (SCMs)-investigates the mechanisms of cloud feedback in SCMs and LESs under idealized climate change perturbation. This paper describes the CGILS results from 15 SCMs and 8 LES models. Three cloud regimes over the subtropical oceans are studied: shallow cumulus, cumulus under stratocumulus, and well-mixed coastal stratus/stratocumulus. In the stratocumulus and coastal stratus regimes, SCMs without activated shallow convection generally simulated negative cloud feedbacks, while models with active shallow convection generally simulated positive cloud feedbacks. In the shallow cumulus alone regime, this relationship is less clear, likely due to the changes in cloud depth, lateral mixing, and precipitation or a combination of them. The majority of LES models simulated negative cloud feedback in the well-mixed coastal stratus/stratocumulus regime, and positive feedback in the shallow cumulus and stratocumulus regime. A general framework is provided to interpret SCM results: in a warmer climate, the moistening rate of the cloudy layer associated with the surface-based turbulence parameterization is enhanced; together with weaker large-scale subsidence, it causes negative cloud feedback. In contrast, in the warmer climate, the drying rate associated with the shallow convection scheme is enhanced. This causes positive cloud feedback. These mechanisms are summarized as the "NESTS" negative cloud feedback and the "SCOPE" positive cloud feedback (Negative feedback from Surface Turbulence under weaker Subsidence-Shallow Convection PositivE feedback) with the net cloud feedback depending on how the two opposing effects counteract each other. The LES results are consistent with these interpretations

  18. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  19. Data distribution in the OLFAR satellite swarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Willink-Castro, T.J.; Engelen, S.; Rajan, R.T.; Rajan, Raj; Smith, D.M.P.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Orbiting Low Frequency Antennas for Radio Astronomy (OLFAR) project aims to develop a radio telescope for very low frequencies (below 30 MHz) by using a swarm of 50 or more nano-satellites. Spread in a 100-km diameter cloud, the satellites will form a very large aperture capable of sensing the

  20. The morphological evolution and internal convection of ExB-drifting plasma clouds: Theory, dielectric-in-cell simulations, and N-body dielectric simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, J.E.; Hansen, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of ExB-drifting plasma clouds is investigated with the aid of a computational technique denoted here as open-quotes dielectric-in-cell.close quotes Many of the familiar phenomena associated with clouds of collisionless plasma are seen and explained and less-well-known phenomena associated with convection patterns, with the stripping of cloud material, and with the evolution of plasma clouds composed of differing ion species are investigated. The effects of spatially uniform diffusion are studied with the dielectric-in-cell technique and with another computational technique denoted as open-quotes N-body dielectric;close quotes the suppression of convection, the suppression of structure growth, the increase in material stripping, and the evolution of cloud anisotropy are examined. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  1. Marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  2. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production......), for instance, in establishing and maintaining trust between the involved parties (Sabherwal, 1999). So far, research in cloud computing has neglected this perspective and focused entirely on aspects relating to technology, economy, security and legal questions. While the core technologies of cloud computing (e...

  3. Arctic sea ice albedo - A comparison of two satellite-derived data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Axel J.; Serreze, Mark C.; Key, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Spatial patterns of mean monthly surface albedo for May, June, and July, derived from DMSP Operational Line Scan (OLS) satellite imagery are compared with surface albedos derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) monthly data set. Spatial patterns obtained by the two techniques are in general agreement, especially for June and July. Nevertheless, systematic differences in albedo of 0.05 - 0.10 are noted which are most likely related to uncertainties in the simple parameterizations used in the DMSP analyses, problems in the ISCCP cloud-clearing algorithm and other modeling simplifications. However, with respect to the eventual goal of developing a reliable automated retrieval algorithm for compiling a long-term albedo data base, these initial comparisons are very encouraging.

  4. Cloud a particle beam facility to investigate the influence of cosmic rays on clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01

    Palaeoclimatic data provide extensive evidence for solar forcing of the climate during the Holocene and the last ice age, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. However recent observations suggest that cosmic rays may play a key role. Satellite data have revealed a surprising correlation between cosmic ray intensity and the fraction of the Earth covered by low clouds \\cite{svensmark97,marsh}. Since the cosmic ray intensity is modulated by the solar wind, this may be an important clue to the long-sought mechanism for solar-climate variability. In order to test whether cosmic rays and clouds are causally linked and, if so, to understand the microphysical mechanisms, a novel experiment known as CLOUD\\footnotemark\\ has been proposed \\cite{cloud_proposal}--\\cite{cloud_addendum_2}. CLOUD proposes to investigate ion-aerosol-cloud microphysics under controlled laboratory conditions using a beam from a particle accelerator, which provides a precisely adjustable and measurable artificial source of cosmic rays....

  5. A study of Monte Carlo radiative transfer through fractal clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, C.; Lavallec, D.; O`Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    An understanding of radiation transport (RT) through clouds is fundamental to studies of the earth`s radiation budget and climate dynamics. The transmission through horizontally homogeneous clouds has been studied thoroughly using accurate, discreet ordinates radiative transfer models. However, the applicability of these results to general problems of global radiation budget is limited by the plane parallel assumption and the fact that real clouds fields show variability, both vertically and horizontally, on all size scales. To understand how radiation interacts with realistic clouds, we have used a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to compute the details of the photon-cloud interaction on synthetic cloud fields. Synthetic cloud fields, generated by a cascade model, reproduce the scaling behavior, as well as the cloud variability observed and estimated from cloud satellite data.

  6. Cloud detection for MIPAS using singular vector decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hurley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-borne high-spectral-resolution limb sounders, such as the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS onboard ENVISAT, provide information on clouds, especially optically thin clouds, which have been difficult to observe in the past. The aim of this work is to develop, implement and test a reliable cloud detection method for infrared spectra measured by MIPAS.

    Current MIPAS cloud detection methods used operationally have been developed to detect cloud effective filling more than 30% of the measurement field-of-view (FOV, under geometric and optical considerations – and hence are limited to detecting fairly thick cloud, or large physical extents of thin cloud. In order to resolve thin clouds, a new detection method using Singular Vector Decomposition (SVD is formulated and tested. This new SVD detection method has been applied to a year's worth of MIPAS data, and qualitatively appears to be more sensitive to thin cloud than the current operational method.

  7. Data rescue of NASA First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) aerial observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhana Vannan, S. K.; Boyer, A.; Deb, D.; Beaty, T.; Wei, Y.; Wei, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) for biogeochemical dynamics is one of the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data centers. ORNL DAAC (https://daac.ornl.gov) is responsible for data archival, product development and distribution, and user support for biogeochemical and ecological data and models. In particular, ORNL DAAC has been providing data management support for NASA's terrestrial ecology field campaign programs for the last several decades. Field campaigns combine ground, aircraft, and satellite-based measurements in specific ecosystems over multi-year time periods. The data collected during NASA field campaigns are archived at the ORNL DAAC (https://daac.ornl.gov/get_data/). This paper describes the effort of the ORNL DAAC team for data rescue of a First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) dataset containing airborne and satellite data observations from the 1980s. The data collected during the FIFE campaign contain high resolution aerial imageries collected over Kansas. The data rescue workflow was prepared to test for successful recovery of the data from a CD-ROM and to ensure that the data are usable and preserved for the future. The imageries contain spectral reflectance data that can be used as a historical benchmark to examine climatological and ecological changes in the Kansas region since the 1980s. Below are the key steps taken to convert the files to modern standards. Decompress the imageries using custom compression software provided with the data. The compression algorithm created for MS-DOS in 1980s had to be set up to run on modern computer systems. Decompressed files were geo-referenced by using metadata information stored in separate compressed header files. Standardized file names were applied (File names and details were described in separate readme documents). Image files were converted to GeoTIFF format with embedded georeferencing information. Leverage Open Geospatial

  8. Lidar Penetration Depth Observations for Constraining Cloud Longwave Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant de Guelis, T.; Chepfer, H.; Noel, V.; Guzman, R.; Winker, D. M.; Kay, J. E.; Bonazzola, M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-borne active remote sensing Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations [CALIPSO; Winker et al., 2010] and CloudSat [Stephens et al., 2002] provide direct measurements of the cloud vertical distribution, with a very high vertical resolution. The penetration depth of the laser of the lidar Z_Opaque is directly linked to the LongWave (LW) Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) at Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) [Vaillant de Guélis et al., in review]. In addition, this measurement is extremely stable in time making it an excellent observational candidate to verify and constrain the cloud LW feedback mechanism [Chepfer et al., 2014]. In this work, we present a method to decompose the variations of the LW CRE at TOA using cloud properties observed by lidar [GOCCP v3.0; Guzman et al., 2017]. We decompose these variations into contributions due to changes in five cloud properties: opaque cloud cover, opaque cloud altitude, thin cloud cover, thin cloud altitude, and thin cloud emissivity [Vaillant de Guélis et al., in review]. We apply this method, in the real world, to the CRE variations of CALIPSO 2008-2015 record, and, in climate model, to LMDZ6 and CESM simulations of the CRE variations of 2008-2015 period and of the CRE difference between a warm climate and the current climate. In climate model simulations, the same cloud properties as those observed by CALIOP are extracted from the CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP) [Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011] lidar simulator [Chepfer et al., 2008], which mimics the observations that would be performed by the lidar on board CALIPSO satellite. This method, when applied on multi-model simulations of current and future climate, could reveal the altitude of cloud opacity level observed by lidar as a strong constrain for cloud LW feedback, since the altitude feedback mechanism is physically explainable and the altitude of cloud opacity accurately observed by lidar.

  9. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghbal Ghazizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM. Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  10. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  11. Aerosol effects on cloud water amounts were successfully simulated by a global cloud-system resolving model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yousuke; Goto, Daisuke; Michibata, Takuro; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tomita, Hirofumi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2018-03-07

    Aerosols affect climate by modifying cloud properties through their role as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei, called aerosol-cloud interactions. In most global climate models (GCMs), the aerosol-cloud interactions are represented by empirical parameterisations, in which the mass of cloud liquid water (LWP) is assumed to increase monotonically with increasing aerosol loading. Recent satellite observations, however, have yielded contradictory results: LWP can decrease with increasing aerosol loading. This difference implies that GCMs overestimate the aerosol effect, but the reasons for the difference are not obvious. Here, we reproduce satellite-observed LWP responses using a global simulation with explicit representations of cloud microphysics, instead of the parameterisations. Our analyses reveal that the decrease in LWP originates from the response of evaporation and condensation processes to aerosol perturbations, which are not represented in GCMs. The explicit representation of cloud microphysics in global scale modelling reduces the uncertainty of climate prediction.

  12. ICESat: Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, Jay; Shuman, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Ice exists in the natural environment in many forms. The Earth dynamic ice features shows that at high elevations and/or high latitudes,snow that falls to the ground can gradually build up tu form thick consolidated ice masses called glaciers. Glaciers flow downhill under the force of gravity and can extend into areas that are too warm to support year-round snow cover. The snow line, called the equilibrium line on a glacier or ice sheet, separates the ice areas that melt on the surface and become show free in summer (net ablation zone) from the ice area that remain snow covered during the entire year (net accumulation zone). Snow near the surface of a glacier that is gradually being compressed into solid ice is called firm.

  13. Enhancement of Cloud Cover and Suppression of Nocturnal Drizzle in Stratocumulus Polluted by Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, O. B.; Stevens, D. E.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent satellite observations indicate a significant decrease of cloud water in ship tracks, in contrast to an ensemble of in situ ship-track measurements that show no average change in cloud water relative to the surrounding clouds. We find through large-eddy simulations of stratocumulus that the trend in the satellite data is likely an artifact of sampling only overcast clouds. The simulations instead show cloud cover increasing with droplet concentrations. Our simulations also show that increases in cloud water from drizzle suppression (by increasing droplet concentrations) are favored at night or at extremely low droplet concentrations.

  14. The satellite situation center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.J.; Sawyer, D.M.; Vette, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities

  15. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image of...

  16. High energy physics and cloud computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Liu Baoxu; Sun Gongxing; Chen Gang

    2011-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been a strong promoter of computing technology, for example WWW (World Wide Web) and the grid computing. In the new era of cloud computing, HEP has still a strong demand, and major international high energy physics laboratories have launched a number of projects to research on cloud computing technologies and applications. It describes the current developments in cloud computing and its applications in high energy physics. Some ongoing projects in the institutes of high energy physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, including cloud storage, virtual computing clusters, and BESⅢ elastic cloud, are also described briefly in the paper. (authors)

  17. Satellite business networks and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, I.; Eaves, R. E.

    1985-07-01

    A compilation of articles concerning the technical aspects of satellite business networks is presented. Among the topics discussed are: flexible satellite data services; service satellite systems for the Atlantic Ocean region; and the design of a 30/20 GHz international business teleconferencing system. Consideration is also given to issues of network architecture including the performance of computer networks in accessing satellite links; advanced satellite communications systems with integrated transponders; full duplex teleconferencing via Intelsat V F-2 and OTS-2 at ll/14 GHz; and digital facsimile communication over satellite links. Among other topics discussed are: cryptographic techniques for satellite networks; a Codec system for world wide video conferencing; and regenerative SCPC satellite communications systems.

  18. Laser satellite power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  19. A cosmic ray-climate link and cloud observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunne Eimear M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite over 35 years of constant satellite-based measurements of cloud, reliable evidence of a long-hypothesized link between changes in solar activity and Earth’s cloud cover remains elusive. This work examines evidence of a cosmic ray cloud link from a range of sources, including satellite-based cloud measurements and long-term ground-based climatological measurements. The satellite-based studies can be divided into two categories: (1 monthly to decadal timescale analysis and (2 daily timescale epoch-superpositional (composite analysis. The latter analyses frequently focus on sudden high-magnitude reductions in the cosmic ray flux known as Forbush decrease events. At present, two long-term independent global satellite cloud datasets are available (ISCCP and MODIS. Although the differences between them are considerable, neither shows evidence of a solar-cloud link at either long or short timescales. Furthermore, reports of observed correlations between solar activity and cloud over the 1983–1995 period are attributed to the chance agreement between solar changes and artificially induced cloud trends. It is possible that the satellite cloud datasets and analysis methods may simply be too insensitive to detect a small solar signal. Evidence from ground-based studies suggests that some weak but statistically significant cosmic ray-cloud relationships may exist at regional scales, involving mechanisms related to the global electric circuit. However, a poor understanding of these mechanisms and their effects on cloud makes the net impacts of such links uncertain. Regardless of this, it is clear that there is no robust evidence of a widespread link between the cosmic ray flux and clouds.

  20. Effects of Ice-Crystal Structure on Halo Formation: Cirrus Cloud Experimental and Ray-Tracing Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Knight, Nancy C.; Takano, Yoshihide; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1986 Project FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) field campaign, four 22 deg halo-producing cirrus clouds were studied jointly from a ground-based polarization lidar and an instrumented aircraft. The lidar data show the vertical cloud structure and the relative position of the aircraft, which collected a total of 84 slides by impaction, preserving the ice crystals for later microscopic examination. Although many particles were too fragile to survive impaction intact, a large fraction of the identifiable crystals were columns and radial bullet rosettes, with both displaying internal cavitations and radial plate-column combinations. Particles that were solid or displayed only a slight amount of internal structure were relatively rare, which shows that the usual model postulated by halo theorists, i.e., the randomly oriented, solid hexagonal crystal, is inappropriate for typical cirrus clouds. With the aid of new ray-tracing simulations for hexagonal hollow-ended column and bullet-rosette models, we evaluate the effects of more realistic ice-crystal structures on halo formation and lidar depolarization and consider why the common halo is not more common in cirrus clouds.

  1. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept...... of resource sharing takes a wider and deeper meaning, creating the foundations for a global real-time multidimensional resource pool, the underlying infrastructure for shareconomy. Above all, this is an inspiring book for anyone who is concerned about the future of wireless and mobile communications networks...

  2. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... archiving. The Soft Clouding Project is part of LARM - a major infrastructure combining research in and access to sound and radio archives in Denmark. In 2012 the LARM infrastructure will consist of more than 1 million hours of radio, combined with metadata who describes the content. The idea is to analyse...... the concept of ‘infrastructure’ and ‘interface’ on a creative play with the fundamentals of LARM (and any sound archive situation combining many kinds and layers of data and sources). This paper will present and discuss the Soft clouding project from the perspective of the three practices and competencies...

  3. Cloud computing challenges, limitations and R&D solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2014-01-01

    This important text/reference reviews the challenging issues that present barriers to greater implementation of the cloud computing paradigm, together with the latest research into developing potential solutions. Exploring the strengths and vulnerabilities of cloud provision and cloud environments, Cloud Computing: Challenges, Limitations and R&D Solutions provides case studies from a diverse selection of researchers and practitioners of international repute. The implications of emerging cloud technologies are also analyzed from the perspective of consumers. Topics and features: presents

  4. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    cloud radiative properties. Thus, a moderate influence on atmospheric aerosol distributions from cosmic ray ionisation would have a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability......A correlation between a global average of low cloud cover and the flux of cosmic rays incident in the atmosphere has been observed during the last solar cycle. The ionising potential of Earth bound cosmic rays are modulated by the state of the heliosphere, while clouds play an important role...... in the Earth's radiation budget through trapping outgoing radiation and reflecting incoming radiation. If a physical link between these two features can be established, it would provide a mechanism linking solar activity and Earth's climate. Recent satellite observations have further revealed a correlation...

  5. Internal Impedance of the Lithium-Ion Secondary Cells Used for Reimei Satellite after the Eleven Years Operation in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sone Yoshitsugu

    2017-01-01

    The lithium-ion secondary cell of the REIMEI battery was designed using spinel manganese oxide type material for the positive electrode, and the graphitized type carbon for the negative electrode. The cell case was made of aluminium laminated film and the structure was reinforced by the epoxy resin and aluminium housing. After the operation of eleven years, the cells still maintain the appropriate uniform balance and operative. In order to identify the internal condition of the battery/cell, we calculated the ac impedance by the pulse duration to the on-board battery.

  6. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS TWP-ICE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  8. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS C3VP V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  9. Gathering clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    Many physicians are finding their heads in a "cloud" as they ponder adopting or upgrading an electronic health record (EHR). That doesn't mean they're not in touch with reality. It means they now can choose new web-based systems, also known as cloud-based EHRs, that allow them to pay a monthly subscription fee to access an EHR rather than purchase it. They don't have to buy an expensive server with its associated hardware and software; a computer with an Internet connection will do.

  10. A Simple Model for the Cloud Adjacency Effect and the Apparent Bluing of Aerosols Near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Wen, Guoyong; Coakley, James A., Jr.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Loeb,Norman G.; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    In determining aerosol-cloud interactions, the properties of aerosols must be characterized in the vicinity of clouds. Numerous studies based on satellite observations have reported that aerosol optical depths increase with increasing cloud cover. Part of the increase comes from the humidification and consequent growth of aerosol particles in the moist cloud environment, but part comes from 3D cloud-radiative transfer effects on the retrieved aerosol properties. Often, discerning whether the observed increases in aerosol optical depths are artifacts or real proves difficult. The paper provides a simple model that quantifies the enhanced illumination of cloud-free columns in the vicinity of clouds that are used in the aerosol retrievals. This model is based on the assumption that the enhancement in the cloud-free column radiance comes from enhanced Rayleigh scattering that results from the presence of the nearby clouds. The enhancement in Rayleigh scattering is estimated using a stochastic cloud model to obtain the radiative flux reflected by broken clouds and comparing this flux with that obtained with the molecules in the atmosphere causing extinction, but no scattering.

  11. Onboard Detection of Snow, Ice, Clouds, and Other Processes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of clouds within a satellite image is essential for retrieving surface geophysical parameters from optical and thermal imagery. Even a small percentage...

  12. Towards Cloud Processing of GGOS Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Stuart; Kim, Bumjun; Litchfield, Alan; Gulyaev, Sergei; Hall, Dylan; Chorao, Carlos; Ruthven, Andrew; Davies, Glyn; Lagos, Bruno; Christie, Don

    2017-04-01

    We report on our initial steps towards development of a cloud-like correlation infrastructure for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), which in its raw format is of the order of 10-100 TB (big data). Data is generated by multiple VLBI radio telescopes, and is then used by for geodetic, geophysical, and astrometric research and operational activities through the International VLBI Service (IVS), as well as for corrections of GPS satellite orbits. Currently IVS data is correlated in several international Correlators (Correlation Centres), which receive data from individual radio telescope stations either in hard drives via regular mail service or via fibre using e-transfer mode. The latter is strongly limited by connectivity of existing correlation centres, which creates bottle necks and slows down the turnover of the data. This becomes critical in many applications - for example, it currently takes 1-2 weeks to generate the dUT1 parameter for corrections of GNSS orbits while less than 1-2 days delay is desirable. We started with a blade server at the AUT campus to emulate a cloud server using Virtual Machines (VMWare). The New Zealand Data Head node is connected to the high speed (100 Gbps) network ring circuit courtesy of the Research and Education Advanced Network New Zealand (REANNZ), with the additional nodes at remote physical sites connected via 10 Gbps fibre. We use real Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) observational data from 6 radio telescopes in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand (15 baselines) of 1.5 hours in duration making 8 TB to emulate data transfer from remote locations and to provide a meaningful benchmark dataset for correlation. Data was successfully transferred using bespoke UDT network transfer tools and correlated with the speed-up factor of 0.8 using DiFX software correlator. In partnership with the New Zealand office of Catalyst IT Ltd we have moved this environment into Catalyst Cloud and report on the first

  13. X.509 Authentication/Authorization in FermiCloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunwoo [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab

    2014-11-11

    We present a summary of how X.509 authentication and authorization are used with OpenNebula in FermiCloud. We also describe a history of why the X.509 authentication was needed in FermiCloud, and review X.509 authorization options, both internal and external to OpenNebula. We show how these options can be and have been used to successfully run scientific workflows on federated clouds, which include OpenNebula on FermiCloud and Amazon Web Services as well as other community clouds. We also outline federation options being used by other commercial and open-source clouds and cloud research projects.

  14. Improving Climate Projections by Understanding How Cloud Phase affects Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, Gregory; Storelvmo, Trude

    2017-01-01

    Whether a cloud is predominantly water or ice strongly influences interactions between clouds and radiation coming down from the Sun or up from the Earth. Being able to simulate cloud phase transitions accurately in climate models based on observational data sets is critical in order to improve confidence in climate projections, because this uncertainty contributes greatly to the overall uncertainty associated with cloud-climate feedbacks. Ultimately, it translates into uncertainties in Earth's sensitivity to higher CO2 levels. While a lot of effort has recently been made toward constraining cloud phase in climate models, more remains to be done to document the radiative properties of clouds according to their phase. Here we discuss the added value of a new satellite data set that advances the field by providing estimates of the cloud radiative effect as a function of cloud phase and the implications for climate projections.

  15. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound a...

  16. Cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use Internet and Web-based technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes how cloud computing can be used in nursing education.

  17. Cloud classification using whole-sky imager data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch, K.A. Jr.; Sun, C.H.; Thorne, L.R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Clouds are one of the most important moderators of the earth radiation budget and one of the least understood. The effect that clouds have on the reflection and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation is strongly influenced by their shape, size, and composition. Physically accurate parameterization of clouds is necessary for any general circulation model (GCM) to yield meaningful results. The work presented here is part of a larger project that is aimed at producing realistic three-dimensional (3D) volume renderings of cloud scenes based on measured data from real cloud scenes. These renderings will provide the important shape information for parameterizing GCMs. The specific goal of the current study is to develop an algorithm that automatically classifies (by cloud type) the clouds observed in the scene. This information will assist the volume rendering program in determining the shape of the cloud. Much work has been done on cloud classification using multispectral satellite images. Most of these references use some kind of texture measure to distinguish the different cloud types and some also use topological features (such as cloud/sky connectivity or total number of clouds). A wide variety of classification methods has been used, including neural networks, various types of clustering, and thresholding. The work presented here uses binary decision trees to distinguish the different cloud types based on cloud features vectors.

  18. 17th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Cerquitelli, Tania; Chiusano, Silvia; Guerrini, Giovanna; Kämpf, Mirko; Kemper, Alfons; Novikov, Boris; Palpanas, Themis; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Vakali, Athena

    2014-01-01

    This book reports on state-of-art research and applications in the field of databases and information systems. It includes both fourteen selected short contributions, presented at the East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS 2013, September 1-4, Genova, Italy), and twenty-six papers from ADBIS 2013 satellite events. The short contributions from the main conference are collected in the first part of the book, which covers a wide range of topics, like data management, similarity searches, spatio-temporal and social network data, data mining, data warehousing, and data management on novel architectures, such as graphics processing units, parallel database management systems, cloud and MapReduce environments. In contrast, the contributions from the satellite events are organized in five different parts, according to their respective ADBIS satellite event: BiDaTA 2013 - Special Session on Big Data: New Trends and Applications); GID 2013 – The Second International Workshop ...

  19. Saturn satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru

  20. An analysis of high cloud variability: imprints from the El Niño-Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, King-Fai; Su, Hui; Mak, Sze-Ning; Chang, Tiffany M.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Norris, Joel R.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), we examine how near-global (60°N-60°S) high cloud fraction varies over time in the past three decades. Our focus is on identifying dominant modes of variability and associated spatial patterns, and how they are related to sea surface temperature. By performing the principal component analysis, we find that the first two principal modes of high cloud distribution show strong imprints of the two types of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)—the canonical ENSO and the ENSO Modoki. Comparisons between ISCCP data and 14 models from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (AMIP5) show that models simulate the spatial pattern and the temporal variations of high cloud fraction associated with the canonical ENSO very well but the magnitudes of the canonical ENSO vary among the models. Furthermore, the multi-model mean of the second principal mode in the AMIP5 simulations appears to capture the temporal behavior of the second mode but individual AMIP5 models show large discrepancies in capturing observed temporal variations. A new metric, defined by the relative variances of the first two principal components, suggests that most of the AMIP5 models overestimate the second principal mode of high clouds.

  1. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is

  2. The Invigoration of Deep Convective Clouds Over the Atlantic: Aerosol Effect, Meteorology or Retrieval Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2010-01-01

    Associations between cloud properties and aerosol loading are frequently observed in products derived from satellite measurements. These observed trends between clouds and aerosol optical depth suggest aerosol modification of cloud dynamics, yet there are uncertainties involved in satellite retrievals that have the potential to lead to incorrect conclusions. Two of the most challenging problems are addressed here: the potential for retrieved aerosol optical depth to be cloud-contaminated, and as a result, artificially correlated with cloud parameters; and the potential for correlations between aerosol and cloud parameters to be erroneously considered to be causal. Here these issues are tackled directly by studying the effects of the aerosol on convective clouds in the tropical Atlantic Ocean using satellite remote sensing, a chemical transport model, and a reanalysis of meteorological fields. Results show that there is a robust positive correlation between cloud fraction or cloud top height and the aerosol optical depth, regardless of whether a stringent filtering of aerosol measurements in the vicinity of clouds is applied, or not. These same positive correlations emerge when replacing the observed aerosol field with that derived from a chemical transport model. Model-reanalysis data is used to address the causality question by providing meteorological context for the satellite observations. A correlation exercise between the full suite of meteorological fields derived from model reanalysis and satellite-derived cloud fields shows that observed cloud top height and cloud fraction correlate best with model pressure updraft velocity and relative humidity. Observed aerosol optical depth does correlate with meteorological parameters but usually different parameters from those that correlate with observed cloud fields. The result is a near-orthogonal influence of aerosol and meteorological fields on cloud top height and cloud fraction. The results strengthen the case

  3. How Common are the Magellanic Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lulu; Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2011-05-20

    We introduce a probabilistic approach to the problem of counting dwarf satellites around host galaxies in databases with limited redshift information. This technique is used to investigate the occurrence of satellites with luminosities similar to the Magellanic Clouds around hosts with properties similar to the Milky Way in the object catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our analysis uses data from SDSS Data Release 7, selecting candidate Milky-Way-like hosts from the spectroscopic catalog and candidate analogs of the Magellanic Clouds from the photometric catalog. Our principal result is the probability for a Milky-Way-like galaxy to host N{sub sat} close satellites with luminosities similar to the Magellanic Clouds. We find that 81 percent of galaxies like the Milky Way have no such satellites within a radius of 150 kpc, 11 percent have one, and only 3.5 percent of hosts have two. The probabilities are robust to changes in host and satellite selection criteria, background-estimation technique, and survey depth. These results demonstrate that the Milky Way has significantly more satellites than a typical galaxy of its luminosity; this fact is useful for understanding the larger cosmological context of our home galaxy.

  4. Introduction to MODIS Cloud Products. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Bryan A.; Platnick, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The Earth's radiative energy balance and hydrological cycle are fundamentally coupled with the distribution and properties of clouds. Therefore, the ability to remotely infer cloud properties and their variation in space and time is crucial for establishing climatologies as a reference for validation of present-day climate models and in assessing future climate change. Remote cloud observations also provide data sets useful for testing and improving cloud model physics, and for assimilation into numerical weather prediction models. The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagers on the Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms provide the capability for globally retrieving these properties using passive solar reflectance and infrared techniques. In addition to providing measurements similar to those offered on a suite of historical operational weather platforms such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), MODIS provides additional spectral and/or spatial resolution in key atmospheric bands, along with on-board calibration, to expand the capability for global cloud property retrievals. The core MODIS operational cloud products include cloud top pressure, thermodynamic phase, optical thickness, particle size, and water path, and are derived globally at spatial resolutions of either 1- or 5-km (referred to as Level-2 or pixel-level products). In addition, the MODIS atmosphere team (collectively providing cloud, aerosol, and clear sky products) produces a combined gridded product (referred to as Level-3) aggregated to a 1 equal-angle grid, available for daily, eight-day, and monthly time periods. The wealth of information available from these products provides critical information for climate studies as well as the continuation and improved understanding of existing satellite-based cloud climatologies

  5. OMMYDCLD: a New A-train Cloud Product that Co-locates OMI and MODIS Cloud and Radiance Parameters onto the OMI Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brad; Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Veefkind, Pepijn; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Clouds cover approximately 60% of the earth's surface. When obscuring the satellite's field of view (FOV), clouds complicate the retrieval of ozone, trace gases and aerosols from data collected by earth observing satellites. Cloud properties associated with optical thickness, cloud pressure, water phase, drop size distribution (DSD), cloud fraction, vertical and areal extent can also change significantly over short spatio-temporal scales. The radiative transfer models used to retrieve column estimates of atmospheric constituents typically do not account for all these properties and their variations. The OMI science team is preparing to release a new data product, OMMYDCLD, which combines the cloud information from sensors on board two earth observing satellites in the NASA A-Train: Aura/OMI and Aqua/MODIS. OMMYDCLD co-locates high resolution cloud and radiance information from MODIS onto the much larger OMI pixel and combines it with parameters derived from the two other OMI cloud products: OMCLDRR and OMCLDO2. The product includes histograms for MODIS scientific data sets (SDS) provided at 1 km resolution. The statistics of key data fields - such as effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and cloud water path - are further separated into liquid and ice categories using the optical and IR phase information. OMMYDCLD offers users of OMI data cloud information that will be useful for carrying out OMI calibration work, multi-year studies of cloud vertical structure and in the identification and classification of multi-layer clouds.

  6. Vertical structure of orographic precipitating clouds observed over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... Measuring Mission satellite. Two types of precipitating clouds have been defined based on cloud echo ... defined as, WG: Western Ghats; IWC: Indian West Coast; MM: Myanmar mountains; KH: Khasi Hills; CM: Cardamom mountains; GT: Gulf of .... standard deviation are calculated. 2.2 Identification of ...

  7. Privacy and legal issues in cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Rolf H

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on emerging and innovative attempts to tackle privacy and legal issues in cloud computing, such as personal data privacy, security and intellectual property protection. Leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law and computer science examine the specific legal implications of cloud computing pertaining to jurisdiction, biomedical practice and information ownership. This collection offers original and critical responses to the rising challenges posed by cloud computing.

  8. Energy efficiency in Mobile Cloud Computing Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Le Vinh, Thinh; Pallavali, Reddy; Houacine, Fatiha; Bouzefrane, Samia

    2016-01-01

    International audience; — Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) is an emerging and popular mobile technology which uses fully available Cloud Computing services and functionalities. This technology provides rich computational services to the users, network operators and Cloud service providers as well. However due to users mobility and high computational operations, consumption of energy is a major issue. Energy efficiency over MCC is needed since 57% of generated energy is used by ICT related devices...

  9. Trust: A Requirement for Cloud Technology Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Akinwale O. Akinwunmi; Emmanuel A. Olajubu; G. Adesola Aderounmu

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is a recent model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources such as networks, servers, storage, applications, and services; that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Studies have shown that cloud computing has the potential to benefit establishments, industries, national and international economies. Despite the enormous benefits cloud computing techno...

  10. Tropical and Subtropical Cloud Transitions in Weather and Climate Prediction Models: The GCSS/WGNE Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, J.; Cardoso, S.; Bonazzola, M.; Cole, J.; DeGenio, A.; DeMott, C.; Franklin, C.; Hannay, C.; Jakob, C.; Jiao, Y.; hide

    2011-01-01

    A model evaluation approach is proposed in which weather and climate prediction models are analyzed along a Pacific Ocean cross section, from the stratocumulus regions off the coast of California, across the shallow convection dominated trade winds, to the deep convection regions of the ITCZ the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud System Study/Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (GCSS/ WGNE) Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI). The main goal of GPCI is to evaluate and help understand and improve the representation of tropical and subtropical cloud processes in weather and climate prediction models. In this paper, a detailed analysis of cloud regime transitions along the cross section from the subtropics to the tropics for the season June July August of 1998 is presented. This GPCI study confirms many of the typical weather and climate prediction model problems in the representation of clouds: underestimation of clouds in the stratocumulus regime by most models with the corresponding consequences in terms of shortwave radiation biases; overestimation of clouds by the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) in the deep tropics (in particular) with the corresponding impact in the outgoing longwave radiation; large spread between the different models in terms of cloud cover, liquid water path and shortwave radiation; significant differences between the models in terms of vertical cross sections of cloud properties (in particular), vertical velocity, and relative humidity. An alternative analysis of cloud cover mean statistics is proposed where sharp gradients in cloud cover along the GPCI transect are taken into account. This analysis shows that the negative cloud bias of some models and ERA-40 in the stratocumulus regions [as compared to the first International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP)] is associated not only with lower values of cloud cover in these regimes, but also with a stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition that occurs too

  11. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  12. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  13. Cloud management and security

    CERN Document Server

    Abbadi, Imad M

    2014-01-01

    Written by an expert with over 15 years' experience in the field, this book establishes the foundations of Cloud computing, building an in-depth and diverse understanding of the technologies behind Cloud computing. In this book, the author begins with an introduction to Cloud computing, presenting fundamental concepts such as analyzing Cloud definitions, Cloud evolution, Cloud services, Cloud deployment types and highlighting the main challenges. Following on from the introduction, the book is divided into three parts: Cloud management, Cloud security, and practical examples. Part one presents the main components constituting the Cloud and federated Cloud infrastructure(e.g., interactions and deployment), discusses management platforms (resources and services), identifies and analyzes the main properties of the Cloud infrastructure, and presents Cloud automated management services: virtual and application resource management services. Part two analyzes the problem of establishing trustworthy Cloud, discuss...

  14. New insights about cloud vertical structure from CloudSat and CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dongmin

    2017-09-01

    Active cloud observations from A-Train's CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites offer new opportunities to examine the vertical structure of hydrometeor layers. We use the 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR merged CloudSat-CALIPSO product to examine global aspects of hydrometeor vertical stratification. We group the data into major cloud vertical structure (CVS) classes based on our interpretation of how clouds in three standard atmospheric layers overlap and provide their global frequency of occurrence. The two most frequent CVS classes are single-layer (per our definition) low and high clouds that represent 53% of cloudy skies, followed by high clouds overlying low clouds, and vertically extensive clouds that occupy near-contiguously a large portion of the troposphere. The prevalence of these configurations changes seasonally and geographically, between daytime and nighttime, and between continents and oceans. The radiative effects of the CVS classes reveal the major radiative warmers and coolers from the perspective of the planet as a whole, the surface, and the atmosphere. Single-layer low clouds dominate planetary and atmospheric cooling and thermal infrared surface warming. We also investigate the consistency between passive and active views of clouds by providing the CVS breakdowns of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cloud regimes for spatiotemporally coincident MODIS-Aqua (also on the A-Train) and CloudSat-CALIPSO daytime observations. When the analysis is expanded for a more in-depth look at the most heterogeneous of the MODIS cloud regimes, it ultimately confirms previous interpretations of their makeup that did not have the benefit of collocated active observations.

  15. Continued rise of the cloud advances and trends in cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is no-longer a novel paradigm, but instead an increasingly robust and established technology, yet new developments continue to emerge in this area. Continued Rise of the Cloud: Advances and Trends in Cloud Computing captures the state of the art in cloud technologies, infrastructures, and service delivery and deployment models. The book provides guidance and case studies on the development of cloud-based services and infrastructures from an international selection of expert researchers and practitioners. A careful analysis is provided of relevant theoretical frameworks, prac

  16. Cloud time

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Cloud’, hailed as a new digital commons, a utopia of collaborative expression and constant connection, actually constitutes a strategy of vitalist post-hegemonic power, which moves to dominate immanently and intensively, organizing our affective political involvements, instituting new modes of enclosure, and, crucially, colonizing the future through a new temporality of control. The virtual is often claimed as a realm of invention through which capitalism might be cracked, but it is precisely here that power now thrives. Cloud time, in service of security and profit, assumes all is knowable. We bear witness to the collapse of both past and future virtuals into a present dedicated to the exploitation of the spectres of both.

  17. Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    attacks SQL injection attacks  ,        exposing multiple customers’ data stored in  the same table and side channel attacks)    ,        .  17Bingue...or er to  sync ronize  multiple distributed machine images, images  distributed across multiple physical machines        ,  between cloud

  18. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking towa...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases.......Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... towards the centrosome. However, the recent identification of several new centriolar satellite components suggests that this model offers only an incomplete picture of their cellular functions. While the mechanisms controlling centriolar satellite status and function are not yet understood in detail...

  19. CGILS: Results from the First Phase of an International Project to Understand the Physical Mechanisms of Low Cloud Feedbacks in Single Column Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minghua; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter; Austin, Phillip A.; Bacmeister, J.; Bony, Sandrine; Brient, Florent; Cheedela, Suvarchal K.; Cheng, Anning; Del Genio, Anthony D.; De Roode, Stephan R.; Endo , Satoshi; Franklin, Charmaine N.; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Hannay, Cecile; Heus, Thijs; Isotta, Francesco A.; Jean-Louis, Dufresne; Kang, In-Sik; Kawai, Hideaki; Koehler, M.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Yangang; Lock, Adrian; Lohmann, U.; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Molod, Andrea M.; Neggers, Roel; Rasch, Philip J.; Sandu, Irina; Senkbeil, Ryan; Siebesma, A. P.; Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Colombe; Stevens, Bjorn; Suarez, Max; Xu, Kuan-Man; Von Salzen, Knut; Webb, Mark; Wolf, Audrey; Zhao, M.

    2013-12-26

    Large Eddy Models (LES) and Single Column Models (SCM) are used in a surrogate climate change 101 to investigate the physical mechanism of low cloud feedbacks in climate models. Enhanced surface-102 driven boundary layer turbulence and shallow convection in a warmer climate are found to be 103 dominant mechanisms in SCMs.

  20. External calibration technique of millimeter-wave cloud radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tao; Zhao, Zeng-Liang; Yao, Zhi-Gang; Han, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Lin-Da

    2016-10-01

    The millimeter-wave cloud radar can provide a large number of fine and reliable information for the inversion of cloud macro and micro parameters. A key link of using the millimeter-wave cloud radar to detect the cloud is that the radar must be calibrated. Due to the precision components and severe environment of millimeter-wave cloud radar, subtle changes may take place in the operation process of cloud radar, unless the cloud radar is calibrated regularly. Although the calibration system inside the cloud radar can track and monitor the main working parameters and correct the detection results, it fails to consider the characteristics of the antenna and the mutual influence among different components of cloud radar. Therefore, the external calibration for cloud radar system is very important. Combined with the actual situation of cloud radar under domestic onboard platform, this paper builds a complete external calibration technique process of cloud radar based on the calm sea, providing the theoretical support for the external calibration experiments of the airborne and even satellite-borne millimeter-wave cloud radar developed by our country.

  1. Sensitivity of PARASOL multi-angle photopolarimetric aerosol retrievals to cloud contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, F. A.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Roeckmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    An important problem in satellite remote sensing of aerosols is related to the need to perform an adequate cloud screening. If a cloud screening is applied that is not strict enough, the ground scene has the probability of residual cloud cover which causes large errors on the retrieved aerosol

  2. Retrieval of liquid water cloud properties from ground-based remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knist, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate ground-based remotely sensed microphysical and optical properties of liquid water clouds are essential references to validate satellite-observed cloud properties and to improve cloud parameterizations in weather and climate models. This requires the evaluation of algorithms for retrieval of

  3. Satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  4. An infrared study of the Magellanic clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, Petrus Bernardus Wilhelmus

    1988-01-01

    The thesis describes infrared radiation and dust properties of the Magellanic Clouds, together with comparisons with emission at other wavelength regimes. Observations of the SMC and LMC were made with the IRAS satellite. Maps are presented at wavelengths of 12, 25, 60 and 100 μm. From these maps a

  5. The sensitivities of in cloud and cloud top phase distributions to primary ice formation in ICON-LEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, H.; Karrer, M.; Tonttila, J.; Hoose, C.

    2017-12-01

    Mixed phase clouds remain a leading source of uncertainty in our attempt to quantify cloud-climate and aerosol-cloud climate interactions. Nevertheless, recent advances in parametrizing the primary ice formation process, high resolution cloud modelling, and retrievals of cloud phase distributions from satellite data offer an excellent opportunity to conduct closure studies on the sensitivity of the cloud phase to microphysical and dynamical processes. Particularly, the reliability of satellite data to resolve the phase at the top of the cloud provides a promising benchmark to compare model output to. We run large eddy simulations with the new ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic atmosphere model (ICON) to place bounds on the sensitivity of in cloud and cloud top phase to the primary ice formation process. State of the art primary ice formation parametrizations in the form of the cumulative ice active site density ns are implemented in idealized deep convective cloud simulations. We exploit the ability of ICON-LEM to switch between a two moment microphysics scheme and the newly developed Predicted Particle Properties (P3) scheme by running our simulations in both configurations for comparison. To quantify the sensitivity of cloud phase to primary ice formation, cloud ice content is evaluated against order of magnitude changes in ns at variable convective strengths. Furthermore, we assess differences between in cloud and cloud top phase distributions as well as the potential impact of updraft velocity on the suppression of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. The study aims to evaluate our practical understanding of primary ice formation in the context of predicting the structure and evolution of mixed phase clouds.

  6. Aerosol indirect effects – general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, T.; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, A.; Lohmann, U.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, A.; Feingold, G.; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, J. E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Y.; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, P.; Stier, P.; Grandey, B.; Feichter, J.; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, D.; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, A.; Iversen, T.; Seland, O.; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, H.; Lamarque, J. F.; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, M.

    2009-11-16

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated in the present study using three satellite datasets. The satellite datasets are taken as reference bearing in mind that cloud and aerosol retrievals include uncertainties. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (τa) and various cloud and radiation quantities consistently in models and satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over oceans. The relationship between τa and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to rep¬resentation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive re¬lationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and τa as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly in most of them. In a discussion of the hypo¬theses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld – τa relation¬ship, we find that none is unequivocally confirmed by our results. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between τa and cloud top tem¬perature and outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - τa relationship show a strong positive cor¬relation between τa and cloud fraction. The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of τa, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the short

  7. Coupled fvGCM-GCE Modeling System, 3D Cloud-Resolving Model and Cloud Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud- resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single-column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. A seed fund is available at NASA Goddard to build a MMF based on the 2D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM). A prototype MMF in being developed and production runs will be conducted at the beginning of 2005. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on precipitation processes, ( 2 ) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), (3) A cloud library generated by Goddard MMF, and 3D GCE model, and (4) A brief discussion on the GCE model on developing a global cloud simulator.

  8. Estimating tropical vertical motion profile shapes from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, L. E.; Handlos, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical structure of tropical deep convection strongly influences interactions with larger scale circulations and climate. This research focuses on investigating this vertical structure and its relationship with mesoscale tropical weather states. We test the hypothesis that vertical motion shape varies in association with weather state type. We estimate mean state vertical motion profile shapes for six tropical weather states defined using cloud top pressure and optical depth properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The relationship between vertical motion and the dry static energy budget are utilized to set up a regression analysis that empirically determines two modes of variability in vertical motion from reanalysis data. We use these empirically determined modes, this relationship and surface convergence to estimate vertical motion profile shape from observations of satellite retrievals of rainfall and surface convergence. We find that vertical motion profile shapes vary systematically between different tropical weather states. The "isolated systems" regime exhibits a more ''bottom-heavy'' profile shape compared to the convective/thick cirrus and vigorous deep convective regimes, with maximum upward vertical motion occurring in the lower troposphere rather than the middle to upper troposphere. The variability we observe with our method does not coincide with that expected based on conventional ideas about how stratiform rain fraction and vertical motion are related.

  9. Effect of ship-stack effluents on cloud reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, James A., Jr.; Bernstein, Robert L.; Durkee, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    Under stable meteorological conditions the effect of ship-stack exhaust on overlying clouds was detected in daytime satellite images as an enhancement in cloud reflectivity at 3.7 micrometers. The exhaust is a source of cloud-condensation nuclei that increases the number of cloud droplets while reducing droplet size. This reduction in droplet size causes the reflectivity at 3.7 micrometers to be greater than the levels for nearby noncontaminated clouds of similar physical characteristics. The increase in droplet number causes the reflectivity at 0.63 micrometer to be significantly higher for the contaminated clouds despite the likelihood that the exhaust is a source of particles that absorb at visible wavelengths. The effect of aerosols on cloud reflectivity is expected to have a larger influence on the earth's albedo than that due to the direct scattering and absorption of sunlight by the aerosols alone.

  10. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Shaviv, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    in physical and micro-physical cloud parameters to FDs. The test is subsequently applied to one ground based and three satellite based datasets. Responses (> 95%) to FDs are found in the following parameters of the analyzed datasets. AERONET: Ångström exponent (cloud condensation nuclei changes), SSM....../I: liquid water content, ISCCP: total, high and middle, IR detected clouds over the oceans, MODIS: cloud effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, liquid water, cloud fraction, liquid water path, liquid cloud effective radius. Moreover, the responses in MODIS are found to correlate positively......A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response...

  11. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellites have been a highly effective platform for multi- form broadcasts. This has led to a revival of the radio era. The satellite radio is a natural choice to bridge the digital gap. It has several novel features like selective addressing and error control. The value-added services from such systems are of particular interest.

  12. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  13. An Examination of the Nature of Global MODIS Cloud Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dongmin; Kato, Seiji; Huffman, George J.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce global cloud regimes (previously also referred to as "weather states") derived from cloud retrievals that use measurements by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites. The regimes are obtained by applying clustering analysis on joint histograms of retrieved cloud top pressure and cloud optical thickness. By employing a compositing approach on data sets from satellites and other sources, we examine regime structural and thermodynamical characteristics. We establish that the MODIS cloud regimes tend to form in distinct dynamical and thermodynamical environments and have diverse profiles of cloud fraction and water content. When compositing radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System instrument and surface precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project, we find that regimes with a radiative warming effect on the atmosphere also produce the largest implied latent heat. Taken as a whole, the results of the study corroborate the usefulness of the cloud regime concept, reaffirm the fundamental nature of the regimes as appropriate building blocks for cloud system classification, clarify their association with standard cloud types, and underscore their distinct radiative and hydrological signatures.

  14. Geostationary infrared methods for detecting lightning-producing cumulonimbus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthee, Retha; Mecikalski, John R.

    2013-06-01

    This study documents the behavior of cloud top infrared (IR) fields known to describe physical processes associated with growing convective clouds, for 30 nonlightning and 33 cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning-producing convective storms. The goal is to define "critical" threshold values for up to 10 IR fields that delineate lightning from nonlightning convective storms. Meteosat Second Generation and United Kingdom Meteorological Office very low frequency arrival time difference satellite and lightning data, respectively, were used in this study. These were collected during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) field campaign in August-September 2006 in Equatorial Africa. The main conclusions show that eight of 10 IR fields that describe updraft strength, cloud depth, and glaciation (or ice at cloud top) are significantly different between the nonlightning and lightning-producing convective clouds. The lack of notch overlap in "box and whiskers" plots confirms a 95% confidence that the two data sets are different. Nonlightning-producing clouds are far less vertically developed and possess >50% weaker updrafts (as estimated from satellite trends), as well as little to no evidence of ice or glaciation at cloud top. Results from this study therefore can be used to nowcast and identify with high confidence convective clouds that are producing or are going to produce CG lightning using Meteosat data, assuming appropriate tracking of growing cumulus clouds is performed.

  15. Improving cloud information over deserts from SCIAMACHY Oxygen A-band measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fournier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of column densities and concentration profiles of atmospheric trace gas species from satellites is sensitive to light scattered by clouds. The SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY instrument on the Envisat satellite, principally designed to retrieve trace gases in the atmosphere, is also capable of detecting clouds. FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band is a fast and robust algorithm providing cloud information from the O2 A-band for cloud correction of ozone. FRESCO provides a consistent set of cloud products by retrieving simultaneously effective cloud fraction and cloud top pressure. The FRESCO retrieved values are compared with the SCIAMACHY Level 2 operational cloud fraction of OCRA (Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm but, also, with cloud information from HICRU (Heidelberg Iterative Cloud Retrieval Utilities, SACURA (SemiAnalytical CloUd Retrieval Algorithm and the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument. The results correlate well, but FRESCO overestimates cloud fraction over deserts. Thus, to improve retrievals at these locations, the FRESCO surface albedo databases are decontaminated from the presence of desert dust aerosols. This is achieved by using the GOME Absorbing Aerosol Index. It is shown that this approach succeeds well in producing more accurate cloud information over the Sahara.

  16. Intra-enterprise telecommunication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, A. J.

    1981-11-01

    Information transfer in the mid 1980's is sketched. The use of geostationary satellites for internal requirements of businesses is an important factor in the growth of information transfer. Protection of transferred information is achieved through encryption. The companies which use satellites are those whose telecommunication costs are already significant; who have large computing capabilities including distributed data processing; who use national and international leased circuits; and whose establishments are dispersed. Uses include teleconferencing, voice and data transmission, and text and facsimile communication.

  17. Correlation between cloud thickness and brightness using Nimbus 4 THIR data /11.5-micron channel/ and ATS 3 digital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.-U.; Sikdar, D. N.; Suomi, V. E.

    1974-01-01

    Nimbus 4 data (11.5-micron) channel and ATS 3 digitized data were analyzed for three days during April and May 1970. Cloud-top temperature, as measured by the 11.5-micron channel of the satellite radiometer, shows a close negative correlation with cloud brightness measured by the ATS 3 satellite. This is especially true in well-developed cumulonimbus clouds. An estimate of cloud heights corresponding to cloud-top temperature was obtained by using radiosonde data and radar images, and the relationships between the cloud thickness and brightness counts were derived for the cumulonimbus clouds.

  18. Cirrus cloud development in a mobile upper tropospheric trough: The November 26th FIRE cirrus case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1993-01-01

    The period from 18 UTC 26 Nov. 1991 to roughly 23 UTC 26 Nov. 1991 is one of the study periods of the FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Regional Experiment) 2 field campaign. The middle and upper tropospheric cloud data that was collected during this time allowed FIRE scientists to learn a great deal about the detailed structure, microphysics, and radiative characteristics of the mid latitude cirrus that occurred during that time. Modeling studies that range from the microphysical to the mesoscale are now underway attempting to piece the detailed knowledge of this cloud system into a coherent picture of the atmospheric processes important to cirrus cloud development and maintenance. An important component of the modeling work, either as an input parameter in the case of cloud-scale models, or as output in the case of meso and larger scale models, is the large scale forcing of the cloud system. By forcing we mean the synoptic scale vertical motions and moisture budget that initially send air parcels ascending and supply the water vapor to allow condensation during ascent. Defining this forcing from the synoptic scale to the cloud scale is one of the stated scientific objectives of the FIRE program. From the standpoint of model validation, it is also necessary that the vertical motions and large scale moisture budget of the case studies be derived from observations. It is considered important that the models used to simulate the observed cloud fields begin with the correct dynamics and that the dynamics be in the right place for the right reasons.

  19. A stochastic cloud model for cloud and ozone retrievals from UV measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremenko, Dmitry S.; Schüssler, Olena; Doicu, Adrian; Loyola, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of satellite instruments provides measurements in and around the Oxygen A-band on a global basis and with a relatively high spatial resolution. These data are commonly used for the determination of cloud properties. A stochastic model and radiative transfer model, previously developed by the authors, is used as the forward model component in retrievals of cloud parameters and ozone total and partial columns. The cloud retrieval algorithm combines local and global optimization routines, and yields a retrieval accuracy of about 1% and a fast computational time. Retrieved parameters are the cloud optical thickness and the cloud-top height. It was found that the use of the independent pixel approximation instead of the stochastic cloud model leads to large errors in the retrieved cloud parameters, as well as, in the retrieved ozone height resolved partial columns. The latter can be reduced by using the stochastic cloud model to compute the optimal value of the regularization parameter in the framework of Tikhonov regularization. - Highlights: • A stochastic radiative transfer model for retrieving clouds/ozone is designed. • Errors of independent pixel approximation (IPA) for O3 total column are small. • The error of IPA for ozone profile retrieval may become large. • The use of stochastic model reduces the error of ozone profile retrieval.

  20. Blue skies for CLOUD

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Through the recently approved CLOUD experiment, CERN will soon be contributing to climate research. Tests are being performed on the first prototype of CLOUD, an experiment designed to assess cosmic radiation influence on cloud formation.

  1. Use of Earth Observing Satellites for Operational Hazard Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. M.; Lauritson, L.

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) relies on Earth observing satellite data to carry out its operational mission to monitor, predict, and assess changes in the Earth's atmosphere, land, and oceans. NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) uses satellite data to help lessen the impacts of natural and man-made disasters due to tropical cyclones, flash floods, heavy snowstorms, volcanic ash clouds (for aviation safety), sea ice (for shipping safety), and harmful algal blooms. Communications systems on NOAA satellites are used to support search and rescue and to relay data from data collection platforms to a variety of users. NOAA's Geostationary (GOES) and Polar (POES) Operational Environmental Satellites are used in conjunction with other satellites to support NOAA's operational mission. While NOAA's National Hurricane Center is responsible for predicting tropical cyclones affecting the U.S. mainland, NESDIS continuously monitors the tropics world wide, relaying valuable satellite interpretations of tropical systems strength and position to users throughout the world. Text messages are sent every six hours for tropical cyclones in the Western Pacific, South Pacific, and Indian Oceans. To support the monitoring, prediction, and assessment of flash floods and winter storms, NESDIS sends out text messages alerting U.S. weather forecast offices whenever NOAA satellite imagery indicates the occurrence of heavy rain or snow. NESDIS also produces a 24-hour rainfall composite graphic image covering those areas affected by heavy precipitation. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and other aviation concerns recognized the need to keep aviators informed of volcanic hazards. To that end, nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC's) were created to monitor volcanic ash plumes within their assigned airspace. NESDIS hosts one of the VAAC's. Although the NESDIS VAAC's primary responsibility is the

  2. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  3. Global Measurements of Optically Thin Ice Clouds Using CALIOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R.; Avery, M.; Tackett, J.

    2017-01-01

    Optically thin ice clouds have been shown to have a net warming effect on the globe but, because passive instruments are not sensitive to optically thin clouds, the occurrence frequency of this class of clouds is greatly underestimated in historical passive sensor cloud climatology. One major strength of CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization), onboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) spacecraft, is its ability to detect these thin clouds, thus filling an important missing piece in the historical data record. This poster examines the full mission of CALIPSO Level 2 data, focusing on those CALIOP retrievals identified as thin ice clouds according to the definition shown to the right. Using this definition, thin ice clouds are identified and counted globally and vertically for each season. By examining the spatial and seasonal distributions of these thin clouds we hope to gain a better understanding these thin ice clouds and how their global distribution has changed over the mission. This poster showcases when and where CALIOP detects thin ice clouds and examines a case study of the eastern pacific and the effects seen from the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  4. DIDACTIC POTENTIAL OF CLOUD TECHNOLOGIES FOR MENAGMENT OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А А Заславский

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the basic definitions and differences between Services in the cloud, cloud services, cloud applications and cloud storage data. The basic cloud types that can be used on the Internet and the LAN of educational organization (Intranet. Possibilities of use of cloud services to improve of effective management at educational organization of internal and external communications of educational organizations, as well as to ensure joint work of employees of the educational organization.A list of core competencies an employee of an educational organization, which will be developed for use in the activity of cloud services and cloud applications. We describe the positive aspects of the use of cloud services and cloud-based technologies for the management of the educational institution, identifies possible risks of using cloud technologies, presents options for the use of cloud technology over the Internet and the Intranet network. We present a list of software included with every category of cloud services described types: storage and file synchronization, storage of bookmarks and notes, time management, software applications. At the article is introduced the basic definition and classification of cloud services, offered examples of methodical use of cloud services in the management of the educational organization.

  5. Moving towards Cloud Security

    OpenAIRE

    Edit Szilvia Rubóczki; Zoltán Rajnai

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing hosts and delivers many different services via Internet. There are a lot of reasons why people opt for using cloud resources. Cloud development is increasing fast while a lot of related services drop behind, for example the mass awareness of cloud security. However the new generation upload videos and pictures without reason to a cloud storage, but only few know about data privacy, data management and the proprietary of stored data in the cloud. In an enterprise environment th...

  6. Securing Cloud Storage Service

    OpenAIRE

    Zapolskas, Vytautas

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing brought flexibility, scalability, and capital cost savings to the IT industry. As more companies turn to cloud solutions, securing cloud based services becomes increasingly important, because for many organizations, the final barrier to adopting cloud computing is whether it is sufficiently secure. More users rely on cloud storage as it is mainly because cloud storage is available to be used by multiple devices (e.g. smart phones, tablets, notebooks, etc.) at the same time. Th...

  7. An explanation for some fallstreak clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    Full Text Available Fallstreak cirrus clouds are associated with super-saturated air, together with waves, instabilities and/or turbulence; however, their precise cause is usually uncertain. This paper uses already-published satellite, radiosonde and radar data, reanalysed to study some large fallstreaks which had been previously overlooked. The fallstreaks – up to 60 km long with a parent cloud 20 km wide – are caused by lifting and/or turbulence from a mountain wave, rather than, for example, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. If turbulent breaking of mountain waves affects ice particle formation, this may be relevant for the seeder-feeder effect on orographic rain, and the efficiency of mountain-wave polar stratospheric clouds for ozone depletion.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; waves and tides – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  8. An explanation for some fallstreak clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Fallstreak cirrus clouds are associated with super-saturated air, together with waves, instabilities and/or turbulence; however, their precise cause is usually uncertain. This paper uses already-published satellite, radiosonde and radar data, reanalysed to study some large fallstreaks which had been previously overlooked. The fallstreaks – up to 60 km long with a parent cloud 20 km wide – are caused by lifting and/or turbulence from a mountain wave, rather than, for example, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. If turbulent breaking of mountain waves affects ice particle formation, this may be relevant for the seeder-feeder effect on orographic rain, and the efficiency of mountain-wave polar stratospheric clouds for ozone depletion.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; waves and tides – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  9. Domestic satellite communications overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, R. L.

    1984-09-01

    The current status and future planning of satellite systems for intranational communication are examined in a summary of presentations given at the CCIR international seminar on domestic satellite communications held in Shanghai in October 1983. Topics discussed include operational and planned systems in Australia, Japan, the U.S., India, China, France, Brazil, Italy, Thailand, and the European region; development and planning by NASA and Intelsat; systems for rural areas or light traffic; modulation and multiple access; antennas, propagation, and interference; geostationary orbits; and economics, planning, and implementation.

  10. Clouds at Barbados are representative of clouds across the trade wind regions in observations and climate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Brian; Nuijens, Louise

    2016-05-31

    Trade wind regions cover most of the tropical oceans, and the prevailing cloud type is shallow cumulus. These small clouds are parameterized by climate models, and changes in their radiative effects strongly and directly contribute to the spread in estimates of climate sensitivity. This study investigates the structure and variability of these clouds in observations and climate models. The study builds upon recent detailed model evaluations using observations from the island of Barbados. Using a dynamical regimes framework, satellite and reanalysis products are used to compare the Barbados region and the broader tropics. It is shown that clouds in the Barbados region are similar to those across the trade wind regions, implying that observational findings from the Barbados Cloud Observatory are relevant to clouds across the tropics. The same methods are applied to climate models to evaluate the simulated clouds. The models generally capture the cloud radiative effect, but underestimate cloud cover and show an array of cloud vertical structures. Some models show strong biases in the environment of the Barbados region in summer, weakening the connection between the regional biases and those across the tropics. Even bearing that limitation in mind, it is shown that covariations of cloud and environmental properties in the models are inconsistent with observations. The models tend to misrepresent sensitivity to moisture variations and inversion characteristics. These model errors are likely connected to cloud feedback in climate projections, and highlight the importance of the representation of shallow cumulus convection.

  11. Cloud clusters and superclusters over the oceanic warm pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Brian E.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A study aimed at examining the size distributions of cloud clusters and the temperature distributions within them as functions of location, year, phase of the ISV, and time of day is considered. IR satellite images of tropical convection over the oceanic warm pool were processed to reveal cloud clusters, connected areas with cloud-top temperatures lower than a given threshold value. Results were obtained for a very cold threshold (208 K), corresponding roughly to the radar echo area within Australian monsoon cloud clusters, and for a moderately cold threshold (235 K) frequently used in climatic rainfall estimation.

  12. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System - Restructured Capabilities for Operational Ocean Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    aerosols, cloud cover, surface albedo , and snow cover. Performance at the sensor level is expected to be comparable to MODIS [8], and as such represents...and research satellites with ocean observation capabilities such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ( MODIS ) on the NASA Terra...temperature, soil moisture, sea ice characterization, precipitation, snow water equivalent, cloud liquid water, cloud base height, and atmospheric

  13. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the