WorldWideScience

Sample records for international language test

  1. International English Language Testing: A Critical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Uysal's article provides a research agenda for IELTS and lists numerous issues concerning the test's reliability and validity. She asks useful questions, but her analysis ignores the uncertainties inherent in all language test development and the wider social and political context of international high-stakes language testing. In this response, I…

  2. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): The Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…

  3. International Test Comparisons: Reviewing Translation Error in Different Source Language-Target Language Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyu; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Qian, Ming

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses test translation review in international test comparisons. We investigated the applicability of the theory of test translation error--a theory of the multidimensionality and inevitability of test translation error--across source language-target language combinations in the translation of PISA (Programme of International…

  4. The Relationship between the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Scores and Academic Success of International Master's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuino, Cathy Lee T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) are related to academic success defined by final cumulative grade point average (GPA). The data sample, from three Midwestern universities, was comprised of international graduate students who…

  5. The consequences of English language testing for international health professionals and students: An Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Michele; Thiessen, Jodi; Buchan, James; Daly, John

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the perceptions about the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) and its impact on migration and practice of migrant health professionals in Australia. Thematic analysis of interviews with 14 health industry participants and 35 migrated health professionals in Australia. Language testing is a barrier to health professional registration for migrant health workers in Australia. While two English language tests are recognised by the registration authorities in Australia, it is the International English Language Testing System that is most commonly used. This paper reports that study participants had underlying negative perceptions of the International English Language Testing System which they report, affect their move to Australia. These negative perceptions are caused by: frustration due to changes to processes for migration and registration; challenges regarding the structure of IELTS including timing of when test results expire, scoring requirements, cost, and suitability; and the resulting feelings of inadequacy caused by the test itself. This study has shown that some respondents have experienced difficulties in relation to the International English Language Testing System as part of their migration process. It was found that there is very little research into the effectiveness of the IELTS as it is currently administered for overseas health care professionals. Several recommendations are provided including areas for further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): Its Nature and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    The nature and development of the recently released International English Language Testing System (IELTS) instrument are described. The test is the result of a joint Australian-British project to develop a new test for use with foreign students planning to study in English-speaking countries. It is expected that the modular instrument will become…

  7. Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Sign Language Test Development: Results of an International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Sign language test development is a relatively new field within sign linguistics, motivated by the practical need for assessment instruments to evaluate language development in different groups of learners (L1, L2). Due to the lack of research on the structure and acquisition of many sign languages, developing an assessment instrument poses…

  8. Differential Item Functioning in While-Listening Performance Tests: The Case of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Listening Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryadoust, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates a version of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) listening test for evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) based on gender, nationality, age, and degree of previous exposure to the test. Overall, the listening construct was found to be underrepresented, which is probably an important cause…

  9. The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on Performance in the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) Listening Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Han, Nguyen; van Rensburg, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Many companies and organizations have been using the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) for business and commercial communication purpose in Vietnam and around the world. The present study investigated the effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on performance in the Test of English for International Communication…

  10. Argumentative Features of International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Essays: A Rhetorical Analysis on Successful Exam Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananda, Ririn Putra; Arsyad, Safnil; Dharmayana, I Wayan

    2018-01-01

    An argument in academic writing is an essential element; it is used to convince readers that the writer's opinion or claim can be acceptable. However, this may be problematic for university students or new writers especially when writing in a language other than their first language such as Indonesians who take an international English writing…

  11. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  12. Language Testing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…

  13. Language and the International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the issue of unilinguism and linguistic pluralism on the international scene. The need for international communication where English is the dominant force and efforts to preserve cultural equality are seen as compelling reasons for promotion of an international language such as Esperanto. (AMH)

  14. Viability of Construct Validity of the Speaking Modules of International Language Examinations (IELTS vs. TOEFL iBT): Evidence from Iranian Test-Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Keivan; Shamsaee, Saeedeh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the viability of the construct validity of the speaking modules of two internationally recognized language proficiency examinations, namely IELTS and TOEFL iBT. High-stake standardized tests play a crucial and decisive role in determining the future academic life of many people. Overall obtained scores…

  15. Watching for Washback: Observing the Influence of the International English Language Testing System Academic Writing Test in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of washback (the influence of a test on teaching and learning) have provided insights into the complexity of educational systems and test use, especially in relation to the role of the teacher, but have given insufficient attention to the relationship between observed practices and test design features. In this article a washback…

  16. 4th International Language Management Symposium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prošek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2016), s. 233-240 ISSN 0037-7031. [international language management symposium] Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : language management theory * international language symposium * language management Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016

  17. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Advanced Search. Journal Home > AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Internationalisms--Identical Vocabularies in European Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Peter

    Linguistic history has described borrowing in the European languages as a process exclusive to one language at any given time. However, it is more likely that there is a core of common loan words, or internationalisms, in many European languages. These internationalisms have come from a variety of sources: the historic interrelatedness of…

  1. Sign language: an international handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.

    2012-01-01

    Sign language linguists show here that all the questions relevant to the linguistic investigation of spoken languages can be asked about sign languages. Conversely, questions that sign language linguists consider - even if spoken language researchers have not asked them yet - should also be asked of

  2. Testing framework for embedded languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskó, Dániel; Tejfel, Máté

    2012-09-01

    Embedding a new programming language into an existing one is a widely used technique, because it fastens the development process and gives a part of a language infrastructure for free (e.g. lexical, syntactical analyzers). In this paper we are presenting a new advantage of this development approach regarding to adding testing support for these new languages. Tool support for testing is a crucial point for a newly designed programming language. It could be done in the hard way by creating a testing tool from scratch, or we could try to reuse existing testing tools by extending them with an interface to our new language. The second approach requires less work, and also it fits very well for the embedded approach. The problem is that the creation of such interfaces is not straightforward at all, because the existing testing tools were mostly not designed to be extendable and to be able to deal with new languages. This paper presents an extendable and modular model of a testing framework, in which the most basic design decision was to keep the - previously mentioned - interface creation simple and straightforward. Other important aspects of our model are the test data generation, the oracle problem and the customizability of the whole testing phase.

  3. Teaching English as an International Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, A. F.; Yazan, B.

    2013-01-01

    English has unquestionably become a global phenomenon, generating a fundamental discussion of EIL pedagogy for English language teaching practitioners around the world. Teaching English as an International Language captures this important moment in the history of English language teaching. Readers will find an accessible introduction to the past,…

  4. On JALT 95: Curriculum and Evaluation. Proceedings of the JALT International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning (22nd, Nagoya, Japan, November 1995). Section Seven: Testing and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    This section contains conference papers on testing and evaluation in second language teaching. They include: "English Language Entrance Examinations in Japan: Problems and Solutions" (James Dean Brown); "Reliability and a Learner Style Questionnaire" (Dale T. Griffee); "Does It Work?" Evaluating Language Learning Tasks" (Rod Ellis); "Communicative…

  5. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    /video recorded speech samples and written reports produced by two experienced raters after testing. Our findings suggest that reduction or reduction-like pronunciation features are found in tested L2 speech, but whenever raters identify and comment on such reductions, they tend to assess reductions negatively......This study represents an initial exploration of raters' comments and actual realisations of form reductions in L2 test speech performances. Performances of three L2 speakers were selected as case studies and illustrations of how reductions are evaluated by the raters. The analysis is based on audio...

  6. The case for bilingual language tests: a study of test adaptation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The justification for the use of language tests in education in multilingual and multicultural societies needs to include both the aims of bilingual education, and evidence that the international standards for tests that are available in two or more languages are being met. In multilingual and multicultural societies, language tests ...

  7. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LALIGENS is a peer-reviewed journal by International Association of African Researchers and Reviewers (IAARR). It is published three times a year. Three topical issues are to be addressed by this journal – language, literature and gender with the following sub-headings among others: the relationship between language ...

  8. Democratizing English as an International Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneire, Marc

    The aim of this paper is threefold. The first section shows how the political uses of language engendered by both western-style liberalism on the one hand and various forms of nationalism on the other lead to the negation of democratic ideals. Because of the current international situation, political aspects of language are receiving more and more…

  9. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the ... INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF AFRICAN RESEARCHERS AND REVIEWERS. Sources of Support. Sale of hard copies and subscription. ISSN: 2227-5460. AJOL African ...

  10. Language Testing and Technology: Past and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2001-01-01

    Reflects on what has transpired in the second language (L2) testing field in relation to technology and situates developments within the larger language testing, general measurement, and educational contexts. (Author/VWL)

  11. Language learning and the technology of international communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batley, Edward

    1991-03-01

    The author posits a reciprocal relationship between the recent popularisation of computer-based technology and the democratisation of Central and Eastern Europe. Brief reference is made to their common denominator, language and language change. The advent of the communicative approach to language learning and the new wave of language authenticity arising from it, both enhanced by the technological revolution, have made the defining of acceptability in the classroom and of communication in the process of testing more problematic than ever, although several advantages have also accrued. Advances in technology have generally outstripped our ability to apply their full or characteristic potential. While technology can personalise learning and in this way make learning more efficient, it can also impede motivation. Old methods, drills and routines are tending to be sustained by it. Lack of technology can also widen the gulf between developed, developing and underdeveloped countries of the world. The author proposes international partnerships as a means of preventing an imbalance which could threaten stability. Single language dominance is another threat to international understanding, given the growing awareness of our multilingual and multicultural environment. Enlightened language policies reaching from the individual to beyond the national community are needed, which adopt these aspects of language learning, explain decisions about the state's choice of languages and, at the same time, promote individual choice wherever practicable.

  12. Cross-Language Mediation in Foreign Language Teaching and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This book contributes to the growing field of foreign language teaching and testing by shedding light on mediation between languages. Stathopoulou offers an empirically-grounded definition of mediation as a form of translanguaging and offers tools and methods for further research in multilingual testing. The book explores what cross-language…

  13. Current Research/Development in Language Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, John W., Jr.

    A discussion of language testing looks at the relationship between the processes of language learning and language testing, particularly from the point of view of pragmatics theory. It outlines some of the theory of Charles Sanders Pierce and its role in the evolution of linguistic theory, as well as the work of other theorists concerning the…

  14. Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program provides funds to institutions of higher education, a consortia of such institutions, or partnerships between nonprofit organizations and institutions of higher education to plan, develop, and implement programs that strengthen and improve undergraduate instruction in…

  15. Preparing teachers to teach English as an international language

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Aya

    2017-01-01

    This book explores ways to prepare teachers to teach English as an International Language, and provides theoretically-grounded models for EIL-informed teacher education. It includes two chapters that present a theoretical approach to EIL teacher education, followed by descriptions of field-tested teacher education programs, courses and activities.

  16. Testing-Context Analysis: Assessment Is Just Another Part of Language Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with the theme of the International Language Testing Association/Language Testing Research Colloquium Conference in 2008, "Focusing on the Core: Justifying the Use of Language Assessments to Stakeholders," I define "stakeholder-friendly tests," "defensible testing," and "testing-context analysis."…

  17. An Argument against Using Standardized Test Scores for Placement of International Undergraduate Students in English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhan, Kateryna

    2013-01-01

    Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…

  18. Natural language processing techniques for automatic test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural language processing techniques for automatic test questions generation using discourse connectives. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... Journal of Computer Science and Its Application.

  19. Do Questions Written in the Target Language Make Foreign Language Listening Comprehension Tests More Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Assessment of Language Competence (ALC) certificates is an annual, international testing program developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research to test the listening and reading comprehension skills of lower to middle year levels of secondary school. The tests are developed for three levels in French, German, Italian and…

  20. Making the grade: The English language test dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    2017-08-02

    Hayley Purcell admits she felt apprehensive about receiving the results of a test designed to ensure she was proficient in English. After months of preparation, at a cost of several hundred pounds, the Australian had achieved a very good result overall, with 7.5 out of a possible nine in the International English Language Testing System (IELTS).

  1. Communicative language testing in ESP context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Cenkaj Vladi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Language tests have always been important to people. Language is the most important means of communication, and only through it we can convey and receive messages, as well as test our cognitive abilities in different fields of knowledge. But while testing other cognitive areas of human knowledge is considered relatively easy, testing language itself has resulted rather difficult. Language testing theory has undergone several phases of development, from being completely uninterested in reliability and validity, to becoming obsessed with statistical formulae, which would have catered for the much wanted reliability. Swaying from one extreme to the other, communicative language testing seems to have found a balance between reliability through statistical analyses on the one hand, and validity through closely observing elements of language competence and performance, as well as ethical issues which bring tests closer to the social dimension. This article will give a general overview of how communicative language testing came in place, the theory and pertaining elements of such tests, as well as issues that have yet to be answered.

  2. Facebook: Facilitating Social Access and Language Acquisition for International Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kent; Ranta, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Many international students come to Canada to improve their English language proficiency and develop friendships with Canadians and other international students. However, gaining access to host nationals (i.e., Canadians) is not an easy task for most English as a second language (ESL) learners. Factors such as language proficiency may hamper…

  3. Engaging the Discourse of International Language Recognition through ISO 639-3 Signed Language Change Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic ideologies that are left unquestioned and unexplored, especially as reflected and produced in marginalized language communities, can contribute to inequality made real in decisions about languages and the people who use them. One of the primary bodies of knowledge guiding international language policy is the International Organization…

  4. Multimodality language mapping in patients with left-hemispheric language dominance on Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Katsuaki; Brown, Erik C; Rothermel, Robert; Carlson, Alanna; Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Shah, Aashit; Atkinson, Marie; Mittal, Sandeep; Fuerst, Darren; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2012-10-01

    We determined the utility of electrocorticography (ECoG) and stimulation for detecting language-related sites in patients with left-hemispheric language-dominance on Wada test. We studied 13 epileptic patients who underwent language mapping using event-related gamma-oscillations on ECoG and stimulation via subdural electrodes. Sites showing significant gamma-augmentation during an auditory-naming task were defined as language-related ECoG sites. Sites at which stimulation resulted in auditory perceptual changes, failure to verbalize a correct answer, or sensorimotor symptoms involving the mouth were defined as language-related stimulation sites. We determined how frequently these methods revealed language-related sites in the superior-temporal, inferior-frontal, dorsolateral-premotor, and inferior-Rolandic regions. Language-related sites in the superior-temporal and inferior-frontal gyri were detected by ECoG more frequently than stimulation (p hemispheric language-dominance. Measurement of language-related gamma-oscillations is warranted in presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Approaching Sign Language Test Construction: Adaptation of the German Sign Language Receptive Skills Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    There is a current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor deaf children's sign language acquisition. However, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. A German Sign Language (DGS) test focusing on linguistic structures that are acquired…

  6. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... to a multimodal interaction analysis following the ethnomethodological tradition of Conversation Analysis. Gafaranga, J. (2000). Medium repair vs. other-language repair: Telling the medium of a bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4(3), 327-350. Hall, J. K., Hellermann, J., & Pekarek...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...

  7. Examining Test Speededness by Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Guo, Fanmin; Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    When power tests include a time limit, it is important to assess the possibility of speededness for examinees. Past research on differential speededness has examined gender and ethnic subgroups in the United States on paper and pencil tests. When considering the needs of a global audience, research regarding different native language speakers is…

  8. Esperanto and International Language Problems: A Research Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey R.

    This bibliography is intended both for the researcher and for the occasional student of international language problems, particularly as these relate to the international language Esperanto. The book is divided into two main sections: Part One deals with problems arising from communication across national boundaries and the search for a solution…

  9. The validation of language tests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics, Vol. ... validation is necessary because of the major impact which test results can have on the many ... Messick (1989: 20) introduces his much-quoted progressive matrix (cf. table 1), which ... argue that current accounts of validity only superficially address theories of measurement.

  10. Internal testing of pipe systems with IRIS inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The internal piping inspection system IRIS allows inside testing of pipes with an internal diameter of NW 70 as a minimum, and of any horizontal or vertical layout of the piping system. Visual testing is done by means of an integrated CCD video system with high resolution power. Technical data are given and examples of applications, in the German and English language. (DG) [de

  11. Computers in Language Testing: Present Research and Some Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1997-01-01

    Explores recent developments in the use of computers in language testing in four areas: (1) item banking; (2) computer-assisted language testing; (3) computerized-adaptive language testing; and (4) research on the effectiveness of computers in language testing. Examines educational measurement literature in an attempt to forecast the directions…

  12. Teaching Statistics in Language Testing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the literature on teaching statistics for useful ideas that teachers of language testing courses can draw on and incorporate into their teaching toolkits as they see fit. To those ends, the article addresses eight questions: What is known generally about teaching statistics? Why are students so anxious…

  13. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…

  14. External and Internal Conditionality of Language Borrowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лилия Михайловна Букина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the factors that condition borrowings in language. The exposure of borrowings in the language system is based on precise differentiation of intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors. The theoretical basis for this study were the works of Russian and foreign scientists (Bagana Zh., Breiter M.A., Crystal D., Kryisin L.P., et al who were interested in such diversified phenomena as borrowings, in general, and in particular the reasons for them. Research is being conducted on the basis of the French language, certain illustrative units derived empirically in the process of researching these French websites: http://www.linternaute.com, http://www.elle.fr, http://www.wuzz.fr, http://www.eurosport.fr, etc. Borrowing can occur on all levels of language, but we considered the factors that facilitate borrowing and assimilation in the recipient language of lexical borrowings. The research is aimed at considering points of view of different linguists on the problem of borrowing into the recipient language and revealing similarities and differences in the views of scientists. Notwithstanding the fact that external reasons are acting as stimuli for borrowing, there are many linguistic research works that highlight their importance in the appearance and customization of foreign words in the recipient language. Intralinguistic factors dominate in the process of adopting a foreign word into the vocabulary of another language. Psychological factors play one of the key roles in the appearance of borrowings, as language contact is performed when bilingual speakers who have separate linguistic identities communicate. During the research the following methods were used: continuous sampling method, descriptive and analytical method, method of semantic analysis, method of comparison and contrasting.

  15. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  16. The role of language in shaping international migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Adsera, Alicia

    and climate shocks, migrant networks, language and aspects of “cultural distance”. In that regard, the more “foreign” or distant the new culture and the larger the language barriers, the higher the costs are for an individual to migrate to a particular destination. Fluency in destination country’s language...... destination countries from 130 source countries for the years 1985–2006 to study the role of language in shaping international migration. In addition to standard covariates from gravity models, we include a set of indices of language proximity to study their association to the observed flows: (1) a newly...... and destination country, to proxy for the “potential” ease to learn a new language and of adaptation; (3) measures of the diversity of the existing stock and flows of migrants (weighted by languages)....

  17. The Lady, the Linguists, and the International Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettes, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an extensive research program that was conducted under the auspices of the International Auxiliary Language Association, whose goal was to gather information on Esperanto, Ido, or Latino. Reviews ideological influences that instead led to creation of new hybrid language, Interlingua. (Author/VWL)

  18. LADO as a Language Test: Issues of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim; Van Den Hazelkamp, Carolien; Verrips, Maaike

    2016-01-01

    This article brings together the theoretical field of language testing and the practical field of language analysis for the determination of the origin of asylum seekers. It considers what it would mean to think of language analysis as a form of language test, subject to the same validity constraints, and proposes a research agenda.

  19. Acceptance Testing Of Web Applications With Test Description Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Olek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance tests are usually created by a client after a part of a system is implemented. However, some methodologies propose the elaboration of test cases before implementing a system. This approach increases the probability of system implementation that fulfills requirements, but may be problematic for customers and testers. To allow acceptance testing in such conditions, we propose to define test cases by recording them on an interactive mockup (a low detailed user-interface prototype. The paper focuses on Test Description Language, a notation used to store test cases.

  20. Language as capital in international university education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    be a trade-off between the fluency in a second language provided by its use as sole or parallel medium in education and educational depth in the discipline studied. This fluency may in some circumstances constitute greater capital than the disciplinary insights partially sacrificed. But this varies......As Bourdieu and Passeron noted, academic discourse is never anyone’s ‘mother tongue’. Acquisition of this discourse in one’s first language is a prime aim of undergraduate education, but there is evidence that a substantial minority of students fail to acquire it. There is strong evidence...

  1. International language management and diversity climate in multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Increasing globalization has made the use and management of language a vital element of engaging in international business activities. Despite this fact, empirical surveys with many respondents examining language management are extremely rare. Another equally important issue related to internatio......Increasing globalization has made the use and management of language a vital element of engaging in international business activities. Despite this fact, empirical surveys with many respondents examining language management are extremely rare. Another equally important issue related...... to internationalization is how to develop and support an environment that is tolerant of the diversity which exists in multicultural organizations. Based on questionnaire responses from 489 members of academic multicultural departments, we examined the relation between the management of a common language and a positive...... diversity climate. Results showed that consistency in English management communication had strong positive relationships with all of the four investigated diversity climate variables; openness to linguistic, visible, value, and informational diversity. English communication consistency had a positive...

  2. The Common Language Question Before International Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, Ivo

    1971-01-01

    Third report on a petition submitted to the United Nations by the Universal Esperanto Association (UEA) in 1950 to promote Esperanto as the universal language. The petition was forwarded for action to Unesco which in 1954 resolved to support any efforts in this direction undertaken within a member state. Available from Humanities Press, Inc.,…

  3. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rationalisation and Intertextuality: An Analysis of the Language of Men's Reactions to Gender Equality in Zulu Sofola's The Sweet Trap · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. E N Ugwu, S N Kpolugbo, 87-96 ...

  4. The role of language in international migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adsera, Alicia; Pytlikova, Mariola

    Fluency in (or ease to quickly learn) the language of the destination country plays a key role in the transfer of human capital from the source country to another country and boosts the immigrant’s rate of success at the destination’s labor market. This suggests that the ability to learn and spea...

  5. The Development of Internal State Language during the Third Year of Life: A Longitudinal Parent Report Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Licata, Maria; Thoermer, Claudia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Children's talk about the mind has been scarcely studied in non-English speakers. For this reason, this longitudinal study documents age-related changes in German-speaking children's internal state language. At 24, 30 and 36?months, children were administered general language tests and their internal state vocabulary levels were obtained via…

  6. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Horwitz (1987 learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to understand the differences and similarities in the learning strategies of these two groups. The sample for the study comprised of 60 local and 50 international Chinese students currently enrolled at a local private college. The Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was administered as a measure of learning strategy preferences. The study reveals that language learning experiences as well as socioeconomic status impact the learning strategy adopted by both local and international Chinese students. The findings of this study point to the need to address the needs of these students in order to enhance their English language learning experience in Malaysia.

  7. Language proficiency and the international postgraduate student experience

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, M

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly competitive environment, with reduced government funding, full fee-paying international students are an important source of revenue for higher education institutions (HEIs). Although many previous studies have focused on the role of English language proficiency on academic success, there is little known about the extent to which levels of English language proficiency affect these non-native English speaking students’ overall course experience. There have been a wealth of st...

  8. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  9. Communicative Language Testing: Implications for Computer Based Language Testing in French for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Laborda, Jesús; López Santiago, Mercedes; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Álvarez Álvarez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners' expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience of 23…

  10. Validity, Reliability and Standardization Study of the Language Assessment Test for Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Toğram

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aphasia assessment is the first step towards a well- founded language therapy. Language tests need to consider cultural as well as typological linguistic aspects of a given language. This study was designed to determine the standardization, validity and reliability of Language Assessment Test for Aphasia, which consists of eight subtests including spontaneous speech and language, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, grammar, speech acts, and writing. METHODS: The test was administered to 282 healthy participants and 92 aphasic participants in age, education and gender matched groups. The validity study of the test was investigated with analysis of content, structure and criterion-related validity. For reliability of the test, the analysis of internal consistency, stability and equivalence reliability was conducted. The influence of variables on healhty participants’ sub-test scores, test score and language score was examined. According to significant differences, norms and cut-off scores based on language score were determined. RESULTS: The group with aphasia performed highly lower than healthy participants on subtest, test and language scores. The test scores of healthy group were mostly affected by age and educational level but not affected by gender. According to significant differences, age and educational level for both groups were determined. Considering age and educational levels, the reference values for the cut-off scores were presented. CONCLUSION: The test was found to be a highly reliable and valid aphasia test for Turkish- speaking aphasic patients either in Turkey or other Turkish communities around the world

  11. Words without Grammar: Linguists and the International Auxiliary Language Movements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Julia S.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses movements in the United States during the first half of the 20th century to develop an international language, focusing on proponents of the reestablishment of Latin as an international language and the work of the International Auxiliary Language Association to develop an entirely new language. (72 references) (MDM)

  12. Organizational Issues in International and Second Language Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Clifford

    One of 10 studies commissioned to investigate research needs and to stimulate planning activities, this paper concerns the structures, processes, interrelationships, governance, finance, and workforces of institutions and organizations as they are engaged in international and second language education. After noting the field of instruction and…

  13. World Englishes, English as an International Language and Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses World Englishes (WEs) in relation to English as an International Language (EIL) and Applied Linguistics. Taking into account Kachru's interesting but at the same time controversial debate about the status of English in its varieties, which are commonly called WEs and the opposing ideas presented by Quirk, it is aimed to present…

  14. Validity of the American Sign Language Discrimination Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Joseph H.; Samar, Vincent J.; Hauser, Peter C.; Garrison, Wayne M.; Searls, J. Matt; Sanders, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is one of the most commonly taught languages in North America. Yet, few assessment instruments for ASL proficiency have been developed, none of which have adequately demonstrated validity. We propose that the American Sign Language Discrimination Test (ASL-DT), a recently developed measure of learners' ability to…

  15. Professional Language Training of International Students in the Multicultural Environment of University for International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Glebova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the specific features of professional language training of international students in the multicultural environment of a Russian university teaching students of international relations. After a brief historical survey of teaching foreign students in the universities of Russia, the writer considers the factors that influence the choice of universities graduating specialists in international relations by foreign students. The author goes on to analyze the specifics of linguisticand socio-cultural environment in Russian universities and its impact on international students stressing the fact that the educational environment at MGIMO-University is multilingual and multicultural. That explains the relevance of studying the quality of professional language training of foreign students in the sphere of international relations. The language of teaching in most universities of the Russian Federation is Russian, besides, all MGIMO students are obliged to learn English either as their first or second foreign language, that is why international students have to study in a tri-lingual environment and the interfering influence of several cultures. The writer points out that under such circumstances it is necessary for future IR specialists to build a number of professionally relevant competences: linguistic, socio-cultural, communicative, and suggests educational technologies that have proved to be effective in building them: case-study, role-plays, etc. The article gives special attention to the place and role of translation in teaching English as translation is a system of encoding within the system of two language systems. Translating phrases from Russian into English the student does 'inner', mental translation using the mother tongue. That makes the author suggest using the students'mother tongues in the teaching process. While learning foreign languages, international students should, along with language material, study the system

  16. Language policy and the disengagement of the international academic elite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harbord

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the phenomena of academic multiliteracy (the habit of writing academically in more than one language and of L2 monoliteracy (that of only writing academically in a language that is not one’s own and their impact on policy. Based on interviews and surveys conducted with 33 multiliterate and 15 L2 monoliterate scholars connected to one university in Central Europe between 2010 and 2014, I show how incentives to publish in English constructed by educational policies often push ambitious young researchers whose first language is not English away from engaging in academic and societal debates in their first language community. They may thus disengage from the national community, with negative consequences for the interaction between global and local that is essential for good governance. To overcome the difficulty young scholars encounter in writing in their native languages, they should be taught writing both in their native language and in English. Furthermore, university and state policies should reward scholars for writing not only for the international community but also for local society.

  17. Phonology in English language teaching an international approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pennington, Martha C

    2014-01-01

    Phonology in English Language Teaching is an introductory text, specifically directed at the needs of language teachers internationally. Combining an overview of English phonology with structured practical guidance, this text shows how phonology can be applied in the classroom.An introductory chapter provides the philosophical framework, followed by separate chapters on the phonology of consonants, vowels and prosody. As well as presenting core material on English phonology, the book explores the relationship of orthography to the English sound system from a historical and a pre

  18. Testing as an inevitable instrument in today's language learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the foregoing analysis, we have unequivocably declared that testing or assessment is an inevitable instrument in present day's language learning environment and that testing is the other side of teaching itself. In teaching any aspect of language, learner must be tested to determine the progress made so far as well as ...

  19. Adaptation of a Vocabulary Test from British Sign Language to American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Roy, Penny; Morgan, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the adaptation process of a vocabulary knowledge test for British Sign Language (BSL) into American Sign Language (ASL) and presents results from the first round of pilot testing with 20 deaf native ASL signers. The web-based test assesses the strength of deaf children's vocabulary knowledge by means of different mappings of…

  20. Impact of family language and testing language on reading performance in a bilingual educational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua Oliden, Paula; Mujika Lizaso, Josu

    2014-01-01

    When different languages co-exist in one area, or when one person speaks more than one language, the impact of language on psychological and educational assessment processes can be considerable. The aim of this work was to study the impact of testing language in a community with two official languages: Spanish and Basque. By taking the PISA 2009 Reading Comprehension Test as a basis for analysis, four linguistic groups were defined according to the language spoken at home and the test language. Psychometric equivalence between test forms and differences in results among the four language groups were analyzed. The comparison of competence means took into account the effects of the index of socioeconomic and cultural status (ISEC) and gender. One reading unit with differential item functioning was detected. The reading competence means were considerably higher in the monolingual Spanish-Spanish group. No differences were found between the language groups based on family language when the test was conducted in Basque. The study illustrates the importance of taking into account psychometric, linguistic and sociolinguistic factors in linguistically diverse assessment contexts.

  1. Language Testing Courses: What Are They in 2007?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; Bailey, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1996, we published an article that investigated the characteristics of basic language testing courses in terms of the instructors, course characteristics, and students. The present study is designed to describe the same characteristics of basic language testing courses in 2007 and to examine how such courses have changed since 1996. To those…

  2. A Comparative Investigation into Understandings and Uses of the "TOEFL iBT"® Test, the International English Language Testing Service (Academic) Test, and the Pearson Test of English for Graduate Admissions in the United States and Australia: A Case Study of Two University Contexts. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-24. ETS Research Report. RR-14-44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, April; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In line with expanded conceptualizations of validity that encompass the interpretations and uses of test scores in particular policy contexts, this report presents results of a comparative analysis of institutional understandings and uses of 3 international English proficiency tests widely used for tertiary selection--the "TOEFL iBT"®…

  3. Genomic testing in international guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kern

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer was solely classified based on clinical and immunohistochemical (IHC findings in the past. A growing body of evidence suggests that these categorisations are rendered more precisely by intrinsic subtyping with the aim of an introduction of personalised medicine. Especially in breast cancer with the uncertain potential of disease spread, such as T1-2, Grade 2 and oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+ve tumours, the value of chemotherapy applied to every patient has been questioned and the need for additional information on the tumour´s specific risk of recurrence is overt. It is estimated that the average risk for recurrence is 15% at 10 years in hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. Thus, a relatively small proportion of these patients would need chemotherapy, and the main task is to stratify which patients of this cohort are at high-risk and will benefit from cytotoxic agents. Ki67, as a proliferation marker classifying high-risk tumours, has been demonstrated as a continuous marker, but not as a clear cut risk-defining instrument in recent publications. Thus, the difficulties are perceived especially at the threshold of the low to high-risk area of this marker. Reproducibility of Ki67 is to some extent uncertain considering there is inter and intra-institutional variability of up to 30% of the results. Several multi gene arrays, such as MammaPrint®, Oncotype DX®, Endopredict®, and PAM50 have demonstrated clinical utility and experienced validation. The aim of this review is the description of the implementation of genomic testing in international guidelines (North American and European, with regard to incorporation of multigene arrays into the decision-making process in different clinical settings (including tumor size and IHC status. Data cut-off was 1st October, 2013. It seems that North America and some European countries have initiated a shift towards a personalised medicine with multigene arrays based on RT-PCR or

  4. Testing the Language Mode hypothesis using trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2003-01-01

    Current multilingual word recognition models differ in their account of non-linguistic context effects, such as effects due to stimulus list composition and task demands. Several models assume that non-linguistic context can modulate the relative activation of words from different languages. One

  5. Recommendations for elaboration, transcultural adaptation and validation process of tests in Speech, Hearing and Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernambuco, Leandro; Espelt, Albert; Magalhães, Hipólito Virgílio; Lima, Kenio Costa de

    2017-06-08

    to present a guide with recommendations for translation, adaptation, elaboration and process of validation of tests in Speech and Language Pathology. the recommendations were based on international guidelines with a focus on the elaboration, translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of tests. the recommendations were grouped into two Charts, one of them with procedures for translation and transcultural adaptation and the other for obtaining evidence of validity, reliability and measures of accuracy of the tests. a guide with norms for the organization and systematization of the process of elaboration, translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of tests in Speech and Language Pathology was created.

  6. Expanding Horizons and Unresolved Conundrums: Language Testing and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Constant; Lewkowicz, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Since the last "TESOL Quarterly" commemorative issue 15 years ago, there have been too many important developments in language testing and assessment for all of them to be discussed in a single article. Therefore, this article focuses on issues that we believe are integrally linked to pedagogic and curriculum concerns of English language teaching.…

  7. GSFC Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) functional requirements and language description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, R.; Hall, G.; Mcguire, J.; Merwarth, P.; Mocarsky, W.; Truszkowski, W.; Villasenor, A.; Brosi, F.; Burch, P.; Carey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Systems Tests and Operation Language (STOL) provides the means for user communication with payloads, applications programs, and other ground system elements. It is a systems operation language that enables an operator or user to communicate a command to a computer system. The system interprets each high level language directive from the user and performs the indicated action, such as executing a program, printing out a snapshot, or sending a payload command. This document presents the following: (1) required language features and implementation considerations; (2) basic capabilities; (3) telemetry, command, and input/output directives; (4) procedure definition and control; (5) listing, extension, and STOL nucleus capabilities.

  8. Sociological Implications of English as an International Language in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Internationalization and globalization have created a global music education community which is not only linked by similar ideas, but also shares a common language. English functions as a global language and facilitates the international discourse in music education. While it is good to have a common language supporting international dialogue, it…

  9. Language and memory abilities of internationally adopted children from China: evidence for early age effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if internationally adopted (IA) children from China (M = 10;8) adopted by French-speaking families exhibit lags in verbal memory in addition to lags in verbal abilities documented in previous studies (Gauthier & Genesee, 2011). Tests assessing verbal and non-verbal memory, language, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development were administered to thirty adoptees. Their results were compared to those of thirty non-adopted monolingual French-speaking children matched on age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The IA children scored significantly lower than the controls on language, verbal short-term memory, verbal working memory, and verbal long-term memory. No group differences were found on non-verbal memory, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development, suggesting language-specific difficulties. Despite extended exposure to French, adoptees may experience language difficulties due to limitations in verbal memory, possibly as a result of their delayed exposure to that language and/or attrition of the birth language.

  10. Constructing an Online Test Framework, Using the Example of a Sign Language Receptive Skills Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the features of an online test framework for a receptive skills test that has been adapted, based on a British template, into different sign languages. The online test includes features that meet the needs of the different sign language versions. Features such as usability of the test, automatic saving of scores, and score…

  11. Early phonology revealed by international adoptees' birth language retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoun; Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2017-07-11

    Until at least 6 mo of age, infants show good discrimination for familiar phonetic contrasts (i.e., those heard in the environmental language) and contrasts that are unfamiliar. Adult-like discrimination (significantly worse for nonnative than for native contrasts) appears only later, by 9-10 mo. This has been interpreted as indicating that infants have no knowledge of phonology until vocabulary development begins, after 6 mo of age. Recently, however, word recognition has been observed before age 6 mo, apparently decoupling the vocabulary and phonology acquisition processes. Here we show that phonological acquisition is also in progress before 6 mo of age. The evidence comes from retention of birth-language knowledge in international adoptees. In the largest ever such study, we recruited 29 adult Dutch speakers who had been adopted from Korea when young and had no conscious knowledge of Korean language at all. Half were adopted at age 3-5 mo (before native-specific discrimination develops) and half at 17 mo or older (after word learning has begun). In a short intensive training program, we observe that adoptees (compared with 29 matched controls) more rapidly learn tripartite Korean consonant distinctions without counterparts in their later-acquired Dutch, suggesting that the adoptees retained phonological knowledge about the Korean distinction. The advantage is equivalent for the younger-adopted and the older-adopted groups, and both groups not only acquire the tripartite distinction for the trained consonants but also generalize it to untrained consonants. Although infants younger than 6 mo can still discriminate unfamiliar phonetic distinctions, this finding indicates that native-language phonological knowledge is nonetheless being acquired at that age.

  12. Adapting tests of sign language assessment for other sign languages--a review of linguistic, cultural, and psychometric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from one natural sign language to another. Two tests which have been adapted for several other sign languages are focused upon: the Test for American Sign Language and the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test. A brief description is given of each test as well as insights from ongoing adaptations of these tests for other sign languages. The problems reported in these adaptations were found to be grounded in linguistic and cultural differences, which need to be considered for future test adaptations. Other reported shortcomings of test adaptation are related to the question of how well psychometric measures transfer from one instrument to another.

  13. Methods and characteristics of assembly language software testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lingfang

    2001-01-01

    Single chip micro-controllers are widely implemented to the controlling and testing products in industrial controlling and national defence embedded controlling systems. The invalidation of the source programs could lead to the unreliability of the whole systems, even to cause fatal results. Therefore, software testing is the necessary measures to reduce the mistakes and to improve the quality of the software. In the paper, the development of the software testing is presented. The distinctions between the assembly language testing and those of the high level languages is introduced. And the essential flow and methods of software testing are discussed in detail

  14. Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing (CSLP 2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This research report constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing (CSLP 2008) which is part of the European Summer School in Logic, Language, and Information (ESSLLI 2008), Hamburg, Germany, August 2008.......This research report constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing (CSLP 2008) which is part of the European Summer School in Logic, Language, and Information (ESSLLI 2008), Hamburg, Germany, August 2008....

  15. Experimental Applications of Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; McCartney, Patrick; Gorringe, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe challenging use-cases for Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML), and evaluate solutions. The first case uses ATML Test Results to deliver active features to support test procedure development and test flow, and bridging mixed software development environments. The second case examines adding attributes to Systems Modelling Language (SysML) to create a linkage for deriving information from a model to fill in an ATML document set. Both cases are outside the original concept of operations for ATML but are typical when integrating large heterogeneous systems with modular contributions from multiple disciplines.

  16. Reliability test for reactor internals rejuvenation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Junichi

    1998-01-01

    41 transparencies were presented on the subject of 'Reliability test for reactor internals rejuvenation technology'. The items presented give an introduction on the management of plant life in Japan and introduce the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC). The question of what reliability tests for rejuvenation of reactor internals are is discussed in some detail and an outline of each test is given. Altogether six methods to rejuvenate reactor internals are presented, two of which have already been applied to actual plants. The presentation was supported by many detailed drawings and images

  17. Refining English Language Tests for University Admission: A Malaysian Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Abd Samad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available English has now become the lingua franca of much of technological, business and academic endeavours. Consequently, learning the English language is now seen as vital, especially at the university level where proficiency in the language has become a selection criterion. At present, the Malaysian University English Test (MUET has been adopted by Malaysian public universities as an indicator of English language proficiency. A student’s overall result depends on all the four language components of the MUET and often determines the number and nature of the English language courses he or she has to attend at university. This study seeks to examine whether MUET is an accurate predictor of performance and success at university and how the MUET can be finetuned as an entry level English language test. It was carried out among 52 third year undergraduates of the Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia, admitted into the Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL programme. The findings of the study do not offer conclusive evidence about the validity of MUET as a predictor of academic success. However, six models of various combinations of scores on language components on the MUET scores are examined in terms of their effectiveness in increasing the accuracy in selecting students for the TESL programme. The correlations obtained using these models indicate that the combination of various components of the MUET can be used to more accurately predict student achievement at tertiary level than the cumulative MUET score itself. The results of these correlations and their implications in using language tests as admission requirements in general are also discussed

  18. Aligning English grammar testing with European language standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodrič Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, foreign language testing has gained in significance with the advent of The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (2001 (CEFR, a European language document which set comparable standards for learning, teaching and assessing foreign languages. The CEFR was used to set the research aim of this paper - testing grammar at level B2. The main aim of the research was to determine grammatical competence at level B2 and additional aims included: (a determining which particular areas of grammar need to be learned by students at level B2, (b formulating grammatical descriptors for each individual area of grammar, (c determining the test’s threshold level which would fulfil the criteria for grammatical competence at level B2, and (d determining the extent to which students have mastered the given areas. The pre-testing was followed by the main testing on the sample of 164 students in two secondary schools. The results indicated that the quantity and quality of grammatical competence was lower than expected: 47% of the population failed to fulfil the basic level of grammatical competence. The causes may be attributed to the factors of a subjective and objective nature. Level B2 is demanding qualitatively as well as quantitatively, regarding both the formal and the functional complexity and scope of language use, which requires intensive language production, high levels of motivation and sound working habits in order to master the given grammatical structures.

  19. Aligning English Language Testing With Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Palacio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Frustrations with traditional testing led a group of teachers at the English for adults program at Universidad EAFIT (Colombia to design tests aligned with the institutional teaching philosophy and classroom practices. This article reports on a study of an item-by-item evaluation of a series of English exams for validity and reliability in an effort to guarantee the quality of the process of test design. The study included descriptive statistics, item analysis, correlational analyses, reliability estimates, and validity analyses. The results show that the new tests are an excellent addition to the program and an improvement over traditional tests. Implications are discussed and recommendations given for the development of any institutional testing program.

  20. Aligning English Language Testing With Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Palacio; Sandra Gaviria; James Dean Brown

    2016-01-01

    Frustrations with traditional testing led a group of teachers at the English for adults program at Universidad EAFIT (Colombia) to design tests aligned with the institutional teaching philosophy and classroom practices. This article reports on a study of an item-by-item evaluation of a series of English exams for validity and reliability in an effort to guarantee the quality of the process of test design. The study included descriptive statistics, item analysis, correlational analyses, reliab...

  1. Reliability tests for reactor internals replacement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, K.; Uchiyama, J.; Ohtsubo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Structural damage due to aging degradation of LWR reactor internals has been reported in several nuclear plants. NUPEC has started a project to test the reliability of the technology for replacing reactor internals, which was directed at preventive maintenance before damage and repair after damage for the aging degradation. The project has been funded by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan since 1995, and it follows the policy of a report that the MITI has formally issued in April 1996 summarizing the countermeasures to be considered for aging nuclear plants and equipment. This paper gives an outline of the whole test plans and the test results for the BWR reactor internals replacement methods; core shroud, ICM housing, and CRD Housing and stub tube. The test results have shown that the methods were reliable and the structural integrity was appropriate based on the evaluation. (author)

  2. Aligning English Language Testing with Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Marcela; Gaviria, Sandra; Brown, James Dean

    2016-01-01

    Frustrations with traditional testing led a group of teachers at the English for adults program at Universidad EAFIT (Colombia) to design tests aligned with the institutional teaching philosophy and classroom practices. This article reports on a study of an item-by-item evaluation of a series of English exams for validity and reliability in an…

  3. Test Anxiety among Foreign Language Learners: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Aydın

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The findings obtained from previous research indicate that test anxiety has significant effects on the foreign language learning process. Thus, this paper aims to present a synthesis of research results on the sources and effects of test anxiety among foreign language learners. The results of the studies reviewed in the paper were mainly categorized under two sub-sections: the sources and effects of test anxiety. It is expected that the study will not only contribute to the limited research on the subject in Turkey, but also help increase the awareness among target groups such as learners, teacher and examiners.

  4. Training Senior Teachers in Compulsory Computer Based Language Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Royo, Teresa Magal

    2009-01-01

    The IBT TOEFL has become the principal example of online high stakes language testing since 2005. Most instructors who do the preparation for IBT TOEFL face two main realities: first, students are eager and highly motivated to take the test because of the prospective implications; and, second, specific studies would be necessary to see if…

  5. Improving the Traditional Testing Methods in Learning Foreign Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pachovski, Veno; Dimova, Slobodanka; Vaneva, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    A model for gathering oral answers as part of testing the speaker skills (i.e. command of language, native or foreign) is presented, as well as the software used in the experimentation. The research presented here is a result of more than six (6) months’ work with TESOL experts, based on 60 test...

  6. The Future of World Englishes in Language Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by defining "world Englishes" (WEs) and the related paradigm of inner-, outer-, and expanding-circle English(es). The discussion then turns to the central concerns of the WEs and language testing (LT) communities with regard to how English tests can best be constructed to include various WEs by discussing (a) what…

  7. Computer-Adaptive Testing in Second Language Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Deville, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Provides a broad overview of computerized testing issues with an emphasis on computer-adaptive testing (CAT). A survey of the potential benefits and drawbacks of CAT are given, the process of CAT development is described; and some L2 instruments developed to assess various language skills are summarized. (Author/VWL)

  8. Wada test for evaluation of language and memory function in medically intractable epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Kook; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Byung In; Huh, Kyun

    1992-01-01

    The Wada test was performed for lateralization of language and memory function, using intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal. But the internal carotid artery (ICA) Wada test has some limitations for testing memory function. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test has been designed to modify the ICA Wada test for testing memory function selectively. In our study, 10 patients out of 12 patients with intractable seizure underwent only the ICA Wada test and the other 2 patients underwent both the ICA and the selective PCA Wada test. In all 12 patients undergoing the ICA Wada test, we successfully localized speech and language dominance. Four of 12 patients who underwent the ICA Wada test for evaluation of memory function displayed superior memory functions in one hemisphere, but the other hemisphere also significantly contributed to memory. The selective PCA Wada test, performed in 2 patients, showed successful results of memory function test in both patients. Four of 12 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and there was no major post-operative language or memory deficits. We concluded that the ICA and PCA Wada tests are useful for preoperative evaluation of medically intractable epilepsy, and the PCA Wada test is valuable in memory evaluation in some patients who have high risk of postoperative global amnesia after temporal lobectomy following equivocal results of memory function by the ICA Wada test

  9. Wada test for evaluation of language and memory function in medically intractable epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yong Kook; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Byung In; Huh, Kyun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    The Wada test was performed for lateralization of language and memory function, using intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal. But the internal carotid artery (ICA) Wada test has some limitations for testing memory function. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test has been designed to modify the ICA Wada test for testing memory function selectively. In our study, 10 patients out of 12 patients with intractable seizure underwent only the ICA Wada test and the other 2 patients underwent both the ICA and the selective PCA Wada test. In all 12 patients undergoing the ICA Wada test, we successfully localized speech and language dominance. Four of 12 patients who underwent the ICA Wada test for evaluation of memory function displayed superior memory functions in one hemisphere, but the other hemisphere also significantly contributed to memory. The selective PCA Wada test, performed in 2 patients, showed successful results of memory function test in both patients. Four of 12 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and there was no major post-operative language or memory deficits. We concluded that the ICA and PCA Wada tests are useful for preoperative evaluation of medically intractable epilepsy, and the PCA Wada test is valuable in memory evaluation in some patients who have high risk of postoperative global amnesia after temporal lobectomy following equivocal results of memory function by the ICA Wada test.

  10. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Antón

    Full Text Available In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1 and children (Experiment 2-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish; while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish. Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  11. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject—One Language Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish—adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)—learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject—one language rule. PMID:26107624

  12. Reliability tests for reactor internals rejuvenation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Katsumi; Hitoki, Yoichi; Otsubo, Toru; Uchiyama, Junichi

    1998-01-01

    Structural damage due to aging degradation of LWR reactor internals has been reported in several nuclear plants. NUPEC has started a project to test the reliability of the technology for rejuvenating reactor internals which has been funded by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan since 1995. The project follows the policy of a report that the MITI has formally issued in April 1996 summarizing the countermeasures to be considered for aging nuclear plants and equipment. This paper gives an outline of the test plans and results which are directed at preventive maintenance before damage and repair after damage for reactor internals aging degradation. The test results for the replacement methods of ICM housing and BWR core shroud have shown that the methods were reliable and the structural integrity was appropriate based on the evaluation. (author)

  13. Linguistic Diversity in the International Workplace: Language Ideologies and Processes of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a study of language choice and language ideologies in an international company in Denmark. It focuses on the linguistic and social challenges that are related to the diversity of language competences among employees in the modern workplace. Research on multilingualism at work has shown that employees may be excluded from…

  14. Language Equality in International Cooperation. Esperanto Documents, New Series, No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Ralph; Mandel, Mark

    The policies of the United Nations with regard to the six official languages have left holes in the fabric of international cooperation. Maintaining language services in all six languages has proved to be an impossibility because of the scarcity of trained interpreters and translators between, for instance, Chinese and Arabic. English, French, and…

  15. Trialing a Tablet PC Based Language Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzler, Mary Frances; Garcia Laborda, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Designing tests is a sophisticated task due to issues such as rubrics, validation and impact. Delivery has become another key issue in recent years. Recent research projects in Spain (García Laborda et al.s, 2010, García Laborda, 2012; García Laborda et al., 2014; Bueno Alastuey et al., 2014) have been working mainly with technological devices as…

  16. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  17. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TESTS FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harsono

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Communicative Approach of teaching English in senior high school in Indonesia has been adopted since the implementation of The 1984 Curriculum, but the tests–the communicative language tests–(CL Tests have not been developed and used properly. The objective of the study is to develop CL Tests for senior high school. The procedure of conducting the study consists of three major steps, that is, identifying the objectives, developing the test specification, and developing the CL Tests. The development of the CL Tests in detail consists of fifteen sub-steps from determining what language skills tested, selecting the suitable source materials, up to rewriting the CL Tests to be used as CL Tests alternative for senior high school. The results of the test development reveal that there are fifteen CL Tests consisting of three tests of listening, three reading, three speaking, and three writing tests. The whole tests have construct and content validity, no complete evidence of concurrent validity with report marks and semester test scores, high to very high inter-rater reliability, and no complete practicality.

  18. Language, culture and international exchange of virtual patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Valentin; Calinici, Tudor; Tigan, Stefan; Fors, Uno G H

    2013-02-11

    Language and cultural differences could be a limiting factor for the international exchange of Virtual Patients (VPs), especially for small countries and languages of limited circulation. Our research evaluated whether it would be feasible to develop a VP based educational program in our Romanian institution, with cases in English and developed in a non-Romanian setting. The participants in the research comprised 4th year Romanian medical students from the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with previous training exclusively in Romanian, good English proficiency and no experience with VPs. The students worked on eight VPs in two identical versions, Romanian and English. The first group (2010) of 136 students worked with four VPs developed in Cluj and the second group (2011) of 144 students with four VPs originally developed at an US University. Every student was randomly assigned two different VPs, one in Romanian and another in English. Student activity throughout the case, the diagnosis, therapeutic plan and diagnosis justification were recorded. We also compared student performance on the two VPs versions, Romanian and English and the student performance on the two sets of cases, originally developed in Romania, respectively USA. We found no significant differences between the students' performance on the Romanian vs. English version of VPs. Regarding the students' performance on the two sets of cases, in those originally developed in Romania, respectively in the USA, we found a number of statistically significant differences in the students' activity through the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in the students' ability to reach the correct diagnosis and therapeutic plan. The development of our program with VPs in English would be feasible, cost-effective and in accordance with the globalization of medical education.

  19. Language, culture and international exchange of virtual patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntean Valentin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Language and cultural differences could be a limiting factor for the international exchange of Virtual Patients (VPs, especially for small countries and languages of limited circulation. Our research evaluated whether it would be feasible to develop a VP based educational program in our Romanian institution, with cases in English and developed in a non-Romanian setting. Method The participants in the research comprised 4th year Romanian medical students from the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with previous training exclusively in Romanian, good English proficiency and no experience with VPs. The students worked on eight VPs in two identical versions, Romanian and English. The first group (2010 of 136 students worked with four VPs developed in Cluj and the second group (2011 of 144 students with four VPs originally developed at an US University. Every student was randomly assigned two different VPs, one in Romanian and another in English. Student activity throughout the case, the diagnosis, therapeutic plan and diagnosis justification were recorded. We also compared student performance on the two VPs versions, Romanian and English and the student performance on the two sets of cases, originally developed in Romania, respectively USA. Results We found no significant differences between the students’ performance on the Romanian vs. English version of VPs. Regarding the students’ performance on the two sets of cases, in those originally developed in Romania, respectively in the USA, we found a number of statistically significant differences in the students’ activity through the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in the students’ ability to reach the correct diagnosis and therapeutic plan. Conclusion The development of our program with VPs in English would be feasible, cost-effective and in accordance with the globalization of medical education.

  20. Diagnostic work up for language testing in patients undergoing awake craniotomy for brain lesions in language areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotta, Federico; Stazi, Elisabetta; Titi, Luca; Lalli, Diana; Delfini, Roberto; Santoro, Antonio; Rosa, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    Awake craniotomy is the technique of choice in patients with brain tumours adjacent to primary and accessory language areas (Broca's and Wernicke's areas). Language testing should be aimed to detect preoperative deficits, to promptly identify the occurrence of new intraoperative impairments and to establish the course of postoperative language status. Aim of this case series is to describe our experience with a dedicated language testing work up to evaluate patients with or at risk for language disturbances undergoing awake craniotomy for brain tumour resection. Pre- and intra operative testing was accomplished with 8 tests. Intraoperative evaluation was accomplished when patients were fully cooperative (Ramsey awake craniotomy for brain tumour resection with preoperative language disturbances or at risk for postoperative language deficits. This approach allows a systematic evaluation and recording of language function status and can be accomplished even when a neuropsychologist or speech therapist are not involved in the operation crew.

  1. The Language Problem in Science and the Role of the International Language Esperanto. Esperanto Documents 38 A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendao, Ouyang; Sherwood, Bruce A.

    Two essays discuss the need for improved international transfer of scientific and technical information and propose the international language Esperanto for that purpose. "The Role of Esperanto" by Ouyang Wendao suggests that the burden of time and energy spent in translating scientific literature quickly and well and the difficulties of…

  2. The Internet, Language Learning, And International Dialogue: 
Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites

    OpenAIRE

    KARTAL, Erdogan; UZUN, Levent

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign language teaching websites (4 from each of seven languages including English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish and Turkish). The participants ...

  3. Making a Difference: Language Teaching for Intercultural and International Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Michael; Wagner, Manuela

    2018-01-01

    Language teaching has long been associated with teaching in a country or countries where a target language is spoken, but this approach is inadequate. In the contemporary world, language teaching has a responsibility to prepare learners for interaction with people of other cultural backgrounds, teaching them skills and attitudes as well as…

  4. A Note on Internationalisation, Internationalism and Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the editorial of "The Language Learning Journal" of July 2011, readers' attention is drawn to the decline in language teaching and learning in British schools and universities, and to the attempt of the British Academy to promote language teaching against this decline. The British Academy paper makes seven recommendations of which the…

  5. Content validation: clarity/relevance, reliability and internal consistency of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Anelise Henrich; Moraes, Anaelena Bragança de; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2017-08-10

    To analyze the results of the validation of building enunciative signs of language acquisition for children aged 3 to 12 months. The signs were built based on mechanisms of language acquisition in an enunciative perspective and on clinical experience with language disorders. The signs were submitted to judgment of clarity and relevance by a sample of six experts, doctors in linguistic in with knowledge of psycholinguistics and language clinic. In the validation of reliability, two judges/evaluators helped to implement the instruments in videos of 20% of the total sample of mother-infant dyads using the inter-evaluator method. The method known as internal consistency was applied to the total sample, which consisted of 94 mother-infant dyads to the contents of the Phase 1 (3-6 months) and 61 mother-infant dyads to the contents of Phase 2 (7 to 12 months). The data were collected through the analysis of mother-infant interaction based on filming of dyads and application of the parameters to be validated according to the child's age. Data were organized in a spreadsheet and then converted to computer applications for statistical analysis. The judgments of clarity/relevance indicated no modifications to be made in the instruments. The reliability test showed an almost perfect agreement between judges (0.8 ≤ Kappa ≥ 1.0); only the item 2 of Phase 1 showed substantial agreement (0.6 ≤ Kappa ≥ 0.79). The internal consistency for Phase 1 had alpha = 0.84, and Phase 2, alpha = 0.74. This demonstrates the reliability of the instruments. The results suggest adequacy as to content validity of the instruments created for both age groups, demonstrating the relevance of the content of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

  6. The International Language Esperanto 1887-1987: Towards the Second Century. Esperanto Documents 39A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey

    A discussion of Esperanto in the modern world outlines the rationale for the use of an international language, the role of Esperanto in promoting international communication, Esperanto-related organizations and services, and the characteristics of the language that make it useful and easy to teach. Also included are a fact sheet describing the…

  7. The Relationship Between Second Language Anxiety and International Nursing Students Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Chan, Sabrina; Stein, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between second language anxiety and international nursing student stress after taking into account the demographic, cognitive, and acculturative factors. International nursing students (N = 152) completed an online questionnaire battery. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that spoken second language anxiety and…

  8. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety among China Chinese Students Undergoing the Laureate English Programme in INTI International University, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampalagan, Meghavaani d/o; Sellupillai, Mogana d/o; Yap, Sze Sze

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety (communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation) among Mainland Chinese students undergoing the Laureate English Programme in INTI International University, Malaysia. The participants of this study consisted of 75…

  9. AMSTERDAM-NIJMEGEN EVERYDAY LANGUAGE TEST - CONSTRUCTION, RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLOMERT, L; KEAN, ML; KOSTER, C; SCHOKKER, J

    1994-01-01

    The Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT) is designed to measure, first, the level of verbal communicative abilities of aphasic patients and, second, changes in these abilities over time. The level of communicative effectiveness is determined by the adequacy of bringing a message across.

  10. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  11. Language Testing in the Military: Problems, Politics and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rita; Wall, Dianne

    2005-01-01

    There appears to be little literature available -- either descriptive or research-related -- on language testing in the military. This form of specific purposes assessment affects both military personnel and civilians working within the military structure in terms of posting, promotion and remuneration, and it could be argued that it has serious…

  12. Pronunciation for English as an international language from research to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Low, Ee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation plays a crucial role in learning English as an international language, yet often remains marginalised by educators due to a lack of required phonetic and phonological knowledge. Pronunciation for English as an International Language bridges the gap between phonetics, phonology and pronunciation and provides the reader with a research based guide on how best to teach the English language. The book follows an easy to follow format which ensures the reader will have a comprehensive grasp of each given topic by the end of the chapter. Key ideas explored include: Articulation of English speech sounds and basic transcription Connected speech processes Current issues in English language pronunciation teaching Multimedia in English language pronunciation practice Using speech analysis to investigate pronunciation features Using the latest research, Pronunciation for English as an International Language will facilitate effective teaching and learning for any individual involved in teaching English a...

  13. Techniques for Automated Testing of Lola Industrial Robot Language Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Lutovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of parsing execution directly affects the accuracy of semantic analysis, optimization and object code generation. Therefore, parser testing represents the basis of compiler testing. It should include tests for correct and expected, but also for unexpected and invalid cases. Techniques for testing the parser, as well as algorithms and tools for test sentences generation, are discussed in this paper. The methodology for initial testing of a newly developed compiler is proposed. Generation of negative test sentences by modifying the original language grammar is described. Positive and negative test cases generated by Grow, Purdom’s algorithm with and without length control, CDRC-P algorithm and CDRC-P algorithm with length control are applied to the testing of L-IRL robot programming language. For this purpose two different tools for generation of test sentences are used. Based on the presented analysis of possible solutions, the appropriate method can be chosen for testing the parser for smaller grammars with many recursive rules.

  14. Development of a test and flight engineering oriented language, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamsler, W. F.; Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.

    1970-01-01

    Based on an analysis of previously developed test oriented languages and a study of test language requirements, a high order language was designed to enable test and flight engineers to checkout and operate the proposed space shuttle and other NASA vehicles and experiments. The language is called ALOFT (a language oriented to flight engineering and testing). The language is described, its terminology is compared to similar terms in other test languages, and its features and utilization are discussed. The appendix provides the specifications for ALOFT.

  15. The Internet, Language Learning, and International Dialogue: Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Erdogan; Uzun, Levent

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign…

  16. Conformance test development with the Java modeling language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders P.

    2017-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a Java Specification Request, a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents a model-based development of a TCK test suite and a test execution tool for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ......) profile specification. The Java Modeling Language (JML) is used to model conformance constraints for the profile. JML annotations define contracts for classes and interfaces. The annotations are translated by a tool into runtime assertion checks.Hereby the design and elaboration of the concrete test cases...

  17. The Unified Language Testing Plan: Speaking Proficiency Test. Spanish and English Pilot Validation Studies. Report Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Julie A.

    This report describes one segment of the Federal Language Testing Board's Unified Language Testing Plan (ULTP), the validation of speaking proficiency tests in Spanish and English. The ULTP is a project to increase standardization of foreign language proficiency measurement and promote sharing of resources among testing programs in the federal…

  18. Relationships between narrative language samples and norm-referenced test scores in language assessments of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danahy Ebert, Kerry; Scott, Cheryl M

    2014-10-01

    Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from 73 school-age children. Participants had completed an oral narrative language sample and at least one norm-referenced language test. Correlations between microstructural language sample measures and norm-referenced test scores were compared for younger (6- to 8-year-old) and older (9- to 12-year-old) children. Contingency tables were constructed to compare the 2 types of tools, at 2 different cutpoints, in terms of which children were identified as having a language disorder. Correlations between narrative language sample measures and norm-referenced tests were stronger for the younger group than the older group. Within the younger group, the level of language assessed by each measure contributed to associations among measures. Contingency analyses revealed moderate overlap in the children identified by each tool, with agreement affected by the cutpoint used. Narrative language samples may complement norm-referenced tests well, but age combined with narrative task can be expected to influence the nature of the relationship.

  19. Handbook for Classroom Testing in Peace Corps Language Programs. Manual T0068.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil J.

    This manual provides instructors in Peace Corps language training programs with information about two kinds of classroom testing: formative, ongoing testing and summative testing that occurs at the end of an instructional period. The first of the manual's four chapters on the purposes of language testing, discusses language testing within a…

  20. Is there a language divide in pap test use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Ninez A; Chawla, Neetu; Babey, Susan H; Gatchell, Melissa S; Etzioni, David A; Spencer, Benjamin A; Brown, E Richard; Breen, Nancy

    2006-11-01

    We sought to determine whether primary language use, measured by language of interview, is associated with disparities in cervical cancer screening. We undertook a secondary data analysis of a pooled sample of the 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Surveys. The surveys were conducted in English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, Korean, and Vietnamese. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 3-year Pap test use among women ages 18 to 64, with no reported cervical cancer diagnosis or hysterectomy (n = 38,931). In addition to language of interview, other factors studied included race/ethnicity, marital status, income, educational attainment, years lived in the United States, insurance status, usual source of care, smoking status, area of residence, and self-rated health status. We fit weighted multivariate logit models predicting 3-year Pap test use as a function of language of interview, adjusting for the effects of specified covariates. Compared with the referent English interview group, women who interviewed in Spanish were 1.65 times more likely to receive a Pap test in the past 3 years. In contrast, we observed a significantly reduced risk of screening among women who interviewed in Vietnamese (odds ratio [OR] 0.67; confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.93), Cantonese (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.30-0.66), Mandarin (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.33-0.72), and Korean (OR 0.62; 0.40-0.98). Improved language access could reduce cancer screening disparities, especially in the Asian immigrant community.

  1. International testing of a Mars rover prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemurjian, Alexsandr Leonovich; Linkin, V.; Friedman, L.

    1993-03-01

    Tests on a prototype engineering model of the Russian Mars 96 Rover were conducted by an international team in and near Death Valley in the United States in late May, 1992. These tests were part of a comprehensive design and testing program initiated by the three Russian groups responsible for the rover development. The specific objectives of the May tests were: (1) evaluate rover performance over different Mars-like terrains; (2) evaluate state-of-the-art teleoperation and autonomy development for Mars rover command, control and navigation; and (3) organize an international team to contribute expertise and capability on the rover development for the flight project. The range and performance that can be planned for the Mars mission is dependent on the degree of autonomy that will be possible to implement on the mission. Current plans are for limited autonomy, with Earth-based teleoperation for the nominal navigation system. Several types of television systems are being investigated for inclusion in the navigation system including panoramic camera, stereo, and framing cameras. The tests used each of these in teleoperation experiments. Experiments were included to consider use of such TV data in autonomy algorithms. Image processing and some aspects of closed-loop control software were also tested. A micro-rover was tested to help consider the value of such a device as a payload supplement to the main rover. The concept is for the micro-rover to serve like a mobile hand, with its own sensors including a television camera.

  2. English as the Language of International Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Alison

    2007-01-01

    In teaching business communication, instructors usually can take for granted that English is the language of business communication in a globalised world. Even in a multicultural and multilinguistic country such as Malaysia, the assumption that English is the language to use is shared by those who manage programs, those who teach, and students.…

  3. English, a Tonal Language? | Pam | AFRREV IJAH: An International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tone is associated with lexical meaning, distinguishing one word from another. Diacritical marks are used for indicating tone to eliminate confusion.The general conclusion is English, is not a tonal language. English is an intonation language which expresses syntactic, discourse, grammatical and attitudinal functions.

  4. International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    A sample population of ninety three students was derived in the second ... over 33% of them are English dominant and never came in contact with Igbo until they .... or Igbo language learning behaviours and how to motivate them effectively. ... eclectic method of language teaching as the practice of using features of several.

  5. Neoliberal Paradoxes of Language Learning: Xenophobia and International Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberal ideology compels people to develop language skills as human capital. As English is considered to be the most useful language for global communication, learning, and teaching, English has been promoted in many countries. However, the belief that English connects people from diverse linguistic backgrounds in a borderless society…

  6. International Business Culture: Merging Business with Foreign Language Cultural Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepian, Kristen B.

    This report considers how the different departments of business administration and foreign languages can cooperate to create coursework that will benefit students in both areas of study. The ignorance many U.S. citizens have of the world is taken into consideration. Although foreign language majors have greater exposure to the world, this…

  7. Test of user- and system programs coded in real time languages - requirements on program language and testing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertlin, J.; Mackert, M.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper the functions are presented, which should be part of a test system for user programs in a higher treat time programming language, taking into account time sequences and competitive processes. As can be shown by the problem of testing, use of higher level real time programming languages renders the task of program development essentially easier, however performance of test procedures without appropriate test systems is very difficult. After the presentation of notions and methods for the testing of programs, general requirements on testing tools are described and the test system functions for a program test, beeing uncritical with respect to time, are placed together. Thereby, for every individual function, the interface between the test system, the program under test, and the residual program-generation system (compiler, binder, operating system, delay-time system, and loader) is given too. For the time-critical test, a series of desirable functions are described, which can be implemented with acceptable expense. (orig.) [de

  8. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to this...

  9. Language standardization in sociolinguistics and international business: Theory and practice across the table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linn, Andrew; Sanden, Guro Refsum; Piekkari, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Haugen to explain the history of modern Norwegian. The table is then turned and a model from international business by Piekkari, Welch and Welch is used to illuminate recent Norwegian language planning. It is found that the Grundfos case works well with the Haugen model, and the international business......This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study...... of language standardization in the wider discussion of standards as a means of control across society. We analyze the language policy and practice of the Danish multinational, Grundfos, and use it as a “sociolinguistic laboratory” to “test” the theory of language standardization initially elaborated by Einar...

  10. Psychometric properties of a sign language version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)

    OpenAIRE

    Øhre, Beate; Saltnes, Hege; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for psychiatric assessment instruments that enable reliable diagnoses in persons with hearing loss who have sign language as their primary language. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Methods The MINI was translated into NSL. Forty-one signing patients consecutively referred to two specialised psychiatric units were assessed with a diagnos...

  11. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Undergraduate International Studies and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and...

  12. International Undergraduate English Language Learners' Perception of Language and Academic Acquisition through Online Learning: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Olga Noemi

    2014-01-01

    Many institutional programs are changing to incorporate more online opportunities as a way to meet the needs of their students. Therefore, international English language learners are being encouraged to take online courses in order to complete their programs of study at United States colleges or universities (Tan, Lee, & Steven, 2010). In this…

  13. International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Previous researches and prevalent issues have revealed that the world has indeed ... primacy, especially in the formation of political and educational system as a .... associations being made are the perceived benefits to which the language ...

  14. International Meeting on Languages, Applied Linguistics and Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This meeting aims at providing an overview of the current theory and practice, exploring new directions and emerging trends, sharing good practice, and exchanging information regarding foreign languages, applied linguistics and translation. The meeting is an excellent opportunity for the presentation of current or previous language learning and translation projects funded by the European Commission or by other sources. Proposals are invited for one or more of the following topics, in any of t...

  15. A Framework for International Student Participation in Postsecondary U.S. English Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Valeriana

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary English language education is a growing field in the United States. While there has been considerable research on international student mobility in higher education, there is limited research on the population's participation in U.S. English language programs (ELPs). This study examined literature in related fields to create a…

  16. Discipline-Specific Language Instruction for International Students in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trien T.; Williams, Julia; Trimarchi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL) tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory…

  17. University Language Policies, Internationalism, Multilingualism, and Language Development in South Africa and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines legislation concerning language policy and language choice in the UK and South Africa. In particular an account of the pressures and imperatives to which such policy development must respond is provided. The paper suggests that the comparison between South Africa and the UK is relevant and compelling, not least because both…

  18. Language Learning Motivation and Language Attitudes in Multilingual Spain from an International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagabaster, David

    2017-01-01

    In Spain, more than 40% of the population lives in officially bilingual regions in which the minority language is used as a means of instruction at school and university. In addition, the increasing importance attached to learning English has led to the proliferation of multilingual school programs in which different languages are used to teach…

  19. Grammar tests increase the ability to lateralize language function in the Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Curtiss, Susan; Walshaw, Particia; Siddarth, Prabha; Benjamin, Chris; Moseley, Brian D; Vigil, Celia; Jones, Michael; Eliashiv, Dawn; Bookheimer, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Grammar is a core component of the language system, yet it is rarely assessed during the Wada (intracarotid amobarbital) test. It is hypothesized that adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the Wada test will increase our ability to lateralize language function. Sixteen individuals (nine females, fifteen right-handed, mean age 38.4 years, SD=10.7) with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy participated in the study. On EEG ten patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), five in the right hemisphere (RH), and one was insufficiently lateralized. We included only patients who were LH-dominant on the standard test in the encoding phase of the Wada test. In the recovery phase of Wada testing the participants underwent evaluation with a standard language and a new test of grammar, the CYCLE-N. Ten patients underwent bilateral injections, six unilateral (one RH, five LH). As expected, injection in the LH decreased language performance to a greater extent than injection to the RH on both tests. However, the CYCLE-N produced more profound language deficits in the injected LH compared to the RH (p=0.01), whereas the standard tests did not cause such pronounced differences (p=0.2). The results suggest that the standard tests did not significantly differentiate the effects of the injections and the CYCLE-N, for the most part, did. Our results are of particular relevance to patients who are too obtunded to speak in the encoding phase. In sum, the CYCLE-N may be helpful in assessing hemispheric dominance for language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Population Size and the Rate of Language Evolution: A Test Across Indo-European, Austronesian, and Bantu Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Simon J.; Hua, Xia; Welsh, Caela F.; Schneemann, Hilde; Bromham, Lindell

    2018-01-01

    What role does speaker population size play in shaping rates of language evolution? There has been little consensus on the expected relationship between rates and patterns of language change and speaker population size, with some predicting faster rates of change in smaller populations, and others expecting greater change in larger populations. The growth of comparative databases has allowed population size effects to be investigated across a wide range of language groups, with mixed results. One recent study of a group of Polynesian languages revealed greater rates of word gain in larger populations and greater rates of word loss in smaller populations. However, that test was restricted to 20 closely related languages from small Oceanic islands. Here, we test if this pattern is a general feature of language evolution across a larger and more diverse sample of languages from both continental and island populations. We analyzed comparative language data for 153 pairs of closely-related sister languages from three of the world's largest language families: Austronesian, Indo-European, and Niger-Congo. We find some evidence that rates of word loss are significantly greater in smaller languages for the Indo-European comparisons, but we find no significant patterns in the other two language families. These results suggest either that the influence of population size on rates and patterns of language evolution is not universal, or that it is sufficiently weak that it may be overwhelmed by other influences in some cases. Further investigation, for a greater number of language comparisons and a wider range of language features, may determine which of these explanations holds true. PMID:29755387

  1. Nation Building, English as an International Language, Medium of Instruction, and Language Debate: Malaysia and Possible Ways Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Le Ha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss Malaysia's major language policies surrounding Bahasa Malaysia and English as medium of instruction (MOI since its independence. We show how issues involving a national language vis a vis English are shaped by different ethnic and social groups' competing views regarding these languages. We argue that the language debate in Malaysia is largely an emotive one that carries a historical baggage which no one is yet ready to discard and until such time, it will continue to represent a nation divided by nationalism, race-based politics and globalisation. However, we also interpret the Malaysian government's termination of English as the MOI in certain key school subjects starting in 2012 as not necessarily an arbitrary rejection of English but as a positive move, given the many problems associated with the over-reliance on English in education and language policies throughout Asia. We, thus, see the most recent act known as 'To Uphold Bahasa Malaysia & To Strengthen the English Language' (MBMMBI as a necessary, firm, strategic and timely response by the Malaysian government to globalisation, nation building, the increasing international role of English, and the pressure to produce knowledge and maintain national cultural identity in today's world.

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Flight Software Internal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Justin D.; Lam, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) team is sending the rover, Curiosity, to Mars, and therefore is physically and technically complex. During my stay, I have assisted the MSL Flight Software (FSW) team in implementing functional test scripts to ensure that the FSW performs to the best of its abilities. There are a large number of FSW requirements that have been written up for implementation; however I have only been assigned a few sections of these requirements. There are many stages within testing; one of the early stages is FSW Internal Testing (FIT). The FIT team can accomplish this with simulation software and the MSL Test Automation Kit (MTAK). MTAK has the ability to integrate with the Software Simulation Equipment (SSE) and the Mission Processing and Control System (MPCS) software which makes it a powerful tool within the MSL FSW development process. The MSL team must ensure that the rover accomplishes all stages of the mission successfully. Due to the natural complexity of this project there is a strong emphasis on testing, as failure is not an option. The entire mission could be jeopardized if something is overlooked.

  3. Researching Language Teacher Cognition and Practice: International Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Roger, Ed.; Burns, Anne, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a novel approach to discussing how to research language teacher cognition and practice. An introductory chapter by the editors and an overview of the research field by Simon Borg precede eight case studies written by new researchers, each of which focuses on one approach to collecting data. These approaches range from…

  4. The Role of Language in Shaping International Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adsera, Alicia; Pytlikova, Mariola

    Fluency in (or ease to quickly learn) the language of the destination country plays a key role in the transfer of human capital from the source country to another country and boosts the immigrant’s rate of success at the destination’s labor market. This suggests that the ability to learn and spea...

  5. Design Of Computer Based Test Using The Unified Modeling Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedyyana, Agus; Danuri; Lidyawati

    2017-12-01

    The Admission selection of Politeknik Negeri Bengkalis through interest and talent search (PMDK), Joint Selection of admission test for state Polytechnics (SB-UMPN) and Independent (UM-Polbeng) were conducted by using paper-based Test (PBT). Paper Based Test model has some weaknesses. They are wasting too much paper, the leaking of the questios to the public, and data manipulation of the test result. This reasearch was Aimed to create a Computer-based Test (CBT) models by using Unified Modeling Language (UML) the which consists of Use Case diagrams, Activity diagram and sequence diagrams. During the designing process of the application, it is important to pay attention on the process of giving the password for the test questions before they were shown through encryption and description process. RSA cryptography algorithm was used in this process. Then, the questions shown in the questions banks were randomized by using the Fisher-Yates Shuffle method. The network architecture used in Computer Based test application was a client-server network models and Local Area Network (LAN). The result of the design was the Computer Based Test application for admission to the selection of Politeknik Negeri Bengkalis.

  6. Internal and External Factors That Support Children's Minority First Language and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Tipton, Timothy

    2018-05-22

    Sequential bilingual children in the United States often speak 2 languages that have different social statuses (minority-majority) and separate contexts for learning (home-school). Thus, distinct factors may support the development of each language. This study examined which child internal and external factors were related to vocabulary skills in a minority language versus English. Participants included 69 children, aged 5-8 years, who lived in Southern California, spoke Vietnamese as the home language, and received school instruction in English. All participants had at least 1 foreign-born parent, and most mothers reported limited English proficiency. Parents completed a telephone survey, and children completed measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary in each language. Using correlations and stepwise regression, we examined predictors of vocabulary skills in each language that were internal to the child (age, gender, analytical reasoning, phonological memory) or that pertained to the surrounding environment (cumulative exposure, quantity and quality of input/output). Vietnamese vocabulary outcomes were related to multiple external factors, of which input and enrichment activities were the best predictors. In contrast, English vocabulary outcomes were related to internal factors, of which age and phonological memory were the best predictors. Parental use of Vietnamese contributed to children's Vietnamese vocabulary outcomes but was not related to children's English vocabulary outcomes. Vietnamese exposure does not hinder English development. Children from immigrant families are learning English with or without familial support. Rich and frequent exposure and opportunities for practice are essential for the continued development of a minority first language.

  7. The Relative Importance of Persons, Items, Subtests, and Languages to TOEFL Test Variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1999-01-01

    Explored the relative contributions to Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) score dependability of various numbers of persons, items, subtests, languages, and their various interactions. Sampled 15,000 test takers, 1000 each from 15 different language backgrounds. (Author/VWL)

  8. Study Guide for Teacher Certification Test in Speech and Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Forrest G.

    This study guide is designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in speech and language pathology. The test covers five subareas: (1) fundamentals of speech and language; (2) speech and language disorders; (3) related handicapping conditions; (4) hearing impairment; and (5) program management and…

  9. Testing the Claims of Asylum Seekers: The Role of Language Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Language tests in immigration contexts typically perform a gate-keeping role in decisions about whether an applicant should be granted residence or citizenship in a new country. In refugee contexts, so-called language tests or language analyses also play a gate-keeping role, but a more ambitious one; namely that of providing answers to questions…

  10. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…

  11. Internal ultrasonic testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, J.; Soleille, G.; Chalaye, H.

    1983-01-01

    The ''in situ'' inspection of steam generator tubes uses generally Foucault currents before starting and along its life. This inspection aims at searching cracks and corrosion defects. The Foucault current method is quite badly adapted to ''closed crack'' detection, for it doesn't introduce neither resistivity or magnetic permeability variation, or lack of matter. More, it is sensible to the magnetic properties of the tube itself and to its environment (tubular or support plates). It is why, this first systematic inspection has to be completed by an ultrasonic one allowing to bring new elements in the uncertain cases. A device with an internal probe has been developed. It ''lights'' the tube wall with the aid of a transducer of which beam reflects on a mirror. Operating conditions are the same as for Foucault current testing, that is to say the probe moves inside the tube without rotation of the device (bent parts are excluded) [fr

  12. Methodological and Theoretical Issues in the Adaptation of Sign Language Tests: An Example from the Adaptation of a Test to German Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Despite the current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor the sign language acquisition of deaf children, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. This mirrors the current state of affairs for many sign languages, where very little…

  13. Canadian Policy Responses to International Comparison Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines policy responses across Canada to international student assessment programs such as the program for international student assessment, trends in international mathematics and science study, and progress in international reading and literacy study. Literature reviewed included refereed and non-refereed journal articles,…

  14. Development of a test and flight engineering oriented language. Phase 3: Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamsler, W. F.; Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.

    1970-01-01

    The format material used in an oral presentation of the phase 3 study effort is given. The material includes a description of the language ALOFT and a terminology comparison with other test languages.

  15. TEST OF ENGLISH FOR AVIATION PERSONNEL TO MEET ICAO LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Petrashchuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the actual problem of the assessment of English language proficiency of aviation personnel. The paper presents an English language test, which is used for professional pilots and air traffic controllers.

  16. Does the Test Work? Evaluating a Web-Based Language Placement Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Avizia Y.; Shin, Sun-Young; Geeslin, Kimberly; Willis, Erik W.

    2018-01-01

    In response to the need for examples of test validation from which everyday language programs can benefit, this paper reports on a study that used Bachman's (2005) assessment use argument (AUA) framework to examine evidence to support claims made about the intended interpretations and uses of scores based on a new web-based Spanish language…

  17. Testing Practices and Attitudes Toward Tests and Testing: An International Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evers, A.; McCormick, C. M.; Hawley, L. R.; Muñiz, J.; Balboni, G.; Bartram, D.; Boben, D.; Egeland, J.; El-Hassan, K.; Fernández-Hermida, J.R.; Fine, S.; Frans, Ö.; Gintiliéne, G.; Hagemeister, C.; Halama, P.; Iliescu, D.; Jaworowska, A.; Jiménez, P.; Manthouili, M.; Matesic, K.; Michaelsen, L.; Mogaji, A.; Morley-Kirk, J.; Rózsa, S.; Rowlands, L.; Schittekatte, M.; Sümer, H.C.; Suwartono, T.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Wechsler, S.; Zelenevska, T.; Zanev, S.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2017), s. 158-190 ISSN 1530-5058 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : psychological testing * testing practices * test use * International Test Commission * European Federation of Psychologists' Associations Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  18. Early childhood language memory in the speech perception of international adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Janet S; Au, Terry Kit-Fong; Jun, Sun-Ah

    2010-11-01

    It is as yet unclear whether the benefits of early linguistic experiences can be maintained without at least some minimal continued exposure to the language. This study compared 12 adults adopted from Korea to the US as young children (all but one prior to age one year) to 13 participants who had no prior exposure to Korean to examine whether relearning can aid in accessing early childhood language memory. All 25 participants were recruited and tested during the second week of first-semester college Korean language classes. They completed a language background questionnaire and interview, a childhood slang task and a Korean phoneme identification task. Results revealed an advantage for adoptee participants in identifying some Korean phonemes, suggesting that some components of early childhood language memory can remain intact despite many years of disuse, and that relearning a language can help in accessing such a memory.

  19. Language standardization in sociolinguistics and international business: Theory and practice across the table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linn, Andrew; Sanden, Guro Refsum; Piekkari, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Haugen to explain the history of modern Norwegian. The table is then turned and a model from international business by Piekkari, Welch and Welch is used to illuminate recent Norwegian language planning. It is found that the Grundfos case works well with the Haugen model, and the international business...... model provides a valuable practical lesson for national language planners, both showing that a “comparative standardology” is a valuable undertaking. More voices “at the table” will allow both theory and practice to be further refined and for the role of standards across society to be better understood.......This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study...

  20. The Importance of English Language Competency in the Academic Success of International Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael; Maxey, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the information content of two commonly used admission tests, namely the Graduate Management Admission Test and the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The analysis extends prior research by investigating the incremental information content of individual components from one admission test conditional on the…

  1. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  2. English, a Tonal Language? | Pam | AFRREV IJAH: An International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Language development of internationally adopted children: Adverse early experiences outweigh the age of acquisition effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Hein, Sascha; Doyle, Niamh; Hart, Lesley; Macomber, Donna; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Tan, Mei; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    We compared English language and cognitive skills between internationally adopted children (IA; mean age at adoption=2.24, SD=1.8) and their non-adopted peers from the US reared in biological families (BF) at two time points. We also examined the relationships between outcome measures and age at initial institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and age at adoption. On measures of general language, early literacy, and non-verbal IQ, the IA group performed significantly below their age-peers reared in biological families at both time points, but the group differences disappeared on receptive vocabulary and kindergarten concept knowledge at the second time point. Furthermore, the majority of children reached normative age expectations between 1 and 2 years post-adoption on all standardized measures. Although the age at adoption, age of institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and time in the adoptive family all demonstrated significant correlations with one or more outcome measures, the negative relationship between length of institutionalization and child outcomes remained most robust after controlling for the other variables. Results point to much flexibility and resilience in children's capacity for language acquisition as well as the potential primacy of length of institutionalization in explaining individual variation in IA children's outcomes. (1) Readers will be able to understand the importance of pre-adoption environment on language and early literacy development in internationally adopted children. (2) Readers will be able to compare the strength of the association between the length of institutionalization and language outcomes with the strength of the association between the latter and the age at adoption. (3) Readers will be able to understand that internationally adopted children are able to reach age expectations on expressive and receptive language measures despite adverse early experiences and a replacement of their first

  4. International Technical Working Group Round Robin Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.

    2003-02-01

    The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases.

  5. International Technical Working Group Round Robin Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases

  6. Intercultural Communication and Teaching Russian to International Students at Language Summer Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy A. Romanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article considers the content and methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language at language summer courses with due account to (as a form of study-abroad training the motives of intercultural communication. The specifics of teaching Russian to international students in the cultural field of Ukraine is revealed. The timeliness of the study is determined by constantly increasing academic mobility of students and the need for the development of modern educational technologies. The main purpose of the article is to present an integrated approach to Russian as a foreign language teaching at language summer courses, when cultural needs of the trainees and the motives of intercultural communication are considered. Materials and Methods: teaching methodology draws on specific methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language and models of intercultural competence development. Educational materials for practical teaching of the Russian language are presented; qualitative and quantitative methods to research intercultural communication motives (written questionnaires and interviews on key topics are used. Results: through working with the learners of language courses – students of Austrian universities – the data on the learners’ motivation factors, the most relevant topics for intercultural dialogue, some important aspects of Russian grammar, and also the data on the most popular knowledge about Ukraine are obtained and carefully analysed. The analysis of the obtained data, carried out by the authors of the study, allowed to optimise the content of the educational process and to incre ase its effectiveness. Discussion and Conclusions: teaching Russian to foreigners, showing a keen interest in the cultural values of Ukraine, suggests a parallel formation of intercultural competence based on understanding the local cultural realities. The presented approach to RFL teaching within the framework of the language summer courses

  7. The irreversibility of sensitive period effects in language development: evidence from second language acquisition in international adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Gunnar; Bylund, Emanuel

    2016-05-01

    The question of a sensitive period in language acquisition has been subject to extensive research and debate for more than half a century. While it has been well established that the ability to learn new languages declines in early years, the extent to which this outcome depends on biological maturation in contrast to previously acquired knowledge remains disputed. In the present study, we addressed this question by examining phonetic discriminatory abilities in early second language (L2) speakers of Swedish, who had either maintained their first language (L1) (immigrants) or had lost it (international adoptees), using native speaker controls. Through this design, we sought to disentangle the effects of the maturational state of the learner on L2 development from the effects of L1 interference: if additional language development is indeed constrained by an interfering L1, then adoptees should outperform immigrant speakers. The results of an auditory lexical decision task, in which fine vowel distinctions in Swedish had been modified, showed, however, no difference between the L2 groups. Instead, both L2 groups scored significantly lower than the native speaker group. The three groups did not differ in their ability to discriminate non-modified words. These findings demonstrate that L1 loss is not a crucial condition for successfully acquiring an L2, which in turn is taken as support for a maturational constraints view on L2 acquisition. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/1J9X50aePeU. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Scripting language design and the implementation test for PSO-GA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the Characters of Code (COC) are measured in order to test the easiness of the programming language. The results show that across all algorithms, the scripting language is anticipated to enable easy programming which has been presented by the very less number of COC compared to the JAVA programming language.

  9. Internal and External Dynamics in Language: Evidence from Verb Regularity in a Historical Corpus of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskley, Christine F.; Pugliese, Martina; Castellano, Claudio; Colaiori, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Human languages are rule governed, but almost invariably these rules have exceptions in the form of irregularities. Since rules in language are efficient and productive, the persistence of irregularity is an anomaly. How does irregularity linger in the face of internal (endogenous) and external (exogenous) pressures to conform to a rule? Here we address this problem by taking a detailed look at simple past tense verbs in the Corpus of Historical American English. The data show that the language is open, with many new verbs entering. At the same time, existing verbs might tend to regularize or irregularize as a consequence of internal dynamics, but overall, the amount of irregularity sustained by the language stays roughly constant over time. Despite continuous vocabulary growth, and presumably, an attendant increase in expressive power, there is no corresponding growth in irregularity. We analyze the set of irregulars, showing they may adhere to a set of minority rules, allowing for increased stability of irregularity over time. These findings contribute to the debate on how language systems become rule governed, and how and why they sustain exceptions to rules, providing insight into the interplay between the emergence and maintenance of rules and exceptions in language. PMID:25084006

  10. Coupling ontology driven semantic representation with multilingual natural language generation for tuning international terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassinoux, Anne-Marie; Baud, Robert H; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Lovis, Christian; Geissbühler, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    The importance of clinical communication between providers, consumers and others, as well as the requisite for computer interoperability, strengthens the need for sharing common accepted terminologies. Under the directives of the World Health Organization (WHO), an approach is currently being conducted in Australia to adopt a standardized terminology for medical procedures that is intended to become an international reference. In order to achieve such a standard, a collaborative approach is adopted, in line with the successful experiment conducted for the development of the new French coding system CCAM. Different coding centres are involved in setting up a semantic representation of each term using a formal ontological structure expressed through a logic-based representation language. From this language-independent representation, multilingual natural language generation (NLG) is performed to produce noun phrases in various languages that are further compared for consistency with the original terms. Outcomes are presented for the assessment of the International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) and its translation into Portuguese. The initial results clearly emphasize the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed method for handling both a different classification and an additional language. NLG tools, based on ontology driven semantic representation, facilitate the discovery of ambiguous and inconsistent terms, and, as such, should be promoted for establishing coherent international terminologies.

  11. An Exploration of Language Anxiety in L2 Academic Context for Chinese International Students in U.S. Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…

  12. Cambridge IGCSE and international certificate French foreign language

    CERN Document Server

    Grime, Yvette; Thacker, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This brand-new Student Book provides a grammar-led approach with extensive exam preparation that will help you develop independent, culturally aware students of French ready for the exam. The book is written to the latest Cambridge International Examinations syllabus by experienced teachers. Extensive use of French reflects the style of the exams and, with specific advice and practice, it helps students use the acquired skills to their best ability. Topics on Francophone cultures are integrated throughout to ensure students gain the cultural awareness that is at the heart of this qualification

  13. An international language: The Translation and Interpretation Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikonomou, Haakon

    2017-01-01

    “I wonder if you could tell me the meaning of an obscure Finnish word I’ve got here? I think it’s perhaps something to do with fishing tackle”, goes one of the lines in a fantastic information movie called “The League at Work”, produced by the League itself in 1935. The movie, introducing...... the viewers to all the aspects of the Secretariat, gives the Translation and Interpretation Service a rather prominent place as the first in line. And no wonder: for it was one of the peculiar procurements of the Secretariat – indeed, one of the features that made it international in all its doings....

  14. Language Testing: The State of the Art. An Online Interview with James Dean Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this interview, JD Brown reflects on language testing/assessment. He suggests that language testing can be seen as a continuum with hard core positivist approaches at one end and post modernist interpretive perspectives at the other, and also argues that norm referencing (be it proficiency, placement, or aptitude testing) and criterion…

  15. Developing Testing Accommodations for English Language Learners: Illustrations as Visual Supports for Item Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Kachchaf, Rachel; Soltero-Gonzalez, Lucinda; Nguyen-Le, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    We address valid testing for English language learners (ELLs)--students in the United States who are schooled in English while they are still acquiring English as a second language. Also, we address the need for procedures for systematically developing ELL testing accommodations--changes in tests intended to support ELLs to gain access to the…

  16. Language (In)competency, Communication Strategies, and the Development of an International Academic Teacher Identity: Becoming an Audible Minority

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllum, Kirstie

    2017-01-01

    Despite universities' enthusiasm for internationalization, international academic mobility requires considerable institutional and cultural adjustment in terms of teaching and supervision styles, research expectations, and departmental relationships. Although language competency underpins these practices, research on international academics has…

  17. 4. International colloquium on nondestructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The different papers about non destructive testing (ultrasonic testing, eddy current testing, radiography etc...) are presented. The colloquium deals particularly with utilization in the nuclear field for quality of materials, quality control, improvement of performances or automation [fr

  18. Acculturation and Linguistic Factors on International Students' Self-Esteem and Language Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Iris Y.; Bui, Ngoc H.

    2014-01-01

    Acculturation and linguistic factors were examined as predictors of self-esteem and language confidence among 91 international college students. The majority of participants were Asian (64.8%), female (59.3%), and graduate students (76.9%). Assimilative (adopting host cultural values) and integrative (blending both host and home cultural values)…

  19. Managing Internal Marketing in a New Zealand Language School: Some Important Lessons for All Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, Christopher Allen

    2008-01-01

    In New Zealand, private language schools, although controversial, are popular for international travellers who want to study and travel simultaneously. These alternative schools are run in a business-like fashion and their educational administrators have embraced the use of marketing as part of their everyday educational management practice. Even…

  20. Examining English Language Learning Motivation of Adult International Learners Studying Abroad in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the motivations of adult, international learners of English, studying English 20 hours a week in a US-based Intensive English Program (IEP). Though often used as participants in language acquisition studies, there are few studies of these learners' motivational profiles. In the current study, a questionnaire designed…

  1. Development of a Language for International Law: The Experience of Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the history of interest in developing Esperanto as a lingua franca for international law and diplomacy, beginning with Zamenhof's development of Esperanto and proceeding through the development of a lexicon for the language and through its application to legal issues. Prospects for the future of Esperanto are discussed. (DJD)

  2. Shaping Tourist LL: Language Display and the Sociolinguistic Background of an International Multilingual Readership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyèl-Olmedo, Antonio; Juan-Garau, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic landscape studies increasingly focus on the variables that intertwine to generate the meaning of texts on display. International tourist resorts, largely multilingual, reveal how languages in signage combine and respond to the sociolinguistic profile of their readership. However, these settings have received scant attention in the…

  3. Implications from the Use of ICT by Language Teachers--Participants of International Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    Telecollaboration in international school projects requires various competences from the participating teachers. A combination of intercultural, linguistic, technical and subject competences builds ground for successful team work with foreign partners. This article presents a survey on the use of ICT by language teachers, their attitudes to ICT…

  4. An Outsider View: The Perceptions of Visiting International Students on Teaching, Language and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavli, Bünyamin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how international visitor students studying temporarily at a public university in Turkey perceive teaching, language and culture. Qualitative explanatory single case study method was employed in the study. The data were obtained through face to face interview with 10 participants, and a focus group interview with 3…

  5. Testing Math or Testing Language? The Construct Validity of the KeyMath-Revised for Children With Intellectual Disability and Language Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine T; Branum-Martin, Lee; Morris, Robin D; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A

    2015-11-01

    Although it is often assumed that mathematics ability alone predicts mathematics test performance, linguistic demands may also predict achievement. This study examined the role of language in mathematics assessment performance for children with intellectual disability (ID) at less severe levels, on the KeyMath-Revised Inventory (KM-R) with a sample of 264 children, in grades 2-5. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the hypothesis that the KM-R would demonstrate discriminant validity with measures of language abilities in a two-factor model was compared to two plausible alternative models. Results indicated that KM-R did not have discriminant validity with measures of children's language abilities and was a multidimensional test of both mathematics and language abilities for this population of test users. Implications are considered for test development, interpretation, and intervention.

  6. Internal request modification by first and second language speakers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the question of whether Luganda English speakers would negatively transfer into their English speech the use of syntactic and lexical down graders resulting in pragmatic failure. Data were collected from Luganda and Luganda English speakers by means of a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) ...

  7. Internationally adopted children in the early school years: relative strengths and weaknesses in language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-4) at age 5 and ages 6-7. Language composites and subtests were compared across time. All CELF-P2 and CELF-4 mean scores fell in the average range. Receptive composites were 102.74 and 103.86, and expressive composites were 100.58 and 98.42, at age 5 and ages 6-7, respectively. Age of adoption did not correlate to test scores. At ages 6-7, receptive language, sentence formulation, and vocabulary were areas of strength, with subtest scores significantly better than test norms. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar subtest scores were within the average range but significantly worse than test norms. A high percentage of children scored 1 standard deviation below the mean on these 2 subtests (27.3%-34.1%). Eastern European adoptees had average scores on a variety of language tests. Vocabulary was a relative strength; enriching the environment substantially improved this language area. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar were relative weaknesses. Children learning a language later in life may have difficulty with verbal short-term memory, which leads to weaknesses in expressive syntax and grammar.

  8. Producing the "International" Child: Negotiations of Language in an International Preschool in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic account of an "international preschool" in Japan, describing how ideologies of "English" and "internationalism" are produced and consumed among the parents, teachers and directors, in their common goal of socialising an "international" child. (Contains 6 notes.)

  9. Testing a model of intonation in a tone language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, M

    1986-09-01

    Schematic fundamental frequency curves of simple statements and questions are generated for Hausa, a two-tone language of Nigeria, using a modified version of an intonational model developed by Gårding and Bruce [Nordic Prosody II, edited by T. Fretheim (Tapir, Trondheim, 1981), pp. 33-39]. In this model, rules for intonation and tones are separated. Intonation is represented as sloping grids of (near) parallel lines, inside which tones are placed. The tones are associated with turning points of the fundamental frequency contour. Local rules may also modify the exact placement of a tone within the grid. The continuous fundamental frequency contour is modeled by concatenating the tonal points using polynomial equations. Thus the final pitch contour is modeled as an interaction between global and local factors. The slope of the intonational grid lines depends at least on sentence type (statement or question), sentence length, and tone pattern. The model is tested by reference to data from nine speakers of Kano Hausa.

  10. Barriers of Culture, Networks, and Language in International Migration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing pace of globalization, recent decades faced a dramatically increase in international migrant flows as well. Compared to the flows of trade, capital and knowledge, we observe that contemporaneous complex institutional differences, historical backgrounds, and individuals' diverse socio-demographic characteristics make the migrant workers' choice of destination arguably much more uncontrollable. This study shows that migration is in a complex way intertwined with culture, networks and language, (i by reviewing related studies on the barriers of culture, networks and language in international labor mobility, and (ii by exploring missing gaps and prospective avenues for research. Nowadays, the migration pressure on Europe and the United states has created substantial challenges, leading to an urgent need to address the economic assimilation and social integration of migrants. Against this background, we emphasize that these non-economic factors have played an increasingly critical role in shaping international migration and its future socio-economic consequences for destination countries.

  11. Marine Language Exchange Program: A 21st Century International and Interdisciplinary Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.; Nichols-Pecceu, M.

    2001-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world\\'{}s oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even rarer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences who address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including Eckerd College (Florida), University of Washington (Washington), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their Marine Sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad including marine sciences specialization for full academic credit. This session will review the Marine Language Exchange program activities since 2000 and will discuss the ideological and practical aspects of the program. The program successes, difficulties and future directions will also be presented. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies. Based on this case study, other universities could initiate their own international and interdisciplinary

  12. Recommendations for translation and reliability testing of International Spinal Cord Injury Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Alexander, M S; Burns, S; Charlifue, S; DeVivo, M; Dietz, V; Krassioukov, A; Marino, R; Noonan, V; Post, M W M; Stripling, T; Vogel, L; Wing, P

    2011-03-01

    To provide recommendations regarding translation and reliability testing of International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Sets. The Executive Committee for the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. Translations of any specific International SCI Data Set can be accomplished by translation from the English version into the target language, and be followed by a back-translation into English, to confirm that the original meaning has been preserved. Another approach is to have the initial translation performed by translators who have knowledge of SCI, and afterwards controlled by other person(s) with the same kind of knowledge. The translation process includes both language translation and cultural adaptation, and therefore shall not be made word for word, but will strive to include conceptual equivalence. At a minimum, the inter-rater reliability should be tested by no less than two independent observers, and preferably in multiple countries. Translations must include information on the name, role and background of everyone involved in the translation process, and shall be dated and noted with a version number. By following the proposed guidelines, translated data sets should assure comparability of data acquisition across countries and cultures. If the translation process identifies irregularities or misrepresentation in either the original English version or the target language, the working group for the particular International SCI Data Set shall revise the data set accordingly, which may include re-wording of the original English version in order to accomplish a compromise in the content of the data set.

  13. The Empirical Dimension of Communicative Language Tests: The Case of Selected Philippine Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Alejandro S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the "communicativeness" of 22 English language tests designed and administered by 22 English instructors from 22 different colleges and universities in the Philippines. Its key objective was to answer the question "How communicative are the language tests used in assessing students' competence (knowledge of the…

  14. The acculturation, language and learning experiences of international nursing students: Implications for nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Creina; Del Fabbro, Letitia; Shaw, Julie

    2017-09-01

    International or foreign students are those who enrol in universities outside their country of citizenship. They face many challenges acculturating to and learning in a new country and education system, particularly if they study in an additional language. This qualitative inquiry aimed to explore the learning and acculturating experiences of international nursing students to identify opportunities for teaching innovation to optimise the experiences and learning of international nursing students. Undergraduate and postgraduate international nursing students were recruited from one campus of an Australian university to take part in semi-structured interviews. A purposive and theoretically saturated sample of 17 students was obtained. Interviews were audio-recorded and field notes and interview data were thematically analysed. Expressing myself and Finding my place were the two major themes identified from the international student data. International nursing students identified that it took them longer to study in comparison with domestic students and that stress negatively influenced communication, particularly in the clinical setting. Additionally international nursing students identified the need to find supportive opportunities to speak English to develop proficiency. Clinical placement presented the opportunity to speak English and raised the risk of being identified as lacking language proficiency or being clinically unsafe. Initially, international nursing students felt isolated and it was some time before they found their feet. In this time, they experienced otherness and discrimination. International nursing students need a safe place to learn so they can adjust and thrive in the university learning community. Faculty and clinical educators must be culturally competent; they need to understand international nursing students' needs and be willing and able to advocate for and create an equitable environment that is appropriate for international nursing

  15. Longitudinal Comparison of the Speech and Language Performance of United States-Born and Internationally Adopted Toddlers with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Nancy J; Baker, Shauna; Kaiser, Ann; Frey, Jennifer R

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study compares the early speech and language development of children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with children born in the United States. Design Prospective longitudinal description of early speech and language development between 18 and 36 months of age. Participants This study compares four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were born in the United States, matched for age, gender, and cleft type across three time points over 10 to 12 months. Main Outcome Measures Children's speech-language skills were analyzed using standardized tests, parent surveys, language samples, and single-word phonological assessments to determine differences between the groups. Results The mean scores for the children in the internationally adopted group were lower than the group born in the United States at all three time points for expressive language and speech sound production measures. Examination of matched pairs demonstrated observable differences for two of the four pairs. No differences were observed in cognitive performance and receptive language measures. Conclusions The results suggest a cumulative effect of later palate repair and/or a variety of health and environmental factors associated with their early circumstances that persist to age 3 years. Early intervention to address the trajectory of speech and language is warranted. Given the findings from this small pilot study, a larger study of the long-term speech and language development of children who are internationally adopted and have cleft palate with or without cleft lip is recommended.

  16. Development and Validation of Extract the Base: An English Derivational Morphology Test for Third through Fifth Grade Monolingual Students and Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria; Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry; Louguit, Mohammed; August, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Extract the Base test (ETB), which assesses derivational morphological awareness. Scores on this test were validated for 580 monolingual students and 373 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in third through fifth grade. As part of the validation of the internal structure,…

  17. Internal quality control in serological tests for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wasley, G D

    1985-01-01

    The importance of syphilis serological tests demands that laboratory reports are reliable. Internal quality control applied to the organisation of a syphilis serology service improves laboratory bench performance and reporting. Described here are internal quality control procedures of a department that serves a genitourinary medicine clinic and conducts 70 000 tests a year to investigate for syphilis.

  18. Young language learner (YLL research: An overview of some international and national approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Drew

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention is being given to young language learners (YLL, following a global trend to introduce foreign languages at earlier stages of the curriculum. This article provides an overview of some recent international YLL research and follows this up by comparing it to current YLL research in Norway. A YLL research network has recently been established in Norway in order to share and promote research in the field. Eight Norwegian YLL research projects, involving both English and other foreign languages, are presented. The scope of this research in Norway is compared with international research being conducted in the field. Although the Norwegian YLL research is active in certain areas, such as starting age of second foreign languages, teachers’ practices and attitudes, the use of extensive reading, vocabulary and the analysis of written texts, there appear to be gaps in other areas. These include research into the effects of story-telling and drama in the classroom, processes in writing, pupils’ cognitive skills, the use of textbooks and the effect of the curriculum. The establishment of a YLL network is considered as an important step in both consolidating current YLL research in Norway and initiating new research projects.

  19. Psychometric properties of a sign language version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øhre, Beate; Saltnes, Hege; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2014-05-22

    There is a need for psychiatric assessment instruments that enable reliable diagnoses in persons with hearing loss who have sign language as their primary language. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The MINI was translated into NSL. Forty-one signing patients consecutively referred to two specialised psychiatric units were assessed with a diagnostic interview by clinical experts and with the MINI. Inter-rater reliability was assessed with Cohen's kappa and "observed agreement". There was 65% agreement between MINI diagnoses and clinical expert diagnoses. Kappa values indicated fair to moderate agreement, and observed agreement was above 76% for all diagnoses. The MINI diagnosed more co-morbid conditions than did the clinical expert interview (mean diagnoses: 1.9 versus 1.2). Kappa values indicated moderate to substantial agreement, and "observed agreement" was above 88%. The NSL version performs similarly to other MINI versions and demonstrates adequate reliability and validity as a diagnostic instrument for assessing mental disorders in persons who have sign language as their primary and preferred language.

  20. Discipline-Specific Language Instruction for International Students in Introductory Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trien T. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory economics courses. These voluntary participants completed pre- and post-treatment assessments with exit interviews at the end of the project. Assessment results and interviews suggest that students perceive that discipline-specific language instruction such as our EAL tutorials assists in the development of increased content and language proficiency. They also believe that vocabulary development is one of the most critical activities to support these goals; reading skills are also important but require more time and commitment than students can afford to give. Despite the students’ interest in the project, their heavy class schedules prevented many from participating; our group was limited to ten students which precludes any assurance of statistical significance. In spite of the limitations, we believe that the project can still contribute valuable qualitative lessons to the literature of content-based language instruction in which the discipline of economics has not been well represented.

  1. Psychometric properties of a sign language version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for psychiatric assessment instruments that enable reliable diagnoses in persons with hearing loss who have sign language as their primary language. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Methods The MINI was translated into NSL. Forty-one signing patients consecutively referred to two specialised psychiatric units were assessed with a diagnostic interview by clinical experts and with the MINI. Inter-rater reliability was assessed with Cohen’s kappa and “observed agreement”. Results There was 65% agreement between MINI diagnoses and clinical expert diagnoses. Kappa values indicated fair to moderate agreement, and observed agreement was above 76% for all diagnoses. The MINI diagnosed more co-morbid conditions than did the clinical expert interview (mean diagnoses: 1.9 versus 1.2). Kappa values indicated moderate to substantial agreement, and “observed agreement” was above 88%. Conclusion The NSL version performs similarly to other MINI versions and demonstrates adequate reliability and validity as a diagnostic instrument for assessing mental disorders in persons who have sign language as their primary and preferred language. PMID:24886297

  2. Crosslinguistic Developmental Consistency in the Composition of Toddlers’ Internal State Vocabulary: Evidence from Four Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental state language, emerging in the second and third years of life in typically developing children, is one of the first signs of an explicit psychological understanding. While mental state vocabulary may serve a variety of conversational functions in discourse and thus might not always indicate psychological comprehension, there is evidence for genuine references to mental states (desires, knowledge, beliefs, and emotions early in development across languages. This present study presents parental questionnaire data on the composition of 297 toddler-aged (30-to 32-month-olds children’s internal state vocabulary in four languages: Italian, German, English, and French. The results demonstrated that across languages expressions for physiological states (e.g., hungry and tired were among the most varied, while children’s vocabulary for cognitive entities (e.g., know and think proved to be least varied. Further, consistent with studies on children’s comprehension of these concepts, across languages children’s mastery of volition terms (e.g., like to do and want preceded their mastery of cognition terms. These findings confirm the cross-linguistic consistency of children’s emerging expression of abstract psychological concepts.

  3. A Chinese version of the Language Screening Test (CLAST for early-stage stroke patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yang

    Full Text Available There is a severe lack of aphasia screening tools for bedside use in Chinese. A number of aphasia assessment tools have recently been developed abroad, but some of these scales were not suitable for patients with acute stroke. The Language Screening Test (which includes two parallel versions [a/b] in French has been proven to be an effective and time-saving aphasia screening scale for early-stage stroke patients. Therefore, we worked out a Chinese version of the LAST taking into consideration Chinese language and culture. Two preliminary parallel versions (a/b were tested on 154 patients with stroke at acute phase and 107 patients with stroke at non-acute phase, with the Western Aphasia Battery serving as a gold standard. The equivalence between the two parallel versions and the reliability/validity of each version were assessed. The median time to complete one preliminary Chinese version (each had some item redundancy was 98 seconds. Two final parallel versions were established after adjustment/elimination of the redundant items and were found to be equivalent (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.991. Internal consistency is(Cronbach α for each version [a/b] was 0.956 and 0.965, respectively good. Internal validity was fine: (a no floor or ceiling effect/item redundancy; (b construct validity revealed a 1-dimension structure, just like the French version. The higher educated subjects scored higher than their lower educated counterparts (p<0.01. The external validity: at the optimum cut-off point where the score of version a/b <14 in higher educated group(<13 in lower: the specificity of each version was 0.878/0.902(1/1 in lower and sensitivity was 0.972/0.944(0.944/0.944 in lower. Inter-rater equivalence (intra-class correlation coefficient was 1. The Chinese version of the Language Screening Test was proved to be an efficient and time-saving bedside aphasia screening tool for stroke patients at acute phase and can be used by an average

  4. Results of assembly test of HTTR reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, S.; Saikusa, A.; Shiozawa, S.; Tsuji, N.; Miki, T.

    1996-01-01

    The assembly test of the HTTR actual reactor internals had been carried out at the works, prior to their installation in the actual reactor pressure vessel(RPV) at the construction site. The assembly test consists of several items such as examining fabricating precision of each component and alignment of piled-up structures, measuring circumferential coolant velocity profile in the passage between the simulated RPV and the reactor internals as well as under the support plates, measuring by-pass flow rate through gaps between the reactor internals, and measuring the binding force of the core restraint mechanism. Results of the test showed good performance of the HTTR reactor internals. Installation of the reactor internals in the actual RPV was started at the construction site of HTTR in April, 1995. In the installation process, main items of the assembly test at the works were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of installation. (author). 5 refs, 11 figs

  5. A BI-DIALECTAL TEST FOR DETERMINING LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARATZ, JOAN C.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS EXPERIMENT WAS TO COMPARE THE LANGUAGE BEHAVIOR OF STANDARD AND NONSTANDARD ENGLISH SPEAKERS WHEN ASKED TO REPEAT STANDARD AND NONSTANDARD SENTENCES. THE SUBJECTS (47 THIRD AND FIFTH GRADERS AT A NEGRO SCHOOL IN WASHINGTON, D.C., AND 30 OF THEIR WHITE COUNTERPARTS AT A SUBURBAN MARYLAND SCHOOL) WERE ASKED TO REPEAT 30 TAPED…

  6. Empirical tests of a theory of language, mathematics, and matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, William L

    2008-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Abler, 2006), I proposed a theory of language, especially sentences, based on the symmetrical structure of the equation. Here, I use the structure of equations to deduce neural structures (e.g., mirror neurons or intra-cellular macromolecules, or crystals, or resonations) that might generate them. Ultimately, the properties described are a consequence of dimensional properties of matter

  7. ON THE TEST ABILITY OF THEORIES OF LANGUAGE EVOLUTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    level that the persistent doubts about the scientific respectability of theories of this ..... simply generate the ambient language verbatim in which case ease of processing would .... Smith 1978) and game theory (Maynard Smith 1982) consider only how natural selection ...... (12)(a) "experimental data [collected by Bever et aI.

  8. The Relationship between Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Student Achievement on Language Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstead, Lyubov

    2013-01-01

    The number of English Language Learners (ELLs) is rapidly growing. Teachers continue facing challenges in providing effective content instruction to ELLs while helping them learn English. New and improved approaches are necessary to meet the individual learning needs of this diverse group of students and help them progress academically while…

  9. Semiotic Structure and Meaning Making: The Performance of English Language Learners on Mathematics Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Barnett-Clarke, Carne; Kachchaf, Rachel R.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the performance of English language learners (ELLs) and non-ELLs on Grade 4 and Grade 5 mathematics content knowledge (CK) and academic language (AL) tests. CK and AL items had different semiotic loads (numbers of different types of semiotic features) and different semiotic structures (relative frequencies of different semiotic…

  10. "Language," "Communication," and the Longing for the Authentic in LSP Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekje, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This commentary argues that the OET research raises inescapable contradictions in trying to separate "language" from "communication" within a weak performance test and advocates for reconceptualizing the legitimate domain of "language" more widely, reclaiming the full potential of the communicative competence…

  11. English as an international language of science and its effect on Nordic terminology: the view of scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Anna Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with attitudes to English as an international language of science among Nordic scientists. It reports on a questionnaire completed by 200+ physicists, chemists and computer scientists at universities in five Nordic countries: Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland. The purpose is two-fold: First, it investigates if claims made primarily by representatives of the national language councils about a lack of local language terminology are corroborated by scientists...

  12. An Investigation into the Validity of the TOEFL iBT Speaking Test for International Teaching Assistant Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of the TOEFL iBT Speaking subsection for the purposes of international teaching assistant (ITA) certification, a purpose for which it was not specifically designed. The factor structure of the new TOEFL was compared with that of another language performance test in use at a major American research…

  13. Japanese Language as an Organizational Barrier for International Students to Access to University Services: A Case of Aoyama Gakuin University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Aoyama Gakuin University (AGU) started a government-funded degree program (taught in English) to accept international students with limited or no Japanese language proficiency. However, the students faced obstacles in accessing all of the university resources provided. In this article, I investigated Japanese language as an organizational…

  14. Integrating Foreign Languages and Cultures into U.S. International Business Programs: Best Practices and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of foreign languages and cultures and their integration into U.S. international business programs. The author juxtaposes globalization strategies of European and American business schools and highlights pre-university foreign language study in Europe and the U.S. The paper goes on to describe model U.S.…

  15. Elite Bilingualism? Language Use among Multilingual Teenagers of Swedish Background in European Schools and International Schools in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenvald, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the language use and language attitudes as reported by a number of multilingual teenagers with a Swedish background in European Schools and international schools in Europe. Special attention is given to the concepts of Third Culture Kids and elite bilingualism in relation to teenagers' multilingualism. This study is based on…

  16. METHODS IN THE POST-METHODS ERA. REPORT ON AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY ON LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Do methods still have a place in 21" century language teaching? To answer this question, an international survey was conducted in the surnmer of 1999. A sample of 800 language teachers world-wide randomly drawn from 17,800 TESOLers were each given a 2-page survey. The return rate was 58.5% with the actual usable data set of448, which was analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Among the ten commonly recognized teaching methods surveyed, both the Communicative Language Teaching Approach and an eclectic method seem to have the highest rate in familiarity, preference, and use. But when multiple factors, such as teaching contexts, instructional settings, learners' proficiency levels, class size, teaching experience and educational backgrounds of the teachers, and the status of being a native or nonnative English speaking professional were taken into consideration, various patterns and themes emerged. One interesting finding is that Grammar Translation is still used in EFL contexts, in larger classes, and with learners at low proficiency levels, though the ratio between the actual use of this method and teachers' preference does not match. Based on the results of the survey, a new theoretical framework is proposed to conceptualize language teaching methods in the post-methods era.

  17. 3rd international software language engineering conference (SLE) : pre-proceedings, October 12-13, 2010, Eindhoven, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, van den, M.G.J.; Malloy, B.; Staab, S.

    2010-01-01

    We are pleased to present the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Software Language Engineering (SLE 2010). The conference will be held in Eindhoven, the Netherlands during October 12-13, 2010 and will be co-located with The Ninth International Conference on Generative Programming and Component Engineering (GPCE'10), and The Workshop on Feature-Oriented Software Development (FOSD). An important goal of SLE is to integrate the different sub-communities of the software-language...

  18. Comparison of the reliability of parental reporting and the direct test of the Thai Speech and Language Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathanee, Benjamas; Angsupakorn, Nipa; Pumnum, Tawitree; Seepuaham, Cholada; Jaiyong, Pechcharat

    2012-11-01

    To find reliability of parental or caregiver's report and testing of the Thai Speech and Language Test for Children Aged 0-4 Years Old. Five investigators assessed speech and language abilities from video both contexts: parental or caregivers' report and test forms of Thai Speech and Language Test for Children Aged 0-4 Years Old. Twenty-five normal and 30 children with delayed development or risk for delayed speech and language skills were assessed at age intervals of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 months. Reliability of parental or caregivers' testing and reporting was at a moderate level (0.41-0.60). Inter-rater reliability among investigators was excellent (0.86-1.00). The parental or caregivers' report form of the Thai Speech and Language test for Children aged 0-4 years old was an indicator for success at a moderate level. Trained professionals could use both forms of this test as reliable tools at an excellent level.

  19. Testing Math or Testing Language? The Construct Validity of the KeyMath-Revised for Children with Intellectual Disability and Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine T.; Branum-Martin, Lee; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is often assumed that mathematics ability alone predicts mathematics test performance, linguistic demands may also predict achievement. This study examined the role of language in mathematics assessment performance for children with intellectual disability (ID) at less severe levels, on the KeyMath-Revised Inventory (KM-R) with a…

  20. [TUBERCULOSIS SCREENING BY CHEST RADIOGRAPHY AMONG INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS AT JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOLS IN OSAKA CITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Komukai, Jun; Furukawa, Kanae; Saito, Kazumi; Shimouchi, Akira

    2015-10-01

    With a broader aim of controlling pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among foreigners, here, we have reported the findings of chest radiography screening for TB among international students at Japanese language schools in Osaka city. Between April 2011 and December 2013, 4,529 international students from 19 Japanese language schools in Osaka city underwent chest radiography for TB screening. The chest radiographs were studied in reference to the student's sex, age, nationality, and date of entry to Japan as well as any health conditions present at the time of screening. We further analyzed the bacterial information and pulmonary TB classification based on chest radiography findings of students who were identified to be positive for TB. Information on the implementation of health education was also gathered. The results revealed that 52.5% of the students who underwent chest radiography came from China, 20.3 % from South Korea, and 16.3% from Vietnam. Of the students, 52.9% were male and 47.1% were female. The median age of students was 23 years (range: 14-70 years). The median number of days from the first date of entry to Japan up until the radiography screening was 63 days. Based on the chest radiography findings, 71 students (1.6%) were suspected to have TB; however, further detailed examination confirmed that 19 students (0.4%) had active TB. This percentage is significantly higher than the 0.1% TB identification rate among residents in Osaka city of the same time period (Pschools (for a total of 12 times) in the 3-year period. A total of 257 language school staff and students attended the health education seminars. The identification rate of TB positive students in Japanese language schools was higher than that of the general residents in Osaka city. In addition, most of these students came to Japan within 1 year. It is also important to note that the majority of TB positive students had sputum smear negative results. This study proves that medical examination after

  1. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF DESIGNING COURSES ON LANGUAGE TESTING AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Kvasova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the theoretical underpinnings and practices of designing courses on language testing and assessment for pre-service FL teacher training. The author analyses definitions of assessment literacy offered in the studies of world experts including teaching content and objectives of such long implemented courses. She further reasons the urgent need in introducing courses on language testing and assessment in Ukrainian universities; specifies the goal of the courses which lies in training student teachers in developing quality tests and administering assessments on the outset of their teaching career; outlines the content area to be covered in the course placing emphasis on its being based on professional needs; specifies course objectives such as building students’ awareness of key concepts and principles of language testing, developing ability to critically analyze available ready-made tests and make decisions about their fitting particular assessment needs, building skills to develop own or adapt ready-made tests and tailor them to the educational context; discusses preconditions of efficient running and attaining good outcomes of such courses which, in her view, are predetermined by traditionally high standards of teaching language pedagogy in Ukraine. An innovative structure of the course based on principles of testing cycle as well as interactive and constructivist methods of teaching language testing and assessment to student teachers are offered in the article.

  2. Computer Testing as a Form of Accommodation for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal

    2009-01-01

    This study compared performance of both English language learners (ELLs) and non-ELL students in Grades 4 and 8 under accommodated and nonaccommodated testing conditions. The accommodations used in this study included a computerized administration of a math test with a pop-up glossary, a customized English dictionary, extra testing time, and…

  3. Computer-Based English Language Testing in China: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoxing; Zhang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    In this special issue on high-stakes English language testing in China, the two articles on computer-based testing (Jin & Yan; He & Min) highlight a number of consistent, ongoing challenges and concerns in the development and implementation of the nationwide IB-CET (Internet Based College English Test) and institutional computer-adaptive…

  4. Validation of Linguistic and Communicative Oral Language Tests for Spanish-English Bilingual Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The development, administration, and scoring of a communicative test and its validation with tests of linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in English and Spanish are reported. Correlation with measures of home language use and school achievement are also presented, and issues of test validation for bilingual programs are discussed. (MSE)

  5. Recursive macro generator for the TAS-86 language. First part: the macro generator language. Second part: system internal logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zraick, Samir

    1970-01-01

    A macro-generator is a translator which is able to interpret and translate a programme written in a macro-language. After a first part presenting the main notions and proposing a brief description of the TAS-86 language, the second part of this research thesis reports the development of the macro-generator language, and notably presents the additional functionalities provided by the macro generator. The development is illustrated by logical flowcharts and programming listings

  6. Testing hypotheses on frequency effects in first language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of extensive literature studies, Ambridge, Kidd, Rowland and Theakston (2015) present five theses on frequency effects on language acquisition: i) the Levels and Kinds Thesis argues that frequency effects exist at all levels and are of many different kinds (e.g., type and token...... frequency effects as well as absolute and relative frequency effects); ii) the Age of Acquisition Thesis argues that all other things being equal, frequent forms will be acquired before less frequent forms. Since all other things are not equal, this claim does not entail a one-to-one relationship between...... frequency and age of acquisition; iii) the Prevent Error Thesis argues that high-frequency forms prevent (or reduce) errors in contexts in which they are the target; iv) the Cause Error Thesis argues that high-frequency forms also cause errors in contexts in which a competing, related lower-frequency form...

  7. Linguistic Ecosystems for Foreign-Language Learning in Canada and Japan: An International Comparison of Where Language-Learning Beliefs Come from

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritzin, Sandra; Nakagawa, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report on international research that compares linguistic ecosystems, that is, socially constructed public attitudes and ideologies concerned with foreign-language (FL) learning, in Canada and Japan. Analyzing responses to three interview questions from 125 interviews with five categories of respondent in each country, we suggest that there are…

  8. Promoting international mobility in The Degree of Speech and Language Therapy: a case of an educational good practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Mendizábal de la Cruz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The constant modification of teaching and learning methods require the design of innovative strategies and the identification of educational good practices. The Degree of Speech and Language Therapy at theUniversityofValladolidhas developed various actions to promote international mobility of students and staff members, within the framework of interuniversity innovative educational projects. The objectives are: to make students aware of the role of the international dimension to increase the quality of their training; to expose innovative educational strategies to promote the international mobility; to foster internationalization of studies as a driver of research in this field; to establish Spanish as the language of reference in speech and language therapy. Descriptive methodology of performed actions was used. Results included: questionnaire sent to speech and language therapists in order to know their language skills and to enhance their importance, participation in courses, workshops and meetings, as well as in international mobility programs and exchange of experiences, teaching of subjects in English, publication of multilingual educational materials, contacts with American and European institutions and participation in international networks, blogging. It is concluded that the whole educative community should help to provide university programs of an international identity, and mobility should be provided of a social sense promoting equal opportunities for all groups.

  9. Effects of tonal language background on tests of temporal sequencing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai S; Yu, Xuan; Ishak, Wan Syafira; Mazlan, Rafidah

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the effects of language background on the performance of the pitch pattern sequence test (PPST) and duration pattern sequence test (DPST). As temporal order sequencing may be affected by age and working memory, these factors were also studied. Performance of tonal and non-tonal language speakers on PPST and DPST were compared. Twenty-eight native Mandarin (tonal language) speakers and twenty-nine native Malay (non-tonal language) speakers between seven to nine years old participated in this study. The results revealed that relative to native Malay speakers, native Mandarin speakers demonstrated better scores on the PPST in both humming and verbal labeling responses. However, a similar language effect was not apparent in the DPST. An age effect was only significant in the PPST (verbal labeling). Finally, no significant effect of working memory was found on the PPST and the DPST. These findings suggest that the PPST is affected by tonal language background, and highlight the importance of developing different normative values for tonal and non-tonal language speakers.

  10. 3rd international software language engineering conference (SLE) : pre-proceedings, October 12-13, 2010, Eindhoven, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den M.G.J.; Malloy, B.; Staab, S.

    2010-01-01

    We are pleased to present the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Software Language Engineering (SLE 2010). The conference will be held in Eindhoven, the Netherlands during October 12-13, 2010 and will be co-located with The Ninth International Conference on Generative Programming

  11. WHAT ENGLISH DO WE SPEAK IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXTS?: A CONCRETE LANGUAGE WITH ITS PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masina Depperu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de ‘expressão concreta’ utilizada por Bachtin e o seu Círculo põe em questão a abordagem linguística que propõe como único modelo a língua padrão para todos os uentes. Que tipo de Inglês é o que falamos, também os falantes de outras língua maternas, para tratar de assuntos específicos -- negócios, política, formação – em contextos internacionais?É evidente que este Inglês já não transmite mais a cultura Britânica, mas aquela dos utentes locais, com acentos e vocabulário diferentes de acordo com o contexto específico e as exigências dos falantes.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: expressão concreta, língua padrão, contextos internacionais.  AbstractThe concept of ‘concrete utterance’ maintained by Bakhtin and its Circle leads to rethink the linguistic approach that proposes a model, or a standard language to all its users. The widely spread phenomenon of English used for specific purposes by speakers of other languages, in the domains of laws, business, politics, education and academics, among the many, poses a debate about what English language we speak in a global context. And consequently, what language is acceptable according to the ‘ norm’.If we consider that in international contexts only few English native-speakers, if any, are involved in the use of English as a vehicular, or a common foreign language, it is immediately evident that a new medium is in use, distant from British culture connotations, and more often locally connoted in terms of different accents, even new lexis adequately chosen by the concrete users in a given, specific, unique context.KEYWORDS: concrete utterance, standard language, global context.

  12. Development of a KSC test and flight engineering oriented computer language, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.

    1970-01-01

    Ten, primarily test oriented, computer languages reviewed during the phase 1 study effort are described. Fifty characteristics of ATOLL, ATLAS, and CLASP are compared. Unique characteristics of the other languages, including deficiencies, problems, safeguards, and checking provisions are identified. Programming aids related to these languages are reported, and the conclusions resulting from this phase of the study are discussed. A glossary and bibliography are included. For the reports on phase 2 of the study, see N71-35027 and N71-35029.

  13. GSETT-3: testing the experimental international seismic monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringdal, Frode

    1995-01-01

    Global seismic monitoring system has been developed by the Conference on Disarmaments (CDs) ad hoc group of scientific experts to consider international cooperative measures to detect and identify seismic events (the GSE), based in Geneva. In the course of its work, the GSE has conducted two large-scale global technical tests, Global Seismic Events Technical Test-1 (GSETT-1) in 1984 and GSETT-2 in 1991. The GSE has now embarked upon its third and most ambitious technical test, GSETT-3, which will encompass the development, testing and evaluation of a working prototype of the eventual Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) seismic monitoring system

  14. ATTILA 2 S. A technical and interactive test language for architecture allowing simultaneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batllo, M.

    1980-01-01

    The name ATTILA 2 S is inspired from ATLAS, test language adopted by the Department of Defence of America (D.O.D.) but cannot be implemented on our installation. ATTILA 2 S is principally characterized by: its technical vocabulary (P.O.L.), its interactivity, its simultaneity with main job (Multiprogramming and Multiprocessing allowed by multiprocessors architecture. This language has been developed for the Paris C.R.T. system (Photographies analysis system) on Control Data Cyber 72 computer [fr

  15. Mobile Phones for Spain's University Entrance Examination Language Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Laborda, Jesús; Magal Royo, Teresa; Litzler, Mary Frances; Giménez López, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Few tests were delivered using mobile phones a few years ago, but the flexibility and capability of these devices make them valuable tools even for high stakes testing. This paper addresses research done through the PAULEX (2007-2010) and OPENPAU (2012-2014) research projects at the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and Universidad de Alcalá…

  16. Testing foreign language impact on engineering students' scientific problem-solving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd

    2013-12-01

    This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in the Degree Programme of Aviation at the FH JOANNEUM University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria. Half of each test group were given a set of 12 physics problems described in German, the other half received the same set of problems described in English. It was the goal to test linguistic reading comprehension necessary for scientific problem solving instead of physics knowledge as such. The results imply that written undergraduate English-medium engineering tests and examinations may not require additional examination time or language-specific aids for students who have reached university-entrance proficiency in English as a foreign language.

  17. The Effect of a Simplified English Language Dictionary on a Reading Test. LEP Projects Report 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Deb; Bielinski, John; Thurlow, Martha; Liu, Kristin

    This study was conducted to examine whether using a monolingual, simplified English dictionary as an accommodation on a reading test with limited-English-proficient (LEP) Hmong students improved test performance. Hmong students were chosen because they are often not literate in their first language. For these students, bilingual dictionaries are…

  18. An Investigation of the Learning Strategies as Bias Factors in Second Language Cloze Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajideh, Parviz; Yaghoubi-Notash, Massoud; Khalili, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of the EFL students' learning strategies to the explanation of the variance in their results on language tests. More specifically, it examined the role of these strategies as bias factors in the results of English cloze tests. Based on this aim, first, 158 intermediate EFL learners were selected from…

  19. An Overview of the Needs of Technology in Language Testing in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Magal Royo, Teresa; Barcena Madera, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Over the few years, computer based language testing has become prevailing worldwide. The number of institutions the use computers as the main means of delivery has increased dramatically. Many students face each day tests for well-known high-stakes decisions which imply the knowledge and ability to use technology to provide evidence of language…

  20. The Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the Hausa language version in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Adegoke, Babatunde O; Oyetoke, Fatima O; Aliyu, Habeeb N; Aliyu, Salamatu U; Rufai, Adamu A

    2011-11-22

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is important in determining the risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. The absence of culturally relevant measures in indigenous languages could pose challenges to epidemiological studies on physical activity in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) to the Hausa language, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hausa version of IPAQ-SF in Nigeria. The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Hausa language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert committee review and pre-testing. The final product (Hausa IPAQ-SF) was tested in a cross-sectional study for concurrent (correlation with the English version) and construct validity, and test-retest reliability in a sample of 102 apparently healthy adults. The Hausa IPAQ-SF has good concurrent validity with Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ) ranging from 0.78 for vigorous activity (Min Week-1) to 0.92 for total physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task [MET]-Min Week-1), but poor construct validity, with cardiorespiratory fitness (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.01) and body mass index (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.04) significantly correlated with only moderate activity and sitting time (Min Week-1), respectively. Reliability was good for vigorous (ICC = 0.73, 95% C.I = 0.55-0.84) and total physical activity (ICC = 0.61, 95% C.I = 0.47-0.72), but fair for moderate activity (ICC = 0.33, 95% C.I = 0.12-0.51), and few meaningful differences were found in the gender and socioeconomic status specific analyses. The Hausa IPAQ-SF has acceptable concurrent validity and test-retest reliability for vigorous-intensity activity, walking, sitting and total physical activity, but demonstrated only fair construct validity for moderate and sitting activities. The Hausa IPAQ-SF can be used for

  1. Determining the Association between Language and Cognitive Tests in Poststroke Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie J. Wall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIndividuals with aphasia are often excluded from studies exploring poststroke cognition because so many of the standard cognitive assessments rely on language ability. Our primary objective was to examine the association between performance on cognitive tests and performance on comprehension and naming tests in poststroke aphasia. Second, we aimed to determine the association between language performance and a real-life measure of cognition (Kettle Test. Third, we explored the feasibility of administering cognitive tests in aphasia.MethodsThirty-six participants with poststroke aphasia and 32 controls were assessed on a battery of pen-and-paper cognitive tests recommended in stroke. Auditory comprehension was measured using the Comprehensive Aphasia Test and naming was measured using the Boston Naming Test. Twenty-two community dwelling participants with aphasia and controls were also asked to complete the Kettle Test. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between language performance and performance on the cognitive tests. Feasibility was determined by quantifying missing data.ResultsThe cognitive tests with the highest variance accounted for by auditory comprehension and naming were animal fluency (R2 = 0.67, R2 = 0.78 and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (recognition discrimination index (R2 = 0.65, R2 = 0.78. All cognitive tests were significantly associated with auditory comprehension and naming, except for the Star Cancellation Test and the Kettle Test. Thirty-three percent of participants with aphasia were unable to complete all the cognitive tests.ConclusionLanguage and non-linguistic cognitive processes are often interrelated. Most pen-and-paper cognitive tests were significantly associated with both auditory comprehension and naming, even in tests that do not require a verbal response. Language performance was not significantly associated with a real-life cognitive performance measure. Task

  2. Unit Testing for the Application Control Language (ACL) Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinich, Christina Marie

    2014-01-01

    In the software development process, code needs to be tested before it can be packaged for release in order to make sure the program actually does what it says is supposed to happen as well as to check how the program deals with errors and edge cases (such as negative or very large numbers). One of the major parts of the testing process is unit testing, where you test specific units of the code to make sure each individual part of the code works. This project is about unit testing many different components of the ACL software and fixing any errors encountered. To do this, mocks of other objects need to be created and every line of code needs to be exercised to make sure every case is accounted for. Mocks are important to make because it gives direct control of the environment the unit lives in instead of attempting to work with the entire program. This makes it easier to achieve the second goal of exercising every line of code.

  3. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131 I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided

  4. Maternal communicative functions and mind-mindedness at 16 months as predictors of children's internal and non-internal language at 20 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Colonnesi, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    The effects of Communicative functions and Mind-Mindedness on children's language development have been typically investigated in separate studies. The present longitudinal research was therefore designed to yield new insight into the simultaneous impact of these two dimensions of maternal responsiveness on the acquisition of expressive language skills in a sample of 25 mother-child dyads. The frequencies of five communicative functions (Tutorial, Didactic, Conversational, Control and Asynchronous) and two types of mind-related comments (attuned vs. non-attuned) were assessed from a 15-min play session at 16 months. Children's expressive language was examined at both 16 months (number of word types and tokens produced, and number of words attributed to the child in the Questionnaire for Communication and Early Language development) and 20 months (number of internal and non-internal words attributed to the child in the Italian version of the Mac Arthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory). The main finding was that mothers' use of attuned mind-related comments at 16 months predicted internal state language at 20 months, above and beyond the effects of CFs and children's linguistic ability at 16 months; in addition, mothers' Tutorial function at 16 months marginally predicted non-internal state language at 20 months, after controlling for MM and children's linguistic ability at 16 months. These results suggest that different expressions of maternal responsiveness influence distinct aspects of children's expressive language in the second year of life, although the effects of MM appear to be more robust. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) recommendations for the construction of multilingual speech tests. ICRA Working Group on Multilingual Speech Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, Michael A; Arlinger, Stig; Bentler, Ruth A; Boothroyd, Arthur; Dillier, Norbert; Dreschler, Wouter A; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Lutman, Mark; Wouters, Jan; Wong, Lena; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    To provide guidelines for the development of two types of closed-set speech-perception tests that can be applied and interpreted in the same way across languages. The guidelines cover the digit triplet and the matrix sentence tests that are most commonly used to test speech recognition in noise. They were developed by a working group on Multilingual Speech Tests of the International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA). The recommendations are based on reviews of existing evaluations of the digit triplet and matrix tests as well as on the research experience of members of the ICRA Working Group. They represent the results of a consensus process. The resulting recommendations deal with: Test design and word selection; Talker characteristics; Audio recording and stimulus preparation; Masking noise; Test administration; and Test validation. By following these guidelines for the development of any new test of this kind, clinicians and researchers working in any language will be able to perform tests whose results can be compared and combined in cross-language studies.

  6. Constraints in Teacher Training for Computer Assisted Language Testing Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Litzler, Mary Frances

    2011-01-01

    Many ELT examinations have gone online in the last few years and a large number of educational institutions have also started considering the possibility of implementing their own tests. This paper deals with the training of a group of 24 ELT teachers in the Region of Valencia (Spain). In 2007, the Ministry of Education provided funds to determine…

  7. Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency: Testing International Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…

  8. International students of speech and language therapy in the UK: do we meet their needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Evans, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Informal evidence suggests that many Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) students from outside of the UK and/or Republic of Ireland who come to the UK either do not return to their home country on qualification or do not practise as SLTs in the public sector. Many factors may contribute to this situation. Concern that it may result in part from a poor match between UK SLT education and the demands of the role in other countries led the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) to fund a study of international SLT students' experiences of UK qualifying courses. To discover and describe the experiences, views and expectations of current and past international students studying SLT in the UK and past international students' experiences, views and expectations of practising as SLTS, both inside and outside the UK. To consider the implications of the findings for (1) international students planning to work as SLTs; (2) UK SLT students planning to practise outside the UK; and (3) all those involved in SLT education: educational institutions; supervising SLTs; RCSLT. The study involved distributing 166 postal questionnaires (some directly to (ex)students and some to their Higher Education Institutes, or HEIs) and carrying out 23 interviews, with both current students and those qualifying since May 1994. Quantitative analysis was carried out using SPSS using descriptive statistics. Qualitative analysis used content and thematic analyses. Seventy-one questionnaires were received from current and past students, representing a minimum response rate of 43%. (It was not possible to verify exactly how many questionnaires were distributed by HEIs.) The results describe the diverse range of respondents' experiences of studying and working in the UK, their views of working in their home countries and the UK, and their suggestions about strategies that might be adopted to support them further. The results revealed that students come from a wide diversity of countries

  9. L'Uso dei Materiali Video nei Test Linguistici (The Use of Video Materials in Language Tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diadori, Pierangela

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that a communicative language course must have communicative exams. It explains how to choose and use material to test students' listening comprehension and socio-cultural knowledge. Transcripts of a commercial, a talk show, a film, a TV news show, and a documentary are included accompanied by exercises. (CFM)

  10. Binding Task-Based Language Teaching and Task-Based Language Testing: A Survey into EFL Teachers and Learners' Views of Task-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In most settings, task-based language teaching and testing have been dissociated from each other. That is why this study came to rethink of the learners' views towards awareness and implementation of task-based language teaching through IELTS listening tasks. To these objectives, after sketching instrumentation, the learners were divided into…

  11. Do Children with Autism Have a Theory of Mind? A Non-Verbal Test of Autism vs. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism have delays in the development of theory of mind. However, the sub-group of children with autism who have little or no language have gone untested since false belief tests (FB) typically involve language. FB understanding has been reported to be intact in children with specific language impairment (SLI). This raises the…

  12. Language and functionality of post-stroke adults: evaluation based on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Tereza Maynard; Chun, Regina Yu Shon

    2017-03-09

    Cerebrovascular accident is an important Public Health problem because of the high rates of mortality and sequelae such as language disorders. The conceptual health changes have led to the incorporation of functional and social aspects in the assessments as proposed by the World Health Organization in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The purpose was to evaluate and classify language aspects, functionality and participation of post-stroke individuals based on the concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and characterize the sociodemographic profile of participants. Data collection was carried out through the application of a clinical instrument to evaluate language, participation and functionality in fifty individuals based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The age of the participants varied between 32 and 88 years, and the majority were elderly men. Among body functions, the participants reported more difficulties in "memory functions". As for activity and participation, more difficulties were reported in "recreation and leisure". As for environmental factors, the component "healthcare professionals" was indicated as a facilitator by the majority of participants. The results show the impact of language difficulties in the lives of post-stroke adults and reinforce the applicability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as an important complementary tool for assessing language, functionality and participation in a comprehensive and humane approach, towards the improvement of health assistance in ambulatory care.

  13. A general diagnostic model applied to language testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias

    2008-11-01

    Probabilistic models with one or more latent variables are designed to report on a corresponding number of skills or cognitive attributes. Multidimensional skill profiles offer additional information beyond what a single test score can provide, if the reported skills can be identified and distinguished reliably. Many recent approaches to skill profile models are limited to dichotomous data and have made use of computationally intensive estimation methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo, since standard maximum likelihood (ML) estimation techniques were deemed infeasible. This paper presents a general diagnostic model (GDM) that can be estimated with standard ML techniques and applies to polytomous response variables as well as to skills with two or more proficiency levels. The paper uses one member of a larger class of diagnostic models, a compensatory diagnostic model for dichotomous and partial credit data. Many well-known models, such as univariate and multivariate versions of the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic item response theory model, the generalized partial credit model, as well as a variety of skill profile models, are special cases of this GDM. In addition to an introduction to this model, the paper presents a parameter recovery study using simulated data and an application to real data from the field test for TOEFL Internet-based testing.

  14. The Ostomy Adjustment Scale: translation into Norwegian language with validation and reliability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrebø, Kirsten Lerum; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the Ostomy Adjustment Scale to a Norwegian version and to assess its construct validity and 2 components of its reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability). One hundred fifty-eight of 217 patients (73%) with a colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy participated in the study. Slightly more than half (56%) were men. Their mean age was 64 years (range, 26-91 years). All respondents had undergone ostomy surgery at least 3 months before participation in the study. The Ostomy Adjustment Scale was translated into Norwegian according to standard procedures for forward and backward translation. The questionnaire was sent to the participants via regular post. The Cronbach alpha and test-retest were computed to assess reliability. Construct validity was evaluated via correlations between each item and score sums; correlations were used to analyze relationships between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Quality of Life Scale, the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The Cronbach alpha was 0.93, and test-retest reliability r was 0.69. The average correlation quotient item to sum score was 0.49 (range, 0.31-0.73). Results showed moderate negative correlations between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (-0.37 and -0.40), and moderate positive correlations between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Quality of Life Scale, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (0.30-0.45) with the exception of the pain domain in the Short Form 36 (0.28). Regression analysis showed linear associations between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and sociodemographic and clinical variables with the exception of education. The Norwegian language version of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale was found to possess construct validity, along with internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The instrument is

  15. Effect of education and language on baseline concussion screening tests in professional baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nathaniel S; Walter, Kevin D; Caplinger, Roger; Wright, Daniel; Raasch, William G; Young, Craig

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of sociocultural influences, specifically pertaining to language and education, on baseline neuropsychological concussion testing as obtained via immediate postconcussion assessment and cognitive testing (ImPACT) of players from a professional baseball team. A retrospective chart review. Baseline testing of a professional baseball organization. Four hundred five professional baseball players. Age, languages spoken, hometown country location (United States/Canada vs overseas), and years of education. The 5 ImPACT composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, impulse control) and ImPACT total symptom score from the initial baseline testing. The result of t tests revealed significant differences (P education, the significant differences (P < 0.05) remained in some scores. Sociocultural differences may result in differences in computer-based neuropsychological testing scores.

  16. Does the speaker's voice quality influence children's performance on a language comprehension test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Haake, Magnus; Brännström, Jonas; Schötz, Susanne; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2015-02-01

    A small number of studies have explored children's perception of speakers' voice quality and its possible influence on language comprehension. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate the relationship between the examiner's voice quality, the child's performance on a digital version of a language comprehension test, the Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG-2), and two measures of cognitive functioning. The participants were (n = 86) mainstreamed 8-year old children with typical language development. Two groups of children (n = 41/45) were presented with the TROG-2 through recordings of one female speaker: one group was presented with a typical voice and the other with a simulated dysphonic voice. Significant associations were found between executive functioning and language comprehension. The results also showed that children listening to the dysphonic voice achieved significantly lower scores for more difficult sentences ("the man but not the horse jumps") and used more self-corrections on simpler sentences ("the girl is sitting"). Findings suggest that a dysphonic speaker's voice may force the child to allocate capacity to the processing of the voice signal at the expense of comprehension. The findings have implications for clinical and research settings where standardized language tests are used.

  17. International Symposium of Scientists for Nuclear test Stopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Problems discussed at International Symposium of Scientists for Nuclear Test Stopping in July 1986 in Moscow were considered. Scientists discussed complex of possible measures directed at strengthening of peace supporting mechanism, spoke in support of prohibition of all nuclear weapon tests. Necessity of measures preventing the weapon delivery to space, construction of the regime of using cosmic equipment exclusively for peace was noted. Attention was paid to the problem of control for test stopping (by means of sattelites and seismic methods), cooperation establishment between the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Council for the protection of the USA Natural Resources

  18. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-10-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence-WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses. The predictive value of the WPPSI with respect to TT performance was analyzed using regression analyses. SLI-children performed significantly worse on both TT and WPPSI ([Formula: see text]). The TT alone yielded an overall classification rate of 79%, the TT and the WPPSI together yielded an overall classification rate of 80%. TT performance was significantly predicted by verbal intelligence in SLI-children and nonverbal intelligence in controls whilst WPPSI subtest arithmetic was predictive in both groups. Without further research, the Token Test cannot be seen as a valid and sufficient tool for the screening of SLI in preschool children but rather as a tool for the assessment of more general intellectual capacities. SLI-children at this age already show impairments typically associated with SLI which indicates the necessity of early developmental support or training. Token Test performance is possibly an indicator for a more general developmental factor rather than an exclusive indicator for language difficulties.

  19. Now What? Think Fast: Using Healthcare Clinics as Universal Language to Maximize Learning for International Students in a Graduate Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Katila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International students in Masters programs come to the US optimistic and willing to learn. Upon arrival and entrance into programs, they often encounter unexpected environments. Culture shock and language barriers may seem like obvious hurdles, but work ethic and scope of visual knowledge also pose unique challenges for both students and design educators. Although all students share new challenges in graduate school, international students face tougher impediments in studio environments where they express themselves both visually and verbally. Additionally, much of design uses humor, idioms, and visual clues only understood in English. So how do educators help international students build on what they already know? How do educators break barriers between domestic and international students so they may teach one another through a shared language? In fall 2015, my Conceptual Development and Implementation class was struggling to exchange ideas in the classroom. We moved through that struggle by developing a shared language around each student's experiences with healthcare clinics in their country of origin. Students explained what makes healthcare clinics reputable; how people access information in India, China, small towns and larger urban areas; and where people look for trustworthy information. This paper discusses how one educator used student experience of healthcare clinics to find a universal language to maximize learning for international students in design education.

  20. Language Implications for Advertising in International Markets: A Model for Message Content and Message Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John; Yaprak, Attila

    A content analysis model for assessing advertising themes and messages generated primarily for United States markets to overcome barriers in the cultural environment of international markets was developed and tested. The model is based on three primary categories for generating, evaluating, and executing advertisements: rational, emotional, and…

  1. International benchmark on the natural convection test in Phenix reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenchine, D.; Pialla, D.; Fanning, T.H.; Thomas, J.W.; Chellapandi, P.; Shvetsov, Y.; Maas, L.; Jeong, H.-Y.; Mikityuk, K.; Chenu, A.; Mochizuki, H.; Monti, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phenix main characteristics, instrumentation and natural convection test are described. ► “Blind” calculations and post-test calculations from all the participants to the benchmark are compared to reactor data. ► Lessons learned from the natural convection test and the associated calculations are discussed. -- Abstract: The French Phenix sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) started operation in 1973 and was stopped in 2009. Before the reactor was definitively shutdown, several final tests were planned and performed, including a natural convection test in the primary circuit. During this natural convection test, the heat rejection provided by the steam generators was disabled, followed several minutes later by reactor scram and coast-down of the primary pumps. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) named “control rod withdrawal and sodium natural circulation tests performed during the Phenix end-of-life experiments”. The overall purpose of the CRP was to improve the Member States’ analytical capabilities in the field of SFR safety. An international benchmark on the natural convection test was organized with “blind” calculations in a first step, then “post-test” calculations and sensitivity studies compared with reactor measurements. Eight organizations from seven Member States took part in the benchmark: ANL (USA), CEA (France), IGCAR (India), IPPE (Russian Federation), IRSN (France), KAERI (Korea), PSI (Switzerland) and University of Fukui (Japan). Each organization performed computations and contributed to the analysis and global recommendations. This paper summarizes the findings of the CRP benchmark exercise associated with the Phenix natural convection test, including blind calculations, post-test calculations and comparisons with measured data. General comments and recommendations are pointed out to improve future simulations of natural convection in SFRs

  2. Performance-intensity functions of Mandarin word recognition tests in noise: test dialect and listener language effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danzheng; Shi, Lu-Feng

    2013-06-01

    This study established the performance-intensity function for Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin bisyllabic word recognition tests in noise in native speakers of Wu Chinese. Effects of the test dialect and listeners' first language on psychometric variables (i.e., slope and 50%-correct threshold) were analyzed. Thirty-two normal-hearing Wu-speaking adults who used Mandarin since early childhood were compared to 16 native Mandarin-speaking adults. Both Beijing and Taiwan bisyllabic word recognition tests were presented at 8 signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in 4-dB steps (-12 dB to +16 dB). At each SNR, a half list (25 words) was presented in speech-spectrum noise to listeners' right ear. The order of the test, SNR, and half list was randomized across listeners. Listeners responded orally and in writing. Overall, the Wu-speaking listeners performed comparably to the Mandarin-speaking listeners on both tests. Compared to the Taiwan test, the Beijing test yielded a significantly lower threshold for both the Mandarin- and Wu-speaking listeners, as well as a significantly steeper slope for the Wu-speaking listeners. Both Mandarin tests can be used to evaluate Wu-speaking listeners. Of the 2, the Taiwan Mandarin test results in more comparable functions across listener groups. Differences in the performance-intensity function between listener groups and between tests indicate a first language and dialectal effect, respectively.

  3. The impact of language and high-stakes testing policies on elementary school English language learners in Arizona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E. Wright

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a survey of third-grade teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs in Arizona regarding school language and accountability policies—Proposition 203, which restricts bilingual education and mandates sheltered English Immersion; the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB; and Arizona LEARNS, the state’s high-stakes testing and accountability program. The instrument, consisting of 126 survey questions plus open-ended interview question, was designed to obtain teacher’s views, to ascertain the impact of these polices, and to explore their effectiveness in improving the education of ELL students. The survey was administered via telephone to 40 teacher participants from different urban, rural and reservation schools across the state. Each participant represents the elementary school in their respective school district which has the largest population of ELL students. Analyses of both quantitative and qualitative data reveal that these policies have mostly resulted in confusion in schools throughout the state over what is and is not allowed, and what constitutes quality instruction for ELLs, that there is little evidence that such policies have led to improvements in the education of ELL students, and that these policies may be causing more harm than good. Specifically, teachers report they have been given little to no guidance over what constitutes sheltered English immersion, and provide evidence that most ELL students in their schools are receiving mainstream sink-or-swim instruction. In terms of accountability, while the overwhelming majority of teachers support the general principle, they believe that high-stakes tests are inappropriate for ELLs and participants provided evidence that the focus on testing is leading to instruction practices for ELLs which fail to meet their unique linguistic and academic needs. The article concludes with suggestions for needed changes to improve the quality of

  4. Use of Mobile Testing System PeLe for Developing Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of both the mobile testing system PeLe (Norway, HiST) and the enquiry-based learning approach on language skills development in the context of mobile-assisted learning. The research aims to work out a methodological framework of PeLe implementation into the language…

  5. Reading Test Performance of English-Language Learners Using an English Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Debra; Thurlow, Martha; Liu, Kristin; Bielinski, John

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of a simplified English dictionary accommodation on the reading-test performance of Hmong English-language learners (ELLs). Participants included a control group of 69 non-ELL students and an experimental group of 133 Hmong ELLs from 3 urban middle schools in Minnesota. In a randomized counterbalanced design, all…

  6. Testing Alternative Hypotheses Regarding the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Language Development in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashley K. Smith; Patel, Deepika; Corley, Robin P.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Hewitt, John K.; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Rhee, Soo H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported an inverse association between language development and behavioral inhibition or shyness across childhood, but the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested alternative hypotheses regarding this association in a large sample of toddlers. Data on behavioral inhibition and expressive and receptive…

  7. Testing Foreign Language Impact on Engineering Students' Scientific Problem-Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in…

  8. Ergonomics Factors in English as a Foreign Language Testing: The Case of PLEVALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Magal-Royo, Teresa; de Siqueira Rocha, Jose Macario; Alvarez, Miguel Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    Although much has been said about ergonomics in interface and in computer tools and interface design, very few articles in major journals have addressed this topic in relation to language testing. This article describes an experiment carried out at the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain, in which 27 Media and Communication students provided…

  9. Testing Language, Testing Ethnicity? Policies and Practices Surrounding the Ethnic German "Aussiedler"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupbach, Doris

    2009-01-01

    "Aussiedler" are ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries who are granted the right to resettle in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) if they can provide evidence of German ancestry, attachment to the German language and culture, and ongoing assertion of German ethnicity. This article outlines…

  10. Translation and Adaptation of Tests: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Countries Participating in timss, pisa and other International Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Solano-Flores

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a conceptual model and methodology for the review of translated tests in the context of such international comparisons as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA. We also present the results of an investigation into the quality of the Mexican translation of the TIMSS-1995 into the Spanish language. We identified translation errors in a significant percentage of the items, as well as relatively high correlations between the severity of translation errors and the items’ p-values. These findings indicate that our error-coding system is highly sensitive to test-translation error. The results underscore the need for improved translation and translation-review procedures in international comparisons. In our opinion, to implement the guidelines properly for test translation in international comparisons, each participating country needs to have internal procedures that would ensure a rigorous review of its own translations. The article concludes with four recommendations for countries participating in international comparisons. These recommendations relate to: (a the characteristics of the individuals in charge of translating instruments; (b the use of review, not simply at the end of the process, but during the process of test translation; (c the minimum time needed for various translation review iterations to take place; and (d the need for proper documentation of the entire process of test translation.

  11. The (Spatial) Memory Game: Testing the Relationship Between Spatial Language, Object Knowledge, and Spatial Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudde, Harmen B; Griffiths, Debra; Coventry, Kenny R

    2018-02-19

    The memory game paradigm is a behavioral procedure to explore the relationship between language, spatial memory, and object knowledge. Using two different versions of the paradigm, spatial language use and memory for object location are tested under different, experimentally manipulated conditions. This allows us to tease apart proposed models explaining the influence of object knowledge on spatial language (e.g., spatial demonstratives), and spatial memory, as well as understanding the parameters that affect demonstrative choice and spatial memory more broadly. Key to the development of the method was the need to collect data on language use (e.g., spatial demonstratives: "this/that") and spatial memory data under strictly controlled conditions, while retaining a degree of ecological validity. The language version (section 3.1) of the memory game tests how conditions affect language use. Participants refer verbally to objects placed at different locations (e.g., using spatial demonstratives: "this/that red circle"). Different parameters can be experimentally manipulated: the distance from the participant, the position of a conspecific, and for example whether the participant owns, knows, or sees the object while referring to it. The same parameters can be manipulated in the memory version of the memory game (section 3.2). This version tests the effects of the different conditions on object-location memory. Following object placement, participants get 10 seconds to memorize the object's location. After the object and location cues are removed, participants verbally direct the experimenter to move a stick to indicate where the object was. The difference between the memorized and the actual location shows the direction and strength of the memory error, allowing comparisons between the influences of the respective parameters.

  12. International standardization of instruments for neutron irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Masataka; Shibata, Akira; Nakamura, Jinichi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Cho, M.; Lee, C.; Park, S.; Choo, K.

    2012-01-01

    The JMTR in JAEA and HANARO in KAERI are the foremost testing/research reactors in the world and these are expected to contribute to many nuclear fields. As a part of instrument development in irradiation field, information exchange of instruments started from 2010 under the cooperation agreements between KAERI and JAEA. The instruments developed in JMTR and HANARO are introduced and cooperation experiments as future plan are discussed for international standardization. (author)

  13. A look at magnetic crack testing at an international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, V.; Cost, H.; Schug, W.

    1984-01-01

    On an international level, there are several different magnetization processes in use for magnetic particle crack testing. Anglo-Saxon countries implement two separate working cycles with a DC current or field respectively. France has introduced combined sequential magnetization using a DC field. For German speaking countries, a combination of out-of-phase AC fields represents the state of the art. Comparisons present the advantages and disadvantages involved. Consequences arising from the equipment used are indicated by way of an example of a new generation of crack testing equipment. (orig.) [de

  14. Language lateralization by functional MRI : a comparison with wada test-preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoo, Jae Wook; Na, Dong Gyu; Byun, Hong Sik [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of functional MR imaging (fMRI) for the determination of language dominance and to assess differences in language lateralization according to activation task or activated area. Functional maps of the language area were obtained during word generation tasks(noun and verb) and a reading task in ten patients (9 right handed, 1 left handed) who had undergone the Wada test. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5T scanner and the EPI BOLD technique. The SPM program was employed for the postprocessing of images and the threshold for significance was set at p<0.001 or p<0.01. A lateralization index was calculated from the number of activated pixels in three hemispheric regions (whole hemisphere, frontal lobe, and temporoparietal lobe), and the results were compared with those of Wada tests. The results for lateralization of language area were compared among stimulation tasks and regions and used for calculation of lateralization indices. During the Wada test, nine patients were left dominant and one patient was right dominant for language. Language dominance based on activated signals in each hemisphere was consistent with the results of the Wada test in 87.5% (verb and noun generation tasks) and 90% (reading task) of patients. Language dominance determined by activated signals in the frontal lobe was consistent in 87.5%, 75%, and 80% of patients in each stimulation task (verb generation, noun generation, and reading), respectively. The consistency rate of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was 87.5%, 87.5% and 80% of patients in each task. the mean value of the lateralization index, calculated on the basis of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was higher than that in the hemisphere or frontal lobe. The verb generation task showed a higher lateralization index than the noun generation or reading task. The lateralization index was higher in the verb generation task and in the region of the temporoparietal lobe than in

  15. Hardware synthesis from DDL. [Digital Design Language for computer aided design and test of LSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A. M.; Shiva, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The details of the digital systems can be conveniently input into the design automation system by means of Hardware Description Languages (HDL). The Computer Aided Design and Test (CADAT) system at NASA MSFC is used for the LSI design. The Digital Design Language (DDL) has been selected as HDL for the CADAT System. DDL translator output can be used for the hardware implementation of the digital design. This paper addresses problems of selecting the standard cells from the CADAT standard cell library to realize the logic implied by the DDL description of the system.

  16. Language lateralization by functional MRI : a comparison with wada test-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoo, Jae Wook; Na, Dong Gyu; Byun, Hong Sik

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of functional MR imaging (fMRI) for the determination of language dominance and to assess differences in language lateralization according to activation task or activated area. Functional maps of the language area were obtained during word generation tasks(noun and verb) and a reading task in ten patients (9 right handed, 1 left handed) who had undergone the Wada test. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5T scanner and the EPI BOLD technique. The SPM program was employed for the postprocessing of images and the threshold for significance was set at p<0.001 or p<0.01. A lateralization index was calculated from the number of activated pixels in three hemispheric regions (whole hemisphere, frontal lobe, and temporoparietal lobe), and the results were compared with those of Wada tests. The results for lateralization of language area were compared among stimulation tasks and regions and used for calculation of lateralization indices. During the Wada test, nine patients were left dominant and one patient was right dominant for language. Language dominance based on activated signals in each hemisphere was consistent with the results of the Wada test in 87.5% (verb and noun generation tasks) and 90% (reading task) of patients. Language dominance determined by activated signals in the frontal lobe was consistent in 87.5%, 75%, and 80% of patients in each stimulation task (verb generation, noun generation, and reading), respectively. The consistency rate of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was 87.5%, 87.5% and 80% of patients in each task. the mean value of the lateralization index, calculated on the basis of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was higher than that in the hemisphere or frontal lobe. The verb generation task showed a higher lateralization index than the noun generation or reading task. The lateralization index was higher in the verb generation task and in the region of the temporoparietal lobe than in

  17. [Hemispheric asymmetry modulation for language processing in aging: meta-analysis of studies using the dichotic listening test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoucke, Elodie; Cousin, Emilie; Baciu, Monica

    2013-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that age impacts on interhemispheric representation of language. Dichotic listening test allows assessing language lateralization for spoken language and it generally reveals right-ear/left-hemisphere (LH) predominance for language in young adult subjects. According to reported results, elderly would display increasing LH predominance in some studies or stable LH language lateralization for language in others ones. The aim of this study was to depict the main pattern of results in respect with the effect of normal aging on the hemisphere specialization for language by using dichotic listening test. A meta-analysis based on 11 studies has been performed. The inter-hemisphere asymmetry does not seem to increase according to age. A supplementary qualitative analysis suggests that right-ear advantage seems to increase between 40 and 49 y old and becomes stable or decreases after 55 y old, suggesting right-ear/LH decline.

  18. Hedges Used in Business Emails: A Corpus Study on the Language Strategy of International Business Communication Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Siwei; Wang, Xuefei

    2014-01-01

    Based on a corpus of 296 authentic business emails produced in computer-mediated business communication from 7 Chinese international trade enterprises, this paper addresses the language strategy applied in CMC (Computer-mediated Communication) by examining the use of hedges. With the emergence of internet, a wider range of hedges are applied…

  19. Letters to a Dictionary: Competing Views of Language in the Reception of "Webster's Third New International Dictionary"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Anne Pence

    2013-01-01

    The publication of "Webster's Third New International Dictionary" in September 1961 set off a national controversy about dictionaries and language that ultimately included issues related to linguistics and English education. The negative reviews published in the press about the "Third" have shaped beliefs about the nature of…

  20. Narratives of Girls and Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Gender Differences in Narrative Competence and Internal State Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Christina; van der Beek, Bettina; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Since gender differences in the symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not well understood, the current study examines the communicative skills of males and females with ASD. Narrative competence and internal state language (ISL) was investigated using narrations elicited by a wordless picture book. 11 girls and 11 boys with ASD and…

  1. Education in the World System: The Demand for Language and International Proficiencies in Economic Development and National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegl, Juergen K.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the role of second-language proficiency from international, national, and state perspectives, including consideration of the need for such proficiency in science, technology, and research for economic development. Trends indicate that a more internationalized curricula in higher education and a greater demand for second-language…

  2. The Impact of Academic Self-Efficacy, Acculturation Difficulties, and Language Abilities on Procrastination Behavior in Chinese International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowinger, Robert Jay; He, Zhaomin; Lin, Miranda; Chang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of academic self-efficacy, acculturation difficulties, and language abilities on procrastination behavior using a convenience sample of 264 Chinese international students studying at three public universities in the United States. While there were no significant mean gender differences on any of the measures, results…

  3. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour

  4. Internal Impingement of the Shoulder: A Risk of False Positive Test Outcomes in External Impingement Tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Leschinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. External impingement tests are considered as being particularly reliable for identifying subacromial and coracoid shoulder impingement mechanisms. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if these tests are likely to provoke an internal shoulder impingement mechanism which, in cases of a pathologic condition, can lead to a positive test result. Method. In 37 subjects, the mechanical contact between the glenoid rim and the rotator cuff (RC was measured quantitatively and qualitatively in external impingement test positions using an open MRI system. Results. Mechanical contact of the supraspinatus with the posterosuperior glenoid was present in 30 subjects in the Neer test. In the Hawkins test, the subscapularis was in contact with the anterosuperior glenoid in 33 subjects and the supraspinatus in 18. In the horizontal impingement test, anterosuperior contact of the supraspinatus with the glenoid was identified in 35 subjects. Conclusion. The Neer, Hawkins, and horizontal impingement tests are likely to provoke the mechanism of an internal shoulder impingement. A posterosuperior internal impingement mechanism is being provoked predominately in the Neer test. The Hawkins test narrows the distance between the insertions of the subscapularis and supraspinatus and the anterosuperior labrum, which leads to an anterosuperior impingement mechanism.

  5. The FENIX [Fusion ENgineering International EXperimental] test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.; Patrick, R.E.; Chaplin, M.R.; Miller, J.R.; Shen, S.S.; Summers, L.T.; Kerns, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Fusion ENgineering International EXperimental Magnet Facility (FENIX), under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is a significant step forward in meeting the testing requirements necessary for the development of superconductor for large-scale, superconducting magnets. A 14-T, transverse field over a test volume of 150 x 60 x 150 mm in length will be capable of testing conductors the size of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Proposed conductors for ITER measure ∼35 mm on one side and will operate at currents of up to 40 kA at fields of ∼14 T. The testing of conductors and associated components, such as joints, will require large-bore, high-field magnet facilities. FENIX is being constructed using the existing A 2o and A 2i magnets from the idle MFTF. The east and west A 2 pairs will be mounted together to form a split-pair solenoid. The pairs of magnets will be installed in a 4.0-m cryostat vessel located in the HFTF building at LLNL. Each magnet is enclosed in its own cryostat, the existing 4.0-m vessel serving only as a vacuum chamber. 4 refs., 8 figs

  6. English Language Apprehension and Relationship Building Bonding among International Students in the College of Arts and Sciences at University Utara Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Idris

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the English language apprehension and interpersonal communication for 170 international postgraduate students, who study in the College of Art and Science, University of Utara Malaysia. The research objectives are: firstly, to determine to what extent international postgraduate students‘ attitudes influence English language pronunciation for interpersonal communication. Secondly, to examine the relationship between attitudes and English language apprehe...

  7. Proceedings of the international symposium on materials testing reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Materials Testing Reactors hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The symposium was held on July 16 to 17, 2008, at the Oarai Research and Development Center of JAEA. This symposium was also held for the 40th anniversary ceremony of Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) from achieving its first criticality. The objective of the symposium is to exchange the information on current status, future plan and so on among each testing reactors for the purpose of mutual understanding. There were 138 participants from Argentina, Belgium, France, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Korea, the Russian Federation, Sweden, the United State, Vietnam and Japan. The symposium was divided into four technical sessions and three topical sessions. Technical sessions addressed the general topics of 'status and future plan of materials testing reactors', 'material development for research and testing reactors', irradiation technology (including PIE technology)' and 'utilization with materials testing reactors', and 21 presentations were made. Also the topical sessions addressed 'establishment of strategic partnership', 'management on re-operation work at reactor trouble' and 'basic technology for neutron irradiation tests in MTRs', and panel discussion was made. The 21 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Moving beyond the language barrier: the communication strategies used by international medical graduates in intercultural medical encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Parul; Krieger, Janice L

    2011-07-01

    To understand the communication strategies international medical graduates use in medical interactions to overcome language and cultural barriers. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 international physicians completing their residency training in internal medicine in a large hospital in Midwestern Ohio. The interview explored (a) barriers participants encountered while communicating with their patients regarding language, affect, and culture, and (b) communication convergence strategies used to make the interaction meaningful. International physicians use multiple convergence strategies when interacting with their patients to account for the intercultural and intergroup differences, including repeating information, changing speaking styles, and using non-verbal communication. Understanding barriers to communication faced by international physicians and recognizing accommodation strategies they employ in the interaction could help in training of future international doctors who come to the U.S. to practice medicine. Early intervention could reduce the time international physicians spend navigating through the system and trying to learn by experimenting with different strategies which will allow these physicians to devote more time to patient care. We recommend developing a training manual that is instructive of the socio-cultural practices of the region where international physician will start practicing medicine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) among Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) in State Science Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich, Maria O.

    Psychometricians and test developers evaluate standardized tests for potential bias against groups of test-takers by using differential item functioning (DIF). English language learners (ELLs) are a diverse group of students whose native language is not English. While they are still learning the English language, they must take their standardized tests for their school subjects, including science, in English. In this study, linguistic complexity was examined as a possible source of DIF that may result in test scores that confound science knowledge with a lack of English proficiency among ELLs. Two years of fifth-grade state science tests were analyzed for evidence of DIF using two DIF methods, Simultaneous Item Bias Test (SIBTest) and logistic regression. The tests presented a unique challenge in that the test items were grouped together into testlets---groups of items referring to a scientific scenario to measure knowledge of different science content or skills. Very large samples of 10, 256 students in 2006 and 13,571 students in 2007 were examined. Half of each sample was composed of Spanish-speaking ELLs; the balance was comprised of native English speakers. The two DIF methods were in agreement about the items that favored non-ELLs and the items that favored ELLs. Logistic regression effect sizes were all negligible, while SIBTest flagged items with low to high DIF. A decrease in socioeconomic status and Spanish-speaking ELL diversity may have led to inconsistent SIBTest effect sizes for items used in both testing years. The DIF results for the testlets suggested that ELLs lacked sufficient opportunity to learn science content. The DIF results further suggest that those constructed response test items requiring the student to draw a conclusion about a scientific investigation or to plan a new investigation tended to favor ELLs.

  10. Do children with autism have a theory of mind? A non-verbal test of autism vs. specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2007-04-01

    Children with autism have delays in the development of theory of mind. However, the sub-group of children with autism who have little or no language have gone untested since false belief tests (FB) typically involve language. FB understanding has been reported to be intact in children with specific language impairment (SLI). This raises the possibility that a non-verbal FB test would distinguish children with autism vs. children with SLI. The present study tested two predictions: (1) FB understanding is to some extent independent of language ability; and (2) Children with autism with low language levels show specific impairment in theory of mind. Results confirmed both predictions. Results are discussed in terms of the role of language in the development of mindreading.

  11. Utilizing the Fast Flux Test Facility for international passive safety testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, P.K.; Padilla, A.; Lucoff, D.M.; Waltar, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    A two-phased approach has been undertaken in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to conduct passive safety testing. Phase I (1986 to 1987) was structured to obtain an initial understanding of the reactivity feedback components. The planned Phase II (1992 to 1993) international program will extend the testing to include static and dynamic feedback measurements, transient and demonstration tests, and gas expansion module (GEM) reactivity tests. The primary objective is to meet the needs for safety analysis code validation, with particular emphasis on reducing the uncertainties associated with structure reactivity feedback. Program scope and predicted FFTF responses are discussed and illustrated. (author)

  12. Using Norm-Referenced Tests to Determine Severity of Language Impairment in Children: Disconnect between U.S. Policy Makers and Test Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Tammie J.; Szulga, Margaret Swartwout; Figueroa, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify various U.S. state education departments' criteria for determining the severity of language impairment in children, with particular focus on the use of norm-referenced tests. A secondary objective was to determine if norm-referenced tests of child language were developed for the purpose of…

  13. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Soares F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino de Oliveira,1 Liliane Dias e Dias de Macedo,1 Alessandra Mendonça Tomás,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço-Diniz,2 João Bento-Torres,1,3 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Laboratório de Investigações em Neurodegeneração e Infecção Belém, Pará, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Núcleo Universitário de Oriximiná, Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, BrazilObjective: The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects.Method: We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years matched by educational level (years of schooling. All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group.Results: Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects.Conclusion: Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application

  14. Humane Society International's global campaign to end animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidle, Troy

    2013-12-01

    The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in the EU through the revision of biocides and plant protection product regulations, among others. HSI is currently working to export these life-saving measures to more than a dozen industrial and emerging economies. 2013 FRAME.

  15. Effects of computer-based immediate feedback on foreign language listening comprehension and test-associated anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Su, Hui-Kai; Lee, Shin-Da

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of immediate feedback on computer-based foreign language listening comprehension tests and on intrapersonal test-associated anxiety in 72 English major college students at a Taiwanese University. Foreign language listening comprehension of computer-based tests designed by MOODLE, a dynamic e-learning environment, with or without immediate feedback together with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) were tested and repeated after one week. The analysis indicated that immediate feedback during testing caused significantly higher anxiety and resulted in significantly higher listening scores than in the control group, which had no feedback. However, repeated feedback did not affect the test anxiety and listening scores. Computer-based immediate feedback did not lower debilitating effects of anxiety but enhanced students' intrapersonal eustress-like anxiety and probably improved their attention during listening tests. Computer-based tests with immediate feedback might help foreign language learners to increase attention in foreign language listening comprehension.

  16. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.

    2015-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. The filter element for this system has a non-standard cross-section with a length-to-width ratio (LW) of 6.6. A filter test setup was designed and built to meet industry testing standards. A CFD analysis was performed to initially determine the optimal duct geometry and flow configuration. Both a screen and flow straighter were added to the test duct design to improve flow uniformity and face velocity profiles were subsequently measured to confirm. Flow quality and aerosol mixing assessments show that the duct flow is satisfactory for the intended leak testing. Preliminary leak testing was performed on two different ISS filters, one with known perforations and one with limited use, and results confirmed that the testing methods and photometer instrument are sensitive enough to detect and locate compromised sections of an ISS BFE.Given the engineering constraints in designing spacecraft life support systems, it is anticipated that non-industry standard filters will be required in future designs. This work is focused on developing test protocols for testing the ISS BFE filters, but the methodology is general enough to be extended to other present and future spacecraft filters. These techniques for characterizing the test duct and perform leak testing

  17. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups. Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution. Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made. Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing. Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  18. Testing an AAC system that transforms pictograms into natural language with persons with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahisa-Solé, Joan; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi

    2017-10-18

    In this article, we describe a compansion system that transforms the telegraphic language that comes from the use of pictogram-based augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) into natural language. The system was tested with four participants with severe cerebral palsy and ranging degrees of linguistic competence and intellectual disabilities. Participants had used pictogram-based AAC at least for the past 30 years each and presented a stable linguistic profile. During tests, which consisted of a total of 40 sessions, participants were able to learn new linguistic skills, such as the use of basic verb tenses, while using the compansion system, which proved a source of motivation. The system can be adapted to the linguistic competence of each person and required no learning curve during tests when none of its special features, like gender, number, verb tense, or sentence type modifiers, were used. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative results showed a mean communication rate increase of 41.59%, compared to the same communication device without the compansion system, and an overall improvement in the communication experience when the output is in natural language. Tests were conducted in Catalan and Spanish.

  19. How much does language proficiency by non-native listeners influence speech audiometric tests in noise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzybok, Anna; Brand, Thomas; Wagener, Kirsten C; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which the linguistic complexity of three commonly employed speech recognition tests and second language proficiency influence speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) in noise in non-native listeners. SRTs were measured for non-natives and natives using three German speech recognition tests: the digit triplet test (DTT), the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA), and the Göttingen sentence test (GÖSA). Sixty-four non-native and eight native listeners participated. Non-natives can show native-like SRTs in noise only for the linguistically easy speech material (DTT). Furthermore, the limitation of phonemic-acoustical cues in digit triplets affects speech recognition to the same extent in non-natives and natives. For more complex and less familiar speech materials, non-natives, ranging from basic to advanced proficiency in German, require on average 3-dB better signal-to-noise ratio for the OLSA and 6-dB for the GÖSA to obtain 50% speech recognition compared to native listeners. In clinical audiology, SRT measurements with a closed-set speech test (i.e. DTT for screening or OLSA test for clinical purposes) should be used with non-native listeners rather than open-set speech tests (such as the GÖSA or HINT), especially if a closed-set version in the patient's own native language is available.

  20. The International intraval project. Phase 1 test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains a description of the test cases adopted in Phase 1 of the international cooperation project INTRAVAL. Seventeen test cases based on bench-scale experiments in laboratory, field tests and natural analogue studies, have been included in the study. The test cases are described in terms of experimental design and types of available data. In addition, some quantitative examples of available data are given as well as references to more extensive documentation of the experiments on which the test cases are based. Fithteen test cases examples are given: 1 Mass transfer through clay by diffusion and advection. 2 Uranium migration in crystalline bore cores, small scale pressure infiltration experiments. 3 Radionuclide migration in single natural fractures in granite. 4 Tracer tests in a deep basalt flow top. 5 Flow and tracer experiment in crystalline rock based on the Stripa 3-D experiment. 6 Tracer experiment in a fracture zone at the Finnsjon research area. 7 Synthetic data base, based on single fracture migration experiments in Grimsel rock laboratory. 8 Natural analogue studies at Pocos de Caldas, Minais Gerais, Brazil. Redox-front and radionuclide movement in an open pit uranium mine. 9 Natural analogue studies at the Koongarra site in the Alligator Rivers area of the Northern Territory, Australia. 10 Large block migration experiments in a block of crystalline rock. 11 Unsaturated flow and transport experiments performed at Las Cruces, New Mexico. 12 Flow and transport experiment in unsaturated fractured rock performed at the Apache Leap Tuff site, Arizona. 13 Experiments in partially saturated tuffaceous rocks performed in the G-tunnel underground facility at the Nevada Test site, USA. 14 Experimental study of brine transport in porous media. 15 Groundwater flow in the vicinity of the Gorleben Salt Dome, Federal Republic of Germany

  1. Fracture Toughness Round Robin Test International in pressure tube materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagarcia, M.P.; Liendo, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Part of the pressure tubes surveillance program of CANDU type reactors is to determine the fracture toughness using a special fracture specimen and test procedure. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited decided to hold a Round Robin Test International and 9 laboratories participated worldwide in which several pressure tube materials were selected: Zircaloy-2, Zr-2.5%Nb cold worked and Zr-2.5%Nb heat treated. The small specimens used held back the thickness and curvature of the tube. J-R curves at room temperature were obtained and the crack extension values were determined by electrical potential drop techniques. These values were compared with results generated from other laboratories and a bid scatter was founded. It could be due to slight variations in the test method or inhomogeneity of the materials and a statistical study must be done to see if there is any pattern. The next step for the Round Robin Test would be to make some modifications in the test method in order to reduce the scatter. (Author)

  2. Market risk stress testing for internationally active financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Petar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a comprehensive framework for market risk stress testing in internationally active financial institutions. We begin by defining the scope and type of the stress test and explaining how to select risk factors and the stress time horizon. We then address challenges related to data gathering, followed by in-depth discussion of techniques for developing realistic shock scenarios. Next the process of shock application to a particular portfolio is described, followed by determination of portfolio profit and loss. We conclude by briefly discussing the issue of assigning probability to stress scenarios. We illustrate the framework by considering the development of a ‘worst case’ scenario using global financial market data from Thomson Reuters Datastream.

  3. Psychological and linguistic features of the Russian language acquisition by international students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a full-scale interview with Russian language teachers that teach Russian as a foreign language at the preparatory departments at multinational universities. The research findings identified the basic psychological and linguistic features that are typical for the Russian language acquisition by the students from different regions of the world (Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, Arab countries.

  4. Language Testing, "Integration" and Subtractive Multilingualism in Italy: Challenges for Adult Immigrant Second Language and Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stephanie V.

    2015-01-01

    Since Italy's unification in 1861, the establishment and diffusion of the standard Italian language at the expense of all other linguistic varieties has dominated language and education policy discourses. Today, as Italy has transformed from a country of mass "emigration" to a country of mass "immigration," the language…

  5. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  6. International aspirations for speech-language pathologists' practice with multilingual children with speech sound disorders: development of a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Bowen, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for the speech-language pathology profession in many cultures is to address the mismatch between the "linguistic homogeneity of the speech-language pathology profession and the linguistic diversity of its clientele" (Caesar & Kohler, 2007, p. 198). This paper outlines the development of the Multilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Position Paper created to guide speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') facilitation of multilingual children's speech. An international expert panel was assembled comprising 57 researchers (SLPs, linguists, phoneticians, and speech scientists) with knowledge about multilingual children's speech, or children with speech sound disorders. Combined, they had worked in 33 countries and used 26 languages in professional practice. Fourteen panel members met for a one-day workshop to identify key points for inclusion in the position paper. Subsequently, 42 additional panel members participated online to contribute to drafts of the position paper. A thematic analysis was undertaken of the major areas of discussion using two data sources: (a) face-to-face workshop transcript (133 pages) and (b) online discussion artifacts (104 pages). Finally, a moderator with international expertise in working with children with speech sound disorders facilitated the incorporation of the panel's recommendations. The following themes were identified: definitions, scope, framework, evidence, challenges, practices, and consideration of a multilingual audience. The resulting position paper contains guidelines for providing services to multilingual children with speech sound disorders (http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech/position-paper). The paper is structured using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children and Youth Version (World Health Organization, 2007) and incorporates recommendations for (a) children and families, (b) SLPs' assessment and intervention, (c) SLPs' professional

  7. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Language serves different purposes depending on the international activity in question. Language has many dimensions and firms’ communicative requirements vary by operational platform. We argue that different dimensions of language vary in their importance depending on the operation mode chosen...... for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand......, and Sweden that have undertaken a business operation in a foreign country....

  8. Language Planning at the International Level. Report of the Annual Conference of the Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems (3rd, New York, New York, December 14, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey, Ed.; Johnson-Weiner, Karen, Ed.

    The proceedings of the conference include the opening address (Francoise Cestac) and these papers: "False Friendship in International Language Planning" (Joseph L. Malone); "Guidelines for Terminology Standardization at the United Nations" (Marie-Josee Jastrab); "Language Policy at the Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et…

  9. Language Needs Analysis from a Perspective of International Professional Mobility: The Case of French Mountain Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Severine

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed account of an analysis carried out at the French National Skiing and Mountaineering School from August 2008 to June 2009 to assess the language needs of French mountain guides. A targeted literature review highlighted two main points to be taken into account in the design of this language needs analysis: target…

  10. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  11. How a Visual Language of Abstract Shapes Facilitates Cultural and International Border Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Arthur Thomas, III

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a visual language comprised of abstract shapes that has been shown to be effective in communicating prior knowledge between and within members of a small team or group. The visual language includes a set of geometric shapes and rules that guide the construction of the abstract diagrams that are the external representation of…

  12. International Student Carbon Footprint Challenge--Social Media as a Content and Language Integrated Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauville, Géraldine; Lantz-Andersson, Annika; Säljö, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) is now clearly specified in educational standards in many parts of the world, and at the same time the view of language learning is moving towards a content and language integrated learning (CLIL) strategy, to make English lessons more relevant and attractive for students (Eurydice, 2006). In this respect,…

  13. Probabilistic Approaches to Examining Linguistic Features of Test Items and Their Effect on the Performance of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses validity and fairness in the testing of English language learners (ELLs)--students in the United States who are developing English as a second language. It discusses limitations of current approaches to examining the linguistic features of items and their effect on the performance of ELL students. The article submits that…

  14. Using Quality Management Systems to Improve Test Development and Standards and to Promote Good Practice: A Case Study of Testing Italian as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego Bolli, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the problem of quality in the production of language tests in the context of Italian language examinations. The concept of quality is closely related to the application of stated standards and related procedures. These standards, developed over the last thirty years, are mainly related to the concepts of the accountability…

  15. Development of an accelerated test for Internal Sulfate Attack study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelil Nacim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Internal Sulfate Attack (ISA is a pathology that occurs under certain conditions in concrete having undergone heating above 70 °C at early age (through heating in pre-casting industry or due to hydration in large concrete parts. This reaction deemed very slow, numerous methods to speed up reactions leading to delayed ettringite formation have been developed. These methods are all based on the material damage. Another type of test is currently under development. It is based on rehabilitation techniques such as electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE in order to accelerate the leaching of alkalis that could be one of the triggers of the pathology. The study presented in this paper focused on concrete specimens prepared from cement (CEM I 52.5 N enriched with Na2SO4. These concretes have undergone a heat treatment typical of those used in precast plants (up to 24 hours with a maximum temperature of 80 °C. Various paths were explored for the development of the accelerated test. The first results showed that it was necessary to use a removable titanium anode ruthenium anode instead of stainless steel embedded in the concrete. Then tests with de-ionized water as the solute to the cathode did not accelerate the onset of expansions. The experiment has been modified and potassium carbonate was added to the solution. This modification didn’t show any significant improvement, and other experiments are being carried out to explain this result.

  16. Test of internal halo targets in the HERA proton ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hast, C.; Hofmann, W.; Khan, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Reber, M.; Rieling, J.; Spahn, M.; Spengler, J.; Lohse, T.; Pugatch, V.

    1995-01-01

    Internal wire targets in the halo of stored proton beams provide a line source of proton-nucleus interactions for highest-rate fixed target experiments. We have studied such internal halo targets at the 820 GeV proton ring of the HERA ep collider. The tests showed that most of the protons in the beam halo - which would otherwise hit the collimators - can be brought to interaction in a relatively thin target wire at distances of 7 to 8 beam widths from the center of the beam. At less than 10% of the HERA total design current, and less than 20% of the current per bunch, interaction rates up to 8 MHz were observed, corresponding to more than 2 interactions per bunch crossing. The halo targets were used in parallel to the HERA luminosity operation; no significant disturbances of the HERA ep experiments, of the machine stability or beam quality were observed. We present data on the steady-state and transient behaviour of interaction rates and discuss the interpretation in terms of a simple beam dynamics model. Issues of short-, medium- and long-term rate fluctuations and of rate stabilization by feedback are addressed. ((orig.))

  17. Test of internal halo targets in the HERA proton ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hast, C.; Hofmann, W.; Khan, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Reber, M.; Rieling, J.; Spahn, M.; Spengler, J.; Lohse, T.; Pugatch, V.

    1994-07-01

    Internal wire targets in the halo of stored proton beams provide a line source of proton-nucleus interactions for highest-rate fixed target experiments. We have studied such internal halo targets at the 820 GeV proton ring of the HERA ep collider. The tests showed that most of the protons in the beam halo - which would otherwise hit the collimators - can be brought to interaction in a relatively thin target wire at distances of 7 to 8 beam widths from the center of the beam. At less than 10% of the HERA total design current, and less than 20% of the current per bunch, interaction rates up to 8 MHz were observed, corresponding to more than 2 interactions per bunch crossing. The halo targets were used in parallel to the HERA luminosity operation; no significant disturbances of the HERA ep experiments, of the machine stability or beam quality were observed. We present data on the steady-state and transient behaviour of interaction rates and discuss the interpretation in terms of a simple beam dynamics model. Issues of short-, medium- and long-term rate fluctuations and of rate stabilization by feedback are addressed. (orig.)

  18. Knowledge acquisition and representation for the Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamster, Thomas L.; Eike, David R.; Ames, Troy J.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation concentrates on knowledge acquisition and its application to the development of an expert module and a user interface for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) ITS is being developed to assist NASA control center personnel in learning a command and control language as it is used in mission operations rooms. The objective of the tutor is to impart knowledge and skills that will permit the trainee to solve command and control problems in the same way that the STOL expert solves those problems. The STOL ITS will achieve this object by representing the solution space in such a way that the trainee can visualize the intermediate steps, and by having the expert module production rules parallel the STOL expert's knowledge structures.

  19. Analysis of brief language tests in the detection of cognitive decline and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Radanovic

    Full Text Available Abstract Lexical access difficulties are frequent in normal aging and initial stages of dementia. Verbal fluency tests are valuable to detect cognitive decline, evidencing lexico-semantic and executive dysfunction. Objectives: To establish which language tests can contribute in detecting dementia and to verify schooling influence on subject performance. Method: 74 subjects: 33 controls, 17 Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR 0.5 and 24 (Brief Cognitive Battery - BCB e Boston Naming Test - BNT 1 were compared in tests of semantic verbal fluency (animal and fruit, picture naming (BCB and BNT and the language items of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results: There were significant differences between the control group and both CDR 0.5 and CDR 1 in all tests. Cut-off scores were: 11 and 10 for animal fluency, 8 for fruit fluency (in both, 8 and 9 for BCB naming. The CDR 0.5 group performed better than the CDR 1 group only in animal fluency. Stepwise multiple regression revealed fruit fluency, animal fluency and BCB naming as the best discriminators between patients and controls (specificity: 93.8%; sensitivity: 91.3%. In controls, comparison between illiterates and literates evidenced schooling influence in all tests, except for fruit fluency and BCB naming. In patients with dementia, only fruit fluency was uninfluenced by schooling. Conclusion: The combination of verbal fluency tests in two semantic categories along with a simple picture naming test is highly sensitive in detecting cognitive decline. Comparison between literate and illiterate subjects shows a lesser degree of influence of schooling on the selected tests, thus improving discrimination between low performance and incipient cognitive decline.

  20. Culture in teaching English as an international language in CLT curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩笑晨

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explored the role of culture in EIL teaching on the basis of CLT contexts by reviewing plentiful previous studies. Generally speaking, this thesis emphasized the relationship between language and culture, the necessity and importance of culture teaching in language teaching, what kind of culture should be included in cultural content for culture teaching and challenges of culture teaching in EIL teaching as well. In a word, Culture is correlated with language. Culture teaching plays a significant role in EIL teaching. In culture teaching, not only the target culture, but also various cultures related to EIL learners' daily life should be included.

  1. Cultural adaptation of the Test of Narrative Language (TNL) into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Lindau, Tâmara de Andrade; Gillam, Ronald Bradley; Giacheti, Célia Maria

    To accomplish the translation and cultural adaptation of the Test of Narrative Language (TNL) into Brazilian Portuguese. The TNL is a formal instrument which assesses narrative comprehension and oral narration of children between the ages of 5-0 and 11-11 (years-months). The TNL translation and adaptation process had the following steps: (1) translation into the target language; (2) summary of the translated versions; (3) back-translation; (4) checking of the conceptual, semantics and cultural equivalence process and (5) pilot study (56 children within the test age range and from both genders). The adapted version maintained the same structure as the original version: number of tasks (both, three comprehension and oral narration), narrative formats (no picture, sequenced pictures and single picture) and scoring system. There were no adjustments to the pictures. The "McDonald's Story" was replaced by the "Snack Bar History" to meet the semantic and experiential equivalence of the target population. The other stories had semantic and grammatical adjustments. Statistically significant difference was found when comparing the raw score (comprehension, narration and total) of age groups from the adapted version. Adjustments were required to meet the equivalence between the original and the translated versions. The adapted version showed it has the potential to identify differences in oral narratives of children in the age range provided by the test. Measurement equivalence for validation and test standardization are in progress and will be able to supplement the study outcomes.

  2. Families' perception of children / adolescents with language impairment through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF-CY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroschi, Daniele Theodoro; Zanolli, Maria de Lurdes; Chun, Regina Yu Shon

    2017-05-22

    To investigate the perception of family members regarding linguistic conditions and social participation of children and adolescents with speech and language impairments using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY). Quali-quantitative approach research, in which a survey of medical records of 24 children/adolescents undergoing speech-language therapy and interviews with their family members was conducted. A descriptive analysis of the participants' profiles was performed, followed by a categorization of responses using the ICF-CY. All family members mentioned various aspects of speech/language categorized by the ICF-CY. Initially, they approached it as an organic issue, categorized under the component of Body Functions and Structures. Most reported different repercussions of the speech-language impairments on the domains, such as dealing with stress and speaking, qualified from mild to severe. Participants reported Environmental Factors categorized as facilitators in the immediate family's attitudes and as barriers in the social attitudes. These findings, according to the use of the ICF-CY, demonstrate that the children/adolescents' speech-language impairments, from the families' perception, are primarily understood in the body dimension. However, guided by a broader approach to health, the findings in the Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors demonstrate a broader understanding of the participants of the speech-language impairments. The results corroborate the importance of using the ICF-CY as a health care analysis tool, by incorporating functionality and participation aspects and providing subsidies for the construction of unique therapeutic projects in a broader approach to the health of the group studied.

  3. International Round-Robin Testing of Bulk Thermoelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Sharp, Jeff [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2011-11-01

    Two international round-robin studies were conducted on transport properties measurements of bulk thermoelectric materials. The study discovered current measurement problems. In order to get ZT of a material four separate transport measurements must be taken. The round-robin study showed that among the four properties Seebeck coefficient is the one can be measured consistently. Electrical resistivity has +4-9% scatter. Thermal diffusivity has similar +5-10% scatter. The reliability of the above three properties can be improved by standardizing test procedures and enforcing system calibrations. The worst problem was found in specific heat measurements using DSC. The probability of making measurement error is great due to the fact three separate runs must be taken to determine Cp and the baseline shift is always an issue for commercial DSC. It is suggest the Dulong Petit limit be always used as a guide line for Cp. Procedures have been developed to eliminate operator and system errors. The IEA-AMT annex is developing standard procedures for transport properties testing.

  4. A review of Studsvik's international power ramp test projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogard, H.; Kjaer-Pedersen, N.

    1985-11-01

    Since 1975 a series of internationally sponsored fuel irradiation research projects have been and are being conducted at Studsvik, Sweden, under the management of Studsvik Energiteknik AB. The sponsoring parties comprise fuel vendors, nuclear power utilities, national research organizations and, in some cases, safety authorities. Geographically the parties represent organizations in Europe, Japan, and the USA. The main research topic of the Studsvik projects is the Pellet Clad Interaction (PCI) induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) failure occurrence in LWR fuel under power ramping conditions. The research is conducted in the 50 MW R2 test reactor and the associated hot cell laboratory. Prior to the experiments the test fuel is base irradiated, normally in commercially operated light water reactors. Results have been published for the INTER-RAMP, OVER-RAMP, DEMO-RAMP I, DEMO-RAMP II and SUPER-RAMP projects. The release of the TRANS-RAMP I results is imminent. There are two ongoing projects, i.e. SUPER-RAMP EXTENSION and TRANS-RAMP II. The paper presents an overview of the objectives and main results of the various projects. An attempt is made to summarize the more important observations on PCI failure performance in the perspective of design parameters, fuel burnup levels, power histories, power ramp rates, etc. With 14 refs. (Author)

  5. ''Football'' test coil: a simulated service test of internally-cooled, cabled superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marston, P.G.; Iwasa, Y.; Thome, R.J.; Hoenig, M.O.

    1981-01-01

    Internally-cooled, cabled superconductor, (ICCS), appears from small-scale tests to be a viable alternative to pool-boiling cooled superconductors for large superconducting magnets. Potential advantages may include savings in helium inventory, smaller structure and ease of fabrication. Questions remain, however, about the structural performance of these systems. The ''football'' test coil has been designed to simulate the actual ''field-current-stress-thermal'' operating conditions of a 25 ka ICCS in a commercial scale MHD magnet. The test procedure will permit demonstration of the 20 year cyclic life of such a magnet in less than 20 days. This paper describes the design, construction and test of that coil which is wound of copper-stabilized niobium-titanium cable in steel conduit. 2 refs

  6. Test-Taking Strategies in L2 Assessment: The Test of English for International Communication Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny

    2016-08-01

    This research explored the test-taking strategies associated with the Test of English for International Communication Speaking Test (TOEIC-S) and their relationship with test performance. Capitalizing on two sets of TOEIC-S and a custom-made strategy inventory, the researcher collected data from a total of 215 Taiwanese English learners consisting of 84 males and 131 females with an average age of 20.1 years (SD = 2.6). Quantitative data analysis gave rise to three major findings. First, TOEIC-S test-taking strategy use constituted a multi-faceted construct that involved multiple types of strategic behaviors. Second, these strategic behaviors matched those allowing test-takers to communicate both in real life and in the workplace. Third, communication strategy use and cognitive strategy use both contributed significantly to TOEIC-S performance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. The Teaching of English as an International Language in Japan: An Answer to the Dilemma of Indigenous Values and Global Needs in the Expanding Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ambivalent nature of Japanese attitudes toward English vis-a-vis the Japanese language, followed by a discussion of Japanese efforts in incorporating the concept of English as an International Language (EIL) into their educational system and teaching practice as a solution to this dilemma. While the Japanese have an…

  8. Teaching and Learning English in Tanzania: Blessing or Curse? A Practical Review of Phan Le Ha's Teaching English as an International Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtallo, Godson Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper is inspired by the work of Phan Le Ha (2008) in her book titled Teaching English as an International Language: Identity, Resistance, and Negotiation in which she presented the way English language is taught in Vietnam and the emergence of conflicting classes of western-trained Vietnamese teachers of English versus non western trained…

  9. Principals' Perceptions for Finnish- and Swedish-Language Schools in Finland: An Analysis of School-Level Indices from Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju-Luukkainen, Heidi; Vettenranta, Jouni; Kanervio, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    The Finnish educational system is known for its equality. However, in many key areas in national and international assessments, Swedish-language schools in Finland have lagged behind their Finnish-language counterparts. So far there is little research into the underlying reasons for this discrepancy. In this article, in order to illuminate the…

  10. Testing and analysis of internal hardwood log defect prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The severity and location of internal defects determine the quality and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. Models have been developed to predict the size and position of internal defects based on external defect indicator measurements. These models were shown to predict approximately 80% of all internal knots based on external knot indicators. However, the size...

  11. Development of Ada language control software for the NASA power management and distribution test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ted; Mackin, Michael; Gantose, Dave

    1989-01-01

    The Ada language software developed to control the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution testbed is described. The testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used on space station Freedom. It is designed to develop and test hardware and software for a 20-kHz power distribution system. The distributed, multiprocessor, testbed control system has an easy-to-use operator interface with an understandable English-text format. A simple interface for algorithm writers that uses the same commands as the operator interface is provided, encouraging interactive exploration of the system.

  12. Le Rapport langue-culture dans les organisations internationales: Pour Une Sociologie des organisations internationales (The Relationship between Language and Culture in International Organizations: Toward a Sociology of International Organizations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrab de Saint Robert, de Marie-Josee

    1988-01-01

    Understanding the work of international organizations requires an understanding of the relationship between language and culture, a relationship evident in the activities of the international organizations. This relationship is partly responsible for the negative image of such organizations. Research in the sociology of international organizations…

  13. Issues in Vertical Scaling of a K-12 English Language Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; MacGregor, David; Li, Dongyang; Cook, H. Gary

    2011-01-01

    One of the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act is that states show adequate yearly progress in their English language learners' (ELLs) acquisition of English language proficiency. States are required to assess ELLs' English language proficiency annually in four language domains (listening, reading, writing, and speaking) to measure their…

  14. Marking of verb tense in the English of preschool English-Mandarin bilingual children: evidence from language development profiles within subgroups on the Singapore English Action Picture Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Liow, Susan Rickard

    2016-01-01

    The phonological and morphosyntactic structures of English and Mandarin contrast maximally and an increasing number of bilinguals speak these two languages. Speech and language therapists need to understand bilingual development for children speaking these languages in order reliably to assess and provide intervention for this population. To examine the marking of verb tense in the English of two groups of bilingual pre-schoolers learning these languages in a multilingual setting where the main educational language is English. The main research question addressed was: are there differences in the rate and pattern of acquisition of verb-tense marking for English-language 1 children compared with Mandarin-language 1 children? Spoken language samples in English from 481 English-Mandarin bilingual children were elicited using a 10-item action picture test and analysed for each child's use of verb tense markers: present progressive '-ing', regular past tense '-ed', third-person singular '-s', and irregular past tense and irregular past-participle forms. For 4-6 year olds the use of inflectional markers by the different language dominance groups was compared statistically using non-parametric tests. This study provides further evidence that bilingual language development is not the same as monolingual language development. The results show that there are very different rates and patterns of verb-tense marking in English for English-language 1 and Mandarin-language 1 children. Furthermore, they show that bilingual language development in English in Singapore is not the same as monolingual language development in English, and that there are differences in development depending on language dominance. Valid and reliable assessment of bilingual children's language skills needs to consider the characteristics of all languages spoken, obtaining accurate information on language use over time and accurately establishing language dominance is essential in order to make a

  15. International benchmark tests of the FENDL-1 Nuclear Data Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1997-01-01

    An international benchmark validation task has been conducted to validate the fusion evaluated nuclear data library FENDL-1 through data tests against integral 14 MeV neutron experiments. The main objective of this task was to qualify the FENDL-1 working libraries for fusion applications and to elaborate recommendations for further data improvements. Several laboratories and institutions from the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and US have contributed to the benchmark task. A large variety of existing integral 14 MeV benchmark experiments was analysed with the FENDL-1 working libraries for continuous energy Monte Carlo and multigroup discrete ordinate calculations. Results of the benchmark analyses have been collected, discussed and evaluated. The major findings, conclusions and recommendations are presented in this paper. With regard to the data quality, it is summarised that fusion nuclear data have reached a high confidence level with the available FENDL-1 data library. With few exceptions this holds for the materials of highest importance for fusion reactor applications. As a result of the performed benchmark analyses, some existing deficiencies and discrepancies have been identified that are recommended for removal in theforthcoming FENDL-2 data file. (orig.)

  16. Neutron activation analysis method - international ring test for proficiency assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbos, D.; Bucsa, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this test is to assess the quality control of analytical procedures for soils and plants which is of utmost importance to produce reliable and reproducible analytical data. For this purpose first, second, and third line quality control measures are taken in analytical laboratories. For first line control certified reference materials (CRM's) are preferred. However, the number and matrix variation in CRM's for environmental analytical research is still very limited. For second line control internal reference samples are often used, but again here the values for many element and parameter concentrations are questionable since almost no check versus CRM's is possible. For third line control participation in laboratory-evaluating exchange programs is recommended. This article contains the results achieved by our neutron activation analysis laboratory after irradiation experiment of soil and vegetation samples in TRIGA Reactor. All the samples were irradiated in the same location of the reactor in roughly similar conditions. (authors)

  17. Test Review: Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM]--Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT[R])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, J. Charles

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the TOEFL iBT which is the latest version of the TOEFL, whose history stretches back to 1961. The TOEFL iBT was introduced in the USA, Canada, France, Germany and Italy in late 2005. Currently the TOEFL test is offered in two testing formats: (1) Internet-based testing (iBT); and (2) paper-based testing (PBT).…

  18. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  19. How appropriate are the English language test requirements for non-UK-trained nurses? A qualitative study of spoken communication in UK hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Carole; Garner, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Non-native speakers of English who hold nursing qualifications from outside the UK are required to provide evidence of English language competence by achieving a minimum overall score of Band 7 on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) academic test. To describe the English language required to deal with the daily demands of nursing in the UK. To compare these abilities with the stipulated levels on the language test. A tracking study was conducted with 4 nurses, and focus groups with 11 further nurses. The transcripts of the interviews and focus groups were analysed thematically for recurrent themes. These findings were then compared with the requirements of the IELTS spoken test. The study was conducted outside the participants' working shifts in busy London hospitals. The participants in the tracking study were selected opportunistically;all were trained in non-English speaking countries. Snowball sampling was used for the focus groups, of whom 4 were non-native and 7 native speakers of English. In the tracking study, each of the 4 nurses was interviewed on four occasions, outside the workplace, and as close to the end of a shift as possible. They were asked to recount their spoken interactions during the course of their shift. The participants in the focus groups were asked to describe their typical interactions with patients, family members, doctors, and nursing colleagues. They were prompted to recall specific instances of frequently-occurring communication problems. All interactions were audio-recorded, with the participants' permission,and transcribed. Nurses are at the centre of communication for patient care. They have to use appropriate registers to communicate with a range of health professionals, patients and their families. They must elicit information, calm and reassure, instruct, check procedures, ask for and give opinions,agree and disagree. Politeness strategies are needed to avoid threats to face. They participate in medical

  20. How much exposure to English is necessary for a bilingual toddler to perform like a monolingual peer in language tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Allegra; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Farag, Rafalla; Krott, Andrea; Arreckx, Frédérique; Dennis, Ian; Floccia, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    Bilingual children are under-referred due to an ostensible expectation that they lag behind their monolingual peers in their English acquisition. The recommendations of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) state that bilingual children should be assessed in both the languages known by the children. However, despite these recommendations, a majority of speech and language professionals report that they assess bilingual children only in English as bilingual children come from a wide array of language backgrounds and standardized language measures are not available for the majority of these. Moreover, even when such measures do exist, they are not tailored for bilingual children. It was asked whether a cut-off exists in the proportion of exposure to English at which one should expect a bilingual toddler to perform as well as a monolingual on a test standardized for monolingual English-speaking children. Thirty-five bilingual 2;6-year-olds exposed to British English plus an additional language and 36 British monolingual toddlers were assessed on the auditory component of the Preschool Language Scale, British Picture Vocabulary Scale and an object-naming measure. All parents completed the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (Oxford CDI) and an exposure questionnaire that assessed the proportion of English in the language input. Where the CDI existed in the bilingual's additional language, these data were also collected. Hierarchical regression analyses found the proportion of exposure to English to be the main predictor of the performance of bilingual toddlers. Bilingual toddlers who received 60% exposure to English or more performed like their monolingual peers on all measures. K-means cluster analyses and Levene variance tests confirmed the estimated English exposure cut-off at 60% for all language measures. Finally, for one additional language for which we had multiple participants, additional language CDI production scores were

  1. Is functional MR imaging assessment of hemispheric language dominance as good as the Wada test?: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dym, R Joshua; Burns, Judah; Freeman, Katherine; Lipton, Michael L

    2011-11-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging lateralization of language function in comparison with the Wada test. This study was determined to be exempt from review by the institutional review board. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A structured Medline search was conducted to identify all studies that compared functional MR imaging with the Wada test for determining hemispheric language dominance prior to brain surgery. Studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria were selected independently by two radiologists who also assessed their quality using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Language dominance was classified as typical (left hemispheric language dominance) or atypical (right hemispheric language dominance or bilateral language representation) for each patient. A meta-analysis was then performed by using a bivariate random-effects model to derive estimates of sensitivity and specificity, with Wada as the standard of reference. Subgroup analyses were also performed to compare the different functional MR imaging techniques utilized by the studies. Twenty-three studies, comprising 442 patients, met inclusion criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of functional MR imaging for atypical language dominance (compared with the Wada test) were 83.5% (95% confidence interval: 80.2%, 86.7%) and 88.1% (95% confidence interval: 87.0%, 89.2%), respectively. Functional MR imaging provides an excellent, noninvasive alternative for language lateralization and should be considered for the initial preoperative assessment of hemispheric language dominance. Further research may help determine which functional MR methods are most accurate for specific patient populations. RSNA, 2011

  2. Disassociating Maturation and Language Development: Evidence from Internationally Adopted and Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geren, Joy Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Typically language development in children closely coincides with development in many other areas. This makes it difficult to determine whether observed correlations are coincidental or causal in nature. The three studies presented here explore these relationships by looking at two populations of learners who are delayed in exposure to English,…

  3. 77 FR 28582 - Applications for New Awards; Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language (UISFL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ..., Yoruba, and Zulu. Note: The Secretary developed this list of languages in accordance with section 601(c... tribes. Note: The regulations in 34 CFR part 86 apply to IHEs only. II. Award Information Type of Award... applicant or grantee is not financially stable; has a history of unsatisfactory performance; has a financial...

  4. Effects of age, gender, education and race on two tests of language ability in community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitz, Beth E; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Bilt, Joni Vander; Gao, Sujuan; Saxton, Judith; Hall, Kathleen S; Ganguli, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Neuropsychological tests, including tests of language ability, are frequently used to differentiate normal from pathological cognitive aging. However, language can be particularly difficult to assess in a standardized manner in cross-cultural studies and in patients from different educational and cultural backgrounds. This study examined the effects of age, gender, education and race on performance of two language tests: the animal fluency task (AFT) and the Indiana University Token Test (IUTT). We report population-based normative data on these tests from two combined ethnically divergent, cognitively normal, representative population samples of older adults. Participants aged > or =65 years from the Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team (MYHAT) and from the Indianapolis Study of Health and Aging (ISHA) were selected based on (1) a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0; (2) non-missing baseline language test data; and (3) race self-reported as African-American or white. The combined sample (n = 1885) was 28.1% African-American. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was used to model the effects of demographic characteristics on test scores. On both language tests, better performance was significantly associated with higher education, younger age, and white race. On the IUTT, better performance was also associated with female gender. We found no significant interactions between age and sex, and between race and education. Age and education are more potent variables than are race and gender influencing performance on these language tests. Demographically stratified normative tables for these measures can be used to guide test interpretation and aid clinical diagnosis of impaired cognition.

  5. International Tests and the U.S. Educational Reforms: Can Success Be Replicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Guliz

    2013-01-01

    The ranking of the United States in major international tests such as the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is used as the driving force and rationale for the current educational reforms in the United…

  6. Space-Based Reconfigurable Software Defined Radio Test Bed Aboard International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Lux, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) recently launched a new software defined radio research test bed to the International Space Station. The test bed, sponsored by the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office within NASA is referred to as the SCaN Testbed. The SCaN Testbed is a highly capable communications system, composed of three software defined radios, integrated into a flight system, and mounted to the truss of the International Space Station. Software defined radios offer the future promise of in-flight reconfigurability, autonomy, and eventually cognitive operation. The adoption of software defined radios offers space missions a new way to develop and operate space transceivers for communications and navigation. Reconfigurable or software defined radios with communications and navigation functions implemented in software or VHDL (Very High Speed Hardware Description Language) provide the capability to change the functionality of the radio during development or after launch. The ability to change the operating characteristics of a radio through software once deployed to space offers the flexibility to adapt to new science opportunities, recover from anomalies within the science payload or communication system, and potentially reduce development cost and risk by adapting generic space platforms to meet specific mission requirements. The software defined radios on the SCaN Testbed are each compliant to NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. The STRS Architecture is an open, non-proprietary architecture that defines interfaces for the connections between radio components. It provides an operating environment to abstract the communication waveform application from the underlying platform specific hardware such as digital-to-analog converters, analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, RF attenuators, automatic gain control circuits, FPGAs, general-purpose processors, etc. and the interconnections among

  7. International Semiotics: Item Difficulty and the Complexity of Science Item Illustrations in the PISA-2009 International Test Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Shade, Chelsey

    2016-01-01

    We examined multimodality (the representation of information in multiple semiotic modes) in the context of international test comparisons. Using Program of International Student Assessment (PISA)-2009 data, we examined the correlation of the difficulty of science items and the complexity of their illustrations. We observed statistically…

  8. Stability tests of the Westinghouse coil in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Fehling, D.T.; Lubell, M.S.; Lue, J.W.; Luton, J.N.; McManamy, T.J.; Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

    1987-09-01

    The Westinghouse coil is one of three forced-flow coils in the six-coil toroidal array of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is wound with an 18-kA, Nb 3 Sn/Cu, cable-in-conduit superconductor structurally supported by aluminum plates and cooled by 4-K, 15-atm supercritical helium. The coil is instrumented to permit measurement of helium temperature, pressure, and flow rate; structure temperature and strain; field; and normal zone voltage. A resistive heater has been installed to simulate nuclear heating, and inductive heaters have been installed to facilitate stability testing. The coil has been tested both individually and in the six-coil array. The tests covered charging to full design current and field, measuring the current-sharing threshold temperature using the resistive heaters, and measuring the stability margin using the pulsed inductive heaters. At least one section of the conductor exhibits a very broad resistive transition (resistive transition index = 4). The broad transition, though causing the appearance of voltage at relatively low temperatures, does not compromise the stability margin of the coil, which was greater than 1.1 J/cm 3 of strands. In another, nonresistive location, the stability margin was between 1.7 and 1.9 J/cm 3 of strands. The coil is completely stable in operation at 100% design current in both the single- and six-coil modes

  9. Proceedings 10th International Workshop on the Foundations of Coordination Languages and Software Architectures (FOCLASA 2011, Aachen, Germany, September 10, 2011)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Ravara, A.

    2011-01-01

    Welcome to the proceedings of FOCLASA 2011, the 10th International Workshop on the Foundations of Coordination Languages and Software Architectures. FOCLASA 2011 was held in Aachen, Germany on September 10th, 2011 as a satellite event of CONCUR 2011, the 22nd International Conference on Concurrency

  10. Some Thoughts about a New International Geography Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schee, Joop; Notte, Henk; Zwartjes, Luc

    2010-01-01

    An important question for geography teachers all over the world is how to define, stimulate and test geographic literacy. Although modern technology is no guarantee of quality, it offers new possibilities for teaching and testing, as can be seen in contemporary geography learning/teaching units using digital maps and interactive tests. Tests such…

  11. Children's Foreign Language Anxiety Scale: Preliminary Tests of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami; Harputlu, Leyla; Güzel, Serhat; Ustuk, Özgehan; Savran Çelik, Seyda; Genç, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety (FLA), which constitutes a serious problem in the foreign language learning process, has been mainly seen as a research issue regarding adult language learners, while it has been overlooked in children. This is because there is no an appropriate tool to measure FLA among children, whereas there are many studies on the…

  12. Determination of hemisphere dominance for language: comparison of frontal and temporal fMRI activation with intracarotid amytal testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spreer, J.; Arnold, S.; Ziyeh, S.; Klisch, J.; Schumacher, M.; Quiske, A.; Altenmueller, D.; Schulze-Bonhage, A.; Wohlfarth, R.; Steinhoff, B.J.; Herpers, M.; Kassubek, J.; Honegger, J.

    2002-01-01

    The reliability of frontal and temporal fMRI activations for the determination of hemisphere language dominance was evaluated in comparison with intracarotid amytal testing (IAT). Twenty-two patients were studied by IAT (bilateral in 13, unilateral in 9 patients) and fMRI using a paradigm requiring semantic decisions. Global and regional (frontal and temporoparietal) lateralisation indices (LI) were calculated from the number of activated (r>0.4) voxels in both hemispheres. Frontolateral activations associated with the language task were seen in all patients, temporoparietal activations in 20 of 22. Regional LI corresponded better with IAT results than global LI. Frontolateral LI were consistent with IAT in all patients with bilateral IAT (including three patients with right dominant and one patient with bilateral language representation) and were not conflicting in any of the patients with unilateral IAT. Temporoparietal LI were discordant with IAT in two patients with atypical language representation. In the determination of hemisphere dominance for language, regional analysis of fMRI activation is superior to global analysis. In cases with clear-cut fMRI lateralisation, i.e. consistent lateralised activation of frontal and temporoparietal language zones, IAT may be unnecessary. FMRI should be performed prior to IAT in all patients going to be operated in brain regions potentially involved in language. (orig.)

  13. Strategies to Address English Language Writing Challenges Faced by International Graduate Students in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Swathi; Kretovics, Mark; Kirby, Kara; Ghosh, Ankita

    2017-01-01

    Since 2000, there has been a 72% increase in the number of international students attending US institutions of higher education. The increase, specifically of international graduate students, has brought to light the writing challenges experienced by this population of students. This study explored specific writing challenges experienced by…

  14. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  15. How Do Chinese ESL Learners Recognize English Words during a Reading Test? A Comparison with Romance-Language-Speaking ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how Chinese ESL learners recognize English words while responding to a multiple-choice reading test as compared to Romance-language-speaking ESL learners. Four adult Chinese ESL learners and three adult Romance-language-speaking ESL learners participated in a think-aloud study with the Michigan English Language Assessment…

  16. ISO 9000: New Form of Protectionism or Common Language in International Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Clougherty, Joseph A.; Grajek, Michał

    2009-01-01

    International standards have the potential to both promote and hinder international trade. Yet empirical scholarship on the standards-trade relationship has been held up due to some methodological challenges: measurement problems, varied effects, and endogeneity concerns. We are able to surmount these challenges while considering the impact of one particular standard on the country-pair trade flows between 91 nations over the 1995-2005 period. To deal with these challenges, we measure the deg...

  17. The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental

  18. Comparison of the Reynell Developmental Language Scale II and the Galker test of word-recognition-in-noise in Danish day-care children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Glenn Lauritsen, Maj Britt

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To search for predictive factors for language development measured by two receptive language tests for children, the Galker test (a word-recognition-in-noise test) testing hearing and vocabulary, and the Danish version of Reynell Developmental Language Scale (2nd revision, RDLS II) test...... in terms of the degree to which variables were able to predict test scores at the age of three to five years. Methods: All children aged three and five years attending 20 day-care centres for children without cognitive development issues from the Municipality of Hillerød, Denmark, were invited......, a language comprehension test. The study analysed if information about background variables and parents and pre-school teachers was predictive for test scores; if earlier middle ear disease, actual hearing loss and tympanometry was important for language development; and if the two receptive tests differed...

  19. Internal mechanisms underlying anticipatory language processing: Evidence from event-related-potentials and neural oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yuping; Xia, Jinyan; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2017-07-28

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the language processing system can predict upcoming content during comprehension, there is still no clear picture of the anticipatory stage of predictive processing. This electroencephalograph study examined the cognitive and neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying anticipatory processing during language comprehension, and the consequences of this prediction for bottom-up processing of predicted/unpredicted content. Participants read Mandarin Chinese sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining and that contained critical nouns that were congruent or incongruent with the sentence contexts. We examined the effects of semantic predictability on anticipatory processing prior to the onset of the critical nouns and on integration of the critical nouns. The results revealed that, at the integration stage, the strong-constraint condition (compared to the weak-constraint condition) elicited a reduced N400 and reduced theta activity (4-7Hz) for the congruent nouns, but induced beta (13-18Hz) and theta (4-7Hz) power decreases for the incongruent nouns, indicating benefits of confirmed predictions and potential costs of disconfirmed predictions. More importantly, at the anticipatory stage, the strongly constraining context elicited an enhanced sustained anterior negativity and beta power decrease (19-25Hz), which indicates that strong prediction places a higher processing load on the anticipatory stage of processing. The differences (in the ease of processing and the underlying neural oscillatory activities) between anticipatory and integration stages of lexical processing were discussed with regard to predictive processing models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Status Report on Laboratory Testing and International Collaborations in Salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mills, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kirkes, Leslie Dawn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Xiong, Yongliang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Icenhower, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report is a summary of the international collaboration and laboratory work funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Spent Fuel and Waste Science & Technology (SFWST) as part of the Sandia National Laboratories Salt R&D work package. This report satisfies milestone levelfour milestone M4SF-17SN010303014. Several stand-alone sections make up this summary report, each completed by the participants. The first two sections discuss international collaborations on geomechanical benchmarking exercises (WEIMOS) and bedded salt investigations (KOSINA), while the last three sections discuss laboratory work conducted on brucite solubility in brine, dissolution of borosilicate glass into brine, and partitioning of fission products into salt phases.

  1. Combined development of international nuclear fusion test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Ambassadors of the four most important partners (Common Market, Japan, USA and USSR) in the IAEA sponsored INTOR project, met on the 15 and 16 March 1987 in Vienna under the auspices of the IAEA. A press release was issued acknowledging the considerable technical progress made in magnetic nuclear fusion research. Future design concepts, assistance in research and development work and other activities towards the provision of an international experimental thermonuclear reactor were discussed. (G.T.H.)

  2. Some thoughts about a new international geography test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, J.A.; Notté, H.; Zwartjes, L.

    2010-01-01

    An important question for geography teachers all over the world is how to define, stimulate and test geographic literacy. Although modern technology is no guarantee of quality, it offers new possibilities for teaching and testing, as can be seen in contemporary geography learning/teaching units

  3. First International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    utilities to exchange knowledge, discuss experiences, and identify needs in wind power grid compliance , multi-megawatt power electronic grid simulator systems capable of many types of grid compliance testing renewable energy technologies. Knowledge from the workshop will help guide the research and testing

  4. Reducing the Language Content in ToM Tests: A Developmental Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnel, Morgane; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Reboul, Anne; Baciu, Monica; Durrleman, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to statistically evaluate the reliable scalability of a set of tasks designed to assess Theory of Mind (ToM) without language as a confounding variable. This tool might be useful to study ToM in populations where language is impaired or to study links between language and ToM. Low verbal versions of the ToM tasks…

  5. Local chatter or international buzz? Language differences on posts about Zika research on Twitter and Facebook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Barata

    Full Text Available When the Zika virus outbreak became a global health emergency in early 2016, the scientific community responded with an increased output of Zika-related research. This upsurge in research naturally made its way into academic journals along with editorials, news, and reports. However, it is not yet known how or whether these scholarly communications were distributed to the populations most affected by Zika.To understand how scientific outputs about Zika reached global and local audiences, we collected Tweets and Facebook posts that linked to Zika-related research in the first six months of 2016. Using a language detection algorithm, we found that up to 90% of Twitter and 76% of Facebook posts are in English. However, when none of the authors of the scholarly article are from English-speaking countries, posts on both social media are less likely to be in English. The effect is most pronounced on Facebook, where the likelihood of posting in English is between 11 and 16% lower when none of the authors are from English-speaking countries, as compared to when some or all are. Similarly, posts about papers written with a Brazilian author are 13% more likely to be in Portuguese on Facebook than when made on Twitter.Our main conclusion is that scholarly communication on Twitter and Facebook of Zika-related research is dominated by English, despite Brazil being the epicenter of the Zika epidemic. This result suggests that scholarly findings about the Zika virus are unlikely to be distributed directly to relevant populations through these popular online mediums. Nevertheless, there are differences between platforms. Compared to Twitter, scholarly communication on Facebook is more likely to be in the language of an author's country. The Zika outbreak provides a useful case-study for understanding how scientific outputs are communicated to relevant populations. Our results suggest that Facebook is a more effective channel than Twitter, if communication is

  6. Local chatter or international buzz? Language differences on posts about Zika research on Twitter and Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Germana; Shores, Kenneth; Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2018-01-01

    When the Zika virus outbreak became a global health emergency in early 2016, the scientific community responded with an increased output of Zika-related research. This upsurge in research naturally made its way into academic journals along with editorials, news, and reports. However, it is not yet known how or whether these scholarly communications were distributed to the populations most affected by Zika. To understand how scientific outputs about Zika reached global and local audiences, we collected Tweets and Facebook posts that linked to Zika-related research in the first six months of 2016. Using a language detection algorithm, we found that up to 90% of Twitter and 76% of Facebook posts are in English. However, when none of the authors of the scholarly article are from English-speaking countries, posts on both social media are less likely to be in English. The effect is most pronounced on Facebook, where the likelihood of posting in English is between 11 and 16% lower when none of the authors are from English-speaking countries, as compared to when some or all are. Similarly, posts about papers written with a Brazilian author are 13% more likely to be in Portuguese on Facebook than when made on Twitter. Our main conclusion is that scholarly communication on Twitter and Facebook of Zika-related research is dominated by English, despite Brazil being the epicenter of the Zika epidemic. This result suggests that scholarly findings about the Zika virus are unlikely to be distributed directly to relevant populations through these popular online mediums. Nevertheless, there are differences between platforms. Compared to Twitter, scholarly communication on Facebook is more likely to be in the language of an author's country. The Zika outbreak provides a useful case-study for understanding how scientific outputs are communicated to relevant populations. Our results suggest that Facebook is a more effective channel than Twitter, if communication is desired to be in the

  7. Foreign Branding: Examining the Relationship between Language and International Brand Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Olavarrieta Soto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-American markets, the choice of foreign brand names is very popular in a variety of product classes. We investigate this phenomenon extending LeClerc et al. (1989, 1994 original work on foreign branding effects in the context of a developing Latin American country, such as Chile. In this paper, we have used two foreign languages, French and English and a different home-country language– Spanish–, thus extending the original US-based study. In general, results are consistent with those of studies conducted by LeClerc et al. However, in the case of Chile, foreign branding, in particular English branding, generates better results across all product categories (hedonic, hybrid, and functional.

  8. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing, CSLP 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , and the Programming, Logic and Intelligent Systems Research Group & the Department of Communication, Business and Information Technologies, Roskilde University, Denmark. Finally we dedicate this volume to Peter Rossen Skadhauge, who sadly and unexpectedly passed away last year. He has been a member of the program...... our invited speaker, Annelies Braffort, who will talk on the modelling of spatio-temporal constraints in sign language processing. We will also express a special thanks to Barbara Hemforth who accepted to send us a late paper which emphasizes the importance of the psycholinguistic dimension...... in this research. This volume contains papers accepted for the workshop based on an open call, and each paper has been reviewed by three or four members of the program committee. As editors, we would also like to thank the other members of the organization committee, Philippe Blache and Veronica Dahl, whose...

  9. "So They're Actually Real?" Integrating E-Tandem Learning into the Study of Language for International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sudhershan, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Tandem learning involves learners with complementary target and native languages communicating for the purpose of learning each other's languages and cultures. Studies indicate that it can function as a powerful complement to formal language learning classes with regard to the development of both language proficiency and cultural intelligence.…

  10. Narrative Competence and "Internal State Language" of Children with Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Anna-Lena; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Becker, Katja; Kauschke, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The central question of the present study was whether there are differences between children with Asperger Syndrome (AS), children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls (HC) with respect to the organization of narratives and their verbalization of internal states. Oral narrations of a wordless picture book…

  11. Following international trends while subject to past traditions: neuropsychological test use in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Jens; Løvstad, Marianne; Norup, Anne; Nybo, Taina; Persson, Bengt A; Rivera, Diego Fernando; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the neuropsychological test traditions of the four Nordic countries have spanned from the flexible and qualitative tradition of Luria-Christensen to the quantitative large battery approach of Halstead and Kløve-Matthews. This study reports current test use and discusses whether these traditions still influence attitudes toward test use and choice of tests. The study is based on survey data from 702 Nordic neuropsychologists. The average participant used 9 tests in a standard assessment, and 25 tests overall in their practice. Test use was moderated by nationality, competence level, practice profile, and by attitude toward test selection. Participants who chose their tests flexibly used fewer tests than those adhering to the flexible battery approach, but had fewer tests from which to choose. Testing patients with psychiatric disorders was associated with using more tests. IQ, memory, attention, and executive function were the domains with the largest utilization rate, while tests of motor, visual/spatial, and language were used by few. There is a lack of academic achievement tests. Screening tests played a minor role in specialized assessments, and symptom validity tests were seldom applied on a standard basis. Most tests were of Anglo-American origin. New test methods are implemented rapidly in the Nordic countries, but test selection is also characterized by the dominating position of established and much researched tests. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria traditions are currently weak, but national differences in size of test batteries seem to be influenced by these longstanding traditions.

  12. Cross-Language Translation Priming Asymmetry with Chinese-English Bilinguals: A Test of the Sense Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Zhou, Huixia; Gao, Yiwen; Dunlap, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the Sense Model of cross-linguistic masked translation priming asymmetry, proposed by Finkbeiner et al. ("J Mem Lang" 51:1-22, 2004), by manipulating the number of senses that bilingual participants associated with words from both languages. Three lexical decision experiments were conducted with…

  13. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Language Version of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Susan M.; Lowe, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study details the development and validation of a Spanish language version of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA) for elementary and secondary students. In this study, the TAICA was adapted and administered to a sample of 197 students, 87 males and 110 females, aged 9 to 19 years, in Grades 4 to 12. Results of an…

  14. One More Reason to Learn a New Language: Testing Academic Self-Efficacy Transfer at Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K.; Oga-Baldwin, W. L. Quint

    2017-01-01

    Self-efficacy is an essential source of motivation for learning. While considerable research has theorised and examined the how and why of self-efficacy in a single domain of study, longitudinal research has not yet tested how self-efficacy might generalise or transfer between subjects such as mathematics, native and foreign language studies. The…

  15. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  16. Forty Years of Doing Second Language Testing, Curriculum, and Research: So What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    2017-01-01

    I started out as a budding English as a second language (ESL) teacher in 1976 at UCLA where I went through the M.A. TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) and Applied Linguistics Ph.D. programs. Sadly, those two programs were "disestablished" in 2014, which provides a stark lesson to any departments that think they are hot stuff…

  17. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  18. Seeking a Valid Gold Standard for an Innovative, Dialect-Neutral Language Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Jackson, Janice E.; Wu, Haotian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored alternative gold standards to validate an innovative, dialect-neutral language assessment. Method: Participants were 78 African American children, ages 5;0 (years;months) to 6;11. Twenty participants had previously been identified as having language impairment. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Language…

  19. [Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, Manfred; Renner, Gerolf

    2015-01-01

    Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities? A review of 23 German intelligence test manuals shows that test-authors do not exclude the use of their tests for children with disabilities. However, these special groups play a minor role in the construction, standardization, and validation of intelligence tests. There is no sufficient discussion and reflection concerning the issue which construct-irrelevant requirements may reduce the validity of the test or which individual test-adaptations are allowed or recommended. Intelligence testing of children with disabilities needs more empirical evidence on objectivity, reliability, and validity of the assessment-procedures employed. Future test construction and validation should systematically analyze construct-irrelevant variance in item format, the special needs of handicapped children, and should give hints for useful test-adaptations.

  20. A Survey of International Practice in University Admissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel; Coates, Hamish; Friedman, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how admissions tests are used in different higher education systems around the world. This is a relatively new area of research, despite the fact that admissions processes are a key component of university practices and given the ever increasing globalisation of higher education. This paper shows that aptitude and achievement…

  1. Shifting Attitudes toward Teaching Culture within the Framework of English as an International Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guerra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the cultural dimensions of EIL, which are analysed based on the following domains: (a subjects’ attitudes toward teaching about specific cultures (native and non-native; and (b subjects’ attitudes toward teaching about culture in general. In essence, a view of culture based on native cultures can emerge from three different approaches: it may promote British culture only, it may focus on both the UK and the US, or it may incorporate other English native cultures. Likewise, a more international viewpoint can also be offered from three perspectives: it may refer to ESL contexts only, it may present both ESL and EFL communities – including the local culture – or it may introduce international aspects not specific to any culture. However, the analysis of data in this study indicates that the subjects’ attitudes toward teaching culture do not usually correspond to just one of these perspectives; rather, teachers display a manifold set of beliefs which may at times be closer or more distant to an international approach to teaching culture.

  2. Global, National, and Local Goals: English Language Policy Implementation in an Indonesian International Standard School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was found that the students’ demographic profile, attitude toward English and grades in math and science subjects were significantly related with their academic achievement. However, students’ perception on methods and techniques was not significantly related with their academic achievement in English, math, and the science subjects. The result showed that the implementation of English as a medium of instruction was not done well in the international standard school. This is perhaps due to the difficulty of learning science and math in English. This study provided information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. The challenges of attempting too ambitious linguistic and academic goals in the school were discussed as were policy implications and future research.

  3. Appraising Pre-service EFL Teachers' Assessment in Language Testing Course Using Revised Bloom's Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The teachers need to be conceived as a “change agent” and not as a mere transmitter of knowledge and culture. In developing countries like Iran, one of the most significant concerns in the field of teachers’ education is efficiency of pre-service programs. To this aim, the current descriptive-evaluative study intended to describe the state of pre-service teachers' assessment in the field of language testing by (a examining the exam questions to find out whether they are aligned with curriculum objectives and syllabus (content validity, (b exploring whether they take care of higher order cognitive processes and (c finding what combinations of cognitive process levels and knowledge types in Revised Bloom's Taxonomy are prevalent in the questions. The results exhibited an unbalanced coverage of content in exams. Also the questions were found to be inadequate in terms of measuring complex cognitive skills (Analyze and Evaluate; Remember and Understand domains take up 91.6 % of all questions and no item was found for Create. Three combinations of cognitive process level and knowledge type was dominant in the data set: (1 Remember Factual Knowledge, (2 Understand Conceptual Knowledge, and (3 Apply Procedural Knowledge. These associations confirm the Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001 proposition.

  4. First International Conference on Ada (R) Programming Language Applications for the NASA Space Station, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Rodney L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics discussed include: test and verification; environment issues; distributed Ada issues; life cycle issues; Ada in Europe; management/training issues; common Ada interface set; and run time issues.

  5. Manifestations of Globalization and Linguistic Imperialism in English Language Teaching and Materials Preparation: Ideology in the International ELT Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Kazemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate the imposition of values and ideological patterns of particular societies affecting learners' identity as a result of globalization and linguistic imperialism in the internationally distributed textbooks which are developed to meet the English language needs of international learners and are broadly used in Islamic countries like Iran. It was important to work out whether violation of standards and ideological patterns of certain societies could be detected. For that reason, critical discourse analysis (CDA with its theory and procedures, as developed by Fairclough (1989, used in conversations, illustrations and reading passages in Interchange, Four Corners, Top Notch and American English File series and three meaning dimensions– the textbooks content, the social relations of the characters in the textbooks, and their subject positions– were classified and analyzed statistically. Overall, the findings of this study represented that these ELT books are by some means unfair and inclined to signify a specific discourse type, that is, the Western culture discourse, ideological patterns, and consumer societies, which can impose the Western view and have different effects on students' identity in Islamic countries.

  6. Attitudine Linguistica e Memoria. Alcune Considerazioni sul MLAT. (Modern Language Aptitude Test). (Linguistic Aptitude and Memory. Some Considerations on the MLAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, Antonella

    1982-01-01

    Examines the Modern Language Aptitude Test and identifies as the lowest common denominator in three of its four parts an individual's short-term Memory capability. Concludes that this test cannot indicate an individual's linguistic aptitude because it does not take into consideration the role of two key aspects of language learning: long-term…

  7. Effects of International Student Counselors' Broaching Statements about Cultural and Language Differences on Participants' Perceptions of the Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gahee; Mallinckrodt, Brent; Richardson, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduates (N = 135) evaluated 1 of 4 simulated 1st counseling sessions. Two international counselors (Canadian and Korean) alternated between making or not making broaching statements about their language and cultural differences. Significant main effects for counselor nationality and interaction effects between counselor nationality and…

  8. Understanding Legitimate Teacher Authority in a Cross-Cultural Teaching Context: Pre-Service Chinese Language Teachers Undertaking Teaching Practicum in International Schools in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Gu, Mingyue; Hu, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Legitimate teacher authority is fundamental to effective teaching, but is often a thorny issue that teachers need to grapple with when teaching in cross-cultural teaching contexts. By interviewing 18 pre-service Chinese language teachers on their understanding of legitimate teacher authority throughout teaching practicum at international schools…

  9. “Stories from No-Man’s Land?” Situated language learning through the use of role models in the context of international Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the value of role models in the language acquisition process of international students following an English as Medium of Instruction (EMI) programme in the Netherlands. Narrative interpretations of qualitative data provide insights into the identity work involved in the use of

  10. Exploring Perception and Use of Everyday Language and Medical Terminology among International Medical Graduates in a Medical ESP Course in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Maria R.

    2011-01-01

    Language and communication skills are among the greatest challenges that non-native-English speaking international medical graduates (IMGs) face in English medical consultations. Especially when patients use unfamiliar everyday expressions or attach different meanings to medical terminology, the communicative burden on doctor-patient communication…

  11. The Role of English Language and International Media as Agents of Cultural Globalisation and Their Impact on Identity Formation in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanen, Mohammed M.; Al-Kandari, Ali A.; Al-Sharoufi, Hussain

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of English language usage and international media on the strength of either national or global identity. The regression analysis of 354 responses reveals that individuals who studied at universities that use English as a medium of instruction show significant differences in the extent to which they embrace a…

  12. Film and Language Learning in Victorian Schools: A Study of the 2009 Next Gen Program of the "Melbourne International Film Festival"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bianco, Hana

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the role of film in language education based on a study of the 2009 "Melbourne International Film Festival" (MIFF). It is structured around a literature review and results from surveys of students and teachers who participated in the young people's section of the program, Next Gen. The article argues that film…

  13. Investigating the Relationship between Test-Taker Background Characteristics and Test Performance in a Heterogeneous English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) Test Population: A Factor Analytic Approach. Research Report. ETS RR-15-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Venessa F.; Yoo, Hanwook

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the heterogeneity in the English-as-a-second-language (ESL) test population by modeling the relationship between test-taker background characteristics and test performance as measured by the "TOEFL iBT"® using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with covariate approach. The background characteristics studied…

  14. Diagnostic validity Polish language version of the questionnaire MINI-KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview for Children and Adolescent).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowska, Sylwia; Sylwia, Adamowska; Adamowski, Tomasz; Tomasz, Adamowski; Frydecka, Dorota; Dorota, Frydecka; Kiejna, Andrzej; Andrzej, Kiejna

    2014-10-01

    Since over forty years structuralized interviews for clinical and epidemiological research in child and adolescent psychiatry are being developed that should increase validity and reliability of diagnoses according to classification systems (DSM and ICD). The aim of the study is to assess the validity of the Polish version of MINI-KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents) in comparison to clinical diagnosis made by a specialist in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. There were 140 patients included in the study (93 boys, 66.4%, mean age 11.8±3.0 and 47 girls 33.5%, mean age 14.0±2.9). All the patients were diagnosed by the specialist in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry according to ICD-10 criteria and by the independent interviewer with the Polish version of MINI-KID (version 2.0, 2001). There was higher agreement between clinical diagnoses and diagnoses based on MINI-KID interview with respect to eating disorders and externalizing disorders (κ 0.43-0.56) and lower in internalizing disorders (κ 0.13-0.45). In the clinical interview, there was smaller number of diagnostic categories (maximum 3 diagnoses per one patient) in comparison to MINI-KID (maximum 10 diagnoses per one patient), and the smaller percentage of patients with one diagnosis (65,7%) in comparison to MINI-KID interview (72%). Our study has shown satisfactory validity parameters of MINI-KID questionnaire, promoting its use for clinical and epidemiological settings. The Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview for Children and Adolescent (MINI-KID) is the first structuralized diagnostic interview for assessing mental status in children and adolescents, which has been translated into Polish language. Our validation study demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties of the questionnaire, enabling its use in clinical practice and in research projects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. First-language raters’ opinions when validating word recordings for a newly developed speech reception threshold test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Panday

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to consider the value of adding first-language speaker ratings to the process of validating word recordings for use in a new speech reception threshold (SRT test in audiology. Previous studies had identified 28 word recordings as being suitable for use in a new SRT test. These word recordings had been shown to satisfy the linguistic criteria of familiarity, phonetic dissimilarity and tone, and the psychometric criterion of homogeneity of audibility.   Objectives: The aim of the study was to consider the value of adding first-language speakers’ ratings when validating word recordings for a new SRT test.   Method: A single observation, cross-sectional design was used to collect and analyse quantitative data in this study. Eleven first-language isiZulu speakers, purposively selected, were asked to rate each of the word recordings for pitch, clarity, naturalness, speech rate and quality on a 5-point Likert scale. The percent agreement and Friedman test were used for analysis.   Results: More than 20% of these 11 participants rated the three-word recordings below ‘strongly agree’ in the category of pitch or tone, and one-word recording below ‘strongly agree’ in the categories of pitch or tone, clarity or articulation and naturalness or dialect.   Conclusion: The first-language speaker ratings proved to be a valuable addition to the process of selecting word recordings for use in a new SRT test. In particular, these ratings identified potentially problematic word recordings in the new SRT test that had been missed by the previously and more commonly used linguistic and psychometric selection criteria.

  16. First-language raters' opinions when validating word recordings for a newly developed speech reception threshold test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Seema; Kathard, Harsha; Pillay, Mershen; Wilson, Wayne

    2018-03-29

     The purpose of this study was to consider the value of adding first-language speaker ratings to the process of validating word recordings for use in a new speech reception threshold (SRT) test in audiology. Previous studies had identified 28 word recordings as being suitable for use in a new SRT test. These word recordings had been shown to satisfy the linguistic criteria of familiarity, phonetic dissimilarity and tone, and the psychometric criterion of homogeneity of audibility. Objectives: The aim of the study was to consider the value of adding first-language speakers' ratings when validating word recordings for a new SRT test. Method: A single observation, cross-sectional design was used to collect and analyse quantitative data in this study. Eleven first-language isiZulu speakers, purposively selected, were asked to rate each of the word recordings for pitch, clarity, naturalness, speech rate and quality on a 5-point Likert scale. The percent agreement and Friedman test were used for analysis. Results: More than 20% of these 11 participants rated the three-word recordings below 'strongly agree' in the category of pitch or tone, and one-word recording below 'strongly agree' in the categories of pitch or tone, clarity or articulation and naturalness or dialect. Conclusion: The first-language speaker ratings proved to be a valuable addition to the process of selecting word recordings for use in a new SRT test. In particular, these ratings identified potentially problematic word recordings in the new SRT test that had been missed by the previously and more commonly used linguistic and psychometric selection criteria.

  17. Glossing, transliterating and translating interactional data on languages other than English for international publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Hirataka, Fumiya; Sadeghi, Sima

    In the area of pragmatics the numbers of studies on non-English data has been increasing. For the career of most researchers, it is highly desirable to publish internationally, and thus in English. When researchers transcribe and gloss non-English data for publications in English, they often need...... to make practical decisions that have an impact on the analysis and presentation of results. This paper argues methodologically that non-English data should be treated more faithfully. The paper starts by examining how researchers in different fields of pragmatics have handled this issue and what problems...... result from the current ‘mainstream’ way. Most authors make their decisions on a case-by-case basis, considering the publisher’s requirements, possibly taking space requirements into account, and most importantly, balancing the trade-off between precision in the data display and the readability...

  18. Exploring the Effect of Teaching Test-Taking Strategies on Intermediate Level Learners on Reading Section of IELTS; Learners' Attitude in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Saed, Amin; Mousaei, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Language proficiency tests have become common instruments to judge people based on their performance. Thus, the scores on language proficiency tests, such as the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) or Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), play a crucial role in the test-takers' lives. Because of increasing demands on…

  19. [Development of a French-language online health policy course: an international collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Réjean; Coppieters, Yves; Pradier, Christian; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Brahimi, Cora; Farley, Céline

    2017-01-01

    To present the process and challenges of developing an online competency-based course on public health policy using a collaborative international approach. Five public health experts, supported by an expert in educational technology, adopted a rigorous approach to the development of the course: a needs analysis, identification of objectives and competencies, development of a pedagogical scenario for each module and target, choice of teaching methods and learning activities, material to be identified or developed, and the responsibilities and tasks involved. The 2-credit (90-hour) graduate course consists of six modules including an integration module. The modules start with a variety of case studies: tobacco law (neutral packaging), supervised injection sites, housing, integrated services for the frail elderly, a prevention programme for mothers from disadvantaged backgrounds, and the obligatory use of bicycle helmets. In modules 1, 3, 4 and 5, students learn about different stages of the public policy development process: emergence, formulation and adoption, implementation and evaluation. Module 2 focuses on the importance of values and ideologies in public policy. The integration module allows the students to apply the knowledge learned and addresses the role of experts in public policy and ethical considerations. The course has been integrated into the graduate programmes of the participating universities and allows students to follow, at a distance, an innovative training programme.

  20. International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…

  1. Patch Testing To a Textile Dye Mix by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E

    2015-01-01

    .2%. The most frequent dye allergen in the TDM-positive patients was D Orange 3. CONCLUSIONS: Over 30% of the TDM allergic patients had been missed if only the international baseline series was tested. Contact allergy to TDM could explain or contribute to dermatitis in over 20% of the patients. Textile dye mix...... should be considered for inclusion into the international baseline series....

  2. Measuring Ability in Foreign Language Word Recognition: A Novel Test and An Alternative to Segalowitz's "CV-rt" Fluency Index

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson, David

    2011-01-01

    Tests of word-recognition speed (lexical accessibility) for second language learners have become more common in recent years as its importance in lexical processing has become apparent. However, the very short reaction-time latencies mean they are often complicated to handle or set up in school-based testing situations. They may also produce data that is hard to interpret or which lacks construct validity. Our solution to this problem is a quick-and-easy test called Q_Lex which can be used by...

  3. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  4. The out-of-pile test for internal pressure measurement of nuclear fuel rod using LVDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Sohn Jae; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G. [and others

    2001-11-01

    As a part of the development of instrumentation technologies for the nuclear fuel irradiation test in HANARO, the internal pressure measurement technique of the nuclear fuel rod is being developed using LVDT. The objectives of this test were to understand the LVDT's characteristics and to study its application techniques for fuel irradiation technology. It will be required to analyze the acquired internal pressure of fuel rod during fuel irradiation test in HANARO. The out-of-pile test system for pressure measurement was developed, and the test with the LVDT at room temperature(19 .deg. C) were performed. A out-of-pile test were implemented in 1 kg/cm{sup 2} increment from 1 kg/cm{sup 2} to 30 kg/cm{sup 2} and repeated 6 times at each condition. The LVDT's sensitivities were obtained by following two ways, the one by test and the other by calculation from characteristics data. These two sensitivities were compared and analyzed. The calculation method for internal pressure of nuclear fuel rod at specified temperature was also established. This report describes the system configuration, the out-of-pile test procedures, and the results. The results of the out-of-pile test will be used to predict accurately the internal pressure of fuel rod during irradiation test. And, the well qualified out-of-pile tests are needed to understand the LVDT's detail characteristics for the detail design of the fuel irradiation capsule.

  5. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Assessment and Intervention of School-Aged Children With Language Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol; Washington, Karla N

    2017-07-26

    The aim of this tutorial is to support speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in assessment and treatment practices with children with language impairment. This tutorial reviews the framework of the ICF, describes the implications of the ICF for SLPs, distinguishes between students' capacity to perform a skill in a structured context and the actual performance of that skill in naturalistic contexts, and provides a case study of an elementary school child to demonstrate how the principles of the ICF can guide assessment and intervention. The Scope of Practice and Preferred Practice documents for the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association identify the ICF as the framework for practice in speech-language pathology. This tutorial will facilitate clinicians' ability to identify personal and environmental factors that influence students' skill capacity and skill performance, assess students' capacity and performance, and develop impairment-based and socially based language goals linked to Common Core State Standards that build students' language capacity and their communicative performance in naturalistic contexts.

  6. Does language affect personality perception? A functional approach to testing the Whorfian hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Ng, Jacky C K

    2014-04-01

    Whether language shapes cognition has long been a controversial issue. The present research adopts a functional approach to examining the effects of language use on personality perception and dialectical thinking. We propose that language use activates corresponding cultural mindsets, which in turn influence social perception, thinking, and behavior. Four studies recruited Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 129 in Study 1, 229 in Study 2, 68 in Study 3, 106 in Study 4) and used within-subjects and between-subjects design, written and behavioral reports, and self- and other perceptions. The four studies converged to show that Chinese-English bilinguals exhibit higher dialectical thinking and more variations in self- and observer ratings of personality when using the Chinese language than when using English. Furthermore, dialectical thinking predicted more self- and other-perceived variations in personality and behavior across bilingual contexts. These results highlight the important role of culture in understanding the relations between language and cognition, and attest to the malleability of personality perception and dialectical thinking within and across individuals in response to culture-related linguistic cues. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  8. Adaptation and validation into Portuguese language of the six-item cognitive impairment test (6CIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Paiva, Diana Dos Santos; Silva, Rosa Carla Gomes da; Santos, Eduardo José Ferreira Dos; Schultz, Timothy John

    2017-07-25

    The six-item cognitive impairment test (6CIT) is a brief cognitive screening tool that can be administered to older people in 2-3 min. To adapt the 6CIT for the European Portuguese and determine its psychometric properties based on a sample recruited from several contexts (nursing homes; universities for older people; day centres; primary health care units). The original 6CIT was translated into Portuguese and the draft Portuguese version (6CIT-P) was back-translated and piloted. The accuracy of the 6CIT-P was assessed by comparison with the Portuguese Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A convenience sample of 550 older people from various geographical locations in the north and centre of the country was used. The test-retest reliability coefficient was high (r = 0.95). The 6CIT-P also showed good internal consistency (α = 0.88) and corrected item-total correlations ranged between 0.32 and 0.90. Total 6CIT-P and MMSE scores were strongly correlated. The proposed 6CIT-P threshold for cognitive impairment is ≥10 in the Portuguese population, which gives sensitivity of 82.78% and specificity of 84.84%. The accuracy of 6CIT-P, as measured by area under the ROC curve, was 0.91. The 6CIT-P has high reliability and validity and is accurate when used to screen for cognitive impairment.

  9. Internalized homophobia and reduced HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyun, Thomas; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Do, Tri; Hebert, Pato; Beck, Jack; Makofane, Keletso; Wilson, Patrick A; Ayala, George

    2014-03-01

    Although previous research has examined barriers and facilitators of HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, few studies have focused on social factors, including homophobia and internalized homophobia. This study utilized data from a global online survey to determine correlates of HIV testing as part of a subanalysis focused on Chinese MSM. Controlling for age, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners, and other covariates, ever having tested for HIV was significantly correlated with lower internalized homophobia. This study suggests that stigma associated with sexual orientation may serve as a barrier to participation in HIV testing and other health-promoting behaviors.

  10. Arguing about How the World Is or How the World Should Be: The Role of Argument in IELTS Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    Non native speakers of English wishing to study at tertiary level in English speaking countries are increasingly required to prove their English language competence by taking an internationally recognised test such as the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Systems (IELTS). This article…

  11. Foreign Language Competence and Content and Language Integrated Learning in Multilingual Schools in Catalonia: An "Ex Post Facto" Study Analysing the Results of State Key Competences Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral, Josep; Lleixà, Teresa; Ventura, Carles

    2018-01-01

    The member states of the European Union have funded many initiatives supporting the teaching and learning of foreign languages. Content and language integrated learning is one of the experimental language programmes that have been introduced in Catalonia, in the north-east of Spain. The aims of this study are to analyse the results achieved by…

  12. The out-of-pile test for internal pressure measurement of nuclear fuel rod using LVDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, J. M.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, D. S.; Joo, K. N.; Park, S. J.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Yeum, K. I. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the development of instrumentation technologies for the nuclear fuel irradiation test in HANARO(High-flux Advanced Nuclear Application Reactor), the internal pressure measurement technique of the nuclear fuel rod is being developed using LVDT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer). The objectives of this test were to understand the LVDT's characteristics and to study its application techniques for fuel irradiation technology. It will be required to analyze the acquired internal pressure of fuel rod during fuel irradiation test in HANARO. Therefore, the out of pile test system for pressure measurement was developed, and the test with the LVDT at room temperature were performed. This test were implemented in 1 kg/cm{sup 2} increment from 1 kg/cm{sup 2} to 30 kg/cm{sup 2}, and repeated 6 times at same condition. The LVDT's sensitivities were obtained by following two ways, the one by test and the other by calculation from characteristics data. These two sensitivities were compared and analyzed. The calculation method for internal pressure of nuclear fuel rod at specified temperature was also established. The results of the out-of-pile test will be used to predict accurately the internal pressure of fuel rod during irradiation test. And, the well qualified out-of-pile tests are needed to understand the LVDT's detail characteristics at high temperature for the detail design of the fuel irradiation capsule.

  13. Non-invasive assessment of hemispheric language dominance by optical topography during a brief passive listening test: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembich, Stefano; Demarini, Sergio; Clarici, Andrea; Massaccesi, Stefano; Grasso, Domenico Loenardo

    2011-12-01

    The Wada test is usually used for pre-surgical assessment of language lateralization. Considering its invasiveness and risk of complications, alternative methods have been proposed but they are not always applicable to non-cooperative patients. In this study we explored the possibility of using optical topography (OT)--a multichannel near-infrared system--for non-invasive assessment of hemispheric language dominance during passive listening. Cortical activity was monitored in a sample of healthy, adult Italian native speakers, all right-handed. We assessed changes in oxy-haemoglobin concentration in temporal, parietal and posterior frontal lobes during a passive listening of bi-syllabic words and vowel-consonant-vowel syllables lasting less then 3 minutes. Activated channels were identified by t tests. Left hemisphere showed significant activity only during the passive listening of bi-syllabic words. Specifically, the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus and the posterior inferior parietal lobe were activated. During passive listening of bi-syllabic words, right handed healthy adults showed a significant activation in areas already known to be involved in speech comprehension. Although more research is needed, OT proved to be a promising alternative to the Wada test for non-invasive assessment of hemispheric language lateralization, even if using a particularly brief trial, which has been designed for future applications with non-cooperative subjects.

  14. Standardisation of defined approaches for skin sensitisation testing to support regulatory use and international adoption: position of the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, S; Aschberger, K; Barroso, J; Casey, W; Delgado, I; Kim, T S; Kleinstreuer, N; Kojima, H; Lee, J K; Lowit, A; Park, H K; Régimbald-Krnel, M J; Strickland, J; Whelan, M; Yang, Y; Zuang, Valérie

    2018-02-01

    Skin sensitisation is the regulatory endpoint that has been at the centre of concerted efforts to replace animal testing in recent years, as demonstrated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) adoption of five non-animal methods addressing mechanisms under the first three key events of the skin sensitisation adverse outcome pathway. Nevertheless, the currently adopted methods, when used in isolation, are not sufficient to fulfil regulatory requirements on the skin sensitisation potential and potency of chemicals comparable to that provided by the regulatory animal tests. For this reason, a number of defined approaches integrating data from these methods with other relevant information have been proposed and documented by the OECD. With the aim to further enhance regulatory consideration and adoption of defined approaches, the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal testing in collaboration with the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods hosted, on 4-5 October 2016, a workshop on the international regulatory applicability and acceptance of alternative non-animal approaches, i.e., defined approaches, to skin sensitisation assessment of chemicals used in a variety of sectors. The workshop convened representatives from more than 20 regulatory authorities from the European Union, United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Brazil and China. There was a general consensus among the workshop participants that to maximise global regulatory acceptance of data generated with defined approaches, international harmonisation and standardisation are needed. Potential assessment criteria were defined for a systematic evaluation of existing defined approaches that would facilitate their translation into international standards, e.g., into a performance-based Test Guideline. Informed by the discussions at the workshop, the ICATM members propose practical ways to further promote the regulatory use and facilitate

  15. Conference Review - Languages & The Media, 6th International Conference & Exhibition on Language Transfer in Audiovisual Media, October 25-27, 2006, Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Christoffersen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The participants of the conference, which had as its theme “Free Access – Priceless Rights?”, were professionals involved in subtitling, voice-over or translation, language industry specialists, distributors of audiovisual media products, producers of media programmes, broadcasters, researchers and representatives of viewer organisations.

  16. Conference Review - Languages & The Media, 6th International Conference & Exhibition on Language Transfer in Audiovisual Media, October 25-27, 2006, Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Christoffersen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The participants of the conference, which had as its theme “Free Access – Priceless Rights?”, were professionals involved in subtitling, voice-over or translation, language industry specialists, distributors of audiovisual media products, producers of media programmes, broadcasters, researchers and representatives of viewer organisations.

  17. Mental Health Stigma Prevention: Pilot Testing a Novel, Language Arts Curriculum-Based Approach for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Hannah L.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Lippincott, Ann; Taylor, Zachary; Zheng, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Researchers have emphasized the importance of integrating mental health education with academic curriculum. The focus of the current studies was "Mental Health Matters" (MHM), a mental health curriculum that is integrated with English language arts. It is taught by trained community member volunteers and aims to increase…

  18. English Language Test for Scientific Staff at D.U.T.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.G.; Bos, M.H.P.C.; Roubos, Tim; Veronesi, Daniela; Nickenig, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Delft University of Technology (DUT) screened her (non-native English) scientific staff on their level of language proficiency over the year academic 2006/2007. In this paper the large scale operation, involving planning, policy decisions, assessment means, advise and training are discussed. Results

  19. Testing Comprehension Abilities in Users of British Sign Language Following Cva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J.; Marshall, J.; Woll, B.; Thacker, A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent imaging (e.g., MacSweeney et al., 2002) and lesion (Hickok, Love-Geffen, & Klima, 2002) studies suggest that sign language comprehension depends primarily on left hemisphere structures. However, this may not be true of all aspects of comprehension. For example, there is evidence that the processing of topographic space in sign may be…

  20. Assessing Spoken Language Competence in Children with Selective Mutism: Using Parents as Test Presenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Evelyn R.; Armstrong, Sharon Lee; Shipon-Blum, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) display a failure to speak in select situations despite speaking when comfortable. The purpose of this study was to obtain valid assessments of receptive and expressive language in 33 children (ages 5 to 12) with SM. Because some children with SM will speak to parents but not a professional, another purpose was…

  1. Awake craniotomy and multilingualism: language testing during anaesthesia for awake craniotomy in a bilingual patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, T G

    2014-08-01

    An awake craniotomy for epilepsy surgery is presented where a bilingual patient post-operatively reported temporary aphasia of his first language (Spanish). This case report discusses the potential causes for this clinical presentation and methods to prevent the occurrence of this in future patients undergoing this form of surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expected Test Scores for Preschoolers with a Cochlear Implant Who Use Spoken Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The major purpose of this study was to provide information about expected spoken language skills of preschool-age children who are deaf and who use a cochlear implant. A goal was to provide "benchmarks" against which those skills could be compared, for a given age at implantation. We also examined whether parent-completed…

  3. Testing the Theory of Successful Intelligence in Teaching Grade 4 Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Jarvin, Linda; Birney, Damian P.; Naples, Adam; Stemler, Steven E.; Newman, Tina; Otterbach, Renate; Parish, Carolyn; Randi, Judy; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed whether prior successes with educational interventions grounded in the theory of successful intelligence could be replicated on a larger scale as the primary basis for instruction in language arts, mathematics, and science. A total of 7,702 4th-grade students in the United States, drawn from 223 elementary school classrooms in…

  4. Developing and Testing EVALOE: A Tool for Assessing Spoken Language Teaching and Learning in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gràcia, Marta; Vega, Fàtima; Galván-Bovaira, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Broadly speaking, the teaching of spoken language in Spanish schools has not been approached in a systematic way. Changes in school practices are needed in order to allow all children to become competent speakers and to understand and construct oral texts that are appropriate in different contexts and for different audiences both inside and…

  5. Diagnosing academic language ability : An analysis of the Test of Academic Literacy for Postgraduate Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Anna; Weideman, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Following the observation that a large number of postgraduate students may not possess an adequate level of academic language ability to complete their studies successfully, this study investigates postgraduate students' strengths and weaknesses in academic literacy, with a specific focus on

  6. The use of Spanish language skills by physicians and nurses: policy implications for teaching and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa C; Tuot, Delphine S; Karliner, Leah S

    2012-01-01

    Language barriers present a substantial communication challenge in the hospital setting. To describe how clinicians with various levels of Spanish language proficiency work with interpreters or their own Spanish skills in common clinical scenarios. Survey of physicians and nurses who report ever speaking Spanish with patients on a general medicine hospital floor. Spanish proficiency rated on a 5-point scale, self-reported use of specific strategies (own Spanish skills, professional or ad-hoc interpreters) to overcome the language barrier. Sixty-eight physicians and 65 nurses participated. Physicians with low-level Spanish proficiency reported frequent use of ad-hoc interpreters for all information-based scenarios, except pre-rounding in the morning when most reported using their own Spanish skills. For difficult conversations and procedural consent, most used professional interpreters. Comparatively, physicians with medium proficiency reported higher rates of using their own Spanish skills for information-based scenarios, lower rates of professional interpreter use, and little use of ad-hoc interpreters. They rarely used their own Spanish skills or ad-hoc interpreters for difficult conversations. Physicians with high-level Spanish proficiency almost uniformly reported using their own Spanish skills. The majority (82%) of nurses had low-level Spanish proficiency, and frequently worked with professional interpreters for educating patients, but more often used ad hoc interpreters and their own Spanish skills for information-based scenarios, including medication administration. Physicians and nurses with limited Spanish proficiency use these skills, even in important clinical circumstances in the hospital. Health-care organizations should evaluate clinicians' non-English language proficiency and set policies about use of language skills in clinical care.

  7. The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test for Assessment and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Modulate Language Acquisition in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Harry D.; Hopp, Jenna P.

    2011-01-01

    Minimally verbal children with autism commonly demonstrate language dysfunction, including immature syntax acquisition. We hypothesised that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) should facilitate language acquisition in a cohort (n = 10) of children with immature syntax. We modified the English version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT)…

  8. Second Language Idiom Learning in a Paired-Associate Paradigm: Effects of Direction of Learning, Direction of Testing, Idiom Imageability, and Idiom Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinel, Margarita P.; Hulstijn, Jan H.; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    In a paired-associate learning (PAL) task, Dutch university students (n = 129) learned 20 English second language (L2) idioms either receptively or productively (i.e., L2-first language [L1] or L1-L2) and were tested in two directions (i.e., recognition or production) immediately after learning and 3 weeks later. Receptive and productive…

  9. Políticas de promoção internacional da língua portuguesa: ações na américa latina Language policies for international promotion of portuguese language: actions in latin america

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone da Costa Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo traçar um panorama de ações na área de políticas linguísticas relacionadas à promoção e ao ensino do português como língua adicional no Brasil e fora do país, bem como refletir sobre alguns de seus impactos. Primeiramente, são apresentados o conceito de política linguística (COOPER, 1989 e as noções de valor e de mercado linguístico a partir da Nova Economia (OLIVEIRA, 2010. A seguir, apresenta-se um panorama de ações políticas de promoção internacional da língua portuguesa, focalizando naquelas desenvolvidas nos âmbitos do Mercosul e da América Latina. Conclui-se fazendo uma reflexão sobre possíveis implicações dessas ações no ensino e aprendizagem de português como língua adicional, bem como na difusão internacional da língua portuguesa.This paper aims at drawing an overview of actions in the field of language policies related to Portuguese promotion and teaching, as an additional language, in Brazil and abroad, as well as reflecting about some of the impacts of that. First of all, the concept of language planning (COOPER, 1989 will be presented, as well as the notion of value and linguistic market based on the New Economy (OLIVEIRA, 2010. Next, an overview of politic actions for promoting Portuguese Language internationally will be presented, specially the ones developed in Mercosul and Latin America contexts. In the end, possible implications of these actions for the teaching and learning and international promotion of Portuguese as an additional language are discussed.

  10. Assessing Yemeni EFL learners’ Oral skills via the Conceptualization of Target Language Use Domain: A Testing Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami A. Al-wossabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an evident lack of a comprehensive evaluation basis for Yemeni learners’ speaking skills in the English department, Hodeidah University. The present paper presents a detailed framework of oral assessment criteria that involves a description of target language use domains and then shows how such domains can be systematically related to test design. The framework takes as its main goal the development and description of a criterion referenced rating scale representing real-world criterion elements. The aim of the testing framework, therefore, is to ensure maximum appropriateness of score test interpretations and maximize the validity and fairness of local speaking tests. A five-point likert scale is carried out to elicit 10 trained raters’ perceptions of using the pilot scale. The research findings support the use and appropriateness of the scale as it aids raters identify underlying aspects of their learners’ oral discourse that cannot be observed in traditional discrete point tests.

  11. How Well Does the Sum Score Summarize the Test? Summability as a Measure of Internal Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeman, J.J.; De, Jong N.H.

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers use Cronbach's alpha to demonstrate internal consistency, even though it has been shown numerous times that Cronbach's alpha is not suitable for this. Because the intention of questionnaire and test constructers is to summarize the test by its overall sum score, we advocate

  12. A diagnostic test for apraxia in stroke patients: internal consistency and diagnostic value.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, F.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    1999-01-01

    The internal consistency and the diagnostic value of a test for apraxia in patients having had a stroke are presented. Results indicate that the items of the test form a strong and consistent scale: Cronbach's alpha as well as the results of a Mokken scale analysis present good reliability and good

  13. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing: State of the Science and Planning the Way Forward AGENCY... (NICEATM) announces an ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies... rabies vaccine potency testing, and to develop an implementation strategy to achieve global acceptance...

  14. The International Space of the Danish Testing Community in the Interwar Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is to draw attention to the presence and importance of travelling ideas, knowledge, and practices in Danish history of educational testing. The article introduces and employs a spatial methodological approach in relation to the connections between the international testing community and the emerging Danish practice of…

  15. Proceedings: 19th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Raquel Gonçalves; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    The 19th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium was hosted by the University of Campinas, College of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), and the Brazilian Association of Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (ABENDI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on September 22–25, 2015. This Symposium was a forum for those involved in nondestructive...

  16. English Language Proficiency Tests and Academic Achievement: A Study on the Malaysian University English Test as a Predictor of Technical Programme Undergraduates Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhazlini Rahmat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role.  MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to examine the relationship between English language proficiency test (as measured by MUET bands to predict the undergraduates academic achievement (as measured by Cumulative Grade Point Average score. It also aims to determine the recommended MUET band as an entry requirement for prospective technical programme undergraduates in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM. The study was carried out among 225 final year undergraduates of five different faculties in UPM, namely Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.  The data used were obtained by administering a brief questionnaire and were quantitatively analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 19.  The study revealed that there is a medium positive correlation between English language proficiency and academic achievement where students who have scored higher bands for MUET are the ones who obtained higher CGPA in their study. Based on the findings, it is recommended that UPM and other local universities make changes towards the minimum MUET entry requirement to help prospective undergraduates excel in their academic study. Keywords: English language proficiency, academic achievement, technical programme, MUET, CGPA

  17. An Investigation to Validate the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) Test to Identify Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Payne, Elisabeth; McClelland, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Background The extraordinarily high incidence of grammatical language impairments in developmental disorders suggests that this uniquely human cognitive function is “fragile”. Yet our understanding of the neurobiology of grammatical impairments is limited. Furthermore, there is no “gold-standard” to identify grammatical impairments and routine screening is not undertaken. An accurate screening test to identify grammatical abilities would serve the research, health and education communities, further our understanding of developmental disorders, and identify children who need remediation, many of whom are currently un-diagnosed. A potential realistic screening tool that could be widely administered is the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test – a 10 minute test that can be administered by professionals and non-professionals alike. Here we provide a further step in evaluating the validity and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the GAPS test in identifying children who have Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Methods and Findings We tested three groups of children; two groups aged 3;6–6:6, a typically developing (n = 30) group, and a group diagnosed with SLI: (n = 11) (Young (Y)-SLI), and a further group aged 6;9–8;11 with SLI (Older (O)-SLI) (n = 10) who were above the test age norms. We employed a battery of language assessments including the GAPS test to assess the children's language abilities. For Y-SLI children, analyses revealed a sensitivity and specificity at the 5th and 10th percentile of 1.00 and 0.98, respectively, and for O-SLI children at the 10th and 15th percentile .83 and .90, respectively. Conclusions The findings reveal that the GAPS is highly accurate in identifying impaired vs. non-impaired children up to 6;8 years, and has moderate-to-high accuracy up to 9 years. The results indicate that GAPS is a realistic tool for the early identification of grammatical abilities and impairment in young children. A larger

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopic study and the Wada test for presurgical evaluation of expressive and receptive language functions in glioma patients: with a case report of dissociated language functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yosuke; Uzuka, Takeo; Aoki, Hiroshi; Natsumeda, Manabu; Oishi, Makoto; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-02-29

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has proven to be useful for the evaluation of language lateralization in healthy subjects, infants, and epileptic patients. This study for the first time investigated the expressive and receptive language functions separately, using NIRS in presurgical glioma patients. We also describe a special case with dissociated pattern of language functions. Ten glioma patients were examined. Using NIRS, the hemodynamic changes during a verb generation task or story listening task were measured in the cerebral hemisphere on either side covering the language areas. Following the NIRS study, the Wada test was performed in all the patients. The NIRS study revealed increases of oxyhemoglobin and decreases of deoxyhemoglobin in the language areas elicited by both tasks. In 9 patients, who were all right-handed, the expressive and receptive language functions were lateralized to the left hemisphere. The results of the NIRS study were completely consistent with those of the Wada test. In the remaining 1 patient with a right sided insular glioma, who was right-handed, the NIRS study revealed stronger activation of the right inferior frontal region during the verb generation task, and stronger activation of the left superior temporal region during the story listening task. This dissociated language function was validated by the Wada test and the postoperative neurological course. These results demonstrate that a NIRS study using our technique is extremely valuable for preoperative assessment of the language functions and exemplifies how a preoperative NIRS study can allow detection of unforeseen language lateralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [The Russian-language version of the matrix test (RUMatrix) in free field in patients after cochlear implantation in the long term].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goykhburg, M V; Bakhshinyan, V V; Petrova, I P; Wazybok, A; Kollmeier, B; Tavartkiladze, G A

    The deterioration of speech intelligibility in the patients using cochlear implantation (CI) systems is especially well apparent in the noisy environment. It explains why phrasal speech tests, such as a Matrix sentence test, have become increasingly more popular in the speech audiometry during rehabilitation after CI. The Matrix test allows to estimate speech perception by the patients in a real life situation. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of audiological rehabilitation of CI patients using the Russian-language version of the matrix test (RUMatrix) in free field in the noisy environment. 33 patients aged from 5 to 40 years with a more than 3 year experience of using cochlear implants inserted at the National Research Center for Audiology and Hearing Rehabilitation were included in our study. Five of these patients were implanted bilaterally. The results of our study showed a statistically significant improvement of speech intelligibility in the noisy environment after the speech processor adjustment; dynamics of the signal-to-noise ratio changes was -1.7 dB (planguages makes possible its application in international multicenter studies.

  20. International fusion materials irradiation facility and neutronic calculations for its test modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokcic-Kostic, M.

    1997-01-01

    The International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a projected high intensity neutron source for material testing. Neutron transport calculations for the IFMIF project are performed for variety of here explained reasons. The results of MCNP neutronic calculations for IFMIF test modules with NaK and He cooled high flux test cells are presented in this paper. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. International Students of Speech and Language Therapy in the UK: Choices about Where to Study and Whether to Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbart, J.; Marshall, J.; Evans, I. R.

    2005-01-01

    The qualification leading to professional practice in speech and language therapy (SLT, also known as speech and language pathology) is not evenly available across the world. Geographic mobility and the availability of information are greater than at any other time in our history. Thus, initial SLT qualification courses in many countries are…

  2. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and Models for Robotic Systems (DSLRob 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlegel, Christian; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stinckwich, Serge

    2013-01-01

    . Robotic systems blend hardware and software in a holistic way that intrinsically raises many crosscutting concerns (concurrency, uncertainty, time constraints, ...), for which reason, traditional general-purpose languages often lead to a poor fit between the language features and the implementation...

  3. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and Models for Robotic Systems (DSLRob 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stinckwich, Serge

    blend hardware and software in a holistic way that intrinsically raises many crosscutting concerns (concurrency, uncertainty, time constraints, ...), for which reason, traditional general-purpose languages often lead to a poor fit between the language features and the implementation requirements. DSLs...

  4. Cross-linguistic and cross-cultural effects on verbal working memory and vocabulary: testing language-minority children with an immigrant background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Pascale M J Engel; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L; Befi-Lopes, Debora M

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary (comprehension and production), executive-loaded working memory (counting recall and backward digit recall), and verbal short-term memory (digit recall and nonword repetition). Cross-linguistic task performance was compared within individuals. The language-minority children were also compared with multilingual language-majority children from Luxembourg and Portuguese-speaking monolinguals from Brazil without an immigrant background matched on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and nonverbal reasoning. Results showed that (a) verbal working memory measures involving numerical memoranda were relatively independent of test language and cultural status; (b) language status had an impact on the repetition of high- but not on low-wordlike L2 nonwords; (c) large cross-linguistic and cross-cultural effects emerged for productive vocabulary; (d) cross-cultural effects were less pronounced for vocabulary comprehension with no differences between groups if only L1 words relevant to the home context were considered. The study indicates that linguistic and cognitive assessments for language-minority children require careful choice among measures to ensure valid results. Implications for testing culturally and linguistically diverse children are discussed.

  5. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Brian J; Mueller, Shane T; Geerken, Alexander R; Dixon, Kyle L; Kroliczak, Gregory; Olsen, Reid H J; Miller, Jeremy K

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures. Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity), attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall), working memory (Digit Span Forward), and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation) in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18-22). Study II evaluated test-retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18-22). Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen's d = 0.89) and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31) tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86) and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79), intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63) but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15). Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function. Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net) is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance.

  6. Differences in achievement between home language and language of learning in South Africa: Evidence from prePIRLS 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surette van Staden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study utilised regression methods to explain Grade 4 reading literacy achievement taking into account discrepancies between the language of the test and home language for learners who participated in the South African preProgress in International Reading Literacy Study (prePIRLS 2011. Grade 4 learners were tested across all 11 official languages. The language of testing did not always coincide with the learner’s home language; therefore, prePIRLS 2011 test results reveal achievement for learners who in many cases did the test in a second or third language. Results from the current analyses show that testing in African languages predicts significantly lower results as compared to English, but that exponentially worse results by as much as 0.29 points lower of a standard deviation can be expected when the African language of the test did not coincide with the learners’ home language. Findings from the current study provide evidence that African children stand to be disadvantaged the most when a strong mother tongue base has not been developed and when education for children between Grade 1 and 3 is only available through a medium of instruction other than the mother tongue. Evidence that exposure to a language that at least shares linguistic similarities to the home language could have a positive effect.

  7. The International Test Commission Guidelines on the Security of Tests, Examinations, and Other Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Testing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The amount and severity of security threats have increased considerably over the past two decades, calling into question the validity of assessments administered around the world. These threats have increased for a number of reasons, including the popular use of computerized and online technologies for test administration and the use of almost…

  8. Standardization of HER2 testing: results of an international proficiency-testing ring study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowsett, Mitch; Hanna, Wedad M.; Kockx, Mark; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Rüschoff, Josef; Gutjahr, Thorsten; Habben, Kai; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2007-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity in breast cancer is a prognostic factor regarding tumor aggressiveness and a predictive factor for response to trastuzumab (Herceptin). Early and accurate HER2 testing of all breast cancer patients at primary diagnosis is essential for

  9. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Piper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures.Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity, attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall, working memory (Digit Span Forward, and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22. Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22.Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89 and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31 tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86 and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79, intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63 but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15. Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function.Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance.

  10. [The Offer of Medical-Diagnostic Self-Tests on German Language Websites: Results of a Systematic Internet Search].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuecuekbalaban, P; Schmidt, S; Muehlan, H

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to provide an overview of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be purchased without a medical prescription on German language websites. From September 2014 to March 2015, a systematic internet research was conducted with the following search terms: self-test, self-diagnosis, home test, home diagnosis, quick test, rapid test. 513 different self-tests for the diagnostics of 52 diverse diseases or health risks were identified, including chronic diseases (e. g. diabetes, chronic disease of the kidneys, liver, and lungs), sexually transmitted diseases (e. g. HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea), infectious diseases (e. g. tuberculosis, malaria, Helicobacter pylori), allergies (e. g. house dust, cats, histamine) and cancer as well as tests for the diagnostics of 12 different psychotropic substances. These were sold by 90 companies in Germany and by other foreign companies. The number of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be bought without a medical prescription on the Internet has increased enormously in the last 10 years. Further studies are needed for the identification of the determinants of the use of self-tests as well as the impact of the application on the experience and behavior of the user. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. A voxel-based asymmetry study of the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and language dominance in Wada tested patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simon S; Roberts, Neil; Baker, Gus; Sluming, Vanessa; Cezayirli, Enis; Mayes, Andrew; Eldridge, Paul; Marson, Anthony G; Wieshmann, Udo C

    2018-03-23

    Determining the anatomical basis of hemispheric language dominance (HLD) remains an important scientific endeavor. The Wada test remains the gold standard test for HLD and provides a unique opportunity to determine the relationship between HLD and hemispheric structural asymmetries on MRI. In this study, we applied a whole-brain voxel-based asymmetry (VBA) approach to determine the relationship between interhemispheric structural asymmetries and HLD in a large consecutive sample of Wada tested patients. Of 135 patients, 114 (84.4%) had left HLD, 10 (7.4%) right HLD, and 11 (8.2%) bilateral language representation. Fifty-four controls were also studied. Right-handed controls and right-handed patients with left HLD had comparable structural brain asymmetries in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions that have previously been documented in healthy people. However, these patients and controls differed in structural asymmetry of the mesial temporal lobe and a circumscribed region in the superior temporal gyrus, suggesting that only asymmetries of these regions were due to brain alterations caused by epilepsy. Additional comparisons between patients with left and right HLD, matched for type and location of epilepsy, revealed that structural asymmetries of insula, pars triangularis, inferior temporal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, ventral temporo-occipital cortex, mesial somatosensory cortex, and mesial cerebellum were significantly associated with the side of HLD. Patients with right HLD and bilateral language representation were significantly less right-handed. These results suggest that structural asymmetries of an insular-fronto-temporal network may be related to HLD. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pragmatic Language Assessment in Williams Syndrome: A Comparison of the Test of Pragmatic Language--2 and the Children's Communication Checklist--2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anne; Martens, Marilee A.; Fox, Robert; Rabidoux, Paula; Andridge, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are recognized as having a strong desire for social relationships, yet many of them have difficulty forming and maintaining peer relationships. One cause may be impairments in pragmatic language. The current study compared the assessment of pragmatic language skills in individuals with WS using the…

  13. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. TIENKEN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries’ rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum’s Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI. The study investigated the existence of relationships between international test rankings from three different time periods during the last 50 years of U.S. education policy development (i.e., 1957–1982, 1983–2000, and 2001–2006 and 2006 GCI ranks. It extends previous research on the topic by investigating how GCI rankings in the top 50 percent and bottom 50 percent relate to rankings on international tests for the countries that participated in each test. The study found that the relationship between ranks on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic strength is stronger among nations with lower-performing economies. Nations with strong economies, such as the United States, demonstrate a weaker, nonsignificant relationship.

  14. Reliability and Validation of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire in Over Active Bladder to Persian Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari Motlagh, Reza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Joodi Tutunsaz, Javad

    2015-05-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome is a common syndrome in the world in both men and women. Correct diagnosis and accurate measurement of symptoms severity and also quality of life of patients is necessary to ensure proper treatment and to facilitate sound relationships among patients, researchers and doctors. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire in Over Active Bladder (ICIQ-OAB) questionnaire is a concise and strong tool to evaluate the symptoms of OAB and their effects on patients' quality of life and treatment results. The objective of this study was to translate and validate a simple and strong tool that could be used in clinics and research. First, the original British English questionnaire was translated into Persian by two bilingual and originally Persian-speaking translators. Then the Persian version was back translated to English and a native English speaker studied and compared the questionnaire with the original version. At the end, the translated and corrected Persian version was finalized by a research team. Content validity of the items and ensuring that the questions could convey the main concept to readers was assessed through Modified Content Validity Index (MCVI). Reliability was calculated by Cronbach's α coefficient. Internal Consistency of the questionnaire with the calculation of Kendall correlation coefficient were evaluated by performing test-retest in 50 participants. The modified content validity index was > 0.78 for all of the questions. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated 0.76 for all of the participants. Kendall correlation coefficient was calculated for test-re-test assessment 0.66. Both of which indicates the reliability of this questionnaire. Persian version of ICIQ-OAB questionnaire is a simple and strong tool for research, treatment and screening purposes. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Comparative analysis of quality control tests on computed tomography in accordance with national and international laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Fernando S.; Vasconcelos, Rebeca S.; Goncalves, Marcel S.; Oliveira, Marcus V.L. de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis between the Brazilian legislation and internationals protocols, with respect to the quality control tests for computerized tomography. We used 07 references, published from 1998-2012: the Protocolo Brasileiro - Portaria 453/98 SVS/MS and the Guia de Radiodiagnostico Medico da ANVISA; Quality Assurance Programme for Computed Tomography: Diagnostic and Therapy Applications of the IAEA; European Protocol - European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Computed Tomography of the EUR No. 16262 EN; Radiation Protection No. 162 - Criteria for Acceptability of Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of the European Commission; the Protocols of Control de Calidad en Radiodiagnostico IAEA / ARCAL XLIX; and the Protocolo Espanol de Control de Calidad en Radiodignostico. The comparative analysis of these legislations was based on aspects of tolerance / limit, frequency and objectives of the recommended tests. Were found 18 tests in the Brazilian legislation. The tests were grouped according to their nature (dosimetric tests / exposure and geometric tests and image quality tests). Among the evaluated protocols was identified divergence between tests contained in the documents and the criteria of assessment set out in this work. It is clear, moreover, that for certain documents are not observed tolerances, well-defined methodologies and even frequency of testing. We conclude that the current legislation in Brazil differs in certain respects from international protocols analyzed, although this has a great numbers of quality control tests. However, it is necessary that the Brazilian legislation takes into account technological advances presented to time

  16. Proceedings of the 2. International Linear Collider Test-beam workshop - LCTW'09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.; Poeschl, R.; Takeshi, M.; Yu, J.; Hauptman, J.; Jeans, D.; Velthuis, J.; Repond, J.; Stanitzki, M.; Chefdeville, M.; Pauletta, G.; Hauptman, J.; Kulis, S.; Charpy, A.; Rivera, R.; Turchetti, M.; Vos, M.; Dehmelt, K.; Settles, R.; Decotigny, D.; Killenberg, M.; Haas, D.; Gaede, F.; Graf, N.; Wing, M.; Gaede, F.; Karstensen, S.; Meyners, N.; Hast, C.; Vrba, V.; Takeshita, T.; Kawagoe, K.; Linssen, L.; Ramberg, E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Videau, H.; Boudry, V.; Hauptman, J.; Lipton, R.; Nelson, T.

    2009-01-01

    At this workshop detector and simulation experts have described and discussed the necessary ILC (International Linear Collider) detector research and development program in view of its need for test beams. This workshop has provided an opportunity to evaluate the capabilities and shortcomings of existing facilities in the context of planned test beam activities. This document gathers together the slides of the presentations. The presentations have been classified into 4 topics: -) plans of sub-detectors - calorimetry, silicon and gaseous tracking, -) data acquisition, -) test beam facilities, and -) resources and infrastructure for future test beams

  17. Reliability of the Test of Integrated Language and Literacy Skills (TILLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Plante, Elena; Anderson, Michele A.; Applegate, E. Brooks; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: As new standardized tests become commercially available, it is critical that clinicians have access to the information about a test's psychometric properties, including aspects of reliability. Aims: The purpose of the three studies reported in this article was to investigate the reliability of a new test, the Test of Integrated…

  18. 34 CFR 668.153 - Administration of tests for students whose native language is not English or for persons with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... language is not English or for persons with disabilities. 668.153 Section 668.153 Education Regulations of... native language is not English or for persons with disabilities. Except as provided in § 668.143— (a) Students whose native language is not English. For a student whose native language is not English and who...

  19. Conceptual considerations of evaluate internal erosion phenomenon via no-erosion filter test and continuing erosion filter test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos-Rivera Johnatan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some widely-graded soils may exhibit, under the influence of steady seepage flow, a behaviour in which grains of the finer fraction migrate through the interstices of the matrix formed by the coarser fraction. The migrating fines may accumulate at a downstream location within the soil. Alternatively, and where there is no capacity for retention at the downstream or exit boundary, the behaviour may lead to a washing out and consequent loss of the finer fraction. The phenomenon of erosion is termed internal instability, and the soils are considered internally unstable. Taking into consideration (i the specimen reconstitution by method of compaction, (ii the application of a vertical stress to the specimen, and (iii the use of multi-stage seepage flow with head-control, to measure the origin of a conduit through the coarser fraction, some test devices were conducted by different authors to evaluate this phenomenon, the purpose of this paper is to present some considerations and key aspects about internal erosion in dams and filter compatibility with core material (specimen reconstitution, test procedure, consolidation, seepage flow, test program and its relevance to the reality. The main reason to present this investigation is due to the absence of any specified regulatory or standard test method. Given the importance of filter compatibility of the zoned earth core dam and filter materials, as well the grading stability of each zone in the presence of seepage flow, additional consideration will be given to performing Continuing Erosion Filter (CEF tests on the core-filter interface, using the laboratory permeameter device.

  20. Internal Thermal Control System Hose Heat Transfer Fluid Thermal Expansion Evaluation Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, P. O.; Hawk, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    During assembly of the International Space Station, the Internal Thermal Control Systems in adjacent modules are connected by jumper hoses referred to as integrated hose assemblies (IHAs). A test of an IHA has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to determine whether the pressure in an IHA filled with heat transfer fluid would exceed the maximum design pressure when subjected to elevated temperatures (up to 60 C (140 F)) that may be experienced during storage or transportation. The results of the test show that the pressure in the IHA remains below 227 kPa (33 psia) (well below the 689 kPa (100 psia) maximum design pressure) even at a temperature of 71 C (160 F), with no indication of leakage or damage to the hose. Therefore, based on the results of this test, the IHA can safely be filled with coolant prior to launch. The test and results are documented in this Technical Memorandum.

  1. Mental Health Stigma Prevention: Pilot Testing a Novel, Language Arts Curriculum-Based Approach for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Hannah L; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Lippincott, Ann; Taylor, Zachary; Zheng, Jimmy

    2016-10-01

    Researchers have emphasized the importance of integrating mental health education with academic curriculum. The focus of the current studies was Mental Health Matters (MHM), a mental health curriculum that is integrated with English language arts. It is taught by trained community member volunteers and aims to increase knowledge and decrease stigma toward individuals with mental health disorders. In Study 1, 142 sixth graders participated in MHM and completed pre- and postprogram measures of mental health knowledge, stigma, and program acceptability. Teachers also completed ratings of acceptability. Study 2 (N = 120 seventh graders) compared participants who had participated in MHM the previous year with those who had not using the same measures. Sixth grade students and teachers rated the program as highly acceptable. Participants significantly increased their knowledge and decreased their levels of stigma. Seventh graders who had participated in MHM had significantly more mental health knowledge than peers who had not, but there were no differences in stigma. The model appears to be acceptable to students and teachers. Future research is needed to assess the long-term effectiveness of integrating mental health education with other academic curriculum such as language arts or science. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  2. Deducing Electronic Unit Internal Response During a Vibration Test Using a Lumped Parameter Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    During random vibration testing of electronic boxes there is often a desire to know the dynamic response of certain internal printed wiring boards (PWBs) for the purpose of monitoring the response of sensitive hardware or for post-test forensic analysis in support of anomaly investigation. Due to restrictions on internally mounted accelerometers for most flight hardware there is usually no means to empirically observe the internal dynamics of the unit, so one must resort to crude and highly uncertain approximations. One common practice is to apply Miles Equation, which does not account for the coupled response of the board in the chassis, resulting in significant over- or under-prediction. This paper explores the application of simple multiple-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter modeling to predict the coupled random vibration response of the PWBs in their fundamental modes of vibration. A simple tool using this approach could be used during or following a random vibration test to interpret vibration test data from a single external chassis measurement to deduce internal board dynamics by means of a rapid correlation analysis. Such a tool might also be useful in early design stages as a supplemental analysis to a more detailed finite element analysis to quickly prototype and analyze the dynamics of various design iterations. After developing the theoretical basis, a lumped parameter modeling approach is applied to an electronic unit for which both external and internal test vibration response measurements are available for direct comparison. Reasonable correlation of the results demonstrates the potential viability of such an approach. Further development of the preliminary approach presented in this paper will involve correlation with detailed finite element models and additional relevant test data.

  3. Integrating Online Discussion in an Australian Intensive English Language Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the Internet was used for online interaction in a 10-week English-as-a-Second-Language course. Students were highly motivated and seeking eventual admittance to undergraduate programs through successful completion of International English language Testing System (IELTS) examinations. (Author/VWL)

  4. Evaluation of the Netherlands' International Test Facility for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmintier, Bryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Netherlands Enterprise Agency (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland, or RVO) engaged the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for two primary purposes: to evaluate the International Test Facility for Smart Grids (ITF) sponsored by RVO and to learn best practices for integrated test facilities from NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). This report covers the ITF evaluation and is largely based on a one-week visit to the Netherlands in November 2014.

  5. A Multilingual Approach to Analysing Standardized Test Results: Immigrant Primary School Children and the Role of Languages Spoken in a Bi-/Multilingual Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Gessica

    2014-01-01

    The present study adopts a multilingual approach to analysing the standardized test results of primary school immigrant children living in the bi-/multilingual context of South Tyrol, Italy. The standardized test results are from the Invalsi test administered across Italy in 2009/2010. In South Tyrol, several languages are spoken on a daily basis…

  6. LAST-Q: Adaptation and normative data for the Language Screening Test in a French-Canadian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Monetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most researchers and clinicians agree that early detection of aphasia after stroke will help to predict future outcome (see Laska et al., 2007 and to allow for a better recovery by combining early and intensive speech therapy with early neural reorganization (see Salter et al., 2006. However, most standard aphasia tests are inadequate for assessment in acute stroke. The recently developed Language Screening Test (LAST; Flamand-Roze et al., 2011 can be used for early detection of signs of aphasia in acute post-stroke patients. The goal of the present study was to adapt and to establish normative data for the LAST in the French-Canadian population of Quebec according to age and education. Methods: The first step was to adapt the LAST to the French-Canadian linguistic context by (1 assessing its surface validity, and (2 verifying with a local language expert the relevance of the selected items. After this first step, the final version of the test (LAST-Q was developed. The final LAST-Q comprises 5 subtests: picture naming, repetition, automatic speech, word picture matching and verbal instructions. Patients have 5 seconds to answer each question, and the answers are scored as either 1 or 0. As in the original LAST, two parallel versions of the LAST-Q (versions a and b, for patient test-retest, were developed. The second step was to norm the LAST-Q (a and b with a sample of 50 French-Canadian normals. Participants were divided into four groups according to their (a age (40 to 60 years old and 60 to 80, and (b educational level (≤11 and ≥12 years of education. Results. As expected, a perfect score was obtained for all people from both groups of ages and both educational levels but only for one of the two versions of the LAST-Q. The scores of the second version seemed influenced by the educational level (i.e. only individuals with high level of education obtained a 15/15 final score while low level education individuals obtained heterogeneous

  7. Effects of audio-visual aids on foreign language test anxiety, reading and listening comprehension, and retention in EFL learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.

  8. 78 FR 41129 - Market Test of Experimental Product - International Merchandise Return Service-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...--Non-Published Rates AGENCY: U.S. Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service hereby gives notice of a market test for International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates in... Return Service (IMRS) Non-published Rate (NPR) experimental product on August 15, 2013. The Postal...

  9. A Model of International Communication Media Appraisal and Exposure: A Comprehensive Test in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. David; Oliveira, Omar Souki

    A study constituted the fifth phase of a programmatic research effort designed to develop and test a model of international communications media exposure and appraisal. The model posits that three variables--editorial tone, communication potential, and utility--have positive determinant effects on these dependent variables. Research was carried…

  10. 76 FR 62961 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    .... Protection of Children J. Indian Tribal Governments K. Energy Effects L. International Trade Impacts M... appropriate Coast Guard oversight ultimately promotes safety, flexibility, and autonomy by permitting experts... will accept test reports from Coast Guard-accepted independent laboratories in support of approvals for...

  11. The international space of the Danish testing community in the interwar years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is to draw attention to the presence and importance of travelling ideas, knowledge, and practices in Danish history of educational test- ing. The article introduces and employs a spatial methodological approach in relation to the connections between the international...

  12. Optimal closed-loop identification test design for internal model control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, optimal closed-loop test design for control is studied. Simple design formulas are derived based on the asymptotic theory of Ljung. The control scheme used is internal model control (IMC) and the design constraint is the power of the process output or that of the reference signal. The

  13. Evaluation of the preliminary auditory profile test battery in an international multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, T.E.M.; Kollmeier, B.; Vormann, M.; Lijzenga, J.; Houtgast, T.; Hallgren, M.; Larsby, B.; Athalye, S.P.; Lutman, M.E.; Dreschler, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the composition and international multi-centre evaluation of a battery of tests termed the preliminary auditory profile. It includes measures of loudness perception, listening effort, speech perception, spectral and temporal resolution, spatial hearing, self-reported

  14. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2008-01-01

    Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries' rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum's Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI).…

  15. Characteristics and international comparability of the Finnish matrix sentence test in cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Aarno; Buschermöhle, Michael; Sivonen, Ville; Willberg, Tytti; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Lenarz, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The first Finnish sentence-based speech test in noise--the Finnish matrix sentence test--was recently developed. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the new test with respect to test-retest reliability, speech recognition curve, and international comparability in Finnish cochlear implant (CI) recipients. The speech reception thresholds (SRT) were measured by means of an adaptive test procedure and compared with the results of the traditional Finnish word test. Additional measurements for concurrent slope and SRT estimation were conducted to determine the speech recognition curve and to check the test-retest reliability. The measurements were performed on 78 Finnish CI recipients. In a subset of 25 patients, additional measurements for test-retest reliability and slope determination were performed. The mean SRT was -3.5 ± 1.7 dB SNR, with only a weak correlation with the Finnish word test. Test-retest reliability was within ± 1 dB and the mean slope of the speech recognition curve was 14.6 ± 3.6 %/dB. The rehabilitation results were similar to the results published for the German matrix test. The Finnish matrix test was found to be suitable and efficient in CI recipients with similar characteristics as the German matrix test.

  16. Why wait if you can switch? A short term testing effect in cross-language recognition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkoeijen, Peter; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Camp, Gino

    2018-01-01

    Taking a memory test after an initial study phase produces better long-term retention than restudying the items, a phenomenon known as the testing effect. We propose that this effect emerges because testing strengthens semantic features of items’ memory traces, whereas restudying strengthens surface

  17. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  18. Testing and Performance Verification of a High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Rotor in an Internal Flow Component Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Podboy, Gary G.; Miller, Christopher J.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    A 1/5 scale model rotor representative of a current technology, high bypass ratio, turbofan engine was installed and tested in the W8 single-stage, high-speed, compressor test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The same fan rotor was tested previously in the GRC 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel as a fan module consisting of the rotor and outlet guide vanes mounted in a flight-like nacelle. The W8 test verified that the aerodynamic performance and detailed flow field of the rotor as installed in W8 were representative of the wind tunnel fan module installation. Modifications to W8 were necessary to ensure that this internal flow facility would have a flow field at the test package that is representative of flow conditions in the wind tunnel installation. Inlet flow conditioning was designed and installed in W8 to lower the fan face turbulence intensity to less than 1.0 percent in order to better match the wind tunnel operating environment. Also, inlet bleed was added to thin the casing boundary layer to be more representative of a flight nacelle boundary layer. On the 100 percent speed operating line the fan pressure rise and mass flow rate agreed with the wind tunnel data to within 1 percent. Detailed hot film surveys of the inlet flow, inlet boundary layer and fan exit flow were compared to results from the wind tunnel. The effect of inlet casing boundary layer thickness on fan performance was quantified. Challenges and lessons learned from testing this high flow, low static pressure rise fan in an internal flow facility are discussed.

  19. Washback to Learning Outcomes: A Comparative Study of IELTS Preparation and University Pre-Sessional Language Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether dedicated test preparation classes gave learners an advantage in improving their writing test scores. Score gains following instruction on a measure of academic writing skills--the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) academic writing test--were compared across language courses of three types; all…

  20. First International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Wind Turbine Drivetrains: Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.; Link, H.; McDade, M.; Mander, A.; Fox, J. C.; Rigas, N.

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the First International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Wind Turbine Drivetrains, held from June 13 to 14, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center, located south of Boulder, Colorado. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and cohosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Clemson University under ongoing collaboration via a cooperative research and development agreement. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to discuss the research, testing needs, and state-of-the-art apparatuses involved in grid compliance testing of utility-scale wind turbine generators. This includes both dynamometer testing of wind turbine drivetrains ('ground testing') and field testing grid-connected wind turbines. Four sessions followed by discussions in which all attendees of the workshop were encouraged to participate comprised the workshop.