WorldWideScience

Sample records for international muon ionization

  1. Status of the international Muon ionization cooling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, V.; Bonesini, M.

    2009-01-01

    Muon ionization cooling provides the only practical solution to prepare high brilliance beams necessary for a neutrino factory or muon colliders. The muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). It comprises a dedicated beam line to generate a range of input emittance and momentum, with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to ensure a pure muon beam. A first measurement of emittance is performed in the upstream magnetic spectrometer with a scintillating fiber tracker. A cooling cell will then follow, alternating energy loss in liquid hydrogen and RF acceleration. A second spectrometer identical to the first one and a particle identification system provide a measurement of the outgoing emittance. By July 2009 it is expected that the beam and first set of detectors will have been commissioned and a first measurement of input beam emittance may be reported. Along with the steps in the measurement of emittance reduction (cooling) that will follow later and in 2010. (authors)

  2. Muon ionization cooling experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    A neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly leptonic CP violation. It is also the first step towards muon colliders. The performance of this new and promising line of accelerators relies heavily on the concept of ionisation cooling of minimum ionising muons, for which much R&D is required. The concept of a muon ionisation cooling experiment has been extensively studied and first steps are now being taken towards its realisation by a joint international team of accelerator and particle physicists. The aim of the workshop is to to explore at least two versions of an experiment based on existing cooling channel designs. If such an experiment is feasible, one shall then select, on the basis of effectiveness, simplicity, availability of components and overall cost, a design for the proposed experiment, and assemble the elements necessary to the presentation of a proposal. Please see workshop website.

  3. The MICE Demonstration of Muon Ionization Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste [Imperial Coll., London; Hunt, Christopher [Imperial Coll., London; Palladino, Vittorio [INFN, Naples; Pasternak, Jaroslaw [Imperial Coll., London

    2016-06-01

    Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterised neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavour at the Neutrino Factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions up to several TeV at the Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate muon ionization cooling, the technique proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization-cooling channel, the muon beam traverses a material (the absorber) loosing energy, which is replaced using RF cavities. The combined effect is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). The configuration of MICE required to deliver the demonstration of ionization cooling is being prepared in parallel to the execution of a programme designed to measure the cooling properties of liquid-hydrogen and lithium hydride. The design of the cooling-demonstration experiment will be presented together with a summary of the performance of each of its components and the cooling performance of the experiment.

  4. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  5. Simulated Measurements of Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Cooled muon beams set the basis for the exploration of physics of flavour at a Neutrino Factory and for multi-TeV collisions at a Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) measures beam emittance before and after an ionization cooling cell and aims to demonstrate emittance reduction in muon beams. In the current MICE Step IV configuration, the MICE muon beam passes through low-Z absorber material for reducing its transverse emittance through ionization energy loss. Two scintillating fiber tracking detectors, housed in spectrometer solenoid modules upstream and downstream of the absorber are used for reconstructing position and momentum of individual muons for calculating transverse emittance reduction. However, due to existence of non-linear effects in beam optics, transverse emittance growth can be observed. Therefore, it is crucial to develop algorithms that are insensitive to this apparent emittance growth. We describe a different figure of merit for measuring muon cooling which is the direct measurement of the phase space density.

  6. Novel Application of Density Estimation Techniques in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohayai, Tanaz Angelina [IIT, Chicago; Snopok, Pavel [IIT, Chicago; Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford

    2017-10-12

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) aims to demonstrate muon beam ionization cooling for the first time and constitutes a key part of the R&D towards a future neutrino factory or muon collider. Beam cooling reduces the size of the phase space volume occupied by the beam. Non-parametric density estimation techniques allow very precise calculation of the muon beam phase-space density and its increase as a result of cooling. These density estimation techniques are investigated in this paper and applied in order to estimate the reduction in muon beam size in MICE under various conditions.

  7. Lattice design and expected performance of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment demonstration of ionization cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterized neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavor at a neutrino factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at a muon collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE aims to demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization-cooling channel, the muon beam passes through a material in which it loses energy. The energy lost is then replaced using rf cavities. The combined effect of energy loss and reacceleration is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling. A major revision of the scope of the project was carried out over the summer of 2014. The revised experiment can deliver a demonstration of ionization cooling. The design of the cooling demonstration experiment will be described together with its predicted cooling performance.

  8. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, A.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Adey, D.; Hanlet, P.; Heidt, C.

    2014-06-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  9. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, A. [Imperial Coll., London; Long, K. [Imperial Coll., London; Santos, E. [Imperial Coll., London; Adey, D. [Fermilab; Hanlet, P. [Fermilab; Heidt, C. [UC, Riverside

    2014-01-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  10. The MICE Muon Beam on ISIS and the beam-line instrumentation of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Russinov, I.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Wang, L.; Xu, F.Y.; Zheng, S.X.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Lucchini, G.; Mazza, R.; Paleari, F.; Strati, F.; Palladino, V.; Cecchet, G.; de Bari, A.; Capponi, M.; Cirillo, A.; Iaciofano, A.; Manfredini, A.; Parisi, M.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Yano, T.; Yoshida, M.; Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Filthaut, F.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Gruber, P.; Hanke, K.; Haseroth, H.; Janot, P.; Lombardi, A.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Graulich, J.S.; Grichine, V.; Gschwendtner, E.; Masciocchi, F.; Sandstrom, R.; Verguilov, V.; Wisting, H.; Petitjean, C.; Seviour, R.; Alexander, J.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Griffiths, S.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; White, C.; York, S.; Adams, D.; Apsimon, R.; Barclay, P.; Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Drumm, P.; Edgecock, R.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Ivaniouchenkov, Y.; Jones, A.; Lintern, A.; MacWaters, C.; Nelson, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rochford, J.H.; Rogers, C.; Spensley, W.; Tarrant, J.; Tilley, K.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Forrest, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Walaron, K.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Clark, D.; Clark, I.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fish, A.; Hare, R.; Greenwood, S.; Jamdagni, A.; Kasey, V.; Khaleeq, M.; Leaver, J.; Long, K.; McKigney, E.; Matsushita, T.; Pasternak, J.; Sashalmi, T.; Savidge, T.; Takahashi, M.; Blackmore, V.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.; Tunnell, C.D.; Witte, H.; Yang, S.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Howlett, L.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.; Adey, D.; Back, J.; Boyd, S.; Harrison, P.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Geer, S.; Neuffer, D.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Roberts, T.J.; DeMello, A.; Green, M.A.; Li, D.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.S.; Freemire, B.; Hanlet, P.; Huang, D.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cline, D.; Fukui, Y.; Lee, K.; Yang, X.; Rimmer, R.A.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Gregoire, G.; Hart, T.L.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Coney, L.; Fletcher, R.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.; Gallardo, J.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Palmer, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), will demonstrate the principle of ionization cooling as a technique for the reduction of the phase-space volume occupied by a muon beam. Ionization cooling channels are required for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. MICE will evaluate in detail the performance of a single lattice cell of the Feasibility Study 2 cooling channel. The MICE Muon Beam has been constructed at the ISIS synchrotron at RAL, and in MICE Step I, it has been characterized using the MICE beam-instrumentation system. In this paper, the MICE Muon Beam and beam-line instrumentation are described. The muon rate is presented as a function of the beam loss generated by the MICE target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. For a 1 V signal from the ISIS beam-loss monitors downstream of our target we obtain a 30 KHz muon rate, with a neglible pion contamination in the beam.

  11. The MICE Muon Beam on ISIS and the beam-line instrumentation of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogomilov, M. [University of Sofia (Bulgaria); et al.

    2012-05-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), will demonstrate the principle of ionization cooling as a technique for the reduction of the phase-space volume occupied by a muon beam. Ionization cooling channels are required for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. MICE will evaluate in detail the performance of a single lattice cell of the Feasibility Study 2 cooling channel. The MICE Muon Beam has been constructed at the ISIS synchrotron at RAL, and in MICE Step I, it has been characterized using the MICE beam-instrumentation system. In this paper, the MICE Muon Beam and beam-line instrumentation are described. The muon rate is presented as a function of the beam loss generated by the MICE target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. For a 1 V signal from the ISIS beam-loss monitors downstream of our target we obtain a 30 KHz instantaneous muon rate, with a neglible pion contamination in the beam.

  12. Generation of low-energy muons with laser resonant ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Bakule, P.; Iwasaki, M.; Matsuzaki, T.; Miyake, Y.; Ikedo, Y.; Strasser, P.; Shimomura, K.; Makimura, S.; Nagamine, K.

    2006-01-01

    We have constructed a low-energy muSR spectrometer at RIKEN-RAL muon facility in ISIS, the UK. With low-background of pulsed muon beam, and short pulse width from laser resonant ionization method, it is hoped this instrument will open new possibilities for studies of material sciences with muon beam. It is enphasized that this method is well suited to the facility where intense pulsed proton beam is available

  13. Superconducting solenoids for an international muon cooling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Rey, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The international muon ionization cooling experiment MICE will consist of two focusing cooling cells and a pair of uniform field solenoids used for particle identification and emittance measurements. The 2.75-meter long cooling cells have a pair of field flip coils and a coupling coil. The 0.52-meter diameter field flip coils surround an absorber that removes transverse and longitudinal momentum from the muons to be cooled. The beam in the absorber is at a minimum beta point so that scattering of the muons is minimized. The 1.7-meter diameter coupling coils are outside of conventional 201.25 MHz RF cavities that accelerate the muons putting longitudinal momentum into the muons without putting back the transverse momentum into the beam. A third set of flip coils helps the muon beam transition from and to the experimental solenoids. The 0.6-meter diameter experimental solenoids have a uniform field region (good to about 1 part in 1000) that is 1.3-meters long. The MICE experiment magnets must operate as a single unit so that the field profile will produce the maximum muon cooling

  14. On analog simulation of ionization cooling of muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Ming

    2001-01-01

    Analog simulation, proposed here as an alternative approach for the study of ionization cooling of muons, is a scaled cooling experiment, using protons instead of muons as simulation particles. It is intended to be an effective and flexible, quick and inexpensive experiment for the understanding and validation of unprecedentedly complicated cooling physics, for the demonstration and optimization of various elaborated techniques for beam manipulation in 6D phase space. It can be done and perhaps should be done before the costly and time-consuming development of extremely challenging, muon-specific cooling technology. In a nutshell, the idea here is to build a toy machine in a playground of ideas, before staking the Imperial Guard of Napoleon into the bloody battlefield of Waterloo

  15. ICOOL: A Simulation Code for Ionization Cooling of Muon Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Current ideas [1,2] for designing a high luminosity muon collider require significant cooling of the phase space of the muon beams. The only known method that can cool the beams in a time comparable to the muon lifetime is ionization cooling [3,4]. This method requires directing the particles in the beam at a large angle through a low Z absorber material in a strong focusing magnetic channel and then restoring the longitudinal momentum with an rf cavity. We have developed a new 3-D tracking code ICOOL for examining possible configurations for muon cooling. A cooling system is described in terms of a series of longitudinal regions with associated material and field properties. The tracking takes place in a coordinate system that follows a reference orbit through the system. The code takes into account decays and interactions of ∼50-500 MeV/c muons in matter. Material geometry regions include cylinders and wedges. A number of analytic models are provided for describing the field configurations. Simple diagnostics are built into the code, including calculation of emittances and correlations, longitudinal traces, histograms and scatter plots. A number of auxiliary files can be generated for post-processing analysis by the user

  16. The Effect of Extending the Length of the Coupling Coils in a Muon Ionization Cooling Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    RF cavities are used to re-accelerate muons that have been cooled by absorbers that are in low beta regions of a muon ionization cooling channel. A superconducting coupling magnet (or magnets) are around or among the RF cavities of a muon ionization-cooling channel. The field from the magnet guides the muons so that they are kept within the iris of the RF cavities that are used to accelerate the muons. This report compares the use of a single short coupling magnet with an extended coupling magnet that has one or more superconducting coils as part of a muon-cooling channel of the same design as the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE). Whether the superconducting magnet is short and thick or long and this affects the magnet stored energy and the peak field in the winding. The magnetic field distribution also affects is the muon beam optics in the cooling cell of a muon cooling channel

  17. Hybrid Methods for Simulation of Muon Ionization Cooling Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Josiah D.

    COSY Infinity is an arbitrary-order beam dynamics simulation and analysis code. It can determine high-order transfer maps of combinations of particle optical elements of arbitrary field configurations. For precision modeling, design, and optimization of next-generation muon beam facilities, its features make it a very attractive code. New features are being developed for inclusion in COSY to follow the distribution of charged particles through matter. To study in detail some of the properties of muons passing through material, the transfer map approach alone is not sufficient. The interplay of beam optics and atomic processes must be studied by a hybrid transfer map-Monte Carlo approach in which transfer map methods describe the average behavior of the particles in the accelerator channel including energy loss, and Monte Carlo methods are used to provide small corrections to the predictions of the transfer map accounting for the stochastic nature of scattering and straggling of particles. The advantage of the new approach is that it is very efficient in that the vast majority of the dynamics is represented by fast application of the high-order transfer map of an entire element and accumulated stochastic effects as well as possible particle decay. The gains in speed shown in this work are expected to simplify the optimization of muon cooling channels which are usually very computationally demanding due to the need to repeatedly run large numbers of particles through large numbers of configurations. This work describes the development of the required algorithms and their application to the simulation of muon ionization cooling channels. The code is benchmarked against other codes, validated with experimental results, and predicts results for current muon ionization cooling efforts.

  18. 'Geant Simulation of Muon Cooling Rings,' 'Ionization Cooling Ring for Muons,' 'Geant Simulation of Six-Dimensional Cooling of Muon Beams in Ring Coolers,' 'Recent Progress in Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Research Within the Muon Collaboration,' 'Towards the Higgs Factory/Muon Collider,' 'Status of R and D on Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders,' 'Feasibility Study-II of a Muon-Based Neutrino Source,' 'A Muon Collider as a Higgs Factory,' 'Higgs Factory Muon Collider,' 'A Muon Collider as a Higgs Factory,' 'A Feasibility Study of a Neutrino Source Based on a Muon Storage Ring,' 'Status of Muon Collider Research and Development and Future Plans,'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. G. Hanson and A. Klier; R. Palmer,; Amit Klier and Gail G. Hanson,; Mohammad M. Alsharo, et al,; G. Hanson,; G. Hanson,; S. Ozaki, R. Palmer, M.S. Zisman, and J. Gallardo, eds.,; D.B. Cline and G.G. Hanson,; D.B. Cline and G.G. Hanson,; D.B. Cline and G.G. Hanson,; N. Holtkamp and D. Finley, eds.; C.M. Ankenbrandt

    2006-01-01

    now under way. The International Neutrino Factory and Superbeam Scoping Study (ISS) began at the NuFact05 Workshop in June 2005 with the goals of elaborating the physics case, defining the baseline options for such a facility and its neutrino detectors, and identifying the required R and D program to lay the foundations for a complete design study proposal, and an International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory is beginning. These studies entail iterative cost and technical difficulty evaluations, thereby providing guidelines for the advancing R and D program. One of the central subsystems of a neutrino factory or muon collider is the muon cooling system. The muon beam is cooled to increase the phase space density and allow the muons to pass through smaller apertures, thus reducing the cost of the following accelerator systems. This cooling is accomplished through ionization cooling, in which the beam is passed through liquid hydrogen absorbers and then accelerated in RF cavities to restore the longitudinal momentum. Ionization cooling was proposed more than twenty years ago But has not yet been demonstrated in practice. The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) seeks to build and operate a muon-cooling device of a design proposed in Feasibility Study-II. In addition to cooling the muons, MICE includes apparatus to measure the performance of the device. The experiment will be carried out by a collaboration of physicists from the U.S., Europe, and Japan at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the U.K. MICE will begin operation in late 2007. Successful performance of the MICE experiment will provide the understanding needed to design a complete neutrino factory, in which the muons are cooled, accelerated, circulated in a storage ring, and decay to produce the neutrino beam. The first neutrino factory might be built in the U.S., Europe, or Japan. A Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) has recently been organized at Fermilab

  19. Alternative Muon Front-end for the International Design Study (IDS)

    CERN Document Server

    Alekou, A; Martini, M; Prior, G; Rogers, C; Stratakis, D; Yoshikawa, C; Zisman, M

    2010-01-01

    We discuss alternative designs of the muon capture front end of the Neutrino Factory International Design Study (IDS). In the front end, a proton bunch on a target creates secondary pions that drift into a capture channel, decaying into muons. A sequence of RF cavities forms the resulting muon beams into strings of bunches of differing energies, aligns the bunches to (nearly) equal central energies, and initiates ionization cooling. This design is affected by limitations on accelerating gradients within magnetic fields. The effects of gradient limitations are explored, and mitigation strategies are presented

  20. Progress on Beam-Plasma Effect Simulations in Muon Ionization Cooling Lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James [IIT, Chicago; Snopok, Pavel [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    New computational tools are essential for accurate modeling and simulation of the next generation of muon-based accelerators. One of the crucial physics processes specific to muon accelerators that has not yet been simulated in detail is beam-induced plasma effect in liquid, solid, and gaseous absorbers. We report here on the progress of developing the required simulation tools and applying them to study the properties of plasma and its effects on the beam in muon ionization cooling channels.

  1. Ultra slow muon microscopy by laser resonant ionization at J-PARC, MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y.; Ikedo, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Nishiyama, K.; Koda, A.; Fujimori, H.; Makimura, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nagatomo, T.; Kadono, R.; Torikai, E.; Iwasaki, M.; Wada, S.; Saito, N.; Okamura, K.; Yokoyama, K.; Ito, T.; Higemoto, W.

    2013-04-01

    As one of the principal muon beam line at the J-PARC muon facility (MUSE), we are now constructing a Muon beam line (U-Line), which consists of a large acceptance solenoid made of mineral insulation cables (MIC), a superconducting curved transport solenoid and superconducting axial focusing magnets. There, we can extract 2 × 108/s surface muons towards a hot tungsten target. At the U-Line, we are now establishing a new type of muon microscopy; a new technique with use of the intense ultra-slow muon source generated by resonant ionization of thermal Muonium (designated as Mu; consisting of a μ + and an e - ) atoms generated from the surface of the tungsten target. In this contribution, the latest status of the Ultra Slow Muon Microscopy project, fully funded, is reported.

  2. Ultra slow muon microscopy by laser resonant ionization at J-PARC, MUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y., E-mail: yasuhiro.miyake@kek.jp; Ikedo, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Nishiyama, K.; Koda, A.; Fujimori, H.; Makimura, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nagatomo, T.; Kadono, R. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Muon Science Laboratory (Japan); Torikai, E. [Yamanashi University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Advanced Meson Science Laboratory (Japan); Wada, S.; Saito, N. [RIKEN, Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Okamura, K. [RIKEN-WAKO Incubation Plaza 301, Megaopto Co., Ltd. (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Advanced Meson Science Laboratory (Japan); Ito, T.; Higemoto, W. [J-PARC Center, Muon Section, Materials and Life Science Division (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    As one of the principal muon beam line at the J-PARC muon facility (MUSE), we are now constructing a Muon beam line (U-Line), which consists of a large acceptance solenoid made of mineral insulation cables (MIC), a superconducting curved transport solenoid and superconducting axial focusing magnets. There, we can extract 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}/s surface muons towards a hot tungsten target. At the U-Line, we are now establishing a new type of muon microscopy; a new technique with use of the intense ultra-slow muon source generated by resonant ionization of thermal Muonium (designated as Mu; consisting of a {mu}{sup + } and an e{sup - }) atoms generated from the surface of the tungsten target. In this contribution, the latest status of the Ultra Slow Muon Microscopy project, fully funded, is reported.

  3. Final 6D Muon Ionization Colling using Strong Focusing Quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    Abstract Low emittance muon beam lines and muon colliders are potentially a rich source of BSM physics for future exper- imenters. A muon beam normalized emittance of ax,y,z = (280, 280, 1570)µm has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to achieve a normalized transverse emittance of 100 µm and complete 6D cooling. The low beta regions, as low as 5 mm, produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam transversely. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the transverse betatron function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 µm at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Cooling challenges include chromaticity correction, ssband overlap, quadrupole acceptance, and staying in phase with RF.

  4. MICE: the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment. Step I: First Measurement of Emittance with Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bravar, U; Karadzhov, Y; Kolev, D; Russinov, I; Tsenov, R; Wang, L; Xu, F Y; Zheng, S X; Bertoni, R; Bonesini, M; Mazza, R; Palladino, V; Cecchet, G; de Bari, A; Capponi, M; Iaciofano, A; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tortora, L; Ishimoto, S; Suzuki, S; Yoshimura, K; Mori, Y; Kuno, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sato, A; Yano, T; Yoshida, M; Filthaut, F; Vretenar, M; Ramberger, S; Blondel, A; Cadoux, F; Masciocchi, F; Graulich, J S; Verguilov, V; Wisting, H; Petitjean, C; Seviour, R; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Littlefield, M; Nebrensky, J J; Forrest, D; Soler, F J P; Walaron, K; Cooke, P; Gamet, R; Alecou, A; Apollonio, M; Barber, G; Dobbs, A; Dornan, P; Fish, A; Hare, R; Jamdagni, A; Kasey, V; Khaleeq, M; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Sakamoto, H; Sashalmi, T; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Lau, W; Rayner, M; Tunnell, C D; Witte, H; Yang, S; Alexander, J; Charnley, G; Griffiths, S; Martlew, B; Moss, A; Mullacrane, I; Oats, A; York, S; Apsimon, R; Alexander, R J; Barclay, P; Baynham, D E; Bradshaw, T W; Courthold, M; Hayler, R Edgecock T; Hills, M; Jones, T; McNubbin, N; Murray, W J; Nelson, C; Nicholls, A; Norton, P R; Prior, C; Rochford, J H; Rogers, C; Spensley, W; Tilley, K; Booth, C N; Hodgson, P; Nicholson, R; Overton, E; Robinson, M; Smith, P; Adey, D; Back, J; Boyd, S; Harrison, P; Norem, J; Bross, A D; Geer, S; Moretti, A; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Qian, Z; Raja, R; Stefanski, R; Cummings, M A C; Roberts, T J; DeMello, A; Green, M A; Li, D; Sessler, A M; Virostek, S; Zisman, M S; Freemire, B; Hanlet, P; Huang, D; Kafka, G; Kaplan, D M; Snopok, P; Torun, Y; Onel, Y; Cline, D; Lee, K; Fukui, Y; Yang, X; Rimmer, R A; Cremaldi, L M; Hart, T L; Summers, D J; Coney, L; Fletcher, R; Hanson, G G; Heidt, C; Gallardo, J; Kahn, S; Kirk, H; Palmer, R B; C11-08-09

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a strategic R&D project intended to demonstrate the only practical solution to providing high brilliance beams necessary for a neutrino factory or muon collider. MICE is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the United Kingdom. It comprises a dedicated beamline to generate a range of input muon emittances and momenta, with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to ensure a pure muon beam. The emittance of the incoming beam will be measured in the upstream magnetic spectrometer with a scintillating fiber tracker. A cooling cell will then follow, alternating energy loss in Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) absorbers to RF cavity acceleration. A second spectrometer, identical to the first, and a second muon identification system will measure the outgoing emittance. In the 2010 run at RAL the muon beamline and most detectors were fully commissioned and a first measurement of the emittance of the muon beam with particle physics (time-of-flight) de...

  5. Internal interface for RFC muon trigger electronics at CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Pietrusinski, Michall

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes design and practical realization of an internal communication layer referred to as the Internal Interface (II). The system was realized for the RFC Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment. Fully automatic implementation of the communication layer is realized in the FPGA chips and in the control software. The methodology of implementation was presented in the description form of the interface structure from the sides of hardware and software. The examples of the communication layer realizations were given for the RFC Muon Trigger.

  6. Totally Active Scintillator Tracker-Calorimeter for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078013; Blondel, Alain

    2014-09-31

    The recent discoveries in particle physics, the Higgs Boson and neutrino oscillations, voiced the need for new machines that can provide higher intensities, energy and precision. To study the neutrino oscillations in great details and to access new physics, a Neutrino Factory stands as an ultimate tool that offers a high intensity, well understood neutrino beam. On the other hand, a Muon Collider is indispensable for better understanding of a Higgs physics. Both machines share similar ingredients and one of them, that is essential to achieve high luminosity of the beams, is beam cooling. And the only feasible method to achieve cooling of a muons beam is based on ionization. An R&D project was established to verify a possibility of such a cooling, Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). Its purpose is to build a cooling cell capable of cooling a muon beam by 10% and measure the effect (the cooling effect is attributed to a reduction of beam emittance) with an absolute precision of 0.1%. This is achieve...

  7. An Ionization Cooling Channel for Muon Beams Based on Alternating Solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, Juan C.; Fernow, Richard C.; Kirk, Harold G.; Palmer, Robert B.; Lebrun, Paul; Moretti, Alfred; Tollestrup, Alvin T.; Kaplan, Daniel M.; Fukui, Yasuo

    1999-01-01

    The muon collider requires intense, cooled muon bunches to reach the required Luminosity. Due to the limited lifetime of the muon, the cooling process must take place very rapidly. Ionization cooling seems to be our only option, given the large emittances of the muon beam from pion decay. However, this ionization cooling method has been found quite difficult to implement in practice. We describe a scheme based on the use of liquid hydrogen absorbers followed by r.f. cavities (''pillbox'' or ''open iris'' type), embedded in a transport lattice based on high field solenoids. These solenoidal fields are reversed periodically in order to suppress the growth of the canonical angular momentum. This channel has been simulated in detail with independent codes, featuring conventional tracking in e.m. fields and detailed simulation of multiple scattering and straggling in the absorbers and windows. These calculations show that the 15 Tesla lattice cools in 6-D phase space by a factor ∼ 2 over a distance of 20 m

  8. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Japan, Ibaraki; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Drielsma, F.; Karadzhov, Y.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.R.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Drews, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Winter, M.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.

    2016-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1\\% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$ at 90\\% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  9. Muon capture for the front end of a muon collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D.; /Fermilab; Yoshikawa, C.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the design of the muon capture front end for a {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -} Collider. In the front end, a proton bunch on a target creates secondary pions that drift into a capture transport channel, decaying into muons. A sequence of rf cavities forms the resulting muon beams into strings of bunches of differing energies, aligns the bunches to (nearly) equal central energies, and initiates ionization cooling. The muons are then cooled and accelerated to high energy into a storage ring for high-energy high luminosity collisions. Our initial design is based on the somewhat similar front end of the International Design Study (IDS) neutrino factory.

  10. History of international symbol for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The year 1996 marks the 50th anniversary of the radiation warning symbol as we currently know it. It was (except the colours used) doodled out at the University of California, Berkeley, sometime in 1946 by a small group of people. The key guy responsible was Nelson Garden, then the head of the Health Chemistry Group, at the Radiation Laboratory. The radiation warning symbol should not be confused with the civil defence symbol (circle divided into six equal sections, three of these being black and three yellow), designed to identify fallout shelters. The basic radiation symbol was eventually internationally standardized by ISO code: 361-1975 (E). Variations of this symbol are frequently used in logotypes radiation protection organizations or associations. Particularly nice are those of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) and Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) that combines traditional Croatian motives with high technology. However, apart from speculations, there is no definite answer why did the Berkeley people chose this particular symbol. Whatever the reason was, it was very good choice because the ionizing radiation symbol is simple, readily identifiable, i.e., not similar to other warning symbols, and discernible at a large distance. (author)

  11. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Low Energy Muon Science: LEMS'93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, M.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers on research with low energy muons. Topics cover fundamental electroweak physics; muonic atoms and molecules, and muon catalyzed fusion; muon spin research; and muon facilities. These papers have been indexed and cataloged separately

  12. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Low Energy Muon Science: LEMS`93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, M. [comp.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers on research with low energy muons. Topics cover fundamental electroweak physics; muonic atoms and molecules, and muon catalyzed fusion; muon spin research; and muon facilities. These papers have been indexed and cataloged separately.

  13. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-18

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design.

  14. Muon collider progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Robert J. FNAL

    1998-08-01

    Recent progress in the study of muon colliders is presented. An international collaboration consisting of over 100 individuals is involved in calculations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this new type of lepton collider. Theoretical efforts are now concentrated on low-energy colliders in the 100 to 500 GeV center-of-mass energy range. Credible machine designs are emerging for much of a hypothetical complex from proton source to the final collider. Ionization cooling has been the most difficult part of the concept, and more powerful simulation tools are now in place to develop workable schemes. A collaboration proposal for a muon cooling experiment has been presented to the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee, and a proposal for a targetry and pion collection channel experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory is in preparation. Initial proton bunching and space-charge compensation experiments at existing hadron facilities have occurred to demonstrate proton driver feasibility.

  15. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (μSR2014) organized by the Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute in collaboration with the University of Zurich and the University of Fribourg, was held in Grindelwald, Switzerland from 1st to 6th June 2014. The conference provided a forum for researchers from around the world with interests in the applications of μSR to study a wide range of topics including condensed matter physics, materials and molecular sciences, chemistry and biology. Polarized muons provide a unique and versatile probe of matter, enabling studies at the atomic level of electronic structure and dynamics in a wide range of systems. The conference was the thirteenth in a series, which began in Rorschach in 1978 and it took place for the third time in Switzerland. The previous conferences were held in Cancun, Mexico (2011), Tsukuba, Japan (2008), Oxford, UK (2005), Williamsburg, USA (2002), Les Diablerets, Switzerland (1999), Nikko, Japan (1996), Maui, USA (1993), Oxford, UK (1990), Uppsala, Sweden (1986), Shimoda, Japan (1983), Vancouver, Canada (1980), and Rorschach, Switzerland (1978). These conference proceedings contain 67 refereed publications from presentations covering magnetism, superconductivity, chemistry, semiconductors, biophysics and techniques. The conference logo, displayed in the front pages of these proceedings, represents both the location of μSR2014 in the Alps and the muon-spin rotation technique. The silhouette represents the famous local mountains Eiger, Mönch and Jungfrau as drawn by the Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler and the apple with arrow is at the same time a citation of the Wilhelm Tell legend and a remembrance of the key role played by the muon spin and the asymmetric muon decay (which for the highest positron energy has an apple like shape). More than 160 participants (including 32 registered as students and 13 as accompanying persons) from 19 countries

  16. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10 35 cm -2 s -1 . The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e + - e - collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle reactions which are

  17. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; /Brookhaven; Tollestrup, A.V.; /Fermilab; Sessler, A.M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Skrinsky, A.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle

  18. Internal Spin Structure of the Nucleon in Polarized Deep Inelastic Muon-Nucleon Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wislicki, W.

    1998-01-01

    We present the study of the internal spin structure of the nucleon in spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons. The data were taken by the NA47 experiment of the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) on the high energy muon beam at CERN. The experiment used the polarized proton and deuteron targets. The structure function g 1 p (x) and g 1 d (x) were determined from the asymmetries of the spin-dependent event rates in the range of 0.003 2 >=10 GeV 2 . Using the first moments of these structure functions an agreement with the Bjorken sum rule prediction was found within one standard deviation. The first moments of g 1 (x), for both proton and deuteron, are smaller than the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule prediction. This disagreement can be interpreted in terms of negative polarization of the strange sea in the nucleon. The singlet part of the axial current matrix element can be interpreted as an overall spin carried by quarks in the nucleon. Its value is significantly smaller than nucleon spin. Semi-inclusive asymmetries of yields of positive and negative hadrons produced on both targets were also measured and analysed in term of quark-parton model, together with inclusive asymmetries. From this analysis the quark spin distributions were determined, separately for valence u and d quarks and for non-strange sea quarks. Valence u quarks are positively polarized and their polarization increases with x. Valence d quarks are negatively polarized and their polarization does not exhibit any x-dependence. The non-strange sea is unpolarized in the whole measured range of x. The first moments of the valance quark spin distributions were found consistent with the values obtained from weak decay constants F and D and their second moments are consistent with lattice QCD calculations. In the QCD analysis of the world data the first moment of the gluon spin distribution was found with a large error. Also, a search for a non-perturbative anomaly at high x was done on the world

  19. Recent progress in neutrino factory and muon collider research within the muon collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsharo'a, Mohammad M.; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Atac, Muzaffer; Autin, Bruno R.; Balbekov, Valeri I.; Barger, Vernon D.; Benary, Odette; Bennett, J. Roger J.; Berger, Michael S.; Berg, J. Scott; Berz, Martin; Black, Edgar L.; Blondel, Alain; Bogacz, S. Alex; Bonesini, M.; Bracker, Stephen B.; Bross, Alan D.; Bruno, Luca; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Caldwell, Allen C.; Companelli, Mario; Cassel, Kevin W.; Catanesi, M. Gabriela; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; Chou, Weiren; Cline, David B.; Coney, Linda R.; Conrad, Janet M.; Corlett, John N.; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cummings, Mary Anne; Darve, Christine; DeJongh, Fritz; Drozhdin, Alexandr; Drumm, Paul; Elvira, V. Daniel; Errede, Deborah; Fabich, Adrian; Fawley, William M.; Fernow, Richard C.; Ferrario, Massimo; Finley, David A.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Fukui, Yasuo; Furman, Miguel A.; Gabriel, Tony A.; Galea, Raphael; Gallardo, Juan C.; Garoby, Roland; Garren, Alper A.; Geer, Stephen H.; Gilardoni, Simone; Van Ginneken, Andreas J.; Ginzburg, Ilya F.; Godang, Romulus; Goodman, Maury; Gosz, Michael R.; Green, Michael A.; Gruber, Peter; Gunion, John F.; Gupta, Ramesh; Haines, John R.; Hanke, Klaus; Hanson, Gail G.; Han, Tao; Haney, Michael; Hartill, Don; Hartline, Robert E.; Haseroth, Helmut D.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Hoffman, Kara; Holtkamp, Norbert; Holzer, E. Barbara; Johnson, Colin; Johnson, Rolland P.; Johnstone, Carol; Jungmann, Klaus; Kahn, Stephen A.; Kaplan, Daniel M.; Keil, Eberhard K.; Kim, Eun-San; Kim, Kwang-Je; King, Bruce J.; Kirk, Harold G.; Kuno, Yoshitaka; Ladran, Tony S.; Lau, Wing W.; Learned, John G.; Lebedev, Valeri; Lebrun, Paul; Lee, Kevin; Lettry, Jacques A.; Lavender, Marco; Li, Derun; Lombardi, Alessandra; Lu, Changguo; Makino, Kyoko; Malkin, Vladimir; Marfatia, D.; McDonald, Kirk T.; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miller, John R.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mocioiu, I.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Monroe, Jocelyn; Moretti, Aldred; Mori, Yoshiharu; Neuffer, David V.; Ng, King-Yuen; Norem, James H.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the status of our effort to realize a first neutrino factory and the progress made in understanding the problems associated with the collection and cooling of muons towards that end. We summarize the physics that can be done with neutrino factories as well as with intense cold beams of muons. The physics potential of muon colliders is reviewed, both as Higgs Factories and compact high energy lepton colliders. The status and timescale of our research and development effort is reviewed as well as the latest designs in cooling channels including the promise of ring coolers in achieving longitudinal and transverse cooling simultaneously. We detail the efforts being made to mount an international cooling experiment to demonstrate the ionization cooling of muons

  20. Recent progress in neutrino factory and muon collider research within the Muon Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Alsharo’a

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the status of our effort to realize a first neutrino factory and the progress made in understanding the problems associated with the collection and cooling of muons towards that end. We summarize the physics that can be done with neutrino factories as well as with intense cold beams of muons. The physics potential of muon colliders is reviewed, both as Higgs factories and compact high-energy lepton colliders. The status and time scale of our research and development effort is reviewed as well as the latest designs in cooling channels including the promise of ring coolers in achieving longitudinal and transverse cooling simultaneously. We detail the efforts being made to mount an international cooling experiment to demonstrate the ionization cooling of muons.

  1. Muon Cooling - Emittance Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Muon Cooling is the key factor in building of a Muon collider, (to a less degree) Muon storage ring, and a Neutrino Factory. Muon colliders potential to provide a probe for fundamental particle physics is very interesting, but may take a considerable time to realize, as much more work and study is needed. Utilizing high intensity Muon sources - Neutrino Factories, and other intermediate steps are very important and will greatly expand our abilities and confidence in the credibility of high energy muon colliders. To obtain the needed collider luminosity, the phase-space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The Ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. We note that, the ionization losses results not only in damping, but also heating. The use of alternating solenoid lattices has been proposed, where the emittance are large. We present an overview of the cooling and discuss formalism, solenoid magnets and some beam dynamics

  2. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Rogers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  3. International workshop on non-ionizing radiation protection in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Zenon

    2013-11-01

    An international workshop brought together a range of stakeholders to consider protection from non-ionizing radiation used in medicine, research and cosmetics. Presentations on specific topics were followed by a general discussion on possible improvements in protection. Participants considered that adherence to science-based, harmonized exposure guidelines to limit exposures for clinical staff and other workers was a key prerequisite to safety in all situations. In addition, to engender an awareness of the risks involved to both the patient as well as the operator, equipment should be operated only by suitably qualified persons who have received appropriate training in the safe use of that device. This training should be carried out under the auspices of an accredited safety provider, and preferably offer a recognized qualification. Specific advice included the necessity for correct eye protection with higher power optical radiation sources, and avoiding the use of ultrasound for all exposures without medical benefit. Finally, the possibility of a harmonized approach to safety for both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation was considered worthy of further discussion.

  4. Ionization in the Knock Zone of an Internal-combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasting, Charles E

    1940-01-01

    The ionization in the knock zone of an internal-combustion engine was investigated. A suspected correlation between the intensity of knock and the degree of ionization was verified and an oscillation in the degree of ionization corresponding in frequency to the knock vibrations in the cylinder pressure was observed.

  5. R and D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in R and D towards a neutrino factory and muon collider. The U.S. Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) has been formed recently to expedite the R and D efforts. This paper will review the U.S. MAP R and D programs for a neutrino factory and muon collider. Muon ionization cooling research is the key element of the program. The first muon ionization cooling demonstration experiment, MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment), is under construction now at RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) in the UK. The current status of MICE will be described.

  6. Electron-Muon Ranger: performance in the MICE Muon Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Debieux, S.; Drielsma, F.; Graulich, J.S.; Husi, C.; Karadzhov, Y.; Masciocchi, F.; Nicola, L.; Messomo, E.Noah; Rothenfusser, K.; Sandstrom, R.; Wisting, H.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100-280 MeV/$c$.

  7. Quasistatic internal magnetic field detected in the pseudogap phase of Bi2 +xSr2 -xCaCu2O8 +δ by muon spin relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, A.; Dunsiger, S. R.; Akintola, K.; Fang, A. C. Y.; Elhosary, A.; Ishikado, M.; Eisaki, H.; Sonier, J. E.

    2018-02-01

    We report muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) measurements of optimally doped and overdoped Bi2 +xSr2 -xCaCu2O8 +δ single crystals that reveal the presence of a weak temperature-dependent quasistatic internal magnetic field of electronic origin in the superconducting and pseudogap (PG) phases. In both samples the internal magnetic field persists up to 160 K, but muon diffusion prevents following the evolution of the field to higher temperatures. We consider the evidence from our measurements in support of PG order parameter candidates, namely, electronic loop currents and magnetoelectric quadrupoles.

  8. New Technology in Hydrogen Absorbers for Muon Cooling Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Cummings, M A C

    2005-01-01

    Ionization cooling is the only technique fast enough to cool and focus muons for neutrino factories and muon colliders, and hydrogen is the optimal material for maximum cooling and minimal multiple scattering. Liquid hydrogen absorber R&D for the Muon Collaboration has proceeded on parallel and complementary fronts. The continuing LH2 absorber engineering and technical developments by the MuCool group conducted by ICAR* institutions (NIU, IIT and UIUC), the University of Mississippi and Oxford University, in cooperation with Fermilab, will be summarized, including results from the first hydrogen absorber tests at the newly constructed FNAL Mucool Test Area (MTA). The program includes designs for the high-powered test of an absorber prototype (external heat exchange) at the MTA which are nearing completion to be installed by summer 2005, an alternative absorber design (internal heat exchange) being finalized for the approved cooling experiment (MICE) at Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, and a novel idea for ...

  9. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  10. Muon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    2001-01-01

    A full high energy muon collider may take considerable time to realize. However, intermediate steps in its direction are possible and could help facilitate the process. Employing an intense muon source to carry out forefront low energy research, such as the search for muon-number non-conservation, represents one interesting possibility. For example, the MECO proposal at BNL aims for 2 x 10 -17 sensitivity in their search for coherent muon-electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. To reach that goal requires the production, capture and stopping of muons at an unprecedented 10 11 μ/sec. If successful, such an effort would significantly advance the state of muon technology. More ambitious ideas for utilizing high intensity muon sources are also being explored. Building a muon storage ring for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams is particularly exciting.We present an overview of muon sources and example of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Factory at BNL with various detector location possibilities

  11. Progress on muon+muon- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1997-05-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of muon colliders are discussed. Recent results of calculations of the radiation hazard from muon decay neutrinos are presented. This is a significant problem for machines with center of mass energy of 4 TeV, but of no consequence for lower energies. Plans are outlined for future theoretical and experimental studies. Besides continued work on the parameters of a 4 TeV collider, studies are now starting on a machine near 100 GeV that could be a factory for the s-channel production of Higgs particles. Proposals are also presented for a demonstration of ionization cooling and of the required targeting, pion capture, and phase rotation rf

  12. Muon Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert B. Palmer; A. Sessler; A. Skrinsky; A. Tollestrup; A.J. Baltz; P. Chen; W-H. Cheng; Y. Cho; E. Courant; Richard C. Fernow; Juan C. Gallardo; A. Garren; M. Green; S. Kahn; H. Kirk; Y. Y. Lee; F. Mills; N. Mokhov; G. Morgan; David Neuffer; R. Noble; J. Norem; M. Popovic; L. Schachinger; G. Silvestrov; D. Summers; I. Stumer; M. Syphers; Yagmur Torun; D. Trbojevic; W. Turner; A. Van Ginneken; T. Vsevolozhskaya; R. Weggel; E. Willen; David Winn; J. Wurtele

    1994-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity(mu)(sup+)(mu)(sup -) colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed

  13. Final Cooling for a Muon Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Castillo, John Gabriel [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States)

    2017-05-01

    To explore the new energy frontier, a new generation of particle accelerators is needed. Muon colliders are a promising alternative, if muon cooling can be made to work. Muons are 200 times heavier than electrons, so they produce less synchrotron radiation, and they behave like point particles. However, they have a short lifetime of 2.2 $\\mathrm{\\mu s}$ and the beam is more difficult to cool than an electron beam. The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) was created to develop concepts and technologies required by a muon collider. An important effort has been made in the program to design and optimize a muon beam cooling system. The goal is to achieve the small beam emittance required by a muon collider. This work explores a final ionization cooling system using magnetic quadrupole lattices with a low enough $\\beta^{\\star} $ region to cool the beam to the required limit with available low Z absorbers.

  14. Proceedings of the 17. International conference on phenomena in ionized gases held in Budapest, Hungary, July 8-12, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.S.; Soerlei, Zsuzsa

    1986-03-01

    The invited papers of the 17. International conference on phenomena in ionized gases are published containing papers on kinetic theory of ionized gases. The topics cover plasma kinetics, plasma diagnostic methods, arc and discharge physics, magnetic properties of plasmas, new plasma models, laser-plasma physics, and transport phenomena in ionized gases. (D.Gy.)

  15. Negative muon chemistry: the quantum muon effect and the finite nuclear mass effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Edwin; Moncada, Félix; Reyes, Andrés

    2014-10-09

    The any-particle molecular orbital method at the full configuration interaction level has been employed to study atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. In this approach electrons and muons are described as quantum waves. A scheme has been proposed to discriminate nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on chemical properties of muonic and regular atoms. This study reveals that the differences in the ionization potentials of isoelectronic muonic atoms and regular atoms are of the order of millielectronvolts. For the valence ionizations of muonic helium and muonic lithium the nuclear mass effects are more important. On the other hand, for 1s ionizations of muonic atoms heavier than beryllium, the quantum muon effects are more important. In addition, this study presents an assessment of the nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on the barrier of Heμ + H2 reaction.

  16. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-02ER86145 Pressurized RF Cavities for Muon Ionization Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolland Johnson

    2006-01-01

    This project was to design and build an RF test cell (TC), which could be operated at 800 MHz, filled with high pressure gases including hydrogen, at temperatures down to that of liquid nitrogen, in strong magnetic fields, in a strong radiation environment, and with interchangeable electrodes, in order to examine the use of high-pressure RF cavities for muon beam cooling

  17. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-02ER86145 Pressurized RF Cavities for Muon Ionization Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2006-07-13

    This project was to design and build an RF test cell (TC), which could be operated at 800 MHz, filled with high pressure gases including hydrogen, at temperatures down to that of liquid nitrogen, in strong magnetic fields, in a strong radiation environment, and with interchangeable electrodes, in order to examine the use of high-pressure RF cavities for muon beam cooling.

  18. Colliding muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Is a muon-muon collider really practical? That is the question being asked by Bob Palmer. Well known in particle physics, Palmer, with Nick Samios and Ralph Shutt, recently won the American Physical Society's Panofsky Prize for their 1964 discovery of the omega minus. As well as contributing to other major experiments, both at CERN and in the US, he has contributed ideas to stochastic cooling and novel acceleration schemes

  19. Study of the neutralino sector and analysis of the muon response of a highly granular hadron calorimeter at the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ascenzo, Nicola

    2009-01-15

    The studies presented in this thesis concern the physics potential and the detector R and D program of the International Linear Collider (ILC), an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a centre of mass energy extendible up to 1 TeV. The first part of the thesis presents the study of the neutralino system in the SPS1a SUSY scenario. The process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{mu}{sub L}{mu}{sub L}{yields}{mu}{chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}{mu}{chi}{sub 1}{sup 0} is proposed for the analysis of the {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}. From the kinematic edges of the energy distribution of the muons in the final state the mass of the {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0} (97.71 GeV) can be estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 1.09%. The mass of the {mu}{sub L} (189.87 GeV) can be estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 0.21%. The cross section of this process (54.32 fb) can be estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 2.47% at 68% C.L. The {chi}{sub 2}{sup 0} is investigated in the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{chi}{sub 2}{sup 0}{chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}{yields}{mu}{sub R}{mu}{yields}{chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}{mu}{mu}{chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}. The mass of the {chi}{sub 2}{sup 0} (183.89 GeV) is estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 0.75% from the detection of the kinematic edge of the di-muon invariant mass. The cross section of the process (4.2 fb) can be determined within the confidence band (3.75, 5.57) fb, at 95% C.L. The second part of the thesis reports the analysis of the experimental data collected in the test beam of the prototype of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL) build by the CALICE collaboration. The aim of the analysis is to measure the response of the hadronic calorimeter to muons with momentum ranging between 6 GeV and 120 GeV and incidence angle up to 28.3 {+-}0.1 . The energy and angular dependence of the muon response are found in agreement with the Monte Carlo. The effects of the higher order electromagnetic interaction of muons in the detector are

  20. Muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, David

    1995-01-01

    The increasing interest in the possibility of positive-negative muon colliders was reflected in the second workshop on the Physics Potential and Development of Muon Colliders, held in Sausalito, California, from 16-19 November, with some 60 attendees. It began with an overview of the particle physics goals, detector constraints, the muon collider and mu cooling, and source issues. The major issue confronting muon development is the possible luminosity achievable. Two collider energies were considered: 200 + 200 GeV and 2 + 2 TeV. The major particle physics goals are the detection of the higgs boson(s) for the lower energy collider, together with WW scattering and supersymmetric particle discovery. At the first such workshop, held in Napa, California, in 1992, it was estimated that a luminosity of some 10 30 and 3 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 for the low and high energy collider might be achieved (papers from this meeting were published in the October issue of NIM). This was considered a somewhat conservative estimate at the time. At the Sausalito workshop the goal was to see if a luminosity of 10 32 to 10 34 for the two colliders might be achievable and usable by a detector. There were five working groups - physics, 200 + 200 GeV collider, 2 + 2 TeV collider, detector design and backgrounds, and muon cooling and production methods. Considerable progress was made in all these areas at the workshop.

  1. R&D Proposal for the National Muon Acccelerator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-01

    This document contains a description of a multi-year national R&D program aimed at completing a Design Feasibility Study (DFS) for a Muon Collider and, with international participation, a Reference Design Report (RDR) for a muon-based Neutrino Factory. It also includes the supporting component development and experimental efforts that will inform the design studies and permit an initial down-selection of candidate technologies for the ionization cooling and acceleration systems. We intend to carry out this plan with participants from the host national laboratory (Fermilab), those from collaborating U.S. national laboratories (ANL, BNL, Jlab, LBNL, and SNAL), and those from a number of other U.S. laboratories, universities, and SBIR companies. The R&D program that we propose will provide the HEP community with detailed information on future facilities based on intense beams of muons - the Muon Collider and the Neutrino Factory. We believe that these facilities offer the promise of extraordinary physics capabilities. The Muon Collider presents a powerful option to explore the energy frontier and the Neutrino Factory gives the opportunity to perform the most sensitive neutrino oscillation experiments possible, while also opening expanded avenues for the study of new physics in the neutrino sector. The synergy between the two facilities presents the opportunity for an extremely broad physics program and a unique pathway in accelerator facilities. Our work will give clear answers to the questions of expected capabilities and performance of these muon-based facilities, and will provide defensible ranges for their cost. This information, together with the physics insights gained from the next-generation neutrino and LHC experiments, will allow the HEP community to make well-informed decisions regarding the optimal choice of new facilities. We believe that this work is a critical part of any broad strategic program in accelerator R&D and, as the P5 panel has recently

  2. R&D PROPOSAL FOR THE NATIONAL MUON ACCELERATOR PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muon Accelerator Program; Zisman, Michael S.; Geer, Stephen

    2010-02-24

    This document contains a description of a multi-year national R&D program aimed at completing a Design Feasibility Study (DFS) for a Muon Collider and, with international participation, a Reference Design Report (RDR) for a muon-based Neutrino Factory. It also includes the supporting component development and experimental efforts that will inform the design studies and permit an initial down-selection of candidate technologies for the ionization cooling and acceleration systems. We intend to carry out this plan with participants from the host national laboratory (Fermilab), those from collaborating U.S. national laboratories (ANL, BNL, Jlab, LBNL, and SNAL), and those from a number of other U.S. laboratories, universities, and SBIR companies. The R&D program that we propose will provide the HEP community with detailed information on future facilities based on intense beams of muons--the Muon Collider and the Neutrino Factory. We believe that these facilities offer the promise of extraordinary physics capabilities. The Muon Collider presents a powerful option to explore the energy frontier and the Neutrino Factory gives the opportunity to perform the most sensitive neutrino oscillation experiments possible, while also opening expanded avenues for the study of new physics in the neutrino sector. The synergy between the two facilities presents the opportunity for an extremely broad physics program and a unique pathway in accelerator facilities. Our work will give clear answers to the questions of expected capabilities and performance of these muon-based facilities, and will provide defensible ranges for their cost. This information, together with the physics insights gained from the next-generation neutrino and LHC experiments, will allow the HEP community to make well-informed decisions regarding the optimal choice of new facilities. We believe that this work is a critical part of any broad strategic program in accelerator R&D and, as the P5 panel has recently

  3. Bridging nations through muons

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    From America to Israel and Japan, a team of international technicians and scientists are working together to build the ATLAS endcap muon chambers. The Israeli and Pakistani teams stand in front of part of the ATLAS endcap muon spectrometer. They are working on the project along with...... a team from American universities and research institutions. It's a small world; at least you might think so after a visit to Building 180. Inside, about 30 engineers and physicists weld, measure and hammer away, many of whom are miles from their homes and families. They hail from Pakistan, Israel, Japan, China, Russia and the United States. Coordinated by a group of CERN engineers, the team represents an international collaboration in every sense. Whether they've been here for years or months, CERN is their temporary home as they work toward one common goal: the completion of the ATLAS muon chamber endcaps. When finished, the ATLAS muon spectrometer will include four moving 'big wheel'structures on each end of the detecto...

  4. A liquid ionization chamber using tetramethylsilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, J.; Keim, H.

    1983-12-01

    First results with a liquid ionization chamber using tetramethylsilane (TMS) are presented. A stack of iron plates was tested with cosmic ray muons and the charge output for minimum ionizing particles was measured. (orig.) [de

  5. International conference on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    An International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), will be held in Stockholm, Sweden, from 6-10 October 2003. This Conference will be hosted by the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). This publication contains contributed papers submitted on issues within the scope of the conference, which were accepted following a review by the Conference Programme Committee. The primary objective of this Conference is to foster information exchange, with the aim of promoting the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from effects attributable to ionizing radiation. This Conference is one in a series of meetings organized by, or held in co-operation with, the IAEA on this subject. It will include a review of recent developments in this area, and consideration of their implications for future work at national and international levels. The topics on which contributed papers were requested are as follows: Existing environmental protection approaches; Development of an international assessment framework; The scientific basis for environmental radiation assessment; Development of management approaches

  6. Muon science experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Kusuo

    2001-01-01

    Muon experimental facility is in the planning stage as a part of the high intensity proton accelerator project of KEK and JAERI. Outline of muon experimental facility and physical experiments are described. There are five kinds of beam channels such as superconducting solenoid, surface muon, ultra-slow muon, high momentum muon and ultra-high intensity muon. The μSR method by positive electric charge muon makes possible to study antiferromagnet, spin glass, muon spin high-frequency resonance and paramagnetic shift. The positive electric charge muon is one of hydrogen isotopes. Accordingly, the quantum diffusion experiments of metals, semiconductor and insulator are carried out by the isotope effect. Development of muon catalyzed fusion by negative electric charge muon is one of problems of this facility. It can be applied to chemical reaction and non-destructive analysis. An illustration of the history of muon science is shown. (S.Y.)

  7. PHENIX Muon Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akikawa, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Archuleta, J.B.; Archuleta, J.R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baldisseri, A.; Barker, A.B.; Barnes, P.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Batsouli, S.; Behrendt, J.; Bellaiche, F.G.; Bland, A.W.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Borel, H.; Brooks, M.L.; Brown, A.W.; Brown, D.S.; Bruner, N.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chavez, L.L.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Chung, M.S.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D.J.; Cobigo, Y.; Dabrowski, C.M.; Debraine, A.; DeMoss, J.; Dinesh, B.V.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Drapier, O.; Echave, M.A.; Efremenko, Y.V.; En'yo, H.; Fields, D.E.; Fleuret, F.; Fried, J.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Gadrat, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T.F.; Glenn, A.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hance, R.H.; Hart, G.W.; Hayashi, N.; Held, S.; Hicks, J.S.; Hill, J.C.; Hoade, R.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Horaguchi, T.; Hunter, C.T.; Hurst, D.E.; Ichihara, T.; Imai, K.; Isenhower, L.D.L. Davis; Isenhower, L.D.L. Donald; Ishihara, M.; Jang, W.Y.; Johnson, J.; Jouan, D.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kang, J.H.; Kapoor, S.S.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kinnison, W.W.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Koehler, D.; Kotchenda, L.; Kuberg, C.H.; Kurita, K.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G.S.; LaBounty, J.J.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lee, D.M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, M.X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lockner, E.; Lopez, J.D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, X.B.; McCain, M.C.; McGaughey, P.L.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R.E.; Mohanty, A.K.; Montoya, B.C.; Moss, J.M.; Murata, J.; Murray, M.M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nakada, Y.; Newby, J.; Obenshain, F.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S.F.; Plasil, F.; Pope, K.; Qualls, J.M.; Rao, G.; Read, K.F.; Robinson, S.H.; Roche, G.; Romana, A.; Rosnet, P.; Roth, R.; Saito, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sandhoff, W.F.; Sanfratello, L.; Sato, H.D.; Savino, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Shaw, M.R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sim, K.S.; Skank, H.D.; Smith, D.E.; Smith, G.D.; Sondheim, W.E.; Sorensen, S.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P.W.; Steffens, S.; Stein, E.M.; Stepanov, M.; Stokes, W.; Sugioka, M.; Sun, Z.; Taketani, A.; Taniguchi, E.; Tepe, J.D.; Thornton, G.W.; Tian, W.; Tojo, J.; Torii, H.; Towell, R.S.; Tradeski, J.; Vassent, M.; Velissaris, C.; Villatte, L.; Wan, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Watkins, L.C.; Whitus, B.R.; Williams, C.; Willis, P.S.; Wong-Swanson, B.G.; Yang, Y.; Yoneyama, S.; Young, G.R.; Zhou, S.

    2003-01-01

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons (∼10 -3 ). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described

  8. Possible demonstration of ionization cooling using absorbers in a solenoidal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.; Gallardo, J.C.; Kirk, H.G.

    1995-12-01

    Ionization cooling may play an important role in reducing the phase space volume of muons for a future muon-muon collider. We describe a possible experiment to demonstrate transverse emittance cooling using a muon beam at the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The experiment uses device dimensions and parameters and beam conditions similar to what is expected in an actual muon-muon collider

  9. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    Barrel Muons The last CMS week was dominated by the lowering of YB0. The date of lowering was fixed in January for February 28th. RPC and DT cabling of YB0 had to be done on the surface to allow a complete check of the status of the chambers before lowering. When the decision of the date was taken, the wheel cabling, planned to start at end of December, was not yet started for several “muon independent” reasons. Cabling and DT /RPC test started on Jan 22nd and ended on Feb 19th. Several teams worked on the surface of the wheel in parallel on the three different items, finishing just in time for lowering. This was a real challenge and a significant result. So by the end of the CMS Week, all the positive part of CMS plus YB0 were in the cavern. YB+2 had been lowered in January 19th, and YB+1 on February 1st. The vertical chambers of sectors 1 and 7 (8 DT/RPC packs), whose space was taken by the lowering machinery, had to be installed after lowering. This was done from Jan 24 to Jan 26 for...

  10. Muon cooling channels

    CERN Document Server

    Eberhard-K-Kei

    2003-01-01

    A procedure uses the equations that govern ionization cooling, and leads to the most important parameters of a muon cooling channel that achieves assumed performance parameters. First, purely transverse cooling is considered, followed by both transverse and longitudinal cooling in quadrupole and solenoid channels. Similarities and differences in the results are discussed in detail, and a common notation is developed. Procedure and notation are applied to a few published cooling channels. The parameters of the cooling channels are derived step by step, starting from assumed values of the initial, final and equilibrium emittances, both transverse and longitudinal, the length of the cooling channel, and the material properties of the absorber. The results obtained include cooling lengths and partition numbers, amplitude functions and limits on the dispersion at the absorber, length, aperture and spacing of the absorber, parameters of the RF system that achieve the longitudinal amplitude function and bucket area ...

  11. Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported. Detailed consideration of the effects of both the natural and induced ionizing radiation environment during ISS design, development, and flight operations has produced a safe, efficient manned space platform that is largely immune to deleterious effects of the LEO ionizing radiation environment. The assumption of a small shielding mass for purposes of design and verification has been shown to be a valid worst-case approximation approach to design for reliability, though predicted dependences of single event effect (SEE) effects on latitude, longitude, SEP events, and spacecraft structural shielding mass are not observed. The Figure of Merit (FOM) method over predicts the rate for median shielding masses of about 10g/cm(exp 2) by only a factor of 3, while the Scott Effective Flux Approach (SEFA) method overestimated by about one order of magnitude as expected. The Integral Rectangular Parallelepiped (IRPP), SEFA, and FOM methods for estimating on-orbit (Single Event Upsets) SEU rates all utilize some version of the CREME-96 treatment of energetic particle interaction with structural shielding, which has been shown to underestimate the production of secondary particles in heavily shielded manned spacecraft. The need for more work directed to development of a practical understanding of secondary particle production in massive structural shielding for SEE design and verification is indicated. In contrast, total dose estimates using CAD based shielding mass distributions functions and the Shieldose Code provided a reasonable accurate estimate of accumulated dose in Grays internal to the ISS pressurized elements, albeit as a result of using worst-on-worst case assumptions (500 km altitude x 2) that compensate for ignoring both GCR and secondary particle

  12. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Invited papers and discussions. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The levels and biological effects resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation are continuously reviewed by the United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Since its creation in 1928, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has issued recommendations on protection against ionizing radiation. The UNSCEAR estimates and the ICRP recommendations have served as the basis for national and international safety standards on radiation safety, including those developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Concerning health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, the international standards are based on the plausible assumption that, above the unavoidable background radiation dose, the probability of effects increases linearly with dose, i.e. on a 'linear, no threshold' (LNT) assumption. However, in recent years the biological estimates of health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation and the regulatory approach to the control of low level radiation exposure have been much debated. To foster information exchange on the relevant issues, an International Conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and WHO in co-operation with UNSCEAR, was held from 17-21 November 1997 at Seville, Spain. These Proceedings contain the invited special reports, keynote papers, summaries of discussions, session summaries and addresses presented at the opening and closing of the Conference

  13. A History of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repacholi, M H

    2017-10-01

    Concern about health risks from exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) commenced in the 1950s after tracking radars were first introduced during the Second World War. Soon after, research on possible biological effects of microwave radiation in the former Soviet Union and the U.S. led to public and worker exposure limits being much lower in Eastern European than in Western countries, mainly because of different protection philosophies. As public concern increased, national authorities began introducing legislation to limit NIR exposures from domestic microwave ovens and workplace devices such as visual display units. The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) was formed in 1966 to represent national radiation protection societies. To address NIR protection issues, IRPA established a Working Group in 1974, then a Study Group in 1975, and finally the International NIR Committee (INIRC) in 1977. INIRC's publications quickly became accepted worldwide, and it was logical that it should become an independent commission. IRPA finally established the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), chartering its remit in 1992, and defining NIR as electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, visible, infrared), electromagnetic waves and fields, and infra- and ultrasound. ICNIRP's guidelines have been incorporated into legislation or adopted as standards in many countries. While ICNIRP has been subjected to criticism and close scrutiny by the public, media, and activists, it has continued to issue well-received, independent, science-based protection advice. This paper summarizes events leading to the formation of ICNIRP, its key activities up to 2017, ICNIRP's 25th anniversary year, and its future challenges.

  14. CLIC Muon Sweeper Design

    CERN Document Server

    Aloev, A.; Gatignon, L.; Modena, M.; Pilicer, B.; Tapan, I.

    2016-01-01

    There are several background sources which may affect the analysis of data and detector performans at the CLIC project. One of the important background source is halo muons, which are generated along the beam delivery system (BDS), for the detector performance. In order to reduce muon background, magnetized muon sweepers have been used as a shielding material that is already described in a previous study for CLIC [1]. The realistic muon sweeper has been designed with OPERA. The design parameters of muon sweeper have also been used to estimate muon background reduction with BDSIM Monte Carlo simulation code [2, 3].

  15. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT Commissioning of the two negative wheels was done on the surface to gain time; YB-1 was completed in June and that of YB-2 on October 3. A new test is ongoing following their lowering into the experiment cavern (UX). In the UX cavern, YB0 and YB+1 testing was completed by the end of August, and the two last sectors of YB+2 will be finished by the end of November. The two negative wheels were lowered at the beginning of October and the installation of the chambers in the vertical sectors was done immediately. Three important events took place at the end of October: the last of the 250 DT +RPC packs was installed in Sector 7 of YB-2; full power was switched on for the first time in a full wheel (on YB0, albeit with temporary power distribution) and 50,000 events of cosmic muons, including many spectacular showers crossing the fully active YB0 (50 chambers), were recorded in about 15 minutes. Other crucial tests were achieved, in difficult conditions, to prove the performance of the DT DAQ. The DAQ ha...

  16. R and D PROPOSAL FOR THE NATIONAL MUON ACCELERATOR PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.; Geer, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This document contains a description of a multi-year national R and amp;D program aimed at completing a Design Feasibility Study (DFS) for a Muon Collider and, with international participation, a Reference Design Report (RDR) for a muon-based Neutrino Factory. It also includes the supporting component development and experimental efforts that will inform the design studies and permit an initial down-selection of candidate technologies for the ionization cooling and acceleration systems. We intend to carry out this plan with participants from the host national laboratory (Fermilab), those from collaborating U.S. national laboratories (ANL, BNL, Jlab, LBNL, and SNAL), and those from a number of other U.S. laboratories, universities, and SBIR companies. The R and D program that we propose will provide the HEP community with detailed information on future facilities based on intense beams of muons--the Muon Collider and the Neutrino Factory. We believe that these facilities offer the promise of extraordinary physics capabilities. The Muon Collider presents a powerful option to explore the energy frontier and the Neutrino Factory gives the opportunity to perform the most sensitive neutrino oscillation experiments possible, while also opening expanded avenues for the study of new physics in the neutrino sector. The synergy between the two facilities presents the opportunity for an extremely broad physics program and a unique pathway in accelerator facilities. Our work will give clear answers to the questions of expected capabilities and performance of these muon-based facilities, and will provide defensible ranges for their cost. This information, together with the physics insights gained from the next-generation neutrino and LHC experiments, will allow the HEP community to make well-informed decisions regarding the optimal choice of new facilities. We believe that this work is a critical part of any broad strategic program in accelerator R and D and, as the P5 panel has

  17. Review of muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Hanliang; Jiao Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    As a new detection technology, Muon tomography has some potential benefits, such as being able to form a three- dimensional image, without radiation, low cost, fast detecting etc. Especially, muon tomography will play an important role in detecting nuclear materials. It introduces the theory of Muon tomography, its advantages and the Muon tomography system developed by decision sciences corporation and Los Alamos national laboratory. (authors)

  18. 'Ouvertures' in muon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Attention is called to some open problems in the field of muon capture namely; the conserved isovector current hypothesis, the axial current in muon capture, vector-axial vector versus scalar-tensor coupling, and polarization of the muon neutrino. Some novel approaches to these problems are proposed which it is hoped may prove of help in tackling them. (U.K.)

  19. Solated Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albajar, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    An Isolated Muon L1 Trigger is proposed to reject muons from decays of b and c-quarks preserving high efficiency for muons from heavier objects. It is shown that the proposed algorithm is feasible and significant rejection factor ( 3-10) can be achieved. Similar algorithm can be applied at L2.

  20. SETI and muon collider

    OpenAIRE

    Silagadze, Z. K.

    2008-01-01

    Intense neutrino beams that accompany muon colliders can be used for interstellar communications. The presence of multi-TeV extraterrestrial muon collider at several light-years distance can be detected after one year run of IceCube type neutrino telescopes, if the neutrino beam is directed towards the Earth. This opens a new avenue in SETI: search for extraterrestrial muon colliders.

  1. Proceedings of an international symposium on muon catalysed fusion μCF - 89, held at Keble College, Oxford, 11-13 September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.D.

    1990-05-01

    In this booklet of conference proceedings, there are sections dedicated to experimental and theoretical work on muon catalyzed fusion. The final section deals with cold fusion. The booklet commences with a description of how muon catalyzed fusion came about and the basic theory behind it. (U.K.)

  2. Epicyclic helical channels for parametric resonance ionization cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johson, Rolland Paul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-23

    Proposed next-generation muon colliders will require major technical advances to achieve rapid muon beam cooling requirements. Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. In PIC, a half-integer parametric resonance causes strong focusing of a muon beam at appropriately placed energy absorbers while ionization cooling limits the beam’s angular spread. Combining muon ionization cooling with parametric resonant dynamics in this way should then allow much smaller final transverse muon beam sizes than conventional ionization cooling alone. One of the PIC challenges is compensation of beam aberrations over a sufficiently wide parameter range while maintaining the dynamical stability with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motion and dispersion. We explore use of a coupling resonance to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and to shift the dynamics away from non-linear resonances. PIC simulations are presented.

  3. The future of muon physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, K.; Putlitz, G. zu; Hughes, V.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Future of Muon Physics presents invited lectures surveying and summarizing the present status and future directions in Muon Physics. Both theoretical and experimental aspects are discussed with particular attention to the necessary features of future accelerators. Specific topics include precision measurements of muon properties, spectroscopy of muonic atoms, muon-electron interaction, weak interactions, rare decays, deep inelastic scattering, muon neutrino physics, muon catalyzed fusion and solid state physics with muons. (orig.) With 266 figs

  4. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  5. EDITORIAL: The 28th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Milan; Sunka, Pavel

    2008-05-01

    The 28th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases (ICPIG) was held in Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic, on 15--20 July 2007, under the sponsorship of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). The ICPIG, a traditional international conference with a remarkably long history, is held every two years and covers the fundamental physical aspects of ionized gases. It emphasizes interdisciplinary research and fosters exchange between the different communities. The 28th ICPIG was organized by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy Sciences of the Czech Republic with the participation of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University, and the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of Charles University, all in Prague. The conference was attended by 619 scientists from 50 countries (537 participants from outside the host country) and, compared with preceding meetings, ICPIG in Prague came with several changes. The pocket program and CD proceedings have been replaced by the book of abstracts, pocket program and CD containing full-length contributions. The International Scientific Committee also decided to update substantially the list of ICPIG topics. These topics have been grouped into four major sections: A. Fundamentals; B. Modelling, Simulation and Diagnostics; C. Plasma Sources and Discharge Regimes; D. Applications, with each major section structured into several sub-topics. Last but not least, on the occasion of ICPIG 2007, the IUPAP Early Career Award in Plasma Physics was bestowed for the first time. Complete 28th ICPIG conference records include the von Engel Prize Lecture, 10 general and 26 topical invited lectures, 18 workshop lectures and the contributed papers (http://icpig2007.ipp.cas.cz/). All 718 submitted full-length contributed papers were reviewed and 608 contributions were accepted for poster presentation. It is worth noting that 98 of the total of 608 poster contributions belong to the topic 'Non

  6. EDITORIAL: The 29th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases The 29th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Urquijo, J.

    2010-06-01

    The 29th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases (ICPIG) was held in Cancún, Mexico, on 12-17 July, 2009, under the sponsorship of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, UNAM, the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, UAM, and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). ICPIG, founded in 1953, has since been held biennally, and nowadays it covers both fundamental and applied research in all areas of low-temperature plasmas, including those related to the cold plasma in fusion devices. ICPIG fosters interdisciplinary research and interchange between different communities. The conference was attended by scientists from 33 countries. The scientific programme of ICPIG 2009 consisted of 10 General Invited and 24 Topical Lectures, covering all major topics of ICPIG. All speakers were invited to submit peer-reviewed articles based on their lectures for this special issue of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, either as reviews or original work. This special issue contains the papers of most of these talks, covering timely and key issues on elementary processes and fundamental data, plasma wall interactions, including those related to the low-temperature plasma in fusion devices. Several interesting papers were dedicated to plasma modelling, simulation and diagnostics. Important contributions to this issue deal with natural plasmas, low- and atmospheric-pressure plasmas, microplasmas and high-frequency plasmas. Almost half of the contributed papers in this issue are dedicated to applications dealing with plasmas for nanotechnology, plasma sources of various kinds, and other uses of plasmas in particle detection and mass spectrometry. Two workshops were organized. The first reviewed the state of the art on our knowledge of electron, positron and ion interaction processes in gases, with an emphasis on charged particle transport and reactions in electric and magnetic fields, measurement and calculation of cross sections and swarm

  7. The new high field photoexcitation muon spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, K; Lord, J S; Murahari, P; Wang, K; Dunstan, D J; Waller, S P; McPhail, D J; Hillier, A D; Henson, J; Harper, M R; Heathcote, P; Drew, A J

    2016-12-01

    A high power pulsed laser system has been installed on the high magnetic field muon spectrometer (HiFi) at the International Science Information Service pulsed neutron and muon source, situated at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. The upgrade enables one to perform light-pump muon-probe experiments under a high magnetic field, which opens new applications of muon spin spectroscopy. In this report we give an overview of the principle of the HiFi laser system and describe the newly developed techniques and devices that enable precisely controlled photoexcitation of samples in the muon instrument. A demonstration experiment illustrates the potential of this unique combination of the photoexcited system and avoided level crossing technique.

  8. Concepts for a Muon Accelerator Front-End

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Fermilab; Berg, Scott [Brookhaven; Neuffer, David [Fermilab

    2017-03-16

    We present a muon capture front-end scheme for muon based applications. In this Front-End design, a proton bunch strikes a target and creates secondary pions that drift into a capture channel, decaying into muons. A series of rf cavities forms the resulting muon beams into a series of bunches of differerent energies, aligns the bunches to equal central energies, and initiates ionization cooling. We also discuss the design of a chicane system for the removal of unwanted secondary particles from the muon capture region and thus reduce activation of the machine. With the aid of numerical simulations we evaluate the performance of this Front-End scheme as well as study its sensitivity against key parameters such as the type of target, the number of rf cavities and the gas pressure of the channel.

  9. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Alignment work now focuses on producing a new track-based alignment with higher track statistics, making systematic studies between the results of the hardware and track-based alignment methods and aligning the barrel using standalone muon tracks. Currently, the muon track reconstruction software uses a hardware-based alignment in the barrel (DT) and a track-based alignment in the endcaps (CSC). An important task is to assess the muon momentum resolution that can be achieved using the current muon alignment, especially for highly energetic muons. For this purpose, cosmic ray muons are used, since the rate of high-energy muons from collisions is very low and the event statistics are still limited. Cosmics have the advantage of higher statistics in the pT region above 100 GeV/c, but they have the disadvantage of having a mostly vertical topology, resulting in a very few global endcap muons. Only the barrel alignment has therefore been tested so far. Cosmic muons traversing CMS from top to bottom are s...

  10. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

  11. Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-06

    A 10  MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2  μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}.

  12. Rare muon processes: Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    The decay properties of muons, especially their rare decays, can be used to study very accurately deviations from the Standard Model. Muons with extremely low energies and good spatial definition are preferred for the majority of such studies. With the upgrade of the 590-MeV ring accelerator, PSI possesses the most powerful cyclotron in the world. This makes it possible to operate high-intensity beams of secondary pions and muons. A short review on rare muon processes is presented, concerning μ-e conversion and muonium-antimuonium oscillations. A possible new search for μ→eγ is also mentioned

  13. HIGH ENERGY MUON COLLIDERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KING, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    A plausible ''straw-man'' scenario and collider ring parameter sets are presented for future energy frontier muon colliders in symbiotic facilities with e + e - and hadron colliders: 1.6-10 TeV ''mu-linear colliders'' (mu-LC) where the muons are accelerated in the linacs of a TeV-scale linear e + e - collider, and a 100 TeV Very Large Muon Collider (VLMC) that shares a facility with a 200 TeV Very Large Hadron collider (VLHC) and a 140 TeV muon-proton collider

  14. Muon Collider Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin

    2003-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity μ + μ - colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Detector background, polarization, and nonstandard operating conditions are discussed

  15. PREFACE: 26th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraica, Milorad; Mijatovic, Zoran

    2012-11-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the general invited lectures, topical invited lectures and progress reports presented at the 26th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases - SPIG 2012. The conference was held in Zrenjanin, Serbia, from 27-31 August. The SPIG conference has a 52 year long tradition. The structure of the papers in this volume cover the following sections: atomic collision processes, particle and laser beam interactions with solids, low temperature plasmas and general plasmas. As these four topics often overlap and merge in numerous fundamental studies and, more importantly applications, SPIG in general serves as a venue for exchanging ideas in the related fields. We hope that this volume will be an important source of information about progress in plasma physics and will be useful, first of all, for students, but also for plasma physics scientists. The Editors would like to thank the invited speakers for their participation at SPIG 2012 and for their efforts writing contributions for this volume. We also express our gratitude to the members of Scientific and Organizing committees for their efforts in organizing this SPIG. Especially we would like to thank the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia, Provincial Secretariat for Science and Techonological Development, Province of Vojvodina, Institute Français de Serbie and Biser Zrenjanin for financial support as well as the European Physical Society (EPS) for supporting the award for the best poster of a young scientist and American Elements, USA. Milorad Kuraica Zoran Mijatovic October 2012 Editors

  16. PREFACE 25th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases - SPIG 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Luka Č.; Kuraica, Milorad M.

    2010-11-01

    This volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Invited lectures, Topical invited lectures and Progress reports presented at the 25th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases - SPIG 2010. The conference was held in Donji Milanovac, Serbia, from 29 August to 3 September 2010. Since SPIG has a long tradition and this is a jubilee anniversary, the 25th one, we had the opportunity to recall the history of the Conference (see the first paper in this proceedings). The structure of papers in this Proceedings covers the following sections: Atomic Collision Processes, Particle and Laser Beam Interactions with Solids, Low Temperature Plasmas and General Plasmas. As the four above mentioned topics often overlap and merge in numerous fundamental studies and more importantly applications, SPIG in general serves as a venue for exchanging ideas in the related fields. We hope that this Proceedings will be an important source of information about progress in plasma physics and will be useful, first of all, for students, and also for plasma physics scientists. The Editors would like to thank the invited speakers for their participation at SPIG 2010 and for their efforts writing contributions for this Proceedings. We also express our gratitude to the members of Scientific and Organizing committees for their efforts in organizing this SPIG. Especially we would like to thank the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia for financial support as well as the European Physical Society (EPS) for supporting the participation of three younger scientists. Luka Č Popović Milorad Kuraica October 2010

  17. Internal exposure dose caused by ionizing radiation of accumulated 137Cs and 60Co for terrestrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciulioniene, D.; Kiponas, D.; Plukiene, R.

    2004-01-01

    Our investigations were performed in Plunge region, the one of most polluted area in Lithuania with 137 Cs after Chernobyl NPP accident and in Ignalina NPP vicinity. 137 Cs and 60 Co specific activity in terrestrial plants were established by gamma spectrometry. The distribution of these radionuclides in separate parts (steam with lops and leaves) of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinus) and dwarf bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) as well as mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) was investigated. Internal exposure dose caused by 137 Cs and 60 Co ionizing radiation for terrestrial plants over the all vegetation period (190 days) was estimated. Results of investigations suggest uneven distribution of 137 Cs and 60 Co in separate parts of plants. Distribution of 137 Cs activity in separate parts of plants depends on plant species and on potassium distribution in these parts. The main amount of 60 Co in plants was accumulated in their root system. Internal exposure dose caused by ionizing radiation of 137 Cs for terrestrial plants in Plunge region was 0,5-32 μSv while in Ignalina NPP vicinity - 0,1-9 μSv. Internal exposure dose caused by ionizing radiation of 60 Co for terrestrial plants growing in Ignalina NPP vicinity was 0,02-6 μSv. (author)

  18. SSC muon detector group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsmith, D.; Groom, D.; Hedin, D.; Kirk, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Reeder, D.; Rosner, J.; Wojcicki, S.

    1986-01-01

    We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4π detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC

  19. Three-dimensional cooling of muons

    CERN Document Server

    Vsevolozhskaya, T A

    2000-01-01

    The simultaneous ionization cooling of muon beams in all three - the longitudinal and two transverse - directions is considered in a scheme, based on bent lithium lenses with dipole constituent of magnetic field in them, created by a special configuration of current-carrying rod. An analysis of three-dimensional cooling is performed with the use of kinetic equation method. Results of numerical calculation for a specific beam line configuration are presented together with results of computer simulation using the Moliere distribution to describe the Coulomb scattering and the Vavilov distribution used to describe the ionization loss of energy.

  20. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanos, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  1. The CDF muon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCompte, T.J.; Papadimitriou, V.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the characteristics of the CDF muon system and their experience with it. They explain how the trigger works and how they identify muons offline. They also describe the future upgrades of the system and their trigger plans for Run IB and beyond

  2. Telecommunication using muon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location

  3. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  4. Telecommunication using muon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  5. Muon identification and pion rejection in the 4th concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 69; Issue 6 ... International linear collider; dual solenoids; muon detector. ... The dual-solenoid magnetic field allows the reconstruction and precision momentum measurement of muons down to a few GeV (just the energy loss in the 10-int calorimeter and the coil) ...

  6. Superconducting muon collider concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willen, E.

    1996-01-01

    High energy colliding beam machines for elementary particle research have grown so costly that funding for them has become problematical. The physics they would explore, however, remains compelling, so that new methods must be found to reach high energy if this physics is to be studied. One such new approach is the muon collider. This machine could reach multi-TeV collision energies with good luminosity at an affordable cost. The scenario for producing μ + μ - collisions is shown schematically in a figure. A high intensity proton synchrotron delivers protons in sharply defined bunches onto a stationary target with an energy of 30 GeV. Many pions are produced that decay into muons; both are collected in a solenoid magnet system with useful energies in the range 0.1--1.0 GeV. The muons are then cooled, i.e. their transverse momentum as well as the spread in their longitudinal momentum is reduced. In this way, a bunch of protons is turned into a bunch of positive or negative muons suitable for acceleration and collision. The energy of the muons at this stage is only 0.02 GeV. Acceleration is accomplished in a series of recirculating linac accelerators, similar to the approach used in CEBAF. Upon reaching 2,000 GeV (2 TeV) of energy, the muons are transferred into a ring where positive and negative muons, transferred in successive bunches, collide and the collisions studied in a suitable detector. About 25% of the muons originally collected survive into the collider ring, and here they live for an average of ∼ 1,000 revolutions. At this point, the surviving muons are dumped and new bunches are injected. This paper describes in abbreviated form the main features and parameters of the presently envisioned muon collider, most of it taken from the latter two reports

  7. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Document Server

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Most of the work in muon alignment since December 2009 has focused on the geometry reconstruction from the optical systems and improvements in the internal alignment of the DT chambers. The barrel optical alignment system has progressively evolved from reconstruction of single active planes to super-planes (December 09) to a new, full barrel reconstruction. Initial validation studies comparing this full barrel alignment at 0T with photogrammetry provide promising results. In addition, the method has been applied to CRAFT09 data, and the resulting alignment at 3.8T yields residuals from tracks (extrapolated from the tracker) which look smooth, suggesting a good internal barrel alignment with a small overall offset with respect to the tracker. This is a significant improvement, which should allow the optical system to provide a start-up alignment for 2010. The end-cap optical alignment has made considerable progress in the analysis of transfer line data. The next set of alignment constants for CSCs will there...

  8. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    The main progress of the muon alignment group since March has been in the refinement of both the track-based alignment for the DTs and the hardware-based alignment for the CSCs. For DT track-based alignment, there has been significant improvement in the internal alignment of the superlayers inside the DTs. In particular, the distance between superlayers is now corrected, eliminating the residual dependence on track impact angles, and good agreement is found between survey and track-based corrections. The new internal geometry has been approved to be included in the forthcoming reprocessing of CRAFT samples. The alignment of DTs with respect to the tracker using global tracks has also improved significantly, since the algorithms use the latest B-field mapping, better run selection criteria, optimized momentum cuts, and an alignment is now obtained for all six degrees of freedom (three spatial coordinates and three rotations) of the aligned DTs. This work is ongoing and at a stage where we are trying to unders...

  9. PREFACE: 27th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marić, Dragana; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R.; Mijatović, Zoran

    2014-12-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains a selection of papers presented at the 27th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases - SPIG 2014, as General Invited Lectures, Topical Invited Lectures, Progress Reports and associated Workshop Lectures. The conference was held in Belgrade, Serbia, from 26-29 August 2014 at the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. It was organized by the Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade and Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia. A rare virtue of a SPIG conference is that it covers a wide range of topics, bringing together leading scientists worldwide to present and discuss state-of-the art research and the most recent applications, thus stimulating a modern approach of interdisciplinary science. The Invited lectures and Contributed papers are related to the following research fields: 1. Atomic Collision Processes (Electron and Photon Interactions with Atomic Particles, Heavy Particle Collisions, Swarms and Transport Phenomena) 2. Particle and Laser Beam Interactions with Solids (Atomic Collisions in Solids, Sputtering and Deposition, Laser and Plasma Interaction with Surfaces) 3. Low Temperature Plasmas (Plasma Spectroscopy and other Diagnostic Methods, Gas Discharges, Plasma Applications and Devices) 4. General Plasmas (Fusion Plasmas, Astrophysical Plasmas and Collective Phenomena) Additionally, the 27th SPIG encompassed three workshops that are closely related to the scope of the conference: • The Workshop on Dissociative Electron Attachment (DEA) - Chaired by Prof. Nigel J Mason, OBE, The Open University, United Kingdom • The Workshop on X-ray Interaction with Biomolecules in Gas Phase (XiBiGP), Chaired by Dr. Christophe Nicolas, Synchrotron SOLEIL, France • The 3rd International Workshop on Non-Equilibrium Processes (NonEqProc) - Chaired by Prof

  10. Muon time spreads in EAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, P.R.; O'Connell, B.; Mann, D.M.; Nash, W.F.; Strutt, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of measurements on the rise times of muon scintillator responses recorded from EAS detected at Haverah Park are presented. The average muon time spread is found to be a function of core distance, zenith angle and muon threshold energy. Significant fluctuations in muon time spreads are shown to exist between showers

  11. LONGITUDINAL IONIZATION COOLING WITHOUT WEDGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERG, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The emittance of a muon beam must be reduced very rapidly due to the finite lifetime of the muons. The most effective known way to accomplish this is ionization cooling. It is straightforward to reduce transverse emittance through ionization cooling, but the reducing the longitudinal emittance is more challenging. Longitudinal cooling is necessary for a muon collider, and would be helpful for a neutrino factory. The method traditionally proposed for longitudinal cooling is emittance exchange involving wedges of absorber material: the longitudinal emittance is reduced at the cost of increased transverse emittance. The larger transverse emittance can then be reduced straightforwardly. An alternative method is proposed here, which does not require wedges of material but instead makes slight modifications to the standard transverse cooling lattice. We demonstrate a lattice which is a slight modification to a standard Super FOFO transverse cooling lattice, which has linear eigenvalues all of which have magnitude less than one

  12. CMS RPC tracker muon reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Qian, S.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D.; Choi, S.; Hong, B.; Kang, J. W.; Kang, M.; Kwon, J. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. K.; Park, S. K.; Pant, L. M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Chudasama, R.; Singh, J. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Mehta, A.; Kumar, R.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Costantini, S.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Ocampo, A.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Doninck, W. V.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro, L.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Avila, C.; Ahmad, A.; Muhammad, S.; Shoaib, M.; Hoorani, H.; Awan, I.; Ali, I.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M. I.; Shahzad, H.; Sayed, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Ali, S.; Ali, R.; Radi, A.; Elkafrawy, T.; Sharma, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Paolucci, P.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Merola, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, O. M.; Braghieri, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Vai, I.; Magnani, A.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Stoykova, S.; Hadjiiska, R.; Ibargüen, H. S.; Morales, M. I. P.; Bernardino, S. C.; Bagaturia, I.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Crotty, I.

    2014-10-01

    A new muon reconstruction algorithm is introduced at the CMS experiment. This algorithm reconstructs muons using only the central tracker and the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC). The aim of this work is to study how a muon reconstructed only with tracker and RPC information would perform compared to the standard muon reconstruction of the CMS detector. The efficiencies to reconstruct and identify a RPC muon with a transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV/c are measured. The probabilities to misidentify hadrons as muons at low transverse momentum are also reported. These probabilities are compared to the standard muon identification used at CMS.

  13. Quasi-Isochronous Muon Capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Johnson, R.P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Neuffer, D.; Yonehara, K.

    2009-01-01

    Intense muon beams have many potential applications, including neutrino factories and muon colliders. However, muons are produced as tertiary beams, resulting in diffuse phase space distributions. To make useful beams, the muons must be rapidly cooled before they decay. An idea conceived recently for the collection and cooling of muon beams, namely, the use of a Quasi-Isochronous Helical Channel (QIHC) to facilitate capture of muons into RF buckets, has been developed further. The resulting distribution could be cooled quickly and coalesced into a single bunch to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider. After a brief elaboration of the QIHC concept, some recent developments are described.

  14. Underwater measurements of muon intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V. M.; Pustovetov, V. P.; Trubkin, Y. A.; Kirilenkov, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of cosmic ray muon intensity deep underwater aimed at determining a muon absorption curve are of considerable interest, as they allow to reproduce independently the muon energy spectrum at sea level. The comparison of the muon absorption curve in sea water with that in rock makes it possible to determine muon energy losses caused by nuclear interactions. The data available on muon absorption in water and that in rock are not equivalent. Underground measurements are numerous and have been carried out down to the depth of approx. 15km w.e., whereas underwater muon intensity have been measured twice and only down to approx. 3km deep.

  15. ATLAS muon detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Muon detectors from the outer layer of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Over a million individual detectors combine to make up the outer layer of ATLAS. All of this is exclusively to track the muons, the only detectable particles to make it out so far from the collision point. How the muon’s path curves in the magnetic field depends on how fast it is travelling. A fast muon curves only a very little, a slower one curves a lot. Together with the calorimeters, the muon detectors play an essential role in deciding which collisions to store and which to ignore. Certain signals from muons are a sure sign of exciting discoveries. To make sure the data from these collisions is not lost, some of the muon detectors react very quickly and trigger the electronics to record. The other detectors take a little longer, but are much more precise. Their job is to measure exactly where the muons have passed, calculating the curvature of their tracks in the magnetic field to the nearest five hundredths of a ...

  16. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and Y. Pakhotin

    2012-01-01

      A new track-based alignment for the DT chambers is ready for deployment: an offline tag has already been produced which will become part of the 52X Global Tag. This alignment was validated within the muon alignment group both at low and high momentum using a W/Z skim sample. It shows an improved mass resolution for pairs of stand-alone muons, improved curvature resolution at high momentum, and improved DT segment extrapolation residuals. The validation workflow for high-momentum muons used to depend solely on the “split cosmics” method, looking at the curvature difference between muon tracks reconstructed in the upper or lower half of CMS. The validation has now been extended to include energetic muons decaying from heavily boosted Zs: the di-muon invariant mass for global and stand-alone muons is reconstructed, and the invariant mass resolution is compared for different alignments. The main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based C...

  17. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    A new Muon misalignment scenario for 2011 (7 TeV) Monte Carlo re-processing was re-leased. The scenario is based on running of standard track-based reference-target algorithm (exactly as in data) using single-muon simulated sample (with the transverse-momentum spectrum matching data). It used statistics similar to what was used for alignment with 2011 data, starting from an initially misaligned Muon geometry from uncertainties of hardware measurements and using the latest Tracker misalignment geometry. Validation of the scenario (with muons from Z decay and high-pT simulated muons) shows that it describes data well. The study of systematic uncertainties (dominant by now due to huge amount of data collected by CMS and used for muon alignment) is finalised. Realistic alignment position errors are being obtained from the estimated uncertainties and are expected to improve the muon reconstruction performance. Concerning the Hardware Alignment System, the upgrade of the Barrel Alignment is in progress. By now, d...

  18. Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-09-10

    A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 × 10{sup 34} cm{sup –2}s{sup –1}. Secondly, the beam is initially produced with a large 6D phase space, which necessitates a scheme for reducing the muon beam emittance (“cooling”). Finally, the muon has a short lifetime so all beam manipulations must be done very rapidly. The Muon Accelerator Program, led by Fermilab and including a number of U.S. national laboratories and universities, has undertaken design and R&D activities aimed toward the eventual construction of a muon collider. Design features of such a facility and the supporting R&D program are described.

  19. Down with Physics: giant compact muon solenoid (CMS) magnet goes underground at CERN UCR physicists to participate in the international experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists of the US CMS collaboration, which includes UC riverside physicists, joined colleagues around the world in announcing today that the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid particle detector has begun te momentous journey into its experimenta cavern 100 meters underground." (2,5 pages)

  20. Search for scalar muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Becker, L.; Bowdery, C.; Cords, D.; Felst, R.; Haidt, D.; Knies, G.; Krehbiel, H.; Meinke, R.; Naroska, B.; Olsson, J.; Steffen, P.; Junge, H.; Schmidt, D.; Laurikainen, P.; Dietrich, G.; Hagemann, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Kado, H.; Kleinwort, C.; Kuhlen, M.; Meier, K.; Petersen, A.; Ramcke, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Weber, G.; Allison, J.; Baines, J.; Ball, A.H.; Barlow, R.J.; Chrin, J.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Greenshaw, T.; Hill, P.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McCann, H.; Mills, H.E.; Murphy, P.G.; Stephens, K.; Warming, P.; Glasser, R.G.; Sechi-Zorn, B.; Skard, J.A.J.; Wagner, S.R.; Zorn, G.T.; Cartwright, S.L.; Clarke, D.; Marshall, R.; Middleton, R.P.; Whittaker, J.B.; Kawamoto, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Mashimo, T.; Minowa, M.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Yamada, S.

    1984-12-01

    The supersymmetric partner of the muon was searched for in a systematic way. No candidate was found and 95% CL limits on its mass were given for different cases. If it is stable, the limit is 20.9 GeV/c 2 . If it decays into a muon and an invisible low mass particle, the limit is 20.3 GeV/c 2 . If it decays into a muon and an unstable neutral particle which decays further into a photon and an invisible massless particles, the limit is 19.2 GeV/c 2 . (orig.)

  1. The Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R and D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R and D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  2. Muon substituted free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, P.; Fischer, H.; Roduner, E.; Strub, W.; Gygax, F.N.; Brinkman, G.A.; Louwrier, P.W.F.; McKenna, D.; Ramos, M.; Webster, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    Spin polarized energetic positive muons are injected as magnetic probes into unsaturated organic liquids. They are implemented via fast chemical processes ( -10 s) in various molecules. Of particular interest among these are muonium substituted free radicals. The technique allows determination of accurate rate coefficients for fast chemical reactions of radicals. Furthermore, radiochemical processes occuring in picoseconds after injection of the muon are studied. Of fundamental interest are also the structural and dynamical implications of substituting a proton by a muon, or in other terms, a hydrogen atom by a muonium atom. Selected examples for each of these three types of experiments are given. (Auth.)

  3. Muons and neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first generation of large and precise detectors, some initially dedicated to search for nucleon decay has accumulated significant statistics on neutrinos and high-energy muons. A second generation of even better and bigger detectors are already in operation or in advanced construction stage. The present set of experimental data on muon groups and neutrinos is qualitatively better than several years ago and the expectations for the following years are high. Composition studies with underground muon groups, neutrino detection, and expected extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes are discussed.

  4. Muon Collider Machine-Detector Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, Nikolai V.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    In order to realize the high physics potential of a Muon Collider (MC) a high luminosity of {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}-collisions at the Interaction Point (IP) in the TeV range must be achieved ({approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}). To reach this goal, a number of demanding requirements on the collider optics and the IR hardware - arising from the short muon lifetime and from relatively large values of the transverse emittance and momentum spread in muon beams that can realistically be obtained with ionization cooling should be satisfied. These requirements are aggravated by limitations on the quadrupole gradients as well as by the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. The overall detector performance in this domain is strongly dependent on the background particle rates in various sub-detectors. The deleterious effects of the background and radiation environment produced by the beam in the ring are very important issues in the Interaction Region (IR), detector and Machine-Detector Interface (MDI) designs. This report is based on studies presented very recently.

  5. International panoram and Spanish contribution to the dissemination and evaluation of reference data for the ionizing radiations: Project BANDRRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.; Gonzalez, A.; Bailador, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Sanchez, E.; Gorostiza, C.; Ortiz, F.

    1998-01-01

    The present work shows the international panorama of the diverse sources of reference data commonly used in the environment of the radiations ionizantes, as well as the organized Spanish contribution recently around the project of the database of Reference for the radiations ionizantes (BANDRRI), developed jointly by the Unit of Metrology of Ionizing Radiations (UMRI) of the center of Environmental and Technological Investigations (CIEMAT), clerk of the Ministry of Industry and Spanish Energy, the University of Education to Distance and the Address of Computer science of the CIEMAT

  6. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2013-01-01

      The CSC muon system ran with no downtime during the early-2013 heavy-ion run. The CSC group has now embarked on the ambitious upgrade programme during LS1, i.e. installation of 72 large ME4/2 chambers, and replacement of the current analogue electronics in ME1/1 by flash digitisation as well as undoing of the 3:1 ganging of strips in the inner section of ME1/1 (pseudorapidity 2.1–2.4). The CSC group’s internal organisational structure has been changed to add working groups that better reflect this work. The ME4/2 chamber factory at Prevessin’s building 904 has produced 39 of the needed 67 chambers, well into the second endcap, and continues to turn out at least the anticipated one chamber per week. Production of electronics and cables, and detailed plans for ME4/2 installation are going well. One change from earlier plans is that each endcap will be completely installed in one go, with only a minor delay following installation of the back chambers to ensure connec...

  7. Weak interactions: muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, A.M.; Sirlin, A.

    1975-01-01

    The traditional theory of the dominant mode of muon decay is presented, a survey of the experiments which have measured the observable features of the decay is given, and those things which can be learned about the parameters and nature of the theory from the experimental results are indicated. The following aspects of the theory of muon decay are presented first: general four-fermion theory, two-component theory of the neutrino, V--A theory, two-component and V--A theories vs general four-fermion theory, intermediate-boson hypothesis, radiative corrections, radiative corrections in the intermediate-boson theory, and endpoint singularities and corrections of order α 2 . Experiments on muon lifetime, isotropic electron spectrum, total asymmetry and energy dependence of asymmetry of electrons from polarized muons, and electron polarization are described, and a summary of experimental results is given. 7 figures, 2 tables, 109 references

  8. Conformational Reorganization Coupled to the Ionization of Internal Lys Residues in Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Daniel E; Majumdar, Ananya; García-Moreno E, Bertrand

    2015-09-29

    Ionizable groups buried in the hydrophobic interior of proteins are essential for energy transduction and catalysis. Because the protein interior is usually neither as polar nor as polarizable as water, these groups tend to have anomalous pKa values, and their ionization tends to be coupled to conformational reorganization. To elucidate mechanisms of energy transduction in proteins, it is necessary to understand the structural determinants of the pKa values of these buried groups, including the range and character of the conformational reorganization that the ionization of these buried groups can elicit. The L25K and L125K variants of staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) were used to characterize the diverse types of structural reorganization that can be promoted by the ionization of buried groups. NMR relaxation dispersion and ZZ-exchange experiments were used to identify the locations and measure the time scales and extent of pH-dependent conformational exchange in these two proteins. The buried Lys-25 and Lys-125 residues titrate with pKa of 6.3 and 6.2, respectively. The L25K protein fluctuates between the native state and an ensemble of locally unfolded states on the 400 μs to 7 ms time scale. On the 100 to 500 ms time scale the native state exchanges with a subglobally unfolded state in which the β-barrel is partially reorganized. The equilibrium between the native state and this alternative state is highly pH dependent; at pH values below the pKa of Lys-25 the state with the partially reorganized β-barrel is the dominant state. In contrast, the L125K protein only exhibited pH-independent fluctuation in the microsecond to millisecond time scale in the region near Lys-125. The study illustrates how diverse and how localized the coupling between conformational reorganization and ionization of buried groups can be. The pH-sensitive exchange between the fully native and subglobally or locally unfolded states in time scales well into hundreds of milliseconds will

  9. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2012-01-01

      A new muon alignment has been produced for 2012 A+B data reconstruction. It uses the latest Tracker alignment and single-muon data samples to align both DTs and CSCs. Physics validation has been performed and shows a modest improvement in stand-alone muon momentum resolution in the barrel, where the alignment is essentially unchanged from the previous version. The reference-target track-based algorithm using only collision muons is employed for the first time to align the CSCs, and a substantial improvement in resolution is observed in the endcap and overlap regions for stand-alone muons. This new alignment is undergoing the approval process and is expected to be deployed as part of a new global tag in the beginning of December. The pT dependence of the φ-bias in curvature observed in Monte Carlo was traced to a relative vertical misalignment between the Tracker and barrel muon systems. Moving the barrel as a whole to match the Tracker cures this pT dependence, leaving only the &phi...

  10. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    2012-01-01

      The new alignment for the DT chambers has been successfully used in physics analysis starting with the 52X Global Tag. The remaining main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based CSC alignment and producing realistic APEs (alignment position errors) and MC misalignment scenarios to match the latest muon alignment constants. Work on these items has been delayed from the intended timeline, mostly due to a large involvement of the muon alignment man-power in physics analyses over the first half of this year. As CMS keeps probing higher and higher energies, special attention must be paid to the reconstruction of very-high-energy muons. Recent muon POG reports from mid-June show a φ-dependence in curvature bias in Monte Carlo samples. This bias is observed already at the tracker level, where it is constant with muon pT, while it grows with pT as muon chamber information is added to the tracks. Similar studies show a much smaller effect in data, at le...

  11. Towards a Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichten, E.

    2011-01-01

    A multi TeV Muon Collider is required for the full coverage of Terascale physics. The physics potential for a Muon Collider at ∼3 TeV and integrated luminosity of 1 ab -1 is outstanding. Particularly strong cases can be made if the new physics is SUSY or new strong dynamics. Furthermore, a staged Muon Collider can provide a Neutrino Factory to fully disentangle neutrino physics. If a narrow s-channel resonance state exists in the multi-TeV region, the physics program at a Muon Collider could begin with less than 10 31 cm -2 s -1 luminosity. Detailed studies of the physics case for a 1.5-4 TeV Muon Collider are just beginning. The goals of such studies are to: (1) identify benchmark physics processes; (2) study the physics dependence on beam parameters; (3) estimate detector backgrounds; and (4) compare the physics potential of a Muon Collider with those of the ILC, CLIC and upgrades to the LHC.

  12. Electromagnetic Interactions of Muons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment was the first in a programme of physics experiments with high-energy muons using a large spectrometer facility. The aim of this experiment is to study the inelastic scattering of muons with various targets to try to understand better the physics of virtual photon interactions over a wide range of four-momentum transfer (q$^{2}$).\\\\ \\\\ The spectrometer includes a large aperture dipole magnet (2m x 1m) of bending power $\\simeq$5 T.m and a magnetized iron filter to distinguish the scattered muons from hadrons. Drift chambers and MWPC are used before and after the magnet to detect charged products of the interaction and to allow a momentum determination of the scattered muon to an accuracy of $\\simeq$at 100 GeV/c, and an angular definition of $\\pm$ 0.1 mrad. The triggering on scattered muons relies on three planes of scintillation counter hodoscopes before and after the magnetized iron, whose magnetic field serves to eliminate triggers from low momentum muons which are produced copiously by pion d...

  13. Muons reveal the interior of volcanoes

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    The MU-RAY project has the very challenging aim of providing a “muon X-ray” of the Vesuvius volcano (Italy) using a detector that records the muons hitting it after traversing the rock structures of the volcano. This technique was used for the first time in 1971 by the Nobel Prize-winner Louis Alvarez, who was searching for unknown burial chambers in the Chephren pyramid.   The location of the muon detector on the slopes of the Vesuvius volcano. Like X-ray scans of the human body, muon radiography allows researchers to obtain an image of the internal structures of the upper levels of volcanoes. Although such an image cannot help to predict ‘when’ an eruption might occur, it can, if combined with other observations, help to foresee ‘how’ it could develop and serves as a powerful tool for the study of geological structures. Muons come from the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. They are able to traverse layers of ro...

  14. Subthreshold internal conversion to bound states in highly ionized 125Te ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpeshin, F.F.; Harston, M.R.; Attallah, F.; Chemin, J.F.; Scheurer, J.N.; Band, I.M.; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    A new mode of internal conversion decay, in which the converted electron is excited to a bound orbital instead of a continuum orbital, is discussed. General theoretical results are presented for the relation between bound internal conversion and continuum internal conversion of the nucleus. It is shown that the transition rate for internal conversion decay is continuous across the energy threshold between continuum final states and bound final states. Theoretical predictions for decay to bound states of 125 Te are consistent with experimental data on internal conversion in highly charged ions of this nuclide. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Muon detector for the measurement of muon flux and lifetime of atmospheric muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, Ragandeep Singh; Simrandeep Kaur; Bhatnagar, V.; Singh, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    For the present study, muon detector (consisting of four plastic scintillator paddles well equipped with DAQ) to i) measure the muon flux and ii) measure the lifetime of the atmospheric muons have been used. Measurement of lifetime of muons is a classic experiment to measure the time dilation in muons. The muon detector consisting of four scintillator paddles (forming a cuboidal geometry) is connected to PMT tubes from where we get an electrical signal whenever the muon passes. For the case of flux measurement, the coincidence signal is received from the upper and lower scintillator paddle. In the case of lifetime measurement, the muon of low energy decays into an electron (positron) and an antineutron (neutrino). The coincidence signal in this case is received from the top and the two side paddles. The major components of the muon detector are the part of Quark Net experiments developed by Fermilab which have been installed and setup at Panjab University

  16. Atmospheric neutrino-induced muons in the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ronga, F

    1999-01-01

    A measurement of the flux of neutrino-induced muons using the MACRO detector is presented. Different event topologies, corresponding to different neutrino parent energies can be detected. The upward throughgoing muon sample is the larger event sample. The observed upward-throughgoing muons are 26% fewer than expected and the zenith angle distribution does not fit with the expected one. Assuming neutrino oscillations, both measurements suggest maximum mixing and Dm2 of a few times 10-3 eV2. The other samples are due to the internally produced events and to upward-going stopping muons. These data show a regular deficit of observed events in each angular bin, as expected assuming neutrino oscillations with maximum mixing, in agreement with the analysis of the upward-throughgoing muon sample.

  17. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  18. Muon physics possibilities at a muon-neutrino factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, KP

    2001-01-01

    New intense proton accelerators with above GeV energies and MW beam power, such as they are discussed in connection with neutrino factories, appear to be excellently suited for feeding bright muon sources for low-energy muon science. Muon rates with several orders of magnitude increased flux

  19. Muon Reconstruction and Identification in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the design strategies and status of the CMS muon reconstruction and identification identification software. Muon reconstruction and identification is accomplished through a variety of complementary algorithms. The CMS muon reconstruction software is based on a Kalman filter technique and reconstructs muons in the standalone muon system, using information from all three types of muon detectors, and links the resulting muon tracks with tracks reconstructed in the silicon tracker. In addition, a muon identification algorithm has been developed which tries to identify muons with high efficiency while maintaining a low probability of misidentification. The muon identification algorithm is complementary by design to the muon reconstruction algorithm that starts track reconstruction in the muon detectors. The identification algorithm accepts reconstructed tracks from the inner tracker and attempts to quantify the muon compatibility for each track using associated calorimeter and muon detector hit information. The performance status is based on detailed detector simulations as well as initial studies using cosmic muon data.

  20. Nuclear muon capture - theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear muon capture processes are considered with especial reference to particle physics interests and the possibility of probing aspects of nuclear structure such as nuclear symmetries, cluster correlations and giant resonance excitations. The question of the adequacy of the free muon-nucleon weak interaction inputs in an impulse approximation treatment of the muon capture by complex nuclei is examined. (U.K.)

  1. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards. Tabs

  2. Experiments on muon radiography with emulsion track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, Andrey; Bagulya, Alexander; Baklagin, Sergei; Chernyavsky, Mikhail; Galkin, Vladimir; Grachev, Victor; Konovalova, Nina; Managadze, Alexander; Polukhina, Natalya; Roganova, Tatiana; Starkov, Nikolai; Shchedrina, Tatiana; Tioukov, Valeri; Vladymirov, Mykhailo; Zemskova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Muon radiography is a method of study the internal structure of large natural and industrial objects based on sensing an object with a flux of cosmic muons with their subsequent registration and analysis of the pattern of their dispersion, or conplete (or partial) absorption. The Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University have started a series of muon radiography experiments with nuclear emulsion detectors. As a result, the optimal conditions for experiment arrangement have been determined, algorithms of data processing have been worked out, and peculiarities of the method have been ultimately investigated

  3. Online Learning for Muon Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Peter J.; Loe, Tom; Telling, Mark; Cottrell, Stephen P.; Hillier, Adrian D.

    As part of the EU-funded project SINE2020 we are developing an online learning environment to introduce people to muon spectroscopy and how it can be applied in a variety of science areas. Currently there are short interactive courses using cosmic ray muons to teach what muons are and how their decays are measured and a guide to analyzing muon data using the Mantid software package, as well as videos from the lectures at the ISIS Muon Spectroscopy Training School 2016. Here we describe the courses that have been developed and how they have already been used.

  4. Cosmic ray muons for spent nuclear fuel monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos

    There is a steady increase in the volume of spent nuclear fuel stored on-site (at reactor) as currently there is no permanent disposal option. No alternative disposal path is available and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage containers is anticipated for the near future. In this dissertation, a capability to monitor spent nuclear fuel stored within dry casks using cosmic ray muons is developed. The motivation stems from the need to investigate whether the stored content agrees with facility declarations to allow proliferation detection and international treaty verification. Cosmic ray muons are charged particles generated naturally in the atmosphere from high energy cosmic rays. Using muons for proliferation detection and international treaty verification of spent nuclear fuel is a novel approach to nuclear security that presents significant advantages. Among others, muons have the ability to penetrate high density materials, are freely available, no radiological sources are required and consequently there is a total absence of any artificial radiological dose. A methodology is developed to demonstrate the applicability of muons for nuclear nonproliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel dry casks. Purpose is to use muons to differentiate between spent nuclear fuel dry casks with different amount of loading, not feasible with any other technique. Muon scattering and transmission are used to perform monitoring and imaging of the stored contents of dry casks loaded with spent nuclear fuel. It is shown that one missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the scattering distributions with 300,000 muons or more. A Bayesian monitoring algorithm was derived to allow differentiation of a fully loaded dry cask from one with a fuel assembly missing in the order of minutes and negligible error rate. Muon scattering and transmission simulations are used to reconstruct the stored contents of sealed dry casks

  5. γ ray astronomy with muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.; Stanev, T.; Yodh, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    Although γ ray showers are muon poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard γ ray spectra there is a relative open-quotes enhancementclose quotes of muons from γ ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower γ rays above the photoproduction threshold contribute to the number of muons N μ , which is thus proportional to the primary γ ray energy. With γ ray energy 50 times higher than the muon energy and a probability of muon production by the γ close-quote s of about 1%, muon detectors can match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector if their effective area is larger by 10 4 . The muons must have enough energy for sufficiently accurate reconstruction of their direction for doing astronomy. These conditions are satisfied by relatively shallow neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and Lake Baikal, and by γ ray detectors such as MILAGRO. TeV muons from γ ray primaries, on the other hand, are rare because they are only produced by higher energy γ rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy with the AMANDA, Lake Baikal, and MILAGRO detectors. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Unparticles and muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Mamta

    2008-01-01

    Recently Georgi has discussed the possible existence of 'Unparticles' describable by operators having non-integral scaling dimensions. With the interaction of these with the Standard Model particles being constrained only by gauge and Lorentz symmetries, it affords a new source for lepton flavour violation. Current and future muon decay experiments are shown to be very sensitive to such scenarios

  7. Unparticles and muon decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Debajyoti [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Ghosh, Dilip Kumar [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)], E-mail: dkghosh@physics.du.ac.in; Mamta [Department of Physics, S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2008-01-03

    Recently Georgi has discussed the possible existence of 'Unparticles' describable by operators having non-integral scaling dimensions. With the interaction of these with the Standard Model particles being constrained only by gauge and Lorentz symmetries, it affords a new source for lepton flavour violation. Current and future muon decay experiments are shown to be very sensitive to such scenarios.

  8. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2004-10-01

    To a particle physicist a muon is a member of the lepton family, a heavy electron possessing a mass of about 1/9 that of a proton and a spin of 1/2, which interacts with surrounding atoms and molecules electromagnetically. Since its discovery in 1937, the muon has been put to many uses, from tests of special relativity to deep inelastic scattering, from studies of nuclei to tests of weak interactions and quantum electrodynamics, and most recently, as a radiographic tool to see inside heavy objects and volcanoes. In 1957 Richard Garwin and collaborators, while conducting experiments at the Columbia University cyclotron to search for parity violation, discovered that spin-polarized muons injected into materials might be useful to probe internal magnetic fields. This eventually gave birth to the modern field of muSR, which stands for muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance, and is the subject of this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Muons are produced in accelerators when high energy protons (generally >500 MeV) strike a target like graphite, producing pions which subsequently decay into muons. Most experiments carried out today use relatively low-energy (~4 MeV), positively-charged muons coming from pions decaying at rest in the skin of the production target. These muons have 100% spin polarization, a range in typical materials of about 180 mg cm-2, and are ideal for experiments in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Negatively-charged muons are also occasionally used to study such things as muonic atoms and muon-catalysed fusion. The muSR technique provides a local probe of internal magnetic fields and is highly complementary to inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance, for example. There are four primary muSR facilities in the world today: ISIS (Didcot, UK), KEK (Tsukuba, Japan), PSI (Villigen, Switzerland) and TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada), serving about 500 researchers world-wide. A new facility, JPARC (Tokai, Japan

  9. Program for the surface muon spectra calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkatov, Yu.M.; Voloshchuk, V.I.; Zolenko, V.A.; Prokhorets, I.M.; Soldatov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Program for the ''surface'' muon spectrum calculation is described. The algorithm is based on simulation of coordinates of π-meson birth point and direction of its escape from meson-forming target (MFT) according to angular distribution with the use of Monte Carlo method. Ionization losses of π-(μ)-mesons in the target are taken into account in the program. Calculation of ''surface'' muon spectrum is performed in the range of electron energies from 150 MeV up to 1000 MeV. Spectra of π-mesons are calculated with account of ionization losses in the target and without it. Distributions over lengths of π-meson paths in MFT and contribution of separate sections of the target to pion flux at the outlet of meson channel are calculated as well. Meson-forming target for calculation can be made of any material. The program provides for the use of the MFT itself in the form of photon converter or photon converter is located in front of the target. The program is composed of 13 subprograms; 2 of them represent generators of pseudorandom numbers, distributed uniformly in the range from 0 up to 1, and numbers with Gauss distribution. Example of calculation for copper target of 3 cm length, electron beam current-1 μA, energy-300 MeV is presented

  10. Characterization of muon and gamma radiations at the PTOLEMY site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Susannah; Gentile, Charles; Tully, Chris; Zapata, Sandra; Chris Tully Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    PTOLEMY is an experimental project at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory designed to determine the present day number density of relic neutrinos through measurement of electrons produced from neutrino capture on tritium. The weak interaction cross section for relic neutrino interactions necessitates high sensitivity measurements that could be influenced by high energy particles, like muons and gamma ray photons, which induce nuclear transitions and secondary electrons. Muons produced from the collision of cosmic rays with atmospheric nuclei are a significant source of background radiation at and below Earth's surface. The muon flux is measured by the coincidence of minimum ionization radiation loss in two plastic scintillator paddles. The spectrum of gamma ray photons is measured using sodium iodide based scintillators. These measurements will provide a characterization of the background and rates at the PTOLEMY site.

  11. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  12. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. Internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Trano, J.L.; Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.

    1999-01-01

    This work represent a guide for the treatment of accidental intakes of radionuclides. The different phases of radioactive contamination, the transfer and non-transfer of radioisotopes, the general principles in the treatment of internal contamination and the follow-up are determined. The in vivo monitoring and the evaluation of activity level are specified in this document. The applied treatment depends on the via of intake, that is: inhalation, ingestion, and through skin. The decontamination procedures that reduce the radionuclide transfer are specified. The different drugs, used to enhance radionuclides elimination, are enumerated in this work. Considerations about the iodine prophylaxis in radiologic als accidents are considered. (author)

  13. Quantitation of peptides and proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using (18)O-labeled internal standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, O A; Kozmin, Y P; Titov, M I

    2000-01-01

    for the tested sample by enzymatic hydrolysis of the same sample (with known concentration) in (18)O-water. A mathematical algorithm was developed which uses the isotopic patterns of the substance, the internal standard, and the substance/internal standard mixture for accurate quantitation of the substance......A method for quantitating proteins and peptides in the low picomole and sub-picomole range has been developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with internal (18)O-labeled standards. A simple procedure is proposed to produce such internal standards...

  14. On muon energy spectrum in muon groups underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described which was used to measure muon energy spectrum characteristics in muon groups underground using mu-e decays recording. The Baksan Telescope's experimental data on mu-e decays intensity in muon groups of various multiplicities are analyzed. The experimental data indicating very flat spectrum does not however represent the total spectrum in muon groups. Obviously the muon energy spectrum depends strongly on a distance from the group axis. The core attraction effect makes a significant distortion, making the spectrum flatter. After taking this into account and making corrections for this effect the integral total spectrum index in groups has a very small depencence on muon multiplicity and agrees well with expected one: beta=beta (sub expected) = 1.75.

  15. Longitudinal polarization of direct muons with 1.9 GeV/c transverse momentum produced in NN-collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.V.; Alekseev, A.V.; Bityukov, S.I.

    1978-01-01

    The results of new measurements of direct-muon longitudinal polarization are presented. The experiment has been carried out at the Serpukhov accelerator with 70 GeV protons on a copper target. Muons produced from the internal copper target at 9 deg to the incident beam have been slowed down and focused by a muonguide from magnetized iron which has also selected muon with an identical charge. The coefficient of direct muon polarization etasub(x) is calculated through the polarization of muons from π and K decays and through the number of direct muon fraction in the beam. etasub(x) is found to be -0.41+-0.17. In other words the evidence is found that among direct muons produced with 1.9 GeV/c transverse momentum there is a component with negative polarization. The result agrees poorely with a hypothesis that all direct muons are originated in electromagnetic interactions (eta=0)

  16. WEDGE ABSORBERS FOR MUON COOLING WITH A TEST BEAM AT MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Acosta, J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. [Mississippi U.; Mohayai, T. [IIT, Chicago; Snopok, P. [IIT, Chicago

    2016-10-18

    Emittance exchange mediated by wedge absorbers is required for longitudinal ionization cooling and for final transverse emittance minimization for a muon collider. A wedge absorber within the MICE beam line could serve as a demonstration of the type of emittance exchange needed for 6-D cooling, including the configurations needed for muon colliders. Parameters for this test are explored in simulation and possible experimental configurations with simulated results are presented.

  17. MANX, A 6-D Muon Cooling Demonstration Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Thomas; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Hanlet, Pierrick M; Johnson, Rolland P; Kaplan, Daniel; Kuchnir, Moyses; Moretti, Alfred; Paul, Kevin; Popovic, Milorad; Yarba, Victor; Yonehara, Katsuya

    2005-01-01

    Most ionization cooling schemes now under consideration are based on using many large flasks of liquid hydrogen energy absorber. One important example is the proposed Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which has recently been approved to run at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). In the work reported here, a potential muon cooling demonstration experiment based on a continuous liquid energy absorber in a helical cooling channel (HCC) is discussed. The original HCC used a gaseous energy absorber for the engineering advantage of combining the energy absorption and RF energy regeneration in hydrogen-filled RF cavities. In the Muon And Neutrino eXperiment (MANX) that is proposed here, a liquid-filled HCC is used without RF energy regeneration to achieve the largest possible cooling rate in six dimensions. In this case, the magnetic fields of the HCC must diminish as the muons lose momentum as they pass through the liquid energy absorber. The length of the MANX device is determined by the maximum mom...

  18. The LHCb Muon Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardini, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently working on the upgrade of the experiment to allow, after 2018, an efficient data collection while running at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10$^{33}$/cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The upgrade will allow 40 MHz detector readout, and events will be selected by means of a very flexible software-based trigger. The muon system will be upgraded in two phases. In the first phase, the off-detector readout electronics will be redesigned to allow complete event readout at 40 MHz. Also, part of the channel logical-ORs, used to reduce the total readout channel count, will be removed to reduce dead-time in critical regions. In a second phase, higher-granularity detectors will replace the ones installed in highly irradiated regions, to guarantee efficient muon system performances in the upgrade data taking conditions.

  19. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

    2013-01-01

    When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

  20. Muon spin rotation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The bulk of the muon spin rotation research work centered around the development of the muon spin rotation facility at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The collimation system was both designed and fabricated at Virginia State University. This improved collimation system, plus improvements in detectors and electronics enabled the acquisition of spectra free of background out to 15 microseconds. There were two runs at Brookhaven in 1984, one run was devoted primarily to beam development and the other run allowed several successful experiments to be performed. The effect of uniaxial strain on an Fe(Si) crystal at elevated temperature (360K) was measured and the results are incorporated herein. A complete analysis of Fe pulling data taken earlier is included.

  1. The US Muon Accelerator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torun, Y.; /IIT, Chicago; Kirk, H.; /Brookhaven; Bross, A.; Geer, Steve; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab; Zisman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-05-01

    An accelerator complex that can produce ultra-intense beams of muons presents many opportunities to explore new physics. A facility of this type is unique in that, in a relatively straightforward way, it can present a physics program that can be staged and thus move forward incrementally, addressing exciting new physics at each step. At the request of the US Department of Energy's Office of High Energy Physics, the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC) and the Fermilab Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) have recently submitted a proposal to create a Muon Accelerator Program that will have, as a primary goal, to deliver a Design Feasibility Study for an energy-frontier Muon Collider by the end of a 7 year R&D program. This paper presents a description of a Muon Collider facility and gives an overview of the proposal.

  2. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-07

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet. The first phase of this project saw the development of a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb3Sn-based HS test section. Two very novel ideas are required to realize the design. The first idea is the use of dielectric inserts in the RF cavities to make them smaller for a given frequency so that the cavities and associated plumbing easily fit inside the magnet cryostat. Calculations indicate that heat loads will be tolerable, while RF breakdown of the dielectric inserts will be suppressed by the pressurized hydrogen gas. The second new idea is the use of a multi-layer Nb3Sn helical solenoid. The technology demonstrations for the two aforementioned key components of a 10T, 805 MHz HCC were begun in this project. The work load in the Fermilab Technical Division made it difficult to test a multi-layer Nb3Sn solenoid as originally planned. Instead, a complementary

  3. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2015-01-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet. The first phase of this project saw the development of a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb 3 Sn-based HS test section. Two very novel ideas are required to realize the design. The first idea is the use of dielectric inserts in the RF cavities to make them smaller for a given frequency so that the cavities and associated plumbing easily fit inside the magnet cryostat. Calculations indicate that heat loads will be tolerable, while RF breakdown of the dielectric inserts will be suppressed by the pressurized hydrogen gas. The second new idea is the use of a multi-layer Nb 3 Sn helical solenoid. The technology demonstrations for the two aforementioned key components of a 10T, 805 MHz HCC were begun in this project. The work load in the Fermilab Technical Division made it difficult to test a multi-layer Nb 3 Sn solenoid as originally planned. Instead, a complementary project was approved by the

  4. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    The main developments in muon alignment since March 2010 have been the production, approval and deployment of alignment constants for the ICHEP data reprocessing. In the barrel, a new geometry, combining information from both hardware and track-based alignment systems, has been developed for the first time. The hardware alignment provides an initial DT geometry, which is then anchored as a rigid solid, using the link alignment system, to a reference frame common to the tracker. The “GlobalPositionRecords” for both the Tracker and Muon systems are being used for the first time, and the initial tracker-muon relative positioning, based on the link alignment, yields good results within the photogrammetry uncertainties of the Tracker and alignment ring positions. For the first time, the optical and track-based alignments show good agreement between them; the optical alignment being refined by the track-based alignment. The resulting geometry is the most complete to date, aligning all 250 DTs, ...

  5. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez.

    Since June of 2009, the muon alignment group has focused on providing new alignment constants and on finalizing the hardware alignment reconstruction. Alignment constants for DTs and CSCs were provided for CRAFT09 data reprocessing. For DT chambers, the track-based alignment was repeated using CRAFT09 cosmic ray muons and validated using segment extrapolation and split cosmic tools. One difference with respect to the previous alignment is that only five degrees of freedom were aligned, leaving the rotation around the local x-axis to be better determined by the hardware system. Similarly, DT chambers poorly aligned by tracks (due to limited statistics) were aligned by a combination of photogrammetry and hardware-based alignment. For the CSC chambers, the hardware system provided alignment in global z and rotations about local x. Entire muon endcap rings were further corrected in the transverse plane (global x and y) by the track-based alignment. Single chamber track-based alignment suffers from poor statistic...

  6. Compton scattering by internal shields based on melanin-containing mushrooms provides protection of gastrointestinal tract from ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Bryan, Ruth A; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9 Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors.

  7. PSI: Very slow polarized muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    At the 'pion factory' of the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute, a collaboration of PSI, Heidelberg and Zurich (ETH) has recently produced intense beams of positive muons which have kinetic energies as low as 10 eV and with complete polarization (spin orientation). The new results were achieved at a surface muon channel, transporting positive muons from the decay of positive pions stopped at the surface of a pion production target. Surface muons with 4 MeV kinetic energy were transported by a conventional secondary beam channel and partially stopped in a moderator consisting of a layer of solidified noble gas deposited on a cold metallic substrate

  8. Muon Acceleration R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torun, Yagmur

    2009-01-01

    An intense muon source can be built in stages to support a uniquely broad program in high energy physics. Starting with a low-energy cooled muon beam, extraordinarily precise lepton flavor violation experiments are possible. Upgrading the facility with acceleration and a muon storage ring, one can build a Neutrino Factory that would allow a neutrino mixing physics program with unprecedented precision. Adding further acceleration and a collider ring, an energy-frontier muon collider can explore electroweak symmetry breaking and open a window to new physics.

  9. internal radiation dose assessment due to ionizing radio contaminants in some local foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdElKader, F.M.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, radioactivity has been monitored in foodstuffs in Egypt. The present work deals with the radioactivity monitored during two years (1990 - 1992) at eight major Egyptian governorates. Sampled food items were selected to cover most foodstuffs eaten by egyptian population according to their habits. The daily food consumption by egyptian population and the constituents of such consumption were estimated according to published international data and knowledge of the different feeding habits of the egyptians. About 1200 samples were collected from the markets of the main city of each governorate and prepared for counting according to the egyptian kitchen habits. The counting systems used in determination and indentification of radionuclides were : a 3 inch HPGe detector attached to 800 channel MCA and PC and a 3 inch phoswich detector attached to an anticoincidence circuit for low beta / gamma counting. The gamma spectroscopy system was calibrated using isotopic solution mixture while the low beta counting system was calibrated using H CI. Counting time for the first system was 20 - 72 hours and for the second system was half to one hour. The main radionuclides identified in foodstuffs were Cs - 137 and K - 40 . The radioactivity concentration of Cs - 137 was found to be in the range between 1.0 Bq / Kg for macaroni and 3.5 Bq / Kg for nile beans. The K - 40 concentration range between 19 Bq / Kg for macaroni to 363 Bq / Kg for nile beans. The population weighted values in case of Cs - 137 was found as 3.56 Bq /d and for K - 40 was 188 Bq /d. The resulted effective dose due to food intake was found be 16 . 4 U Sv /a for Cs-137 and 354 μSv / a for K -40 . This value for Cs - 137 is found in the exemption limit while that of K -40 is twice the published value. This may depend on the egyptian feeding habit which depends mainly on wheat (bread) and nile beans which are very rich in potassium.The resulted collective dose was found to be : 21323 person

  10. The ALICE forward muon spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ICE detector will allow to identify the quarkonium states through both the dielectron and the dimuon channels. For this purpose the apparatus is equipped with a transition radiation detector in its central part and with a forward muon spectrometer at small angles. After a brief description of the forward muon spectrometer, ...

  11. Muon decay channeling in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.; Bosshard, A.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Wueest, A.; Wichert, Th.

    1984-01-01

    The angular distribution of positrons from muon decay in an oriented [111] Si wafer shows a symmetric pattern of six lines of minimum counting rate radiating from a central minimum. The pattern results from positron blocking by the (110) planes and [111] axis. The measurement technique and the dependence of the features on positron energy, muon implantation depth and sample temperature are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Characterization of the atmospheric muon flux in IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fuchs, T.; Glagla, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yáñez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.

    2016-05-01

    Muons produced in atmospheric cosmic ray showers account for the by far dominant part of the event yield in large-volume underground particle detectors. The IceCube detector, with an instrumented volume of about a cubic kilometer, has the potential to conduct unique investigations on atmospheric muons by exploiting the large collection area and the possibility to track particles over a long distance. Through detailed reconstruction of energy deposition along the tracks, the characteristics of muon bundles can be quantified, and individual particles of exceptionally high energy identified. The data can then be used to constrain the cosmic ray primary flux and the contribution to atmospheric lepton fluxes from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. In this paper, techniques for the extraction of physical measurements from atmospheric muon events are described and first results are presented. The multiplicity spectrum of TeV muons in cosmic ray air showers for primaries in the energy range from the knee to the ankle is derived and found to be consistent with recent results from surface detectors. The single muon energy spectrum is determined up to PeV energies and shows a clear indication for the emergence of a distinct spectral component from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. The magnitude of the prompt flux, which should include a substantial contribution from light vector meson di-muon decays, is consistent with current theoretical predictions. The variety of measurements and high event statistics can also be exploited for the evaluation of systematic effects. In the course of this study, internal inconsistencies in the zenith angle distribution of events were found which indicate the presence of an unexplained effect outside the currently applied range of detector systematics. The underlying cause could be related to the hadronic interaction models used to describe muon production in air showers.

  13. MUON STORAGE RINGS - NEUTRINO FACTORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSA, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Source (Neutrino Factory) has sparked considerable interest in the High Energy Physics community. Besides providing a first phase of a muon collider facility, it would generate more intense and well collimated neutrino beams than currently available. The BNL-AGS or some other proton driver would provide an intense proton beam that hits a target, produces pions that decay into muons. The muons must be cooled, accelerated and injected into a storage ring with a long straight section where they decay. The decays occurring in the straight sections of the ring would generate neutrino beams that could be directed to detectors located thousands of kilometers away, allowing studies of neutrino oscillations with precisions not currently accessible. For example, with the neutrino source at BNL, detectors at Soudan, Minnesota (1,715 km), and Gran Sasso, Italy (6,527 km) become very interesting possibilities. The feasibility of constructing and operating such a muon-storage-ring based Neutrino-Factory, including geotechnical questions related to building non-planar storage rings (e.g. at 8degree angle for BNL-Soudan, and 3degree angle for BNL-Gran Sasso) along with the design of the muon capture, cooling, acceleration, and storage ring for such a facility is being explored by the growing Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC). The authors present overview of Neutrino Factory concept based on a muon storage ring, its components, physics opportunities, possible upgrade to a full muon collider, latest simulations of front-end, and a new bowtie-muon storage ring design

  14. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Breedon

    During the ongoing period before beam operation resumes, the Endcap Muon system is dedicated to bringing all components of the system up to the best possible performance condition. As CMS was opened, starting with the +Endcap side, electronic boards, cables, and connectors of the Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) system were replaced or repaired as necessary as access became possible. Due to scheduling constraints, on the –Endcap side this effort has been delayed until the muon stations are each briefly accessible as the experiment is closed again. The CSC gas mixture includes 10% CF4 (carbon tetrafluoride) to reduce aging of the chambers when subjected to high levels of charged particle fluxes during LHC running. CF4, however, is the most expensive component of the gas mixture, and since it is not necessary to protect against aging during chamber commissioning with cosmic rays, the amount of CF4 was temporarily reduced by half to realize a substantial cost saving. Additional filters have been added to ...

  15. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    During data-taking in 2010 the RPC system behaviour was very satisfactory for both the detector and trigger performances. Most of the data analyses are now completed and many results and plots have been approved in order to be published in the muon detector paper. A very detailed analysis of the detector efficiency has been performed using 60 million muon events taken with the dedicated RPC monitor stream. The results have shown that the 96.3% of the system was working properly with an average efficiency of 95.4% at 9.35 kV in the Barrel region and 94.9% at 9.55 kV in the Endcap. Cluster size goes from 1.6 to 2.2 showing a clear and well-known correlation with the strip pitch. Average noise in the Barrel is less than 0.4 Hz/cm2 and about 98% of full system has averaged noise less then 1 Hz/cm2. A linear dependence of the noise versus the luminosity has been preliminary observed and is now under study. Detailed chamber efficiency maps have shown a few percent of chambers with a non-uniform efficiency distribu...

  16. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    Since December, the muon alignment community has focused on analyzing the data recorded so far in order to produce new DT and CSC Alignment Records for the second reprocessing of CRAFT data. Two independent algorithms were developed which align the DT chambers using global tracks, thus providing, for the first time, a relative alignment of the barrel with respect to the tracker. These results are an important ingredient for the second CRAFT reprocessing and allow, for example, a more detailed study of any possible mis-modelling of the magnetic field in the muon spectrometer. Both algorithms are constructed in such a way that the resulting alignment constants are not affected, to first order, by any such mis-modelling. The CSC chambers have not yet been included in this global track-based alignment due to a lack of statistics, since only a few cosmics go through the tracker and the CSCs. A strategy exists to align the CSCs using the barrel as a reference until collision tracks become available. Aligning the ...

  17. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    Jay Hauser

    2013-01-01

    Great progress has been made on the CSC improvement projects during LS1, the construction of the new ME4/2 muon station, and the refurbishing of the electronics in the high-rate inner ME1/1 muon station. CSC participated successfully in the Global Run in November (GRiN) cosmic ray test, but with just stations +2 and +3, due to the large amount of work going on. The test suite used for commissioning chambers is more comprehensive than the previous tests, and should lead to smoother running in the future. The chamber factory at Prevessin’s building 904 has just finished assembling all the new ME4/2 chambers, which number 67 to be installed plus five spares, and is now finishing up the long-term HV training and testing of the last chambers. At Point 5, installation of the new chambers on the positive endcap went well, and they are now all working well. Gas leak rates are very low. Services are in good shape, except for the HV system, which will be installed during the coming month. We will then be w...

  18. CMS tracker observes muons

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A computer image of a cosmic ray traversing the many layers of the TEC+ silicon sensors. The first cosmic muon tracks have been observed in one of the CMS tracker endcaps. On 14 March, a sector on one of the two large tracker endcaps underwent a cosmic muon run. Since then, thousands of tracks have been recorded. These data will be used not only to study the tracking, but also to exercise various track alignment algorithms The endcap tested, called the TEC+, is under construction at RWTH Aachen in Germany. The endcaps have a modular design, with silicon strip modules mounted onto wedge-shaped carbon fibre support plates, so-called petals. Up to 28 modules are arranged in radial rings on both sides of these plates. One eighth of an endcap is populated with 18 petals and called a sector. The next major step is a test of the first sector at CMS operating conditions, with the silicon modules at a temperature below -10°C. Afterwards, the remaining seven sectors have to be integrated. In autumn 2006, TEC+ wil...

  19. Next Generation Muon g-2 Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzog, David W. [Washington U., Seattle

    2015-12-02

    I report on the progress of two new muon anomalous magnetic moment experiments, which are in advanced design and construction phases. The goal of Fermilab E989 is to reduce the experimental uncertainty of $a_\\mu$ from Brookhaven E821 by a factor of 4; that is, $\\delta a_\\mu \\sim 16 \\times 10^{-11}$, a relative uncertainty of 140~ppb. The method follows the same magic-momentum storage ring concept used at BNL, and pioneered previously at CERN, but muon beam preparation, storage ring internal hardware, field measuring equipment, and detector and electronics systems are all new or upgraded significantly. In contrast, J-PARC E34 will employ a novel approach based on injection of an ultra-cold, low-energy, muon beam injected into a small, but highly uniform magnet. Only a small magnetic focusing field is needed to maintain storage, which distinguishes it from CERN, BNL and Fermilab. E34 aims to roughly match the previous BNL precision in their Phase~1 installation.

  20. Next Generation Muon g − 2 Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertzog David W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on the progress of two new muon anomalous magnetic moment experiments, which are in advanced design and construction phases. The goal of Fermilab E989 is to reduce the experimental uncertainty of aμ from Brookhaven E821 by a factor of 4; that is, δaμ ∼ 16 × 10−11, a relative uncertainty of 140 ppb. The method follows the same magic-momentum storage ring concept used at BNL, and pioneered previously at CERN, but muon beam preparation, storage ring internal hardware, field measuring equipment, and detector and electronics systems are all new or upgraded significantly. In contrast, J-PARC E34 will employ a novel approach based on injection of an ultra-cold, low-energy, muon beam injected into a small, but highly uniform magnet. Only a small magnetic focusing field is needed to maintain storage, which distinguishes it from CERN, BNL and Fermilab. E34 aims to roughly match the previous BNL precision in their Phase 1 installation.

  1. A link between solar events and congenital malformations: Is ionizing radiation enough to explain it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew C.; Melott, Adrian L.; Atri, Dimitra

    2015-03-01

    Cosmic rays are known to cause biological effects directly and through ionizing radiation produced by their secondaries. These effects have been detected in airline crews and other specific cases where members of the population are exposed to above average secondary fluxes. Recent work has found a correlation between solar particle events and congenital malformations. In this work we use the results of computational simulations to approximate the ionizing radiation from such events as well as longer-term increases in cosmic ray flux. We find that the amounts of ionizing radiation produced by these events are insufficient to produce congenital malformations under the current paradigm regarding muon ionizing radiation. We believe that further work is needed to determine the correct ionizing radiation contribution of cosmogenic muons. We suggest that more extensive measurements of muon radiation effects may show a larger contribution to ionizing radiation dose than currently assumed.

  2. SUPERCONDUCTING SOLENOIDS FOR THE MUON COLLIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREEN,M.A.; EYSSA,Y.; KENNY,S.; MILLER,J.R.; PRESTEMON,S.; WEGGEL,R.J.

    2000-06-12

    The muon collider is a new idea for lepton colliders. The ultimate energy of an electron ring is limited by synchrotron radiation. Muons, which have a rest mass that is 200 times that of an electron can be stored at much higher energies before synchrotron radiation limits ring performance. The problem with muons is their short life time (2.1 {micro}s at rest). In order to operate a muon storage ring large numbers of muon must be collected, cooled and accelerated before they decay to an electron and two neutrinos. As the authors see it now, high field superconducting solenoids are an integral part of a muon collider muon production and cooling systems. This report describes the design parameters for superconducting and hybrid solenoids that are used for pion production and collection, RF phase rotations of the pions as they decay into muons and the muon cooling (reduction of the muon emittance) before acceleration.

  3. Muon Simulation at the Daya Bay SIte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengyun, Guan; Jun, Cao; Changgen, Yang; Yaxuan, Sun; Luk, Kam-Biu

    2006-01-01

    With a pretty good-resolution mountain profile, we simulated the underground muon background at the Daya Bay site. To get the sea-level muon flux parameterization, a modification to the standard Gaisser's formula was introduced according to the world muon data. MUSIC code was used to transport muon through the mountain rock. To deploy the simulation, first we generate a statistic sample of sea-level muon events according to the sea-level muon flux distribution formula; then calculate the slant depth of muon passing through the mountain using an interpolation method based on the digitized data of the mountain; finally transport muons through rock to get underground muon sample, from which we can get results of muon flux, mean energy, energy distribution and angular distribution.

  4. Superconducting Solenoids for the Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Eyssa, Y.; Kenny, S.; Miller, J.R.; Prestemon, S.; Weggel, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The muon collider is a new idea for lepton colliders. The ultimate energy of an electron ring is limited by synchrotron radiation. Muons, which have a rest mass that is 200 times that of an electron can be stored at much higher energies before synchrotron radiation limits ring performance. The problem with muons is their short life time (2.1 micros at rest). In order to operate a muon storage ring large numbers of muon must be collected, cooled and accelerated before they decay to an electron and two neutrinos. As the authors see it now, high field superconducting solenoids are an integral part of a muon collider muon production and cooling systems. This report describes the design parameters for superconducting and hybrid solenoids that are used for pion production and collection, RF phase rotations of the pions as they decay into muons and the muon cooling (reduction of the muon emittance) before acceleration

  5. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies √s (ge) 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R and D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R and D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R and D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R and D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel

  6. Direct detection of MeV-scale dark matter utilizing germanium internal amplification for the charge created by the ionization of impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, D.-M.; Wang, G.-J.; Mei, H.; Yang, G.; Liu, J.; Wagner, M.; Panth, R.; Kooi, K.; Yang, Y.-Y.; Wei, W.-Z.

    2018-03-01

    Light, MeV-scale dark matter (DM) is an exciting DM candidate that is undetectable by current experiments. A germanium (Ge) detector utilizing internal charge amplification for the charge carriers created by the ionization of impurities is a promising new technology with experimental sensitivity for detecting MeV-scale DM. We analyze the physics mechanisms of the signal formation, charge creation, charge internal amplification, and the projected sensitivity for directly detecting MeV-scale DM particles. We present a design for a novel Ge detector at helium temperature (˜ 4 K) enabling ionization of impurities from DM impacts. With large localized E-fields, the ionized excitations can be accelerated to kinetic energies larger than the Ge bandgap at which point they can create additional electron-hole pairs, producing intrinsic amplification to achieve an ultra-low energy threshold of ˜ 0.1 eV for detecting low-mass DM particles in the MeV scale. Correspondingly, such a Ge detector with 1 kg-year exposure will have high sensitivity to a DM-nucleon cross section of ˜ 5 × 10^{-45} cm2 at a DM mass of ˜ 10 MeV/c2 and a DM-electron cross section of ˜ 5 × 10^{-46} cm2 at a DM mass of ˜ 1 MeV/c^2.

  7. Measurement of muon intensity by Cerenkov method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. H.; Li, G. J.; Bai, G. Z.; Liu, J. G.; Geng, Q. X.; Ling, J.

    1985-01-01

    Optical detection is an important technique in studies and observations of air showers, muons and relevant phenomena. The muon intensity is measured in a proper energy range and to study some problems about Cerenkov radiation of cosmic rays are studied, by a muon-telescope operated with Cerenkov detector. It is found that the measured muon intensity agrees with the integral energy spectrum of cosmic ray muons.

  8. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  9. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel M. [IIT, Chicago

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  10. Production of selected cosmogenic radionuclides by muons; 1, Fast muons

    CERN Document Server

    Heisinger, B; Jull, A J T; Kubik, P W; Ivy-Ochs, S; Neumaier, S; Knie, K; Lazarev, V A; Nolte, E

    2002-01-01

    To investigate muon-induced nuclear reactions leading to the production of radionuclides, targets made of C/sub 9/H/sub 12/, SiO /sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al, S, CaCO/sub 3/, Fe, Ni, Cu, Gd, Yb and Tl were irradiated with 100 and 190 GeV muons in the NA54 experimental setup at CERN. The radionuclide concentrations were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry and gamma -spectroscopy. Results are presented for the corresponding partial formation cross- sections. Several of the long-lived and short-lived radionuclides studied are also produced by fast cosmic ray muons in the atmosphere and at depths underground. Because of their importance to Earth sciences investigations, calculations of the depth dependence of production rates by fast cosmic ray muons have been made. (48 refs).

  11. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  12. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  13. Thermal and Lorentz Force Analysis of Beryllium Windows for the Rectilinear Muon Cooling Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Tianhuan [LBL, Berkeley; Li, D. [LBL, Berkeley; Virostek, S. [LBL, Berkeley; Palmer, R. [Brookhaven; Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven; Bowring, D. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    Reduction of the 6-dimensional phase-space of a muon beam by several orders of magnitude is a key requirement for a Muon Collider. Recently, a 12-stage rectilinear ionization cooling channel has been proposed to achieve that goal. The channel consists of a series of low frequency (325 MHz-650 MHz) normal conducting pillbox cavities, which are enclosed with thin beryllium windows (foils) to increase shunt impedance and give a higher field on-axis for a given amount of power. These windows are subject to ohmic heating from RF currents and Lorentz force from the EM field in the cavity, both of which will produce out of the plane displacements that can detune the cavity frequency. In this study, using the TEM3P code, we report on a detailed thermal and mechanical analysis for the actual Be windows used on a 325 MHz cavity in a vacuum ionization cooling rectilinear channel for a Muon Collider.

  14. Thermal and Lorentz force analysis of beryllium windows for a rectilinear muon cooling channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratakis, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Virostek, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bowring, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Reduction of the 6-dimensional phase-space of a muon beam by several orders of magnitude is a key requirement for a Muon Collider. Recently, a 12-stage rectilinear ionization cooling channel has been proposed to achieve that goal. The channel consists of a series of low frequency (325 MHz-650 MHz) normal conducting pillbox cavities, which are enclosed with thin beryllium windows (foils) to increase shunt impedance and give a higher field on-axis for a given amount of power. These windows are subject to ohmic heating from RF currents and Lorentz force from the EM field in the cavity, both of which will produce out of the plane displacements that can detune the cavity frequency. In this study, using the TEM3P code, we report on a detailed thermal and mechanical analysis for the actual Be windows used on a 325 MHz cavity in a vacuum ionization cooling rectilinear channel for a Muon Collider.

  15. Muon spin rotation in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladisch, M.; Orth, H.; Putlitz, G. zu; Wahl, W.; Wigand, M.; Herlach, D.; Seeger, A.; Metz, H.; Teichler, H.

    1979-01-01

    By means of the muon spin rotation technique (μ + SR), the temperature dependence of the magnetic field inside the normal-conducting domains of high-purity tantalum crystals in the intermediate state has been measured in the temperature range 2.36 K + SR. Possible applications of these findings to the study of long-range diffusion of positive muons at low temperatures are indicated. (Auth.)

  16. Muon spin rotation in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    The muon spin rotation (MuSR) technique is used to probe the microscopic electron density in materials. High temperature MuSR and magnetization measurements in nickel are in progress to allow an unambiguous determination of the muon impurity interaction and the impurity induced change in local spin density. The first results on uniaxial stress induced frequency shifts in an Fe single crystal are also reported.

  17. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertl, W.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Schott, W.; Wright, D.H.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Azuelos, G.; Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Gorringe, T.P.; Henderson, R.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Von Egidy, T.; Zhang, N.S.; Robertson, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    The radiative capture of negative muons by protons can be used to measure the weak induced pseudoscalar form factor. Brief arguments why this method is preferable to ordinary muon capture are given followed by a discussion of the experimental difficulties. The solution to these problems as attempted by experiment no. 452 at TRIUMF is presented together with preliminary results from the first run in August 1990. An outlook on the expected final precision and the experimental schedule is also given. (orig.)

  18. The Gran Sasso muon puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    We carry out a time-series analysis of the combined data from three experiments measuring the cosmic muon flux at the Gran Sasso laboratory, at a depth of 3800 m.w.e. These data, taken by the MACRO, LVD and Borexino experiments, span a period of over 20 years, and correspond to muons with a threshold energy, at sea level, of around 1.3 TeV. We compare the best-fit period and phase of the full muon data set with the combined DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA data, which spans the same time period, as a test of the hypothesis that the cosmic ray muon flux is responsible for the annual modulation detected by DAMA. We find in the muon data a large-amplitude fluctuation with a period of around one year, and a phase that is incompatible with that of the DAMA modulation at 5.2 sigmas. Aside from this annual variation, the muon data also contains a further significant modulation with a period between 10 and 11 years and a power well above the 99.9% C.L threshold for noise, whose phase corresponds well with the solar cycle: a s...

  19. Muon catalytic fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarnagin, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    Three main ideas are proposed using negative muoun catalyis in a fusion power reactor. Firstly, let low energy muons attack the lower end of a (dense plasma's distribution curve. This simultaneously helps clear the plasma of slow particles (by fusing them) and raises the plasma's average temperature. Concurrently, the upper end of the distribution curve is attacked as usual (here, with plasma beams from built-in reaccelerators). Secondly, let deuterium or tritium be substituted for hydrogen in the chemical formation of boron-hydrides or other macromelecular fuel. Thence fusion of clusters of (DTμ-) by thermal muons may ignite whole macromelecules. Energy release could be great. For instance, the large icosahedron (B/sub 12/H/sub 12/)/sup -2/, with D-T substitutions for H--at least in places--may release on the order of 300 MeV energy. A single muon (costing about 5 GeV)catalyzing the fusion of 100 of these macromolecules could, in principle, release about 30 GeV energy. Thirdly, it may be possible to reaccelerate muons back up to relativistic energies before they decay (to electrons, neutrions, antineutrinos). If so, then by relativity theory, their decay clocks should be reset, that is, their lifetime re-established. This should be significantly cheaper in energy than producing new pions which decay to muons. This step alone may be sufficient to yield net power from muon catalysts

  20. Quasi-isochronous muon collection channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankenbrandt, Charles M. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-04-26

    Intense muon beams have many potential commercial and scientific applications, ranging from low-energy investigations of the basic properties of matter using spin resonance to large energy-frontier muon colliders. However, muons originate from a tertiary process that produces a diffuse swarm. To make useful beams, the swarm must be rapidly captured and cooled before the muons decay. In this STTR project a promising new concept for the collection and cooling of muon beams to increase their intensity and reduce their emittances was investigated, namely, the use of a nearly isochronous helical cooling channel (HCC) to facilitate capture of the muons into RF bunches. The muon beam can then be cooled quickly and coalesced efficiently to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider, or could provide compressed muon beams for other applications. Optimal ways to integrate such a subsystem into the rest of a muon collection and cooling system, for collider and other applications, were developed by analysis and simulation. The application of quasi-isochronous helical cooling channels (QIHCC) for RF capture of muon beams was developed. Innovative design concepts for a channel incorporating straight solenoids, a matching section, and an HCC, including RF and absorber, were developed, and its subsystems were simulated. Additionally, a procedure that uses an HCC to combine bunches for a muon collider was invented and simulated. Difficult design aspects such as matching sections between subsystems and intensity-dependent effects were addressed. The bunch recombination procedure was developed into a complete design with 3-D simulations. Bright muon beams are needed for many commercial and scientific reasons. Potential commercial applications include low-dose radiography, muon catalyzed fusion, and the use of muon beams to screen cargo containers for homeland security. Scientific uses include low energy beams for rare process searches, muon spin resonance applications, muon beams for

  1. Basic poly(propylene glycols) as reference compounds for internal mass calibration in positive-ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jürgen H

    2017-12-01

    Basic poly(propylene glycols), commercially available under the trade name Jeffamine, are evaluated for their potential use as internal mass calibrants in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Due to their basic amino endgroups Jeffamines are expected to deliver [M+H] + ions in higher yields than neutral poly(propylene glycols) or poly(ethylene glycols). Aiming at accurate mass measurements and molecular formula determinations by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry, four Jeffamines (M-600, M-2005, D-400, D-230) were thus compared. As a result, Jeffamine M-2005 is introduced as a new mass calibrant for positive-ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry in the range of m/z 200-1200 and the reference mass list is provided. While Jeffamine M-2005 is compatible with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 2-[(2 E)-3-(4- tert-butylphenyl)-2-methylprop-2-enylidene]malonitrile matrix, its use in combination with 2-[(2 E)-3-(4- tert-butylphenyl)-2-methylprop-2-enylidene]malonitrile provides best results due to low laser fluence requirements. Applications to PEG 300, PEG 600, the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)-phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)-trifluorophosphate, and [60]fullerene demonstrate mass accuracies of 2-5 ppm.

  2. Internal energy effects on the solvation and reactivity of multiply charged biomolecules for electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. [Bovine ubiquitin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light-Wahl, K.J.; Winger, B.E.; Rockwood, A.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1992-06-01

    Mild (capillary) interface conditions which do not completely desolvate the ions of proteins in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) may be required to probe the higher order structures and weak associations. For the small protein bovine ubiquitin, two ion distributions (unsolvated ions and unresolved solvated ions) were observed. The resolvable solvation for leucine-enkephalin with methanol and water shows that the use of countercurrent N{sub 2} flow at the capillary affects the solvation observed. 2 figs. (DLC)

  3. Hyperfine field calculations: search for muon stopping sites in Fe3O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boekema, C.; Denison, A.B.; Cooke, D.W.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Muon Spin Rotation (μSR) results for magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) are analyzed and discussed. At room temperature, a μSR signal is observed due to the presence of an internal magnetic field (Bsub(int)) at the muon site. External transverse field measurements show that Bsub(int) is parallel to the magnetic spin direction, the direction in zero applied field. Calculations of the hyperfine field to pinpoint muon stopping sites in magnetite show that the local field contains supertransfer (covalent) and dipolar field contributions. The implanted muons appear to stop at sites structurally similar to those reported for hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ), where muon-oxygen bond formation was strongly indicated. (Auth.)

  4. One-sided muon tomography - A portable method for imaging critical infrastructure with a single muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniface, K.; Jonkmans, G.; Anghel, V.; Erlandson, A.; Thompson, M.; Livingstone, S.

    2014-01-01

    High-energy muons generated from cosmic-ray particle showers have been shown to exhibit properties ideal for imaging the interior of large structures. This paper explores the possibility of using a single portable muon detector in conjunction with image reconstruction methods used in nuclear medicine to reconstruct a 3D image of the interior of man-made large structures such as the Zero Energy Deuterium (ZED-2) research reactor at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). The ZED-2 reactor core and muon detector arrangement are modeled in GEANT4 and measurements of the resultant muon throughput and angular distribution at several angles of rotation around the reactor are generated. Statistical analysis is then performed on these measurements based on the well-defined flux and angular distribution of muons expected near the surface of the earth. The results of this analysis are shown to produce reconstructed images of the spatial distribution of nuclear fuel within the core for multiple fuel configurations. This “one-sided tomography” concept is a possible candidate for examining the internal structure of larger critical facilities, for example the Fukushima Daiichi power plant where the integrity of the containment infrastructure and the location of the reactor fuel is unknown. (author)

  5. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    The RPC muon detector and trigger are working very well, contributing positively to the high quality of CMS data. Most of 2011 has been used to improve the stability of our system and the monitoring tools used online and offline by the shifters and experts. The high-voltage working point is corrected, chamber-by-chamber, for pressure variation since July 2011. Corrections are applied at PVSS level during the stand-by mode (no collision) and are not changed until the next fill. The single detector calibration, HV scan, of February and the P-correction described before were very important steps towards fine-tuning the stability of the RPC performances. A very detailed analysis of the RPC performances is now ongoing and from preliminary results we observe an important improvements of the cluster size stability in time. The maximum oscillation of the cluster size run by run is now about 1%. At the same time we are not observing the same stability in the detection efficiency that shows an oscillation of about ...

  6. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2013-01-01

    The ambitious CSC upgrade programme during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) includes the installation of 67 new ME4/2 chambers, and replacement of the cathode electronics in ME1/1 to use flash ADCs and undo the 3:1 ganging of strips in the inner section that covers pseudorapidity 2.1–2.4. The ME1/1 project passed a follow-up (MPR) review on 14 June and is now proceeding rapidly. A programme to eliminate a tin-gold interface in the low voltage connectors in our 60 peripheral crates is well underway. Meanwhile, a combined muon system (CSC+DT+RPC) performance paper has been submitted to JINST and arXiv at the end of June. The ME4/2 chamber factory at Prevessin’s building 904 has produced 51 of the needed 67 chambers, and continues to turn out at least the anticipated one chamber per week. Cathode (CFEB) boards are now being recuperated from ME1/1 for use on the ME4/2 chambers. Installation of associated infrastructure including cooling, low-voltage and cabling are going well. High-voltage boards are ...

  7. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    The April Muon Barrel Workshop marked the boundary between DT maintenance work and preparation for the LHC run. The thrust of the DT group was then directed, on one side, towards system safety and reliability, and, on the other side, towards enlarging the pool of experts and shifters. Analysis of the 2008 CRAFT data has provided details on the performance and a first set of calibration constants. Improvements to the safety system (both DSS and DCS) have been made: flow-meters inserted in the cooling system provide on-line information; an interlock signal is available from the gas racks; electronics racks have thermostats and fire detection systems; power to the mini-crates is cut when DCS communication is lost. Water leak detection cables were installed on the wheels: they provide an early warning before the HV trips and help in localizing the leak. On April 28, a short circuit in an opto-receiver board recently installed and cabled in USC caused a minor rack fire. This was satisfactorily mastered by the DS...

  8. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    Jay Hauser

    2012-01-01

    The CSC muon system has run well thus far during the 2012 run, coping well with the ever-increasing luminosity. Periodic hard resets, currently issued every 30 minutes, have greatly decreased the frequency of SEU-related problems. Near the end of 2011 a significant readout data loss at high Level-1 trigger rates was uncovered; before the collisions in 2012 several firmware and software fixes were made to eliminate this problem, and diagnostics were added to quickly identify this problem related to trigger number (L1A) mismatches if it were to occur in the future. Online trigger and offline reconstructed timing of the CSC chambers has not changed in 2012, even at the nanosecond level, relative to the well-adjusted timing of 2011. Removal of CASTOR has nearly equalised the background rate between the two endcaps except for station –2, where a gap in the inner ring shielding is suspected. From 2011 to 2012 the number of chambers that were inoperable due to loss of low-voltage power has grown from 9...

  9. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedoya

    2011-01-01

    The DT system has behaved highly satisfactorily throughout the LHC 2010 data-taking period, with more than 99% of the system operational and very few downtime periods. This includes operation with heavy ions collisions in which the rate of muons was low and no impact was observed in the buffer occupancies. An unexpected out-of-time high occupancy was observed in the outermost chambers (MB4) and its origin is under investigation. During the winter technical shutdown many interventions took place with the main goal of optimising the system. One of the main improvements is in the slow control mechanism through the DTTF boards: the problem that was preventing us from monitoring the OptoRX modules properly has been fixed satisfactorily. Other main changes include the installation of a new VME PCI controller to minimise the downtime in case of crate power cycle and the reduction from 10 to the design 5 FEDs, that became possible thanks to the good agreement of the event size with our expectations during LHC operat...

  10. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2011-01-01

    The earliest collision data in 2011 already show that the CSC detector performance is very similar to that seen in 2010. That is discussed in the DPG write-up elsewhere in this Bulletin. This report focuses on a few operational developments, the ME1/1 electronics replacement project, and the preparations at CERN for building the fourth station of CSC chambers ME4/2. During the 2010 LHC run, the CSC detector ran smoothly for the most part and yielded muon triggers and data of excellent quality. Moreover, no major operational problems were found that needed to be fixed during the Extended Technical Stop. Several improvements to software and configuration were however made. One such improvement is the automation of recovery from chamber high-voltage trips. The algorithm, defined by chamber experts, uses the so-called "Expert System" to analyse the trip signals sent from DCS and, based on the frequency and the timing of the signals, respond appropriately. This will make the central DCS shifters...

  11. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle.

    The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

  12. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2012-01-01

      The CSC muon system has run well and very stably during the 2012 run. Problems with the delivery of low voltage to 10–15% of the ME1/1 chambers were mitigated in the trigger by triggering modes that make use of coincidences between stations 2, 3, and 4. Attention now focuses on the ambitious upgrade program in LS1. Simulation and reconstruction code has been prepared for the post-LS1 era, for which the CSC system will have a full set of 72 ME4/2 chambers installed, and the 3:1 ganging of strips in the inner section of ME1/1 (pseudorapidity 2.1–2.4) will be replaced by flash digitisation of each strip. Several improvements were made to the CSC system during the course of the year. Zero-suppression of the anode readout reduced 15% from the CSC data volume. The response to single-event upsets (SEUs) that cause downstream FED readout problems was improved in two ways: first, the FED monitoring software now detects FEDs that are stuck in a warning state and resets within about 4 ...

  13. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Document Server

    P. Paolucci

    2012-01-01

      Since the start of data-taking in 2012, the RPCs have been operating in a stable manner with average chamber efficiencies above 95%. At present, the number of missing electronic channels is 1.2%; the number of disconnected chambers is 9, while 34 chambers are in single-gap mode. All those numbers are stable since the 2011 run. So far in 2012 no luminosity has been lost due to RPCs. During the winter shutdown, link board protections have been installed everywhere and are working properly, which makes the system more robust than before. A new “gas resistance” measurement campaign showed a clear stability of this parameter, which is proportional to the gap resistivity. No differences with respect to 2011 were found. A new efficiency calculation method has been validated, where now only DT/CSC segments of high quality that are associated with a stand-alone muon track are used to reduce the effect of punch-through segments. With this method, the observed oscillations in the RPC e...

  14. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    RPC detector calibration, HV scan Thanks to the high LHC luminosity and to the corresponding high number of muons created in the first part of the 2011 the RPC community had, for the first time, the possibility to calibrate every single detector element (roll).The RPC steering committee provided the guidelines for both data-taking and data analysis and a dedicated task force worked from March to April on this specific issue. The main goal of the RPC calibration was to study the detector efficiency as a function of high-voltage working points, fit the obtained “plateau curve” with a sigmoid function and determine the “best” high-voltage working point of every single roll. On 18th and 19th March, we had eight runs at different voltages. On 27th March, the full analysis was completed, showing that 60% of the rolls had already a very good fit with an average efficiency greater than 93% in the plateau region. To improve the fit we decided to take three more runs (15th April...

  15. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2011-01-01

    The CSC system ran well during the June-November 2011 period as the luminosity climbed. After new firmware was loaded on 21st July onto the CSC readout boards, there have been very few synchronisation-lost “draining” errors. This has reduced the CSC contribution to CMS downtime from 1% to less than 0.2% since the change. A new issue has arisen in the data taken since 1st September with an apparent 4% efficiency loss for endcap muons. This may be a problem of lost data blocks when the front-end readout rate exceeds 70 kHz, and work to resolve the problem is foreseen during the upcoming Year-End Technical Stop. We also see evidence of SEUs: hard-to-explain occurrences that may corrupt data or stop data-taking but are always recoverable with a hard reset. Numerous “under-the-hood” improvements have been made or will be made soon. The procedure followed by the CSC DQM (Data Quality Monitoring) shift personnel has been changed to additionally check CSC Track Finder histog...

  16. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2012-01-01

      During the current Technical Stop many “under the hood” improvements to the CSC system are being implemented. The system is currently up and running well with cosmic rays, etc. as evidenced by DQM plots of recent cosmic ray runs, one of which is shown below (Figure 1). With the start of 2012, our new Operations Manager is Misha Ignatenko, assisted by Deputy Evaldas Juska. During 2011 data-taking after 1st September, a 4% efficiency loss for endcap muons was traced to a problem of lost data blocks due to DDC-DCC event number synchronisation when the front-end readout rate exceeds 70 kHz. The problem was easily reproduced with high rate and/or data acquisition backpressure, and two firmware fixes have been identified and implemented in the CSC readout electronics, and additional diagnostics have been added to quickly flag and quantify this type of error. Firmware to allow zero-suppression of anode data has been downloaded to the ALCT boards and promises to reduce the CSC data...

  17. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    2012-01-01

      Although the year 2012 is the third year without access to the chambers and the Front-End electronics, the fraction of good channels is still very high at 99.1% thanks also to the constant care provided by the on-site operation team. The downtime caused to CMS as a consequence of DT failures is to-date <2%. The intervention on the LV power supplies, which required a large number of CAEN modules (137 A3050, 13 A3100, and 3 MAO) to be removed from the detector, reworked and tested during this Year-End Technical Stop, can now, after a few months of stable operation of the LV, be declared to have solved once-and-for-all the persistent problem with the overheating LV Anderson connectors. Another piece of very good news is that measurements of the noise from single-hit rate outside the drift-time box as a function of the LHC luminosity show that the noise rate and distribution are consistent with expectations of the simulations in the Muon TDR, which have guided the detector design and constru...

  18. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2010-01-01

    For the last three months, the Muon Alignment group has focussed on providing a new, improved set of alignment constants for the end-of-year data reprocessing. These constants were delivered on time and approved by the CMS physics validation team on November 17. The new alignment incorporates several improvements over the previous one from March for nearly all sub-systems. Motivated by the loss of information from a hardware failure in May (an entire MAB was lost), the optical barrel alignment has moved from a modular, super-plane reconstruction, to a full, single loop calculation of the entire geometry for all DTs in stations 1, 2 and 3. This makes better use of the system redundancy, mitigating the effect of the information loss. Station 4 is factorised and added afterwards to make the system smaller (and therefore faster to run), and also because the MAB calibration at the MB4 zone is less precise. This new alignment procedure was tested at 0 T against photogrammetry resulting in precisions of the order...

  19. Using Muons to Image the Subsurface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, Nedra [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cashion, Avery Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cieslewski, Grzegorz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dorsey, Daniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foris, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Su, Jiann-Cherng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dreesen, Wendi [NSTec, Livermore, CA (United States); Green, J. Andrew [NSTec, Livermore, CA (United States); Schwellenbach, David [NSTec, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Muons are subatomic particles that can penetrate the earth 's crust several kilometers and may be useful for subsurface characterization . The absorption rate of muons depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity, making them beneficial for subsurface investigation . Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and the detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, muon tomography can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. This work consists of three parts to address the use of muons for subsurface characterization : 1) assess the use of muon scattering for estimating density differences of common rock types, 2 ) using muon flux to detect a void in rock, 3) measure muon direction by designing a new detector. Results from this project lay the groundwork for future directions in this field. Low-density objects can be detected by muons even when enclosed in high-density material like lead, and even small changes in density (e.g. changes due to fracturing of material) can be detected. Rock density has a linear relationship with muon scattering density per rock volume when this ratio is greater than 0.10 . Limitations on using muon scattering to assess density changes among common rock types have been identified. However, other analysis methods may show improved results for these relatively low density materials. Simulations show that muons can be used to image void space (e.g. tunnels) within rock but experimental results have been ambiguous. Improvements are suggested to improve imaging voids such as tunnels through rocks. Finally, a muon detector has been designed and tested to measure muon direction, which will improve signal-to-noise ratio and help address fundamental questions about the source of upgoing muons .

  20. Using Muons to Image the Subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonal, Nedra; Cashion, Avery Ted; Cieslewski, Grzegorz; Dorsey, Daniel J.; Foris, Adam; Miller, Timothy J.; Roberts, Barry L; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Dreesen, Wendi; Green, J. Andrew; Schwellenbach, David

    2016-01-01

    Muons are subatomic particles that can penetrate the earth 's crust several kilometers and may be useful for subsurface characterization . The absorption rate of muons depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity, making them beneficial for subsurface investigation . Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and the detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, muon tomography can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. This work consists of three parts to address the use of muons for subsurface characterization : 1) assess the use of muon scattering for estimating density differences of common rock types, 2 ) using muon flux to detect a void in rock, 3) measure muon direction by designing a new detector. Results from this project lay the groundwork for future directions in this field. Low-density objects can be detected by muons even when enclosed in high-density material like lead, and even small changes in density (e.g. changes due to fracturing of material) can be detected. Rock density has a linear relationship with muon scattering density per rock volume when this ratio is greater than 0.10 . Limitations on using muon scattering to assess density changes among common rock types have been identified. However, other analysis methods may show improved results for these relatively low density materials. Simulations show that muons can be used to image void space (e.g. tunnels) within rock but experimental results have been ambiguous. Improvements are suggested to improve imaging voids such as tunnels through rocks. Finally, a muon detector has been designed and tested to measure muon direction, which will improve signal-to-noise ratio and help address fundamental questions about the source of upgoing muons .

  1. Directional muon jet chamber for a muon collider (Groovy Chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.

    1996-10-01

    A directional jet drift chamber with PAD readout is proposed here which can select vertex originated muons within a given time window and eliminate those muons which primarily originate upstream, using only a PAD readout. Drift time provides the Z-coordinate, and the center of gravity of charge distribution provides the r-ψ coordinates. Directionality at the trigger level is obtained by the timing measurement from the PAD hits within a given time window. Because of the long drift time between the bunch crossings, a muon collider enables one to choose a drift distance in the drift chamber as long as 50 cm. This is an important factor in reducing cost of drift chambers which have to cover relatively large areas

  2. Muon-muon and other high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The first section looks at the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron, of lepton and photon-photon colliders for comparison. The second section discusses the physics considerations for the muon collider. The third section covers muon collider components. The fourth section is about the intersection region and detectors. In the fifth section, the authors discuss modifications to enhance the muon polarization's operating parameters with very small momentum spreads, operations at energies other than the maximum for which the machine is designed, and designs of machines for different maximum energies. The final section discusses a Research and Development plan aimed at the operation of a 0.5 TeV demonstration machine by the year 2010, and of the 4 TeV machine by the year 2020

  3. Director's Report on the Activity and Management of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) - (1 January 2013 - 31 December 2013) - Supplement: Ionizing Radiation Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, M.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Burns, D.T.; Kessler, C.; Picard, S.; Roger, P.; Courte, S.; Michotte, C.; Nonis, M.; Ratel, G.

    2014-03-01

    This BIPM Director's Report describes the activity of the BIPM. In order to carry out its mission of ensuring and promoting the global comparability of measurements, the BIPM operates laboratories in the fields of mass, time, electricity, ionizing radiation and chemistry. All of the laboratory work addresses one or more of the agreed objectives for the BIPM, which are: - To establish and maintain appropriate reference standards for use as the basis of a limited number of key international comparisons at the highest level. - To coordinate international comparisons of national measurement standards through the Consultative Committees of the CIPM; taking the role of coordinating laboratory for selected comparisons of the highest priority and undertaking the scientific work necessary to enable this to be done. - To provide selected calibrations for Member States. In this document some highlights of the work carried out during 2013 are presented. Extended reports of the work of each department are available at http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/directors_report/. This document comprises the Director's report with its supplement describing the work of the Ionizing Radiation Department (X- and γ-rays, Radionuclides, Thermometry)

  4. On the muon neutrino mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelov, N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Balestra, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale ' Amedeo Avogadro' , University of Torino, INFN, Sez. di Torino, Turin (Italy); Batusov, Yu. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)] (and others)

    2006-12-11

    During the runs of the PS 179 experiment at LEAR of CERN, we photographed an event of antiproton-Ne absorption, with a complete {pi}{sup +}->{mu}{sup +}->e{sup +} chain. From the vertex of the reaction a very slow energy {pi}{sup +} was emitted. The {pi}{sup +} decays into a {mu}{sup +} and subsequently the {mu}{sup +} decays into a positron. At the first decay vertex a muon neutrino was emitted and at the second decay vertex an electron neutrino and a muon antineutrino. Measuring the pion and muon tracks and applying the momentum and energy conservation and using a classical statistical interval estimator, we obtained an experimental upper limit for the muon neutrino mass: m{sub {nu}}<2.2 MeV at a 90% confidence level. A statistical analysis has been performed of the factors contributing to the square value of the neutrino mass, to deduce the possibility to reach experimentally the lowest muon neutrino mass limit from the {pi}->{mu}{nu} decays.

  5. Muon motion in titanium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, J. R.; Petzinger, K. G.; Kossler, W. J.; Schone, H. E.; Hitti, B. S.; Stronach, C. E.; Adu, N.; Lankford, W. F.; Reilly, J. J.; Seymour, E. F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Motional narrowing of the transverse-field muon spin rotation signal was observed in gamma-TiH(x) for x = 1.83, 1.97, and 1.99. An analysis of the data for TiH1.99 near room temperature indicates that the mechanism responsible for the motion of the muon out of the octahedral site is thermally activated diffusion with an attempt frequency comparable to the optical vibrations of the lattice. Monte Carlo calculations to simulate the effect of muon and proton motion upon the muon field-correlation time were used to interpret the motional narrowing in TiH1.97 near 500 K. The interpretation is dependent upon whether the Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound (BPP) theory or an independent spin-pair relaxation model is used to obtain the vacancy jump rate from proton NMR T1 measurements. Use of BPP theory shows that the field-correction time can be obtained if the rate of motion of the muon with respect to the rate of the motion for the protons is decreased. An independent spin-pair relaxation model indicates that the field-correlation time can be obtained if the rate of motion for the nearest-neighbor protons is decreased.

  6. Superconducting muon channel at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, K.; Koda, A.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Fujimori, H.; Makimura, S.; Higemoto, W.; Nakahara, K.; Ishida, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Nagamine, K.; Miyake, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The Muon Science Laboratory at the Materials and Life Science Facility is now under construction in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), where four types of muon channels are planned to be installed. A conventional superconducting muon channel will be installed at the first stage, which can extract surface (positive) muons and decay positive/negative muons up to 120 MeV/c, and the expected muon yield is a few 10 6 /s at 60 MeV/c (for both positive and negative). This channel will be used for various kinds of experiments like muon catalyzed fusion, μSR and nondestructive elements analysis. The present status of the superconducting muon channel is briefly reported.

  7. Quantification of captopril in urine through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid-capped gold nanoparticles as an internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Tsen; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Lin, Yang-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new internal standard method for the determination of the concentration of captopril (CAP) through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). This approach provided linearity for CAP over the concentration range 2.5-25 microM (R(2) = 0.987), with a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of 1.0 microM. The spot-to-spot variations in the concentration of CAP through SALDI-MS analyses performed in the absence and presence of the internal standard were 26% and 9%, respectively (15 measurements). This approach provides simplicity, accuracy, precision, and great reproducibility to the determination of the levels of CAP in human urine samples. Copyright 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of an internal standard 233U, 236U to improve the accuracy of isotopic uranium analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Application to isotope dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, C.; Hagemann, R.; Lucas, M.; Devillers, C.

    1982-01-01

    A method using a calibrated mixture of isotopes 233 U and 236 U has been developed in order to correct the isotopic fractionation which limits the accuracy of isotopic analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The 236/233 internal standard ratio is calibrated against the 235/238 ratios of uranium isotopic standards. To perform the analysis of the unknown sample, the latter is mixed with the internal standard, the differences between the true value and the observed values of the 236/233 ratio allows the determination of a correction factor, which is applied to the measured 235/238 ratio values. Since 1978, 235 U abundance measurements on series of samples have been performed, using this technique; data are obtained with an accuracy better than 0,05%. It is intended to apply this method for precise determination of 238/233 ratio in the case of uranium concentration measurements by isotope dilution [fr

  9. Guidance as to restrictions on exposures to time varying electromagnetic fields and the 1988 recommendations of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, J A

    1989-01-01

    Under a direction from the Health Ministers, NRPB is required to advise on the acceptability to the United Kingdom of standards recommended or proposed by certain international bodies relating to protection from both ionising radiations and non-ionising electromagnetic radiations. This document contains the Board's advice in response to guidelines recommended by the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee (INIRC) on limiting exposures to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 100 kHz to 300 GHz (Health Physics, 54, 115 (1988)). The Board's advice, however, extends over all frequencies up to 300 GHz. It has been prepared after considering advice from the Medical Research Council and responses to consultative documents published by the Board in 1982 and 1986. The Board's advice is intended to protect against the thermal effects of the absorption of electromagnetic energy and against the possibilities of electric shock and burn. It consists of a set of basic restrictions both on the average rate of...

  10. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  11. Recent Development of a point positive muon source at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Bakule, P.; Strasser, P.; Ishida, K.; Matsuzaki, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Makimura, S.; Nagamine, K.

    2004-01-01

    We report recent progress of slow muon beam line constructed at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility. The slow muons are muons which are re-accelerated from the one at thermal velocity. This beam is expected to have very small emittance compared with conventional muon beam, where muons are obtained from decays of pions at rest or on move. Especially, its smallness of energy spread will make it possible to apply μSR technique to the studies of thin films, multilayered systems, nanomaterials, and other objects of restricted dimensionality. Intense slow muon beams which can be realized at future neutrino factories will be a valuable tool for material science

  12. Lost Muon Study for the Muon G-2 Experiment at Fermilab*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crnkovic, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morse, W. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-19

    The Fermilab Muon g-2 Experiment has a goal of measuring the muon anomalous magnetic moment to a precision of 140 ppb - a fourfold improvement over the 540 ppb precision obtained by the BNL Muon g-2 Experiment. Some muons in the storage ring will interact with material and undergo bremsstrahlung, emitting radiation and loosing energy. These so called lost muons will curl in towards the center of the ring and be lost, but some of them will be detected by the calorimeters. A systematic error will arise if the lost muons have a different average spin phase than the stored muons. Algorithms are being developed to estimate the relative number of lost muons, so as to optimize the stored muon beam. This study presents initial testing of algorithms that can be used to estimate the lost muons by using either double or triple detection coincidences in the calorimeters.

  13. First trial of the muon acceleration for J-PARC muon g-2/EDM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, R.; Otani, M.; Fukao, Y.; Kawamura, N.; Mibe, T.; Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hasegawa, K.; Bae, S.; Kim, B.; Razuvaev, G.; Iinuma, H.; Ishida, K.; Saito, N.

    2017-07-01

    Muon acceleration is an important technique in exploring the new frontier of physics. A new measurement of the muon dipole moments is planned in J-PARC using the muon linear accelerator. The low-energy (LE) muon source using the thin metal foil target and beam diagnostic system were developed for the world’s first muon acceleration. Negative muonium ions from the thin metal foil target as the LE muon source was successfully observed. Also the beam profile of the LE positive muon was measured by the LE-dedicated beam profile monitor. The muon acceleration test using a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole linac (RFQ) is being prepared as the first step of the muon accelerator development. In this paper, the latest status of the first muon acceleration test is described.

  14. Muon Dipole Moment Experiments Interpretation and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, J L; Shadmi, Y; Feng, Jonathan L; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael

    2001-01-01

    We examine the prospects for discovering new physics through muon dipole moments. The current deviation in $g_{\\mu}-2$ may be due entirely to the muon's {\\em electric} dipole moment. We note that the precession frequency in the proposed BNL muon EDM experiment is also subject to a similar ambiguity, but this can be resolved by up-down asymmetry measurements. We then review the theoretical expectations for the muon's electric dipole moment in supersymmetric models.

  15. Muon-fluorine entanglement in fluoropolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, T; Pratt, F L; Blundell, S J; McKenzie, I; Assender, H E

    2009-08-26

    We present the results of muon spin relaxation measurements on the fluoropolymers polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(vinyl fluoride) (PVF). Entanglement between the muon spin and the spins of the fluorine nuclei in the polymers allows us to identify the different muon stopping states that occur in each of these materials and provides a method of probing the local environment of the muon and the dynamics of the polymer chains.

  16. Cascade of negative muons in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akylas, V.R.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of the evolution of a negative muon captured in an atom and the formalism of energy loss associated with the muonic atom. The principal goals are to calculate reliability the muon x-ray intensities, given the initial population of the muonic orbits, to invert the problem and deduce the initial distribution from the x-ray intensities, to provide a reasonably simple and convenient tool to correlate observations, and finally, to systematize some questions of theoretical interest. The early part of the history of the muon in matter, including the atomic capture and classical phase of the atomic cascade are reviewed. In the quantal treatment of the transition rates, both radiative and electron Auger transitions are considered. In general, multipolarities up to E3 and K, L, and M electronic shells are fully investigated. Multipole radiation is treated in the conventinal way and pesents no special problems. Magnetic type transitions between states with different principal quantum numbers are shown to be small. Auger electron ejection rates are more complicated and several approximations have been adopted. The basic results have been computed in terms of elemetary functions. In the Auger transitions we have shown that magnetic multipoles can be safety neglected. The relative sizes of the rates corresponding to different multipoles are systematically studied. A comparison of results is made with atomic photoelectric effect data and with the nuclear internal conversion coefficients. A general agreement is found, except around shell thresholds. The existing data of muonic x-ray intensities in iron and thallium are analyzed in a systematic way. It is found that for Fe the initial l-distribution is almost flat, whereas that for T1 is weighted towards the high l values, sharper than statistical. As a result of the investigations and in order to make our findings usable, a computer program has been developed. 36 references

  17. The CMS Muon System Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Ruiz-Del-Arbol, P

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of the muon system of CMS is performed using different techniques: photogrammetry measurements, optical alignment and alignment with tracks. For track-based alignment, several methods are employed, ranging from a hit and impact point (HIP) algorithm and a procedure exploiting chamber overlaps to a global fit method based on the Millepede approach. For start-up alignment as long as available integrated luminosity is still significantly limiting the size of the muon sample from collisions, cosmic muon and beam halo signatures play a very strong role. During the last commissioning runs in 2008 the first aligned geometries have been produced and validated with data. The CMS offline computing infrastructure has been used in order to perform improved reconstructions. We present the computational aspects related to the calculation of alignment constants at the CERN Analysis Facility (CAF), the production and population of databases and the validation and performance in the official reconstruction. Also...

  18. Radiative muon capture in calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.D.; Cox, C.R.; Dodson, G.W.; Eckhause, M.; Kane, J.R.; Pandey, M.S.; Rushton, A.M.; Siegel, R.T.; Welsh, R.E.

    1977-08-15

    The branching ratio relative to ordinary muon capture and the photon asymmetry relative to the muon-spin direction were measured for radiative muon capture in /sup 40/Ca. For approx. 1200 photon events, the partial branching ratio is R/sub k>/sub 57/MeV/ = (21.1 +- 1.4) x 10/sup -6/, and the asymmetry for k > 63.5 MeV is +0.90 +- 0.50. A fit of the photon spectrum to the theory of Rood, Yano, and Yano gives the value g/sub p//sup ..mu../ = (6.5 +- 1.6) g/sub A/ for the pseudoscalar-coupling constants. These results are in disagreement with earlier experiments.

  19. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-01-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10 8 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion

  20. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sakamoto, H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y. [Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10{sup 8} muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  1. Question of Lorentz invariance in muon decay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordmans, J.P.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Wilschut, H. W.; Timmermans, R. G. E.

    2014-01-01

    Possibilities to test the Lorentz invariance of the weak interaction in muon decay are considered. We derive the general Lorentz-violating muon-decay rate and discuss measurements of the directional and boost dependence of the Michel parameters and of the muon lifetime as function of absolute

  2. Miniature ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  3. The BESIII muon identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiawen; Qian Sen; Chen Jin; Du Zhizhen; Han Jifeng; Li Rubo; Liu Jichen; Liang Hao; Mao, Yajun; Ma Liehua; Wang Yifang; Xie Yigang; Xie Yuguang; Zhang Qingmin; Zhao Jianbing; Zhao, T.; Zhou, Yongzhao

    2010-01-01

    The muon identification system of BESIII experiment at the IHEP is described. The muon counter (MUC) is composed of resistive plate chambers (RPCs) working in self-quenching streamer mode with the gas mixture Ar/C 2 F 4 H 2 /C 4 H 10 =50/42/8. The design, the construction, the mass production and the quality control result of the detectors are described in detail. The paper also presents the performance of the bare RPCs and the superlayer modules with cosmic rays. Finally, the subsystems of MUC, including the RPC superlayer modules, the gas systems, the HV and LV system and the readout electronic system, are also presented.

  4. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, H.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A. [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC) - Université Paris 7. Paris (France); Carloganu, C.; Niess, V. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC) - Université Blaise Pascal. Clermont - Ferrand (France); Gibert, D. [Géosciences Rennes - Université de Rennes 1. Rennes (France); Marteau, J. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL) - Université de Lyon (UCBL). Lyon (France)

    2015-08-17

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  5. Kelvin spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2013-11-21

    A novel self-powered dual spray ionization source has been developed for applications in mass spectrometry. This new source does not use any power supply and produces both positive and negative ions simultaneously. The idea behind this ionization source comes from the Kelvin water dropper. The source employs one or two syringes, two pneumatic sprays operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-15 μL min(-1)) and gas pressures (0-150 psi), and two double layered metal screens for ion formation. A variable electrostatic potential from 0 to 4 kV can be produced depending on solvent and gas flow rates that allow gentle ionization of compounds. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, solvent acidity, position of spray and metal screens with respect to each other and distance between metal screens and the counter electrode. This ionization method has been successfully applied to solutions of peptides, proteins and non-covalent complexes. In comparison with ESI, the charge number of the most populated state is lower than that from ESI. It indicates that this is a softer ionization technique and it produces more protein ions with folded structures. The unique features of Kelvin spray ionization (KeSI) are that the method is self-powered and ionization occurs at very low potentials by providing very low internal energy to the ions. This advantage can be used for the ionization of very fragile molecules and investigation of non-covalent interactions.

  6. Studies of highly ionized atoms using internal conversion: 197Au, 57Fe; electric monopole transitions in 40Ca, 42Ca, and 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    By using heavy-ion reactions, highly ionized electronic states of atoms may be produced. The interaction between excited nuclear levels and the surrounding atomic electrons via internal conversion allows the nucleus to be used as a probe of the electronic structure of the highly ionized atoms. Studies of such atoms were undertaken for strongly internally converted nuclear levels in 197 Au and 57 Fe. The nuclear levels were Coulomb excited by using 16 O and 32 S beams. Simultaneous measurement of the lifetime of the 77-keV state of 197 Au in both neutral gold atoms and gold atoms with mean charge +10 resulted in a measured change in the internal conversion coefficient of Δalpha/alpha equals - 1.7 +- 3.0)10 -3 . This result is consistent with calculations using a Hartree-Fock--Slater program. Measurements of the electric monopole strengths for 0 + → 0 + transitions were undertaken to determine the amount of core-deformation in calcium nuclei. The E0 strengths for the decays of the 0 + states at 5.21 MeV in 40 C, 1.84 MeV in 42 Ca, and 1.88 MeV in 44 Ca were observed. The branching ratios for the subsequent E0 pair decays were measured by observing the coincident annihilation radiation from the e + member of the pair in coincidence with protons feeding the state in the cases of 42 Ca and 44 Ca, and by observing the actual coincident e + --e - pair together with protons feeding the state in the case of 40 Ca. The resulting E0 strengths (rho less than or equal to 0.06, rho = 0.34 +- 0.03, rho = 0.30 +- 0.10 for 40 Ca, 42 Ca, and 44 Ca respectively) agree with theoretical descriptions

  7. RF Accelerating Structure for the Muon Cooling Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.; Green, M.; Li, D.; Holtkamp, N.; Moretti, A.; Kirk, H. G.; Palmer, R. B.; Zhao, Y.; Summers, D.

    1999-01-01

    The ionization cooling of muons requires longitudinal acceleration of the muons after scattering in a hydrogen target. In order to maximize the accelerating voltage, they propose using linear accelerating structures with cells bounded by thin beryllium metal foils. this produces an on-axis field equivalent to the maximum surface field, whereas with beam-pipes the accelerating field is approximately half that of the peak surface field in the cavity. The muons interact only weakly with the thin foils. A π/2 interleaved cavity structure has been chosen, with alternate cells coupled together externally, and the two groups of cells fed in quadrature. At present they are considering an operating temperature of 77K to gain a factor of at least two in Q-value over room temperature. They will describe the design of the π/2 interleaved cavity structure, design of an alternative π-mode open structure, preliminary experimental results from a low-power test cavity, and plans for high-power testing

  8. Radiation testing of electronics for the CMS endcap muon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylsma, B.; Cady, D.; Celik, A.; Durkin, L. S.; Gilmore, J.; Haley, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Lakdawala, S.; Liu, J.; Matveev, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Wood, D.; Zawisza, I.

    2013-01-01

    The electronics used in the data readout and triggering system for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator at CERN are exposed to high radiation levels. This radiation can cause permanent damage to the electronic circuitry, as well as temporary effects such as data corruption induced by Single Event Upsets. Once the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) accelerator upgrades are completed it will have five times higher instantaneous luminosity than LHC, allowing for detection of rare physics processes, new particles and interactions. Tests have been performed to determine the effects of radiation on the electronic components to be used for the Endcap Muon electronics project currently being designed for installation in the CMS experiment in 2013. During these tests the digital components on the test boards were operating with active data readout while being irradiated with 55 MeV protons. In reactor tests, components were exposed to 30 years equivalent levels of neutron radiation expected at the HL-LHC. The highest total ionizing dose (TID) for the muon system is expected at the innermost portion of the CMS detector, with 8900 rad over 10 years. Our results show that Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components selected for the new electronics will operate reliably in the CMS radiation environment.

  9. Physics with a millimole of muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1998-03-01

    The eventual prospect of muon colliders reaching several TeV encourages us to consider the experimental opportunities presented by very copious stores of muons, approaching 10 21 per year. I summarize and comment upon some highlights of the Fermilab Workshop on Physics at the First Muon Collider and at the Front End of a Muon Collider. Topics include various varieties of μμ colliders, μp colliders, and applications of the intense neutrino beams that can be generated in muon storage rings

  10. Physics with a millimole of muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1998-01-01

    The eventual prospect of muon colliders reaching several TeV encourages us to consider the experimental opportunities presented by very copious stores of muons, approaching 10 21 per year. I summarize and comment upon some highlights of the Fermilab Workshop on Physics at the First Muon Collider and at the Front End of a Muon Collider. Topics include various varieties of μμ colliders, μp colliders, and applications of the intense neutrino beams that can be generated in muon storage rings. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  11. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryne, R. D.; Berg, J. S.; Kirk, H. G.; Palmer, R. B.; Stratkis, D.; Alexahin, Y.; Bross, A.; Gollwitzer, K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, M. A.; Yonehara, K.; Snopok, P.; Bogacz, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Delahaye, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  12. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ciodaro, T; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner , P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Petcu, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Phan, A; Piegaia, R; Pilkington, A; Pinder, A; Poddar, S; Polini, A; Pope, B G; Potter, C T; Primavera, M; Prokoshin, F; Ptacek, E; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Ramos Dos Santos Neves, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S H; Robinson, M; Rodriguez, D; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Romero, R; Roos, L; Ruiz Martinez, A; Ryabov, Y; Ryan, P; Saavedra, A; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saland, J; Salnikov, A; Salvatore, F; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santonico, R; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, O; Savu, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schäfer, U; Scharf, V L; Scheirich, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, K; Schroder, C; Schroer, N; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Sfyrla, A; Shamim, M; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shooltz, D; Sidoti, A; Silbert, O; Silverstein, S; Sinev, N; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sjoen, R; Sjölin, J; Slagle, K; Sloper, J E; Smith, B C; Soffer, A; Soloviev, I; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strauss, E A; Strom, D; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Taffard, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Taylor, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Thomson, M A; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Topfel, C; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Traynor, D; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Tripiana, M; Triplett, N; True, P; Tsiakiris, M; Tsuno, S; Tuggle, J; Ünel, G; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vallecorsa, S; Valsan, L; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Vaz Gil Lopes, L; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J C; Volpi, G; Vorwerk, V; Wagner, P; Wang, M; Warburton, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; White, M; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Winklmeier, F; Woods, K S; Wu, S-L; Wu, X; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Xella, S; Yakovlev, A; Yamazaki, Y; Yang, U; Yasu, Y; Yuan, L; Zaitsev, A; Zanello, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; zur Nedden, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. The information from TileCal's last segmentation layer can assist in muon tagging and it is being considered for a near future upgrade of the level-one trigger, mainly for rejecting triggers due to cavern background at the barrel region. A muon receiver for the TileCal muon signals is being designed in order to interface with the ATLAS level-one trigger. This paper addresses the preliminary studies concerning the muon discrimination capability for the muon receiver. Monte Carlo simulations for single muons from the interaction point were used to study the effectiveness of hadronic calorimeter information on muon detection.

  13. Cosmic muons, as messengers from the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I. M.; Rebel, H.

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating from the outer space into the Earth atmosphere, primary cosmic rays are producing secondary radiation by the collisions with the air target subsequently decaying in hadrons, pions, muons, electrons and photons, phenomenon called Extensive air Shower (EAS). The muons, considered as the “penetrating” component, survive the propagation to the Earth and even they are no direct messenger of the Universe, they reflect the features of the primary particles. The talk gives a description of the development of the extensive air showers generating the secondary particles, especially the muon component. Results of the muon flux and of the muon charge ratio, (the ratio between the positive and the negative muons), obtained in different laboratories and in WILLI experiment, are shown. At the end, the contribution of the muons measured in EAS to the investigation of the nature of the primary cosmic rays is emphasized in KASCADE and WILLI-EAS experiments

  14. The L0(muon) processor

    CERN Document Server

    Aslanides, Elie; Le Gac, R; Menouni, M; Potheau, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A Yu; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    1999-01-01

    99-008 In this note we review the Marseille implementation for the L0(muon) processor. We describe the data flow, hardware implementation, synchronization issue as well as our first ideas on debugging and monitoring procedure. We also present the performance of the proposed architecture with an estimate of its cost.

  15. The ALICE forward muon spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which requires excellent detector capabilities and high precision measurements. The AL-. ICE detector will allow to identify the quarkonium states through both the dielectron and the dimuon channels. For this purpose the apparatus is equipped with a transition radiation detector in its central part and with a forward muon ...

  16. Physicist makes muon chamber sing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    1. This Monitored Drift Tube detector, consisting of argon-CO2-filled aluminium tubes with a wire down the centre of each, will track muons in ATLAS; Tiecke used a single tube from one of these detectors to create the pipes in his organ.

  17. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, W.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Zhang, N.S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; von Egidy, T.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Wright, D.H.; Henderson, R.S.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Doyle, B.; Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Bertl, W.; Gorringe, T.P.; Robertson, B.C.

    1991-03-01

    The induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, g P , of the weak hadronic current can be determined from the measurement of the branching ratio of radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen. This rare process is being investigated in the TRIUMF RMC experiment which is now taking data. This paper describes the experiment and indicates the status of the data analysis. (Author) 8 refs., 7 figs

  18. NEUTRINO FACTORY BASED ON MUON-STORAGE-RINGS TO MUON COLLIDERS: PHYSICS AND FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSA, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Intense muon sources for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams (ν factory) represents very interesting possibilities. If successful, such efforts would significantly advance the state of muon technology and provides intermediate steps in technologies required for a future high energy muon collider complex. High intensity muon: production, capture, cooling, acceleration and multi-turn muon storage rings are some of the key technology issues that needs more studies and developments, and will briefly be discussed here. A muon collider requires basically the same number of muons as for the muon storage ring neutrino factory, but would require more cooling, and simultaneous capture of both ± μ. We present some physics possibilities, muon storage ring based neutrino facility concept, site specific examples including collaboration feasibility studies, and upgrades to a full collider

  19. Muon acceleration in a superconducting proton Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, Milorad; FermilabJohnson, Rolland P.; MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2005-01-01

    This note describes how a future Fermilab proton driver [1] based on TESLA superconducting linac modules can perform as both the source of protons to produce the muons and as the accelerator of the muons to be used for a neutrino factory or muon collider. Recent advances in muon cooling [2] have the promise of muon emittances that are compatible with the 1300 MHz accelerating structures that are the basis for the ILC design. In the design described here, H - ions are accelerated to 8 GeV in the superconducting Linac, then stripped, stored and bunched in a ring while the Linac cavities are rephased for muon acceleration. Then the protons are extracted from the ring to produce pions and muons which are cooled in a few hundred meters, accelerated to a few GeV and injected into the Linac at the β = 1 point for acceleration to add 7 GeV. By recirculating the muons in the constant frequency section of such a proton driver Linac, even higher energies can be achieved quickly so that losses from muon decay are minimized. By adding additional refrigeration and RF power, the repetition rate of the Linac can be increased to make large increases in the average flux of a neutrino factory and the average luminosity of a muon collider. driver linac to be able to accelerate muons, including the costs to produce and cool the muons, will be considerably less than the costs estimated in previous neutrino factory design studies. We also believe that such an approach can produce a much higher neutrino flux and, because of the necessity for effective muon cooling, also be on the path to an energy frontier muon collider

  20. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotcher, J.

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47π muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of ∼1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 ± 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections

  1. Analysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by chiral liquid chromatography/electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using [13C]-analog internal standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, Clementina; Lee, Seon Hwa; Blair, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) is thought to be mediated primarily by the cytochromes P450 (P450s) from the 2 family (2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 2J2). In contrast, P450s of the 4 family are primarily involved in omega oxidation of AA (4A11 and 4A22). The ability to determine enantioselective formation of the regioisomeric EETs is important in order to establish their potential biological activities and to asses which P450 isoforms are involved in their formation. It has been extremely difficult to analyze individual EET enantiomers in biological fluids because they are present in only trace amounts and they are extremely difficult to separate from each other. In addition, the deuterium-labeled internal standards that are commonly used for stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analyses have different LC retention times when compared with the corresponding protium forms. Therefore, quantification by LC/MS-based methodology can be compromised by differential suppression of ionization of the closely eluting isomers. We report the preparation of [13C20]-EET analog internal standards and the use of a validated high-sensitivity chiral LC/electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ECAPCI)-MS method for the trace analysis of endogenous EETs as their pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) ester derivatives. The assay was then used to show the exquisite enantioselectivity of P4502C19-, P4502D6-, P4501A1-, and P4501B1-mediated conversion of AA into EETs and to quantify the enantioselective formation of EETs produced by AA metabolism in a mouse epithelial hepatoma (Hepa) cell line. PMID:20972997

  2. Perspectives of a mid-rapidity dimuon program at the RHIC: a novel and compact muon telescope detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAR Collaboration; Ruan, L.; Lin, G.; Xu, Z.; Asselta, K.; Chen, H.F.; Christie, W.; Crawford, H.k.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Hallman, T.J.; Li, C.; Liu, J.; Llope, W.J.; Majka, R.; Nussbaum, T.; Scheblein, J.; Shao, M.; Soja, R.; Sun, Y.; Tang, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.

    2009-07-17

    We propose a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at mid-rapidity for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) and for the next generation of detectors at a possible electron-ion collider. We utilize large Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers with long readout strips (long-MRPC) in the detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam tests show the intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a long-MRPC are 60-70 ps and {approx} 1 cm, respectively. The performance of the prototype muon telescope detector at STAR indicates that muon identification at a transverse momentum of a few GeV/c can be achieved by combining information from track matching with the MTD, ionization energy loss in the Time Projection Chamber, and time-of-flight measurements. A primary muon over secondary muon ratio of better than 1/3 can be achieved. This provides a promising device for future quarkonium programs and primordial dilepton measurements at RHIC. Simulations of the muon efficiency, the signal-to-background ratio of J/{psi}, the separation of {Upsilon} 1S from 2S+3S states, and the electron-muon correlation from charm pair production in the RHIC environment are presented.

  3. Perspectives of a mid-rapidity dimuon program at the RHIC: a novel and compact muon telescope detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, L.; Lin, G.; Xu, Z.; Asselta, K.; Chen, H.F.; Christie, W.; Crawford, H.K.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Hallman, T.J.; Li, C.; Liu, J.; Llope, W.J.; Majka, R.; Nussbaum, T.; Scheblein, J.; Shao, M.; Soja, R.; Sun, Y.; Tang, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; STAR Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We propose a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at mid-rapidity for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) and for the next generation of detectors at a possible electron-ion collider. We utilize large Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers with long readout strips (long-MRPC) in the detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam tests show the intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a long-MRPC are 60-70 ps and ∼ 1 cm, respectively. The performance of the prototype muon telescope detector at STAR indicates that muon identification at a transverse momentum of a few GeV/c can be achieved by combining information from track matching with the MTD, ionization energy loss in the Time Projection Chamber, and time-of-flight measurements. A primary muon over secondary muon ratio of better than 1/3 can be achieved. This provides a promising device for future quarkonium programs and primordial dilepton measurements at RHIC. Simulations of the muon efficiency, the signal-to-background ratio of J/ψ, the separation of Υ 1S from 2S+3S states, and the electron-muon correlation from charm pair production in the RHIC environment are presented.

  4. The experimental program for high pressure gas filled radio frequency cavities for muon cooling channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemire, B.; Chung, M.; Hanlet, P. M.; Johnson, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Torun, Y.; Yonehara, K.

    2018-01-01

    An intense beam of muons is needed to provide a luminosity on the order of 1034 cm‑2s‑1 for a multi-TeV collider. Because muons produced by colliding a multi-MW proton beam with a target made of carbon or mercury have a large phase space, significant six dimensional cooling is required. Through ionization cooling—the only cooling method that works within the lifetime of the muon—and emittance exchange, the desired emittances for a Higgs Factory or higher energy collider are attainable. A cooling channel utilizing gas filled radio frequency cavities has been designed to deliver the requisite cool muon beam. Technology development of these RF cavities has progressed from breakdown studies, through beam tests, to dielectric loaded and reentrant cavity designs. The results of these experiments are summarized.

  5. Ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although a variety of solid-state and chemical methods for measuring radiation dose have been developed in recent decades and calorimetry can now provide an absolute standard of reference, ionization dosimetry retains its position as the most widely used, most convenient, and, in most situations, most accurate method of measuring either exposure or absorbed dose. The ionization chamber itself is the central element in this system of dosimetry. In this chapter the principles governing the construction and operation of ionization chambers of various types are examined. Since the ionization chambers now in general use are nearly all of commercial manufacture, the emphasis is on operating characteristics and interpretation of measurements rather than on details of construction, although some knowledge of the latter is often required when applying necessary corrections to the measured quantities. Examples are given of the construction of typical chambers designed for particular purposes, and the methods of calibrating them are discussed

  6. Collisional ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, M.

    1985-07-01

    In low density, thin plasmas (such as stellar coronae, interstellar medium, intracluster medium) the ionization process is governed by collision between electrons and ions in their ground state. In view of the recent improvements we thought an updating of ionization rates was really needed. The work is based on both experimental data and theoretical works and give separate estimates for the direct and autoionization rates

  7. JAEA-ASRC muon research at J-PARC MUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higemoto, W; Ito, T U; Ninomiya, K; Heffner, R H; Nishiyama, K [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Shimomura, K; Miyake, Y, E-mail: higemoto.wataru@jaea.go.j [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-04-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)-Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) has developed experimental equipment at the J-PARC MLF muon science facility (MUSE) for muon spin rotation/relaxation experiments. We have extracted part of the muon beam into a muon spectrometer constructed downstream from the Decay/Surface muon beam line. The current status of our project is discussed here.

  8. Experimental results in muon-catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    Overall, it may be possible to look back over the past decade of research and conclude that muon-catalyzed fusion yields have significantly exceeded expectations, leading to renewed speculation regarding applications. Concerning the muon catalysis cycling rate, it is concluded that reaction rates and the overall catalysis cycling rate deserve further exploration, and that the rates are sufficiently fast to permit many hundreds of fusions during the muon lifetime. Various ways in which muons may be lost from the catalysis cycle are then described and discussed, and good agreement is obtained between experimental alpha-muon sticking values at liquid density. These values lie below the theoretical expectation, an outstanding mystery in muon-catalyzed cold fusion. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the alpha-muon sticking probability and related mechanisms. It is also clear that sticking is the major bottleneck in the muon catalysis cycle. In connection with expected fusion yields, to produce power commercially using μcf alone would probably require an order-of-magnitude increase in the yield per muon, assuming advanced technology for muon production. (N.K.)

  9. Simulation of large acceptance LINAC for muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyadera, H.; Kurennoy, S.; Jason, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a recent need for muon accelerators not only for future Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders but also for other applications in industry and medical use. We carried out simulations on a large-acceptance muon linac with a new concept 'mixed buncher/acceleration'. The linac can accept pions/muons from a production target with large acceptance and accelerate muon without any beam cooling which makes the initial section of muon-linac system very compact. The linac has a high impact on Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider (NF/MC) scenario since the 300-m injector section can be replaced by the muon linac of only 10-m length. The current design of the linac consists of the following components: independent 805-MHz cavity structure with 6- or 8-cm-radius aperture window; injection of a broad range of pion/muon energies, 10-100 MeV, and acceleration to 150 - 200 MeV. Further acceleration of the muon beam are relatively easy since the beam is already bunched.

  10. Precise measurement of the positive muon lifetime at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomono, D; Nakamura, S N; Matsuda, Y; Iwasaki, M; Mason, G; Ishida, K; Matsuzaki, T; Watanabe, I; Sakamoto, S; Nagamine, K

    2003-01-01

    New method is adopted for the precise muon lifetime measurement at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility. About 10 10 data have already accumulated. Analysis, especially count loss correction, is now in progress

  11. Atmospheric muons reconstruction with Antares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melissas, M.

    2007-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector contains 900 photomultiplier tubes, dispatched on 12 lines, in order to detect Cerenkov light from muon induced by neutrino interactions in the the vicinity of the detector. Currently the first 5 lines have been deployed. A first task consists in studying the stability of the detector calibration, which is a necessary step to understand the detector response. Then we studied optical properties of water, for this we developed a reconstruction method dedicated to LED Beacon. The extracted parameters are compatible with earlier measurements. A quality criteria to reject badly reconstructed track has been developed based on the likelihood of the tracks fit versus point fit. This has been applied to real data and a preliminary analysis of atmospheric muons with a 5-lines detector is performed. (author)

  12. Fermilab Muon g-2 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorringe, Tim [Kentucky U.

    2017-12-22

    The Fermilab muon g-2 experiment will measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment $a_{\\mu}$ to 140 ppb – a four-fold improvement over the earlier Brookhaven experiment. The measurement of $a_{\\mu}$ is well known as a unique test of the standard model with broad sensitivity to new interactions, particles and phenomena. The goal of 140 ppb is commensurate with ongoing improvements in the SM prediction of the anomalous moment and addresses the longstanding 3.5$\\sigma$ discrepancy between the BNL result and the SM prediction. In this article I discuss the physics motivation and experimental technique for measuring $a_{\\mu}$, and the current status and the future work for the project.

  13. ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Y [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation, Tsukuba (Japan); Ball, B; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Gregory, J [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Beretta, M [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Boterenbrood, H; Jansweijer, P P M [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brandenburg, G W; Fries, T; Costa, J Guimaraes da; Harder, S; Huth, J [Harvard University, Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ceradini, F [INFN Roma Tre and Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Hazen, E [Boston University, Physics Department, Boston, MA (United States); Kirsch, L E [Brandeis University, Department of Physics, Waltham, MA (United States); Koenig, A C [Radboud University Nijmegen/Nikhef, Dept. of Exp. High Energy Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lanza, A [INFN Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Mikenberg, G [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics, Rehovot (Israel)], E-mail: brandenburg@physics.harvard.edu (and others)

    2008-09-15

    This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 {mu}m, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at p{sub T}= 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.

  14. ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Y; Beretta, M; Boterenbrood, H; Brandenburg, G W; Ceradini, F; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Fries, T; Gregory, J; Guimarães da Costa, J; Harder, S; Hazen, E; Huth, J; Jansweijer, P P M; Kirsch, L E; König, A C; Lanza, A; Mikenberg, G; Oliver, J; Posch, C; Richter, R; Riegler, W; Spiriti, E; Taylor, F E; Vermeulen, J; Wadsworth, B; Wijnen, T A M

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 microns, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at pT = 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.

  15. Muon detector for the COSINE-100 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihtiadi, H.; Adhikari, G.; Adhikari, P.; Barbosa de Souza, E.; Carlin, N.; Choi, S.; Choi, W. Q.; Djamal, M.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Ha, C.; Hahn, I. S.; Hubbard, A. J. F.; Jeon, E. J.; Jo, J. H.; Joo, H. W.; Kang, W.; Kang, W. G.; Kauer, M.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, N. Y.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Lim, K. E.; Lynch, W. A.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mouton, F.; Olsen, S. L.; Park, H. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, J. S.; Park, K. S.; Pettus, W.; Pierpoint, Z. P.; Ra, S.; Rogers, F. R.; Rott, C.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Thompson, W. G.; Yang, L.; Yong, S. H.

    2018-02-01

    The COSINE-100 dark matter search experiment has started taking physics data with the goal of performing an independent measurement of the annual modulation signal observed by DAMA/LIBRA. A muon detector was constructed by using plastic scintillator panels in the outermost layer of the shield surrounding the COSINE-100 detector. It detects cosmic ray muons in order to understand the impact of the muon annual modulation on dark matter analysis. Assembly and initial performance tests of each module have been performed at a ground laboratory. The installation of the detector in the Yangyang Underground Laboratory (Y2L) was completed in the summer of 2016. Using three months of data, the muon underground flux was measured to be 328 ± 1(stat.)± 10(syst.) muons/m2/day. In this report, the assembly of the muon detector and the results from the analysis are presented.

  16. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ciodaro, Thiago; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner, P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Petcu, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Phan, A; Piegaia, R; Pilkington, A; Pinder, A; Poddar, S; Polini, A; Pope, B G; Potter, C T; Primavera, M; Prokoshin, F; Ptacek, E; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Ramos Dos Santos Neves, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S H; Robinson, M; Rodriguez, D; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Romero, R; Roos, L; Ruiz Martinez, A; Ryabov, Y; Ryan, P; Saavedra, A; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saland, J; Salnikov, A; Salvatore, F; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santonico, R; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, O; Savu, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schäfer, U; Scharf, V L; Scheirich, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, K; Schroder, C; Schroer, N; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Sfyrla, A; Shamim, M; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shooltz, D; Sidoti, A; Silbert, O; Silverstein, S; Sinev, N; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sjoen, R; Sjölin, J; Slagle, K; Sloper, J E; Smith, B C; Soffer, A; Soloviev, I; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strauss, E A; Strom, D; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Taffard, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Taylor, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Thomson, M A; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Topfel, C; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Traynor, D; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Tripiana, M; Triplett, N; True, P; Tsiakiris, M; Tsuno, S; Tuggle, J; Ünel, G; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vallecorsa, S; Valsan, L; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Vaz Gil Lopes, L; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J C; Volpi, G; Vorwerk, V; Wagner, P; Wang, M; Warburton, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; White, M; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Winklmeier, F; Woods, K S; Wu, S-L; Wu, X; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Xella, S; Yakovlev, A; Yamazaki, Y; Yang, U; Yasu, Y; Yuan, L; Zaitsev, A; Zanello, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; zur Nedden, M

    2010-01-01

    The TileCal hadronic calorimeter provides a muon signal which can be used to assist in muon tagging at the ATLAS level-one trigger. Originally, the muon signal was conceived to be combined with the RPC trigger in order to reduce unforeseen high trigger rates due to cavern background. Nevertheless, the combined trigger cannot significantly deteriorate the muon detection performance at the barrel region. This paper presents preliminary studies concerning the impact in muon identification at the ATLAS level-one trigger, through the use of Monte Carlo simulations with single muons with 40 GeV/c momentum. Further, different trigger scenarios were proposed, together with an approach for matching both TileCal and RPC geometries.

  17. Particle production and survival in muon acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Because of the relative immunity of muons to synchrotron radiation, the idea of using them instead of electrons as probes in high-energy physics experiments has existed for some time, but applications were limited by the short muon lifetime. The production and survival of an adequate supply of low-emittance muons will determine the available luminosity in a high-energy physics collider. In this paper the production of pions by protons, their decay to muons and the survival of muons during acceleration are studied. Based on a combination of the various efficiencies, the number of protons needed at the pion source for every muon required in the final high-energy collider is estimated.

  18. Particle production and survival in muon acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Because of the relative immunity of muons to synchrotron radiation, the idea of using them instead of electrons as probes in high-energy physics experiments has existed for some time, but applications were limited by the short muon lifetime. The production and survival of an adequate supply of low-emittance muons will determine the available luminosity in a high-energy physics collider. In this paper the production of pions by protons, their decay to muons and the survival of muons during acceleration are studied. Based on a combination of the various efficiencies, the number of protons needed at the pion source for every muon required in the final high-energy collider is estimated

  19. Muon bundles from the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankiewicz P.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently the CERN ALICE experiment, in its dedicated cosmic ray run, observed muon bundles of very high multiplicities, thereby confirming similar findings from the LEP era at CERN (in the CosmoLEP project. Significant evidence for anisotropy of arrival directions of the observed high multiplicity muonic bundles is found. Estimated directionality suggests their possible extragalactic provenance. We argue that muonic bundles of highest multiplicity are produced by strangelets, hypothetical stable lumps of strange quark matter infiltrating our Universe.

  20. Muon bundles from the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankiewicz, P.; Rybczyński, M.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wilk, G.

    2018-02-01

    Recently the CERN ALICE experiment, in its dedicated cosmic ray run, observed muon bundles of very high multiplicities, thereby confirming similar findings from the LEP era at CERN (in the CosmoLEP project). Significant evidence for anisotropy of arrival directions of the observed high multiplicity muonic bundles is found. Estimated directionality suggests their possible extragalactic provenance. We argue that muonic bundles of highest multiplicity are produced by strangelets, hypothetical stable lumps of strange quark matter infiltrating our Universe.

  1. Muon decay channeling in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, A.; Patterson, B.D.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Wichert, Th.

    1984-01-01

    This experiment employs the channeling effect of the host lattice on the trajectories of decay positrons in order to determine the position of positive muons implanted into silicon crystals. Low-momentum ( 0 ). In order to achieve sufficient angular resolution, the Si wafer is bent to a spherical shape, thereby focussing a particular crystal axis to a point at the center of the MWPC (located 3.4 m from the wafer). (Auth.)

  2. Muon Intensity Increase by Wedge Absorbers for Low-E Muon Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab; Stratakis, D. [Fermilab; Bradley, J. [Fermilab

    2017-09-01

    Low energy muon experiments such as mu2e and g-2 have a limited energy spread acceptance. Following techniques developed in muon cooling studies and the MICE experiment, the number of muons within the desired energy spread can be increased by the matched use of wedge absorbers. More generally, the phase space of muon beams can be manipulated by absorbers in beam transport lines. Applications with simulation results are presented.

  3. Muon and cosmogenic neutron detection in Borexino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, G; Bonetti, S; Avanzini, M Buizza; Caccianiga, B; D'Angelo, D; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Chavarria, A; Galbiati, C; Carraro, C; Davini, S; Chepurnov, A; Derbin, A; Etenko, A; Feilitzsch, F von; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Gazzana, S

    2011-01-01

    Borexino, a liquid scintillator detector at LNGS, is designed for the detection of neutrinos and antineutrinos from the Sun, supernovae, nuclear reactors, and the Earth. The feeble nature of these signals requires a strong suppression of backgrounds below a few MeV. Very low intrinsic radiogenic contamination of all detector components needs to be accompanied by the efficient identification of muons and of muon-induced backgrounds. Muons produce unstable nuclei by spallation processes along their trajectory through the detector whose decays can mimic the expected signals; for isotopes with half-lives longer than a few seconds, the dead time induced by a muon-related veto becomes unacceptably long, unless its application can be restricted to a sub-volume along the muon track. Consequently, not only the identification of muons with very high efficiency but also a precise reconstruction of their tracks is of primary importance for the physics program of the experiment. The Borexino inner detector is surrounded by an outer water-Cherenkov detector that plays a fundamental role in accomplishing this task. The detector design principles and their implementation are described. The strategies adopted to identify muons are reviewed and their efficiency is evaluated. The overall muon veto efficiency is found to be 99.992 % or better. Ad-hoc track reconstruction algorithms developed are presented. Their performance is tested against muon events of known direction such as those from the CNGS neutrino beam, test tracks available from a dedicated External Muon Tracker and cosmic muons whose angular distribution reflects the local overburden profile. The achieved angular resolution is ∼ 3 0 -5 0 and the lateral resolution is ∼ 35-50 cm, depending on the impact parameter of the crossing muon. The methods implemented to efficiently tag cosmogenic neutrons are also presented.

  4. Materials science with muon spin rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    During this reporting period, the focus of activity in the Materials Science with Muon Spin Rotation (MSMSR) program was muon spin rotation studies of superconducting materials, in particular the high critical temperature and heavy-fermion materials. Apart from these studies, work was continued on the analysis of muon motion in metal hydrides. Results of these experiments are described in six papers included as appendices.

  5. Energy spectrum of muon in EAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Iyono, A.; Noda, C.; Masuda, M.; Yamamoto, I.; Wada, T.; Okei, K.; Tsuji, S.; Morita, T.; Okita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Liang, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Nakatsuka, T.; Ochi, N.

    2008-01-01

    The compact extensive air shower (EAS) array which consists of 8 scintillation counters, and the solid iron magnet spectrometer (the Okayama muon telescope) have been used to measure energy spectrum of muons in EAS from January 2004 in Okayama University. We compared the result of the muon energy spectrum tagged by EAS trigger signals with EAS simulations which agreed with higher energy hadronic interaction models such as QGSJET and SYBILL, and lower energy hadronic ones such as Hillas Splitting Algorithm, GHEISHA and UrQMD, in order to verify the influence of the hadronic interaction model upon properties of EAS particles, especially the energy spectrum of muons

  6. Magnets for Muon 6D Cooling Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc.; Flanagan, Gene [Muons, Inc.

    2014-09-10

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), an innovative technique for six-dimensional (6D) cooling of muon beams using a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. The implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires high field superconducting magnets that provide superimposed solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole fields. Novel magnet design concepts are required to provide HCC magnet systems with the desired fields for 6D muon beam cooling. New designs feature simple coil configurations that produce these complex fields with the required characteristics, where new high field conductor materials are particularly advantageous. The object of the program was to develop designs and construction methods for HCC magnets and design a magnet system for a 6D muon beam cooling channel. If successful the program would develop the magnet technologies needed to create bright muon beams for many applications ranging from scientific accelerators and storage rings to beams to study material properties and new sources of energy. Examples of these applications include energy frontier muon colliders, Higgs and neutrino factories, stopping muon beams for studies of rare fundamental interactions and muon catalyzed fusion, and muon sources for cargo screening for homeland security.

  7. J-PARC muon source, MUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y. [Muon Science Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Muon section, Materials and Life Science Division, J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: Yasuhiro.miyake@kek.jp; Nishiyama, K.; Kawamura, N.; Strasser, P.; Makimura, S.; Koda, A.; Shimomura, K.; Fujimori, H.; Nakahara, K.; Kadono, R.; Kato, M.; Takeshita, S. [Muon Science Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Muon section, Materials and Life Science Division, J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Higemoto, W. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ishida, K.; Matsuzaki, T.; Matsuda, Y. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nagamine, K. [Muon Science Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2009-02-21

    The muon science facility (MUSE), together with the neutron, hadron, and neutrino facilities, is one of the experimental areas of the J-PARC project, which was approved for construction in a period from 2001 to 2008. The MUSE facility is located in the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF) built for both neutron and muon sciences. Construction of the MLF building began in the beginning of 2004, and was completed in the end of the 2006 fiscal year. We have been working on the installation of the decay/surface muon beam line, expecting first muon beam in the Autumn of 2008.

  8. Engineering issues in muon-catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Negative muons (elementary particles having a mean life of 2.2 microseconds) have been used to induce nuclear fusion reactions of the type: μ- + d + t → 4 He + n + μ-. Behaving like a very heavy electron, a muon forms a tightly bound deuteron-triton-muon (dtμ) molecule. Fusion then ensues, typically in picoseconds, as the nuclei tunnel through the Coulomb repulsive barrier. Up to 160 fusions per muon (average) have been observed in cold deuterium-tritium mixtures. Thus, the process may be called muon-catalyzed fusion, or ''cold'' fusion. The fusion energy thus released is twenty times the total energy of the muon driving the fusion reaction. However, the energy needed to produce the muon catalysts is currently much larger than the fusion energy released. In preparing for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments, a number of engineering challenges were encountered and successfully resolved. Similar challenges would be faced in a (hypothetical) cold fusion reactor. High-temperature plasmas and many associated difficulties are of course circumvented. However, the gaseous d-t fuel must be contained at elevated temperatures (about 400 0 C) and near-liquid density. (Experiments show that increasing either parameter enhances the fusion yield.) This translates into high gas pressures (about 10 8 Pa) and a new class of engineering challenges. Material strength and fabricability, hydrogen permeation and material embrittlement, tritium inventory and safety concerns, muon beam scattering and degradation, and reaction vessel geometries are among critical engineering considerations

  9. Muon catalyzed fusion under compressive conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cripps, G.; Goel, B.; Harms, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The viability of a symbiotic combination of Muon Catalyzed Fusion (μCF) and high density generation processes has been investigated. The muon catalyzed fusion reaction rates are formulated in the temperature and density range found under moderate compressive conditions. Simplified energy gain and power balance calculations indicate that significant energy gain occurs only if standard type deuterium-tritium (dt) fusion is ignited. A computer simulation of the hydrodynamics and fusion kinetics of a spherical deuterium-tritium pellet implosion including muons is performed. Using the muon catalyzed fusion reaction rates formulated and under ideal conditions, the pellet ignites (and thus has a significant energy gain) only if the initial muon concentration is approximately 10 17 cm -3 . The muons need to be delivered to the pellet within a very short-time (≅ 1 ns). The muon pulse required in order to make the high density and temperature muon catalyzed fusion scheme viable is beyond the present technology for muon production. (orig.) [de

  10. A high brilliance source for muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastaldi, Ugo

    2001-01-01

    A scheme of muon production for debugging and test of a muon collider is outlined. μ + and μ - microbunches are generated simultaneously, at high energy, with high brilliance and pointing to the same direction, by annihilation of e + and e - stored in two rings located in the same tunnel and running at the same energy E. e + and e - bunches cross each other repeatedly along the muon beam line, that they traverse respectively at angles ±α, chosen so that the total muon energy in the lab is E-m μ

  11. Study of muons associated with jets in proton-antiproton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David Austen [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Production of heavy quark flavors in proton-antiproton collisions with a centerof- mass energy of 1.8 X 1012 electron volts is studied for events containing hadronic jets with a nearby muon track, where both the jet and the muon are produced at large angles from the incident beams. The muon tracking system and pattern recognition are described. Detailed calculations of the muon background due to meson decay and hadron noninteractive punchthrough are presented, and other background sources are evaluated. Distributions of muon transverse momentum relative to the beam and to the jet axis agree with QCD expectations for semileptonic charm and beauty decay. Muon identification cuts and background subtraction leave 57.5 ± 17.1 muon-jet pairs, a rate consistent with the established production cross sections for charm and beauty quarks and the acceptance for minimum ionizing particles overlapping with nearby jets. A small dimuon sample clarifies the muon signature. No signatures of undiscovered phenomena are observed in this new energy domain. 111

  12. Drift time measurement in the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic muons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aad..[], G.; Dam, Mogens; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact...... on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.8% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of (0.29^{+0.05}_{-0.04})% in the barrel and (0...

  13. Generation of negative slow muon beam in J-PARC muon facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Naritoshi; Masuda, Tetsuya; Strasser, Patrick; Miyake, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The world strongest pulsed muon facility has been operated since 2008 in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). This facility utilizes 3-GeV proton to produce muon beam, and thus the negative pion and also negative muon yields are superior to the other meson factories in the world. We try to slow down these negative muons. Negative slow muon beam is desired to check the standard model and search a new physical rule, as well as various applications in material science.

  14. Precise muon lifetime measurement at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility and prospects at a high intense muon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomono, D.; Nakamura, S.N.; Matsuda, Y.; Iwasaki, M.; Mason, G.; Ishida, K.; Matsuzaki, T.; Watanabe, I.; Sakamoto, S.; Nagamine, K.

    2003-01-01

    Fermi coupling constant (G F ) which is one of the most important parameter in the Standard Model, can be determined by measuring the positive muon lifetime (τ μ + ). However, its accuracy has not been improved for 15 years. We proposed a new method at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility, called 'multi-decay per one time window' in order to realize a higher event rate with a multi-segmented detector to reduce the pile-up effect. We accumulated ∼10 10 muon decay events and the analysis is in progress to achieve 10 ppm accuracy. The exponential decay law was tested for the muon decay at the same time and the preliminary upper-limit was obtained. Future lifetime measurement with the high intense muon source is also discussed

  15. Local magnetism in palladium bionanomaterials probed by muon spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Neil J; Mikheenko, Iryna P; Johnson, Clive; Cottrell, Stephen P; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2011-05-01

    Palladium bionanomaterial was manufactured using the sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricansm, to reduce soluble Pd(II) ions to cell-bound Pd(0) in the presence of hydrogen. The biomaterial was examined using a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) to measure bulk magnetisation and by Muon Spin Rotation Spectroscopy (µSR) which is uniquely able to probe the local magnetic environment inside the sample. Results showed behaviour attributable to interaction of muons both with palladium electrons and the nuclei of hydrogen trapped in the particles during manufacture. Electronic magnetism, also suggested by SQUID, is not characteristic of bulk palladium and is consistent with the presence of nanoparticles previously seen in electron micrographs. We show the first use of μSR as a tool to probe the internal magnetic environment of a biologically-derived nanocatalyst material. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  16. A plastic scintillator-based muon tomography system with an integrated muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghel, V.; Armitage, J.; Baig, F.; Boniface, K.; Boudjemline, K.; Bueno, J.; Charles, E.; Drouin, P-L.; Erlandson, A.; Gallant, G.; Gazit, R.; Godin, D.; Golovko, V.V.; Howard, C.; Hydomako, R.

    2015-01-01

    A muon scattering tomography system which uses extruded plastic scintillator bars for muon tracking and a dedicated muon spectrometer that measures scattering through steel slabs has been constructed and successfully tested. The atmospheric muon detection efficiency is measured to be 97% per plane on average and the average intrinsic hit resolution is 2.5 mm. In addition to creating a variety of three-dimensional images of objects of interest, a quantitative study has been carried out to investigate the impact of including muon momentum measurements when attempting to detect high-density, high-Z material. As expected, the addition of momentum information improves the performance of the system. For a fixed data-taking time of 60 s and a fixed false positive fraction, the probability to detect a target increases when momentum information is used. This is the first demonstration of the use of muon momentum information from dedicated spectrometer measurements in muon scattering tomography

  17. Assessment of exposure to MRI motion-induced fields based on the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberti, Luca; Bottauscio, Oriano; Chiampi, Mario

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to conduct an exposure assessment for workers moving through the stray stationary field of common MRI scanners, performed according to the recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines, which aim at avoiding annoying sensory effects. The analysis was performed through numerical simulations, using a high-resolution anatomical model that moved along realistic trajectories in proximity to a tubular and open MRI scanner. Both dosimetric indexes indicated by ICNIRP (maximum variation of the magnetic flux density vector and exposure index for the motion-induced electric field) were computed for three statures of the human model. A total of 51 exposure situations were analyzed. None of them exceeded the limit for the maximum variation of the magnetic flux density, whereas some critical cases were found when computing the induced electric field. In the latter case, the exposure indexes computed via Fourier transform and through an equivalent filter result to be consistent. The results suggest the adoption of some simple precautionary rules, useful when sensory effects experienced by an operator could reflect upon the patient's safety. Moreover, some open issues regarding the quantification of motion-induced fields are highlighted, putting in evidence the need for clarification at standardization level. Magn Reson Med 76:1291-1300, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Minimum exposure limits and measured relationships between the vitamin D, erythema and international commission on non-ionizing radiation protection solar ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio; Butler, Harry; Turner, Joanna; Wainwright, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has established guidelines for exposure to ultraviolet radiation in outdoor occupational settings. Spectrally weighted ICNIRP ultraviolet exposures received by the skin or eye in an 8 h period are limited to 30 J m(-2). In this study, the time required to reach the ICNIRP exposure limit was measured daily in 10 min intervals upon a horizontal plane at a subtropical Australian latitude over a full year and compared with the effective Vitamin D dose received to one-quarter of the available skin surface area for all six Fitzpatrick skin types. The comparison of measured solar ultraviolet exposures for the full range of sky conditions in the 2009 measurement period, including a major September continental dust event, show a clear relationship between the weighted ICNIRP and the effective vitamin D dose. Our results show that the horizontal plane ICNIRP ultraviolet exposure may be used under these conditions to provide minimum guidelines for the healthy moderation of vitamin D, scalable to each of the six Fitzpatrick skin types. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. Investigation of the relative abundance of heavy versus light nuclei in primary cosmic rays using underground muon bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaralingam, N.

    1993-01-01

    We study multiple muon events (muon bundles) recorded underground at a depth of 2090 mwe. To penetrate to this depth, the muons must have energies above 0.8 TeV at the Earth's surface; the primary cosmic ray nuclei which give rise to the observed muon bundles have energies at incidence upon the upper atmosphere of 10 to 10 5 TeV. The events are detected using the Soudan 2 experiment's fine grained tracking calorimeter which is surrounded by a 14 m x10 m x 31 m proportional tube array (the ''active shield''). Muon bundles which have at least one muon traversing the calorimeter, are reconstructed using tracks in the calorimeter together with hit patterns in the proportional tube shield. All ionization pulses are required to be coincident within 3 microseconds. A goal of this study is to investigate the relative nuclear abundances in the primary cosmic radiation around the ''knee'' region (10 3 - 10 4 TeV) of the incident energy spectrum. Four models for the nuclear composition of cosmic rays are considered: The Linsley model, the Constant Mass Composition model (CMC), the Maryland model and the Proton-poor model. A Monte Carlo which incorporates one model at a time is used to simulate events which are then reconstructed using the same computer algorithms that are used for the data. Identical cuts and selections are applied to the data and to the simulated events

  20. The future IKO-PION-MUON-facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudsmit, P.F.A.; Arnold, H.; Dantzig, R. van; Konijn, J.

    1975-09-01

    Information is given on the pion and muon physics facility planned at the Institute for Nuclear Physics Research (IKO) with special notice of the fluxes of pions and muons expected at this facility, as well as on the structure of these secondary beams

  1. The ATLAS Muon and Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Asta, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    [Muon] The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filter (EF) for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. Trigger-specific algorithms were developed and are used for the L2 to increase processing speed for instance by making use of look-up tables and simpler algorithms, while the EF muon triggers mostly benefit from offline reconstruction software to obtain most precise determination of the track parameters. There are two algorithms with different approaches, namely inside-out and outside-in...

  2. ACCELERATION FOR A HIGH ENERGY MUON COLLIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S

    2000-04-07

    The authors describe a method for designing the acceleration systems for a muon collider, with particular application and examples for a high energy muon collider. This paper primarily concentrates on design considerations coming from longitudinal motion, but some transverse issues are briefly discussed.

  3. ATLAS detector records its first curved muon

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The barrel muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector has acquired its first cosmic event in a magnetic field produced by the barrel toroid magnet. This was an important test of the chambers in their final configurations, and marked the first triggering and measurement of curved cosmic ray muons in ATLAS.

  4. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kedar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  5. Muon studies of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recent muon spin relaxation (μSR) studies have been particularly effective in revealing important properties of the unusual magnetism and superconductivity found in heavy fermion (HF) systems. In this paper μSR experiments elucidating the symmetry of superconducting order parameter in UPt 3 and UBe 13 doped with thorium and reviewed. Also discussed is the correlation between the enhanced superconducting specific heat jump and the reduced Kondo temperature in B-doped UBe 13 , indicating possible direct experimental evidence for a magnetic pairing mechanism in HF superconductors. 23 refs., 3 figs

  6. The OPAL muon barrel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, R.J.; Allison, J.; Ashton, P.; Bahan, G.A.; Baines, J.T.M.; Banks, J.N.; Barlow, R.J.; Barnett, S.; Beeston, C.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Clowes, S.G.; Davies, O.W.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Hinde, P.S.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Lafferty, G.D.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McGowan, R.F.; Moss, M.W.; Murphy, P.G.; Nijjhar, B.; O'Dowd, A.J.P.; Pawley, S.J.; Phillips, P.D.; Richards, G.E.; Skillman, A.; Stephens, K.; Tresillian, N.J.; Wood, N.C.; Wyatt, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    The barrel part of the OPAL muon detector consists of 110 drift chambers forming four layers outside the hadron absorber. Each chamber covers an area of 1.2 m by up to 10.4 m and has two cells with wires parallel to the beam and a drift distance of 297 mm. A detailed description of the design, construction, operation and performance of the sub-detector is given. The system has been operating successfully since the start of LEP in 1989. ((orig.))

  7. Muon detection studied by pulse-height energy analysis: Novel converter arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlid, Leif; Olafsson, Sveinn

    2015-08-01

    Muons are conventionally measured by a plastic scintillator-photomultiplier detector. Muons from processes in ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) are detected here by a novel type of converter in front of a photomultiplier. The muon detection yield can be increased relative to that observed with a plastic scintillator by at least a factor of 100, using a converter of metal, semiconductor (Ge), or glass for interaction with the muons penetrating through the metal housing of the detector. This detection process is due to transient formation of excited nuclei by the well-known process of muon capture, giving beta decay. The main experimental results shown here are in the form of beta electron energy spectra detected directly by the photomultiplier. Events which give a high-energy tail in the energy spectra are probably due to gamma photons from the muons. Sharp and intense x-ray peaks from a muonic aluminium converter or housing material are observed. The detection conversion in glass and Ge converters has a time constant of the order of many minutes to reach the final conversion level, while the process in metal converters is stabilized faster. The time constants are not due to lifetimes of the excited nuclei or neutrons but are due to internal charging in the insulating converter material. Interaction of this charging with the high voltage in the photomultiplier is observed.

  8. Ionization by nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    A phenomenological description of ionization events is given that applies to both shaking transitions of the composite nucleus-atom system and the process in which the charged particles emitted in a nuclear decay transfer energy by a relatively slow ''direct collision'' final state interaction with atomic electrons. Specific areas covered include shakeoff in internal conversion, shakeoff in electron capture, shakeoff in beta decay, and inner electron ejection in alpha decay. (5 figs., 1 table)

  9. Can 250+ fusions per muon be achieved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes can be induced by negative muons (μ) in reactions such as: μ - + d + t → α + n + μ - . This reaction is analagous to the nuclear fusion reaction achieved in stars in which hydrogen isotopes (such as deuterium, d, and tritium, t) at very high temperatures first penetrate the Coulomb repulsive barrier and then fuse together to produce an alpha particle (α) and a neutron (n), releasing energy. The muon in general reappears after inducing fusion so that the reaction can be repeated many (N) times. Thus, the muon may serve as an effective catalyst for nuclear fusion. Muon-catalozed fusion is unique in that it proceeds rapidly in deuterium-tritium mixtures at relatively cold temperatures, e.g., room temperature. The need for plasma temperatures to initiate fusion is overcome by the presence of the muon

  10. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Denver Wade [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.; Mufson, S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Astronomy Dept.; Howard, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a physically-motivated model. Both models find tT = 1:52 ms for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the “early” light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value 0.3 found by dark matter and double b-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  11. Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Inclusive Charged Current Cross Section on Iron using the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiacono, Laura Jean [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) produces an intense muon neutrino beam used by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), a neutrino oscillation experiment, and the Main INjector ExpeRiment v-A, (MINERv A), a neutrino interaction experiment. Absolute neutrino cross sections are determined via σv = N vv , where the numerator is the measured number of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Detector and the denominator is the flux of incident neutrinos. Many past neutrino experiments have measured relative cross sections due to a lack of precise measurements of the incident neutrino flux, normalizing to better established reaction processes, such as quasielastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. But recent measurements of neutrino interactions on nuclear targets have brought to light questions about our understanding of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. In this thesis the vμ inclusive charged current cross section on iron is measured using the MINOS Detector. The MINOS detector consists of alternating planes of steel and scintillator. The MINOS detector is optimized to measure muons produced in charged current vμ interactions. Along with muons, these interactions produce hadronic showers. The neutrino energy is measured from the total energy the particles deposit in the detector. The incident neutrino flux is measured using the muons produced alongside the neutrinos in meson decay. Three ionization chamber monitors located in the downstream portion of the NuMI beamline are used to measure the muon flux and thereby infer the neutrino flux by relation to the underlying pion and kaon meson flux. This thesis describes the muon flux instrumentation in the NuMI beam, its operation over the two year duration of this measurement, and the techniques used to derive the neutrino flux.

  12. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, F.; Medina-Tanco, G.A.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, M.E.; Nahmad-Achar, E.; Valdes Galicia, J.F.; Sandoval, A.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, M.A.; Vergara Limon, S.; Villasenor, L.M.

    Muon telescopes can have several applications, ranging from astrophysical to solar-terrestrial interaction studies, and fundamental particle physics. We show the design parameters, characterization and end-to-end simulations of a detector composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fix depths ranging from 0.30 m to 3 m. Each layer is 4 m2 and is composed by 50 rectangular pixels of 4cm x 2 m, oriented at a 90 deg angle with respect to its companion layer. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips with two Bicron wavelength shifting fibers mounted on machined grooves. Scintillation light is collected by multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels, accommodating two fibers per pixel. The front-end electronics has a time resolution of 7.5 nsec. Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2 micro-seconds data collection window. All data, including signal and background, are saved to hard disk. Separation of extensive air shower signals from secondary cosmic-ray background muons and electrons is done offline using the GPS-tagged threefold coincidence signal from surface water cerenkov detectors located nearby in a triangular array. Cosmic-ray showers above 6 PeV are selected. The data acquisition system is designed to keep both, background and signals from extensive air showers for a detailed offline data.

  13. Muon implantation of metallocenes: ferrocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasooriya, Upali A; Grinter, Roger; Hubbard, Penny L; Aston, Georgina M; Stride, John A; Hopkins, Gareth A; Camus, Laure; Reid, Ivan D; Cottrell, Stephen P; Cox, Stephen F J

    2007-01-01

    Muon Spin Relaxation and Avoided Level Crossing (ALC) measurements of ferrocene are reported. The main features observed are five high field resonances in the ALC spectrum at about 3.26, 2.44, 2.04, 1.19 and 1.17 T, for the low-temperature phase at 18 K. The high-temperature phase at 295 K shows that only the last feature shifted down to about 0.49 T and a muon spin relaxation peak at about 0.106 T which approaches zero field when reaching the phase transition temperature of 164 K. A model involving three muoniated radicals, two with muonium addition to the cyclopentadienyl ring and the other to the metal atom, is postulated to rationalise these observations. A theoretical treatment involving spin-orbit coupling is found to be required to understand the Fe-Mu adduct, where an interesting interplay between the ferrocene ring dynamics and the spin-orbit coupling of the unpaired electron is shown to be important. The limiting temperature above which the full effect of spin-orbit interaction is observable in the muSR spectra of ferrocene was estimated to be 584 K. Correlation time for the ring rotation dynamics of the Fe-Mu radical at this temperature is 3.2 ps. Estimated electron g values and the changes in zero-field splittings for this temperature range are also reported.

  14. Muon spin rotation research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Data from cyclotron experiments and room temperature studies of dilute iron alloys and iron crystals under strain were analyzed. The Fe(Mo) data indicate that the effect upon the contact hyperfine field in Fe due to the introduction of Mo is considerably less than that expected from pure dilution, and the muon (+) are attracted to the Mo impurity sites. There is a significant change in the interstitial magnetic field with Nb concentration. The Fe(Ti) data, for which precession could clearly be observed early only at 468K and above, show that the Ti impurities are attractive to muon (+), and the magnitude of B(hf) is reduced far beyond the amount expected from pure dilution. Changes in the intersitital magnetic field with the introduction of Cr, W, Ge, and Si are also discussed. When strained to the elastic limit, the interstitial magnetic field in Fe crystals is reduced by 33 gauss, and the relaxation rate of the precession signal increases by 47%.

  15. Physicist makes muon chamber sing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    This Monitored Drift Tube detector, consisting of argon-CO2-filled aluminium tubes with a wire down the centre of each, will track muons in ATLAS; Tiecke used a single tube from one of these detectors to create the pipes in his organ. Particle physicists can make good musicians; but did you know particle detectors can make good music? That's what NIKHEF physicist Henk Tiecke learned when he used pipes cut from the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube detector (MDT) to build his own working Dutch-style barrel organ in the autumn of 2005. 'I like to work with my hands,' said Tiecke, who worked as a senior physicist at NIKHEF, Amsterdam, on ZEUS until his retirement last summer. Tiecke had already constructed his barrel organ when he visited some colleagues in the ATLAS muon chambers production area at Nikhef in 2005. He noticed that the aluminium tubes they were using to build the chambers were about three centimetres in diameter-just the right size for a pipe in a barrel organ. 'The sound is not as nice as from wooden...

  16. High Rate Proton Irradiation of 15mm Muon Drifttubes

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00295941

    2012-01-01

    Future LHC luminosity upgrades will significantly increase the amount of background hits from photons, neutrons and protons in the detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. At the proposed LHC peak luminosity of 5*10^34 1/cm^2s, background hit rates of more than 10 kHz/cm^2 are expected in the innermost forward region, leading to a loss of performance of the current tracking chambers. Based on the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube chambers, a new high rate capable drift tube detecor using tubes with a reduced diameter of 15mm was developed. To test the response to highly ionizing particles, a prototype chamber of 46 15mm drift tubes was irradiated with a 20 MeV proton beam at the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Munich. Three tubes in a planar layer were irradiated while all other tubes were used for reconstruction of cosmic muon tracks through irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the chamber. To determine the rate capability of the 15mm drift-tubes we investigated the effect of the proton hit ...

  17. Developing a cosmic ray muon sampling capability for muon tomography and monitoring applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Chrysikopoulou, S.; Tsoukalas, L.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a cosmic ray muon sampling capability using a phenomenological model that captures the main characteristics of the experimentally measured spectrum coupled with a set of statistical algorithms is developed. The “muon generator” produces muons with zenith angles in the range 0–90° and energies in the range 1–100 GeV and is suitable for Monte Carlo simulations with emphasis on muon tomographic and monitoring applications. The muon energy distribution is described by the Smith and Duller (1959) [35] phenomenological model. Statistical algorithms are then employed for generating random samples. The inverse transform provides a means to generate samples from the muon angular distribution, whereas the Acceptance–Rejection and Metropolis–Hastings algorithms are employed to provide the energy component. The predictions for muon energies 1–60 GeV and zenith angles 0–90° are validated with a series of actual spectrum measurements and with estimates from the software library CRY. The results confirm the validity of the phenomenological model and the applicability of the statistical algorithms to generate polyenergetic–polydirectional muons. The response of the algorithms and the impact of critical parameters on computation time and computed results were investigated. Final output from the proposed “muon generator” is a look-up table that contains the sampled muon angles and energies and can be easily integrated into Monte Carlo particle simulation codes such as Geant4 and MCNP.

  18. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-01-01

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  19. Muon reconstruction performance in ATLAS at Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Arthur; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS muon reconstruction performance in early 2015 data at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV is presented. The muon reconstruction and isolation efficiencies are measured using dimuon resonances ($Z\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ and $J\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$) as a function of the muon transverse momentum and pseudorapidity. The muon momentum corrections are also evaluated using the same dataset.

  20. Muon reconstruction performance in ATLAS at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Arthur; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS muon reconstruction performance in early 2015 data at $\\sqrt{s} = 13 \\mbox{ TeV}$ is presented. The muon reconstruction and isolation efficiencies are measured using dimuon resonances ($Z\\rightarrow\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ and $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$) as a function of the muon transverse momentum and pseudorapidity. The muon momentum corrections are also evaluated using the same dataset.

  1. J-PARC decay muon channel construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, P; Shimomura, K; Koda, A; Kawamura, N; Fujimori, H; Makimura, S; Kobayashi, Y; Nakahara, K; Kato, M; Takeshita, S; Kadono, R; Nishiyama, K; Miyake, Y; Hiraishi, M; Miyazaki, M; Higemoto, W; Ito, T U; Ninomiya, K; Ishida, K; Kubo, M K

    2010-01-01

    The new Muon Science Facility (MUSE) that is now under construction at J-PARC in the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF) building will comprise four types of muon channels. In the first stage, a conventional superconducting decay muon channel (D-Line) was constructed, which can extract surface (positive) muons with an expected muon yield of 10 7 /s and decay positive/negative muons up to 120 MeV/c, with an expected muon yield of a few 10 6 /s at 60 MeV/c for both positive and negative muons. This channel will be used for various kinds of muon experiments like μSR, muon catalyzed fusion and nondestructive elements analysis.

  2. Forward scattering effects on muon imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, H.; Gibert, D.; Goy, C.; Jourde, K.; Karyotakis, Y.; Katsanevas, S.; Marteau, J.; Rosas-Carbajal, M.; Tonazzo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Muon imaging is one of the most promising non-invasive techniques for density structure scanning, specially for large objects reaching the kilometre scale. It has already interesting applications in different fields like geophysics or nuclear safety and has been proposed for some others like engineering or archaeology. One of the approaches of this technique is based on the well-known radiography principle, by reconstructing the incident direction of the detected muons after crossing the studied objects. In this case, muons detected after a previous forward scattering on the object surface represent an irreducible background noise, leading to a bias on the measurement and consequently on the reconstruction of the object mean density. Therefore, a prior characterization of this effect represents valuable information to conveniently correct the obtained results. Although the muon scattering process has been already theoretically described, a general study of this process has been carried out based on Monte Carlo simulations, resulting in a versatile tool to evaluate this effect for different object geometries and compositions. As an example, these simulations have been used to evaluate the impact of forward scattered muons on two different applications of muon imaging: archaeology and volcanology, revealing a significant impact on the latter case. The general way in which all the tools used have been developed can allow to make equivalent studies in the future for other muon imaging applications following the same procedure.

  3. The first muon spin rotation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    The February 15, 1957 issue of Physical Review Letters shows the first muon precession curve resulting from the stopping of '85 MeV' muons in graphite, and the resulting counting rate in a gate of fixed delay, duration, and orientation, as a function of an applied vertical magnetic field. The purpose of the four-day experiment was to test the conservation of parity in the weak interactions. It involved the sudden recognition that existing muon beams would be polarized if parity were not conserved, together with the appreciation that the angular distribution of decay electrons from the population of stopped muons could be observed (much more reliably and sensitively) by the variation with time or current of the detections in a fixed counter telescope than by the measurement of the decay asymmetry of nominally fixed muon spins. This retrospective paper explains the context, the state of the art at the time, and what we expected as a consequence of this experiment. We went on to study more accurately the magnetic moment of the muon, its gyromagnetic ratio--g --and only to a small extent used μSR to investigate the environment of the muon in matter. Much of the paper treats the instrumentation of the time--especially that adopted in the early 1950s. The essential tools of nanosecond-range coincidence circuits and adiabatic light pipes for scintillation counters are discussed. The paper closes with some later work of the author and his colleagues--measurements of the magnetic moment of the muon and especially the CERN measurement of muon g-2. An expanded version of this presentation is posted at http://www.fas.org/RLG

  4. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer and of Muon Identification at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Woudstra, MJ; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The large cosmic data samples collected in fall 2009 by the ATLAS experiment have been used to study the performance of the Muon Spectrometer. Detailed studies of the basic Muon spectrometer performance in terms of sagitta resolution, tracking efficiency and momentum resolution are presented and provide an update with respect to the results recently published. The results are also compared with a cosmic data simulation recently improved with a more realistic drift chamber response. The recent collision data collected at a CM of 7 TeV have also been analyzed to determine basic Muon Spectrometer performance. The performance of the ATLAS muon identification was studied with 1 inverse nanobarn of LHC proton-proton collision data at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. Measured detector efficiencies, hit multiplicities, and residual distributions of reconstructed muon tracks are well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation. Exploiting the redundancy in the muon identification at detector and reconstruction level the...

  5. Production of high-energy muons in gamma showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanev, T.; Vankov, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    We have calculated the number of high-energy muons in gamma showers generated by photoproduction and by muon pair creation. The prompt muons have flatter energy spectrum than the muons, which come from photoproduction and contribute significant fraction of the total rates for Esub(μ)>=1 TeV. The total rate of high-energy muons in gamma showers is, however, very low. (orig.)

  6. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Miyadera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  7. Single muon physics with the MACRO detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The first supermodule (12 m x 12 m x 5 m) of the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory has been operating since the end of February 1989. About 245,000 muon triggers have been collected in the first three months of data taking in ∼1890 hours of live-time. In this paper we describe the detection features of MACRO as a muon and as a high energy muon neutrino telescope to search for high energy point sources of cosmic rays. A preliminary analysis of the collected data is presented. 10 refs., 6 figs

  8. Precision tracking at high background rates with the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Hertenberger, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Precision tracking at high background rates with the ATLAS muon spectrometer The ATLAS muon spectrometer performs to the specs of efficiency, occupancy and spatial resolution at present LHC peak-luminosities of $4 \\times 10^{33}$ $\\frac{1}{cm^2~s}$. Ten times higher peak-luminosities are envisaged after the LHC upgrade by end of this decade. Currently used tracking detectors in the most forward part of the muon spectrometer need to be replaced to cope with the expected huge background hit rates of up to 15~kHz/cm$^2$ to ensure muon trigger and precision reconstruction capabilities. Square meter sized micromegas or 15~mm diameter drift-tube detectors together with thin gap trigger detectors are under study as replacement. When exposed at our irradiation facility at the Garching Tandem accelerator laboratory, the track reconstruction efficiency and spatial resolution of 15~mm drift-tube detectors is robust against up to 20~kHz/cm$^2$ highly ionizing background hits. No signs of ageing were observed after accumu...

  9. Simulations of a Gas-Filled Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Yonehara, Katsuya; Bogacz, S A; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Johnson, Rolland P; Kaplan, Daniel; Paul, Kevin; Roberts, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A helical cooling channel (HCC) has been proposed to quickly reduce the six-dimensional phase space of muon beams for muon colliders, neutrino factories, and intense muon sources. The HCC is composed of a series of RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas that acts as the energy absorber for ionization cooling and suppresses RF breakdown in the cavities. Magnetic solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole coils outside of the RF cavities provide the focusing and dispersion needed for the emittance exchange for the beam as it follows a helical equilibrium orbit down the HCC. In the work presented here, two Monte Carlo programs have been developed to simulate a HCC to compare with the analytic predictions and to begin the process of optimizing practical designs that could be built in the near future. We discuss the programs, the comparisons with the analytical theory, and the prospects for a HCC design with the capability to reduce the six-dimensional phase space emittance of a muon beam by a factor o...

  10. Anatomy of a lava dome using muon radiography and electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenat, J.

    2011-12-01

    For the TOMUVOL Collaboration Previous works (e.g. Tanaka et al., 2008) have demonstrated the capacity of muon radiography techniques to image the internal structure of volcanoes. The method is based on the attenuation of the flux of high energy atmospheric muons through a volcanic edifice, which is measured by a muon telescope installed at some distance from the volcano. The telescope is composed of three parallel matrices of detectors in order to record the angle of incidence of the muons. The aperture of the telescope and its resolution are determined by the distance between the matrices, their surface and their segmentation. TOMUVOL is a project, involving astroparticle and particle physicists and volcanologists, aimed at developing muon tomography of volcanoes. The ultimate goal is to construct autonomous, portable, remote controlled muon telescopes to study and monitor active volcanoes. A first experiment has been carried out on a large, 11000-year-old, trachytic dome, the Puy de Dôme, located in the French Central Massif. The telescope system is derived from particle physics experiments. The sensors are glass resistive plate chambers. The telescope has two 1 m2 and one 1/6 m2 planes. It is located 2 km away from the summit of Puy de Dôme (elevation 1465 m), at 868 m in elevation, Signals have been accumulated during several months. A high resolution LiDAR digital terrain model has been used in computing a density model of the dome, averaged along the path of the muons through the dome. In parallel, an electrical resistivity section of the dome has been obtained using a long (2.2 km) line of electrodes. The internal structure of the dome is thus described with two physical parameters (density and resistivity). This allows us to analyse jointly the results of the two types of measurements. At the time of writing, a new muon radiography campaign is being carried out from a different viewpoint. This is the first step towards a tomographic image of the volcano

  11. Muon capture by helium-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual de Sanz, R.

    1966-01-01

    In this paper we study the capture of a negative muon by H e 3 in the channel μ-+H e 3 +V. Following Primakoff we use the V-A theory of the weak interactions. We include also first order relativistic terms. To describe the initial and final nuclei we have used the most general wave function allowed by the Paul is exclusion principle, assuming that these nuclei are a mixture of an isospin doublet and quadruplet. For the part of the wave function depending on the inter nucleonic distances, we have taken four different function without hard-core, a gaussian and three kinds of Irving type. We present in several tables the results obtained varying g p /g v and g A /g y as well as the amplitudes of the fourteen terms forming the nuclear wave function. (Author) 35 refs

  12. Alignment of the CMS Muon System with Cosmic-Ray and Beam-Halo Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Simonetto, F; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Triossi, A; Vanini, S; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Zumerle, G; Baesso, P; Berzano, U; Bricola, S; Necchi, M M; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Aisa, D; Aisa, S; Babucci, E; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Caponeri, B; Checcucci, B; Dinu, N; Fanò, L; Farnesini, L; Lariccia, P; Lucaroni, A; Mantovani, G; Nappi, A; Piluso, A; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Servoli, L; Tonoiu, D; Vedaee, A; Volpe, R; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Berretta, L; Boccali, T; Bocci, A; Borrello, L; Bosi, F; Calzolari, F; Castaldi, R; Dell'Orso, R; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Kraan, A; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Mariani, F; Martini, L; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Petrucciani, G; Raffaelli, F; Sarkar, S; Segneri, G; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Baccaro, S; Barone, L; Bartoloni, A; Cavallari, F; Dafinei, I; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Diemoz, M; Franci, D; Longo, E; Organtini, G; Palma, A; Pandolfi, F; Paramatti, R; Pellegrino, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Alampi, G; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Biino, C; Borgia, M A; Botta, C; Cartiglia, N; Castello, R; Cerminara, G; Costa, M; Dattola, D; Dellacasa, G; Demaria, N; Dughera, G; Dumitrache, F; Graziano, A; Mariotti, C; Marone, M; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Mila, G; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Nervo, M; Obertino, M M; Oggero, S; Panero, R; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Trapani, P P; Trocino, D; Vilela Pereira, A; Visca, L; Zampieri, A; Ambroglini, F; Belforte, S; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Gobbo, B; Penzo, A; Chang, S; Chung, J; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kong, D J; Park, H; Son, D C; Bahk, S Y; Song, S; Jung, S Y; Hong, B; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S K; Rhee, H B; Sim, K S; Kim, J; Choi, M; Hahn, G; Park, I C; Choi, S; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Jeong, H; Kim, T J; Lee, J; Lee, S; Janulis, M; Martisiute, D; Petrov, P; Sabonis, T; Castilla Valdez, H; Sánchez Hernández, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Morelos Pineda, A; Allfrey, P; Gray, R N C; Krofcheck, D; Bernardino Rodrigues, N; Butler, P H; Signal, T; Williams, J C; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Awan, M I M; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S; Shahzad, H; Cwiok, M; Dabrowski, R; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Pozniak, K; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Zabolotny, W; Zych, P; Frueboes, T; Gokieli, R; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Almeida, N; Antunes Pedro, L; Bargassa, P; David, A; Faccioli, P; Ferreira Parracho, P G; Freitas Ferreira, M; Gallinaro, M; Guerra Jordao, M; Martins, P; Mini, G; Musella, P; Pela, J; Raposo, L; Ribeiro, P Q; Sampaio, S; Seixas, J; Silva, J; Silva, P; Soares, D; Sousa, M; Varela, J; Wöhri, H K; Altsybeev, I; Belotelov, I; Bunin, P; Ershov, Y; Filozova, I; Finger, M; Finger, M., Jr.; Golunov, A; Golutvin, I; Gorbounov, N; Kalagin, V; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Korenkov, V; Kozlov, G; Kurenkov, A; Lanev, A; Makankin, A; Mitsyn, V V; Moisenz, P; Nikonov, E; Oleynik, D; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Petrosyan, A; Semenov, R; Shmatov, S; Smirnov, V; Smolin, D; Tikhonenko, E; Vasil'ev, S; Vishnevskiy, A; Volodko, A; Zarubin, A; Zhiltsov, V; Bondar, N; Chtchipounov, L; Denisov, A; Gavrikov, Y; Gavrilov, G; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kozlov, V; Levchenko, P; Obrant, G; Orishchin, E; Petrunin, A; Shcheglov, Y; Shchetkovskiy, A; Sknar, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Tarakanov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Velichko, G; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Anisimov, A; Antipov, P; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Matveev, V; Pashenkov, A; Postoev, V E; Solovey, A; Toropin, A; Troitsky, S; Baud, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Ilina, N; Kaftanov, V; Kolosov, V; Kossov, M; Krokhotin, A; Kuleshov, S; Oulianov, A; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Shreyber, I; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Petrushanko, S; Sarycheva, L; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Vardanyan, I; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Konovalova, N; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Akimenko, S; Artamonov, A; Azhgirey, I; Bitioukov, S; Burtovoy, V; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Levine, A; Lobov, I; Lukanin, V; Mel'nik, Y; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Slabospitsky, S; Sobol, A; Sytine, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Jovanovic, D; Krpic, D; Maletic, D; Puzovic, J; Smiljkovic, N; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Alberdi, J; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Arce, P; Barcala, J M; Battilana, C; Burgos Lazaro, C; Caballero Bejar, J; Calvo, E; Cardenas Montes, M; Cepeda, M; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Clemente, F; Colino, N; Daniel, M; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Diez Pardos, C; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; Garcia-Bonilla, A C; Gonzalez Lopez, O; Goy Lopez, S; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Marin, J; Merino, G; Molina, J; Molinero, A; Navarrete, J J; Oller, J C; Puerta Pelayo, J; Romero, L; Santaolalla, J; Villanueva Munoz, C; Willmott, C; Yuste, C; Albajar, C; Blanco Otano, M; de Trocóniz, J F; Garcia Raboso, A; Lopez Berengueres, J O; Cuevas, J; Fernandez Menendez, J; Gonzalez Caballero, I; Lloret Iglesias, L; Naves Sordo, H; Vizan Garcia, J M; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Chuang, S H; Diaz Merino, I; Diez Gonzalez, C; Duarte Campderros, J; Fernandez, M; Gomez, G; Gonzalez Sanchez, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Jorda, C; Lobelle Pardo, P; Lopez Virto, A; Marco, J; Marco, R; Martinez Rivero, C; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P; Matorras, F; Rodrigo, T; Ruiz Jimeno, A; Scodellaro, L; Sobron Sanudo, M; Vila, I; Vilar Cortabitarte, R; Abbaneo, D; Albert, E; Alidra, M; Ashby, S; Auffray, E; Baechler, J; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Bally, S L; Barney, D; Beaudette, F; Bellan, R; Benedetti, D; Benelli, G; Bernet, C; Bloch, P; Bolognesi, S; Bona, M; Bos, J; Bourgeois, N; Bourrel, T; Breuker, H; Bunkowski, K; Campi, D; Camporesi, T; Cano, E; Cattai, A; Chatelain, J P; Chauvey, M; Christiansen, T; Coarasa Perez, J A; Conde Garcia, A; Covarelli, R; Curé, B; De Roeck, A; Delachenal, V; Deyrail, D; Di Vincenzo, S; Dos Santos, S; Dupont, T; Edera, L M; Elliott-Peisert, A; Eppard, M; Favre, M; Frank, N; Funk, W; Gaddi, A; Gastal, M; Gateau, M; Gerwig, H; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Girod, J P; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R; Goudard, R; Gowdy, S; Guida, R; Guiducci, L; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Hartl, C; Harvey, J; Hegner, B; Hoffmann, H F; Holzner, A; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Le Godec, G; Lecoq, P; Leonidopoulos, C; Loos, R; Lourenço, C; Lyonnet, A; Macpherson, A; Magini, N; Maillefaud, J D; Maire, G; Mäki, T; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Meridiani, P; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Meynet Cordonnier, A; Moser, R; Mulders, M; Mulon, J; Noy, M; Oh, A; Olesen, G; Onnela, A; Orimoto, T; Orsini, L; Perez, E; Perinic, G; Pernot, J F; Petagna, P; Petiot, P; Petrilli, A; Pfeiffer, A; Pierini, M; Pimiä, M; Pintus, R; Pirollet, B; Postema, H; Racz, A; Ravat, S; Rew, S B; Rodrigues Antunes, J; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M; Ryjov, V; Sakulin, H; Samyn, D; Sauce, H; Schäfer, C; Schlatter, W D; Schröder, M; Schwick, C; Sciaba, A; Segoni, I; Sharma, A; Siegrist, N; Siegrist, P; Sinanis, N; Sobrier, T; Sphicas, P; Spiga, D; Spiropulu, M; Stöckli, F; Traczyk, P; Tropea, P; Troska, J; Tsirou, A; Veillet, L; Veres, G I; Voutilainen, M; Wertelaers, P; Zanetti, M; Bertl, W; Deiters, K; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; Ingram, Q; Kaestli, H C; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Langenegger, U; Meier, F; Renker, D; Rohe, T; Sibille, J; Starodumov, A; Betev, B; Caminada, L; Chen, Z; Cittolin, S; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D R; Dambach, S; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Eggel, C; Eugster, J; Faber, G; Freudenreich, K; Grab, C; Hervé, A; Hintz, W; Lecomte, P; Luckey, P D; Lustermann, W; Marchica, C; Milenovic, P; Moortgat, F; Nardulli, A; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pape, L; Pauss, F; Punz, T; Rizzi, A; Ronga, F J; Sala, L; Sanchez, A K; Sawley, M C; Sordini, V; Stieger, B; Tauscher, L; Thea, A; Theofilatos, K; Treille, D; Trüb, P; Weber, M; Wehrli, L; Weng, J; Zelepoukine, S; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; De Visscher, S; Regenfus, C; Robmann, P; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Tsirigkas, D; Wilke, L; Chang, Y H; Chen, E A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Kuo, C M; Li, S W; Lin, W; Bartalini, P; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y; Lei, Y J; Lin, S W; Lu, R S; Schümann, J; Shiu, J G; Tzeng, Y M; Ueno, K; Velikzhanin, Y; Wang, C C; Wang, M; Adiguzel, A; Ayhan, A; Azman Gokce, A; Bakirci, M N; Cerci, S; Dumanoglu, I; Eskut, E; Girgis, S; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Karaman, T; Kayis Topaksu, A; Kurt, P; Önengüt, G; Önengüt Gökbulut, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Polatöz, A; Sogut, K; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Uzun, D; Vergili, L N; Vergili, M; Akin, I V; Aliev, T; Bilmis, S; Deniz, M; Gamsizkan, H; Guler, A M; Öcalan, K; Serin, M; Sever, R; Surat, U E; Zeyrek, M; Deliomeroglu, M; Demir, D; Gülmez, E; Halu, A; Isildak, B; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Ozkorucuklu, S; Sonmez, N; Levchuk, L; Lukyanenko, S; Soroka, D; Zub, S; Bostock, F; Brooke, J J; Cheng, T L; Cussans, D; Frazier, R; Goldstein, J; Grant, N; Hansen, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hill, C; Huckvale, B; Jackson, J; Mackay, C K; Metson, S; Newbold, D M; Nirunpong, K; Smith, V J; Velthuis, J; Walton, R; Bell, K W; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Camanzi, B; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Geddes, N I; Harder, K; Harper, S; Kennedy, B W; Murray, P; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Tomalin, I R; Williams, J H; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Bainbridge, R; Ball, G; Ballin, J; Beuselinck, R; Buchmuller, O; Colling, D; Cripps, N; Davies, G; Della Negra, M; Foudas, C; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Hall, G; Hays, J; Iles, G; Karapostoli, G; MacEvoy, B C; Magnan, A M; Marrouche, J; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Papageorgiou, A; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rompotis, N; Rose, A; Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS muon system has been aligned using cosmic-ray muons collected in 2008 and beam-halo muons from the 2008 LHC circulating beam tests. After alignment, the resolution of the most sensitive coordinate is 80 microns for the relative positions of superlayers in the same barrel chamber and 270 microns for the relative positions ofendcap chambers in the same ring structure. The resolution on the position of the central barrel chambers relative to the tracker is comprised between two extreme estimates, 200 and 700 microns, provided by two complementary studies. With minor modifications, the alignment procedures can be applied using muons from LHC collisions, leading to additional significant improvements.

  13. Atmospheric muons and neutrinos, and the neutrino-induced muon flux underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion equation for neutrino-induced cosmic ray muons underground was solved. The neutrino-induced muon flux and charge ratio underground have been calculated. The calculated horizontal neutrino-induced muon flux in the energy range 0.1 - 10000 GeV is in agreement with the measured horizontal flux. The calculated vertical flux above 2 GeV is in agreement with the measured vertical flux. The average charge ratio of neutrino-induced muons underground was found to be mu+/mu- = 0.40.

  14. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.H.; Ahmad, S.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Bertl, W.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Zhang, N.S.; Henderson, R.; McDonald, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Robertson, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the Standard Model, the weak interaction is purely V-A in character. However in semileptonic reactions the strong force induces additional couplings. One of these, the induced pseudoscalar coupling g p , is still very poorly determined experimentally. Using PCAC and the Goldberger-Treiman relation, one can obtain the estimate g p /g a = 6.8 for the nucleon. At present, the world average of 5 measurements of the rate of ordinary muon capture (each with an error in excess of 40%) yields g p /g a = 6.9 ± 1.5. Radiative Muon Capture (RMC) is considerably more sensitive to the pseudoscalar coupling. Due to the extremely small branching ratio (∼ 6 x 10 -8 ), the elementary reaction μ - p→ μnγ has never been measured. Effort to date has concentrated on nuclear RMC where the branching ratio is much larger, but the interpretation of these results is hindered by nuclear structure uncertainties. A measurement is being carried out at TRIUMF to determine the rate of RMC on hydrogen to a precision of 8% leading to a determination of g p with an error of 10%. The detection system is based on a large-volume drift chamber acting as a pair spectrometer. The drift chamber covers a solid angle of about 2π. At a magnetic field of 2.4 kG the acceptance for 70 MeV photons is about 0.9% using a 1.2 mm thick Pb photon converter. The expected photon energy resolution is about 10% FWHM. A detailed discussion of the systematic errors expected in the experiment and the preliminary results on the performance of the detector will be presented

  15. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons with the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory, a network of smartphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; Bravo, S.; Karn, P.; Meehan, M.; Plewa, M.; Schultz, D.; Tosi, D.; BenZvi, S.; Jensen, K.; Peacock, J.; Ruggles, T.; Santander, M.; Simons, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. We describe the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), an app and associated public database that enables a network of consumer devices to detect cosmic rays and other ionizing radiation. In addition to terrestrial background radiation, cosmic-ray muon candidate events are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of candidate muon events detected by DECO to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a particular consumer smartphone model, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution is fit better by a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution than an isotropic distribution, demonstrating that DECO can detect and identify cosmic-ray muons despite a background of other particle detections. Using the cosmic-ray distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be 26.3 ± 1.4 μm. With additional data, the same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with a determination of the incident azimuthal angle directly from the track orientation in the sensor plane, this enables direction reconstruction of individual cosmic-ray events using a single consumer device. The results simultaneously validate the use of cell phone camera image sensors as cosmic-ray muon detectors and provide a measurement of a parameter of camera image sensor performance which is not otherwise publicly available

  16. Muon number nonconservation in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.P.; Li, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The question of separate conservation of muon and electron number is considered in the context of unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. Theories with heavy neutral leptons, Higgs scalars, and doubly charged heavy leptons are discussed. 28 references

  17. Cosmic Muon Detection for Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Oláh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable cosmic muon detector has been developed for environmental, geophysical, or industrial applications. The device is a tracking detector based on the Close Cathode Chamber, an MWPC-like technology, allowing operation in natural underground caves or artificial tunnels, far from laboratory conditions. The compact, low power consumption system with sensitive surface of 0.1 m2 measures the angular distribution of cosmic muons with a resolution of 10 mrad, allowing for a detailed mapping of the rock thickness above the muon detector. Demonstration of applicability of the muon telescope (REGARD Muontomograph for civil engineering and measurements in artificial underground tunnels or caverns are presented.

  18. Topcolor and the First Muon Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C.T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)][Chicago Univ., IL (United States)

    1998-04-01

    We describe a class of models of electroweak symmetry breaking that involve strong dynamics and top quark condensation. A new scheme based upon a seesaw mechanism appears particularly promising. Various implications for the first-stage muon collider are discussed.

  19. Experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Data will be presented from the first experimental determination of the total yield of the muon-catalyzed fusion reaction: μ - + d + t → μ - + 4 He + n + 17.6 MeV. In this reaction, an elementary particle known as the muon induces fusion without being affected by the nuclear reaction. Thus, it serves as a catalyst in the usual sense. The muon catalyzes many fusion reactions before decaying into an electron and neutrinos. The process is known as cold fusion since it proceeds rapidly for temperatures in the range from room temperature to about 800 0 C. An obvious advantage over thermal fusion approaches is that there is no plasma to contain. On the other hand, the muons which drive the reaction must be continually produced using a particle accelerator

  20. Theoretical survey of muon catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The main steps in the muon-catalyzed d-t fusion cycle are given in this report. Most of the stages are very fast, and therefore do not contribute significantly to the cycling time. Thus at liquid H 2 densities (/phi/ = 1 in the standard convention) the time for stopping the negative muon, its subsequent capture and deexcitation to the ground state is estimated to be /approximately/ 10/sup/minus/11/ sec. 1 The muon spends essentially all of its time in either the (dμ) ground state, waiting for transfer to a (tμ) ground state to occur, or in the (tμ) ground state, writing for molecular formation to occur. Following the formation of this ''mesomolecule'' (actually a muonic molecular ion), deexcitation and fusion are again fast. Then the muon is (usually) liberated to go around again. We will discuss these steps in some detail. 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-01-01

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy μ + μ - colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings (μSR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included

  2. On the ionization of interstellar magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    It has been shown that two concentric ionization zones of interstellar magnesium must exist around each star: internal, with a radius coinciding with that of the zone of hydrogen ionization Ssub(H); and external, with a radius greater than Ssub(H), by one order. Unlike interstellar hydrogen, interstellar magnesium is ionized throughout the Galaxy. It also transpires that the ionizing radiation of ordinary hot stars cannot provide for the observed high degree of ionization of interstellar magnesium. The discrepance can be eliminated by assuming the existence of circumstellar clouds or additional ionization sources of interstellar magnesium (X-ray background radiation, high-energy particles, etc.). Stars of the B5 and BO class play the main role in the formation of ionization zones of interstellar magnesium; the contribution of O class stars is negligible (<1%). (Auth.)

  3. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal Segura, F; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; De Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen ,.M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.A.; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Duran Yildiz, H; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Eerola, P.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V.S.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W.; Feligioni, L.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M.J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L R; Flowerdew, M.J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T; Forbush, D.A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J.M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E.J.; Gallas, M.V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B.J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Y.S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J E; Gardner, R.W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.C.; Gazis, E.N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C.N.P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M.H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S.M.; Gilbert, L.M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillman, A.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.P.; Giordano, R.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P.F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K.W.; Glonti, G.L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Göpfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gössling, C.; Göttfert, T.; Goggi, V.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.P.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L S; Gonçalo, R.; Gonella, L.; Gong, C.; González de la Hoz, S; Gonzalez Silva, M L; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J.J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P.A.; Gordon, H.A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorisek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goryachev, V.N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gough Eschrich, I; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M.P.; Goussiou, A.G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.J.; Granado Cardoso, L; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H.M.; Gray, J.A.; Graziani, E.; Green, B.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z.D.; Gregor, I.M.; Grenier, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A.A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grishkevich, Y.V.; Groer, L.S.; Grognuz, J.; Groh, M.; Groll, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grybel, K.; Guarino, V.J.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guillemin, T.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C.B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hackenburg, R.; Hadavand, H.K.; Hadley, D.R.; Haefner, P.; Härtel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, J.B.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, P.H.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G.A.; Harenberg, T.; Harrington, R.D.; Harris, O.M.; Harrison, K.; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hashemi, K.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Haug, F.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayward, H.S.; Haywood, S.J.; He, M.; Head, S.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Hemperek, T.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A M; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hensel, C.; Henss, T.; Hernández Jiménez, Y; Hershenhorn, A.D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N.P.; Hidvegi, A.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J.C.; Hiller, K.H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S.J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirsch, F.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M.C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holy, T.; Holzbauer, J.L.; Homma, Y.; Homola, P.; Horazdovsky, T.; Hori, T.; Horn, C.; Horner, S.; Horvat, S.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.A.; Hoummada, A.; Howe, T.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P.J.; Hsu, S.C.; Huang, G.S.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hughes, E.W.; Hughes, G.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Hurst, P.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilyushenka, Y.; Imori, M.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Irles Quiles, A; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Isobe, T.; Issakov, V.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Itoh, Y.; Ivashin, A.V.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J.M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J.N.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M.; Jahoda, M.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakubek, J.; Jana, D.; Jansen, E.; Jantsch, A.; Janus, M.; Jared, R.C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarron, P.; Jeanty, L.; Jen-La Plante, I; Jenni, P.; Jez, P.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez-Belenguer, M.; Jin, G.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, M.; Johansson, K.E.; Johansson, P.; Johnert, S.; Johns, K.A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Jones, T.W.; Jones, T.J.; Jonsson, O.; Joos, D.; Joram, C.; Jorge, P.M.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Kabachenko, V.V.; Kabana, S.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kaiser, S.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalinin, S.; Kalinovskaya, L.V.; Kalinowski, A.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kantserov, V.A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kaplon, J.; Karagounis, M.; Karagoz Unel, M; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A.N.; Kashif, L.; Kasmi, A.; Kass, R.D.; Kastanas, A.; Kastoryano, M.; Kataoka, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Katsoufis, E.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kayl, M.S.; Kayumov, F.; Kazanin, V.A.; Kazarinov, M.Y.; Kazi, S.I.; Keates, J.R.; Keeler, R.; Keener, P.T.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Kelly, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, M.; Kepka, O.; Kerschen, N.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Khakzad, M.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharchenko, D.; Khodinov, A.; Kholodenko, A.G.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khovanskiy, N.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kilvington, G.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.S.; Kim, P.C.; Kim, S.H.; Kind, O.; Kind, P.; King, B.T.; Kirk, J.; Kirsch, G.P.; Kirsch, L.E.; Kiryunin, A.E.; Kisielewska, D.; Kittelmann, T.; Kiyamura, H.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klemetti, M.; Klier, A.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E.B.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P.F.; Klous, S.; Kluge, E.E.; Kluge, T.; Kluit, P.; Klute, M.; Kluth, S.; Knecht, N.S.; Kneringer, E.; Ko, B.R.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koblitz, B.; Kocian, M.; Kocnar, A.; Kodys, P.; Köneke, K.; König, A.C.; Köpke, L.; Koetsveld, F.; Koevesarki, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kohn, F.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Kokott, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolesnikov, V.; Koletsou, I.; Koll, J.; Kollar, D.; Kolos, S.; Kolya, S.D.; Komar, A.A.; Komaragiri, J.R.; Kondo, T.; Kono, T.; Kononov, A.I.; Konoplich, R.; Konovalov, S.P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Koperny, S.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Koreshev, V.; Korn, A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E.V.; Korotkov, V.A.; Kortner, O.; Kostka, P.; Kostyukhin, V.V.; Kotamäki, M.J.; Kotov, S.; Kotov, V.M.; Kotov, K.Y.; Koupilova, Z.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, H.; Kowalski, T.Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A.S.; Kral, V.; Kramarenko, V.A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasny, M.W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kreisel, A.; Krejci, F.; Krepouri, A.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krieger, P.; Krobath, G.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Krumshteyn, Z.V.; Kubota, T.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kuhn, D.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kummer, C.; Kuna, M.; Kunkle, J.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurata, M.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Kurochkin, Y.A.; Kus, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Kvasnicka, O.; Kwee, R.; La Rotonda, L; Labarga, L.; Labbe, J.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V.R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lamanna, M.; Lampen, C.L.; Lampl, W.; Lancon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lane, J.L.; Lankford, A.J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lanza, A.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J.F.; Lari, T.; Larionov, A.V.; Larner, A.; Lasseur, C.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavrijsen, W.; Laycock, P.; Lazarev, A.B.; Lazzaro, A.; Le Dortz, O; Le Guirriec, E; Le Maner, C; Le Menedeu, E; Le Vine, M; Leahu, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebel, C.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, H.; Lee, J.S.H.; Lee, S.C.; Lefebvre, M.; Legendre, M.; LeGeyt, B.C.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehmacher, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lellouch, J.; Leltchouk, M.; Lendermann, V.; Leney, K.J.C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzen, G.; Lenzi, B.; Leonhardt, K.; Leroy, C.; Lessard, J.R.; Lester, C.G.; Leung Fook Cheong, A; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L.J.; Levitski, M.S.; Levonian, S.; Lewandowska, M.; Leyton, M.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Liang, Z.; Liang, Z.; Liberti, B.; Lichard, P.; Lichtnecker, M.; Lie, K.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lilley, J.N.; Lim, H.; Limosani, A.; Limper, M.; Lin, S.C.; Lindsay, S.W.; Linhart, V.; Linnemann, J.T.; Liolios, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lipinsky, L.; Lipniacka, A.; Liss, T.M.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Litke, A.M.; Liu, C.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.B.; Liu, M.; Liu, S.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Lleres, A.; Lloyd, S.L.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W.S.; Lockwitz, S.; Loddenkoetter, T.; Loebinger, F.K.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C.W.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Loken, J.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D; Losada, M.; Loscutoff, P.; Losty, M.J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Loureiro, K.F.; Lovas, L.; Love, J.; Love, P.; Lowe, A.J.; Lu, F.; Lu, J.; Lubatti, H.J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, D.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Luehring, F.; Luisa, L.; Lumb, D.; Luminari, L.; Lund, E.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Lundberg, J.; Lundquist, J.; Lutz, G.; Lynn, D.; Lys, J.; Lytken, E.; Ma, H.; Ma, L.L.; Macana Goia, J A; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Macek, B.; Machado Miguens, J; Mackeprang, R.; Madaras, R.J.; Mader, W.F.; Maenner, R.; Maeno, T.; Mättig, P.; Mättig, S.; Magalhaes Martins, P J; Magradze, E.; Magrath, C.A.; Mahalalel, Y.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahmood, A.; Mahout, G.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makouski, M.; Makovec, N.; Malecki, Pa; Malecki, P.; Maleev, V.P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V.; Malyukov, S.; Mambelli, M.; Mameghani, R.; Mamuzic, J.; Manabe, A.; Mandelli, L.; Mandic, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Mangeard, P.S.; Manjavidze, I.D.; Manning, P.M.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mapelli, A.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchand, J.F.; Marchese, F.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marino, C.P.; Marques, C.N.; Marroquim, F.; Marshall, R.; Marshall, Z.; Martens, F.K.; Marti i.Garcia,.S.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, B.; Martin, B.; Martin, F.F.; Martin, J.P.; Martin, T.A.; Martin dit Latour, B; Martinez, M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V; Martini, A.; Martyniuk, A.C.; Maruyama, T.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A.L.; Massaro, G.; Massol, N.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Mathes, M.; Matricon, P.; Matsunaga, H.; Matsushita, T.; Mattravers, C.; Maxfield, S.J.; May, E.N.; Mayne, A.; Mazini, R.; Mazur, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Mazzanti, P.; Mc Donald, J; Mc Kee, S P; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R.L.; McCubbin, N.A.; McFarlane, K.W.; McGlone, H.; Mchedlidze, G.; McLaren, R.A.; McMahon, S.J.; McMahon, T.R.; McPherson, R.A.; Meade, A.; Mechnich, J.; Mechtel, M.; Medinnis, M.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Meguro, T.M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meirose, B.; Melachrinos, C.; Melamed-Katz, A.; Mellado Garcia, B R; Meng, Z.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Merkl, D.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F.S.; Messina, A.M.; Messmer, I.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A.S.; Meyer, J.P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, T.C.; Meyer, W.T.; Miao, J.; Michal, S.; Micu, L.; Middleton, R.P.; Migas, S.; Mijovic, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikuz, M.; Miller, D.W.; Mills, W.J.; Mills, C.M.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D.A.; Minaenko, A.A.; Miñano, M.; Minashvili, I.A.; Mincer, A.I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L.M.; Mirabelli, G.; Misawa, S.; Miscetti, S.; Misiejuk, A.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V.A.; Miyagawa, P.S.; Mjörnmark, J.U.; Mladenov, D.; Moa, T.; Moed, S.; Moeller, V.; Mönig, K.; Möser, N.; Mohn, B.; Mohr, W.; Mohrdieck-Möck, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Molina-Perez, J.; Moloney, G.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montesano, S.; Monticelli, F.; Moore, R.W.; Mora Herrera, C; Moraes, A.; Morais, A.; Morel, J.; Morello, G.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llácer, M; Morettini, P.; Morii, M.; Morley, A.K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morozov, S.V.; Morris, J.D.; Moser, H.G.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S.V.; Moyse, E.J.W.; Mudrinic, M.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Müller, T.A.; Muenstermann, D.; Muir, A.; Munwes, Y.; Murillo Garcia, R; Murray, W.J.; Mussche, I.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A.G.; Myska, M.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Nakatsuka, H.; Nanava, G.; Napier, A.; Nash, M.; Nation, N.R.; Nattermann, T.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nderitu, S.K.; Neal, H.A.; Nebot, E.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Negri, G.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, T.K.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A.A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M.S.; Neusiedl, A.; Neves, R.N.; Nevski, P.; Newcomer, F.M.; Nickerson, R.B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicolas, L.; Nicoletti, G.; Niedercorn, F.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, H.; Nilsson, P.; Nisati, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Nisius, R.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nordberg, M.; Nordkvist, B.; Notz, D.; Novakova, J.; Nozaki, M.; Nozicka, M.; Nugent, I.M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.-E.; Nunes Hanninger, G; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; O'Neil, D.C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F.G.; Oberlack, H.; Ochi, A.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Odier, J.; Odino, G.A.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S.H.; Ohm, C.C.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshita, H.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, S.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Olcese, M.; Olchevski, A.G.; Oliveira, M.; Oliveira Damazio, D; Oliver, J.; Oliver Garcia, E; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Omachi, C.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P.U.E.; Oram, C.J.; Ordonez, G.; Oreglia, M.J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C; Orr, R.S.; Ortega, E.O.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Osuna, C.; Otec, R.; Ottersbach, J.P.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Oyarzun, A.; Ozcan, V.E.; Ozone, K.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A; Padhi, S.; Padilla Aranda, C; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J.D.; Pan, Y.B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Papadopoulou, Th D; Park, S.J.; Park, W.; Parker, M.A.; Parker, S.I.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passardi, G.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J.R.; Patricelli, S.; Patwa, A.; Pauly, T.; Peak, L.S.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M I; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Peng, H.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Codina, E; Pérez García-Estañ, M T; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Pfeifer, B.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W.G.; Pleier, M.A.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D.M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospichal, P.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Potter, K.P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Preda, T.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammes, M.; Ratoff, P.N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R.A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.R.; Roa Romero, D A; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B M; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sanchis Lozano, M A; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmid, P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Sospedra Suay, L; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanó, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St Denis, R D; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S.I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu M; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thomas, T.L.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F J; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Tovey, S.N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C.L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.7% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of 0.29% in the barrel and 0.53% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61 +- 0.07 mm/microsecond at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  4. J-PARC muon facility, MUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y; Shimomura, K; Kawamura, N; Strasser, P; Makimura, S; Koda, A; Fujimori, H; Nakahara, K; Takeshita, S; Kobayashi, Y; Nishiyama, K; Kato, M; Nagamine, K [Muon Science Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Higemoto, W; Ito, T U; Ninomiya, K [Muon section, Materials and Life Science division, J-PARC Center, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sato, N [Mechanical Engineering Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kadono, R, E-mail: yasuhiro.miyake@kek.j

    2010-04-01

    The muon science facility (MUSE, abbreviation of MUon Science Establishment), along with the neutron, hadron, and neutrino facilities, is one of the experimental areas of the J-PARC project, which was approved for construction in a period from 2001 to 2008. The MUSE facility is located in the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF), which is a building integrated to include both neutron and muon science programs. Construction of the MLF building was started in the beginning of 2004, and was completed at the end of the 2006 fiscal year. For Phase 1, we managed to install one super-conducting decay/surface muon channel with a modest-acceptance (about 45 mSr) pion injector in the summer of 2008. Finally, on September 19th, 2008, the 20 mm thick edge-cooled, non-rotating graphite target, which is surrounded by a copper frame, was, for the first time, placed into the 3GeV proton beam obtained from the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The nuclear reactions between the 3 GeV proton beam and the nucleus of carbon produce both positively ({pi}{sup +}) and negatively ({pi}{sup -}) charged pions. On September 26th, 2008, we finally succeeded to extract? surface muons ({mu}{sup +}), which are obtained from the decay of {pi}{sup +} near the surface of the pion production target in the proton beam line. First, we commissioned the secondary muon beam line optics by tuning the superconducting magnet, the quadrupole and bending magnets, and the DC separator in order to optimize the transport of the surface muon beam and to eliminate the e{sup +} contamination. Then, on December 25th, 2008, we also succeeded in the extraction of the {sup d}ecay muons ({mu}{sup +}/{mu}{sup -}){sup ,} which are obtained through the in-flight decay of {pi}{sup +}/{pi}{sup -}

  5. Mass limits for the muon neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.; Sandberg, V.D.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of improving the present limit on the mass of the muon neutrino is discussed. It is found that decays of muons and pions are not useful means to significantly improve this limit. On the other hand, the decays K 0 /sub L/ → π/sup +-/μ/sup -+/nu/sub μ/ and K + → π 0 μ + nu/sub μ/ appear to be quite promising. Possible experiments are discussed

  6. Muon Colliders: the Ultimate Neutrino Beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that muon decays in straight sections of muon collider rings will naturally produce highly collimated neutrino beams that can be several orders of magnitude stronger than the beams at existing accelerators. We discuss possible experimental setups and give a very brief overview of the physics potential from such beamlines. Formulae are given for the neutrino event rates at both short and long baseline neutrino experiments in these beams

  7. Muon momentum measurement in magnetized iron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, R.; Zupancic, C.

    1984-01-01

    Measuring the momentum of high-energy muons with a magnetized iron spectrometer is a conventional technique employed by numerous experiments and may appear to be an old-fashioned subject. In the TeV regime, multiple scattering errors become small compared to measurement errors achieveable with large-surface particle detectors, and there are indications that new physical effects influencing the resolution properties of a muon spectrometer may become important. (orig./HSI)

  8. The cosmic ray muon flux at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, E.-I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE-3, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States) and II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus Liebig Univeritaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: ernst@lanl.gov; Bowles, T.J [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE-3, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hime, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE-3, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Pichlmaier, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE-3, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Reifarth, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE-3, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wollnik, H. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus Liebig Univeritaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany)

    2005-02-11

    In this work, a measurement of the muon intensity at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM, USA is presented. WIPP is a salt mine with a depth of 655m. The vertical muon flux was measured with a two panel scintillator coincidence setup to {phi}{sub vert}=(3.10{sub -0.07}{sup +0.05})10{sup -7}s{sup -1}cm{sup -}2sr{sup -1}.

  9. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled some fundamental notions and measurement units related to ionizing radiations, this document describes various aspects of natural and occupational exposures: exposure modes and sources, exposure levels, biological effects, health impacts. Then, it presents prevention principles aimed at, in an occupational context of use of radiation sources (nuclear industry excluded), reducing and managing these exposures: risk assessment, implementation of safety from the front end. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. The legal and regulatory framework is presented: general notions, worker exposure, measures specific to some worker categories (pregnant and breast feeding women, young workers, temporary workers). A last part describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (dissemination of radioactive substances from unsealed sources, anomaly occurring when using a generator or a sealed source, post-accident situation)

  10. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jeitler, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Sakulin, Hannes; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run-II of the Large Hadron Collider poses new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run-I, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new μTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT) which sorts and removes duplicates from boundaries of the muon trigger sub-systems. Furthermore, it determines how isolated the muon candidates are based on calorimetric energy deposits. The μGMT will be implemented using a processing board that features a larg...

  11. Impurity Trapping of Positive Muons in Metals

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Polarized positive muons are implanted into metal samples. In an applied magnetic field the muon spin precession is studied. The line width in the precession frequency spectrum gives information about the static and dynamic properties of muons in a metal lattice. At temperatures where the muon is immobile within its lifetime the line width gives information about the site of location. At temperatures where the muon is mobile, the line width gives information on the diffusion process. It is known from experiments on quasi-elastic neutron scattering on hydrogen in niobium that interstitial impurities like nitrogen tend to act as traps for hydrogen. These trapping effects have now been studied systematically for muons in both f.c.c. metals (aluminium and copper) and b.c.c. metals (mainly niobium). Direct information on the trapping rates and the nature of the diffusion processes can be obtained since the muonic lifetime covers a time range where many of these processes occur.\\\\ \\\\ Mathematical models are set up ...

  12. Beam Test of a Dielectric Loaded High Pressure RF Cavity for Use in Muon Cooling Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemire, Ben [IIT, Chicago; Bowring, Daniel [Fermilab; Kochemirovskiy, Alexey [Chicago U.; Moretti, Alfred [Fermilab; Peterson, David [Fermilab; Tollestrup, Alvin [Fermilab; Torun, Yagmur [IIT, Chicago; Yonehara, Katsuya [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Bright muon sources require six dimensional cooling to achieve acceptable luminosities. Ionization cooling is the only known method able to do so within the muon lifetime. One proposed cooling channel, the Helical Cooling Channel, utilizes gas filled radio frequency cavities to both mitigate RF breakdown in the presence of strong, external magnetic fields, and provide the cooling medium. Engineering constraints on the diameter of the magnets within which these cavities operate dictate the radius of the cavities be decreased at their nominal operating frequency. To accomplish this, one may load the cavities with a larger dielectric material. A 99.5% alumina ring was inserted in a high pressure RF test cell and subjected to an intense proton beam at the MuCool Test Area at Fermilab. The results of the performance of this dielectric loaded high pressure RF cavity will be presented.

  13. Extensive studies of MRS APDs for plastic scintillator muon veto detectors of cryogenic experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenstein, R.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Freund, K.; Golovin, A. V.; Golovin, V. M.; Grabmayr, P.; Jochum, J.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lubsandorzhiev, N. B.; Poleshuk, R. V.; Polyansky, I. N.; Ritter, F.; Sailer, C.; Shaibonov, B. A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Low background experiments need active muon veto detectors to shield them from cosmic muons. Plastic scintillator panels with WLS fiber and multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes readout are widely used in such experiments due to their compactness and robustness. In this paper, results from the study of the basic MRS APD parameters, such as breakdown voltages, quenching resistors, internal gain and dark count rates are presented, as well as temperature dependencies of some of these parameters. In a small fraction of the MRS APDs, some strange dips in the I-V curves just preceding the breakdown voltage point have been observed.

  14. Triggering and measuring bent cosmic muon tracks with the Muon Spectrometer barrel for the first time

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabio Cerutti

    During the ATLAS barrel toroid stability test, bent cosmic muon tracks were seen for the first time in the ATLAS cavern by means of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The barrel toroid has been powered at its nominal current (20.5 thousand Amperes) and kept in steady state for more than one day during the weekend of 18-19 November (see a report on this test in the Magnet section). During this test one large sector and part of a small sector of the barrel muon spectrometer were readout and used to detect the cosmic muons tracks bent by the toroidal magnetic field. Thirteen muon stations in the feet sectors (sectors 13 and 14) have been used in this test. The muon stations are formed of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) that were providing the muon trigger, and Monitored Drift Tubes that were used to measure with high accuracy the muon curvature hence their momentum. The Level-1 Barrel trigger chain was based on the Barrel Middle Large chambers equipped with final production modules on both the on-detector and the o...

  15. Free Muons and Muonium - Some Achievements and Possibilities in Low Energy Muon Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    Published in: Nucl. Phys. News 12 (2002) no. 3, pp.23 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: Some recent precision experiments in low energy muon physics are discussed. Spectroscopy on the muonium atom, the bound state of a positve muon and an electron, has provided precise tests

  16. Modular detector for deep underwater registration of muons and muon groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demianov, A. I.; Sarycheva, L. I.; Sinyov, N. B.; Varadanyan, I. N.; Yershov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Registration and identification of muons and muon groups penetrating into the ocean depth, can be performed using a modular multilayer detector with high resolution bidimensional readout - deep underwater calorimeter (project NADIR). Laboratory testing of a prototype sensor cell with liquid scintillator in light-tight casing, testifies to the practicability of the full-scale experiment within reasonable expences.

  17. Muon colliders, frictional cooling and universal extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    A muon collider combines the advantages of proton-proton and electron-positron colliders, sidestepping many of their disadvantages, and has the potential to make discoveries and precision measurements at high energies. However, muons bring their own technical challenges, largely relating to their instability. We present a summary of the motivations and R and D efforts for a muon collider. We detail a scheme for preparing high-luminosity muon beams on timescales shorter than the muon lifetime, and an experiment to demonstrate aspects of this scheme at the Max Planck Institute for Physics. We also investigate the potentials to discover physics beyond the standard model at a muon collider. (orig.)

  18. Muon-fluorine entangled states in molecular magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, T; Blundell, S J; Baker, P J; Brooks, M L; Hayes, W; Pratt, F L; Manson, J L; Conner, M M; Schlueter, J A

    2007-12-31

    The information accessible from a muon-spin relaxation experiment can be limited due to a lack of knowledge of the precise muon stopping site. We demonstrate here the possibility of localizing a spin polarized muon in a known stopping state in a molecular material containing fluorine. The muon-spin precession that results from the entangled nature of the muon spin and surrounding nuclear spins is sensitive to the nature of the stopping site. We use this property to identify three classes of sites that occur in molecular magnets and describe the extent to which the muon distorts its surroundings.

  19. Muon colliders, frictional cooling and universal extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, Daniel E.

    2011-07-20

    A muon collider combines the advantages of proton-proton and electron-positron colliders, sidestepping many of their disadvantages, and has the potential to make discoveries and precision measurements at high energies. However, muons bring their own technical challenges, largely relating to their instability. We present a summary of the motivations and R and D efforts for a muon collider. We detail a scheme for preparing high-luminosity muon beams on timescales shorter than the muon lifetime, and an experiment to demonstrate aspects of this scheme at the Max Planck Institute for Physics. We also investigate the potentials to discover physics beyond the standard model at a muon collider. (orig.)

  20. Calibration and monitoring of LHAASO-KM2A muon detectors with muon decay events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiong; Xiao, Gang; Feng, Shaohui; Li, Xiurong; Li, Cong; Cheng, Ning; Hong, Bin; Chang, Jinfan; Wang, Wei; Gu, Minghao; Li, Fei; Liu, Jia; Lv, Hongkui; Sheng, Xiangdong; Zhang, Shaoru; Li, Hongming; Gong, Guanghua; He, Huihai; Saeed, Mohsin; Lhaaso Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) will be constructed at 4400 m asl in Daocheng, Sichuan Province, with the aim of discovering sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and studying cosmic ray physics. The whole array includes 1171 muon detectors (MDs), constituting the largest muon detector array in the world. The special high altitude and wide-field environment requires simple and stable calibration as well as monitoring method of MDs. In this paper, the muon decay events will be selected for calibrating the charge and monitoring the water level of each MD. In the prototype muon detector, the simulation and experiment results reveal that the charge of the decay electron is approximately 0.147 times that of the vertical equivalent muon for a standard MD, and the QVEM /Qe shows a linear correlation with the water level.

  1. Testing Of The Muon Port Card And Related Electronics For The Cms Endcap Muon Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Pawloski, G J

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is related to the design of the level one endcap muon trigger system for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This system is designed to use muon measurements to help reduce a computationally overwhelming 40 MHz signal of collision data (∼40 TBytes/sec) to a manageable 33kHz (∼33GBytes/sec) [1]. The main focus of this thesis will be on the validation of one of the electronics boards in the trigger device chain. This board is used to pick the 3 most interesting muons out of 18 measured in a single crossing. Referred to as the Muon Port Card, this card will be located on the periphery of the detector and can be tested through a VME back plane.

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on fundamental muon physics: atoms, nuclei, and particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.; Hughes, V.W.; Leon, M.

    1986-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held at Los Alamos, January 20-22, 1986, to discuss present and future experiments with muons in particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Special attention was paid to new developments in muon beams and detection devices. The workshop sessions were Muon Decay, Muon Capture, QED and Electroweak Interactions, Laser Spectroscopy of Muonic Atoms, High-Energy Muon-Nucleon and Muon-Nucleus Scattering, Muon Beams - New Developments, and Muon Catalysis

  3. CMS - The Compact Muon Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Bergauer, T; Waltenberger, W; Kratschmer, I; Treberer-treberspurg, W; Escalante del valle, A; Andreeva, I; Innocente, V; Camporesi, T; Malgeri, L; Marchioro, A; Moneta, L; Weingarten, W; Beni, N T; Cimmino, A; Rovere, M; Jafari, A; Lange, C G; Vartak, A P; Gilbert, A J; Pantaleo, F; Reis, T; Cucciati, G; Alipour tehrani, N; Stakia, A; Fallavollita, F; Pizzichemi, M; Pinna, D; Rauco, G; Zhang, S; Hu, T; Yazgan, E; Zhang, H; Thomas-wilsker, J; Reithler, H K V; Philipps, B; Merschmeyer, M K; Heidemann, C A; Mukherjee, S; Geenen, H; Kuessel, Y; Weingarten, S; Nehrkorn, A; Gallo, E; Schwanenberger, C; Walsh bastos rangel, R; Beernaert, K S; De wit, A M; Elwood, A C; Connor, P; Lelek, A A; Wichmann, K H; Myronenko, V; Kovalchuk, N; Bein, S L; Dreyer, T; Scharf, C; Quast, G; Dierlamm, A H; Barth, C; Mol, X; Kudella, S; Schafer, D; Schimassek, R R; Matorras, F; Calderon tazon, A; Garcia ferrero, J; Bercher, M J; Sirois, Y; Callier, S; Depasse, P; Laktineh, I B; Grenier, G; Boudoul, G; Heath, G P; Hartley, D A; Quinton, S; Tomalin, I R; Harder, K; Francis, V B; Thea, A; Zhang, Z; Loukas, D; Hernath, S T; Naskar, K; Colaleo, A; Maggi, G P; Maggi, M; Loddo, F; Calabria, C; Campanini, R; Cuffiani, M; D'antone, I; Grandi, C; Navarria, F; Guiducci, L; Battilana, C; Tosi, N; Gulmini, M; Meola, S; Longo, E; Marzocchi, B; Schizzi, A; Cho, S; Ha, S; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Md halid, M F B; Yusli, M N B; Dominik, W M; Bunkowski, K; Olszewski, M; Byszuk, A P; Rasteiro da silva, J C; Varela, J; Leong, Q; Sulimov, V; Vorobyev, A; Denisov, A; Murzin, V; Egorov, A; Lukyanenko, S; Postoev, V; Pashenkov, A; Solovey, A; Rubakov, V; Troitsky, S; Kirpichnikov, D; Lychkovskaya, N; Safronov, G; Fedotov, A; Toms, M; Barniakov, M; Olimov, K; Fazilov, M; Umaraliev, A; Dumanoglu, I; Bakirci, N M; Dozen, C; Demiroglu, Z S; Oglakci, M; Isik, C; Zeyrek, M; Yalvac, M; Ozkorucuklu, S; Chang, Y; Dolgopolov, A; Gottschalk, E E; Maeshima, K; Heavey, A E; Kramer, T; Kwan, S W L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S M; Mokhov, N; Marraffino, J M; Mrenna, S; Yarba, V; Banerjee, B; Elvira, V D; Gray, L A; Holzman, B; Dagenhart, W; Canepa, A; Ryu, S C; Strobbe, N C; Adelman-mc carthy, J K; Contescu, A C; Andre, J O; Wu, J; Dittmer, S J; Bucinskaite, I; Zhang, J; Karchin, P E; Thapa, P; Zaleski, S G; Gran, J L; Wang, S; Patterson, A S; Zilizi, G; Raics, P P; Bhardwaj, A; Naimuddin, M; Smiljkovic, N; Stojanovic, M; Brandao malbouisson, H; De oliveira martins, C P; Tonelli manganote, E J; Medina jaime, M; Thiel, M; Laurila, S H; Wu, X; Graehling, P; Tonon, N; Blekman, F; De bruyn, I H J; Postiau, N J S; Leroux, P J; Van remortel, N; Janssen, X J; Di croce, D; Aleksandrov, A; Shopova, M F; Dogra, S M; Shinoda, A A; Arce, P; Daniel, M; Navarrete marin, J J; Redondo fernandez, I; Guirao elias, A; Cela ruiz, J M; Lottin, J; Gras, P; Kircher, F; Levesy, B; Payn, A; Guilloux, F; Negro, G; Leloup, C; Pasztor, G; Panwar, L; Bhatnagar, V; Bruzzi, M; Sciortino, S; Starodubtsev, O; Azzi, P; Conti, E; Lacaprara, S; Margoni, M; Rossin, R; Tosi, M; Fano', L; Lucaroni, A; Biino, C; Dattola, D; Rotondo, F; Ballestrero, A; Obertino, M M; Kiani, M B; Paterno, A; Magana villalba, R; Ramirez garcia, M; Reyes almanza, R; Gorski, M; Wrochna, G; Bluj, M J; Zarubin, A; Nozdrin, M; Ladygin, V; Malakhov, A; Golunov, A; Skrypnik, A; Sotnikov, A; Evdokimov, N; Tiurin, V; Lokhtin, I; Ershov, A; Platonova, M; Tyurin, N; Slabospitskii, S; Talov, V; Belikov, N; Ryazanov, A; Chao, Y; Tsai, J; Foord, A; Wood, D R; Orimoto, T J; Luckey, P D; Gomez ceballos retuerto, G; Jaditz, S H; Stephans, G S; Darlea, G L; Di matteo, L; Maier, B; Trovato, M; Bhattacharya, S; Roberts, J B; Padley, P B; Tu, Z; Rorie, J T; Clarida, W J; Tiras, E; Khristenko, V; Cerizza, G; Pieri, M; Krutelyov, V; Saiz santos, M D; Klein, D S; Derdzinski, M; Murray, M J; Gray, J A; Minafra, N; Forthomme, L; Castle, J R; Bowen, J L S; Buterbaugh, K; Morrow, S I; Bunn, J; Newman, H; Spiropulu, M; Balcas, J; Lawhorn, J M; Thomas, S D; Panwalkar, S M; Kyriacou, S; Xie, Z; Ojalvo, I R; Laird, E M; Wimpenny, S J; Yates, B R; Perry, T M; Schiber, C C; Diaz, D C; Uniyal, R; Mesic, B; Kolosova, M; Snow, G R; Lundstedt, C; Johnston, D; Zvada, M; Weitzel, D J; Damgov, J V; Giammanco, A; David, P N Y; Zobec, J; Cabrera jamoulle, J B; Daubie, E; Batinkov, A I; Nash, J A; Evans, L; Hall, G; Nikitenko, A; Ryan, M J; Matsushita, T; Huffman, M A J; Styliaris, E; Evangelou, I; Sharan, M K; Roy, A; Rout, P K; Kalbhor, P N; Bagliesi, G; Braccini, P L; Ligabue, F; Boccali, T; Rizzi, A; Minuti, M; Oh, S; Kim, J; Sen, S; Boz evinay, M; Xiao, M; Hung, W T; Jensen, F O; Mulholland, T D; Kumar, A; Jones, M; Roozbahani, B H; Neu, C C; Thacker, H B; Wolfe, E M; Jabeen, S; Gilmore, J; Winer, B L; Rush, C J; Luo, W; Alimena, J M; Lefeld, A J; Ko, W; Lander, R; Broadley, W H; Shi, M; Low, J F; Snowball, M A; Mei, H; Alexander, J P; Zientek, M E; Conway, J V; Padilla fuentes, Y L; Florent, A H; Bravo, C B; Nash, W A; Crotty, I M; Wenman, D L; Sarangi, T R; Ghabrous larrea, C; Gomber, B; Smith, N C; Long, K D; Roberts, J M; Hildreth, M D; Jessop, C P; Karmgard, D J; Loukas, N; Ferbel, T; Zielinski, M A; Cooper, S I; Jung, A; Fagot, A; Vermassen, B; Valchkova-georgieva, F K; Dimitrov, D S; Roumenin, T S; Podrasky, V; Re, V; Zucca, S; De canio, F; Romaniuk, R; Teodorescu, L; Krofcheck, D; Anderson, N G; Bell, S T; Salazar ibarguen, H A; Kudinov, V; Onishchenko, S; Naujikas, R; Lyubynskiy, V; Sobolev, O; Khan, M S; Adeel-ur-rehman, A; Hassan, Q U; Ali, I; Kreuzer, P K; Robson, A J; Gadrat, S G; Ivanov, A; Mendis, D; Da silva di calafiori, D R; Zeinali, M; Behnamian, H; Moroni, L; Malvezzi, S; Park, I; Pastika, N J; Oropeza barrera, C; Elkhateeb, E A A; Elmetenawee, W; Mohammed, Y; Tayel, E S A; Mcclatchey, R H; Kovacs, Z; Munir, K; Odeh, M; Magradze, E; Oikashvili, B; Shingade, P; Shukla, R A; Banerjee, S; Kumar, S; Jashal, B K; Kundu, T K; Adam, W; Ero, J; Fabjan, C; Jeitler, M; Rad, N K; Auffray hillemanns, E; Charkiewicz, A; Fartoukh, S; Garcia de enterria adan, D; Girone, M; Glege, F; Lasseur, C; Loos, R; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Sciaba, A; Tsesmelis, E; Meschi, E; Ricci, D; Petrucciani, G; Daguin, J; Vazquez velez, C; Karavakis, E; Nourbakhsh, S; Rabady, D S; Chaze, O; Ceresa, D; Karacheban, O; Beguin, M; Kilminster, B J; Ke, Z; Meng, X; Zhang, Y; Tao, J; Romeo, F; Spiezia, A; Cheng, L; Zhukov, V; Feld, L W; Autermann, C T; Fischer, R; Kress, T H; Dziwok, C; Hansen, K; Schoerner-sadenius, T M; Marfin, I; Keaveney, J M; Diez pardos, C; Muhl, C W; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Defranchis, M M; Asmuss, J P; Poehlsen, J A; Stober, F M H; Vormwald, B R; Kripas, V; Gonzalez vazquez, D; Kurz, S T; Niemeyer, C; Rieger, J O; Shvetsov, I; Sieber, G; Caspart, R; Iqbal, M A; Sander, O; Metzler, M B; Ardila perez, L E; Ruiz jimeno, A; Fernandez garcia, M; Scodellaro, L; Gonzalez sanchez, J F; Curras rivera, E; Semeniouk, I; Ochando, C; Bedjidian, M; Giraud, N A; Mathez, H; Zoccarato, Y D; Ianigro, J; Galbit, G C; Flacher, H U; Shepherd-themistocleous, C H; French, M J; Jones, L L; Markou, A; Bencze, G L; Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K; Jha, V; Chudasama, R; Katta, S; Venditti, R; Cristella, L; Braibant-giacomelli, S; Dallavalle, G; Fabbri, F; Codispoti, G; Borgonovi, L; Caponero, M A; Berti, L; Fienga, F; Dafinei, I; Organtini, G; Del re, D; Pettinacci, V; Park, S K; Lee, K S; Kang, M; Kim, B; Park, H K; Kong, D J; Lee, S; Pak, S I; Zolkapli, Z B; Konecki, M A; Walczak, M B; Bargassa, P; Viegas guerreiro leonardo, N T; Levchenko, P; Orishchin, E; Suvorov, V; Uvarov, L; Gruzinskii, N; Pristavka, A; Kozlov, V; Radovskaia, A; Solovey, A; Kolosov, V; Vlassov, E; Parygin, P; Tumasyan, A; Topakli, H; Boran, F; Akin, I V; Oz, C; Gulmez, E; Atakisi, I O; Bakken, J A; Govi, G M; Lewis, J D; Shaw, T M; Bailleux, D; Stoynev, S E; Sexton-kennedy, E M; Huang, C; Lincoln, D W; Roser, R; Ito, A; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Varelas, N; Sandoval gonzalez, I D; Hangal, D A; Yoo, J H; Ovcharova, A K; Bradmiller-feld, J W; Amin, N J; Miller, M P; Sharma, R K; Santoro, A; Lassila-perini, K M; Tuominiemi, J; Voutilainen, M A; Jarvinen, T T; Gross, L O; Le bihan, A; Fuks, B; Kieffer, E; Pansanel, J; Jansova, M; D'hondt, J; Abuzeid hassan, S A; Bilin, B; Beghin, D; Soultanov, G; Vankov, I D; Konstantinov, P B; Marra da silva, J; De souza santos, A; Arruda ramalho, L; Renker, D; Erdmann, W; Molinero vela, A; Fernandez bedoya, C; Bachiller perea, I; Chipaux, R; Faure, J D; Hamel de monchenault, G; Mandjavidze, I; Rander, J; Ferri, F; Leroy, C L; Machet, M; Nagy, M I; Felcini, M; Kaur, S; Saizu, M A; Civinini, C; Latino, G; Chatterjee, K; Checchia, P; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Fantinel, S; Cecchi, C; Leonardi, R; Arneodo, M; Ruspa, M; Rabadan trejo, R I; Mondragon herrera, C A; Golutvin, I; Zhiltsov, V; Melnichenko, I; Mjavia, D; Cheremukhin, A; Zubarev, E; Kalagin, V; Alexakhin, V; Mitsyn, V; Shulha, S; Vishnevskiy, A; Gavrilenko, M; Boos, E E; Obraztsov, S; Dubinin, M; Demiyanov, A; Dudko, L; Volkov, V; Azhgirey, I; Chikilev, O; Turchanovich, L; Rurua, L; Gao, Z; Hou, G W; Wang, M; Chang, P; Kumar, A; Liau, J; Lazic, D; Lawson, P D; Zou, D; Wisecarver, A L; Sumorok, K C; Klute, M; Lee, Y; Iiyama, Y; Velicanu, D A; Mc ginn, C; Abercrombie, D R; Tatar, K; Hahn, K A; Nussbaum, T W; Southwick, D C; Riley, G V; Cittolin, S; Martin, T; Welke, C V; Wilson, G W; Baringer, P S; Sanders, S J; Mcbrayer, W J; Engh, D J; Sheldon, P D; Gurrola, A; Velkovska, J A; Melo, A M; Padeken, K O; Johnson, C N; Ni, H; Kcira, D; Montalvo, R J; Heindl, M D; Ferguson, T; Vogel, H; Mudholkar, T K; Elmer, P; Tully, C; Luo, J; Hanson, G; Jandir, P S; Askew, A W; Kadija, K; Dimovasili, E; Attikis, A; Vasilas, I; Chen, G; Bockelman, B P; Kamalieddin, R; Barrefors, B P; Farleigh, B S; Akchurin, N; Demin, P; Musich, M; Pavlov, B A; Petkov, P S; Goranova, R; Tomsa, J; Lyons, L; Buchmuller, O; Magnan, A; Laner ogilvy, C; Di maria, R; Dutta, S; Thakur, S; Bettarini, S; Bosi, F; Giassi, A; Massa, M; Calzolari, F; Androsov, K; Lee, H; Komurcu, Y; Kim, D W; Wagner, S R; Rappoccio, S R; Harrington, C I; Baden, A R; Ricci-tam, F; Kamon, T; Rathjens, D; Pernie, L; Larsen, D; Ji, W; Pellett, D E; Smith, J; Acosta, D E; Field, R D; Yelton, J M; Kotov, K; Wang, S; Smolenski, K W; Mc coll, N W; Dasu, S R; Lanaro, A; Cook, J R; Gorski, T A; Buchanan, J J; Jain, S; Musienko, Y; Taroni, S; Meng, H; Siddireddy, P K; Tan, P; Xie, W; Rott, C; Benedetti, D; Everett, A A; Schulte, J; Mahakud, B; Ryckbosch, D D E; Crucy, S; Cornelis, T G M; Betev, B; Dimov, H; Raykov, P A; Uzunova, D G; Mihovski, K T; Mechinsky, V; Makarenko, V; Yermak, D; Yevarouskaya, U; Salvini, P; Manghisoni, M; Fontaine, J; Agram, J; Palinkas, J; Reid, I D; Bell, A J; Clyne, M N; Zavodchikov, S; Veelken, C; Kannike, K; Dewanjee, R K; Skarupelov, V; Piibeleht, M; Ehataht, K; Chang, S; Kuchinski, P; Bukauskas, L; Zhmurin, P; Kamal, A; Mubarak, M; Asghar, M I; Ahmad, N; Muhammad, S; Mansoor-ul-islam, S; Saddique, A; Waqas, M; Irshad, A; Veckalns, V; Toda, S; Choi, Y K; Yu, I; Hwang, C; Yumiceva, F X; Djambazov, L; Meinhard, M T; Becker, R J U; Grimm, O; Wallny, R S; Tavolaro, V R; Marionneau, M P; Eller, P D; Meister, D; Paktinat mehdiabadi, S; Chenarani, S; Dini, P; Leporini, R; Dinardo, M; Brianza, L; Hakkarainen, U T; Parashar, N; Malik, S; Ramirez vargas, J E; Dharmaratna, W; Noh, S; Uang, A J; Kim, J H; Lee, J S H; Jeon, D; You, Z; Assran, Y; Elgammal, S; Ellithi kamel, A Y; Nayak, A K; Dash, D; Koca, N; Kothekar, K K; Karnam, R; Patil, M R; Torims, T; Hoch, M; Schieck, J R; Valentan, M; Spitzbart, D; Lucio alves, F L; Blanchot, G; Gill, K A; Orsini, L; Petrilli, A; Sharma, A; Szoncso, F; Tsirou, A; Hudson, D A; Gutleber, J; Folch, R; Tropea, P; Cerminara, G; Vichoudis, P; Pardo, T; Sabba, H; Selvaggi, M; Verzetti, M; Kornmayer, A; Niedziela, J; Aarrestad, T K; He, K; Li, B; Huang, Q; Shaheen, S M; Pierschel, G; Esch, T; Louis, D; Quast, T; Nowack, A S; Beissel, F; Borras, K A; Mankel, R; Pitzl, D D; Kemp, Y; Meyer, A B; Krucker, D B; Mittag, G; Burgmeier, A; Lenz, T; Arndt, T M; Pflitsch, S K; Danilov, V; Dominguez damiani, D; Cardini, A; Kogler, R; Troendle, D C; Aggleton, R C; Lange, J; Reimers, A C; De boer, W; Weber, M M; Theel, A; Mozer, M U; Wayand, S; Harrendorf, M A; Harbaum, T R; El morabit, K; Marco, J; Rodrigo, T; Vila alvarez, I; Lopez garcia, A; Rembser, J; Baffioni, S; Mathieu, A; Kurca, T; Mirabito, L; Verdier, P; Combaret, C; Newbold, D M; Smith, V; Brooke, J J; Metson, S; Ball, F A; Coughlan, J A; Torbet, M J; Belyaev, A; Harper, S J; Kyriakis, A; Horvath, D; Veszpremi, V; Topkar, A; Selvaggi-maggi, G; Nuzzo, S V; Romano, F; Marangelli, B; Spinoso, V; Lezki, S; Castro, A; Rovelli, T; Brigliadori, L; Chhibra, S S; Bianco, S; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Musenich, R; Ferro, F; Gozzelino, A; Buontempo, S; Casolaro, P; Paramatti, R; Vignati, M; Belforte, S; Hong, B; Roh, Y J; Choi, S Y; Son, D; Yang, Y C; Butanov, K; Kotobi, A; Krolikowski, J; Pozniak, K T; Misiura, M; Seixas, J C; Jain, A K; Nemallapudi, M V; Shchipunov, L; Lebedev, V; Skorobogatov, V; Klimenko, K; Terkulov, A; Kirakosyan, M; Azarkin, M; Krasnikov, N; Stepanova, L; Gavrilov, V; Spiridonov, A; Semenov, S; Krokhotin, A; Rusinov, V; Chistov, R; Zhemchugov, E; Nishonov, M; Hmayakyan, G; Khachatryan, V; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Tali, B; Kangal, E E; Turkcapar, S; Zorbakir, I S; Aliyev, T; Demir, D A; Liu, W; Apollinari, G; Osborne, I; Lammel, S; Whitmore, J; Mommsen, R; Apyan, A; Badgett jr, W F; Atac, M; Joshi, U P; Vidal, R A; Giacchetti, L A; Merkel, P; Johnson, M E; Soha, A L; Tran, N V; Rapsevicius, V; Hirschauer, J F; Voirin, E; Altunay cheung, M; Liu, T T; Mosquera morales, J F; Gerber, C E; Chen, X; Clarke, C J; Stuart, D D; Franco sevilla, M; Marsh, B J; Shivpuri, R K; Adzic, P; De almeida pacheco, M A; Matos figueiredo, D; De queiroz franco, A B; Melo de almeida, M; Bernardo valadao, R; Linden, T; Tuovinen, E V; Siikonen, H J L; Ripp-baudot, I L; Richer, M; Vander velde, C; Randle-conde, A S; Dong, J; Van haevermaet, H J H; Dimitrov, L; De paula bianchini, C; Muller cascadan, A; Kotlinski, B; Alcaraz maestre, J; Josa mutuberria, M I; Gonzalez lopez, O; Marin munoz, J; Puerta pelayo, J; Rodriguez vazquez, J J; Denegri, D; Jarry, P; Rosowsky, A; Tsipolitis, G; Grunewald, M; Singh, J; Chawla, R; Gupta, R; Giordano, F; Parrini, G; Russo, L; Mazzucato, M; Verlato, M; Wulzer, A; Traldi, S; Bortolato, D; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Movileanu, M; Santocchia, A; Mariani, V; Mariotti, C; Monaco, V; Accomando, E; Pinna angioni, G L; Boimska, B; Nawrocki, K; Yuldashev, B; Kamenev, A; Belotelov, I; Filozova, I; Bunin, P; Golovanov, G; Gribushin, A; Kaminskiy, A; Volkov, P; Vorotnikov, G; Bityukov, S; Kryshkin, V; Petrov, V; Volkov, A; Troshin, S; Levin, A; Sumaneev, O V; Kalinin, A; Kulagin, N; Mandrik, P; Lin, C; Kovalskyi, D; Demiragli, Z; Hsu, D G; Michlin, B A; Fountain, M; Debbins, P A; Durgut, S; Tadel, M; White, A; Molina-perez, J A; Dost, J M; Boren, S S; Klein, A; Bhatti, A; Mesropian, C; Wilkinson, R; Xie, S; Agapitos, A; Marlow, D R; Jindal, P; Narain, M; Berry, E A; Usai, E; Korotkov, A L; Strossman, W; Kennedy, E; Burt, K F; Saha, A; Starodumov, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Nicolaou, C; Mao, Y; Claes, D R; Sill, A F; Lamichhane, K; Antunovic, Z; Piotrzkowski, K; Bondu, O; Dimitrov, A A; Albajar, C; Torga teixeira, R F; Iles, G M; Borg, J; Cripps, N A; Uchida, K; Fayer, S W; Wright, J C; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Bhattacharya, S; Nandan, S; Bellazzini, R; Carboni, A; Arezzini, S; Yang, U K; Roskes, J; Corcodilos, L A; Nauenberg, U; Johnson, D; Kharchilava, A; Mc lean, C A; Cox, B B; Hirosky, R J; Skuja, A; Bard, R L; Mueller, R D; Puigh, D M; Chertok, M B; Calderon de la barca sanchez, M; Gunion, J F; Vogt, R; Conway, R T; Gearhart, J W; Band, R E; Kukral, O; Korytov, A; Furic, I K; Fu, Y; Madorsky, A; Brinkerhoff, A W; Rinkevicius, A; Mcdermott, K P; Tao, Z; Bellis, M; Gronberg, J B; Hauser, J; Bachtis, M; Kubic, J; Greenler, L S; Caillol, C S; Woods, N; De jesus pardal vicente, M; Trembath-reichert, S; Singovski, A; Wolf, M; Smith, G N; Bucci, R E; Reinsvold, A C; Sultana, M; Taus, R A; Buccilli, A T; Kroeger, R S; Reidy, J J; Barnes, V E; Kress, M K; Thieman, J R; Mccartin, J W; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Georgiev, I G; Biselli, A; Berzano, U; Vai, I; Braghieri, A; Cardoso lopes, R; Cuevas maestro, J F; Palencia cortezon, J E; Reucroft, S; Bheesette, S; Butler, A; Ivanov, A; Mizelkov, M; Kashpydai, O; Kim, J; Janulis, M; Zemleris, V; Ali, A; Ahmed, U S; Awan, M I; Lee, J; Dissertori, G; Pauss, F; Musella, P; Pigazzini, S; Vesterbacka olsson, M L; Klijnsma, T; Khakzad, M; Arfaei, H; Bonesini, M; Gomez moreno, B; Linares garcia, L E; Bae, S; Hatakeyama, K; Mahmoud mohammed, M A; Aly, A; Ahmad, A; Bahinipati, S; Kim, T J; Goh, J; Fang, W; Kemularia, O; Melkadze, A; Sharma, S; Rane, A P; Ayala amaya, E R; Akle, B; Palomo pinto, F R; Madlener, T; Spanring, M; Pol, M E; Alda junior, W L; Rodrigues simoes moreira, P; Kloukinas, K; Onnela, A T O; Passardi, G; Perez, E F; Postema, W J; Petagna, P; Gaddi, A; Vieira de castro ferreira da silva, P M; Gastal, M; Dabrowski, A E; Mersi, S; Bianco, M; Alandes pradillo, M; Chen, Y; Kieseler, J; Murphy, S M; Bawej, T A; Roedne, L T; Hugo, G; Baschiera, M; Loiseau, T L; Donato, S; Wang, Y; Liu, Z; Yue, X; Teng, C; Wang, Z; Liao, H; Zhang, X; Chen, Y; Ahmad, M; Zhao, H; Qi, F; Li, B; Raupach, F; Tonutti, M P; Radziej, M; Fluegge, G; Haj ahmad, W; Kunsken, A; Roy, D M; Ziemons, T; Behrens, U; Henschel, H M; Kleinwort, C H; Dammann, D J; Van onsem, G P; Contreras campana, C J; Penno, M; Haranko, M; Singh, A; Turkot, O; Schleper, P; Schwandt, J; Schwarz, D; Hartmann, F; Muller, T; Mallows, S; Funke, D; Baselga bacardit, M; Mitra, S; Martinez rivero, C; Moya martin, D; Hidalgo villena, S; Chazin quero, B; Mine, P M G; Poilleux, P R; Salerno, R A; Martin perez, C; Amendola, C; Caponetto, L; Pugnere, D Y; Giraud, Y A N; Sordini, V; Grimes, M A; Burns, D J P; Hajdu, C; Vami, T A; Dutta, D; Pant, L M; Kumar, V; Sarin, P; Errico, F; Di florio, A; Giacomelli, P; Montanari, A; Siroli, G P; Robutti, E; Maron, G; Fabozzi, F; Galati, G; Rovelli, C I; Cipriani, M; Della ricca, G; Vazzoler, F; Oh, Y D; Park, W H; Kwon, K H; Choi, J; Kalinowski, A; Santos amaral, L C; Di francesco, A; Velichko, G; Smirnov, I; Kozlov, V; Vavilov, S; Kirianov, A; Dremin, I; Rusakov, S; Nechitaylo, V; Kovzelev, A; Toropin, A; Anisimov, A; Barniakov, A; Gasanov, E; Eskut, E; Polatoz, A; Karaman, T; Zorbilmez, C; Bat, A; Tok, U G; Dag, H; Kaya, O; Tekten, S; Lin, T; Abdoulline, S; Bauerdick, L; Denisov, D; Gingu, C; Green, D; Nahn, S C; Prokofiev, O E; Strait, J B; Los, S; Bowden, M; Tanenbaum, W M; Guo, Y; Dykstra, D W; Mason, D A; Chlebana, F; Cooper, W E; Anderson, J M K; Weber, H A; Christian, D C; Alyari, M F; Diaz cruz, J A; Wang, M; Berry, D R; Jung, K E; Siehl, K F; Poudyal, N; Kyre, S A; Mullin, S D; George, C; Szabo, Z; Malhotra, S; Milosevic, J; Prado da silva, W L; Martins mundim filho, L; Sanchez rosas, L J; Karimaki, V J; Toor, S Z; Karadzhinova, A G; Maazouzi, C; Van hove, P J; Hosselet, J; Goorens, R; Brun, H L; Kalsi, A K; Wang, Q; Vannerom, D; Antchev, G; Iaydjiev, P S; Mitev, G M; Amadio, G; Langenegger, U; Kaestli, H C; Meier, B; Fernandez ramos, J P; Besancon, M; Fabbro, B; Ganjour, S; Locci, E; Gevin, O; Suranyi, O; Bansal, S; Kumar, R; Sharma, S; Tuve, C N; Tricomi, A; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Gori, V; Carlin, R; Dal corso, F; Simonetto, F; Torassa, E; Zumerle, G; Borsato, E; Gonella, F; Dorigo, A; Larsen, H; Peroni, C; Trapani, P P; Buarque franzosi, D; Tamponi, U; Mejia guisao, J A; Zepeda fernandez, C H; Szleper, M; Zalewski, P D; Rybka, D K; Gorbunov, I; Perelygin, V; Kozlov, G; Semenov, R; Khvedelidze, A; Kodolova, O; Klyukhin, V; Snigirev, A; Kryukov, A; Ukhanov, M; Sobol, A; Bayshev, I; Akimenko, S; Lei, Y; Chang, Y; Kao, K; Lin, S; Li, Y; Fantasia, C; Gastler, D E; Paus, C; Wyslouch, B; Knuteson, B O; Azzolini, V; Goncharov, M; Brandt, S; Chen, Z; Liu, J; Chen, Z; Freed, S M; Zhang, A; Nachtman, J M; Penzo, A; Akgun, U; Yi, K; Rahmat, R; Gandrajula, R P; Dilsiz, K; Letts, J; Sharma, V A; Holzner, A G; Wuerthwein, F K; Padhi, S; Suarez silva, I M; Tapia takaki, D J; Stringer, R W; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Al-bataineh, A A; Gabella, W E; Johns, W E; Mora, J G; Shi, Z; Ciesielski, R A; Bornheim, A; Bartz, E H; Doroshenko, J; Halkiadakis, E; Salur, S; Robles, J A; Gray, R C; Saka, H; Osherson, M A; Hughes, E J; Paulini, M G; Russ, J S; Jang, D W; Piroue, P; Olsen, J D; Sands, W; Saluja, S; Cutts, D; Hadley, M H; Hakala, J C; Clare, R; Luthra, A P; Paneva, M I; Seto, R K; Mac intire, D A; Tentindo, S; Wahl, H; Chokheli, D; Micanovic, S; Razis, P; Mousa, J; Ioannou, A; Pantelides, S; Qian, S; Li, W; Gonzalez suarez, R; Stieger, B B; Lee, S W; Michotte de welle, D; De favereau de jeneret, J; Bakhshiansohi, H; Krintiras, G; Caputo, C; Sabev, C; Zenz, S C; Pesaresi, M F; Summers, S P; Saoulidou, N; Ghosh, S; Sikdar, A K; Castaldi, R; Dell'orso, R; Palmonari, F; Rolandi, L; Moggi, A; Coscetti, S; Seo, S H; Cankocak, K; Feng, L; Cumalat, J P; Smith, J G; Iashvili, I; Gallo, S M; Parker, A M; Ledovskoy, A; Hung, P Q; Vaman, D; Goodell, J D; Gomez, J A; Perloff, A S; Celik, A; Luo, S; Hill, C S; Francis, B P; Tripathi, S M; Squires, M K; Thomson, J A; Brainerd, C; Tuli, S; Bourilkov, D; Mitselmakher, G; Carnes, A M; Patterson, J R; Kuznetsov, V Y; Tan, S M; Strohman, C R; Rebassoo, F O; Valouev, V; Zelepukin, S; Lusin, S; Vuosalo, C O U; Ruggles, T H; Rusack, R; Woodard, A E; Meng, F; Dev, N; Vishnevskiy, D; Cremaldi, L M; Oliveros tautiva, S J; Jones, T M; Wang, F; Zaganidis, N; Tytgat, M G; Fedorov, A; Korjik, M; Panov, V; Montagna, P; Vitulo, P; Traversi, G; Gonzalez caballero, I; Pedraza morales, M I; Eysermans, J; Logatchev, O; Orlov, A; Tikhomirov, A; Kulikova, T; Strumia, A; Nam, S K; Soric, I; Padimanskas, M; Siddiqi, H M; Hussain, I; Qazi, S F; Ahmad, M; Makouski, M; Chakaberia, I; Mitchell, T B; Baarmand, M; Hits, D; Theofilatos, K; Mohr, N; Jimenez estupinan, R; Micheli, F; Pata, J; Corrodi, S; Mohammadi najafabadi, M; Menasce, D L; Pedrini, D; Malberti, M; Linn, S L; Mesa, D; Tuuva, T; Carrillo montoya, C A; Roque romero, G A; Suwonjandee, N; Kim, H; Khalil ibrahim, S S; Mahrous mohamed kassem, A M; Trojman, L; Sarkar, U; Bhattacharya, S; Babaev, A; Okhotnikov, V; Nakad, Z S; Fruhwirth, R; Majerotto, W; Mikulec, I; Rohringer, H; Strauss, J; Krammer, N; Hartl, C; Pree, E; Rebello teles, P; Ball, A; Bialas, W; Brachet, S B; Gerwig, H; Lourenco, C; Mulders, M P; Vasey, F; Wilhelmsson, M; Dobson, M; Botta, C; Dunser, M F; Pol, A A; Suthakar, U; Takahashi, Y; De cosa, A; Hreus, T; Chen, G; Chen, H; Jiang, C; Yu, T; Klein, K; Schulz, J; Preuten, M; Millet, P N; Erdweg, S; Keller, H C; Pistone, C; Eckerlin, G; Jung, J; Mnich, J; Jansen, H; Wissing, C; Savitskyi, M; Eichhorn, T V; Harb, A; Botta, V; Martens, I; Knolle, J; Eren, E; Reichelt, O; Schutze, P J; Saibel, A; Schettler, H H; Schumann, S; Kutzner, V G; Husemann, U; Giffels, M; Akbiyik, M; Friese, R M; Baur, S S; Faltermann, N; Kuhn, E; Gottmann, A I D; Muller, D; Balzer, M N; Maier, S; Schnepf, M J; Wassmer, M; Renner, C W; Tcherniakhovski, D; Piedra gomez, J; Vilar cortabitarte, R; Trevisani, N; Boudry, V; Charlot, C P; Tran, T H; Thiant, F; Lethuillier, M M; Perries, S O; Morrissey, Q; Brummitt, A J; Lahiff, A D; Bell, S J; Assiouras, P; Sikler, F; De palma, M; Fiore, L; Pompili, A; Marzocca, C; Soldani, E; Cavallo, F R; Rossi, A M; Torromeo, G; Masetti, G; Virgilio, S; Thyssen, F D M; Iorio, A O M; Montecchi, M; Meridiani, P; Santanastasio, F; Bulfon, C; Zanetti, A M; Casarsa, M; Han, D; Song, J; Ibrahim, Z A B; Faccioli, P; Gallinaro, M; Beirao da cruz e silva, C; Kuznetsova, E; Levchuk, L; Andreev, V; Toropin, A; Dermenev, A; Karpikov, I; Epshteyn, V; Uliyanov, A; Polikarpov, S; Markin, O; Cagil, A; Karapinar, G; Isildak, B; Yu, S; Banicz, K B; Cheung, H W K; Butler, J N; Quigg, D E; Hufnagel, D; Rakness, G L; Spalding, W J; Bhat, P; Kreis, B J; Jensen, H B; Chetluru, V; Albert, M; Hu, Z; Mishra, K; Vernieri, C; Larson, K E; Zejdl, P; Matulik, M; Cremonesi, M; Doualot, N; Ye, Z; Wu, Z; Geffert, P B; Dutta, V; Heller, R E; Dorsett, A L; Choudhary, B C; Arora, S; Ranjeet, R; Devetak, D; Melo da costa, E; Torres da silva de araujo, F; Da silveira, G G; Alves coelho, E; Belchior batista das chagas, E; Buss, N H; Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Havukainen, J J; Tigerstedt, U B S; Goerlach, U; Patois, Y; Collard, C; Mathieu, C; Lowette, S R J; Python, Q P; Moortgat, S; Vanlaer, P; De lentdecker, G W P; Rugovac, S; Tavernier, F F; Beaumont, W; Van de klundert, M; Vankov, P H; Verguilov, V Z; Hadjiiska, R M; De moraes gregores, E; Iope, R L; Ruiz vargas, J C; Barcala riveira, M J; Hernandez calama, J M; Oller, J C; Flix molina, J; Navarro tobar, A; Sastre alvaro, J; Redondo ferrero, D D; Bredy, P; Titov, M; Bausson, P; Major, P; Bala, S; Dhingra, N; Kumari, P; Costa, S; Pelli, S; Meneguzzo, A T; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Montecassiano, F; Dorigo, T; Silvestrin, L; Del duca, V; Demaria, N; Ferrero, M I; Mussa, R; Cartiglia, N; Mazza, G; Maina, E; Dellacasa, G; Covarelli, R; Cotto, G; Sola, V; Monteil, E; Castilla-valdez, H; De la cruz burelo, E; Kazana, M; Gorbunov, N; Kosarev, I; Smirnov, V; Korenkov, V; Savina, M; Lanev, A; Semenyushkin, I; Kashunin, I; Krouglov, N; Markina, A; Bunichev, V; Zotov, N; Miagkov, I; Nazarova, E; Uzunyan, A; Riutin, R; Tsverava, N; Paganis, E; Chen, K; Lu, R; Psallidas, A; Gorodetzky, P P; Hazen, E S; Avetisyan, A; Richardson, C A; Busza, W; Roland, C E; Cali, I A; Marini, A C; Wang, T; Schmitt, M H; Geurts, F; Ecklund, K M; Repond, J O; Schmidt, I; George, N; Ingram, F D; Wetzel, J W; Ogul, H; Spanier, S M; Mrak tadel, A; Zevi della porta, G J; Maguire, C F; Janjam, R K; Chevtchenko, S; Zhu, R; Voicu, B R; Mao, J; Stone, R L; Schnetzer, S R; Nash, K C; Kunnawalkam elayavalli, R; Laflotte, I; Weinberg, M G; Mc cracken, M E; Kalogeropoulos, A; Raval, A H; Cooperstein, S B; Landsberg, G; Kwok, K H M; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Si, W; Hagopian, V; Hagopian, S L; Bertoldi, M; Sharma, V; Brigljevic, V; Ptochos, F; Ather, M W; Konstantinou, S; Yang, D; Li, Q; Attebury, G; Siado castaneda, J E; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Caebergs, T P M; Litov, L B; Fernandez de troconiz, J; Colling, D J; Davies, G J; Raymond, D M; Virdee, T S; Bainbridge, R J; Lewis, P; Rose, A W; Bauer, D U; Sotiropoulos, S; Papadopoulos, I; Triantis, F; Aslanoglou, X; Majumdar, N; Devadula, S; Ciocci, M A; Messineo, A; Palla, F; Grippo, M T; Yu, G B; Willemse, T; Lamsa, J; Blumenfeld, B J; Maksimovic, P; Gritsan, A; Fehling jr, D K; Cocoros, A A; Arnold, P; Wang, Y; Tonwar, S C; Eno, S C; Mignerey, A L C; Nabili, S; Dalchenko, M; Maghrbi, Y; Huang, T; Sheharyar, A; Durkin, L S; Hart, A E; Wang, Z; Tos, K M; Kim, B J; Guo, Y; Ma, P; Rosenzweig, D J; Reeder, D D; Smith, W; Surkov, A; Mohapatra, A K; Maurisset, A; Mans, J M; Kubota, Y; Frahm, E J; Chatterjee, R M; Ruchti, R; Mc cauley, T P; Ivie, P A; Rupprecht, N C; Betchart, B A; Hindrichs, O H; Henderson, C; Sanders, D; Summers, D; Perera, L; Miller, D H; Miyamoto, J; Sun, J; Peng, C; Zahariev, R Z; Peynekov, M M; Ratti, L; Ressegotti, M; Czellar, S; Molnar, J; Khan, A; Morton, A; Vizan garcia, J M; Vischia, P; Erice cid, C F; Carpinteyro bernardino, S; Chmelev, D; Smetannikov, V; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Godinovic, N; Simelevicius, D; Alvi, O I; Hoorani, H U R; Shahzad, H; Shah, M A; Shoaib, M; Rao, M A S; Sidwell, R; Roettger, T J; Corkill, S; Lustermann, W; Roeser, U H; Backhaus, M; Perrin, G L; Naseri, M; Rapuano, F; Redaelli, N; Carbone, L; Spiga, F; Brivio, F; Monti, F; Markowitz, P E; Rodriguez, J L; Morelos pineda, A; Norberg, S R; Ryu, M S; Jeng, Y G; Esteban lallana, M C; Trabelsi, A; Dittmann, J R; Elsayed, E; Khan, Z A; Soomro, K; Janikashvili, M; Kapoor, A; Rastogi, A; Remnev, G; Hrubec, J; Wulz, C; Fichtinger, S K; Abbaneo, D; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Racz, A; Roche, J; Ryjov, V; Sphicas, P; Treille, D; Wertelaers, P; Cure, B R; Fulcher, J R; Moortgat, F W; Bocci, A; Giordano, D; Hegeman, J G; Hegner, B; Gallrapp, C; Cepeda hermida, M L; Riahi, H; Chapon, E; Peruzzi, M; Orfanelli, S; Guilbaud, M R J; Seidel, M; Merlin, J A; Heidegger, C; Schneider, M A; Robmann, P W; Salerno, D N; Galloni, C; Neutelings, I W; Shi, J; Li, J; Zhao, J; Pandoulas, D; Rauch, M P; Schael, S; Hoepfner, K; Weber, M K; Teyssier, D F; Thuer, S; Rieger, M; Albert, A; Muller, T; Sert, H; Lohmann, W F; Ntomari, E; Grohsjean, A J; Wen, Y; Ron alvarez, E; Hampe, J; Bin anuar, A A; Blobel, V; Mattig, S; Haller, J; Sonneveld, J M; Malara, A; Rabbertz, K H; Freund, B; Schell, D B; Savoiu, D; Geerebaert, Y; Becheva, E L; Nguyen, M A; Stahl leiton, A G; Magniette, F B; Fay, J; Gascon-shotkin, S M; Ille, B; Viret, S; Brown, R; Cockerill, D; Williams, T S; Markou, C; Anagnostou, G; Mohanty, A K; Creanza, D M; De robertis, G; Verwilligen, P O J; Perrotta, A; Fanfani, A; Ciocca, C; Ravera, F; Toniolo, N; Badoer, S; Paolucci, P; Khan, W A; Voevodina, E; De iorio, A; Cavallari, F; Bellini, F; Cossutti, F; La licata, C; Da rold, A; Lee, K; Go, Y; Park, J; Kim, M S; Wan abdullah, W; Toldaiev, O; Golovtcov, V; Oreshkin, V; Sosnov, D; Soroka, D; Gninenko, S; Pivovarov, G; Erofeeva, M; Pozdnyakov, I; Danilov, M; Tarkovskii, E; Chadeeva, M; Philippov, D; Bychkova, O; Kardapoltsev, L; Onengut, G; Cerci, S; Vergili, M; Dolek, F; Sever, R; Gamsizkan, H; Ocalan, K; Dogan, H; Kaya, M; Kuo, C; Chang, Y; Albrow, M G; Banerjee, S; Berryhill, J W; Chevenier, G; Freeman, J E; Green, C H; O'dell, V R; Wenzel, H; Lukhanin, G; Di luca, S; Spiegel, L G; Deptuch, G W; Ratnikova, N; Paterno, M F; Burkett, K A; Jones, C D; Klima, B; Fagan, D; Hasegawa, S; Thompson, R; Gecse, Z; Liu, M; Pedro, K J; Jindariani, S; Zimmerman, T; Skirvin, T M; Hofman, D J; Evdokimov, O; Trauger, H C; Gouskos, L; Karancsi, J; Kumar, A; Garg, R B; Keshri, S; Nogima, H; Sznajder, A; Vilela pereira, A; Eerola, P A; Pekkanen, J T K; Guldmyr, J H; Gele, D; Charles, L; Bonnin, C; Bourgatte, G; De clercq, J T; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Yang, Y; Allard, Y; Genchev, V I; Galli mercadante, P; Tomei fernandez, T R; Ahuja, S; Ingram, Q; Rohe, T V; Colino, N; Ferrando, A; Garcia-abia, P; Calvo alamillo, E; Goy lopez, S; Delgado peris, A; Alvarez fernandez, A; Couderc, F; Moudden, Y; Potenza, R; D'alessandro, R; Landi, G; Viliani, L; Bisello, D; Gasparini, F; Michelotto, M; Benettoni, M; Bellato, M A; Fanzago, F; De castro manzano, P; Mantovani, G; Menichelli, M; Passeri, D; Placidi, P; Manoni, E; Storchi, L; Cirio, R; Romero, A; Staiano, A; Pastrone, N; Solano, A M; Argiro, S; Bellan, R; Pacher, L; Duran osuna, M C; Ershov, Y; Zamyatin, N; Palchik, V; Afanasyev, S; Nikonov, E; Miller, M; Baranov, A; Ivanov, V; Petrushanko, S; Perfilov, M; Eyyubova, G; Baskakov, A; Kachanov, V; Korablev, A; Bordanovskiy, A; Kepuladze, Z; Hsiung, Y B; Wu, S; Rankin, D S; Jacob, C J; Alverson, G; Hortiangtham, A; Roland, G M; Innocenti, G M; Allen, B L; Baty, A A; Narayanan, S M; Hu, M; Bi, R; Sung, K K H; Gunter, T K; Bueghly, J D; Yepes stork, P P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Norbeck, J E; Snyder, C M; Branson, J G; Sfiligoi, I; Rogan, C S; Edwards-bruner, C R; Young, R W; Verweij, M; Goulianos, K; Galvez, P D; Zhu, K; Lapadatescu, V; Dutta, I; Somalwar, S V; Park, M; Kaplan, S M; Feld, D B; Vorobiev, I; Zuranski, A M; Mei, K; Knight iii, R R; Spencer, E; Hogan, J M; Syarif, R; Olmedo negrete, M A; Ghiasi shirazi, S; Habibullah, R; Erodotou, E; Ban, Y; Xue, Z; Kravchenko, I; Keller, J D; Knowlton, D P; Wigmans, M E J; Volobouev, I; Peltola, T H T; Kovac, M; Bruno, G L; Gregoire, G; Delaere, C; Bodlak, M; Della negra, M J; James, T O; Shtipliyski, A M; Tziaferi, E; Karageorgos, V W; Fountas, K; Mukhopadhyay, S; Basti, A; Raffaelli, F; Spandre, G; Mazzoni, E; Mandorli, G; Yoo, H D; Aerts, A; Eminizer, N C; Amram, O; Stenson, K M; Ford, W T; Johnson, A A; Green, M L; Li, H; Kellogg, R; Jeng, G; Kunkle, J M; Baron, O; Feng, Y; Wong, K; Toufique, Y; Sehgal, V; Flowers, S C; Breedon, R E; Cox, P T; Mulhearn, M J; Gerhard, R M; Taylor, D N; Konigsberg, J; Sperka, D M; Lo, K H; Quach, D M; Li, T; Andreev, V; Herve, L A M; Klabbers, P R; Svetek, A; Hussain, U; Evans, A C; Lannon, K P; Fedorov, S; Bodek, A; Demina, R; Khukhunaishvili, A; West, C A; Perez, C U; Godang, R; Meier, M; Neumeister, N; Zagurski, K B; Prosolovich, V; Kuhn, J; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C M; Vacchi, C; Szekely, G; Hobson, P R; Fernandez menendez, J; Rodriguez bouza, V; Butler, P; Barakat, N; Sakharov, V; Druzhkin, D; Lavrenov, P; Ahmed, I; Kim, T Y; Pac, M Y; Sculac, T; Gajdosik, T; Tamosiunas, K; Juodagalvis, A; Dudenas, V; Barannik, S; Bashir, A; Khan, F; Saeed, F; Khan, M T; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Noonan, D C; Saunders, M D; Dittmar, M; Donega, M; Perrozzi, L; Nageli, C; Dorfer, C; Zhu, D H; Spirig, Y A; Ruini, D; Alishahiha, M; Ardalan, F; Saramad, S; Mansouri, R; Eskandari tadavani, E; Ragazzi, S; Tabarelli de fatis, T; Govoni, P; Ghezzi, A; Stringhini, G; Sevilla moreno, A C; Smith, C J; Abdelalim, A A; Hassan, A F A; Swain, S K; Sahoo, D K; Carrera jarrin, E F; Chauhan, S; Munoz chavero, F; Grossmann, J; Ambrogi, F; Hensel, C; Alves, G A; Baechler, J; Campi, D; Christiansen, J; De roeck, A; Gayde, J; Hansen, M; Kienzle, W; Reynaud, S; Schwick, C; Troska, J; Zeuner, W D; Osborne, J A; Moll, M; Franzoni, G; Tinoco mendes, A D; Milenovic, P; Garai, Z; Bendavid, J L; Dupont, N A; Gulhan, D C; Daponte, V; Martinez turtos, R; Giuffredi, R; Rapacz, K J; Otiougova, P; Zhu, G; Leggat, D A; Kiesel, M K; Lipinski, M; Wallraff, W; Meyer, A; Pook, T; Pooth, O; Behnke, O; Eckstein, D; Fischer, D J; Garay garcia, J; Vagnerini, A; Klanner, R; Stadie, H; Perieanu, A; Benecke, A; Abbas, S M; Schroeder, M; Lobelle pardo, P; Chwalek, T; Heidecker, C; Floh, K M; Gomez, G; Cabrillo bartolome, I J; Orviz fernandez, P; Duarte campderros, J; Busson, P; Dobrzynski, L; Fontaine, G R R; Granier de cassagnac, R; Paganini, P R J; Arleo, F P; Balagura, V; Martin blanco, J; Ortona, G; Kucher, I; Contardo, D C; Lumb, N; Baulieu, G; Lagarde, F; Figueiredo marques, B E; Heath, H F; Kreczko, L; Clement, E J; Paramesvaran, S; Bologna, S; Bell, K W; Petyt, D A; Moretti, S; Hill, J A; Durkin, T J; Daskalakis, G; Kataria, S K; Iaselli, G; Pugliese, G; My, S; Sharma, A; Abbiendi, G; Taneja, S; Benussi, L; Fabbri, F; Calvelli, V; Frizziero, E; Barone, L M; De notaristefani, F; D'imperio, G; Gobbo, B; Jo, Y; Gyun, D; Yusupov, H; Liew, C S; Zabolotny, W M; Sobolev, S; Gavrikov, Y; Kozlov, I; Golubev, N; Andreev, Y; Tlisov, D; Zaytsev, V; Stepennov, A; Popova, E; Kolchanova, A; Shtol, D; Sirunyan, A; Gokbulut, G; Kara, O; Damarseckin, S; Guler, A M; Ozpineci, A; Hayreter, A; Li, S; Gruenendahl, S; Yarba, J; Para, A; Ristori, L F; Ronzhin, A I; Rubinov, P M; Reichanadter, M A; Churin, I; Beretvas, A; Muzaffar, S M; Lykken, J D; Gutsche, O; Baldin, B; Uplegger, L A; Lei, C M; Wu, W; Derylo, G E; Ruschman, M K; Lipton, R J; Whitbeck, A J; Schmitt, R; Contreras pasuy, L C; Olsen, J T; Cavanaugh, R J; Betts, R R; Wang, H; Sturdy, J T; Gutierrez jr, A; Campagnari, C F; White, D T; Brewer, F D; Qu, H; Ranjan, K; Lalwani, K; Md, H; Shah, A H; Fonseca de souza, S; De jesus damiao, D; Revoredo, E A; Chinellato, J A; Amadei marques da costa, C; Lampen, P T; Wendland, L A; Brom, J; Andrea, J; Tavernier, S; Van doninck, W K; Van mulders, P K A; Clerbaux, B; Rougny, R; Rashevski, G D; Rodozov, M N; Padula, S; Bernardes, C A; Dias maciel, C; Deiters, K; Feichtinger, D; Wiederkehr, S A; Cerrada, M; Fouz iglesias, M; Senghi soares, M; Pasquetto, E; Ferry, S C; Georgette, Z; Malcles, J; Csanad, M; Lal, M K; Walia, G; Kaur, A; Ciulli, V; Lenzi, P; Dosselli, U; Zanetti, M; Costa, M; Dughera, G; Bartosik, N; Ramirez sanchez, G; Frueboes, T M; Karjavine, V; Skachkov, N; Litvinenko, A; Petrosyan, A; Teryaev, O; Trofimov, V; Makankin, A; Golunov, A; Savrin, V; Korotkikh, V; Vardanyan, I; Lukina, O; Belyaev, A; Korneeva, N; Petukhov, V; Skvortsov, V; Konstantinov, D; Efremov, V; Smirnov, N; Shiu, J; Chen, P; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L R; St john, J M; Morse, D M; Krajczar, K F; Mironov, C M; Niu, X; Wang, J; Charaf, O; Matveev, M; Eppley, G W; Mccliment, E R; Ozok, F; Bilki, B; Zieser, A J; Olivito, D J; Wood, J G; Hashemi, B T; Bean, A L; Wang, Q; Tuo, S; Xu, Q; Roberts, J W; Anderson, D J; Lath, A; Jacques, P; Sun, M; Andrews, M B; Svyatkovskiy, A; Heintz, U; Lee, J; Wang, L; Prosper, H B; Adams, J R; Liu, S; Wang, D; Swanson, D; Thiltges, J F; Cowden, C S; Undleeb, S; Finger, M; Beuselinck, R; Rand, D T; Tapper, A D; Malik, S A; Haddad, Y; Lane, R C; Panagiotou, A; Diamantopoulou, M; Mallios, S; Mondal, K; Bhattacharya, R; Bhowmik, D; Libby, J F; Azzurri, P; Foa, L; Tenchini, R; Verdini, P G; Ciampa, A; Manca, E; Radburn-smith, B C; Park, J; Swartz, M L; Sarica, U; Borcherding, F O; Barria, P; Goadhouse, S D; Xia, F; Joyce, M L; Belloni, A; Bouhali, O; Toback, D; Osipenkov, I L; Almes, G T; Walker, J W; Bylsma, B G; Conway, J S; Flores, C S; Avery, P R; Terentyev, N; Barashko, V; Ryd, A P E; Tucker, J M; Heltsley, B K; Wittich, P; Riley, D S; Skinnari, L A; Chu, J Y; Ignatenko, M; Lindgren, M A; Saltzberg, D P; Peck, A N; Herve, A A M; Loveless, R; Savin, A; Herndon, M F; Mason, W P; Martirosyan, S; Grahl, J; Hansen, P D; Saradhy, R; Mueller, C N; Planer, M D; Suh, I S; Hurtado anampa, K P; De barbaro, P J; Garcia-bellido alvarez de miranda, A A; Korjenevski, S K; Moolekamp, F E; Fallon, C T; Acosta castillo, J G; Gutay, L; Barker, A W; Gough, E; Poyraz, D; Van driessche, W G M; Verbeke, W L M; Beniozef, I S; Krasteva, R L; Winn, D R; Fenyvesi, A C; Makovec, A; Munro, C G; Sanchez cruz, S; Bernardino rodrigues, N A; Lokhovitskiy, A; Uribe estrada, C; Rivera martinez, R C; Rebane, L; Racioppi, A; Kim, H; Kim, T; Puljak, I; Boyaryntsev, A; Saeed, M; Tanwir, S; Butt, U; Hussain, A; Nawaz, A; Khurshid, T; Imran, M; Sultan, A; Naeem, M; Kaadze, K; Modak, A; Taylor, R D; Kim, D; Grab, C; Nessi-tedaldi, F; Fischer, J; Manzoni, R A; Zagozdzinska-bochenek, A A; Berger, P; Reichmann, M P; Hashemi, M; Rezaei hosseinabadi, F; Mehrabpour, H; Paganoni, M; Farina, F M; Ciriolo, V; Joshi, Y R; Avila bernal, C A; Cabrera mora, A L; Segura delgado, M A; Gonzalez hernandez, C F; Asavapibhop, B; U-ruekolan, S; Kim, G; Choi, M; Aly, S; El sawy, M; Castaneda hernandez, A M; Shamdasani, J; Tavkhelidze, D; Hegde, V; Aziz, T; Sur, N; Sutar, B J; Karmakar, S; Ghete, V M; Dragicevic, M G; Brandstetter, J; Marques moraes, A; Molina insfran, J A; Aspell, P; Baillon, P; Barney, D; Delikaris, D; Honma, A; Pape, L; Sakulin, H; Macpherson, A L; Bangert, N; Guida, R; Steggemann, J; Voutsinas, G G; Da silva gomes, D; Ben mimoun bel hadj, F; Bonnaud, J Y R; Canelli, F M; Bai, J; Qiu, J; Bian, J; Cheng, Y; Kukulies, C; Teroerde, M; Erdmann, M; Hebbeker, T; Zantis, F; Scheuch, F; Erdogan, Y; Campbell, A J; Kasemann, M; Lange, W; Raspiareza, A; Melzer-pellmann, I; Aldaya martin, M; Lewendel, B; Schmidt, R S; Lipka, E; Missiroli, M; Grados luyando, J M; Shevchenko, R; Babounikau, I; Steinbrueck, G; Vanhoefer, A; Ebrahimi, A; Pena rodriguez, K J; Stover, M; Niedziela, M A; Froehlich, A; Simonis, H J; Katkov, I; Wozniewski, S; Marco de lucas, R J; Lopez virto, A M; Jaramillo echeverria, R W; Hennion, P; Zghiche, A; Chiron, A; Romanteau, T; Beaudette, F; Lobanov, A; Grasseau, G J; Pierre-emile, T B; El mamouni, H; Gouzevitch, M; Goldstein, J; Cussans, D G; Seif el nasr, S A; Titterton, A S; Ford, P J W; Olaiya, E O; Salisbury, J G; Paspalaki, G; Asenov, P; Hidas, P; Kiss, T N; Zalan, P; Shukla, P; Abbrescia, M; De filippis, N; Donvito, G; Radogna, R; Miniello, G; Gelmi, A; Capiluppi, P; Marcellini, S; Odorici, F; Bonacorsi, D; Genta, C; Ferri, G; Saviano, G; Ferrini, M; Minutoli, S; Tosi, S; Lista, L; Passeggio, G; Breglio, G; Merola, M; Diemoz, M; Rahatlou, S; Baccaro, S; Bartoloni, A; Talamo, I G; Kim, J Y; Oh, G; Lim, J H; Lee, J; Mohamad idris, F B; Gani, A B; Cwiok, M; Doroba, K; Martins galinhas, B E; Kim, V; Krivshich, A; Vorobyev, A; Ivanov, Y; Tarakanov, V; Lobodenko, A; Obikhod, T; Isayev, O; Kurov, O; Leonidov, A; Lvova, N; Kirsanov, M; Suvorova, O; Karneyeu, A; Demidov, S; Konoplyannikov, A; Popov, V; Pakhlov, P; Vinogradov, S; Klemin, S; Blinov, V; Skovpen, I; Chatrchyan, S; Grigorian, N; Kayis topaksu, A; Sunar cerci, D; Hos, I; Girgis chyla, S; Guler, Y; Kiminsu, U; Serin, M; Deniz, M; Turan, I; Eryol, F; Pozdnyakov, A; Liu, Z; Doan, T H; Genser, K; Hanlon, J E; Mcbride, P L; Pal, I; Garren, L; Oleynik, G; Harris, R M; Bolla, G; Kowalkowski, J B; Evans, D E; Vaandering, E W; Patrick, J F; Rechenmacher, R; Prosser, A G; Messer, T A; Tiradani, A R; Rivera, R A; Jayatilaka, B A; Duarte, J M; Todri, A; Harr, R F; Richman, J D; Bhandari, R; Dordevic, M; Cirkovic, P; Mora herrera, C; Rosa lopes zachi, A; De paula carvalho, W; Kinnunen, R L A; Lehti, S T; Maeenpaeae, T H; Bloch, D; Chabert, E C; Rudolf, N G; Devroede, O; Skovpen, K; Lontkovskyi, D; De wolf, E A; Van mechelen, P; Van spilbeeck, A B E; Georgiev, L S; Novaes, S F; Costa, M A; Costa leal, B; Horisberger, R P; De la cruz, B; Willmott, C; Perez-calero yzquierdo, A M; Dejardin, M M; Mehta, A; Barbagli, G; Focardi, E; Bacchetta, N; Gasparini, U; Pantano, D; Sgaravatto, M; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Candelori, A; Pozzobon, N; Boletti, A; Servoli, L; Postolache, V; Rossi, A; Ciangottini, D; Alunni solestizi, L; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Amapane, N C; Shchelina, K; Lopez fernandez, R; Sanchez hernandez, A; Heredia de la cruz, I; Matveev, V; Kracikova, T; Shmatov, S; Vasilev, S; Kurenkov, A; Oleynik, D; Verkheev, A; Voytishin, N; Proskuryakov, A; Bogdanova, G; Petrova, E; Bagaturia, I; Tsamalaidze, Z; Zhao, Z; Arcaro, D J; Barberis, E; Wamorkar, T; Wang, B; Ralph, D K; Velasco, M M; Odell, N J; Sevova, S; Li, W; Merlo, J; Onel, Y; Mermerkaya, H; Moeller, A R; Haytmyradov, M; Dong, R; Bugg, W M; Ragghianti, G C; Delannoy sotomayor, A G; Thapa, K; Yagil, A; Gerosa, R A; Masciovecchio, M; Schmitz, E J; Kapustinsky, J S; Greene, S V; Zhang, L; Vlimant, J V; Mughal, A; Cury siqueira, S; Gershtein, Y; Arora, S R R; Lin, W X; Stickland, D P; Mc donald, K T; Pivarski, J M C; Lucchini, M T; Higginbotham, S L; Rosenfield, M; Long, O R; Johnson, K F; Adams, T; Susa, T; Rykaczewski, H; Ge, Y; Levin, A M; Li, J; Li, L; Bloom, K A; Monroy montanez, J A; Kunori, S; Wang, Z; Favart, D; Maltoni, F; Vidal marono, M; Delcourt, M; Markov, S I; Seez, C; Richards, A J; Ferguson, W; Chatziangelou, M; Karathanasis, G; Kontaxakis, P; Jones, J A; Strologas, J; Katsoulis, P; Dutt, S; Roy chowdhury, S; Bhardwaj, R; Purohit, A; Singh, B; Behera, P K; Sharma, A; Spagnolo, P; Tonelli, G E; Fedi, G; Giannini, L; Poulios, S; Groote, J F; Untuc, B; Oztirpan, F O; Koseoglu, I; Luiggi lopez, E E; Krohn, M D; Hadley, N J; Shin, Y H; Safonov, A; Eusebi, R; Rose, A K; Overton, D A; Erbacher, R D; Funk, G N; Pilot, J R; Regnery, B J; Klimenko, S; Matchev, K; Gleyzer, S; Wang, J; Bortignon, P; Curry, D A; Cadamuro, L; Sun, W M; Soffi, L; Lantz, S R; Wright, D; Cline, D; Cousins jr, R D; Erhan, S; Yang, X; Schnaible, C J; Dasgupta, A; Bradley, D C; Monzat, D; Dodd, L M; Tikalsky, J L; Kapusta, J; Gilbert, W J; Lesko, Z J; Marinelli, N; Wayne, M R; Heering, A H; Galanti, M; Duh, Y; Roy, A; Arabgol, M; Hacker, T J; Salva, S; Petrov, V; Barychevski, V; Drobychev, G; Lobko, A; Gabusi, M; Fabris, L; Conte, E R E; Kasprowicz, G H; Kyberd, P; Cole, J E; Lopez, J M; Salazar gonzalez, C A; Benzon, A M; Pelagio, L; Walsh, M F; Postnov, A; Lelas, D; Vaitkus, J V; Jurciukonis, D; Sulmanas, B; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Jalil, S H; Kahl, W E; Taylor, D R; Choi, Y I; Jeong, Y; Roy, T; Guerrero ibarra, D F; Schoenenberger, M A; Khateri, P; Etesami, S M; Fiorini, E; Pullia, A; Magni, S; Gennai, S; Fiorendi, S; Zuolo, D; Sanabria arenas, J C; Florez bustos, C A; Holguin coral, A; Mendez, H; Srimanobhas, N; Jaikar, A H; Arteche gonzalez, F J; Call, K R; Vazquez valencia, E F; Calderon monroy, M A; Aly mohamed mahmoud mohamed, R; Elkafrawy, T; Abdelmaguid, A; Mal, P K; Yuan, L; Lomidze, I; Prangishvili, I; Adamov, G; Dube, S S; Dugad, S; Mohanty, G B; Bhat, M A; Bheesette, S; Abou kors, D J

    CMS is a general purpose proton-proton detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the LHC. It is also well adapted for studies at the initially lower luminosities. The CMS Collaboration consists of over 1800 scientists and engineers from 151 institutes in 31 countries. The main design goals of CMS are: \\begin{enumerate} \\item a highly performant muon system, \\item the best possible electromagnetic calorimeter \\item high quality central tracking \\item hermetic calorimetry \\item a detector costing less than 475 MCHF. \\end{enumerate} All detector sub-systems have started construction. Engineering Design Reviews of parts of these sub-systems have been successfully carried-out. These are held prior to granting authorization for purchase. The schedule for the LHC machine and the experiments has been revised and CMS will be ready for first collisions now expected in April 2006. \\\\\\\\ ~~~~$\\bullet$ Magnet \\\\ The detector (see Figure) will be built around a long (13~m) and large bore ($\\phi$=5.9~m) high...

  4. ATLAS Muon DCS Upgrades and Optimizations

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalis, Christos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Muon subsystem is comprised of four detector types: Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) and Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) for trigger purposes, and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) and Muon Drift Tubes (MDT) for muon track reconstruction. The MDTs cover a large area at the outer part of the detector. In total, there are over a 1’000 MDT chambers, which are made of about 350’000 tubes. The luminosity upgrade of the HL-LHC is expected to pose a serious challenge to the MDTs. The expected increase of particle flux will set new, higher standards regarding the operation and control of the chambers. A step towards optimizing the ATLAS Muon Detector Control System (DCS) was to develop several DCS tools, namely a High Luminosity vs Trip Limit panel with its accompanying scripts and managers. The ultimate goal of this tool is to protect the MDT chambers from the rising particle flux and its associated increase in chamber current. In addition to optimizing the ATLAS Muon DCS, several tasks to accommodate the newly installed B...

  5. The first muon spin rotation experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Garwin, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The February 15, 1957 issue of Physical Review Letters shows the first muon precession curve resulting from the stopping of `85 MeV' muons in graphite, and the resulting counting rate in a gate of fixed delay, duration, and orientation, as a function of an applied vertical magnetic field. The purpose of the four-day experiment was to test the conservation of parity in the weak interactions. It involved the sudden recognition that existing muon beams would be polarized if parity were not conserved, together with the appreciation that the angular distribution of decay electrons from the population of stopped muons could be observed (much more reliably and sensitively) by the variation with time or current of the detections in a fixed counter telescope than by the measurement of the decay asymmetry of nominally fixed muon spins. This retrospective paper explains the context, the state of the art at the time, and what we expected as a consequence of this experiment. We went on to study more accurately the magneti...

  6. The CMS Barrel Muon Trigger Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Triossi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase 1 will impose several constrains for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors DT, RPC and HO. It arranges and fan-out the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent to the track finders. Results, from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown. SUMMARY: In view of the increase of luminosity during phase 1 upgrade of LHC, the muon trigger chain of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent considerable improvements. The muon detector was designed for preserving the complementarity and redundancy of three separate muon detection systems, Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), until ...

  7. Atmospheric Muons as IceCube Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghaus Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Muons of energies above 1 TeV produced in cosmic ray induced air showers account for the vast majority of events in IceCube. Its enormous size compared to previous volume detectors translates into an unprecedented amount of statistics for high-energy atmospheric muons. This offers a wide range of opportunities for original cosmic ray and particle physics. By identifying highly energetic stochastic losses within the detector volume, the single muon spectrum can be measured up to PeV energies. The result is sensitive to the cosmic ray composition around the knee and the contribution to atmospheric lepton fluxes from prompt hadron decays. The multiplicity spectrum of muon bundles relates to the cosmic ray primary flux and composition. Clear features are visible, which can be used to constrain phenomenological models. Investigation of high-pT muons at previously inaccessible lateral separations point to shortcomings in current hadronic interaction models. Furthermore, the large event statistics allow detailed investigation of anisotropies in the arrival direction of cosmic rays for primary energies in excess of 1 PeV.

  8. Inclusive deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    This experiment aims at measuring deep-inelastic inclusive muon scattering to the highest energy and Q$^{2}$ made available by the high intensity muon beam M$^{2}$ and at investigating events in which several muons are simultaneously produced. The momentum of the incident beam is measured with momentum hodoscopes, its time and space coordinates at several positions along the target with additional hodoscopes. The beam halo is detected by an array of anticounters. The target has a length of 40 m of either graphite or liquid hydrogen or liquid deuterium and is surrounded by a magnetized torus which acts as a spectrometer for scattered muons. \\\\ \\\\This magnet has a diameter of 2.75 m and is divided into 10 separate supermodules, 8 of which are presently in use. Each supermodule consists of 8 modules (each module contains 0.44 m of steel), 8 planes of (3m x 3m) MWPC, and 2 planes of circular trigger counters subdivided in rings. The first 6 supermodules are equipped each with a 5 m long target. Muons scattered i...

  9. Detection of atmospheric muons with ALICE detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro, B.; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cuautle, E.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Gomez Jimenez, R.; Gonzalez Santos, H.; Herrera Corral, G.; Leon, I.; Martinez, M.I.; Munoz Mata, J.L.; Podesta, P.; Ramirez Reyes, A.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Sitta, M.; Subieta, M.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Vargas, A.; Vergara, S.

    2010-01-01

    The calibration, alignment and commissioning of most of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the CERN LHC) detectors have required a large amount of cosmic events during 2008. In particular two types of cosmic triggers have been implemented to record the atmospheric muons passing through ALICE. The first trigger, called ACORDE trigger, is performed by 60 scintillators located on the top of three sides of the large L3 magnet surrounding the central detectors, and selects atmospheric muons. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) installed on the first two layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) gives the second trigger, called SPD trigger. This trigger selects mainly events with a single atmospheric muon crossing the SPD. Some particular events, in which the atmospheric muon interacts with the iron of the L3 magnet and creates a shower of particles crossing the SPD, are also selected. In this work the reconstruction of events with these two triggers will be presented. In particular, the performance of the ACORDE detector will be discussed by the analysis of multi-muon events. Some physical distributions are also shown.

  10. Local tracking in the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Primor, David; Mikenberg, Giora

    2007-01-01

    The LHC, the largest hadron collider accelerator ever built, presents new challenges for scientists and engineers. With the anticipated luminosity of the LHC, it is expected to have as many as one billion total collisions per second, of which at most 10 to 100 per second might be of potential scientific interest. One of the two major, general-purpose experiments at LHC is called ATLAS. Since muons are one of the important signs of new physics, the need of their detection has lead to the construction of a stand- alone Muon Spectrometer. This system is located in a high radiation background environment (mostly neutrons and photons) which makes the muon tracking a very challenging task. The Muon Spectrometer consists of two types of precision chambers, the Monitor Drift Tube (MDT) chambers, and the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC). In order to detect the muon and estimate its track parameters, it is very important to detect and precisely estimate its local tracks within the CSC and MDT chambers. Using advanced signa...

  11. Detection of atmospheric muons with ALICE detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandro, B. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dep. di Fisica Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cortes Maldonado, I. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Cuautle, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez Tellez, A. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Gomez Jimenez, R. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Gonzalez Santos, H. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Herrera Corral, G. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Leon, I. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Martinez, M.I.; Munoz Mata, J.L. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Podesta, P. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Ramirez Reyes, A. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M., E-mail: mrodrigu@mail.cern.c [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Sitta, M. [Universita Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria (Italy); Subieta, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dep. di Fisica Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Tejeda Munoz, G.; Vargas, A.; Vergara, S. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-05-21

    The calibration, alignment and commissioning of most of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the CERN LHC) detectors have required a large amount of cosmic events during 2008. In particular two types of cosmic triggers have been implemented to record the atmospheric muons passing through ALICE. The first trigger, called ACORDE trigger, is performed by 60 scintillators located on the top of three sides of the large L3 magnet surrounding the central detectors, and selects atmospheric muons. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) installed on the first two layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) gives the second trigger, called SPD trigger. This trigger selects mainly events with a single atmospheric muon crossing the SPD. Some particular events, in which the atmospheric muon interacts with the iron of the L3 magnet and creates a shower of particles crossing the SPD, are also selected. In this work the reconstruction of events with these two triggers will be presented. In particular, the performance of the ACORDE detector will be discussed by the analysis of multi-muon events. Some physical distributions are also shown.

  12. A precise measurement of 180 GeV muon energy losses in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexa, C.; Boldea, V.; Dita, S.; Pantea, D.; Constantinescu, S.

    2001-01-01

    .6 r.l.) and contamination from hadron and muon decays in flight are eliminated using the first 1.5 m of the muon track in the calorimeter. The quantity to be compared to theoretical estimates is the differential probability dP/dv of fractional muon energy loss per radiation length. The fractional energy loss is expressed as v = ΔE μ - ε, where the muon energy E μ is corrected by the energy losses ε in layers preceding the shower signal, Δ E μ is the shower energy, which is calculated excluding the underlying contribution from the minimum--ionizing track. To obtain ΔE μ the signals in three consecutive layers centered on the maximal signal are summed and then corrected by subtracting the contributions from the muon track ionization and low energy showers overlapping in the three signal cells. The differential probability dP/dv of muon fractional energy loss per radiation length of iron has been measured in the range 0.025≤ v ≤ 0.97 and it is compared with theoretical predictions for energy losses due to Bremsstrahlung, production of electron--positron pairs, energetic knock-on electrons and photonuclear interactions. Particular attention is given to muon Bremsstrahlung which is the dominant process leading to large energy losses. The theoretical values, which are the sum of the predictions for the four processes mentioned above, are in very good agreement with the experimental results over the range of fractional energy losses v from 0.025 to 0.12. This is the region of screening of the nucleus by the electron cloud while the region v ≥ 0.12 is the region of no screening where the dominant process for muon energy losses is Bremsstrahlung. The sensitivity achieved in this experiment for higher fractional energy losses allowed to measure for the first time the effect on muon Bremsstrahlung of the nuclear elastic form factor. The theoretical predictions vary from no effect to a -30 % effect at the upper end of the energy loss spectrum. The results are

  13. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Marcus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Events containing muons in the final state are an important signature for many analyses being carried out at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), including both standard model measurements and searches for new physics. To be able to study such events, it is required to have an efficient and well-understood muon trigger. The ATLAS muon trigger consists of a hardware based system (Level 1), as well as a software based reconstruction (High Level Trigger). Due to high luminosity and pile up conditions in Run 2, several improvements have been implemented to keep the trigger rate low while still maintaining a high efficiency. Some examples of recent improvements include requiring coincidence hits between different layers of the muon spectrometer, improvements for handling overlapping muons, and optimised muon isolation. We will present an overview of how we trigger on muons, recent improvements, and the performance of the muon trigger in Run 2 data.

  14. Monopole excitation of nucleus in the bound muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirov, B.M.; Abazov, V.M.; Kutuzov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The work is aimed at theoretical and experimental investigation into the possibility of nucleus excitation under the muon decay on mesic atom K-shell. The process of mesic atom formation is briefly considered. The stage of muon presence in the mesic atom orbit is completed by mesoatomic cascade, muon decay or muon nuclear capture. Recording of electron coincidences from decay of muon with nuclear transition γ-quanta makes up the base of experiment on the search for the nucleus excitation under the bound muon decay. Muon 158 Sm atom is considered in detail. The experimental data obtained allow one to ascertain the upper limit of probability of the first 152 SmO + level excitation under the bound muon decay W -3

  15. Muon radiography method for fundamental and applied research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A. B.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Galkin, V. I.; Goncharova, L. A.; Grachev, V. M.; Vasina, S. G.; Konovalova, N. S.; Malovichko, A. A.; Managadze, A. K.; Okat'eva, N. M.; Polukhina, N. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Shchedrina, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the basic principles of the muon radiography method, reviews the major muon radiography experiments, and presents the first results in Russia obtained by the authors using this method based on emulsion track detectors.

  16. Multimuon final states in high energy muon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.W.

    1977-01-01

    Multimuon final states observed in the MSU-Fermilab deep inelastic muon scattering apparatus are presented. These events, observed at both 150 and 275-GeV, are more numerous and the extra muons have qualitative different production characteristics than muons expected from conventional sources. Origin of these events are examined. The implication of the data on the understanding of scaling violation observed in muon scattering is discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. A large streamer chamber muon tracking detector in a high-flux fixed-target application

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Adeva, B; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Bird, I G; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; Bonner, B E; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garabatos, C; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Golutvin, I A; Gómez-Tato, A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gülmez, E; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Kröger, W; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Lau, K; Layda, T; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Parks, D P; Pereira, H; Penzo, Aldo L; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Rädel, G; Reyhancan, I; Reicherz, G; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Rosado, A; Roscherr, B; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Sanders, D; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Schüler, K P; Segel, R E; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sergeev, S; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Trentalange, S; Tripet, A; Tzamouranis, Yu; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Zamiatin, N I; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1999-01-01

    Arrays of limited streamer tubes of the Iarocci type were deployed in our experiment at CERN as part of a forward muon detector system with provisions for the beam to pass through the center of each panel in the array. A total of sixteen 4 m x 4 m panels were assembled with inductive readout strips on both sides of each panel. An active feedback system was deployed to regulate the high voltage to the streamer tubes to insure a constant efficiency for minimum ionizing particles. The arrays were operated in this environment for over five years of data taking. Streamer tube track-reconstruction efficiencies and tube replacement rates are reported.

  18. A large Streamer Chamber muon tracking detector in a high-flux fixed-target application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.; Adeva, B.; Arik, E.; Arvidson, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballintijn, M.K.; Bardin, G.; Baum, G.; Berglund, P.; Betev, L.; Bird, I.G.; Birsa, R.; Bjoerkholm, P.; Bonner, B.E.; Botton, N. de; Boutemeur, M.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Bueltmann, S.; Burtin, E.; Cavata, C.; Crabb, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dantzig, R. van; Derro, B.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Dulya, C.; Dyring, A.; Eichblatt, S.; Faivre, J.C.; Fasching, D.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandez, C.; Forthmann, S.; Frois, B.; Gallas, A.; Garabatos, C.; Garzon, J.A.; Gaussiran, T.; Gilly, H.; Giorgi, M.; Goeler, E. von; Goertz, S.; Golutvin, I.A.; Gomez-Tato, A.; Gracia, G.; Groot, N. de; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Guelmez, E.; Haft, K.; Harrach, D. von; Hasegawa, T.; Hautle, P.; Hayashi, N.; Heusch, C.A.; Horikawa, N.; Hughes, V.W.; Igo, G.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kabuss, E.M.; Kageya, T.; Karev, A.; Kessler, H.J.; Ketel, T.J.; Kiryluk, J.; Kiryushin, Iu.; Kishi, A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klostermann, L.; Kraemer, D.; Kroeger, W.; Kurek, K.; Kyynaeraeinen, J.; Lamanna, M.; Landgraf, U.; Lau, K.; Layda, T.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lindqvist, T.; Litmaath, M.; Lowe, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Marie, F.; Martin, A.; Martino, J.; Matsuda, T.; Mayes, B.; McCarthy, J.S.; Medved, K.; Meyer, W.; Middelkoop, G. van; Miller, D.; Miyachi, Y.; Mori, K.; Moromisato, J.; Nassalski, J.; Naumann, L.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Oberski, J.E.J.; Ogawa, A.; Ozben, C.; Parks, D.P.; Pereira, H.; Penzo, A.; Perrot-Kunne, F.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piegaia, R.; Pinsky, L. E-mail: pinky@uh.edu; Platchkov, S.; Plo, M.; Pose, D.; Postma, H.; Pretz, J.; Pussieux, T.; Pyrlik, J.; Raaedel, G.; Reyhancan, I.; Reicherz, G.; Rijllart, A.; Roberts, J.B.; Rock, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Rondio, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Rosado, A.; Roscherr, B.; Sabo, I.; Saborido, J.; Sandacz, A.; Sanders, D.; Savin, I.; Schiavon, P.; Schiller, A.; Schueler, K.P.; Segel, R.; Seitz, R.; Semertzidis, Y. [and others

    1999-10-11

    Arrays of limited streamer tubes of the Iarocci type were deployed in our experiment at CERN as part of a forward muon detector system with provisions for the beam to pass through the center of each panel in the array. A total of 16 4 mx4 m panels were assembled with inductive readout strips on both sides of each panel. An active feedback system was deployed to regulate the high voltage to the streamer tubes to insure a constant efficiency for minimum ionizing particles. The arrays were operated in this environment for over five years of data taking. Streamer tube track-reconstruction efficiencies and tube replacement rates are reported. (author)

  19. Cosmic Rays and Clouds, 1. Formation of Lead Mesoatoms In Neutron Monitor By Soft Negative Muons and Expected Atmospheric Electric Field Effect In The Cosmic Ray Neutron Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, L. I.; Dorman, I. V.

    We extend our model (Dorman and Dorman, 1995) of cosmic ray atmospheric electric field effect on the case of neutron monitor. We take into account that about 0.07 of neu- tron monitor counting rate caused by negative soft muons captured by lead nucleons and formed mesoatoms with generation of several MeV energy neutrons from lead. In this case the neutron monitor or neutron supermonitor works as analyzer which de- tects muons of only one, negative sign. It is very important because the atmospheric electric field effect have opposite signs for positive and negative muons that main part of this effect in the muon telescope or in ionization chamber is compensated and we can observe only small part of total effect of one sign muons. On the basis of our gen- eral theory of cosmic ray meteorological effects with taking into account of negative soft muon acceleration and deceleration in the Earth atmosphere (in dependence of di- rection and intensity of electric field) we discuss the possibility of existing this effect in cosmic ray neutron component and made some rough estimations. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I. and Dorman I.V., 1995. "Cosmic-ray atmospheric electric field effects". Canadian J. of Physics, Vol. 73, pp. 440-443.

  20. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIGI,I.; BOLTON,T.; FORMAGGIO,J.; HARRIS,D.; MORFIN,J.; SPENTZOURIS,P.; YU,J.; KAYSER,B.; KING,B.J.; MCFARLAND,K.; PETROV,A.; SCHELLMAN,H.; VELASCO,M.; SHROCK,R.

    2000-05-11

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters.

  1. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIGI, I.; BOLTON, T.; FORMAGGIO, J.; HARRIS, D.; MORFIN, J.; SPENTZOURIS, P.; YU, J.; KAYSER, B.; KING, B.J.; MCFARLAND, K.; PETROV, A.; SCHELLMAN, H.; VELASCO, M.; SHROCK, R.

    2000-01-01

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters

  2. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  3. Muon (g-2) Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grange, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); et al.

    2015-01-27

    The Muon (g-2) Experiment, E989 at Fermilab, will measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment a factor-of-four more precisely than was done in E821 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. The E821 result appears to be greater than the Standard-Model prediction by more than three standard deviations. When combined with expected improvement in the Standard-Model hadronic contributions, E989 should be able to determine definitively whether or not the E821 result is evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. After a review of the physics motivation and the basic technique, which will use the muon storage ring built at BNL and now relocated to Fermilab, the design of the new experiment is presented. This document was created in partial fulfillment of the requirements necessary to obtain DOE CD-2/3 approval.

  4. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    CERN Document Server

    Jegerlehner, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    This research monograph covers extensively the theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment and provides estimates of the theoretical uncertainties. The muon anomalous magnetic moment is one of the most precisely measured quantities in elementary particle physics and provides one of the most stringent tests of relativistic quantum field theory as a fundamental theoretical framework. It allows for an extremely precise check of the standard model of elementary particles and of its limitations. This book reviews the present state of knowledge of the anomalous magnetic moment a=(g-2)/2 of the muon. Recent experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory now reach the unbelievable precision of 0.5 parts per million, improving the accuracy of previous g-2 experiments at CERN by a factor of 14. In addition, quantum electrodynamics and electroweak and hadronic effects are reviewed. Since non-perturbative hadronic effects play a key role for the precision test, their evaluation is described in detail. Perspectives fo...

  5. Muon: electron final states in neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bross, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    In an experiment carried out at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, eight candidates for the reaction ν/sub μ/ + N → μ + e + anything were observed with a total background of 1.5 +- 0.6 events. The detector consisted of twenty-eight optical spark chambers interspersed with liquid and plastic scintillation counters. Events classified as muon--electron final states are required to have a long noninteracting straight track in conjunction with an electromagnetic shower characteristic of that produced by an electron. Background processes are discussed and the total muon--electron background calculated. The ratio of the number of muon--electron candidates to all charged current events, corrected for the percentage of the neutrino beam above threshold is R' = [sigma(ν/sub μ/ + N → μ + e + anything)]/[sigma(ν/sub μ/ + N → μ + anything)] greater than or approximately 10 -2 . 47 references

  6. Muon (g-2) Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grange, J; Winter, P; Wood, K; Zhao, H; Carey, R M; Gastler, D; Hazen, E; Kinnaird, N; Miller, J P; Mott, J; Roberts, B L; Benante, J; Crnkovic, J; Morse, W M; Sayed, H; Tishchenko, V; Druzhinin, V P; Khazin, B I; Koop, I A; Logashenko, I; Shatunov, Y M; Solodov, E; Korostelev, M; Newton, D; Wolski, A; Bjorkquist, R; Eggert, N; Frankenthal, A; Gibbons, L; Kim, S; Mikhailichenko, A; Orlov, Y; Rubin, D; Sweigart, D; Allspach, D; Annala, G; Barzi, E; Bourland, K; Brown, G; Casey, B C K; Chappa, S; Convery, M E; Drendel, B; Friedsam, H; Gadfort, T; Hardin, K; Hawke, S; Hayes, S; Jaskierny, W; Johnstone, C; Johnstone, J; Kashikhin, V; Kendziora, C; Kiburg, B; Klebaner, A; Kourbanis, I; Kyle, J; Larson, N; Leveling, A; Lyon, A L; Markley, D; McArthur, D; Merritt, K W; Mokhov, N; Morgan, J P; Nguyen, H; Ostiguy, J-F; Para, A; Popovic, C C Polly M; Ramberg, E; Rominsky, M; Schoo, D; Schultz, R; Still, D; Soha, A K; Strigonov, S; Tassotto, G; Turrioni, D; Villegas, E; Voirin, E; Velev, G; Wolff, D; Worel, C; Wu, J-Y; Zifko, R

    2015-01-01

    The Muon (g-2) Experiment, E989 at Fermilab, will measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment a factor-of-four more precisely than was done in E821 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. The E821 result appears to be greater than the Standard-Model prediction by more than three standard deviations. When combined with expected improvement in the Standard-Model hadronic contributions, E989 should be able to determine definitively whether or not the E821 result is evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. After a review of the physics motivation and the basic technique, which will use the muon storage ring built at BNL and now relocated to Fermilab, the design of the new experiment is presented. This document was created in partial fulfillment of the requirements necessary to obtain DOE CD-2/3 approval.

  7. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    method for accurate pressure measurement and subsequent corrections applied to the GRAPES-3 muon data .... of >1 GeV muons [4]. This large rate of muons offers a very sensitive probe for studying the variations in primary cosmic rays due to a variety of atmospheric and solar ..... The error bar on each data point refers to.

  8. Calculations of total muon capture rates in nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Jan Reindert

    1968-01-01

    De UFI hypothese houdt in, dat de zwakke wisselwerkingen die de processen: beta radioactiviteit, muon verval en muon vangst beschrijven dezelfde sterkte en vorm hebben. In dit proefschrift wordt een poging gedaan om deze hypothese te toetsen door muon-vangst te vergelijken met beta radioactiviteit.

  9. Muon fluence measurements at the site boundary for 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwyn, A.J.

    1986-03-01

    Muon fluence (muons cm -2 ) was measured downstream of the experimental area beamlines, just beyond the Fermilab site boundary at Route 38. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain an estimate of the yearly off-site radiation exposure to the general population due to accelerator-produced muons during the 1985 800 GeV run

  10. Higgs boson and Z physics at the First Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, M.; Han, T.

    1998-01-01

    The potential for the Higgs boson and Z-pole physics at the first muon collider is summarized, based on the discussions at the open-quotes Workshop on the Physics at the First Muon Collider and at the Front End of a Muon Colliderclose quotes. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  11. Relativistic shifts of bound negative-muon precession frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, J.H.; Froese, A. M.; Fryer, B.A.; Ghandi, K.

    2005-01-01

    High-field negative-muon spin precession experiments have been performed using a backward-muon beam with substantial transverse spin polarization, facilitating high-precision measurements of the magnetogyric ratio of negative muons bound to nuclei in the ground states of muonic atoms. These results may provide a testing ground for quantum electrodynamics in very strong electromagnetic fields

  12. Development and evaluation of a time-dependent radiographic technology by using a muon read out module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusagaya, T.; Uchida, T.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Tanaka, M.

    2012-04-01

    We will present a real-time monitoring system for cosmic-ray muon radiography as an application of a readout module developed by T. Uchida et al [1,2]. The readout module was developed originally for probing the internal structure of volcanoes in 2008 [3]. Its features are small in size, low power consumption, and the capability to access remotely via Ethernet. The current statistics data of cosmic-ray muons can be read from a PC placed far from the module at anytime. By using this feature, we constructed a real-time monitoring system. As a test experiment, we observed fluid movement in a cylinder with a diameter of 112 meters water equivalent. In this work, we succeeded to resolve the fluid movement in the cylinder. We varied the fluid level inside the cylinder and measured the muon intensity. We found that the muon intensity correlates inversely with the fluid level: the muon intensity increases for the lower fluid level and decreases for the higher fluid level. Although the time resolution of muon radiography was sufficient to resolve changes in the fluid level, an adequate time window has to be chosen for different operating conditions. We anticipate that this system will be applicable to exploring high-speed phenomena in a gigantic object.

  13. Aligning the CMS Muon Chambers with the Muon Alignment System during an Extended Cosmic Ray Run

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Simonetto, F; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Triossi, A; Vanini, S; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Zumerle, G; Baesso, P; Berzano, U; Bricola, S; Necchi, M M; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Aisa, D; Aisa, S; Babucci, E; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Caponeri, B; Checcucci, B; Dinu, N; Fanò, L; Farnesini, L; Lariccia, P; Lucaroni, A; Mantovani, G; Nappi, A; Piluso, A; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Servoli, L; Tonoiu, D; Vedaee, A; Volpe, R; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Berretta, L; Boccali, T; Bocci, A; Borrello, L; Bosi, F; Calzolari, F; Castaldi, R; Dell'Orso, R; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Kraan, A; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Mariani, F; Martini, L; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Petrucciani, G; Raffaelli, F; Sarkar, S; Segneri, G; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Baccaro, S; Barone, L; Bartoloni, A; Cavallari, F; Dafinei, I; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Diemoz, M; Franci, D; Longo, E; Organtini, G; Palma, A; Pandolfi, F; Paramatti, R; Pellegrino, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Alampi, G; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Biino, C; Borgia, M A; Botta, C; Cartiglia, N; Castello, R; Cerminara, G; Costa, M; Dattola, D; Dellacasa, G; Demaria, N; Dughera, G; Dumitrache, F; Graziano, A; Mariotti, C; Marone, M; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Mila, G; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Nervo, M; Obertino, M M; Oggero, S; Panero, R; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Trapani, P P; Trocino, D; Vilela Pereira, A; Visca, L; Zampieri, A; Ambroglini, F; Belforte, S; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Gobbo, B; Penzo, A; Chang, S; Chung, J; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kong, D J; Park, H; Son, D C; Bahk, S Y; Song, S; Jung, S Y; Hong, B; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S K; Rhee, H B; Sim, K S; Kim, J; Choi, M; Hahn, G; Park, I C; Choi, S; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Jeong, H; Kim, T J; Lee, J; Lee, S; Janulis, M; Martisiute, D; Petrov, P; Sabonis, T; Castilla Valdez, H; Sánchez Hernández, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Morelos Pineda, A; Allfrey, P; Gray, R N C; Krofcheck, D; Bernardino Rodrigues, N; Butler, P H; Signal, T; Williams, J C; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Awan, M I M; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S; Shahzad, H; Cwiok, M; Dabrowski, R; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Pozniak, K; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Zabolotny, W; Zych, P; Frueboes, T; Gokieli, R; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Almeida, N; Antunes Pedro, L; Bargassa, P; David, A; Faccioli, P; Ferreira Parracho, P G; Freitas Ferreira, M; Gallinaro, M; Guerra Jordao, M; Martins, P; Mini, G; Musella, P; Pela, J; Raposo, L; Ribeiro, P Q; Sampaio, S; Seixas, J; Silva, J; Silva, P; Soares, D; Sousa, M; Varela, J; Wöhri, H K; Altsybeev, I; Belotelov, I; Bunin, P; Ershov, Y; Filozova, I; Finger, M; Finger, M., Jr.; Golunov, A; Golutvin, I; Gorbounov, N; Kalagin, V; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Korenkov, V; Kozlov, G; Kurenkov, A; Lanev, A; Makankin, A; Mitsyn, V V; Moisenz, P; Nikonov, E; Oleynik, D; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Petrosyan, A; Semenov, R; Shmatov, S; Smirnov, V; Smolin, D; Tikhonenko, E; Vasil'ev, S; Vishnevskiy, A; Volodko, A; Zarubin, A; Zhiltsov, V; Bondar, N; Chtchipounov, L; Denisov, A; Gavrikov, Y; Gavrilov, G; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kozlov, V; Levchenko, P; Obrant, G; Orishchin, E; Petrunin, A; Shcheglov, Y; Shchetkovskiy, A; Sknar, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Tarakanov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Velichko, G; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Anisimov, A; Antipov, P; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Matveev, V; Pashenkov, A; Postoev, V E; Solovey, A; Toropin, A; Troitsky, S; Baud, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Ilina, N; Kaftanov, V; Kolosov, V; Kossov, M; Krokhotin, A; Kuleshov, S; Oulianov, A; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Shreyber, I; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Petrushanko, S; Sarycheva, L; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Vardanyan, I; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Konovalova, N; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Akimenko, S; Artamonov, A; Azhgirey, I; Bitioukov, S; Burtovoy, V; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Levine, A; Lobov, I; Lukanin, V; Mel'nik, Y; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Slabospitsky, S; Sobol, A; Sytine, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Jovanovic, D; Krpic, D; Maletic, D; Puzovic, J; Smiljkovic, N; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Alberdi, J; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Arce, P; Barcala, J M; Battilana, C; Burgos Lazaro, C; Caballero Bejar, J; Calvo, E; Cardenas Montes, M; Cepeda, M; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Clemente, F; Colino, N; Daniel, M; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Diez Pardos, C; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; Garcia-Bonilla, A C; Gonzalez Lopez, O; Goy Lopez, S; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Marin, J; Merino, G; Molina, J; Molinero, A; Navarrete, J J; Oller, J C; Puerta Pelayo, J; Romero, L; Santaolalla, J; Villanueva Munoz, C; Willmott, C; Yuste, C; Albajar, C; Blanco Otano, M; de Trocóniz, J F; Garcia Raboso, A; Lopez Berengueres, J O; Cuevas, J; Fernandez Menendez, J; Gonzalez Caballero, I; Lloret Iglesias, L; Naves Sordo, H; Vizan Garcia, J M; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Chuang, S H; Diaz Merino, I; Diez Gonzalez, C; Duarte Campderros, J; Fernandez, M; Gomez, G; Gonzalez Sanchez, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Jorda, C; Lobelle Pardo, P; Lopez Virto, A; Marco, J; Marco, R; Martinez Rivero, C; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P; Matorras, F; Rodrigo, T; Ruiz Jimeno, A; Scodellaro, L; Sobron Sanudo, M; Vila, I; Vilar Cortabitarte, R; Abbaneo, D; Albert, E; Alidra, M; Ashby, S; Auffray, E; Baechler, J; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Bally, S L; Barney, D; Beaudette, F; Bellan, R; Benedetti, D; Benelli, G; Bernet, C; Bloch, P; Bolognesi, S; Bona, M; Bos, J; Bourgeois, N; Bourrel, T; Breuker, H; Bunkowski, K; Campi, D; Camporesi, T; Cano, E; Cattai, A; Chatelain, J P; Chauvey, M; Christiansen, T; Coarasa Perez, J A; Conde Garcia, A; Covarelli, R; Curé, B; De Roeck, A; Delachenal, V; Deyrail, D; Di Vincenzo, S; Dos Santos, S; Dupont, T; Edera, L M; Elliott-Peisert, A; Eppard, M; Favre, M; Frank, N; Funk, W; Gaddi, A; Gastal, M; Gateau, M; Gerwig, H; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Girod, J P; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R; Goudard, R; Gowdy, S; Guida, R; Guiducci, L; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Hartl, C; Harvey, J; Hegner, B; Hoffmann, H F; Holzner, A; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Le Godec, G; Lecoq, P; Leonidopoulos, C; Loos, R; Lourenço, C; Lyonnet, A; Macpherson, A; Magini, N; Maillefaud, J D; Maire, G; Mäki, T; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Meridiani, P; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Meynet Cordonnier, A; Moser, R; Mulders, M; Mulon, J; Noy, M; Oh, A; Olesen, G; Onnela, A; Orimoto, T; Orsini, L; Perez, E; Perinic, G; Pernot, J F; Petagna, P; Petiot, P; Petrilli, A; Pfeiffer, A; Pierini, M; Pimiä, M; Pintus, R; Pirollet, B; Postema, H; Racz, A; Ravat, S; Rew, S B; Rodrigues Antunes, J; Rolandi, G; Rovere, M; Ryjov, V; Sakulin, H; Samyn, D; Sauce, H; Schäfer, C; Schlatter, W D; Schröder, M; Schwick, C; Sciaba, A; Segoni, I; Sharma, A; Siegrist, N; Siegrist, P; Sinanis, N; Sobrier, T; Sphicas, P; Spiga, D; Spiropulu, M; Stöckli, F; Traczyk, P; Tropea, P; Troska, J; Tsirou, A; Veillet, L; Veres, G I; Voutilainen, M; Wertelaers, P; Zanetti, M; Bertl, W; Deiters, K; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; Ingram, Q; Kaestli, H C; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Langenegger, U; Meier, F; Renker, D; Rohe, T; Sibille, J; Starodumov, A; Betev, B; Caminada, L; Chen, Z; Cittolin, S; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D R; Dambach, S; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Eggel, C; Eugster, J; Faber, G; Freudenreich, K; Grab, C; Hervé, A; Hintz, W; Lecomte, P; Luckey, P D; Lustermann, W; Marchica, C; Milenovic, P; Moortgat, F; Nardulli, A; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pape, L; Pauss, F; Punz, T; Rizzi, A; Ronga, F J; Sala, L; Sanchez, A K; Sawley, M C; Sordini, V; Stieger, B; Tauscher, L; Thea, A; Theofilatos, K; Treille, D; Trüb, P; Weber, M; Wehrli, L; Weng, J; Zelepoukine, S; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; De Visscher, S; Regenfus, C; Robmann, P; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Tsirigkas, D; Wilke, L; Chang, Y H; Chen, E A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Kuo, C M; Li, S W; Lin, W; Bartalini, P; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y; Lei, Y J; Lin, S W; Lu, R S; Schümann, J; Shiu, J G; Tzeng, Y M; Ueno, K; Velikzhanin, Y; Wang, C C; Wang, M; Adiguzel, A; Ayhan, A; Azman Gokce, A; Bakirci, M N; Cerci, S; Dumanoglu, I; Eskut, E; Girgis, S; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Karaman, T; Kayis Topaksu, A; Kurt, P; Önengüt, G; Önengüt Gökbulut, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Polatöz, A; Sogut, K; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Uzun, D; Vergili, L N; Vergili, M; Akin, I V; Aliev, T; Bilmis, S; Deniz, M; Gamsizkan, H; Guler, A M; Öcalan, K; Serin, M; Sever, R; Surat, U E; Zeyrek, M; Deliomeroglu, M; Demir, D; Gülmez, E; Halu, A; Isildak, B; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Ozkorucuklu, S; Sonmez, N; Levchuk, L; Lukyanenko, S; Soroka, D; Zub, S; Bostock, F; Brooke, J J; Cheng, T L; Cussans, D; Frazier, R; Goldstein, J; Grant, N; Hansen, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hill, C; Huckvale, B; Jackson, J; Mackay, C K; Metson, S; Newbold, D M; Nirunpong, K; Smith, V J; Velthuis, J; Walton, R; Bell, K W; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Camanzi, B; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Geddes, N I; Harder, K; Harper, S; Kennedy, B W; Murray, P; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Tomalin, I R; Williams, J H; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Bainbridge, R; Ball, G; Ballin, J; Beuselinck, R; Buchmuller, O; Colling, D; Cripps, N; Davies, G; Della Negra, M; Foudas, C; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Hall, G; Hays, J; Iles, G; Karapostoli, G; MacEvoy, B C; Magnan, A M; Marrouche, J; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Papageorgiou, A; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rompotis, N; Rose, A; Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The alignment system for the muon spectrometer of the CMS detector comprises three independent subsystems of optical and analog position sensors. It aligns muon chambers with respect to each other and to the central silicon tracker. System commissioning at full magnetic field began in 2008 during an extended cosmic ray run. The system succeeded in tracking muon detector movements of up to 18 mm and rotations of several milliradians under magnetic forces. Depending on coordinate and subsystem, the system achieved chamber alignment precisions of 140-350 microns and 30-200 microradians. Systematic errors on displacements are estimated to be 340-590 microns based on comparisons with independent photogrammetry measurements.

  14. Characterisation of the Muon Beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V.J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C.N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A.D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, G.; Cobb, J.H.; Colling, D.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L.M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Filthaut, F.; Fish, A.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fletcher, R.; Forrest, D.; Francis, V.; Freemire, B.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O.M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harrison, P.; Hart, T.L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y.K.; Kolev, D.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lau, W.; Leaver, J.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Lucchini, G.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R.B.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M.A.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Roberts, T.J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Rusinov, I.; Sakamoto, H.; Sanders, D.A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P.J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F.J.P.; Stanley, T.; Summers, D.J.; Takahashi, M.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C.D.; Vankova, G.; Verguilov, V.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Walaron, K.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C.G.; Wilson, A.; Wisting, H.; Zisman, M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \\pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \\pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  15. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A. [Harwell Oxford, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Adey, D.; Back, J.; Boyd, S.; Harrison, P.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I. [University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Coventry (United Kingdom); Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Fish, A.; Hunt, C.; Leaver, J.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Richards, A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Takahashi, M. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Karadzhov, Y.; Verguilov, V.; Wisting, H. [Universite de Geneve, DPNC, Section de Physique, Geneva (Switzerland); De Bari, A.; Cecchet, G. [Sezione INFN Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Bayes, R.; Forrest, D.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Walaron, K. [The University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Lucchini, G. [Sezione INFN Milano Bicocca (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Milano (Italy); Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Rusinov, I.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova, G. [St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Department of Atomic Physics, Sofia (Bulgaria); Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.P.; Zisman, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravar, U. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L. [Sezione INFN Roma Tre e Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Owens, P.; White, C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Coney, L.; Fletcher, R.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C. [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Cooke, P.; Gamet, R. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J. [University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Dick, A.J.; Ronald, K.; Whyte, C.G. [University of Strathclyde, Department of Physics, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Filthaut, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Freemire, B.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ishimoto, S. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Science, Department of Physics, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J. [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Onel, Y. [University of Iowa, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa City, IA (United States); Palladino, V. [Universita Federico II, Sezione INFN Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); Palmer, R.B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (US); Roberts, T.J. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (US); Collaboration: The MICE Collaboration

    2013-10-15

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.2-2.3 {pi} mm-rad horizontally and 0.6-1.0 {pi} mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90-190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE. (orig.)

  16. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Adey, D.; Back, J.; Boyd, S.; Harrison, P.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Fish, A.; Hunt, C.; Leaver, J.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Richards, A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Takahashi, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Karadzhov, Y.; Verguilov, V.; Wisting, H.; De Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Bayes, R.; Forrest, D.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Walaron, K.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Lucchini, G.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Rusinov, I.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova, G.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.P.; Zisman, M.S.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Owens, P.; White, C.; Coney, L.; Fletcher, R.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Dick, A.J.; Ronald, K.; Whyte, C.G.; Filthaut, F.; Freemire, B.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Ishimoto, S.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Onel, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R.B.; Roberts, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.2-2.3 π mm-rad horizontally and 0.6-1.0 π mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90-190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE. (orig.)

  17. Muon production in extended air shower simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierog, T; Werner, K

    2008-10-24

    Whereas air shower simulations are very valuable tools for interpreting cosmic ray data, there is a long-standing problem: it is difficult to accommodate at the same time the longitudinal development of air showers and the number of muons measured on the ground. Using a new hadronic interaction model (EPOS) in air shower simulations produces much more muons, in agreement with results from the HiRes-MIA experiment. We find that this is mainly due to a better description of (anti) baryon production in hadronic interactions. This is an aspect of air shower physics which has been neglected so far.

  18. Searches for violation of muon number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redwine, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The question of violation of muon number conservation is one which has occupied considerable attention and resources in recent years. The first generation of experiments at the medium energy accelerators has now been completed and the next generation of experiments is ready to begin. The history of muon number conservation is reviewed, including the reasons for the present belief that the conservation law may not be exact. The experiments that have been completed in the last few years are discussed. The new experiments that are being mounted and planned at several laboratories are discussed, and the relationship of these types of experiments to other studies, such as searches for neutrino oscillations, are considered

  19. The H1 forward muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.; Phillips, H.; Cronstroem, H.I.; Hedberg, V.; Jacobsson, C.; Joensson, L.; Lohmander, H.; Nyberg, M.; Biddulph, P.; Finnegan, P.; Foster, J.; Gilbert, S.; Hilton, C.; Ibbotson, M.; Mehta, A.; Sutton, P.; Stephens, K.; Thompson, R.

    1993-02-01

    The H1 detector started taking data at the electron- proton collider HERA in the beginning of 1992. In HERA 30 GeV electrons collide with 820 GeV protons giving a strong boost of the centre-of-mass system in the direction of the proton, also called the forward region. For the detection of high momentum muons in this region a muon spectrometer has been constructed, consisting of six drift chamber planes, three either side of a toroidal magnet. A first brief description of the system and its main parameters as well as the principles for track reconstruction and Τ 0 determination is given. (orig.)

  20. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, V W; Earle, W; Efstathiadis, E F; Hare, M; Hazen, E S; Krienen, F; Miller, J P; Rind, O; Roberts, B L; Sulak, Lawrence R; Trofimov, A V; Brown, H N; Bunce, G M; Danby, G T; Larsen, R; Lee, Y Y; Meng, W; Mi, J L; Morse, W M; Pai, C; Prigl, R; Sanders, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Tanaka, M; Warburton, D; Orlov, Yu F; Winn, D; Grossmann, A; Jungmann, Klaus; zu Putlitz, Gisbert; Debevec, P T; Deninger, W; Hertzog, D W; Polly, C; Sedykh, S; Urner, D; Haeberlen, U; Cushman, P B; Duong, L; Giron, S; Kindem, J; McNabb, R; Miller, D; Timmermans, C; Zimmerman, D; Druzhinin, V P; Fedotovich, G V; Khazin, B I; Logashenko, I B; Ryskulov, N M; Serednyakov, S I; Shatunov, Yu M; Solodov, E P; Yamamoto, A; Iwasaki, M; Kawamura, M; Deng, H; Dhawan, S K; Farley, Francis J M; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Hughes, V W; Kawall, D; Redin, S I; Steinmetz, A

    1998-01-01

    A new experiment is underway at Brookhaven National Laboratory to measure the g-2 value of the muon to a precision of 0.35 ppm, which would improve our present knowledge by a factor of 20. In its initial run the muon anomalous g-value was found to be a/sub mu //sup + /=1165925(15)*10/sup -9/ [13 ppm], in good agreement with the previous CERN measurements and with approximately the same uncertainty. The current scientific motivations for this experiment are discussed, and the experiment is described. (30 refs).

  1. Rare kaon, muon, and pion decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littenberg, L.

    1998-12-01

    The author discusses the status of and prospects for the study of rare decays of kaons, muons, and pions. Studies of rare kaon decays are entering an interesting new phase wherein they can deliver important short-distance information. It should be possible to construct an alternative unitarity triangle to that determined in the B sector, and thus perform a critical check of the Standard Model by comparing the two. Rare muon decays are beginning to constrain supersymmetric models in a significant way, and future experiments should reach sensitivities which this kind of model must show effects, or become far less appealing.

  2. Future Muon Source Possibilities at the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Travis J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); MacDougall, Prof. Gregory J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The workshop “Future Muon Source Possibilities at the SNS” was held September 1-2, 2016 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The workshop aimed to examine the technical feasibility and scientific need to construct a μSR and/or β-NMR facility at the SNS. During the course of the workshop it became evident that recently developed technology could enable the development of a world leading pulsed muon source at SNS, without impacting the neutron science missions of the SNS. The details are discussed below.

  3. The TRIUMF radiative muon capture facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.H.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Sample, D.G.; Zhang, N.S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; Bertl, W.; Henderson, R.S.; Robertson, B.C.; Taylor, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen produces photons with a yield of ≅ 10 -8 per stopped muon. To measure RMC at TRIUMF we have constructed a lage-solid-angle photon pair-spectrometer which surrounds the liquid hydrogen target. The spectrometer consists of a cylindrical photon converter and a larget-volume cylindrical drift chamber to track the e + e - pairs. It is enclosed in a spectrometer magnet which produces a highly uniform axial magnetic field. The detector subsystems, the hardware trigger and the data acquisition system are described, chamber calibration and tracking techniques are presented, and the spectrometer performance and its Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. (orig.)

  4. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, F.J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical survey of the measurements of the gyromagnetic ratio g of the muon. A brief introduction is given to the theory of the 'anomalous magnetic moment' a equivalent to 1/2(g-2) and its significance is explained. The main part of the review concerns the successive (g-2) experiments to measure a directly, with gradually increasing accuracy. At present experiment and theory agree to (13+-29) parts in 10 9 in g, and the muon still obeys the rules of quantum electrodynamics for a structureless point charge. (author)

  5. Setup of a drift tube muon tracker and calibration of muon tracking in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Daniel

    2011-04-15

    In this work the setup and commissioning of a drift tube based 3D muon tracking detector are described and its use for the solar neutrino experiment Borexino is presented. After a brief introduction to neutrino physics, the general layout of the detector is presented. It is followed by the description of the reconstruction and calibration algorithms. The performance of the muon tracker is presented and results from the commissioning in Hamburg are shown. The detector is currently operated in the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy at the Borexino experiment. After an introduction to Borexino, the modifications of the muon tracker for its setup at LNGS are described. The setup is used as a reference system to determine the resolution of the Borexino muon tracking which is essential for the tagging of cosmogenic induced {sup 11}C background. Finally, first results are presented. (orig.)

  6. Setup of a drift tube muon tracker and calibration of muon tracking in Borexino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    In this work the setup and commissioning of a drift tube based 3D muon tracking detector are described and its use for the solar neutrino experiment Borexino is presented. After a brief introduction to neutrino physics, the general layout of the detector is presented. It is followed by the description of the reconstruction and calibration algorithms. The performance of the muon tracker is presented and results from the commissioning in Hamburg are shown. The detector is currently operated in the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy at the Borexino experiment. After an introduction to Borexino, the modifications of the muon tracker for its setup at LNGS are described. The setup is used as a reference system to determine the resolution of the Borexino muon tracking which is essential for the tagging of cosmogenic induced 11 C background. Finally, first results are presented. (orig.)

  7. Muon Trigger with TileCal. A Preliminary Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Costanzo, D; Mazzoni, E; Petridou, C

    1998-01-01

    In this short report we summarize a first analysis on how muon can be identified by exploiting fully the TileCal segmentation. After a short description of the geometry and readout scheme of the detector,we analyse its response to single, isolated muons. This allow to define a simple algorithm to tag muons. This algorithm is tested with fully simulated data. The tag efficiency and the fake muon rate are such to suggest that already this simple method can be implemented in a LVL2 trigger, where the digitized TileCal data are fully available to tag muons of momenta larger than 3 GeV

  8. A Muon Collider scheme based on Frictional Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Caldwell, A.; Galea, R.; Schlenstedt, S.

    2005-01-01

    Muon Colliders would usher in a new era of scientific investigation in the field of high-energy particle physics. The cooling of muon beams is proving to be the greatest obstacle in the realization of a Muon Collider. Monte Carlo simulations of a muon cooling scheme based on Frictional Cooling were performed. Critical issues, which require further study, relating to the technical feasibility of such a scheme are identified. Frictional Cooling, as outlined in this paper, provides sufficient six-dimensional emittance to make luminous collisions possible. It holds exciting potential in solving the problem of Muon Cooling

  9. Development of a tomographic method using cosmic ray muons: application to the Mont Terri underground laboratory and la Soufriere de Guadeloupe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesparre, N.

    2011-01-01

    Cosmic muons are produced in cascade processes following the interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere. Muons are fundamental particles with a mass 200 times higher than electrons. Their low interaction probability with matter allows them to cross the atmosphere and even the first kilometers of the Earth crust. The muons flux is attenuated through a media as function of the quantity of matter crossed. The study of the muon flux attenuation allows then to obtain a direct measurement of the rock opacity. This opacity corresponds to the media density, integrated along the muon path through rock. Muons' trajectory is indeed considered to be straight when crossing rock. It is then possible to realise geophysical tomographies by setting a sensor network around geological objects in order to determine the internal structures geometry inside these objects. An underground muon flux model is developed herein from flux models estimated at surface and a model of muon flux attenuation through rock. A feasibility equation of the muon tomography is then established in order to determine the minimum time of data acquisition to distinguish heterogeneities. Four muons telescopes have been built during this thesis and conditioned to bear field installation, notably in tropical media. These telescopes are made by two or three matrices of detection constituted of scintillating bars linked to photomultipliers. The modeling of the telescopes detection capacity and angular resolution is realised as function of their geometrical configuration. A calibration method is also established in order to correct the signal from any distortion. Moreover, arrangements to reduce the backward noise produced by low energy particles are set up and evaluated. The development of this new tomographic method is then illustrated by two geophysical applications. The measurements realised in the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland) allowed us to benefit from stable acquisition conditions to

  10. Proceedings of the 17. International conference on phenomena in ionized gases held at Budapest, Hungary, 8-12 Jul 1985, v.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.S.; Soerlei, Zsuzsa

    1985-06-01

    In the second part of the Conference Proceedings the complete text of papers are published in the following sessions (with the number of papers in each session in parantheses): Breakdown Including Ionization Growth, Coronas and Sparks (35), Glows and Microwave Discharges (42), Arcs (15), Numerical Modelling Related to Discharges and Plasmas (15), Laser Induced Discharges (12), Discharges for Lasers (20), Generation and Dynamics of Plasma Flows (8), Plasma Spectroscopy (Including Radiation Transport) (24), Diagnostic Methods Related to All Topics Listed Above (35). Papers falling in the INIS scope are indexed separately. (R.P.)

  11. Frictional accumulation of negative muons and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taqqu, D.

    1996-01-01

    A novel method is proposed for the efficient conversion of intermediate energy negative muons into a low-energy muon beam. It is based on using an electric field to eject muons from a moderator consisting of a large number of thin carbon foils placed perpendicularly to the axis of a high-field solenoid. High-energy muons are made to slow down within the moderator to an energy where further slowing down is inhibited by the electric field acceleration between the foils. The muons accumulate at low energy within the moderator hopping from one foil to the next until they come out as a low-energy muon beam. The resulting phase compression factor exceeds 1000. Efficient initial injection of the muons into the moderator is obtained either by letting the muons enter it in a direction opposite to the acceleration force or by producing the muons within a magnetic trap containing the moderator. A practical configuration based on the second scheme is presented. By implementing the method into the most intense muon production configurations a new pathway is opened that may ultimately compete with other schemes in the selection of the optimal source for high-energy muon colliders. (orig.)

  12. Hygiene of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legare, I.-M.; Conceicao Cunha, M. da

    1976-01-01

    The concepts of quality factor and rem are introduced and a table of biological effects of external ionizing radiation sources is presented. Natural exposures, with tables of background radiation sources and of doses due to cosmic rays on high altitude areas and their populations are treated, as well as medical exposures; artificial background; fallout; scientific, industrial and other sources. The maximum and limit doses for man are given and tables of maximum admissible doses of ionizing radiations for 16-18 year old workers professionaly exposed, for professionals eventually subjected to radiation in their work and for people eventually exposed. Professional protection is discussed and tables are given of half-value layer of water, concrete, iron and lead for radiations of different energies, as well as the classification of exposure zones to the radiations and of maximum acceptable contamination for surfaces. The basic safety standards for radiation protection are summarized; tables are given also with emergency references for internal irradiation. Procedures with patients which received radioisotopes are discussed. At last, consideration is given to the problem of radioactive wastes in connection with the medical use of radionuclides [pt

  13. Electron Attenuation Measurement using Cosmic Ray Muons at the MicroBooNE LArTPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meddage, Varuna [Kansas State U., Manhattan

    2017-10-01

    The MicroBooNE experiment at Fermilab uses liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) technology to study neutrino interactions in argon. A fundamental requirement for LArTPCs is to achieve and maintain a low level of electronegative contaminants in the liquid to minimize the capture of drifting ionization electrons. The attenuation time for the drifting electrons should be long compared to the maximum drift time, so that the signals from particle tracks that generate ionization electrons with long drift paths can be detected efficiently. In this talk we present MicroBooNE measurement of electron attenuation using cosmic ray muons. The result yields a minimum electron 1/e lifetime of 18 ms under typical operating conditions, which is long compared to the maximum drift time of 2.3 ms.

  14. Muon capture reaction (μ-,nu/sub μ/) with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    A pulsed source fo stopped μ - and experimental muon facility associated with the Pulsed Storage Ring (PSR) under construction at LAMPF is a distinct possibility. With a new superconducting solonoid muon channel, one could expect negative muon fluxes at the PSR to match or exceed those at the present LAMPF Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). The time structure of the beam opens a whole new range of experimental possibilities in nuclear muon capture. With LAMPF II, the μ - flux could exceed that at SMC by up to two orders of magnitude. With the possibilities of these greatly improved and more versatile μ - beams, it seems appropriate to reexamine the subject of muon capture on nuclei. The purpose of this contribution is to give an overview response to the question what can be learned from the muon capture reaction (μ - ,nu/sub μ/) on nuclei

  15. A precision measurement of muon decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quraan, M.A.; Amaudruz, P.; Andersson, W.; Comyn, M.; Davydov, Yu.; Depommier, P.; Doornbos, J.; Faszer, W.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gill, D.R.; Green, P.; Gumplinger, P.; Hardy, J.C.; Hasinoff, M.; Helmer, R.; Henderson, R.; Khruchinsky, A.; Kitching, P.; Koetke, D.D.; Korkmaz, E.; Lachin, Y.; Mass, D.; Macdonald, J.A.; Manweiler, R.; Mathie, T.; Musser, J.R.; Nord, P.; Olin, A.; Ottewell, D.; Openshaw, R.; Piilonen, L.; Porcelli, T.; Poutissou, J-M.; Poutissou, R.; Rodning, N.L.; Schaapman, J.; Selivanov, V.; Sheffer, G.; Shin, Y.; Sobratee, F.; Soukup, J.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Stinson, G.; Tacik, R.; Torokhov, V.; Tribble, R.E.; Vasiliev, M.A.; Walter, H.K.; Wright, D

    2000-01-31

    The V-A structure of the weak interaction was put into the standard model by hand in order to obtain agreement with experiments. These experiments, however, do not rule out relatively large deviations from this structure. Muon decay provides an ideal laboratory to test this structure, being a purely leptonic process. TRIUMF experiment E614 will measure both the energy and emission-angle distribution of positrons from the decay of polarized muons. This will provide a simultaneous determination of the Michel parameters P{sub {mu}}{xi}, {rho} and {delta} describing muon decay with a precision of a few parts in 10{sup 4}. Stringent limits may then be placed on the coupling constants, as well as the mass and mixing angle of a possible right-handed W boson (W{sub R}). In this paper the formalism for muon decay is presented, the E614 experiment is described, and the sensitivity expected from E614 is compared to present limits on the values of the coupling constants and the mass and mixing angle of W{sub R}.

  16. Hadron production in high energy muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10 10 muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s/ 0 and Λ 0 decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering is determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the framework of the quark-parton model. 29 references

  17. Target studies for surface muon production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Berg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard “box-like” target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  18. Particle Production in Deep Inelastic Muon Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, John James [MIT

    1991-01-01

    The E665 spectrometer at Fermila.b measured Deep-Inelastic Scattering of 490 GeV /c muons off several targets: Hydrogen, Deuterium, and Xenon. Events were selected from the Xenon and Deuterium targets, with a range of energy exchange, $\

  19. LBNE-NuMI Muon Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Mike [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mills, Geoffrey [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marino, Alysia [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Zimmerman, Eric [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lane, Charles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bern, Hans [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-08-15

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) that concerns Fermi National Laboratory and the experiments of LBNE who have committed to participate in muon detector prototype tests to be carried out in the NuMi alcoves during the 2013-2017 Fermilab Neutrino program.

  20. Muon catalysed fusion: the status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, L.I.

    1994-01-01

    The main features and the state of the art of muon catalyzed fusion (MCF) are presented. The different application of MCF in atomic, molecular and nuclear physics are discussed. The possible practical applications of MCF for the production of the intense 14 MeV neutron source and the nuclear fuel are outlined. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, L.N.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of experiments in the field of elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering is discussed. The talk is divided into discussions of the single arm inclusive experiments at SLAC and Fermilab; the multiparticle inclusive experiments at SLAC, Fermilab und Cornell, and a description of selected results from exclusive channel measurements on electroproduced final states. (orig.) [de

  2. Detection efficiency of the multiple muon catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fil'chenkov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    This work is devoted to further development of the experimental method successfully used at JINR (Dubna) for the muon-catalyzed fusion (MCF) study. Influence of the pile up effects on the MCF product detection efficiency is considered. It is shown that the efficiency slightly depends on the MCF multiplicity

  3. Radiative muon capture on 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christillin, P.; Gmitro, M.

    1984-01-01

    Predictions of the photon spectrum of radiative muon capture on 16 O are given within a phenomenological approach for a realistic nuclear excitation spectrum which includes low-lying excited states preliminary experimental results are totally at variance with the predictions based on the canonical value of the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant gsub(P)

  4. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1993-02-01

    The NIU high energy physics group has three main efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, members of the group participate in the SDC collaboration at the SSC

  5. Going to the school of muons

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Italian secondary school pupils will be given the opportunity to take part in a large-scale experiment looking at cosmic muons thanks to the EEE Project. Two Italian pupils building an MRPC muon chamber in CERN's Building 29. For several months, Italian secondary school pupils have been coming to CERN each week and heading for Building 29. They are not just visiting. They are participating in the EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project, the aim of which is to carry out a real-life experiment in search of large atmospheric showers using muon detectors located in their schools. In this hall at CERN they are helping to build and test muon chambers - MRPCs (Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers). These chambers, which were invented several years ago by Crispin Williams as part of the LAA Project led by Professor Antonino Zichichi, are similar to those that will be used for ALICE's TOF (Time of Flight) detector at the LHC. In this way, the pupils are receiving a direct, practical and effective initiation to particle phy...

  6. Radiative muon capture on nuclei and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuelos, G.; Gorringe, T.P.; Henderson, R.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Azuelos, G.; Depommier, P.; Poutissou, R.; Ahmad, S.; Burnham, A.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Wright, D.H.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Bertl, W.; Chen, C.Q.; Zhang, N.S.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Robertson, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review is made of the study of gp, the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, in radiative muon capture on light nuclei, and of motivations for a measurement on hydrogen, with particular emphasis on recent and ongoing experiments at TRIUMF [fr

  7. Radiative muon capture in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasinoff, M.D.; Ahmad, S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Burnham, R.A.; Gorringe, T.P.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Azuelos, G.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Macdonald, J.A.; Numao, T.; Poutissou, J.M.; Summhammer, J.; Bertl, W.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Wright, D.H.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Zhang, N.S.; Henderson, R.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Mes, H.; Robertson, B.C.

    1989-06-01

    Radiative muon capture rates have been measured for carbon, oxygen and calcium targets. The carbon and oxygen rates yield large values for g ρ when compared to detailed microscopic calculations but the conventional Goldberger-Treiman value when compared to phenomenological model calculations. A progress report on the TRIUMF RMC measurement on hydrogen is also given. (Author) 16 refs., 2 figs., tab

  8. Radiative muon capture in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasinoff, M.D.; Ahmad, S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Burnham, R.A.; Gorringe, T.P.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Azuelos, G.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Egidy, T. von; Bertl, W.; Blecher, M.; Serne-angel, A.; Wright, D.H.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Numano, T.; Summhammer, J.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Zhang, N.S.; Henderson, R.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Mes, H.; Robertson, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radiative muon capture rates measured for carbon, oxygen and calcium targets. The carbon and oxygen rates yield large values for g p when compared to detailed microscopic calculations but the conventional Goldberger-Treiman value when compared to phenomenological model calculations. A progress report on the TRIUMF RMC measurements on hydrogen is also given

  9. Experimental Tests of Electroweak Theory with Positive Muon, Negative Muon and Positive Muon, Negative Muon, Gamma Final States from Electron-Positron Annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong

    The MARK J detector at PETRA was used in an experimental study of mu^+mu^- and mu^+mu^-gamma events. Data were collected at the center of mass energy range from 14 to 46 GeV. The standard model of electroweak interactions has been tested by the data with high statistics. Stringent limits on the extensions of the standard model have been derived. The rate and angular distribution of muon pair events have been measured and are found to be in good agreement with the standard model. The R-value and charge asymmetry of the muon pairs are used to determine the electroweak parameters. For M_{Z} = 93 GeV, we find sin^2theta_ {omega} =.20_sp{ -.025}{+.04}. Assuming e -mu universality, the lepton coupling constants are, g_sp{A} {2} =.265 +/-.032, g_sp{V}{2} = 0.038 +/-.043. Special emphasis has been placed on the understanding of the radiative effects of studying acollinear muon pairs and mu ^+mu^-gamma events. This provides a test of the electroweak theory to higher than leading order. Various distributions of mu ^+mu^-gamma events have been compared to the standard model predictions. The data and electroweak theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement. Investigations have been carried out to constrain various non-standard processes and to search for new particles. Limits are set on the cutoff parameters, mass and coupling of excited muons, four fermion contact interaction, etc. Muons can be regarded as pointlike particles down to a distance of 8 times 10^{ -17} cm. The pair production of excited muons is limited by the mu^+mu^ -gammagamma event analysis, and the mu^{*} mass is expected to be greater than 23 GeV at 95% confidence level. The fact that there is no excess in the production of mu^+mu^-gamma events gives a tight constraint on the single production of excited muons. Our results are compared to other experiments and the status of experimental tests of the standard model is summarized. Perspectives of testing the standard model in the near future at LEP are

  10. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, J S; McKenzie, I; Baker, P J; Blundell, S J; Cottrell, S P; Giblin, S R; Good, J; Hillier, A D; Holsman, B H; King, P J C; Lancaster, T; Mitchell, R; Nightingale, J B; Owczarkowski, M; Poli, S; Pratt, F L; Rhodes, N J; Scheuermann, R; Salman, Z

    2011-07-01

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  11. Kinematics of 3-body in Ionization Collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Picca, Renata

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we study three body problems in the frame of the collision theory. First, we deal with the process of autoionization by ion impact where the line profile of the electron emitted is strongly affected by the post-collision interaction with the Coulomb field of the outgoing projectile.Here we analyze how these effects are modified when the projectile velocity is in the close vicinity of the resonant electron velocity.In this energy range, the analysis of the resonance contribution is hindered by the characteristic 'electron capture to the continuum' divergence in the direct term.Here we present a detailed theoretical study of the interplay between both contributions, based on a generalization of the Final-State Interaction model.Finally we propose a modified parameterization of the autoionization line shape in the vicinity of the ECC cusp.Secondly, we study the direct ionization of an atomic target by the impact of a charge projectile, through analysis of the quintuple differential cross section (QDCS) which gives the most complete information about a ionization collision.Its study, without any approximation on the mass ratios can unveil new, not previously observed, structures.In particular, in this work the ionization of Hydrogen molecules by the impact of positrons and muons was studied and a new structure that has not been identified until now was found. Its main characteristics and a possible explanation are presented

  12. Delivering the world’s most intense muon beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cook

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new muon beam line, the muon science innovative channel, was set up at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, in Osaka, Japan, using the 392 MeV proton beam impinging on a target. The production of an intense muon beam relies on the efficient capture of pions, which subsequently decay to muons, using a novel superconducting solenoid magnet system. After the pion-capture solenoid, the first 36° of the curved muon transport line was commissioned and the muon flux was measured. In order to detect muons, a target of either copper or magnesium was placed to stop muons at the end of the muon beam line. Two stations of plastic scintillators located upstream and downstream from the muon target were used to reconstruct the decay spectrum of muons. In a complementary method to detect negatively charged muons, the x-ray spectrum yielded by muonic atoms in the target was measured in a germanium detector. Measurements, at a proton beam current of 6 pA, yielded (10.4±2.7×10^{5}  muons per watt of proton beam power (μ^{+} and μ^{-}, far in excess of other facilities. At full beam power (400 W, this implies a rate of muons of (4.2±1.1×10^{8}  muons s^{−1}, among the highest in the world. The number of μ^{-} measured was about a factor of 10 lower, again by far the most efficient muon beam produced. The setup is a prototype for future experiments requiring a high-intensity muon beam, such as a muon collider or neutrino factory, or the search for rare muon decays which would be a signature for phenomena beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Such a muon beam can also be used in other branches of physics, nuclear and condensed matter, as well as other areas of scientific research.

  13. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: melania@ifc.inaf.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)

    2016-01-21

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  14. Study of muon triggers and momentum reconstruction in a strong magnetic field for a muon detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Della Negra, Michel; Eggert, Karsten; Hervé, A; Wittgenstein, F; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, Ritva; Pimiä, M; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Dau, D; Ferrando, A; Torrente-Lujan, E; Bettini, A; Centro, Sandro; Martinelli, R; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Zotto, P L; Bacci, Cesare; Ceradini, F; Ciapetti, G; Lacava, F; Nisati, A; Petrolo, E; Pontecorvo, L; Veneziano, Stefano; Zanello, L; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Santonico, R; Cline, D; Lazic, S; Mohammadi, M; Park, J; Szoncsó, F; Walzel, G; Wulz, Claudia Elisabeth; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    We propose to construct a small fraction of a muon detector in a strong magnetic field, for possible use in an LHC experiment, and to test it in a beam containing hadrons and muons. Properties of muons from hadron decays and of hadron punch-through, i.e. angle, momentum and timing distributions of the outgoing particles, will be measured for various absorber thicknesses, including the effect of strong magnetization of the absorber. The efficiency of different muon triggers and the rejection against hadron punch-through and decay muons will be studied. Reconstruction of muons and their momentum measurement in magnetized iron will be investigated, including the effect of catastrophic energy losses of high momentum muons. The performance of resistive plate chambers (RPC) as fast trigger hodoscopes will be studied.

  15. Review of data and methods recommended in the international code of practice for dosimetry IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 381, The Use of Plane Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon beams. Final report of the co-ordinated research project on dose determination with plane parallel ionization chambers in therapeutic electron and photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusautoy, A.; Roos, M.; Svensson, H.; Andreo, P.

    2000-01-01

    An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project was designed to validate the data and procedures included in the International Code of Practice Technical Reports Series (TRS) No. 381, ''The Use of Plane Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon Beams''. This work reviews and analyses the procedures used and the data obtained by the participants of the project. The analysis shows that applying TRS-381 generally produces reliable results. The determination of absorbed dose to water using the electron method in reference conditions is within the stated uncertainties (2.9%). Comparisons have shown TRS-381 is consistent with the AAPM TG-39 protocol within 1% for measurements made in water. Based on the analysis, recommendations are given with respect to: (i) the use of plane parallel ionization chambers of the Markus type, (ii) the values for the fluence correction factor for cylindrical chambers, (iii) the value of the wall correction factor for the Roos chamber in 60 Co beams, and (iv) the use of plastic phantoms and the values of the fluence correction factors. (author)

  16. The use of cosmic-ray muons in the energy calibration of the Beta-decay Paul Trap silicon-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsh, T. Y.; Perez Galvan, A.; Burkey, M.; Aprahamian, A.; Buchinger, F.; Caldwell, S.; Clark, J. A.; Gallant, A.; Heckmaier, E.; Levand, A. F.; Savard, G.

    2018-04-01

    This article presents an approach to calibrate the energy response of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) for low-energy nuclear-science experiments by utilizing cosmic-ray muons. For the 1-mm-thick detectors used with the Beta-decay Paul Trap, the minimum-ionizing peak from these muons provides a stable and time-independent in situ calibration point at around 300 keV, which supplements the calibration data obtained above 3 MeV from sources. The muon-data calibration is achieved by comparing experimental spectra with detailed Monte Carlo simulations performed using GEANT4 and CRY codes. This additional information constrains the calibration at lower energies, resulting in improvements in quality and accuracy.

  17. The use of cosmic-ray muons in the energy calibration of the Beta-decay Paul Trap silicon-detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, T. Y.; Pérez Gálvan, A.; Burkey, M. T.; Aprahamian, A.; Buchinger, F.; Caldwell, S.; Clark, J. A.; Gallant, A. T.; Heckmaier, E.; Levand, A. F.; Marley, S. T.; Morgan, G. E.; Nystrom, A.; Orford, R.; Savard, G.; Scielzo, N. D.; Segel, R.; Sharma, K. S.; Siegl, K.; Wang, B. S.

    2018-04-01

    This article presents an approach to calibrate the energy response of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) for low-energy nuclear-science experiments by utilizing cosmic-ray muons. For the 1-mm-thick detectors used with the Beta-decay Paul Trap, the minimum-ionizing peak from these muons provides a stable and time-independent in situ calibration point at around 300 keV, which supplements the calibration data obtained above 3 MeV from α sources. The muon-data calibration is achieved by comparing experimental spectra with detailed Monte Carlo simulations performed using GEANT4 and CRY codes. This additional information constrains the calibration at lower energies, resulting in improvements in quality and accuracy.

  18. Ionization potentials of seaborgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Pershina, V.; Fricke, B.

    1999-01-01

    Multiconfiguration relativistic Dirac-Fock values were calculated for the first six ionization potentials of seaborgium and of the other group 6 elements. No experimental ionization potentials are available for seaborgium. Accurate experimental values are not available for all of the other ionization potentials. Ionic radii for the 4+ through 6+ ions of seaborgium are also presented. The ionization potentials and ionic radii obtained will be used to predict some physiochemical properties of seaborgium and its compounds

  19. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-04ER86191 Hydrogen Cryostat for Muon Beam Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-05-07

    The project was to develop cryostat designs that could be used for muon beam cooling channels where hydrogen would circulate through refrigerators and the beam-cooling channel to simultaneously refrigerate 1) high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) magnet coils, 2) cold copper RF cavities, and 3) the hydrogen that is heated by the muon beam. In an application where a large amount of hydrogen is naturally present because it is the optimum ionization cooling material, it was reasonable to explore its use with HTS magnets and cold, but not superconducting, RF cavities. In this project we developed computer programs for simulations and analysis and conducted experimental programs to examine the parameters and technological limitations of the materials and designs of Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) components (magnet conductor, RF cavities, absorber windows, heat transport, energy absorber, and refrigerant).The project showed that although a hydrogen cryostat is not the optimum solution for muon ionization cooling channels, the studies of the cooling channel components that define the cryostat requirements led to fundamental advances. In particular, two new lines of promising development were opened up, regarding very high field HTS magnets and the HS concept, that have led to new proposals and funded projects.

  20. The arrival time distribution of muons in extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was done to investigate the lateral dependence of the muon arrival time distribution in extensive air showers at small core distances. In the present experiment the muon arrival time distribution was investigated by measuring the relative arrival times between single muons in five fast Cerenkov detectors beneath 500g/cm 2 of concrete and at an atmospheric depth of 880g/cm 2 . It is shown that, although it is not possible to determine the arrival time distribution as such, it is possible to interpret the relative arrival times between muons in terms of the differences between the order statistics of a sample drawn from the arrival time distribution. The relationship between the arrival time distribution of muons relative to the first detected muon and the muon arrival time distribution is also derived. It was found that the dispersion of the muon arrival time distribution does not increase significantly with increasing core distance between 10m and 60m from the core. A comparison with theoretical distributions obtained from model calculations for proton initiated showers indicate that 1. the mean delay of muons with respect to the first detected muon is significantly larger than that expected from the model and 2. the observed dispersion is also significantly larger than the predicted dispersion for core distances between 10m and 60m

  1. High resolution muon computed tomography at neutrino beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suerfu, B.; Tully, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pion decay pipe at a neutrino beam facility and what can be achieved for momentum resolution in a muon spectrometer. Such an imaging system can be applied in archaeology, art history, engineering, material identification and whenever there is a need to image inside a transportable object constructed of dense materials

  2. The new Global Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Rabady, Dinyar Sebastian; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    For the 2016 physics data runs the L1 trigger system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent a major upgrade to cope with the increasing instantaneous luminosity of the CERN LHC whilst maintaining a high event selection efficiency for the CMS physics program. Most subsystem specific trigger processor boards were replaced with powerful general purpose processor boards, conforming to the MicroTCA standard, whose tasks are performed by firmware on an FPGA of the Xilinx Virtex 7 family. Furthermore, the muon trigger system moved from a subsystem centered approach, where each of the three muon detector systems provides muon candidates to the Global Muon Trigger (GMT), to a region based system, where muon track finders (TFs) combine information from the subsystems to generate muon candidates in three detector regions, that are then sent to the upgraded GMT. The upgraded GMT receives up to 108 muons from the processors of the muon TFs in the barrel, overlap, and endcap detector regions. The muons are...

  3. Performance of the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksa, M.

    1999-09-01

    ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. Its Muon Spectrometer will require ∼5500 m 2 of precision tracking chambers to measure the muon tracks along a spectrometer arm of 5 m to 15 m length, embedded in a magnetic field of ∼0.5 T. The precision tracking devices in the Muon System will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs). Approximately 370,000 MDTs will be assembled into ∼1200 drift chambers. The LHC physics discovery range indicates the need for a momentum resolution of ∼10 % for muons with a transverse momentum of p T =1 TeV/c. Following a detailed engineering optimisation of the magnetic-field strength versus the chamber resolution, the ATLAS collaboration opted for a drift-chamber system with very high spatial resolution, σ 2 93/7). Measurements performed in a high-background environment - similar to the ATLAS operational environment - gave us a complete understanding of the individual effects which deteriorate the spatial resolution at high rates. Four effects responsible for a resolution deterioration have been identified: two electronics effects which depend on the count rate of a tube (baseline shift and baseline fluctuations), and two space-charge effects that depend on the local count rate (gain drop and field fluctuations). The understanding of these effects had a major impact on the choice of the drift gas and the front-end electronics. The strong dependence of the drift velocity on the drift field is one major disadvantage of the baseline gas. In this work the full set of effects which lead to systematic errors to the track-position measurement in one tube (e.g. variations of the background rate) was investigated and quantified for realistic LHC operating conditions. For the biggest effects analytical corrections are presented. Finally, the muon-system performance was investigated and a calibration method for the absolute mass scale developed. By means of simulation it was shown that the energy

  4. Pressing problems of measurement of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominykh, V.I.; Yudin, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    The current system for ensuring the unity of measurements in the Russian Federation and countries of the former Soviet Union ensures a high quality of dosimetric, radiometric, and spectrometric measurements in accordance with the recommendations of the Consulative Committee on Standards for Measurements of Ionizing Radiations of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (IBWM), International Organization on Radiological Units (ICRU), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Organization on Legislative Metrology (IOLM), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), etc. Frequent collation of the national primary and secondary standards of Russia with those of IBWM and the leading national laboratories of the world facilitate mutual verification of the measurements of ionizing radiations. The scope of scientific and scientific-technical problems that can be solved by using ionizing radiations has expanded significantly in recent years. In this paper the authors consider some pressing problems of the metrology of ionizing radiations which have arisen as a result of this expansion. These include the need for unity and reliability of measurements involved in radiation protection, the measurement of low doses involving low dose rates, ensuring the unity of measurements when monitoring the radiological security of the population, the need for more uniformity on an international scale regarding the basic physical quantities and their units for characterizing radiation fields, determination of the accuracy of measurement of the radiation dose absorbed by an irradiated tissue or organ, and the development of complex standards for ionizing radiations. 5 refs., 1 tab

  5. Extending the search for high-energy muon neutrinos from GRBs with ANTARES

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are transient sources, potential sites of cosmic-rays acceleration: they are expected to produce high-energy neutrinos in pγ interactions through the decay of charged mesons, thus they constitute promising targets for neutrino telescopes. A search for muon neutrinos from GRBs using 9 years of ANTARES data is here presented, assuming particle acceleration at internal shocks, as expected in the fireball model.

  6. Ionizing radiations and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Daşdağ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the biologic effects of ionizing radiation and relation between medical diagnosticradiation exposure and cancer risk. Many unnecessary ionizing radiation applications are performed in the medicalcenters and hospitals. Therefore the health staff and the patients expose to serious risks of radiation. On the other hand, recently some studies, which suggested relationshipsbetween low dose ionizing radiation and some cancers, have been published. The relationship between low dose ionizing radiation and cancer can be more understandablewhen the stochastic effects of ionizing radiationtake into consideration. This presented review calls attention to the fact that low dose ionizing radiation may be an important factor for increased cancer risk. Therefore,physicians, health workers and patients have to pay maximum attention to avoid hazards of low dose ionizing radiation.

  7. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contact AC02-87ER40368 during the period from March of 1989 to February of 1990. Our group has two primary efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a precision study of the A-dependence of massive muon-pion production and a study of low-multiplicity decay modes of charm. We are also participating in the design of detectors for the SSC. Finally, a minor effort is being given to analyzing data from Fermilab of particles with lifetime between 10 -12 and 10 -13 seconds. A more detailed description of the work of the NIU high energy physics group can be found in the narrative accompanying our grant renewal proposal. 10 refs

  8. The Muon $g$-$2$ Experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohn, Wesley [Kentucky U.

    2017-12-29

    A new measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, $a_{\\mu} \\equiv (g-2)/2$, will be performed at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory with data taking beginning in 2017. The most recent measurement, performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and completed in 2001, shows a 3.5 standard deviation discrepancy with the standard model value of $a_\\mu$. The new measurement will accumulate 21 times the BNL statistics using upgraded magnet, detector, and storage ring systems, enabling a measurement of $a_\\mu$ to 140 ppb, a factor of 4 improvement in the uncertainty the previous measurement. This improvement in precision, combined with recent improvements in our understanding of the QCD contributions to the muon $g$-$2$, could provide a discrepancy from the standard model greater than 7$\\sigma$ if the central value is the same as that measured by the BNL experiment, which would be a clear indication of new physics.

  9. Time dispersion of muons in EAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, P.R.; Collis, V.S.; Luksys, M.; Nash, W.F.; Sephton, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the results and conclusions from an experiment set up to measure the time spread of muons in extensive air showers (EAS) detected at the Haverah Park EAS detector array, UK. The pulse risetimes (T 70 ) from 10% to 70% amplitude of the responses from 3 x 10 m 2 muon detectors are studied, and the anomalous pulse structure is investigated. The mean T 70 is studied as a function of shower size, zenith angle and core distance and its dependence on shower size is related to the elongation length of the EAS. Fluctuations in T 70 are studied as a method of yielding the mass composition of the primary particles. (author)

  10. High luminosity muon scattering at FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazizi, K. (California Univ., Riverside, CA (USA)); Conrad, J.; Fang, G. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Erdmann, M. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.)); Geesaman, D.; Jackson, H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Guyot, C.; Virchaux, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Holmgren, H. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA)); Malensek, A.; Melanson, H.; Morfin

    1990-02-01

    The charge of this group was to evaluate the physics that can be done with a high luminosity {mu} scattering experiment at FNAL using the upgraded Tevatron muon beam, and consider the apparatus required. In this report, the physics that can be accomplished with a high luminosity {mu} scattering experiment is evaluated. The CERN and FNAL {mu} beams are compared in the context of such an experiment. The expected muon flux with the upgraded machine is estimated. Two possible detectors are compared: the air-core toroid experiment proposed by Guyot et al., and an upgraded version of the E665 double-diode apparatus now in place at FNAL. The relative costs of the detectors are considered. A list of detailed questions that need to be answered regarding the double-diode experiment has be compiled. 2 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. COmBined muon reconstruction for Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrijsen, W T L P; Kittel, E.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas detector, which is being built for the LHC collider experiment at CERN, near Geneva, has as primary objective the discovery or exclusion of the Higgs boson. This boson is an important ingredient of the Standard Model of elementary particles, but has not yet been experimentally established. Atlas contains two tracking subdetectors, separated by a calorimeter, capable of detecting muon trajectories. The best measurement of the parameters of those particles, mostly muons with a large enough energy, that traverse the calorimeter are obtained by a global fit that includes both tracking subdetectors. A software package, COBRA, which implements an abstraction that allows for the application of the same track fit to either subdetector, the global fit, or any arbitrary detector configuration has been developed. The COBRA method and studies of its performance, based on single-track Monte Carlo simulation, are presented. The COBRA package is then used to assess the effect of combined reconstruction on the disc...

  12. The Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasi A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a long standing discrepancy between the Standard Model prediction for the muon g-2 and the value measured by the Brookhaven E821 Experiment. At present the discrepancy stands at about three standard deviations, with a comparable accuracy between experiment and theory. Two new proposals – at Fermilab and J-PARC – plan to improve the experimental uncertainty by a factor of 4, and it is expected that there will be a significant reduction in the uncertainty of the Standard Model prediction. I will review the status of the planned experiment at Fermilab, E989, which will analyse 21 times more muons than the BNL experiment and discuss how the systematic uncertainty will be reduced by a factor of 3 such that a precision of 0.14 ppm can be achieved.

  13. Inverse Flux versus Pressure of Muons from Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, D.; Armendariz, R.

    2017-12-01

    When an incoming cosmic ray proton or atom collides with particles in earth's atmosphere a shower of secondary muons is created. Cosmic ray muon flux was measured at the Queensborough Community College using a QuarkNet detector consisting of three stacked scintillator muon counters and a three-fold coincidence trigger. Data was recorded during a three-day period during a severe weather storm that occurred from March 13-17, 2017. A computer program was created in Python to read the muon flux rate and atmospheric pressure sensor readings from the detector's data acquisition board. The program converts the data from hexadecimal to decimal, re-bins the data in a more suitable format, creates and overlays plots of muon flux with atmospheric pressure. Results thus far show a strong correlation between muon flux and atmospheric pressure. More data analysis will be done to verify the above conclusion.

  14. SSC detector muon sub-system beam tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, R.; Errede, S.; Gauthier, A.; Haney, M.; Karliner, I.; Liss, T.; O'Halloran, T.; Sheldon, P.; Simiatis, V.; Thaler, J.; Wiss, J.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Davisson, R.; Liang, G.; Lubatti, H.; Wilkes, R.; Zhao, T.; Carlsmith, D.

    1993-01-01

    We propose to start a test-beam experiment at Fermilab studying the problems associated with tracking extremely high energy muons through absorbers. We anticipate that in this energy range the observation of the muons will be complicated by associated electromagnetic radiation Monte Carlo simulations of this background need to be tuned by direct observations. These beam tests are essential to determine important design parameters of a SSC muon detector, such as the choice of the tracking, geometry, hardware triggering schemes, the number of measuring stations, the amount of iron between measuring stations, etc. We intend to begin the first phase of this program in November of 1990 utilizing the Tevatron muon beam. We plan to measure the multiplicity, direction, and separation of secondary particles associated with the primary muon track as it emerges from an absorber. The second phase of beam test in 1992 or later will be a full scale test for the final design chosen in our muon subsystem proposal

  15. Analytical calculation of muon intensities under deep sea-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inazawa, H.; Kobayakawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the energy loss of high energy muons through different materials, such as rock and sea-water can cast light on characteristics of lepton interactions. There are less ambiguities for the values of atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) in sea-water than in rock. Muon intensities should be measured as fundamental data and as background data for searching the fluxes of neutrino. The average range energy relation in sea-water is derived. The correction factors due to the range fluctuation is also computed. By applying these results, the intensities deep under sea are converted from a given muon energy spectra at sea-level. The spectra of conventional muons from eta, K decays have sec theta enhancement. The spectrum of prompt muons from charmed particles is almost isotropic. The effect of prompt muons is examined.

  16. LHCb - Novel Muon Identification Algorithms for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cogoni, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    The present LHCb Muon Identification procedure was optimised to guarantee high muon detection efficiency at the istantaneous luminosity $\\mathcal{L}$ of $2\\cdot10^{32}$~cm$^{-2}$~s$^{-1}$. In the current data taking conditions, the luminosity is higher than foreseen and the low energy background contribution to the visible rate in the muon system is larger than expected. A worse situation is expected for Run III when LHCb will operate at $\\mathcal{L} = 2\\cdot10^{33}$~cm$^{-2}$~s$^{-1}$ causing the high particle fluxes to deteriorate the muon detection efficiency, because of the increased dead time of the electronics, and in particular to worsen the muon identification capabilities, due to the increased contribution of the background, with deleterious consequences especially for the analyses requiring high purity signal. In this context, possible new algorithms for the muon identification will be illustrated. In particular, the performance on combinatorial background rejection will be shown, together with the ...

  17. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  18. Deep inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1975-07-01

    From the review of deep inelastic electron and muon scattering it is concluded that the puzzle of deep inelastic scattering versus annihilation was replaced with the challenge of the new particles, that the evidence for the simplest quark-algebra models of deep inelastic processes is weaker than a year ago. Definite evidence of scale breaking was found but the specific form of that scale breaking is difficult to extract from the data. 59 references

  19. Muon spin relaxation in random spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu Yamazaki

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal relaxation function Gsub(z)(t) of the positive muon can reflect dynamical characters of local field in a unique way even when the correlation time is longer than the Larmor period of local field. This method has been applied to studies of spin dynamics in spin glass systems, revealing sharp but continuous temperature dependence of the correlation time. Its principle and applications are reviewed. (author)

  20. Muons and Muonium in Molecular Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to gain some insight on the most fundamental processes involved in the reaction of muons and muonium with organic molecules. Two components of the @mSR signal in an organic sample can be identified: a diamagnetic fraction precessing at (or very close to) the Larmor frequency and a paramagnetic fraction giving rise to frequencies characteristic of the muon's coupling with an unpaired electron spin.\\\\ \\\\ .uc 1) diamagnetic fraction \\\\ \\\\ We intend to study the occurence of an acid-base reaction of the type: .ce @m|+ + B @A (MuB)|+ and its competition with reactions that produce muonium. The best suited model systems for this process are aqueous solutions in which muon and electron scavengers, or anionic bases, in high concentration can be added. In order to further distinguish between different types of (MuB)|+ species the chemical shifts of these products will be studied.\\\\ \\\\ .uc 2) paramagnetic fraction \\\\ \\\\ Work will continue on muonic radicals formed by muonium addition at a ...

  1. Silicon photomultipliers in AMIGA muon counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botti, Ana Martina [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Instituto de Tecnologias en Deteccion y Astroparticulas (ITeDA) (Argentina); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The project AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) aims to extend the energy range at the Pierre Auger Observatory to observe cosmic rays of lower energies (down to ∝10{sup 17} eV) and to study the transition from extragalactic to galactic cosmic rays. AMIGA is compounded by an infill of surface detectors (employing Cherenkov radiation detection in water) and muon counters. The AMIGA muon counters consist of an array of buried modules composed of 64 scintillator bars, a multi-pixel Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) and the corresponding electronic of acquisition which works along with the surface detector. Currently, ITeDA is evaluating the feasibility of replacing PMTs with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) without performing any substantial modification in the digital readout nor in the mechanical design. I present calibration results of a prototype module associated to the surface detector Toune of the Pierre Auger Observatory using a SiPM Hamamatsu S1257-100C plugged to the standard AMIGA front-end electronics. In addition, a study concerning gain stability and temperature variation has also been performed and is reported. I finally discuss a comparison between traces measured by both photodetectors (PMT and SiPM) for modules associated to the surface detector Toune.

  2. Performance Validation of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Mair, Katharina

    ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is a general-purpose experiment for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which is scheduled to begin operation in the year 2007, providing experiments with proton-proton collisions. The center-of-mass energy of 14TeV and the design luminosity of 1034 cm−2s−1 will allow to explore many new aspects of fundamental physics. The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer aims at a momentum resolution better than 10% for transverse momentum values ranging from pT = 6 GeV to pT = 1TeV. Precision tracking will be performed by Ar-CO2-gas filled Monitored Drift Tube chambers (MDTs), with a single wire resolution of < 100 μm. In total, about 1 200 chambers, arranged in a large structure, will allow muon track measurements over distances up to 15m in a magnetic field of 0.5 T. Given the large size of the spectrometer it is impossible to keep the shape of the muon chambers and their positions stable within the requested tracking accuracy of 50 μm. Therefore the concept of an optical alig...

  3. Muon astronomy with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlen, S P; Antolini, R; Auriemma, G; Baldini, A; Bam, B B; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bisi, V; Bloise, C; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, P; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiera, C; Cobis, A; Cormack, R; Corona, A; Coutu, S; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Diehl, E; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Ficenec, D; Forti, C; Foti, L; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giubellino, P; Grassi, M; Green, P; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Heinz, R; Hong, J T; Iarocci, Enzo; Katsavounidis, E; Kearns, E T; Klein, S; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Lee, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Liu, G; Liu, R; Longo, M J; Ludlam, G; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta-Neri, A; Marin, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Martellotti, G; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Matteuzzi, P; Michael, D; Miller, L; Monacelli, P; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nutter, S L; Okada, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Parlati, S; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Petrakis, J; Petrera, S; Pignatano, N D; Pistilli, P; Predieri, F; Ramello, L; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rosa, G; Satriano, C; Satta, L; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra-Lugaresi, P; Severi, M; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steele, J V; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, Lawrence R; Surdo, A; Tarlé, G; Togo, V; Valente, V; Verdone, G R; Walter, C W; Webb, R; Worstell, W

    1993-01-01

    Summary form only given. An all-sky survey for cosmic point sources yielding a DC excess of cosmic ray muons above the expected background has been performed using the single plus double muon events collected between June 1991 and 20 September 2000 by the streamer tube system of MACRO. A total of 45.192 million selected muons, single plus double, were collected in 60775.5 h of effective livetime. No statistically significant DC excess has been found. For selected sources we made a search for DC excesses, and upper flux limits were established; they are at the level of 10/sup -13/cm/sup -2/S/sup -1/. Periodicity (AC) analyses have been performed for Cygnus X-3 and Hercules X-1; the AC limits are at the level of 10/sup -13/cm/sup -2/S/sup -1/. Searches for bursts were made for CygX-3, Mrk 421, Mrk 501 and the Crab. (1 refs).

  4. Clockwork graviton contributions to muon g -2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Deog Ki; Kim, Du Hwan; Shin, Chang Sub

    2018-02-01

    The clockwork mechanism for gravity introduces a tower of massive graviton modes, clockwork gravitons, with a very compressed mass spectrum, whose interaction strengths are much stronger than those of massless gravitons. In this work, we compute the lowest order contributions of the clockwork gravitons to the anomalous magnetic moment, g -2 , of muon in the context of an extra dimensional model with a five-dimensional Planck mass, M5. We find that the total contributions are rather insensitive to the detailed model parameters and are determined mostly by the value of M5. To account for the current muon g -2 anomaly, M5 should be around 0.2 TeV, and the size of the extra dimension has to be quite large, l5≳10-7 m . For M5≳1 TeV , the clockwork graviton contributions are too small to explain the current muon g -2 anomaly. We also compare the clockwork graviton contributions with other extra dimensional models such as Randall-Sundrum models or large extra dimensional models. We find that the leading contributions in the small curvature limit are universal, but the cutoff-independent subleading contributions vary for different background geometries and the clockwork geometry gives the smallest subleading contributions.

  5. Quality control of ATLAS muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Fabich, Adrian

    ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its Muon Spectrometer will require ∼ 5500m2 of precision tracking chambers to measure the muon tracks along a spectrometer arm of 5m to 15m length, embedded in a magnetic field of ∼ 0.5T. The precision tracking devices in the Muon System will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs). Approximately 370,000 MDTs will be assembled into ∼ 1200 drift chambers. The performance of the MDT chambers is very much dependent on the mechanical quality of the chambers. The uniformity and stability of the performance can only be assured providing very high quality control during production. Gas tightness, high-voltage behaviour and dark currents are global parameters which are common to gas detectors. For all chambers, they will be tested immediately after the chamber assembly at every production site. Functional tests, for example radioactive source scans and cosmic-ray runs, will be performed in order to establish detailed performan...

  6. Integration Tests of the Muon System

    CERN Multimedia

    Cerutti, F; Palestini, S

    A complex large-size prototype of the Muon system is installed in the test area H8B in Prévessin; the set-up includes chambers belonging to the three layers of the Barrel Spectrometer (on the right in Figure 1), and chambers belonging to one octant of the End Cap Spectrometer (center and left side of Figure 1). Figure 1: Set-up of the Muon spectrometer integration test. The installation accurately reproduces the geometry of regions of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, with the H8 beam-line crossing the detectors at positions/angles corresponding to particles with polar angle of 75 ± 4 and 15 ± 4 degrees, respectively for the Barrel and the End Cap. A comprehensive test program is being carried out with this set-up, ranging from tests of support frames (octant of the MDT BigWheel and of the SmallWheel) and of handling/installation of tracking chambers, to real-size tests of the alignment systems, together with accurate studies of performance and calibration of the precision chambers, and with develo...

  7. Anomalously strong relaxation of the polarization of muons in the magnetically ordered and paramagnetic states of the TbMnO3 multiferroic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrievskii, D. S.; Vorob'ev, S. I.; Getalov, A. L.; Golovenchits, E. I.; Komarov, E. N.; Kotov, S. A.; Sanina, V. A.; Shcherbakov, G. V.

    2017-09-01

    An anomalously strong relaxation of the muon polarization in a magnetically ordered state in the TbMnO3 multiferroic has been revealed by the method below the μ SR Néel temperature (42 K). Such a relaxation is due to the muon channel of relaxation of the polarization and the interaction of the magnetic moment of the muon with inhomogeneities of the internal magnetic field of an ordered state in the form of a cycloid. Above the Néel temperature, beginning with temperatures depending on the applied magnetic field, a two-phase state has been revealed where one phase has an anomalously strong relaxation of the muon polarization for a paramagnetic state. These features of the paramagnetic state are due to short-range magnetic order domains that appear in strongly frustrated TbMnO3. A true paramagnetic state has been observed only at T ≥ 150 K.

  8. Muon-catalyzed processes in dense low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men'shikov, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    The processes of mesic atomic and mesic molecular formation in low-temperature plasma are discussed. The new effective muon shaking mechanism from dμ-ions by ''running away'' electrons is proposed. The principal possibility of considerable increasing the number of cycles of m