WorldWideScience

Sample records for international inter govern

  1. Contested Norms in Inter-National Encounters: The ‘Turbot War’ as a Prelude to Fairer Fisheries Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Wiener

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is about contested norms in inter-national encounters in global fisheries governance. It illustrates how norms work by reconstructing the trajectory of the 1995 ‘Turbot War’ as a series of inter-national encounters among diverse sets of Canadian and European stakeholders. By unpacking the contestations and identifying the norms at stake, it is suggested that what began as action at cross-purposes (i.e. each party referring to a different fundamental norm, ultimately holds the potential for fairer fisheries governance. This finding is shown by linking source and settlement of the dispute and identifying the shared concern for the balance between the right to fish and the responsibility for sustainable fisheries. The article develops a framework to elaborate on procedural details including especially the right for stakeholder access to regular contestation. It is organised in four sections: section 1 summarises the argument, section 2 presents the framework of critical norms research, section 3 reconstructs contestations of fisheries norms over the duration of the dispute, and section 4 elaborates on the dispute as a prelude to fairer fisheries governance. The latter is based on a novel conceptual focus on stakeholder access to contestation at the meso-layer of fisheries governance where organising principles are negotiated close to policy and political processes, respectively. The conclusion suggests for future research to pay more attention to the link between the ‘is’ and the ‘ought’ of norms in critical norms research in International Relations theories (IR.

  2. Local Government Internal Audit Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local government councils (LGC rely on a number of funding sources including state and federal governments as well as their community constituents to enable them to provide a range of public services. Given the constraints on these funding sources councils need to have in place a range of strategies and policies capable of providing good governance and must appropriately discharge their financial accountabilities. To assist LGC with meeting their governance and accountability obligations they often seek guidance from their key stakeholders. For example, in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW, the Office of Local Government has developed a set of guidelines, the Internal Audit Guidelines. In 2010 the NSW Office of Local Government issued revised guidelines emphasising that an internal audit committee is an essential component of good governance. In addition, the guidelines explained that to improve the governance and accountability of the councils, these committees should be composed of a majority of independent members. To maintain committee independence the guidelines indicated that the Mayor should not be a member of the committee. However these are only guidelines, not legislated requirements and as such compliance with the guidelines, before they were revised, has been demonstrated to be quite low (Jones & Bowrey 2013. This study, based on a review of NSW Local Government Councils’ 2012/2013 reports, including Annual Reportsrelation to internal audit committees, to determine if the guidelines are effective in improving local government council governance.

  3. Learning and Governance in Inter-Firm Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2005-01-01

    This article connects theory of learning with theory of governance, in the context of inter-firm relations.It recognizes fundamental criticism of transaction cost economics (TCE), but preserves elements from that theory.Two kinds of relational risk are identified: hold-up and spillover risk.For the

  4. Learning And Governance In Inter-Firm Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nooteboom (Bart)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article connects theory of learning with theory of governance, in the context of inter-firm relations. It recognizes fundamental criticism of transaction cost economics (TCE), but preserves elements from that theory. Two kinds of relational risk are identified: hold-up and spillover

  5. INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNANCE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE

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    Henri L.F. de GROOT

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ineffective institutions and bad governance increase transaction costs and reduce international transport flows. In this paper, we empirically investigate this basic notion, and we show that it can account for several, so far, somewhat puzzling results in the empirical literature estimating gravity equations of bilateral trade. More specifically, we show that differences in the quality and effectiveness of institutions offer an explanation for the tendency of OECD countries to trade disproportionately with each other, and with non-OECD countries, as well as for the positive effect of GDP per capita on bilateral trade.

  6. Emerging Governance Architectures in Global Health: Do Metagovernance Norms Explain Inter-Organisational Convergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Holzscheiter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a theoretical account of institutional transformation and the emergence of order in global inter-organisational relations, which is centred on the concept of “metagovernance”. It does so by theorising on the advent of governance architectures in global health governance—relationships between international organisations (IOs in this field that are stable over time. Global health governance is routinely portrayed as an exceptionally fragmented field of international cooperation with a perceived lack of synergy and choreography between international and transnational organisations. However, our paper starts from the observation that there are also movements of convergence between international organisations. We seek to explain these by looking at the effects of international norms that define good global governance as orderly and harmonised global governance. We conceptualize such norms as “metagovernance norms” that are enacted in reflexive practices which govern and order the relationships between international organisations. Empirically, this paper traces changing interactions and institutional arrangements between IOs (World Health Organization; World Bank; Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in global health governance since the late 1940s and shows how patterns therein reflect and (reproduce broader discursive perceptions of what “health” is about and how the governance thereof ought to be organised.

  7. Intern kontrol fra et Corporate Governance perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Laursen, Peter Birkholm

    interessegrupper. Derfor er hovedspørgsmålet i dette paper, om COSO-frameworket er tilstrækkeligt, når intern kontrol ses fra et Corporate Governance perspektiv. Spørgsmålet bliver forsøgt besvaret ved at undersøge udviklingen i opfattelsen af intern kontrol over tid. Opfattelsen af intern kontrol hos Corporate...... intern kontrol og (2) giver mulighed for at sammenligne opfattelsen af intern kontrol hos revisorerne med de øvrige Corporate Governance aktører. Der er tale om ikke tidligere foretagne undersøgelser som viser, at eksterne revisorer varetager deres økonomiske særinteresser i deres beskrivelser af det...... interne kontrolbegrebs indhold. Endelig understøtter analyserne en øget fokusering på risikostyring indenfor virksomhedsledelse og de deraf afledte forskelligartede implikationer for Corporate Governance aktørerne....

  8. Intern kontrol fra et Corporate Governance perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Laursen, Peter Birkholm

    interessegrupper. Derfor er hovedspørgsmålet i dette paper, om COSO-frameworket er tilstrækkeligt, når intern kontrol ses fra et Corporate Governance perspektiv. Spørgsmålet bliver forsøgt besvaret ved at undersøge udviklingen i opfattelsen af intern kontrol over tid. Opfattelsen af intern kontrol hos Corporate...... intern kontrol og (2) giver mulighed for at sammenligne opfattelsen af intern kontrol hos revisorerne med de øvrige Corporate Governance aktører. Der er tale om ikke tidligere foretagne undersøgelser som viser, at eksterne revisorer varetager deres økonomiske særinteresser i deres beskrivelser af det...... interne kontrolbegrebs indhold. Endelig understøtter analyserne en øget fokusering på risikostyring indenfor virksomhedsledelse og de deraf afledte forskelligartede implikationer for Corporate Governance aktørerne....

  9. Governing International Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses the international education sector in Australia as a case study to argue against understanding globalization as an exogenous force. It introduces the notion of globalization as a governmentality and discusses alternative interpretations which take into account notions of subjectivity, positionality and space/time. The paper…

  10. Internal Audits: A Must for Governing Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcorn, Seth

    1983-01-01

    Internal auditing, which can help governing boards exercise their control responsibilities, is discussed, including financial, compliance, and operations auditing. Governing boards should be prepared to handle reports on operation audits, financial and compliance audits, and reviews of management information systems. (MLW)

  11. Internal Audits: A Must for Governing Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcorn, Seth

    1983-01-01

    Internal auditing, which can help governing boards exercise their control responsibilities, is discussed, including financial, compliance, and operations auditing. Governing boards should be prepared to handle reports on operation audits, financial and compliance audits, and reviews of management information systems. (MLW)

  12. Legal Personality of Inter-Governmental International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon the incorporation of an inter-governmental international organization, the states assign to such entities some of their powers, based on which the organization will promote the collective interests of its members. Thus, the international organizations perform some public functions based on which they enter in contact with other entities of international order, such as different states or other organizations. Manifesting as such, they acquire their own legal personality, distinct from that of the states forming it, and which it is opposable erga omnes. The scope of such article is to examine the legal personality of inter-governmental international organizations providing one apprehends the limits of their juridical personality. In the achievement of such objective, I have developed both the internal juridical personality and the international juridical personality of international organizations, recording the manner of manifestation of such legal personality.

  13. Intern kontrol fra et Corporate Governance Perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Laursen, Peter Birkholm

    2003-01-01

    En stadig voksende interesse for risiko styring (Risk Management) som en central proces i virksomhedsledelse vil måske betyde en ændret opfattelse af intern kontrol. Dette artikel fokuserer på intern kontrol fra et Corporate Governance perspektiv. "Intern kontrol" kan udfra de forskellige...... definitioner på begrebet summarisk beskrives som et begreb der integrerer kontrol og elementer, der kan henføres til overordnet ledelse/daglig ledelse i forbindelse med disses styring af virksomheden (Laursen, 2000). De forskellige aktører identificeret ved Corporate Governance perspektivet kan have forskellig...

  14. Intern kontrol fra et Corporate Governance Perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Laursen, Peter Birkholm

    2003-01-01

    En stadig voksende interesse for risiko styring (Risk Management) som en central proces i virksomhedsledelse vil måske betyde en ændret opfattelse af intern kontrol. Dette artikel fokuserer på intern kontrol fra et Corporate Governance perspektiv. "Intern kontrol" kan udfra de forskellige...... definitioner på begrebet summarisk beskrives som et begreb der integrerer kontrol og elementer, der kan henføres til overordnet ledelse/daglig ledelse i forbindelse med disses styring af virksomheden (Laursen, 2000). De forskellige aktører identificeret ved Corporate Governance perspektivet kan have forskellig...

  15. Perceived Significance of Improved Patient Data and Healthcare Services in the Formation of Inter-organizational Healthcare IT Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlberg, Tomi

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: Digital Society; International audience; IT is seen as the means to develop healthcare and social welfare services for citizens and to improve the quality of medical and social welfare data. This is deemed to require better IT cooperation between organizations. My research investigates the formation of voluntary inter-organizational IT governance in healthcare and social welfare IT engaging over 100 organizations. Attention is placed especially on the perceived benefits of IT governan...

  16. Empowering citizens in international governance of nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malsch, Ineke, E-mail: malschtechnovaluation@xs4all.nl, E-mail: postbus@malsch.demon.nl [Malsch TechnoValuation (Netherlands); Subramanian, Vrishali; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Marcomini, Antonio [Ca’Foscari University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics (Italy); Mullins, Martin; Hester, Karena; McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr [University of Limerick, Department of Accounting and Finance, Kemmy Business School (Ireland); Tofail, Syed A. M. [University of Limerick, Department of Physics and Energy, and Materials and Surface Sciences Institute (MSSI) (Ireland)

    2015-05-15

    The international dialogue on responsible governance of nanotechnologies engages a wide range of actors with conflicting as well as common interests. It is also characterised by a lack of evidence-based data on uncertain risks of in particular engineered nanomaterials. The present paper aims at deepening understanding of the collective decision making context at international level using the grounded theory approach as proposed by Glaser and Strauss in “The Discovery of Grounded Theory” (1967). This starts by discussing relevant concepts from different fields including sociological and political studies of international relations as well as political philosophy and ethics. This analysis of current trends in international law making is taken as starting point for exploring the role that a software decision support tool could play in multi-stakeholder global governance of nanotechnologies. These theoretical ideas are then compared with the current design of the SUN Decision Support System (SUNDS) under development in the European project on Sustainable Nanotechnologies (SUN, www.sun-fp7.eu http://www.sun-fp7.eu ). Through constant comparison, the ideas are also compared with requirements of different stakeholders as expressed during a user workshop. This allows for highlighting discussion points for further consideration.

  17. Empowering citizens in international governance of nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsch, Ineke; Subramanian, Vrishali; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Marcomini, Antonio; Mullins, Martin; Hester, Karena; McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Tofail, Syed A. M.

    2015-05-01

    The international dialogue on responsible governance of nanotechnologies engages a wide range of actors with conflicting as well as common interests. It is also characterised by a lack of evidence-based data on uncertain risks of in particular engineered nanomaterials. The present paper aims at deepening understanding of the collective decision making context at international level using the grounded theory approach as proposed by Glaser and Strauss in "The Discovery of Grounded Theory" (1967). This starts by discussing relevant concepts from different fields including sociological and political studies of international relations as well as political philosophy and ethics. This analysis of current trends in international law making is taken as starting point for exploring the role that a software decision support tool could play in multi-stakeholder global governance of nanotechnologies. These theoretical ideas are then compared with the current design of the SUN Decision Support System (SUNDS) under development in the European project on Sustainable Nanotechnologies (SUN, www.sun-fp7.eu). Through constant comparison, the ideas are also compared with requirements of different stakeholders as expressed during a user workshop. This allows for highlighting discussion points for further consideration.

  18. Governance networks as a frame for inter-demoi participation and deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2012-01-01

    to identify standards for institutional setups that facilitate inter-demoi participation and deliberation. Governance networks represent a part of the challenge posed by the emerging pluricentric system of governance. They may be a central means to cope with the new call for democratic regulation across demoi...... between demoi. The need to find ways to increase the democratic quality of inter-demoi interaction is growing rapidly due to the emergence of a pluricentric political system in which cross-demoi decision-making is more the rule than the exception. There is an urgent call for new theories of democracy able...

  19. Modes of governance in inter-organisational data collaborations : Complete Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Veenstra, A-F. van

    2015-01-01

    Big data and data-driven innovation are drivers for economic growth. To capture this growth, data often need to be shared among organisations. However, many challenges to sharing data among organisations exist. This paper investigates how governance is organised in inter-organisational data

  20. Modes of governance in inter-organisational data collaborations : Complete Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Veenstra, A-F. van

    2015-01-01

    Big data and data-driven innovation are drivers for economic growth. To capture this growth, data often need to be shared among organisations. However, many challenges to sharing data among organisations exist. This paper investigates how governance is organised in inter-organisational data collabor

  1. Governance and control as mediating instruments in an inter-firm relationship: towards collaboration or transactions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahir-ul-Hassan, M.K.; Minnaar, R.A.; Vosselman, E.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the mediation of governance and control structures in an inter-firm relationship between a semiconductor producer and its contractor. As mediating instruments the contract and the control structures are not just pre-given results of distanced managerial decision-making, but are g

  2. Governance of the International Linear Collider Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, B.; /Oxford U.; Barish, B.; /Caltech; Delahaye, J.P.; /CERN; Dosselli, U.; /INFN, Padua; Elsen, E.; /DESY; Harrison, M.; /Brookhaven; Mnich, J.; /DESY; Paterson, J.M.; /SLAC; Richard, F.; /Orsay, LAL; Stapnes, S.; /CERN; Suzuki, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Wormser, G.; /Orsay, LAL; Yamada, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2012-05-31

    Governance models for the International Linear Collider Project are examined in the light of experience from similar international projects around the world. Recommendations for one path which could be followed to realize the ILC successfully are outlined. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a unique endeavour in particle physics; fully international from the outset, it has no 'host laboratory' to provide infrastructure and support. The realization of this project therefore presents unique challenges, in scientific, technical and political arenas. This document outlines the main questions that need to be answered if the ILC is to become a reality. It describes the methodology used to harness the wisdom displayed and lessons learned from current and previous large international projects. From this basis, it suggests both general principles and outlines a specific model to realize the ILC. It recognizes that there is no unique model for such a laboratory and that there are often several solutions to a particular problem. Nevertheless it proposes concrete solutions that the authors believe are currently the best choices in order to stimulate discussion and catalyze proposals as to how to bring the ILC project to fruition. The ILC Laboratory would be set up by international treaty and be governed by a strong Council to whom a Director General and an associated Directorate would report. Council would empower the Director General to give strong management to the project. It would take its decisions in a timely manner, giving appropriate weight to the financial contributions of the member states. The ILC Laboratory would be set up for a fixed term, capable of extension by agreement of all the partners. The construction of the machine would be based on a Work Breakdown Structure and value engineering and would have a common cash fund sufficiently large to allow the management flexibility to optimize the project's construction. Appropriate contingency

  3. The politics of inter-regionalism: Relations between international regional organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, J.M. van der; Ribeiro Hoffman, A.

    2013-01-01

    As the development of relations between international regional organizations, inter-regionalism denotes a relatively recent phenomenon. Largely due to systemic bipolarity, inter-regional relations remained limited to 'dialogue partnerships' between the European Community (EC) and other regional

  4. The politics of inter-regionalism: Relations between international regional organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, J.M. van der; Ribeiro Hoffman, A.

    2013-01-01

    As the development of relations between international regional organizations, inter-regionalism denotes a relatively recent phenomenon. Largely due to systemic bipolarity, inter-regional relations remained limited to 'dialogue partnerships' between the European Community (EC) and other regional grou

  5. Modelling Inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries with Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Lopez-Puga, J.; Carmona-Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    Improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). This inter-dependency has been recognised with the adoption of the "Integrated Water Resources Management" principles that push for the integration of these various dimensions involved in WSS delivery to ensure an efficient and sustainable management. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector in particular in developing countries where WSS still represent an important leverage for livelihood improvement. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed a coherent database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 29 indicators from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data focusing on developing countries (Celine et al, 2011 under publication). The aim of this work is to model the WatSan4Dev dataset using probabilistic models to identify the key variables influencing or being influenced by the water supply and sanitation access levels. Bayesian Network Models are suitable to map the conditional dependencies between variables and also allows ordering variables by level of influence on the dependent variable. Separated models have been built for water supply and for sanitation because of different behaviour. The models are validated if complying with statistical criteria but either with scientific knowledge and literature. A two steps approach has been adopted to build the structure of the model; Bayesian network is first built for each thematic cluster of variables (e.g governance, agricultural pressure, or human development) keeping a detailed level for interpretation later one. A global model is then built based on significant indicators of each cluster being previously modelled. The structure of the

  6. Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1981-01-01

    This second part of an annotated bibliography of reports, books, and journal articles concerned with internal auditing in government contexts reviews the available literature for an understanding of the types of internal audit, methods and practices, and other facets. (FM)

  7. Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1981-01-01

    This second part of an annotated bibliography of reports, books, and journal articles concerned with internal auditing in government contexts reviews the available literature for an understanding of the types of internal audit, methods and practices, and other facets. (FM)

  8. China's environmental governance: The domestic-international nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Gerald; Lee, Pak K.; Chan, Lai-Ha

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between China's domestic governance and its involvement in global governance in environmental protection by studying the major actors and issues involved in the interaction between the domestic and international spheres of activities. These actors include international institutions, national and local governments, nongovernmental organisations, and others. The paper demonstrates that China has made some substantive progress in protecting its environment, but...

  9. INTERNAL CONTROLS IN ENSURING GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed factors that influence the internal controls in ensuring good corporate governance in financial institutions in developing economies with special reference to Zimbabwe. The research paper assessed how lack of internal controls affected good corporate governance and aimed to bring out elements of good corporate governance. It emerged that failure to effectively implement internal controls contributed significantly to poor corporate governance. The study discovered that internal control system overrides and the issue of “fact cat” directors also contributed to poor corporate governance. The study recommended that there is need for the board of directors to guarantee an organizational structure that clearly defines management responsibilities, authority and reporting relationships. There is also need to ensure that delegated responsibilities are effectively carried out to ensure compliance with internal controls of the financial institution concerned.

  10. System Analysis in Developing an Effective Government Internal Audit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliki Heru Santosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Units of Government Internal Audit (GIA play a significant role in developing a system of good governance. They contribute to the improvement of public services delivery and the welfare of society. But some current governance issues in Indonesia, such as corruption, accountability and performance problems, raise questions concerning the effectiveness of Indonesia’s GIA units. The complexity of these issues requires cybernetic study to find holistic and effective solutions. The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of government internal audit systems in order to enhance the professionalism of government internal auditors and the maturity of the management processes that they audit.  This research was based on qualitative approaches with systems methodology. The instruments used during the research were regulatory analysis, survey, and in-depth interviews. The survey involved 205 Chief Audit Executives (CAE of Government Internal Supervisory Apparatus (GISA in national government and regional governments, and was conducted on-line or on paper. The survey was complemented by in-depth interview with 24 (twenty four senior stakeholders representing practitioners (the CAE of GISA units, internal users (governors, mayors, heads of regional planning agencies, external users (Indonesia’s Supreme Audit Board, SAB, regulators, and associations of professional internal auditors, both private sector (IIA and public sector (AAIPI. The research found that the effort of enhancing the role of the GIA units should be seen holistically. The improvement of the role of GIA units related to the stakeholders, including management line of the organization, the SAB, professional associations, regulators, and law enforcement officials as well as other factors. The arrangement of the internal audit system could allow the government auditors to improve their professionalism and help line management to mature their management processes. The emerging

  11. International marine environmental governance: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Kjell

    2017-05-01

    Impressive numbers of global and regional governmental and non-governmental organizations are working in the field of the marine environment and its resources. Many of these organizations operate within international legal frameworks ranging from comprehensive global conventions, such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to regional agreements aiming at protection and development of regional seas. Characteristic for the management of these seas, both at the national and international level, is that sectoral approaches predominate. Over time, several initiatives have been taken to improve cooperation, coordination and integration to achieve greater coherence of policies and strategies between different organizations dealing with marine and maritime management, within and outside the United Nation system. However, the success has been limited. The weaknesses of international organizations depend fundamentally on problems at the national level. The international organizations are no stronger than their Contracting Parties allow them to be.

  12. 15th International Conference on Global Research and Education Inter-Academia 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Szewczyk, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Developments in the connected fields of solid state physics, bioengineering, mechatronics and nanometrology have had a profound effect on the emergence of modern technologies and their influence on our lives. In all of these fields, understanding and improving the basic underlying materials is of crucial importance for the development of systems and applications. The International Conference Inter-Academia 2016 has successfully married these fields and become a regular feature in the conference calendar. It consisted of seven thematic areas in the field of material science, nanotechnology, biotechnology, plasma physics, metrology, robotics, sensors and devices. The book Recent Global Research and Education: Technological Challenges is intended for use in academic, government and industry R&D departments, as an indispensable reference tool for the years to come. Also, we hope that the volume can serve the world community as the definitive reference source in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. T...

  13. Internal compliance investigations can reduce government sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustokoff, M M; Yecies, M S

    1997-10-01

    An effective corporate compliance program is facilitated by three essential elements: a well-qualified compliance officer; a policy of immediate investigation of every report of potential fraud and abuse; and clearly defined roles for both corporate and outside counsel in conducting the investigations. A government agency is less likely to exercise the full extent of its powers when these elements are in place and three is evidence of a sincere compliance effort.

  14. International Project: Education, Industry, and Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Herschel P.; Bekkum, Victor A.

    A project that trained four Egyptian graduates of agricultural engineering and mechanization in the field of local manufacturing processes in Iowa is described. With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, training was conducted by Iowa State University and ALMACO (a small manufacturer of agricultural machines). Training…

  15. Corporate governance and international location decisions of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.; Sterken, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses international location decisions of corporations based on corporate governance considerations. Using firm level data on 540 Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) with 44,149 subsidiaries in 188 countries, we test whether firms with relatively good governance standards are more often l

  16. Corporate governance and international location decisions of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.; Sterken, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses international location decisions of corporations based on corporate governance considerations. Using firm level data on 540 Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) with 44,149 subsidiaries in 188 countries, we test whether firms with relatively good governance standards are more often l

  17. Nuclear waste governance. An international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria; Mez, Lutz; Schreurs, Miranda A. (eds.) [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    This volume examines the national plans that ten Euratom countries plus Switzerland and the United States are developing to address high-level radioactive waste storage and disposal. The chapters, which were written by 23 international experts, outline European and national regulations, technology choices, safety criteria, monitoring systems, compensation schemes, institutional structures, and approaches to public involvement. Key stakeholders, their values and interests are introduced, the responsibilities and authority of different actors considered, decision-making processes are analyzed as well as the factors influencing different national policy choices. The views and expectations of different communities regarding participatory decision making and compensation and the steps that have been or are being taken to promote dialogue and constructive problem-solving are also considered.

  18. Sub-state interests in bi-cameral legislatures: inter-institutional cooperation in decentralised government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc NAVARRO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the role of the second chamber in the vertical coordination of interests between national and subnational levels. Firstly, we specify the legislative governance variables which must be analyzed in bicameral countries in order to measure incentives and restrictions to strengthen vertical inter-institutional coordination, deepening political decentralization. Secondly, these variables –symmetry, congruence and political particularism– are broken down and ranked to be tested empirically in the nine bicameral countries existing in Latin America. Finally, with the results obtained, we are in a position to develop a bicameralism index that measures the role of second chambers as the institutional space where subnational interests are taken into the national Legislative body, encouraging vertical relations among institutions.

  19. Framework for E-Government Inter-Operability at National Level based on the Experience of Other Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashomeh Sadeghi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Inter-operability is a tool by which a link is established between systems, information and operations within an organization or organizations at a national, regional or even divisional level. Through mutual inter-operability, organizations could offer better quality of service at a lower cost. In order to inter-operate with one another and to share the needed information, organizations need to employ specific frameworks and models. The present paper intends to provide a framework for inter-operability among organizations using the experience gained by various countries in the area of E-Government inter-operability. The proposed framework encompasses various business, information, semantic and technical aspect. Each aspects in turn is comprised of different components. The Framework offered was validated using expert views.

  20. 26 CFR 1.1441-8 - Exemption from withholding for payments to foreign governments, international organizations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... foreign governments, international organizations, foreign central banks of issue, and the Bank for... payments to foreign governments, international organizations, foreign central banks of issue, and the Bank...). (d) Exemption for payments to international organizations. A payment to an international...

  1. The Evolvement of International Secretariats, Executive Heads and Leadership in Inter-Organizational Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinalda, B.; Kille, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses inter-organizational relations (IORs) from the perspective of the international Secretariat of an International Governmental Organization (IGO) and the organization’s Executive Head. IORs are a long-standing phenomenon that resulted from the evolution of IGOs, the increase in

  2. The Evolvement of International Secretariats, Executive Heads and Leadership in Inter-Organizational Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinalda, B.; Kille, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses inter-organizational relations (IORs) from the perspective of the international Secretariat of an International Governmental Organization (IGO) and the organization’s Executive Head. IORs are a long-standing phenomenon that resulted from the evolution of IGOs, the increase in

  3. International Advisory Councils and Internationalization of Governance: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihut, Georgiana; Altbach, Philip G.; Salmi, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the emergence of international advisory councils (IACs) at universities around the world and introduces the concept of internationalization of governance. Global trends in the field of higher education, such as the quest to create world-class universities and advance in global rankings, the rise of new public management, and…

  4. Assessing Summit Engagement with Other International Organizations in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed dramatic changes all over the world. One major trend is the proliferation and diversification of actors, forums and their arrangements to address global governance challenges, which has led to fragmentation in global governance. However, such contested multilateralism has a positive dimension, as the emergence of informal multilateral institutions claiming a major role in defining the global governance agenda creates alternatives for providing common goods. New arrangements acquire their own actorness and place in the system of global governance. In certain policy areas, there is a clear trend for the new summit institutions’ leadership. The most visible recent cases include the Group of 20 (G20, the BRICS group of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC forum, with APEC gaining importance regionally and globally. These new informal groupings work on their own agenda. They also engage with established international organizations to steer global governance processes. Taken together, the transformative trends in international relations, the emergence of new actors, tensions between exclusive and inclusive clubs, and demands for the legitimacy and effectiveness of the international institutions define the relevance of the study, systematization and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of this model of cooperation among international institutions. This article builds an analytical framework by undertaking three tasks. It first reviews the key concepts. Second, it argues for a rational choice institutionalist approach. Third, it puts forward a hypothesis for research: to compensate for their inefficiencies, summit institutions engage with other international organizations in a mode they regard most efficient for attainment of their goals. The modes of those institutions’ engagement with other international organizations as reflected in the leaders

  5. 'Pop-Up' Governance: developing internal governance frameworks for consortia: the example of UK10K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jane; Muddyman, Dawn; Smee, Carol; Kennedy, Karen; Bell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in information technologies have facilitated the development of new styles of research networks and forms of governance. This is evident in genomics where increasingly, research is carried out by large, interdisciplinary consortia focussing on a specific research endeavour. The UK10K project is an example of a human genomics consortium funded to provide insights into the genomics of rare conditions, and establish a community resource from generated sequence data. To achieve its objectives according to the agreed timetable, the UK10K project established an internal governance system to expedite the research and to deal with the complex issues that arose. The project's governance structure exemplifies a new form of network governance called 'pop-up' governance. 'Pop-up' because: it was put together quickly, existed for a specific period, was designed for a specific purpose, and was dismantled easily on project completion. In this paper, we use UK10K to describe how 'pop-up' governance works on the ground and how relational, hierarchical and contractual governance mechanisms are used in this new form of network governance.

  6. Internet financial reporting, infrastructures and corporate governance: An international analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalu Ojah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a panel of 44 developed and developing countries, this paper analyzes the macro-environmental determinants of Internet financial reporting (IFR within the context of corporate governance models, and thus, addresses the question of which governance model's disclosure demands are more associated with IFR. Both physical and institutional infrastructures are shown to be important determinants of a country's adoption of IFR. Along with the corporate governance structure, these infrastructures combine with IFR to enhance transparency and market efficiency, both major goals of financial reporting and disclosure. These findings point to requisite environmental infrastructures governments must provide or foster for firms within their confines to effectively adopt IFR and thus, reap the attendant benefits of disclosure. They also contribute to the debate on harmonization of international financial reporting by showing that requisite environmental infrastructures are a precondition for the success of any reporting system.

  7. 48 CFR 45.302 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 45.302 Section 45.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Government Property 45.302 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. Requests by, or for the benefit of, foreign Governments or international organizations to use Government...

  8. 48 CFR 1445.302 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 1445.302 Section 1445.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Government Property 1445.302 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. The HCA... governments or international organizations request use of Government production and research property...

  9. Exclusive Minilateralism: An Emerging Discourse within International Climate Change Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Scott McGee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past five years there have been a series of significant international climate change agreements involving only elite state actors. The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, APEC Sydney Leaders Declaration and US Major Economies Process all displayed a shift towards a model of international climate change governance involving a small group of economically powerful states, to the exclusion of less powerful states and environmental NGOs. The modest result from the UNFCCC COP 15 meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009 and subsequent UNFCCC meetings has strengthened calls for international climate governance to be pared down to smaller decision making forums of key states only. This article argues that these developments evidence an emerging discourse of ‘exclusive minilateralism’ in international climate policy that is challenging the inclusive multilateral discourse that has formed the bedrock of international climate change governance since the inception of UN climate regime in the early 1990s. The exclusive minilateralism discourse offers a significant challenge to both the cosmopolitan and discursive democratic aspirations of international climate change governance. One response to the exclusive minilateral discourse is to reform the UNFCCC consensus-based decision making rule to provide the COP with greater ease of decision making on key issues relating to mitigation and adaptation. Another response is to more formally include the exclusive minilateralism discourse within the UNFCCC COP process. This could be achieved by forming a small peak body of states and key NGO groups to act as an influential advisor to the COP process on key issues requiring expedition and resolution.

  10. Conceptualising Terrorism: International Offence or Domestic Governance Tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that terrorism does not belong within the realm of international criminal law. On the surface, it is the lack of internationally agreed definition of terrorism and its domestic law origins that set it apart from the notions of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide....... Digging just a little deeper, the divergence, which is best explained using the language of criminology, stems from the political nature of the war on terror. Terrorism is a policy offence utilised by states in pursuit of broader governance objectives....

  11. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY: U.S. Government... 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government reflect... Internal Control in the Federal Government, 2013 Exposure Draft, is available and can be downloaded...

  12. 48 CFR 3445.405 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 3445.405 Section 3445.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Rental of Government Property 3445.405 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. Requests by, or for the benefit of, foreign governments or international organizations to use ED...

  13. Assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia: internal consistency and inter-observer reliability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the internal consistency and inter-observer reliability of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia is presented. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL). The study was conducted at occupational therapy departments in

  14. Assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia : Internal consistency and inter-observer reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, CM; Dekker, J; Deelman, BG; Stehmann-Saris, JC; Kinebanian, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the internal consistency and inter-observer reliability of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia is presented. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL). The study was conducted at occupational therapy departments in

  15. Assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia : Internal consistency and inter-observer reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, CM; Dekker, J; Deelman, BG; Stehmann-Saris, JC; Kinebanian, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the internal consistency and inter-observer reliability of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia is presented. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL). The study was conducted at occupational therapy departments in

  16. The Global Governance of Renewable Energy: International Trends and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Lanshina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an unprecedented explosive growth of renewable energy. The demand for global governance in this sphere has also increased. Existing energy institutes proved to be unable to take lead in global governance not only in renewables, but also in the whole energy sector. Therefore, the last 10 to 15 years have been marked by attempts to solve renewable (as well as traditional energy problems at the informal level, or within the framework of Group of Seven/Eight, the Group of 20 and the BRICS group of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Moreover, authoritative organizations wholly devoted to renewable energy (such as the International Renewable Energy Agency have emerged. This article studies the structure and trends of the modern global governance of renewable energy. The authors analyze the role and functions of traditional and new energy institutions and informal groupings, and draw parallels with global governance of the whole energy sector. They pay special attention to Russia’s participation in international renewable energy incentives. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are applied. The article contains multiple examples of analytical research methods and a content analysis of international documents. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of Russia’s results in complying with the renewable energy commitments of informal groups. The authors conclude that traditional international energy organizations sustain a passive position toward renewable energy. The only exclusion is the International Energy Agency, which has transformed its agenda to include renewable energy. The role of informal groups has been limited (because they have broad agendas and because they were created for other tasks than promoting renewable energy. However, their efforts have a positive influence on the harmonization and development of governance in renewable energy. The article argues that on most sensitive energy

  17. Global Financial Governance: a Perspective from the International Monetary Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Wilczyński

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An environment for the activities of the International Monetary Fund (the IMF has fundamentally changed over the two recent decades. The strong development of financial innovations as well as of financial globalisation was among major forces driving the change and shaping the economic growth worldwide. As some economies were able - with the support from financial markets – to accelerate their growth, other countries suffered from turbulences, which were reinforced and transferred internationally through the volatile financial markets. The process of international financial contagion makes the case for global financial governance, which so far has been left behind the development of markets. The IMF is mandated to play a central role in the global governance designed to ensure financial stability. The article reconsiders the Fund’s role and includes an overview and assessment of its activities, particularly in the context of the global financial crisis in 2007-2010. In the aftermath of this crisis, the international financial stability may, however, again be at risk as several external imbalances in the global economy may be hardly sustainable. It is argued in the paper that, in addition to a gradually improving surveillance and lending as well as to adjusting resources by the Fund, an enhanced credibility of the institution is needed so that its role in the process of the stabilising global financial system is strong and effective.

  18. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dondeynaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS, being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation. These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission (EC has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database containing 42 indicators (called variables in this paper from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality, and finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. Based on 25 relevant variables, the relationships between variables are described and organised into five factors (HDP – Human Development against Poverty, AP – Human Activity Pressure on water resources, WR – Water Resources, ODA – Official Development Aid, CEC – Country Environmental Concern. Linear regression methods are used to identify key variables having influence on water supply and sanitation. First analysis indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor negatively influencing the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children's health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Irrigation is also enhancing Water Supply service thanks to multi-purpose infrastructure. Five country profiles are also created to deeper understand and synthetize the amount of information gathered

  19. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Carmona Moreno, C.; Céspedes Lorente, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 42 indicators (called variables in this paper) from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality, and finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. Based on 25 relevant variables, the relationships between variables are described and organised into five factors (HDP - Human Development against Poverty, AP - Human Activity Pressure on water resources, WR - Water Resources, ODA - Official Development Aid, CEC - Country Environmental Concern). Linear regression methods are used to identify key variables having influence on water supply and sanitation. First analysis indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor negatively influencing the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children's health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Irrigation is also enhancing Water Supply service thanks to multi-purpose infrastructure. Five country profiles are also created to deeper understand and synthetize the amount of information gathered. This new

  20. Governing education systems: International trends and main topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different approaches and international trends in governing education systems and analyses the causes of the perceived convergence of education policies in this field. An overview of the situation in countries throughout the world indicates an increasingly greater mutual similarity in governing education systems, especially when it comes to insisting on the following: searching for balance in (decentralization of the system, increasing school autonomy, reinforcing the role of evaluation and professional accountability, and developing quasi-market regulatory mechanisms in education. The author argues that convergence of governing education systems is conditioned by common, primarily, economic challenges and increasingly greater importance of transnational regulation in education. Besides the traditional ways of transferring, such as borrowing solutions from other systems, numerous multilateral organizations have lately had a significant role in transnational spreading of education policy. In the concluding part, the author argues that a relatively neglected model of internal school development, based on the idea of organizational learning, has a potential to significantly complement the prevailing regulatory models and thereby enhance their effectiveness and efficiency.

  1. International Context and China’s Government-Business Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIANBIAO; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates China’s government-business relations in an international context. In general, it argues that since China was incorporated into the European international system in the mid-19 th century, the motive of survival and competition has gradually come to dominate the political practices of the Chinese elites, and this is especially the case since 1949 when an autonomous state was finally created. Furthermore, a particular international context often induces a corresponding state reaction. The Cold War structure and conditions of late development pressed the Chinese state to centralize its power and engage in forceful industrialization through a central planning system. This then created an extreme form of governmentbusiness relations, with overwhelming power residing with the former. Later on, after China moved closer to the United States in terms of world politics, and when the Cold War structure was replaced by a multi-polar structure characterized by American hegemony, coinciding with the rapid expansion of the world market and the change of development conditions to compressed development, the Chinese state engaged in economic liberalization and decentralization. This resulted in a substantial modification of the power balance between the state and business, and gave rise to various forms of government-business relations.

  2. INTERNAL GOVERNANCE AND ROLE OF INTERNAL AUDIT IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. CASE STUDY: RISK BASED PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis from 2008 was considered a trigger to reshape the financial systems and to enhance the risk management practices. Considering the developments and new guidelines that are now used it can be observed a “positive” effect of the crisis, in particular to strengthen the risk management culture and governance in all aspects. Comparing to 2008 year, the improvements that have been made to the risk management systems can be easily observed in the financial institutions. For the scope of the article, the subject of this review will be focused on the internal audit function. The main aspect is to capture the new practices that are now used in order to contribute to a performing internal governance system. A case study will be presented in order to better understand how the internal audit function is designed and acting as a “line” of defence in the internal governance system. Also, it is in the scope of the article to issue some recommendations for future developments of the audit function in order to better manage its mission and the objectives. A risk based model used in the planning activities is presented. The financial institutions improved significantly their internal governance system. The internal audit function is now better integrated in the internal structures and clear lines of communication were settled. As the conclusion of the article is illustrating, the internal governance was frequently not sufficiently developed causing a failure in the risk management systems from the systemically financial institutions. The content of the article has practical applicability, as the results and the recommendations could be used in the design of an audit function within a financial institution.

  3. INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC ASSOCIATION IETF AS ACTOR OF INTERNET GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shirin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is a result of research of role played by an international public associa­tion “Internet Engineering Task Force” in international Internet governance sys­tem. The object of the research is a process of construction of a system of institu­tions which coordinate development of Internet. In the article, potential of non­governmental actors in this area is assessed. The article highlights causes and possi­ble effects of IETF activities as the most highly respected nongovernmental associa­tions which try to solve one of the urgent problems of world politics – transforma­tion of an existing approach to Internet governance. IETF approach is compared with approaches of other nongovernmental organizations and public associations such as ICANN, W3C and WaSP. The conclusion is made that authority of IETF in the community of Internet projects developers enables this public association to de­fine the key characteristics of technological policy in Internet evolution. Thus, IETF is considered as one of the key actors of international system of Internet gover­nance. Also, the importance of IETF-like associations has been underestimated by governmental actors yet. This underestimation determines Russian, Chinese and Iranian attacks on ICANN. These states support a project of full internationaliza­tion of Internet governance and consider ICANN as an organization which controls the Internet for the benefit of the United States of America.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-28

  4. THE THEORETICAL PATH, CHARACTERISTICS AND CHALLENGE TO GOVERNANCE OF THE INTER-ETHNIC RELATION IN CONTEMPOARARY MYANMAR%当代缅甸族际关系治理的路径、特点与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟贵峰

    2015-01-01

    The governance of inter-ethnic relations has been going throughout the whole historical process of the nation-state construction in contemporary Myanmar.The value orientation of inter-ethnic relations governance adjusts in each historical period, so the path selection of governance and application is not the same, the effect of governance varies considerably.By the means of historical investigation to the governance of inter-ethnic relations in contemporary Myanmar, it is found that the governance of inter-ethnic relations in Myanmar bears some basic characteristics such as governance subject centralization, block out of governance environment, homogenization of governance orientation and unilateralization of gov-ernance process.Frequent alternation of political power, enlarged inter-ethnic differences and internation-alization of inter-ethnic relations constitute severe challenges to the governance of inter-ethnic relations in contemporary Myanmar.%当代缅甸族际关系治理贯穿了整个民族国家建设的历史进程。缅甸各历史阶段族际关系治理的价值取向都有所调整,因而治理的路径选择与运用也不尽相同,治理效果也有很大差异。通过对当代缅甸族际关系治理进行历史考察,可以发现缅甸族际关系治理具有治理主体一元化、治理环境封闭化、治理取向同质化和治理进路单向化等基本特征。政权更迭频繁化、族际差异分殊化和族际关系国际化等问题对当代缅甸族际关系治理构成了严峻的挑战。

  5. International Microgrid Assessment. Governance, INcentives, and Experience (IMAGINE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Qu, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Microgrids can provide an avenue for increasing the amount of distributed generation and delivery of electricity, where control is more dispersed and quality of service is locally tailored to end-use requirements. Much of this functionality is very different from the predominant utility model to date of centralized power production which is then transmitted and distributed across long distances with a uniform quality of service. This different functionality holds much promise for positive change, in terms of increasing reliability, energy efficiency, and renewable energy while decreasing and carbon emissions. All of these functions should provide direct cost savings for customers and utilities as well as positive externalities for society. As we have seen from the international experience, allowing microgrids to function in parallel with the grid requires some changes in electricity governance and incentives to capture cost savings and actively price in positive externalities. If China can manage to implement these governance changes and create those incentive policies, it will go beyond the establishment of a successful microgrid demonstration program and become an international leader in microgrid deployment.

  6. 78 FR 22263 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting AGENCY... (GAO) is initiating efforts to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government... Internal Control in the Federal Government please contact Kristen Kociolek, Assistant Director,...

  7. 78 FR 40740 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY... Accountability Office (GAO) is preparing to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government... and the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government please contact Kristen...

  8. 78 FR 52532 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY: U.S. Government... Office (GAO) is seeking public comments on the proposed revisions to the Standards for Internal Control... Internal Control in the Federal Government reflect major developments in the accountability and...

  9. 48 CFR 245.302 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 245.302 Section 245.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... international organizations. (1) General. (i) Approval. A contractor may use Government property on work for foreign governments and international organizations only when approved in writing by the...

  10. Rio+20. Financial resources for improved international environmental governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstetter, Christiane; Goerlach, Benjamin; Stoessel, Susanah; Ivanova, Maria; Cavalieri, Sandra; Tedsen, Elizabeth; Bar-On, Haran [Ecologic Institute, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In the run-up to the Rio+20 summit, which takes place in June 2012, this study investigates the current system for financing international environmental governance (IEG). The current architecture for IEG finance consists of a growing number of bilateral and multilateral actors, funds and financial mechanisms which leads to incoherence, inefficiencies and extra burdens on recipient countries. The resulting intransparency is exerbated by the lack of a comprehensive system for tracking. Against this background, this study investigates the current state of the IEG funding system from a qualitative and - to a lesser degree - quantitative angle. Some of its flaws are discussed as are options for its improvement - all with a view to formulating recommendations for the Rio+20 summit.

  11. International round-robin inter-comparison of dye-sensitized and crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Ahn, Seung Kyu; Aoki, Dasiuke; Kokubo, Junichi; Yoon, Kyung Hoon; Saito, Hidenori; Lee, Kyung Sik; Magaino, Shinichi; Takagi, Katsuhiko; Lin, Ling-Chuan; Lee, Kun-Mu; Wu, Chun-Guey; Zhou, Hong; Igari, Sanekazu

    2017-02-01

    An international round-robin inter-comparison of the spectral responsivity (SR) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and crystalline silicon solar cells is reported for the first time. The crystalline silicon cells with various spectral responsivities were also calibrated by AIST to validate this round-robin activity. On the basis of the remarkable consistency in Pmax (within ±1.4% among participants) and Isc (within ±1.2% compared to the primary calibration of AIST) of the silicon specimens, the discrepancy in the SR and photovoltaic parameters of five DSCs among three national laboratories can be verified and diagnosed. Recommendations about sample packages, SR and I-V measurement methods as well as the inter-comparison protocol for improving the performance characterization of the mesoscopic DSCs are presented according to the consolidated data and the experience of the participants.

  12. Inter-local government collaboration and perceived transaction costs in Indonesian metropolitan transport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miharja, Miming; Woltjer, Johan

    2010-01-01

    The Indonesian reformation of 1998 marked a fundamental turning point of this country's democracy. In the administrative sector, the so-called Decentralisation Act 22/1999 was enacted to reform a formerly centralistic system. A strong central government used to maintain a hierarchical spatial planni

  13. 48 CFR 1845.405 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. 1845.405 Section 1845.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Rental of Government Property 1845.405 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations....

  14. 19 CFR 148.89 - Property of public international organizations and foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property of public international organizations and... Personnel of Foreign Governments and International Organizations and Special Treatment for Returning Individuals § 148.89 Property of public international organizations and foreign governments. (a)...

  15. 76 FR 72367 - Income of Foreign Governments and International Organizations; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BG08 Income of Foreign Governments and International Organizations; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction...

  16. International Terrorism: A Guide to United States Government Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Clifford M.

    This guide is intended as an introduction to published government information on the issue of terrorism. The selections are meant to indicate the range of the abundance of materials available and the variety of government agencies concerned with the topic. Devoted to the general topic of government information, the initial sections of the guide…

  17. NPS Government Purchase Card Program: An Analysis of Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Program Oversight ..................................................................20  E.  CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ..................................................................20...discussed in Chapter III. In addition, corporate governance is addressed, which includes auditability, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX), and...successful, there must be sufficient corporate governance , including auditability and adherence to legislature and current practices, which will be

  18. 26 CFR 1.893-1 - Compensation of employees of foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or international organizations. 1.893-1 Section 1.893-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Compensation of employees of foreign governments or international organizations. (a) Employees of foreign...) Employees of international organizations—(1) Exempt from tax. Except to the extent that the exemption...

  19. Fragmented International Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil : Governance Challenges and Institutional Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humrich, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The governance architecture in the Arctic region is subject to broad public and academic debate. Existing governance arrangements are not considered sufficient to minimize risks and impacts from Arctic offshore oil activities. These governance arrangements are fragmented between law of the sea norms

  20. Assessing Summit Engagement with Other International Organizations in Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed dramatic changes all over the world. One major trend is the proliferation and diversification of actors, forums and their arrangements to address global governance challenges, which has led to fragmentation in global governance. However, such contested multilateralism has a positive dimension, as the emergence of informal multilateral institutions claiming a major role in defining the global governance agenda creates alternatives for providing common goods. New a...

  1. The International Organization for Migration in Global Migration Governance

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This project focuses on the IOM, the notion of global governance of migration and the interaction between these two. The point of departure has been an attempt to grasp the current global approach to migration and comprehend whether, or to what degree, there is governance of migration issues taking place at a global level.

  2. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  3. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  4. VANET '13: Proceeding of the Tenth ACM International Workshop on Vehicular Inter-networking, Systems, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gozalvez, J.; Kargl, Frank; Mittag, J.; Kravets, R.; Tsai, M.; Unknown, [Unknown

    This year marks a very important date for the ACM international workshop on Vehicular inter-networking, systems, and applications as ACM VANET celebrates now its 10th edition. Starting in 2004 as "ACM international workshop on Vehicular ad hoc networks" already the change in title indicates that

  5. Implementing standardized, inter-unit communication in an international setting: handoff of patients from emergency medicine to internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Kamna S; Peterson, Susan M; Elabd, Mohamed Moheb; Regan, Linda; Anton, Xavier; Al-Natour, Basil Ali; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Scheulen, James; Stewart de Ramirez, Sarah A

    2017-02-03

    Standardized handoffs may reduce communication errors, but research on handoff in community and international settings is lacking. Our study at a community hospital in the United Arab Emirates characterizes existing handoff practices for admitted patients from emergency medicine (EM) to internal medicine (IM), develops a standardized handoff tool, and assesses its impact on communication and physician perceptions. EM physicians completed a survey regarding handoff practices and expectations. Trained observers utilized a checklist based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model to observe 40 handoffs. EM and IM physicians collaboratively developed a written tool encouraging bedside handoff of admitted patients. After the intervention, surveys of EM physicians and 40 observations were subsequently repeated. 77.5% of initial observed handoffs occurred face-to-face, with 42.5% at bedside, and in four different languages. Most survey respondents considered face-to-face handoff ideal. Respondents noted 9-13 patients suffering harm due to handoff in the prior month. After handoff tool implementation, 97.5% of observed handoffs occurred face-to-face (versus 77.5%, p = 0.014), with 82.5% at bedside (versus 42.5%, p international, non-academic setting. Our three-step approach can be applied towards developing standardized, context-specific inter-specialty handoff in a variety of settings.

  6. 31 CFR 538.531 - Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations. 538.531 Section 538.531 Money and Finance: Treasury....531 Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations. (a)...

  7. Govt. Pubs.: Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1980-01-01

    Lists reports, monographs, and journal articles of the last five years that deal with internal auditing at various governmental levels, including the growth of the internal audit, the development of guidelines, current practices, types of audit, and current issues. (FM)

  8. Govt. Pubs.: Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1980-01-01

    Lists reports, monographs, and journal articles of the last five years that deal with internal auditing at various governmental levels, including the growth of the internal audit, the development of guidelines, current practices, types of audit, and current issues. (FM)

  9. Coordination of international multicenter studies: governance and administrative structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangdiwala Shrikant I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-conducted multicenter study needs to assure standardization, uniformity of procedures, high data quality, and collaboration across sites. This manuscript describes the organization and dynamics of multicenter studies, focusing on governance and administrative structures among countries of diverse cultures. The organizational structure of a multicenter study is described, and a system for oversight and coordination, along with roles and responsibilities of participants in the multicenter study, are presented. The elements of a governance document are also reviewed, along with guidelines and policies for effective collaboration. The experience of an ongoing multi-country collaboration, the World Studies of Abuse in the Family Environment (WorldSAFE, illustrates the implementation of these guidelines. It is essential that multicenter studies have an objective coordinating center and that the investigators jointly develop a written governance document to enable collaboration and preserve collegiality among participating investigators.

  10. International Protection of Conscientious Objection: A Comparative Analysis of Human Rights Systems and Perspectives of the Inter- American System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carmelina Londoño Lázaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the recognition of conscientious objection in three international systems for the protection of human rights is analyzed: the Inter-American system, the European system and the United Nations system. The comparative system which is adopted allows for notifications as to common developments, the failings and some tensions which have been confronted by international organs in controversial cases. From this analysis are drawn some lessons which may serve for the guardianship of this law in the Inter- American system.

  11. Some Reflections on the Resolution of State-to-State Disputes in International Waters Governance Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kyle Paisley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews various dispute resolution mechanisms that have, or may have, application in international waters governance agreements. International waters are water resources that are shared by two or more states. They include international freshwater, international groundwater and international Large Marine Ecosystem (LMEs situations. There are a number of possible types of dispute resolution mechanisms in international waters governance agreements. They include: (1 international courts, such as the International Court of Justice; (2 standing regional courts and tribunals, such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC Tribunal; and (3 ad hoc arbitration, such as arbitrations administered by the Permanent Court of Arbitration. While no one type of dispute resolution mechanism is suitable for all states in all situations, some of the objectives that may be sought in dispute resolution in international waters governance agreements arguably include: (1 obtaining an effective remedy; (2 obtaining a correct result and (3 maximizing the efficiency, in terms of cost and/or timing, of the decision-making process. Having an efficacious dispute resolution enforcement mechanism in an international waters governance agreement may help ensure that a state can obtain an effective remedy even when an opposing state fails to voluntarily comply with a decision in a timely manner. Providing for an enforcement mechanism in an international waters governance agreement may also help encourage voluntary compliance as it may move states to consider the costs of non-compliance.

  12. Some Reflections on the Resolution of State-to-State Disputes in International Waters Governance Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kyle Paisley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews various dispute resolution mechanisms that have, or may have, application in international waters governance agreements. International waters are water resources that are shared by two or more states. They include international freshwater, international groundwater and international Large Marine Ecosystem (LMEs situations. There are a number of possible types of dispute resolution mechanisms in international waters governance agreements. They include: (1 international courts, such as the International Court of Justice; (2 standing regional courts and tribunals, such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC Tribunal; and (3 ad hoc arbitration, such as arbitrations administered by the Permanent Court of Arbitration. While no one type of dispute resolution mechanism is suitable for all states in all situations, some of the objectives that may be sought in dispute resolution in international waters governance agreements arguably include: (1 obtaining an effective remedy; (2 obtaining a correct result and (3 maximizing the efficiency, in terms of cost and/or timing, of the decision-making process. Having an efficacious dispute resolution enforcement mechanism in an international waters governance agreement may help ensure that a state can obtain an effective remedy even when an opposing state fails to voluntarily comply with a decision in a timely manner. Providing for an enforcement mechanism in an international waters governance agreement may also help encourage voluntary compliance as it may move states to consider the costs of non-compliance.

  13. Corporate Governance And International Financial Reporting Reference (Ifrs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Lepadatu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Between corporate governance and IFRS there is a causal relationship. Financial reporting is basedon managerial accountability. Corporate governance is the economic branch who studies how companies canbecome more efficient through the use of institutional structures such as: incorporation, organization andlegal framework. This branch is limited, in most cases, to studies on how shareholders can motivateexecutives to benefit the company through their efforts, resulting - finally - dividends. Starting from theglobal nature of the current crisis, we have considered as being necessary to point out its effects on thefinancial reporting and, implicitly, on the requirements for the corporate governance consolidation in order toensure the economic and financial stability desired. The macro-economic context favored the start of thecrisis, but the analysis made by experts showed other reasons for this, out of which some of the mostimportant are the corporate governance weaknesses and the insufficient means for protection against risks.We consider that these are reasons which ask for an objective analysis and a correct assessment of theregulatory process but also of the practice in the area corroborated with an invitation for a responsiblebehavior both of the entities management but also of the representatives of the accounting profession so muchinvolved in the correctness of the accounting reporting and therefore in the financial health of the entities.

  14. International Data Sharing in Practice: New Technologies Meet Old Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Turner, Andrew; Minion, Joel T; Fay, Michaela; Burton, Paul R

    2016-06-01

    The social structures that govern data/sample release aim to safeguard the confidentiality and privacy of cohort research participants (without whom there would be no data or samples) and enable the realization of societal benefit through optimizing the scientific use of those cohorts. Within collaborations involving multiple cohorts and biobanks, however, the local, national, and supranational institutional and legal guidelines for research (which produce a multiplicity of data access governance structures and guidelines) risk impeding the very science that is the raison d'etre of these consortia. We present an ethnographic study, which examined the epistemic and nonepistemic values driving decisions about data access and their consequences in the context of the pilot of an integrated approach to co-analysis of data. We demonstrate how the potential analytic flexibility offered by this approach was lost under contemporary data access governance. We identify three dominant values: protecting the research participant, protecting the study, and protecting the researcher. These values were both supported by and juxtaposed against a "public good" argument, and each was used as a rationale to both promote and inhibit sharing of data. While protection of the research participants was central to access permissions, decisions were also attentive to the desire of researchers to see their efforts in building population biobanks and cohorts realized in the form of scientific outputs. We conclude that systems for governing and enabling data access in large consortia need to (1) protect disclosure of research participant information or identity, (2) ensure the specific expectations of research participants are met, (3) embody systems of review that are transparent and not compromised by the specific interests of one particular group of stakeholders, and (4) facilitate data access procedures that are timely and efficient. Practical solutions are urgently needed. New approaches

  15. Building governance in the international financial system: Context and challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SILVA, LEANDRO PIGNATARI

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe international financial system has undergone deep changes since the 1970s and its stability cannot be reached in spite of actor's interests or the existence of countless coordination fora...

  16. Global Governance: The Role of States and International Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Roald Kassimir, and Robert Latham, eds. Intervention and Transnationalism in Africa: Global-Local Networks of Power. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001...Contemporary History 38.2 (Apr. 2003): 307-21. Traub, James. "Inventing East Timor." Foreign Affairs 79.4 (July-Aug. 2000): 74-89. Wang , H-L. "Rethinking...Investment: The Multilateral Agreement on Investment, Seattle, and Beyond." Global Governance 7.1 (Jan.-Mar. 2001): 51-73. Wang , G. "Foreign

  17. NPS Government Purchase Card Program: An Analysis of Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-18

    monthly AO and CH account statements (GSA, n.d.-d). The government has partnerships with Citibank , JP Morgan Chase, and U.S. Bank (GSA, n.d.-b), and... Citibank to process all types of transactions, including those made with the purchase, travel, and fleet card. However, the DoD’s independent agencies also...purchase card training. Furthermore, DoD annual ethics training is required as well. Initial training with Citibank is required, and NPS also requires that

  18. International environmental governance: Lessons learned from Human Rights Institutional Reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchald, Ole Kristian

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses on the possibility of establishing a High Commissioner for the Environment and transforming the UNEP Governing Council into a Council for the Environment. For this purpose, it considers the parallels between human rights regimes and environmental regimes. It provides a short-list of functions to be covered by a reformed environmental governance regime, and discusses how the reform can be coordinated with UNEP, as well as with the current and future institutional framework for sustainable development. The report also discusses how the reform can be related to fifteen core multilateral environmental agreements. Finally, the report considers how the reform can be carried out through a discussion of five separate options: a decision by the UN General Assembly, by the ECOSOC, or by the UNEP Governing Council, as well as through agreements between conferences of parties of environmental agreements, or directly between states. A main purpose of the report, which has been commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment, is to provide input to the preparations for the Rio+20 Conference in 2012.(auth)

  19. Cross-Cultural Practice in International Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen (Chiu-Yi/Joy Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of the increasing global competition and internationalization of world markets, international expatriates assignments are more and more essential to successful worldwide development for many multinational corporations. Therefore, international expatriates are imperative to the survival of globe enterprises in the twenty-first century. Expatriates can become an important human resource to international enterprises or multinational operations. To facilitate business expatriates adjust to an overseas environment and work effectively, MNCs need to recognize the demographic factors those to affect cross-cultural adjustment. The main purpose of this study is utilizing Lee’s (2002 model to investigate the relationship among the demographic factors and cross-cultural adjustment of Taiwanese expatriates assigned to Mainland. Also, the empirical outcomes were compared between Taiwanese expatriates located in Mainland China and United States.In examining the significant degree of Taiwanese expatriates assigned to Mainland China, the instrument was a questionnaire survey conducted to this study. The variables of interest were measured using items Likert-type of questions, and those items are divided into seven categories. Data collected from 353 participants who have experience of post to Mainland China for international assignments. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and T-test were employed to analyse data.The statistical results of this study were compared Lee’s (2002 research that associated with Taiwanese banking expatriates in United States. This thesis concludes with suggestions for both international enterprises or MNCs and individual expatriate who operate overseas journey in their normal path of business.

  20. Intern kontrol fra et Corporate Governance perspektiv - Er COSO frameworket tilstrækkeligt?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Laursen, Peter Birkholm

    2002-01-01

    interessegrupper. Derfor er hovedspørgsmålet i dette paper, om COSO-frameworket er tilstrækkeligt, når intern kontrol ses fra et Corporate Governance perspektiv. Spørgsmålet bliver forsøgt besvaret ved at undersøge udviklingen i opfattelsen af intern kontrol over tid. Opfattelsen af intern kontrol hos Corporate...... intern kontrol og (2) giver mulighed for at sammenligne opfattelsen af intern kontrol hos revisorerne med de øvrige Corporate Governance aktører. Der er tale om ikke tidligere foretagne undersøgelser som viser, at eksterne revisorer varetager deres økonomiske særinteresser i deres beskrivelser af det...... interne kontrolbegrebs indhold. Endelig understøtter analyserne en øget fokusering på risikostyring indenfor virksomhedsledelse og de deraf afledte forskelligartede implikationer for Corporate Governance aktørerne....

  1. THE MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The article provides the history of legal framework of regulating migration processes on the global level. The author analyzes the dual nature of migration policy on the regional, national and global levels, which occurs when interests of different parties involved in international relations do not coincide. Recommendations are given on ways to improve the regulation of migration processes.

  2. International Disease Surveillance: United States Government Goals and Paths Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    mil $68.3 mil $55.0 mil $186.3 mil DoD Total $234.7 mil $201.6 mil $239.7 mil $676.0 mil State/ USAID Biosecurity Engagement Program ( BEP )5 $27.0...Engagement Program ( BEP ) aims to develop cooperative international programs that promote the secure, safe, and responsible use of biological materials that

  3. Neoliberal governance and International medical travel in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    International medical travel (IMT), people crossing national borders in the pursuit of healthcare, has become a growing phenomenon. With many of the countries currently being promoted as IMT destinations located in the ‘developing’ world, IMT poses a significant challenge to popular assumptions

  4. The European Refugee Crisis from the Perspective of International Migration Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Tingting

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The influx of refugees in Europe in 2015 has greatly increased, which not only affects the stability and unity of European society, but also exerts certain pressure on its economic development. In the face of the refugee crisis, it is a dilemma for the European countries to choose either humanitarian or national interests. Starting from the impact and challenge that international migration has had on effective governance within national boundaries, this paper uses the theories of international migration to analyze the three basic choices. Further, the authors provide a new way of thinking about the European refugee crisis from the perspective of international migration governance mechanisms. Of course, China should seize the opportunity to become an advocate of the international migration governance mechanism and rule maker of the global governance.

  5. Project Hetura: Reflections on an International Local Government Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Gheller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the Townsville/Port Moresby partnership activities and explore the challenges and benefits to both Councils from the perspective of a Townsville City Council employee associated with the program. Since 2002, Townsville City Council has been engaged in a capacity building project with the National Capital District Commission (NCDC in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. The project, named Hetura, means mateship or friendship in Moto, the predominant language group in Port Moresby. Project Hetura is coordinated through the Commonwealth Local Government Forum’ (CLGF Good Practice Scheme with funding from AusAID. Townsville City Council provides in-kind support through the contribution of staff time and participation while the National Capital District Commission provides a budget allocation for the project. The overarching goal of Project Hetura is to strengthen management, planning, and governance within the NCDC and to improve the capacity of the organisation to deliver efficient, responsive, accountable services to the community. Rather than engaging in a traditional consultancy, the approach by participants of Project Hetura has been that of a partnership built through a relationship of trust and good-will developed over time between the two organisations. Within this partnership, the skills and contributions of all parties are valued, and team members work together to develop sustainable solutions to identified problems.

  6. McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (McGovern-Dole program) helps support education, child development, and food security for some of the world's poorest children. It provides for donations of U.S. agricultural products, as well as financial and technical assistance, for school feeding and maternal and…

  7. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(5)-1 - Remuneration for services for foreign government or international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government or international organization. 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL....3401(a)(5)-1 Remuneration for services for foreign government or international organization. (a... are immaterial for purposes of the exception. (b) Services for international organization. (1)...

  8. International-local Linkages in Multistakeholder Partnerships Involved in Reconciliation, Inter-communal Bridgebuilding and Confidence-building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roter Petra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the involvement of the international community (international actors in post-conflict reconstruction in the context of multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs operating in the issue-area of reconciliation, inter-communal bridge-building and confidence-building. In particular, the paper analyses the international-local linkages within the MSPs, and suggests that although the involvement of the international community in post-conflict reconstruction (peace-building is heavy and indispensable, it is neither straight-forward nor problem-free. In order to understand these linkages in a specific MSP context, a number of factors need to be taken into account and analysed. The paper suggests that at least three levels of analysis are required in order to understand the role of the international community and the international-local linkages in the context of MSPs addressing reconciliation, confidence-building and inter-community bridge-building in a post-conflict context. Firstly, the very complex nature of the international community itself, with many different actors seeking to achieve their own objectives in a very competitive environment; secondly, the very difficult conditions in war-torn societies that are operationally/institutionally unable to begin any peace-building processes on their own; and thirdly, the characteristics (motivations, organisation of international and domestic actors themselves

  9. PERAN INTERNAL AUDIT DALAM UPAYA MEWUJUDKAN GOOD UNIVERSITY GOVERNANCE DI UNNES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirman -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan utuk melihat pengaruh peranan internal auditor dalam upaya mewujudkan Good University Governance (GUG, Studi Kasus pada Badan Audit Internal (BAI Universitas Negeri Semarang (Unnes.  Sampel penelitian adalah Dekan, Pembantu Dekan Bidang Umum dan Administrasi, Kepala Bagian, Kasubbag Akuntansi dan Keuangan, Kepala Biro, Kepala UPT, Ketua Lembaga, Ketua Badan di lingkungan unit kerja Unnes, dengan  menggunakan Regresi Linier Berganda. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan antara peran auditor internal terhadap Good University Governance. Jadi dapat dikatakan bahwa peningkatan peran auditor internal akan mempengaruhi tata kelola suatu institusi pendidikan. This research aims to analyze the internal auditor’s role to realize the Good Univercity Governance (GUG., case Studies in Audit nternal Departement of Semarang State Univercity (Unnes. The sample of this research are The Deans, Administration Vice Dean, Head of Departement, and o Chief of Accounting and Financial Departement in Semarang Satet Univercity with multiple linear regression too. The result shows that there is a signifikant influence of internal aufitor’s role to Good Univercity Governance. The increasing of internal auditor’s role affect to educational institution’s governance.

  10. Covering the Gap: Social Inclusion, International Students and the Role of Local Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltridge, Toby; Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last twenty years or so the number of international students in Australia has grown rapidly. At the same time, official responsibility for providing support to international students has been devolved from governments to educational institutions. In this paper we argue that while education institutions have a significant role in…

  11. ROLE CONFLICT AND ROLE AMBIGUITY ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT INTERNAL AUDITORS: THE DETERMINANT AND IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agil Novriansa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bureaucratic reform at the local government level in Indonesia that was instituted in 2012 has turned local government internal auditors into an important part of government governance systems. The role of local government internal auditors has been expanded to include not only the area of audit oversight, but also the areas of anti-corruption-related and consulting activities. These fundamental changes may potentially induce role conflict and role ambiguity among internal auditors. The objective of this study is to examine empirically the determinants and consequences of role conflict and role ambiguity among local government internal auditors. More specifically, this study attempts to examine the extent to which formalization determines role conflict and role ambiguity; it further tests the impact of role conflict and role ambiguity on commitment to independence and job performance. Questionnaires were distributed to 248 local government internal auditors from 12 Regional Inspectorates in the provinces of Yogyakarta, South Sumatra, and East Java. A total of 176 responses were received, and 124 useable responses from the 176 responses were analysed to test the hypotheses. Using Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Square the results show that: formalization is negatively related to role conflict and role ambiguity; role ambiguity has a negative impact on commitment to independence; role conflict has a positive impact on job performance; and role ambiguity has a negative impact on job performance. These findings serve as important external validity evidence on the phenomena associated with role conflict and role ambiguity that occur in the public sector, especially among internal auditors at local government institutions.

  12. 76 FR 48905 - United States Government Inter-Agency Anti-Counterfeiting Working Group: Request for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Comments Regarding Strategy to Eliminate Counterfeit Products from the United States Government Supply... significant effort to eliminate counterfeit products from the U.S. Government supply chain. In June 2010, Vice... counterfeit products entering the U.S. Government supply chain and for curbing their entry into that supply...

  13. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS NEGOTIATION. BARGAINING POWER AND ITS IMPACTS ON THE OUTCOMES OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN IOCs AND HOST GOVERNMENTS. A CASE OF SHELL AND IRAQI GOVERNMENT

    OpenAIRE

    THAI, PHUONG

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, thanks to development in technology and transportation, globalisation becomes inevitable. As a part of globalising process, companies search for new opportunities overseas. In order to utilise those opportunities, foreign companies need the help of local businesses in order to familiarise themselves to the new markets. Hence, negotiations take places to reach desirable division of gain for foreign and local companies/host governments. This process is also called international busine...

  14. National and international dimensions of the Triple Helix in Japan: University-industry-government versus international coauthorship relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff; Y. Sun

    2009-01-01

    International co-authorship relations and university-industry-government (Triple Helix) relations have hitherto been studied separately. Using Japanese publication data for the 1981-2004 period, we were able to study both kinds of relations in a single design. In the Japanese file, 1,277,030 article

  15. CONSEQUENCES OF INTERNAL CONTROL AND COSO FOR AUDITING AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE - AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloir Trindade Vasques Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has demonstrated that the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO, internal control, internal auditing and corporate governance are efficient means of ensuring the continuity of the organization. Reaffirming that the developed process can provide security and reliability to enterprise managers. It has realized the importance of internal control and its consequences for organizations, making use of internal auditing techniques, which gives information for better controlling, increasing the value of the organization and the interests of investors or shareholders. This way they are able to know how finances, equity and the ability to honor commitments are. Moreover, the use of internal control and the principles of governance make better practices for management and control.

  16. Measures to eliminate international and inter-Korean restrictions on ROK`s nuclear R and D for peaceful purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Seong Whun [Korea Institute for National Unification, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    Assuming that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is essential to realize= ROK`s national interests, this study finds out international and inter-Korean restrictions imposed on ROK`s research and development in the field. In particular, from political and strategic perspectives, this report carries out an-depth study on resolving international suspicions of the two Korea`s nuclear weapon development possibilities and eliminating externally or self imposed restrictions to their nuclear R and D. Some important policy suggestions are made at the end as a result of this study. (Author) 54 refs.

  17. THE IMPACT OF IT GOVERNANCE ON IT PROJECTS -THE CASE OF THE GHANA RURAL BANK COMPUTERIZATION AND INTER-CONNECTIVITY PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Allassani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to analyse the root causes of the massive failures of IT Projects especially in government establishments. This study shows that the successful implementation of IT projects does not lie only Project in Management principles. It answers the question ‘why are IT projects failing despite the application of tried and tested Project Management principles ? The paper also concludes that Project Management principles per se do not guarantee the successful implementation of IT projects, but have to be brought within the principle of IT Governance. Conclusions are drawn from the Ghana Rural Bank Computerization and Inter-connectivity Project, an activity under the Millennium Challenge Account of the Millennium Development Authority to show that IT Governance needs to be inculcated into IT Projects to make its implementation successful.

  18. Nuclear developments at the international inter govern mental level (1961); Developpements nucleaires sur le plan international intergouvernemental (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynbaum, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The United Nations organisation and nuclear energy rose simultaneously, in 1945, to occupy an important place in the public eye. The spiritual succession of the League of Nations which had foundered during the war was taken up by the new organisation which sought to implant its political ideal in a more tangible reality, so that it might thereby be inspired by concrete and substantial objectives. This is one of the reasons for the existence of the dozen specialized agencies created by the family of the United Nations and dealing with Health, Culture, Agriculture, Finance, etc. Nuclear energy is one of these techniques. Becoming suddenly an important power factor and exploiting for itself the prestige of Science, it became the favorite domain for the growth of this new spirit, as much in its universal form in 1945 as in its more regional form which it was later to adopt. The achievements are numerous and of varying importance; they deserve te be studied carefully. (author) [French] L'organisation des Nations Unies et le nucleaire ont ete places simultanement, en 1945, au premier plan de la scene mondiale. La Societe des Nations ayant sombre pendant la guerre, son heritage spirituel fut recueilli par la nouvelle organisation qui chercha a enraciner son ideal politique dans une realite plus materielle, de facon a y puiser une nourriture concrete et substantielle. C'est une des raisons d'existence de la douzaine d'institutions specialisees gravitant dans la famille des Nations Unies et s'occupant de Sante, de Culture, d'Agriculture, de Finances, etc. Le nucleaire est l'une de ces techniques. Devenu soudainement un facteur primordial de puissance, Cristallisant a son benefice le prestige de la Science, c'etait un terrain de predilection pour le developpement du nouvel esprit, aussi bien sous la forme universelle de 1945, que sous les formes regionales qui ont vu le jour ensuite. Les travaux realises que nombreux, d'importance tres inegale. Ils meritent qu'on les examine avec attention. (auteur)

  19. International study on inter-reader variability for circulating tumor cells in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ignatiadis (Michael); S. Riethdorf (Sabine); F.-C. Bidard (François-Clement); I. Vaucher (Isabelle); M. Khazour (Mustapha); F. Rothé (Françoise); J. Metallo (Jessica); G. Rouas (Ghizlane); R.E. Payne (Rachel); R.C. Coombes (Raoul); I. Teufel (Ingrid); U. Andergassen (Ulrich); M. Apostolaki (Maria); E. Politaki (Eleni); D. Mavroudis (Dimitris); E. Bessi (Elena); M. Pestrin (Marta); A. Di Leo (Angelo); D. Campion (Dominique); M. Reinholz (Monica); E. Perez (Edith); M.J. Piccart (Martine); E. Borgen (Elin); B. Naume (Bjorn); J. Jimenez (Jose); C.M. Aura (Claudia); L. Zorzino (Laura); M.C. Cassatella (Maria); M.T. Sandri (Maria); B. Mostert (Bianca); S. Sleijfer (Stefan); J. Kraan (Jaco); W. Janni (Wolfgang); T. Fehm (Tanja); B. Rack (Brigitte); L.W.M.M. Terstappen (Leon); M. Repollet (Madeline); J.Y. Pierga (Jean Yves); C. Miller (Craig); C. Sotiriou (Christos); S. Michiels (Stefan); K. Pantel (Klaus)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been studied in breast cancer with the CellSearch® system. Given the low CTC counts in non-metastatic breast cancer, it is important to evaluate the inter-reader agreement.Methods: CellSearch® images (N = 272) of either CTCs or white bloo

  20. Distance costs and the degree of inter-partner involvement in international relational-based technology alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kranenburg, H.L.; Hagedoorn, J.; Lorenz-Orlean, S.

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the effect of specific institutional and distance cost issues, in particular the protection of intellectual property rights and geographic distance, on the preference of companies for different governance modalities in terms of the degree of their involvement in international

  1. 15 CFR 740.11 - Governments, international organizations, and international inspections under the Chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reexported under this License Exception to destinations other than Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland... No. 1 to part 740) and the national governments of Argentina, Austria, Finland, Hong Kong, Ireland... other than Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland,...

  2. Dynamism and the erosion of procedural safeguards in international governance of terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Ali (Nathanael)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Contemporary international governance of terrorism reflects a conceptualisation of terrorism as a global public problem that both affects and needs to be responded to by all sectors of global society. Consequently, counter-terrorism has taken the form of proactive risk mana

  3. Transnational Governance of Higher Education: On Globalization and International University Ranking Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Sverker; Lindblad, Rita Foss

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about globalization in higher education and how "globalism" is playing a role in stimulating university transformation around the world. The authors' specific focus is on international university ranking lists. Such lists are being given increasingly more space and attention in the mass media and by governments as well as by…

  4. Dynamism and the erosion of procedural safeguards in international governance of terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Ali (Nathanael)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Contemporary international governance of terrorism reflects a conceptualisation of terrorism as a global public problem that both affects and needs to be responded to by all sectors of global society. Consequently, counter-terrorism has taken the form of proactive risk mana

  5. Host government impact on the logistics performance of international humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dube, N.; van der Vaart, T.; Teunter, R. H.; Van Wassenhove, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Host governments severely impact international relief operations. An openness to assistance can lead to the timely delivery of aid whereas a reluctance to receive assistance can have devastating consequences. With lives at stake and no time to lose in humanitarian crises, understanding the host gove

  6. The unstable core of global finance: contingent valuation and governance of international accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, D.; Stellinga, B.

    2015-01-01

    Accounting standards are the foundations of the financial regulatory edifice, and global financial governance is no more stable than the asset valuations that feed it. Yet for two decades and up to this day, no international accounting rule for financial instruments - the bulk of banks' balance shee

  7. Host government impact on the logistics performance of international humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dube, N.; van der Vaart, T.; Teunter, R. H.; Van Wassenhove, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Host governments severely impact international relief operations. An openness to assistance can lead to the timely delivery of aid whereas a reluctance to receive assistance can have devastating consequences. With lives at stake and no time to lose in humanitarian crises, understanding the host

  8. The Role of Internal Audit in Optimization of Corporate Governance at the Groups of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent financial scandals have demonstrated that the risk of accounting fraud may be vague in any type of economic system. In this context, transparency of information, indispensable element for competitiveness in the market is an efficient operation of systems of corporate governance and especially of control systems. All these must be appropriate in the legislation in terms of external information. The issue of governance will thus be seen as a fundamental pillar against pressures which induce at the fraud as a result of lack of transparency of information flows. In all models of corporate governance, external regulations cover a primary role in ensuring the effectiveness of controls, but remain central the responsibility of entities to adopt a virtuous mechanism as an internal control profile. An example in this sense of "best practice" may be represented by the multinational companies that have known to harmonize the national rules with the typical instruments of other models of governance. The authors have established that the main objective in this work is the evaluation model of governance already existing in a group of companies in accordance with the principles of corporate governance. In the first part of the work it was made a comparitive analysis between the models of corporate governance, focusing on the role of transparency of communication, the primary tool in prevention of frauds, the link between information and prevention of frauds being independent of the model of corporate governance adopted, by the structure of organization and the control mechanisms. The work continued throughout the first part, with the role of internal audit in preventing the accounting fraud, given that any type of government, regardless of how it is configured and the reference market in which we find, to be considered efficiently must provide an appropriate control mechanisms, able to intervene in critical situations and to protect the interests of all

  9. Inter-Governmental E-Government Processes:Comparison of Different Solution Approaches- Based on Examples from Switzerland / Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zimmermann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to describe different solution approaches for e-Government processes across different institutions at different levels of public administrations: a phased approach for specific e-Government solutions and a platform approach for cross-organisational public services. We discuss selection criteria for the different approaches considering several examples and indicate a relationship between the expected return-on-investment and the complexity of the solution.

  10. Governance, globalization and non-state actors: an analysis from the perspective of international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Soldano Garcez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to address the connection between governance and non-state actors, phenomenon intensified in the current world scenario of globalization. Undeniably, these actors are part of the implementation mechanisms and efficiency of governance, however they still appear in the center of the doctrinal debate about (the lack or recognition of their legal personalities. According to this background, this article discusses, at first, governance and globalization, studying the three lines of thought about globalization. After, highlights the main non-state actors nowadays, examing the activity of those for the governance processes. Finally, it analyzes the controversy about the recognition of the international legal personality of these non-state actors.

  11. 31 CFR 537.509 - Official activities of the U.S. Government and certain international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 537... of the United States Government, the United Nations, the World Bank, or the International Monetary...

  12. Inter-Party Conflict Management in Coalition Governments: Analyzing the Role of Coalition Agreements in Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Moury

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on manifest interparty conflict over policy issues and the role of coalition agreements in solving these conflicts. We present empirical findings on the characteristics of coalition agreements including deals over policy controversy and on inter-party conflict occurring during the lifetime of governments in Germany, Belgium, Italy and the Netherlands. We analyze the ways in which parties in government were or were not constrained by written deals over disputed issues. Coalition agreements from all four countries include specific policy deals, one third of which are precisely defined. These policy deals concern both consensual and controversial issues. Our central finding is that, in the case of intra-party conflict, parties almost always fall back on the initial policy deals when these exist. As such, policy statements of the coalition agreement facilitate decision making in each of the countries studied.

  13. Intern kontrol fra et Corporate Governance perspektiv - Er COSO frameworket tilstrækkeligt?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Laursen, Peter Birkholm

    2002-01-01

    En stadig voksende interesse for risiko styring (risk management) som en central proces i virksomhedsledelse vil måske betyde en ændret opfattelse af intern kontrol. Et af formålene med COSO rapporten var at bidrage med et fælles framework for intern kontrol på tværs af virksomhedens...... interessegrupper. Derfor er hovedspørgsmålet i dette paper, om COSO-frameworket er tilstrækkeligt, når intern kontrol ses fra et Corporate Governance perspektiv. Spørgsmålet bliver forsøgt besvaret ved at undersøge udviklingen i opfattelsen af intern kontrol over tid. Opfattelsen af intern kontrol hos Corporate...... intern kontrol og (2) giver mulighed for at sammenligne opfattelsen af intern kontrol hos revisorerne med de øvrige Corporate Governance aktører. Der er tale om ikke tidligere foretagne undersøgelser som viser, at eksterne revisorer varetager deres økonomiske særinteresser i deres beskrivelser af det...

  14. Internal Market Orientation in Higher Education Institutions - its Inter-Relations with Other Organisational Variables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vera Silva Carlos; Ricardo Gouveia Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    ... to address these issues is essential. Our main objective is to analyse the relationships between internal market orientation and job satisfaction, organisational commitment, organisational citizenship behaviour and performance...

  15. Embedding international migration: the response of Bolivian local governments and NGOs to international migraton.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, G.

    2010-01-01

    International migration is an integral part of the lives of many people in the South, and many households add remittances to their income in order to finance the daily costs of living that cannot be met by their traditional source of income. In the literature, a debate has emerged on the impacts of

  16. Interpreting international governance standards for health IT use within general medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahncke, Rachel J; Williams, Patricia A H

    2014-01-01

    General practices in Australia recognise the importance of comprehensive protective security measures. Some elements of information security governance are incorporated into recommended standards, however the governance component of information security is still insufficiently addressed in practice. The International Organistion for Standardisation (ISO) released a new global standard in May 2013 entitled, ISO/IEC 27014:2013 Information technology - Security techniques - Governance of information security. This standard, applicable to organisations of all sizes, offers a framework against which to assess and implement the governance components of information security. The standard demonstrates the relationship between governance and the management of information security, provides strategic principles and processes, and forms the basis for establishing a positive information security culture. An analysis interpretation of this standard for use in Australian general practice was performed. This work is unique as such interpretation for the Australian healthcare environment has not been undertaken before. It demonstrates an application of the standard at a strategic level to inform existing development of an information security governance framework.

  17. International obligations through collective rights: Moving from foreign health assistance to global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Fox, Ashley M

    2010-06-15

    This article analyzes the growing chasm between international power and state responsibility in health rights, proposing an international legal framework for collective rights - rights that can reform international institutions and empower developing states to realize the determinants of health structured by global forces. With longstanding recognition that many developing state governments cannot realize the health of their peoples without international cooperation, scholars have increasingly sought to codify international obligations under the purview of an evolving human right to health, applying this rights-based approach as a foundational framework for reducing global health inequalities through foreign assistance. Yet the inherent limitations of the individual human rights framework stymie the right to health in impacting the global institutions that are most crucial for realizing underlying determinants of health through the strengthening of primary health care systems. Whereas the right to health has been advanced as an individual right to be realized by a state duty-bearer, the authors find that this limited, atomized right has proven insufficient to create accountability for international obligations in global health policy, enabling the deterioration of primary health care systems that lack the ability to address an expanding set of public health claims. For rights scholars to advance disease protection and health promotion through national primary health care systems - creating the international legal obligations necessary to spur development supportive of the public's health - the authors conclude that scholars must look beyond the individual right to health to create collective international legal obligations commensurate with a public health-centered approach to primary health care. Through the development and implementation of these collective health rights, states can address interconnected determinants of health within and across countries

  18. 76 FR 55869 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the McGovern-Dole International Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program; Correction ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY..., inviting proposals for the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern... based on the Literacy Results Framework. The highest-level result of this framework is...

  19. The Relationship between Corporate Governance Approach and Internal Audit in Tourism Sector: An Application in Marmaris Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağrı Köroğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism sector is one of the important sectors in Turkey. Corporate governance is an important tool to increase the efficiency of tourism sector. An effective i nternal audit helps to improve the effectiveness of corporate governance in tourism sector. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between corporate governance and the internal audit at four -star and five-star hotels in Marmaris. First, corporate governance and internal control concepts have been discussed within the scope of the literature. Next, in the application part, for the purpose of our study, four-star and five-star hotels were selected in Marmaris region. A survey was conducted on the hotel managers. The data set is analyzed by using SPSS. The results show significant relationship between internal control and corporate governance. In addition, hotel managements recognize the importance of the both the basic principles of corporate governance and internal audit activities.

  20. IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL CRISIS ON THE GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Özkan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis dragged many countries into recession, demonstrated that the internationalfinancial system has structural problems and started discussions about restructuring of the international financialinstitutions. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of the global financial crisis on thegovernance structures of the international financial institutions. To this end, studies made at different internationalplatforms were evaluated. The debates and negotiations among the developed and developing countries aboutgovernance structures of the international financial institutions were analyzed. Developing countries’ demand toreform the decision-making mechanisms of the Bretton Woods institutions, the IMF and the World Bank anddeveloped countries’ reservations were investigated. It was concluded that the new shape of the internationalfinancial architecture and governance structures of international financial institutions will depend on internationalpolitics as well as the evolution of the global crisis and the economic dynamics.

  1. Community governance in primary health care: towards an international Ideal Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, Geoffrey; Russell, Grant; Lees, Amanda

    2016-05-27

    Against a global background of increased resource management responsibilities for primary health care agencies, general medical practices, in particular, are increasingly being required to demonstrate the legitimacy of their decision making in market oriented environments. In this context a scoping review explores the potential utility for health managers in primary health care of community governance as a policy concept. The review of recent research suggests that applied learning from international health systems with enhanced approaches to public and patient involvement may contribute to meeting this requirement. Such approaches often characterise local health systems in Latin America and North West Europe where innovative models are beginning to respond effectively to the growing demands on general practice. The study design draws on documentary and secondary data analyses to identify common components of community governance from the countries in these regions, supplemented by other relevant international studies and sources where appropriate. Within a comprehensive framework of collaborative governance the components are aggregated in an Ideal Type format to provide a point of reference for possible adaptation and transferable learning across market oriented health systems. Each component is illustrated with international exemplars from recent organisational practices in primary health care. The application of community governance is considered for the particular contexts of GP led Clinical Commissioning Groups in England and Primary Health Networks in Australia. Some components of the Ideal Type possess potentially powerful negative as well as positive motivational effects, with PPI at practice levels sometimes hindering the development of effective local governance. This highlights the importance of careful and competent management of the growing resources attributed to primary health care agencies, which possess an increasingly diverse range of non

  2. From Target to Implementation: Perspectives for the International Governance of Forest Landscape Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Pistorius

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuing depletion of forest resources, particularly in tropical developing countries, has turned vast areas of intact ecosystems into urbanized and agricultural lands. The degree of degradation varies, but in most cases, the ecosystem functions and the ability to provide a variety of ecosystem services are severely impaired. In addition to many other challenges, successful forest restoration of these lands requires considerable resources and funding, but the ecological, economic and social benefits have the potential to outweigh the investment. As a consequence, at the international policy level, restoration is seen as a field of land use activities that provides significant contributions to simultaneously achieving different environmental and social policy objectives. Accordingly, different policy processes at the international policy level have made ecological landscape restoration a global priority, in particular the Convention on Biological Diversity with the Aichi Target 15 agreed upon in 2010, which aims at restoring 15% of all degraded land areas by 2020. While such ambitious policy targets are important for recognizing and agreeing upon solutions for environmental problems, they are unlikely to be further substantiated or governed. The objective of this paper is thus to develop a complementary governance approach to the top-down implementation of the Aichi target. Drawing on collaborative and network governance theories, we discuss the potential of a collaborative networked governance approach and perspectives for overcoming the inherent challenges facing a rapid large-scale restoration of degraded lands.

  3. Internal Corporate Governance and the Financial Crisis: Lessons for Banks,Regulators and Supervisors

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Gualandri; Enzo Mangone; Aldo Stanziale

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the importance of banks’ Internal Corporate Governance (ICG), viewed as an operational mitigation instrument, in a context where banks enjoy a high degree of organisational flexibility due to principle-based regulatory and risk-based supervisory approaches. The recent crisis has shown, on the one hand, that financial mitigations (i.e. capital requirements) are, per se, not sufficient to ensure the stability of the banks (which underpins the soundness of the entire...

  4. Ethical regulation or regulating ethics? The need for both internal and external governance of human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomossy, George F

    2002-10-01

    Research regulation is a timely topic for discussions in bioethics and public health policy. This response to articles in the previous special issue of the Monash Bioethics Review emphasises the importance of having both internal and external controls on human experimentation. Unless both elements are incorporated into research ethics governance frameworks, they will ultimately fail to achieve what should be their primary goal: human subject protection.

  5. Integrating global energy and climate governance: The changing role of the International Energy Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Heubaum, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long-recognized interlinkages between global energy consumption and climate change, there has historically been only limited policy interaction, let alone integration, between the two fields. This compartmentalization is mirrored in scholarship, where much research has focused on the fragmentation of, respectively, global energy and global climate governance, but only little has been said about how these fields might be integrated. Our analysis of the International Energy Agency’s...

  6. Climate governance in an international system under conservative hegemony: the role of major powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Viola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years, climate change has been established as a central civilizational driver of our time. As a result of this development, the most diversified social processes - as well as the fields of science which study them - have had their dynamics altered. In International Relations, this double challenge could be explained as follows: 1 in empirical terms, climate change imposes a deepening of cooperation levels on the international community, considering the global common character of the atmosphere; and 2 to International Relations as a discipline, climate change demands from the scientific community a conceptual review of the categories designed to approach the development of global climate governance. The goal of this article is to discuss in both conceptual and empirical terms the structure of global climate change governance, through an exploratory research, aiming at identifying the key elements that allow understanding its dynamics. To do so, we rely on the concept of climate powers. This discussion is grounded in the following framework: we now live in an international system under conservative hegemony that is unable to properly respond to the problems of interdependence, among which - and mainly -, the climate issue.

  7. Negative Cultural Transfer in Cross-Cultural Communication for Inter-national Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏秋颖

    2015-01-01

    With the depth development of economic globalization,the multi-culture conflict,communication and integration are strengthened.Meanwhile,series of problems about cross-cultural communication for international business have happened.One of the core problem is negative cultural transfer.This paper gives the analysis about its causes and effects.At last,the way to solve it have been found.

  8. RE-ENGINEERING GOVERNANCE; E-GOVERNMENT AS A TOOL FOR DECENTRALIZATION; GHANA AS A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Gyaase, Patrick Ohemeng Kwadwo

    2014-01-01

    This research was undertaken to study the diffusion of E-government as a tool for decentralization, using Ghana as a case study. E-governance has been credited with the potency of facilitating good governance in countries with appreciable level of E-government maturity. Much attention is being given to E-governance by international and inter-governmental institutions. Decentralization has hitherto been the approach adopted to make government and its services accessible to the citizens, facili...

  9. International coalitions in Brazil’s foreign policy: security and governance reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Costa Vaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The text analyses the relevance and role of international coalitions as instruments and arenas for negotiation in the context of Brazilian foreign policy under Luis Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010, and the perspectives they bring to the attainment of the goal of reforming the spaces and instruments of global governance in the political, economic and security spheres. Under Lula da Silva, Brazil supported and resorted intensively to coalitions not only for their instrumental value for consolidating the country’s international presence and actions, but also due to the possibility that they could induce systemic change towards a more uneven pattern of power distribution, thus helping to overcome lasting political and economic international asymmetries.

  10. International Responsibility of the Colombian State Facing the Inter-American Court on Human Rights for the Ineffectiveness of Internal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Mestizo Sosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently the international responsibility of the Colombian State facing the Inter-American Court of human rights, shows an increase in violations of standards contemplated by the international law of human rights, which expose a complex situation at the internal justice in a missing procedural dynamic that improves the process instruction and clarifies the circumstances and responsibilities required. A pattern of solution proportional to each stage of the administration of Justice is identified, corresponding to inquiry and research and providing an orientation method based on the balance of matrix models, efficient when formulating a clear and evident justice, which means having the ability to identify the simple from the complex facing the ineffectiveness of the internal justice. The methodology used was analytical, documentary and explanatory, having as main support the American Convention on human rights. In conclusion, the Colombian State must generate monitoring and control mechanisms with transparency, objectivity and independence criteria in the macro and micro processes of the administration of Justice. In addition, proper and efficient implementation of a ranked legal strategy, that provides a true legal evolution.

  11. Christian Joerges and Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (eds., Constitutionalism: Multilevel Trade Governance and International Economic Law (Hart Publishing: Studies in International Trade Law, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalism, Multilevel Trade Governance and International Economic Law is a second issue of a 2006 text of the same name. It brings together an impressive collection of international scholarship exploring international economic law in light of constitutional theory with many well-established experts in the field alongside some relatively junior and highly promising scholars.

  12. FCJ-198 New International Information Order (NIIO Revisited: Global Algorithmic Governance and Neocolonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Butt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of Internet governance has been dominated by Euro-American actors and has largely resisted consideration of a holistic and integrative rights-based agenda, confining itself to narrow discussions on the technical stability of Internet Protocol resources and debates about nation-state involvement in multistakeholder governance of those resources. In light of the work of Edward Snowden documenting the close relationship between government security agencies and dominant social media platforms, this paper revisits the relevance of the New International Information Order (NIIO, a conceptualisation of the global politics of information described at the 1973 Fourth Summit Conference of the Non-Aligned Movement of nations in Algiers. This paper argues that critical analysis of the oligopolistic structure of “platforms” and their algorithmic forms of governance can build a more inclusive movement toward social justice by extending the NIIO framework’s emphasis on decolonisation, collective ownership of strategic information resources, and documentation of powerful transnational entities.

  13. Evolution of tobacco labeling and packaging: international legal considerations and health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; Novotny, Thomas E

    2013-04-01

    Numerous national governments have recently adopted packaging and labeling legislation to curb global tobacco uptake. This coincides with the World Health Organization's 2011 World No Tobacco Day, which recognized the extraordinary progress of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The tobacco industry has presented legal challenges to countries, including Australia, Uruguay, and the United States, for enacting legislation meeting or exceeding FCTC obligations. We argue that national governments attempting to meet the obligations set forth in public health treaties such as the FCTC should be afforded flexibilities and protection in developing tobacco control laws and regulations, because these measures are necessary to protect public health and should be explicitly recognized in international trade and legal agreements.

  14. Internet, Sovereignty and the State: An Evaluation on How the Internet Influences National and International Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Akdenizli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study in evaluating arguments of how the Internet heralds the end of state sovereignty aims to consider how the Internet both nationally and internationally can at the same time have positive influences on governance. This article claims that despite the general tendency to regard the Internet as a technology that needs to be controlled, it can also be seen as a tool that strengthens national and global governance. This article firstly illustrates the conventional wisdom on how the Internet threatens state sovereignty. In doing so, it considers arguments on globalization and its effects on the state. The second half of the article focuses on how in the face of globalization forces the concept of sovereignty can be restructured, and how the state’s attitude towards information and communication technologies, particularly the Internet, can potentially strengthen state sovereignty and power structure.

  15. Inter-linkages: the Kyoto Protocol and the international trade and investment regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, W.B. [Institute of Advanced Studies, United Nations University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, delegates to the third session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed by consensus to adopt the Kyoto Protocol under which industrialised countries would reduce their combined greenhouse gas emissions by an average 5.2% from their 1992 levels. This will require a fundamental shift in the way in which energy is produced and the way it is used. This factor, in itself, is enough to catapult the Protocol out of the purely environmental realm and into the domain of global economics. The publication examines the Climate Change Convention in the context of potential synergies and conflicts that could arise between it and the World Trade Organization, international investment agreements, and private and contractual trade law. This practical study demonstrates how synergism and coordination could be accomplished in practical terms.

  16. Using an International Medical Advisory Board to guide clinical governance in a corporate refractive surgery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukich, John A

    2009-07-01

    To describe the role played by the International Medical Advisory Board (IMAB) in clinical and corporate governance at Optical Express, a corporate provider of refractive surgery. A review of goals, objectives, and actions of the IMAB. The IMAB has contributed to study design, data analysis, and selection of instruments and procedures. Through interactions with Optical Express corporate and clinical staff, the IMAB has supported management's effort to craft a corporate culture focused on continuous improvement in the safety and visual outcomes of refractive surgery. The IMAB has fashioned significant changes in corporate policies and procedures and has had an impact on corporate culture at Optical Express.

  17. Controlling illegal logging in domestic and international markets by harnessing multi-level governance opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin Kishor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Illegal logging is perceived to pose significant obstacles to the achievement of sustainable management of forests in the tropics. Equally importantly, it gives rise to or supports other undesirable outcomes – networks of corruption, generating significant volumes of “black” money and fuelling speculation, crime, or trafficking. However, illegal logging of tropical timber is not homogeneous and its characteristics depend, among others, on the supplying markets, at the national or the international scales. Available approaches to reduce illegal logging, at different levels of governance, in the producing and consuming countries are reviewed and their potential contribution is assessed.

  18. From Banking to International Governance: Fostering Innovation in Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell banks are increasingly recognized as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational stem cell research. By providing transnational access to quality controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines, stem cell banks seek to foster international collaboration and innovation. However, given that national stem cell banks operate under different policy, regulatory and commercial frameworks, the transnational sharing of stem cell materials and data can be complicating. This paper will provide an overview of the most pressing challenges regarding the governance of stem cell banks, and the difficulties in designing regulatory and commercial frameworks that foster stem cell research. Moreover, the paper will shed light on the numerous international initiatives that have arisen to help harmonize and standardize stem cell banking and research processes to overcome such challenges. PMID:21904557

  19. From Banking to International Governance: Fostering Innovation in Stem Cell Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Isasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell banks are increasingly recognized as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational stem cell research. By providing transnational access to quality controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines, stem cell banks seek to foster international collaboration and innovation. However, given that national stem cell banks operate under different policy, regulatory and commercial frameworks, the transnational sharing of stem cell materials and data can be complicating. This paper will provide an overview of the most pressing challenges regarding the governance of stem cell banks, and the difficulties in designing regulatory and commercial frameworks that foster stem cell research. Moreover, the paper will shed light on the numerous international initiatives that have arisen to help harmonize and standardize stem cell banking and research processes to overcome such challenges.

  20. University Marketing – Innovative Communication for Effective Inter/national Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana NICOLAE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning of universities on the different educational markets is critical for academic survival, role definition and status clarification on the present education markets. The latter are defined by the globalization of educational services, an increased number of players and their almost fierce competition to attract students and funding. The ever increasing competitiveness all over the world, the new missions that universities have to assume due to pressures from stakeholders, and also from global processes (among which demographics and technology are ever more uncomfortable are important issues that call for a clear organisational communication, as well as for an effective interorganisations information exchange. The present paper explores the importance of identity building for a coherent communication process meant to ensure the adaptability of a Romanian university to the needs of both its Romanian public, and also to those of an international audience. The case study under discussion is The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies (BAES, its identity, vision and mission and strategies development. The analysis of the identity building process in the BAES starts from the definition of the university as a “research and teaching university which organises higher and scientific preparation in the area of economic and administrative studies”, as approved by the Senate in 2007 (www.ase.ro. As an important dimension of the identity building process refers to its reception by the public involved, a questionnaire was given to a number of staff and students. The findings of this questionnaire, as well as several opinions verbalised during formal and informal meetings and personal conversations are included in this study.

  1. Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-15

    Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

  2. Internal corporate governance and the use of IPO over-financing: Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Xu; Yun Xia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how Shenzhen A-share listed companies used funds raised in over-financed IPOs during the 2006-2010 period. In exploring the relationship between internal corporate governance and the use of funds raised in over-financed IPOs, we find that the use of such funds to engage in severe over-investment behavior is prevalent among listed companies. Reasonable internal corporate governance mechanisms can effectively alleviate over-investment problems listed companies encounter in using funds raised in overfinanced IPOs. However, the same individual serving as both chairman and CEO leads to funds raised in over-financed IPOs being over-invested. Moreover, executives driven by high levels of monetary compensation are more likely to use funds raised in such IPOs to engage in over-investment. We find that improving the balance of power between shareholders will help alleviate the over-investment of excess IPO funds. In addition, the over-investment problem is less severe in state-controlled listed companies than in their nonstate-controlled listed counterparts. This study provides policy recommendations for Chinese securities regulators to ensure listed companies use funds raised in over-financed IPOs both rationally and effectively.

  3. Internal corporate governance and the use of IPO over-financing: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe how Shenzhen A-share listed companies used funds raised in over-financed IPOs during the 2006–2010 period. In exploring the relationship between internal corporate governance and the use of funds raised in over-financed IPOs, we find that the use of such funds to engage in severe over-investment behavior is prevalent among listed companies. Reasonable internal corporate governance mechanisms can effectively alleviate over-investment problems listed companies encounter in using funds raised in over-financed IPOs. However, the same individual serving as both chairman and CEO leads to funds raised in over-financed IPOs being over-invested. Moreover, executives driven by high levels of monetary compensation are more likely to use funds raised in such IPOs to engage in over-investment. We find that improving the balance of power between shareholders will help alleviate the over-investment of excess IPO funds. In addition, the over-investment problem is less severe in state-controlled listed companies than in their non-state-controlled listed counterparts. This study provides policy recommendations for Chinese securities regulators to ensure listed companies use funds raised in over-financed IPOs both rationally and effectively.

  4. Comparison of University Governance USA, UK, France and Japan: Report of the International Seminar on University Governance, 2012. RIHE International Seminar Reports. No. 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In contrast with that basic understanding of university autonomy, in most continental European countries, such as France, and also in Japan, the government has tightly controlled universities, in terms of both their organization and activities. In these countries, the concept of "governance" is often lacking, as institutions were not…

  5. 10 CFR 1004.11 - Handling information of a private business, foreign government, or an international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or an international organization. (a) Whenever a document submitted to the DOE contains information... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling information of a private business, foreign government, or an international organization. 1004.11 Section 1004.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL...

  6. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries: WatSan4Dev database coherency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dondeynaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS, being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation. These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission (EC has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database containing 45 indicators (called variables in this paper from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries.

    This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality; and, finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented.

    At the light of the first analysis, WatSan4Dev Dataset shows the coherency among the different variables that are confirmed by the direct field experience and/or the scientific literature in the domain. Preliminary analysis of the relationships indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor influencing negatively the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Efficient environmental governance is also an important factor for providing improved water supply services.

    The database would be at the base of posterior analyses to better understand the interrelationships between the different indicators associated in the water sector in developing countries. A data model using the different indicators will be realised

  7. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries: WatSan4Dev database coherency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Carmona Moreno, C.; Céspedes Lorente, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 45 indicators (called variables in this paper) from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality; and, finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. At the light of the first analysis, WatSan4Dev Dataset shows the coherency among the different variables that are confirmed by the direct field experience and/or the scientific literature in the domain. Preliminary analysis of the relationships indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor influencing negatively the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Efficient environmental governance is also an important factor for providing improved water supply services. The database would be at the base of posterior analyses to better understand the interrelationships between the different indicators associated in the water sector in developing countries. A data model using the different indicators will be realised on the next phase of this research work.

  8. Evaluation of the organisation and effectiveness of internal audits to govern patient safety in hospitals: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Saskia C; Zegers, Marieke; Boeijen, Wilma; Westert, Gert P; Robben, Paul B; Wollersheim, Hub C

    2017-07-10

    Hospital boards are legally responsible for safe healthcare. They need tools to assist them in their task of governing patient safety. Almost every Dutch hospital performs internal audits, but the effectiveness of these audits for hospital governance has never been evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the organisation of internal audits and their effectiveness for hospitals boards to govern patient safety. A mixed-methods study consisting of a questionnaire regarding the organisation of internal audits among all Dutch hospitals (n=89) and interviews with stakeholders regarding the audit process and experienced effectiveness of audits within six hospitals. Response rate of the questionnaire was 76% and 43 interviews were held. In every responding hospital, the internal audits followed the plan-do-check-act cycle. Every hospital used interviews, document analysis and site visits as input for the internal audit. Boards stated that effective aspects of internal audits were their multidisciplinary scope, their structured and in-depth approach, the usability to monitor improvement activities and to change hospital policy and the fact that results were used in meetings with staff and boards of supervisors. The qualitative methods (interviews and site visits) used in internal audits enable the identification of soft signals such as unsafe culture or communication and collaboration problems. Reported disadvantages were the low frequency of internal audits and the absence of soft signals in the actual audit reports. This study shows that internal audits are regarded as effective for patient safety governance, as they help boards to identify patient safety problems, proactively steer patient safety and inform boards of supervisors on the status of patient safety. The description of the Dutch internal audits makes these audits replicable to other healthcare organisations in different settings, enabling hospital boards to complement their systems to govern patient

  9. Título da página electrónica: International Risk Governance Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pinto dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O International Risk Governance Council (IRGC é uma organização independente cuja missão é ajudar a compreender e a gerir riscos globais emergentes que têm impacto na segurança, saúde humana, ambiente, economia e na sociedade. O IRGC focaliza a sua acção no desenvolvimento de conceitos e estratégias de governação do risco, sendo esta uma área crucial perante a necessidade de tomar decisões relacionadas com o risco e de conseguir uma maximização da confiança das comunidades nos processos e na...

  10. The Association between Related Party Transactions and Real Earnings Management: Internal Governance Mechanism as Moderating Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khober Limanto Genius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the association between related party transactions (RPT and real earnings management (REM. We also investigate the role of internal governance mechanism through the effectiveness of board of commissioner and audit committee in mitigating the association between RPT and REM. Our research sample consists of 386 firm-years of manufacturing firms listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX from year 2010 - 2014. Using linear regression, we find evidence that RPT has positive association with REM, only when the firm has higher RPT but not in the lower RPT. We find a contradictory result that board of commissioners strengthen the positive association between RPT and REM. Finally, we find evidence that the effectiveness of audit committees weaken the positive association between RPT and REM, both in full sample and in high RPT sample.

  11. United States Government Regulations and International Standards Related to Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Knowledge of government regulations relevant to the chemical analysis of foods is extremely important to persons working in the food industry. Federal laws and regulations reinforce the efforts of the food industry to provide wholesome foods, to inform consumers about the nutritional composition of foods, and to eliminate economic frauds. In some cases, they dictate what ingredients a food must contain, what must be tested, and the procedures used to analyze foods for safety factors and quality attributes. This chapter describes the US federal regulations related to the composition of foods. The reader is referred to references (1-4) for comprehensive coverage of US food laws and regulations. Many of the regulations referred to in this chapter are published in the various titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (5). This chapter also includes information about food standards and safety practices established by international organizations. Internet addresses are given at the end of this chapter for many of the government agencies, organizations, and documents discussed.

  12. The situation analysis of the international relations management and inter-university collaboration in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during the years 2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farajollahi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nowadays, with the development of science and communication, collaboration with other countriesand universities seems inevitable to universities. The aim of this study was to analyze the situation of internationalrelations management and inter-university collaboration (IRM-IUC in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUMS,Iran, during the years 2005-2010. METHODS: In this descriptive study, one checklist was used for analysis of the inter-university collaboration management and another one for the situation analysis of international relations management which included 4 sections itself. There were a total of 56 questions designed and developed through literature review and the expert panel.RESULTS: The results indicated the poor performance of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in the international relations management and inter-university collaboration fields. Most of the reviewed items had not been adequatelypaid attention to in the management of international relations and only one out of 14 evaluated items was considered inthe field of inter-university collaboration. CONCLUSIONS: In line with the overall globalization process, education and research have also become globalizedprocesses, and as a result, it is necessary for universities to develop effective ties and relationships with otherorganizations. However, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences has not been doing quite optimally in this regard. Thus,it is suggested that, based on the shortcomings pointed out in this study, new appropriate plans and policies be set todevelop fruitful and effective relations and correspondences with other universities and countries.

  13. China's International Education Initiatives and View of Its Role in Global Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sharon X.

    2012-01-01

    China is becoming an increasingly important actor in global governance. This paper contends that China participates by promoting its own global governance concepts on the one hand and by complying with the established global norms on the other. The paper introduces several key global governance concepts of the Chinese government and argues that…

  14. Oncology knowledge gap among freshly passed interns in a Government Medical College of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A survey was conducted among freshly passed undergraduate doctors of a medical college in Eastern India with the aim to investigate their exposure to oncology patients, their knowledge about various aspects of oncology patient management and their confidence in managing patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twelve newly passed interns of a Government Medical College in Kolkata were interviewed using semi-structured partly open ended and partly closed end questionnaire. The questionnaire dealt with the qualitative and quantitative aspects of knowledge and perception of the interns about the problem of cancer and its management. Results: A total of 82 interns responded to the questionnaire, with a response rate of 73.2%. About 53% of the respondents have seen less than five patients during their undergraduate ward/clinical postings. Among the respondents, 71% felt they were confident in diagnosing cancer, and about 56% were confident in counseling of patient and their relatives about cancer. About 63% were aware about the role of surgery; however, only 32% and 37.5% were aware about the role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, respectively. A dismal 12.5% were confident of care of terminal and late stage patients. Preparedness was correlated with exposure to patients with cancer ( P = 0.03. Majority (87% felt the need for incorporating oncology training at the undergraduate level and the most frequent method (67% suggested for doing so was having separate posting in radiotherapy department/oncology wards. Conclusion: There is glaring knowledge gap among newly passed doctors and integrated oncology postings during undergraduate training and during internship may help seal this gap.

  15. The fundamentals of terrorism and its targets: responsible governance - American Public Administration and Impacts of International Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Hanf, Kenneth I.

    2002-01-01

    Increasingly, public administration in the United States operates in a densely interconnected international system in which local decisions and actions may trigger global repercussions—and vice versa—and the fate of communities in one region is bound to the choices of decision makers elsewhere. Admi

  16. The fundamentals of terrorism and its targets: responsible governance - American Public Administration and Impacts of International Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Hanf, Kenneth I.

    2002-01-01

    Increasingly, public administration in the United States operates in a densely interconnected international system in which local decisions and actions may trigger global repercussions—and vice versa—and the fate of communities in one region is bound to the choices of decision makers elsewhere.

  17. Management Accounting and Corporate Internal Governance%管理会计与公司治理内在化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐献凤

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of strengthening management accounting in the management of the company, and puts forward to strengthen the corporate internal governance and risk management strategy and realize the innovation of management accounting, and speed up the process of the internalization of corporate governance.%文章论述了加强管理会计在公司治理中的作用,提出加强公司内部控制和风险管理策略和实现管理会计的创新,加快公司治理内在化的进程。

  18. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-09-30

    Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally increased since 1990. These findings suggest that expanding efforts at

  19. U.S. Government Publications: Their Value, Online Accessibility for International Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usdane, Bernice S.

    1980-01-01

    Classifies the types of online databases available through System Development Corporation (ORBIT) and Lockheed Information Systems (DIALOG) that access government information; briefly describes those which include access to government sources; and discusses in greater depth five databases which exclusively access U.S. Federal Government Documents.…

  20. THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL MORALITY AND INTERNAL CONTROL ON THE PROPENSITY TO COMMIT FRAUD: EVIDENCE FROM LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Puspasari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the influence of individual morality and internal controls on individuals’ propensity to commit accounting fraud at the local government level. This is a quasi-experimental research paper. Individual morality and internal controls are hypothesized to be having an interaction with each other in influencing the propensity to commit accounting fraud. Individuals who have low levels of moral principles are hypothesized to have the tendency to commit accounting fraud in the absence of any internal controls. To test this, a 2x2 factorial experiment was conducted involving 57 students from the Masters in Economics Development programme at Gadjah Mada University. The result shows that there is an interaction between individual morality and internal controls. The absence of internal controls does not cause an individual with high moral principles to commit accounting fraud. However, individuals with low morality levels tend to commit accounting fraud when internal controls are absent.

  1. Corporate Governance: The Impact on the Role, Position, and Scope of Services of the Internal Audit Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Paape

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCorporate scandals during the last decade fostered many Corporate Governance reports. These reports aimed at restoring checks and balances in companies to prevent fraudulent behaviour and restore public trust. One of the functions active in many organizations is Internal Audit. This func

  2. Adoption of the international model of a well-governed land expropriation system in China : problems and the way forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current international documents on a good governance of land tenure, a four-level participation procedure in land expropriation can be summarized. Although it is a combination of all the good experience from different countries which constructs an ideal model for expropriation, it is co

  3. Revisiting Manzanar: A History of Japanese American Internment Camps as Presented in Selected Federal Government Documents, 1941-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kimberley Roberts

    2004-01-01

    Starting with a U.S. presidential proclamation regarding Japanese enemy aliens on December 7, 1941, through legislative and educational information in 2002, the federal government of the United States has published, in varied media, numerous documents concerning its 1942-1945 internment of persons of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast.…

  4. Changing Internal Governance: Are Leadership Roles and Management Structures in United Kingdom Universities Fit for the Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlehurst, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines changes and developments in institutions' internal governance during the last decade, identifying points of continuity in the policy and political environment in the United Kingdom as well as points of difference. External drivers are discussed as part of the increasingly dynamic and volatile operating conditions for…

  5. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  6. International Organisations and the Shared Construction of Policy "Problems": Problematisation and Change in Education Governance in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grek, Sotiria

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, research has shown the ways that national governments have seemingly ceded some of their autonomy in education policy development to international organisations (IOs) in the context of globalisation and one of its conduits, Europeanisation. This article develops the idea that IOs, and particularly the Organisation for Economic…

  7. Corporate Governance: The Impact on the Role, Position, and Scope of Services of the Internal Audit Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Paape

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCorporate scandals during the last decade fostered many Corporate Governance reports. These reports aimed at restoring checks and balances in companies to prevent fraudulent behaviour and restore public trust. One of the functions active in many organizations is Internal Audit. This func

  8. Corporate Governance: The Impact on the Role, Position, and Scope of Services of the Internal Audit Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Paape

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCorporate scandals during the last decade fostered many Corporate Governance reports. These reports aimed at restoring checks and balances in companies to prevent fraudulent behaviour and restore public trust. One of the functions active in many organizations is Internal Audit. This

  9. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  10. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program Micronutrient- Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... test new or improved micronutrient- fortified food aid products. FAS defines...

  11. On international harmonization in the field of nuclear energy law. Report about the 7th AIDN/INLA congress, Nuclear Inter Jura '85 held in Constance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucsein, W.

    1986-10-01

    In September 1985, the seventh international conference of the Association Internationale du Droit Nucleaire (AIDN)/International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), Nuclear Inter Jura '85, was held in Constance (Lake Constance), with the title 'Status, prospects and possibilities of international harmonization in the field of nuclear energy law'. Four working sessions were devoted to the issues 'Licensing and decommissioning of nuclear installations', 'Nuclear liability', 'Nuclear exportation and importation', and 'International standards of radiation protection'. In the fields of liability and radiation protection, harmonization has been achieved to a high degree, in the two remaining fields harmonization is deemed useful.

  12. Evaluasi Penerapan Internal Control dan Pelaksanaan Good Corporate Governance pada PT PLN (Persero Distribusi Jakarta Raya dan Tangerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswandi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PT. PLN (Persero Distribusi Jakarta Raya dan Tangerang have implemented Internal Control and Good Corporate Governance. The research would like to evaluate the implementation of Internal Control accordance with COSOs criteria (Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and KNKGs criteria (Komite Nasional Kebijakan Governance. Based on research found that five components of COSO such as control environment, risk assessment, control activities, information and communication, monitoring have been implemented but unfortunately one of the component such as control activities not yet implemented properly accordance with COSOs criteria. The company also have been imlemented GCG accordance with KNKGs criteria but still need development through internalization GCGs spirit among the employees because some employees still have different perception related to GCG. For example from employee stand point theres no problem receive special gift or receive special payment from customer and have a conflict of interest when deal with public accountant.

  13. MICHEL FOUCAULT AND THE FINANCIAL GOVERNABILITY REFLECTIONS ON THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Omar, Agüero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present a governability or power technology form what I call financial governability that differs from the German ordoliberalism and the North American anacor-liberalism, analyzed by Michel Foucault. In which context does this form emerge from financial rationality?, how does it emerge and develop itself?, what meanings has it got for biopolítics and governability? And what implications happen from this transformation process of the human work in financial capital?, these are some of the matters that are discussed in this paper. As from the concepts of biopolítics and governability, I treat the theories of the policy of society and human capital, as foundations of the German ordoliberalism and the North American anarco-liberalism, respectively, later discussing the governability form which I call financial governability, as power technology differentiated from those.

  14. 76 FR 32285 - Regulations Governing Practice Before the Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... the IRS exempt student interns from the requirement to obtain a PTIN. These commentators suggested... substantially all of a tax return for compensation. If an intern does not receive compensation, the intern is not required to obtain a PTIN under the Sec. 1.6109-2 regulations. If, however, an intern engages in...

  15. Is ICANN Using Public International Law as a Panacea for Internet Governance Issues?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachovitsa, Adamantia

    2016-01-01

    Internet governance has been developed in the realm of informality. Significant institutions, arrangements and private regulation have flourished to manage and ultimately define the Internet’s functioning. Informality renders these modes of governance, in principle, invisible in the eye of the

  16. International Models and Domestic Translations? The Case of University Governing Boards in Romania and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králiková, Renáta

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, several post-communist countries launched reforms of university management and governance marked by the influence of a "modernization agenda" for higher education governance, which was promoted by the World Bank, the OECD and the European Commission. However, this "modernization agenda" was employed…

  17. Strategic Plan for Strengthening of Internal Audit in Government of Bihar

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Bihar (GOB) has adopted various reform measures to modernize fiscal and financial management such as passing of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, adoption of Government of India's general financial rules and decentralization of financial powers to respective departments with a view to increasing the pace of expenditure and implementation of plan schemes...

  18. University--Government--International Donor Community Cooperation in Research, Teaching and Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaniki, M.

    2010-01-01

    World geo-economics of the last two decades have seriously impacted on governments' capability to finance university teaching, research and community engagement, especially in the developing world. Over the same period however, the demands and expectations exerted on universities by government and society have increased phenomenally. To meet these…

  19. Measuring Innovation in Government: An International Review and Case Study of the UAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahroum, S.; AlSaleh, Y.; Al-Hashmi, S.

    2016-07-01

    Innovation is key to achieving multiple government functions and objectives, from ensuring the welfare and quality of life of citizens to advancing the economy as a whole. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), innovation has become a strategic priority for the UAE Government, attracting substantial government investment in numerous public sector innovation initiatives. In order to monitor progress towards achieving its many innovation-driven aspirations, the UAE Government has pioneered the adoption of key performance benchmarks for monitoring innovation capability and performance. This paper examines UAE’s experience in this regard as an emerging economy and draws comparisons with the experiences of other countries that have attempted at developing frameworks and indicators for innovation management in government. (Author)

  20. Participation, Democracy and Citizenship of Indigenous Peoples in the International Context Through the European systems and Inter-American Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Luiz Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the global democratization for the protection of minorities through the global promotion of European systems and Inter-American Human Rights. At the level of international human rights law, these ideas are the basis of so-called “speci- fication process rights of individuals”, according to which, in addition to general universal rights extended to all, there is need to recognize specific rights to certain groups vulne- rable in society. With the goal of achieving real equality, or at least reduce the existing factual inequalities. Thus, consolidation of protection of minorities reflects the situation of need access to fair legal system to ensure the effectiveness of fundamental rights and the full consolidation of access to justice through the international courts of justice, aimed at protection of human rights the international context.

  1. Governance Frameworks for International Public Goods: The Case of Concerted Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Thomas; Formica, Piero

    2007-01-01

    In the "participation age", emerging cross-border, transnational communities driven by innovation and entrepreneurship initiatives--in short, international entrepreneurial communities--give impetus to the rise of international public goods. With varying intensity, a non-voting international mobile public--still a small but an increasing fraction…

  2. INTERNAL MARKET GOVERNMENT SECURITIES IN PROMOTING THE EFFICIENCY OF DEBT POLICY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kuryshchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the effectiveness of debt policy of Ukraine, to its shortcomings and implications for the economy. The evaluation of the domestic government securities market and its impact on the efficiency of debt management.

  3. Influence of institute governance on international research collaboration: towards a typological theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulnicane-Ozolina, Inga

    2013-01-01

    While for centuries scientific activities have spanned national borders, research has been organised largely nationally and locally with diverse missions, reward systems, hierarchies and funding structures. Diversity of research governance facilitating development of a wide variety of competences an

  4. The Determinants Of United States Government Policy And Practice Towards Offsets In International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    terms to describe their offset programs.7 Examples of such terms include “Strategic Industry Development Activities ( SIDAs )” (Australia...governments include: Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Czech Republic, Chile , Colombia, Croatia, Estonia, Georgia, Jordan, Kyrgyz Republic

  5. Media governance and corporate social responsibility of media organizations: an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Ingenhoff, Diana; Koelling, A. Martina

    2017-01-01

    Media companies are increasingly becoming aware of the importance of their reputation. In order to legitimate themselves, they are starting to present themselves as ‘good corporate citizens’ by engaging in media governance and corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. The communication of those activities is crucial for the building of reputation. However, to date, no comprehensive studies have been conducted to evaluate the communication of media governance and CSR activities of medi...

  6. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of isometric shoulder extensor and internal rotator strength measurements performed using a hand-held dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awatani, Takenori; Morikita, Ikuhiro; Shinohara, Junji; Mori, Seigo; Nariai, Miki; Tatsumi, Yasutaka; Nagata, Akinori; Koshiba, Hiroya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to establish the intra- and inter-rater reliability of measurement of extensor strength in the maximum shoulder abducted position and internal rotator strength in the 90° abducted and the 90° external rotated position using a hand-held dynamometer. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy volunteers (12 male; mean ± SD: age 19.0 ± 1.1 years) participated in the study. The examiners were two students who had nonclinical experience with a hand-held dynamometer measurement. The examiners and participants were blinded to measurement results by the recorder. Participants in the prone position were instructed to hold the contraction against the ground reaction force, and peak isometric force was recorded using the hand-held dynamometer on the floor. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients. [Results] The intra- and inter-rater reliability data were found to be "almost perfect". [Conclusion] This study investigated intra- and inter-rater reliability and reveald high reliability. Thus, the measurement method used in the present study can evaluate muscle strength by a simple measurement technique.

  7. Why do some countries spend more for health? An assessment of sociopolitical determinants and international aid for government health expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li-Lin; Mirelman, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    A consensus exists that rising income levels and technological development are among key drivers of total health spending. Determinants of public sector health expenditure, by contrast, are less well understood. This study examines a complex relationship across government health expenditure (GHE), sociopolitical risks, and international aid, while taking into account the impacts of national income, debt and tax financing and aging populations on health spending. We apply a fixed-effects two-stage least squares regression method to a panel dataset comprising 120 countries for the years 1995 through 2010. Our results show that democratic accountability has a diminishing positive correlation with GHE, and that levels of GHE are higher when government is more stable. Corruption is associated with less GHE in developing countries, but with higher GHE in developed countries. We also find that development assistance for health (DAH) is fungible with domestically financed government health expenditure (DGHE). For an average country, a 1% increase in DAH to government is associated with a 0.03-0.04% decrease in DGHE. Furthermore, the degree of fungibility of DAH to government is higher in countries where corruption or ethnic tensions are widespread. However, DAH to non-governmental organizations is not fungible with DGHE.

  8. Study on Inter-Ministerial Coordination Mechanism of the Central Government in Western Countries and Its Enlightenment%西方国家中央政府部际协调机制研究及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽媛

    2011-01-01

    Both inter-ministerial coordination mechanism and super-ministry system are important ways to enhance government integration. But compared to super-ministry system, inter-ministerial coordination mechanism of the central government is in theory and practice lagging behind. Mechanism is the general term of means, methods, techniques and instruments. This paper analyzes the main ways of building inter-ministerial coordination mechanism in western countries from the following aspects: the structural techniques for coordination, the procedural techniques for coordination and the civil servant system. On that basis, it summarizes the basic experience of building inter-ministerial coordination mechanism in western countries and its enlightenment on China' s reform of the administrative system.%部际协调机制与大部门体制都是加大政府机构整合力度的重要途径。但是相较于大部门体制,我国中央政府部际协调机制的构建在理论和实践上都相对滞后。机制是方式、方法、技术和工具的总称。文章从政府的结构协调技术、程序协调技术和公务员制度等方面分析总结了西方国家中央政府构建部际协调机制的主要做法、基本经验及其对我国行政管理体制改革的启示。

  9. An international comparison of four polycentric approaches to climate and energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-06-15

    Drawing from work on governance, this article explores four programs and policies that respond in some way to the challenges induced by climate change and modern energy use. Relying primarily on original data collected from research interviews and field research in seven countries along with four case studies, the article notes that polycentric approaches - those that mix scales (such as local/national or national/global), mechanisms (such as subsidies, tax credits, and mandates), and actors (such as government regulators, business stakeholders, and members of civil society) - can foster equity, inclusivity, information, accountability, organizational multiplicity, and adaptability that result in the resolution of climate and energy related problems. After explaining its case selection and research methods, defining climate and energy governance, and conceptualizing polycentrism, the study explores cases related to electricity supply in Denmark, ethanol production in Brazil, small-scale renewable energy in Bangladesh, and off-grid energy use in China. It concludes by highlighting how polycentrism may enhance effective climate and energy governance, but that further research is needed to fully substantiate that claim. - Highlights: > Polycentric governance systems mix scales, mechanisms, and actors. > Polycentric systems can foster equity, inclusivity, and information. > They can also promote accountability, organizational multiplicity, and adaptability. > Polycentrism thus has much promise in climate and energy related problems.

  10. Towards an International Framework for Recommendations of Core Competencies in Nursing and Inter-Professional Informatics: The TIGER Competency Synthesis Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Ursula; Shaw, Toria; Thye, Johannes; Egbert, Nicole; Marin, Heimar; Ball, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Informatics competencies of the health care workforce must meet the requirements of inter-professional process and outcome oriented provision of care. In order to help nursing education transform accordingly, the TIGER Initiative deployed an international survey, with participation from 21 countries, to evaluate and prioritise a broad list of core competencies for nurses in five domains: 1) nursing management, 2) information technology (IT) management in nursing, 3) interprofessional coordination of care, 4) quality management, and 5) clinical nursing. Informatics core competencies were found highly important for all domains. In addition, this project compiled eight national cases studies from Austria, Finland, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, the Philippines, Portugal, and Switzerland that reflected the country specific perspective. These findings will lead us to an international framework of informatics recommendations.

  11. Inter-laboratory consistency and variability in the buccal micronucleus cytome assay depends on biomarker scored and laboratory experience: results from the HUMNxl international inter-laboratory scoring exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Knasmueller, Siegfried; Nersesyan, Armen; Roggieri, Paola; Ceppi, Marcello; Bruzzone, Marco; Blaszczyk, Ewa; Mielzynska-Svach, Danuta; Milic, Mirta; Bonassi, Stefano; Benedetti, Danieli; Da Silva, Juliana; Toledo, Raphael; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Groot de Restrepo, Helena; Filipic, Metka; Hercog, Klara; Aktas, Ayça; Burgaz, Sema; Kundi, Michael; Grummt, Tamara; Thomas, Philip; Hor, Maryam; Escudero-Fung, Maria; Holland, Nina; Fenech, Michael

    2017-03-01

    The buccal micronucleus cytome (BMNcyt) assay in uncultured exfoliated epithelial cells from oral mucosa is widely applied in biomonitoring human exposures to genotoxic agents and is also proposed as a suitable test for prescreening and follow-up of precancerous oral lesions. The main limitation of the assay is the large variability observed in the baseline values of micronuclei (MNi) and other nuclear anomalies mainly related to different scoring criteria. The aim of this international collaborative study, involving laboratories with different level of experience, was to evaluate the inter- and intra-laboratory variations in the BMNcyt parameters, using recently implemented guidelines, in scoring cells from the same pooled samples obtained from healthy subjects (control group) and from cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (treated group). The results indicate that all laboratories correctly discriminated samples from the two groups by a significant increase of micronucleus (MN) and nuclear bud (NBUD) frequencies and differentiated binucleated (BN) cells, associated with the exposure to ionizing radiation. The experience of the laboratories was shown to play an important role in the identification of the different cell types and nuclear anomalies. MN frequency in differentiated mononucleated (MONO) and BN cells showed the greatest consistency among the laboratories and low variability was also detected in the frequencies of MONO and BN cells. A larger variability was observed in classifying the different cell types, indicating the subjectivity in the interpretation of some of the scoring criteria while reproducibility of the results between scoring sessions was very good. An inter-laboratory calibration exercise is strongly recommended before starting studies with BMNcyt assay involving multiple research centers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions

  12. Interne audit als governance-instrument binnen de Belgische publieke sector

    OpenAIRE

    Spanhove, Jürgen; Verhoest, Koen; Troupin, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Dit artikel beschrijft de resultaten van een vragenlijst die nagaat welke plaats interne audit inneemt binnen het Belgische overheidslandschap. Interne auditdiensten binnen vier overheidsniveaus werden ondervraagd (Vlaamse overheid, federale overheid, Waals Gewest, Franse Gemeenschap). De onderzoekers kwamen tot de bevinding dat er qua regelgeving op het vlak van interne audit een groete heterogeneiteit bestaat over overheidsniveaus heen. Sommige overheden bleken al te beschikken over een (ce...

  13. Brazil’s international economic placement: the challenges of the Dilma government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sennes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s recent growth – combined with the optimum conditions of its external accounts and the realisation of its macroeconomic policies – has placed the country in a good position to recover its public policies and strategies over the long term. Several of these policies began to be implemented in the final years of Lula da Silva’s government, and they should be continued during Dilma Rousseff’s current government, by focusing particularly on public investment policy, industrial and technology policy and regional economic placement. However, the positive results of the current period have begun to reveal a number of limitations and shortcomings. These will be the specific challenges for the Rousseff government over the coming years.

  14. COMPARATIVE INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON MARKET-ORIENTED MODELS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaciu Diana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of corporate governance requires not only the knowledge of economic, financial, managerial and sociological mechanisms and norms, but it must also incorporate an ethical dimension, while remaining aware of the demands of various stakeholders. The interest towards good governance practice is very present in the company laws of many countries. National differences may lead to specific attributes derived from the meaning that is given to the role of competition and market dispersion of capital. Based on a research consisting of a critical and comparative perspective, the present contribution is dominated by qualitative and mixed methods. In conclusion, it can be said that a market-oriented corporate governance model, though not part of the European Union’s convergence process, may very well respond to the increasing importance of investors’ rights and to the gradual evolution of corporate responsibilities, beyond the national context, with the aim of ensuring market liberalization.

  15. Internal Audit: Does it Enhance Governance in the Australian Public University Sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to confirm if internal audit, a corporate control process, is functioning effectively in Australian public universities. The study draws on agency theory, published literature and best-practice guidelines to develop an internal audit evaluation framework. A survey instrument is thereafter developed from the framework and used as a…

  16. Internal Audit: Does it Enhance Governance in the Australian Public University Sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to confirm if internal audit, a corporate control process, is functioning effectively in Australian public universities. The study draws on agency theory, published literature and best-practice guidelines to develop an internal audit evaluation framework. A survey instrument is thereafter developed from the framework and used as a…

  17. Promoting Awareness of Government Export Assistance Programs in the International Marketing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letovsky, Robert

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 67 Academy of International Business members found that while international marketing instructors felt federally-supported export assistance programs are important for export success, they were not very familiar with them and did not have positive perceptions about the quality of services already offered. Little class time is devoted…

  18. Auditing en controlling bij de Rijksoverheid (2) : Relevante modellen voor governance: Interne beheersing en risicomanagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Droogsma, J.

    2011-01-01

    Het vraagstuk over de optimale positionering en taakinhoud van de audit- en control functies bij de Rijksoverheid staat volop in de belangstelling. De algehele governance bij de Rijksoverheid is in de vorige aflevering uiteengezet. Dit keer een overzicht van de relevante internationaal aanvaarde mod

  19. Greening international shipping through private governance: A case study of the Clean Shipping Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuisan, L.; Leeuwen, van J.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to generate insights into both private governance and partnerships within the shipping industry, but also tries to improve understanding of the complex process of institutionalisation. This is achieved through acase study of the Clean Shipping Project, a public/private partnership

  20. Into the deep blue sea: Commons theory and international governance of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Epstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to understand how to sustainably govern oceanic fisheries has become increasingly urgent as their contribution to global food security and livelihoods are threatened by declining stocks. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABFT is a prominent example of the complexities associated with widely distributed oceanic resources, extending in this case to include much of the North-Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. This distribution has led to limited attention from commons theorists that tend to focus on small-scale social ecological systems. Therefore in order to explore the fit between theories of the commons developed in small-scale systems, we apply the Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database (SESMAD to systematically analyze ABFT governance over a 22 year period. The results, which focus on the effects of resource characteristics, broadly correspond to the expectations of commons theory. Interestingly, however, the addition of resource storage in the form of ABFT ranches appears to be contributing to unsustainable harvests. This stands in contrast to previous findings in the commons literature that storage tends to enhance prospects for sustainable governance. Therefore several alternative hypotheses are developed by comparing and contrasting attributes of ABFT and canal irrigation storage. These hypotheses may be used in future research to evaluate the conditions in which storage enhances prospects for sustainable governance.

  1. Explaining the enforcement gap in China: local government support and internal agency obstacles as predictors of enforcement actions in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Fryxell, Gerald E; van Rooij, Benjamin; Wang, Wei; Honying Li, Pansy

    2012-11-30

    This study investigates how local government support for enforcement and internal agency obstacles explain the enforcement gap in Guangzhou, China. It was found that agency obstacles associated with insufficient resources and job ambiguity, in particular, affect enforcement officials' perceptions of enforcement difficulty. Somewhat more surprisingly, however, local government support was not found to be a significant predictor of these perceptions. In addition, this study identified four significant relationships associated with specific enforcement actions. First and second, perceptions of enforcement difficulty appear to lead to fewer inspections, but also have a weak positive effect on the frequency of fines levied. Third, poor coordination within the bureau was found to be associated with fewer violations being processed. Fourth, and contrary to expectations, local government support was found to suppress the frequency of inspections while having no significant effect on violations or fines. Overall, these findings suggest that increased local government support for the enforcement of environmental regulation in China may not necessarily lead to more rigorous enforcement, at least if enforcement rigor is measured in terms of inspections, citations and fines.

  2. Migration and environmental change in international governance: the case of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    With this paper we analyse and assess the role of the European Union (EU) in the governance of migration linked to environmental change. We trace the emergence of migration linked to environmental change as an issue on the EU agenda and examine both issue definition and the institutional location of EU responses. The EU is identified as a particularly significant potential actor in the broader debate about environmental change and migration, as it is the world’s most developed form of regiona...

  3. Implementation Command Media Manual And Internal Auditor Role In Achieving The Rules Of Good Corporate Governance The Case Of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafdinal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Command Media Manual includes the provision implementation procedures and instructions relating to the management and handling of command media is used by an organization to provide trace archives and uniformity of action operations. The contributions Internal Auditor IA in applying the principles of Good Corporate Governance GCG in the formation of company image and in the improvement of the integrated control function ensure that the operations have been run well and can increase the value added to the organization. Testing the hypothesis first tested the validity and reliability testing. Analysis of data was using path analysis path analysis. Generally not maximum awareness and common understanding among all management and staff that the application of the Manual Command Media is very important for the companys operations in their objective to fulfill the standards of corporate governance.

  4. Evaluasi Penerapan Internal Control dan Pelaksanaan Good Corporate Governance pada PT PLN (Persero Distribusi Jakarta Raya dan Tangerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswandi Iswandi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available PT. PLN (Persero Distribusi Jakarta Raya dan Tangerang have implemented Internal Control and Good Corporate Governance. The research would like to evaluate the implementation of Internal Control accordance with COSO’s criteria (Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and KNKG’s criteria (Komite Nasional Kebijakan Governance. Based on research found that five components of COSO such as control environment, risk assessment, control activities, information and communication, monitoring have been implemented but unfortunately one of the component such as control activities not yet implemented properly accordance with COSO’s criteria. The company also have been imlemented GCG accordance with KNKG’s criteria but still need development through internalization GCG’s spirit among the employees because some employees still have different perception related to GCG. For example from employee stand point there’s no problem receive special gift or receive special payment from customer and have a conflict of interest when deal with public accountant.

  5. Foxes, hedgehogs, and greenhouse governance: Knowledge, uncertainty, and international policy-making in a warming World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, David [Center for Transatlantic Relations, The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, 1717 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Suite 525, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Global environmental challenges like greenhouse warming are characterized by profound uncertainties about the workings of complex systems, high stakes as to the costs and benefits of various possible actions, and important differences concerning the values that should shape public choices, confounding ready resolution by conventional decision-making procedures. So-called adaptive or reflexive governance strategies provide policy-makers an alternative framework for tackling the greenhouse problem. Adaptive governance employs deliberate experimentation and continuous learning-by-doing to test and adjust ongoing policy responses. Yet pursuing such approaches poses particular challenges to global climate cooperation. In an increasingly interdependent world, coordinating multiple parties experimentally adopting different climate measures could prove contentious. Unequivocal policy lessons may be difficult to draw and apply. Timely collective revisions to ongoing policies may prove more difficult still to define and agree. Advocates must engage these issues directly and develop means of addressing them if adaptive governance approaches are to allow policy-makers to formulate better strategies for combating climate change. (author)

  6. Post-recombination early Universe cooling by translation-internal inter-conversion: The role of minor constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Anthony J

    2015-09-14

    Little is known of the mechanism by which H and H2, the principal constituents of the post-re-combination early Universe, cooled sufficiently to permit cluster formation, nucleosynthesis, and, eventually, the formation of structured objects. Radiative decay primarily cools the internal modes of H2, as Δj = - 2 jumps accompany quadrupolar emission. This, however, would be a self-limiting mechanism. In this work, a translational energy cooling mechanism based on collision-induced, translation-to-internal mode conversion, is extended, following an earlier study [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] of ensembles comprising H2 in a H atom bath gas. Here, the possible influence of minor species, such as HD, on this cooling mechanism is investigated. Results suggest that the influence of HD is small but not insignificant. Conversion is very rapid and an overall translation-to-internal energy conversion efficiency of some 5% could be expected. This finding may be of use in the further development of models of this complex phase of early Universe evolution. An unexpected finding in this study was that H2 + HD ensembles are capable of very rapid translation-to-internal conversion with efficiencies of >40% and relaxation rates that appear to be relatively slow. This may have potential as an energy storage mechanism.

  7. Post-recombination early Universe cooling by translation–internal inter-conversion: The role of minor constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffery, Anthony J., E-mail: A.J.McCaffery@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QJ Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-14

    Little is known of the mechanism by which H and H{sub 2}, the principal constituents of the post-re-combination early Universe, cooled sufficiently to permit cluster formation, nucleosynthesis, and, eventually, the formation of structured objects. Radiative decay primarily cools the internal modes of H{sub 2}, as Δj = − 2 jumps accompany quadrupolar emission. This, however, would be a self-limiting mechanism. In this work, a translational energy cooling mechanism based on collision-induced, translation-to-internal mode conversion, is extended, following an earlier study [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] of ensembles comprising H{sub 2} in a H atom bath gas. Here, the possible influence of minor species, such as HD, on this cooling mechanism is investigated. Results suggest that the influence of HD is small but not insignificant. Conversion is very rapid and an overall translation-to-internal energy conversion efficiency of some 5% could be expected. This finding may be of use in the further development of models of this complex phase of early Universe evolution. An unexpected finding in this study was that H{sub 2} + HD ensembles are capable of very rapid translation-to-internal conversion with efficiencies of >40% and relaxation rates that appear to be relatively slow. This may have potential as an energy storage mechanism.

  8. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCAA, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70(th) anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world's population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  9. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCAA, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70th anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world’s population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  10. Evaluation Survivor: How to Outwit, Outplay, and Outlast as an Internal Government Evaluator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniker, Ted

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the author's experience and insights as the chief of evaluation for public diplomacy at the U.S. Department of State, and as a consultant assisting federal agencies in a multitude of evaluation activities relating what helps and hinders internal evaluation functions. The article discusses the challenges faced by the internal…

  11. Local Content Requirements in Renewable Energy Schemes - Government Procurement or a Violation of International Obligations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, Cornelis

    2017-01-01

    Numerous States have adopted renewable energy schemes aimed at incentivising investments in renewable energy generation capacity that contain local content requirements as an eligibility criterion to obtain support, such as a feed-in tariff. However, these requirements may violate the international

  12. International law and governance of natural resources in conflict and post-conflict situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam-de Jong, Daniëlla Aviva

    2013-01-01

    An abundance of natural resources in a country is conducive to its development. Nevertheless, the last few decades have shown a harsher reality, where natural resources have triggered, financed or fuelled a number of internal armed conflicts. Examples include the armed conflicts in Cambodia, Angola,

  13. Cooperation at different scales: challenges for local and international water resource governance in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mirumachi, N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available and interdependence of actors, and risk perceptions of inclusive decision making. It is found that at both the local and international level, the state, which is a ‘traditional’ actor, still plays an influential role in decision-making. ‘New’ actors such as businesses...

  14. 77 FR 57055 - Regulations Governing Practice Before the Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... practice requires the knowledge, skill, thoroughness, and preparation necessary for the matter for which... Administration). List of Subjects in 31 CFR Part 10 Accountants, Administrative practice and procedure, Lawyers... Internal Revenue Service. (b) Certified public accountants. Any certified public accountant who is...

  15. Challenging Assumptions of International Public Relations: When Government Is the Most Important Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maureen; Kent, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores assumptions underlying Malaysia's and the United States' public-relations practice. Finds many assumptions guiding Western theories and practices are not applicable to other countries. Examines the assumption that the practice of public relations targets a variety of key organizational publics. Advances international public-relations…

  16. Government control over health-related not-for-profit organisations: Agency for International Development v. Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Tim; Donohoo, Angus M; Faunce, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between government and the not-for-profit (NFP) sector has important implications for society, especially in relation to the delivery of public health measures and the protection of the environment. In key health-related areas such as provision of medical services, welfare, foreign aid and education, governments have traditionally preferred for the NFP sector to act as service partners, with the relationship mediated through grants or funding agreements. This service delivery arrangement is intended to provide a diversity of voices, and encourage volunteerism and altruism, in conjunction with the purposes and objectives of the relevant NGO. Under the pretence of "accountability", however, governments increasingly are seeking to impose intrusive conditions on grantees, which limit their ability to fulfil their mission and advocate on behalf of their constituents. This column examines the United States Supreme Court decision, Agency for International Development v Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013), and compares it to the removal of gag clauses in Australian federal funding rules. Recent national changes to the health-related NFP sector in Australia are then discussed, such as those found in the Charities Act 2013 (Cth) and the Not-for-Profit Sector Freedom to Advocate Act 2013 (Cth). These respectively include the establishment of the Australian Charities and Not-For-Profit Commission, the modernising of the definition of "charity" and statutory blocks on "gag" clauses. This analysis concludes with a survey of recent moves by Australian States to impose new restrictions on the ability of health-related NFPs to lobby against harmful government policy Among the responses considered is the protection afforded by s 51l(xxiiiA) of the Australian Constitution. This constitutional guarantee appears to have been focused historically on preventing medical and dental practitioners and related small businesses being practically coerced

  17. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC: Models of Engagement with International Institutions in the Process of Regional Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Andreyevna Safonkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After the global financial crisis in 2008 the Asia-Pacific region has become a main driver of global economic growth leaving behind the US and European economies. The regional integration processes and business environment improvement as a result of the multilateral regional fora`s activities, such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC laid the foundation for such economic successes. In the process of regional governance the APEC engages with various international and regional organizations applying the models which help it to address its agenda demands in the best way. The article aims to explore what models of engagement with international and regional organizations the APEC forum applies in the process of regional governance; reasons and results of applying these models; track the evolution of engagement as well as assess the effectiveness of APEC`s engagement with international organizations in the context of shifting agenda. The research methods the author applied include qualitative and quantitative content analysis and comparative historical analysis. The official APEC documents adopted at the summits and ministerial meetings constituted the evidence base for the analysis. The author comes to the conclusion that the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation has clearly organized agenda aimed at implementing primary goals on trade and investment liberalization and favorable business environment in the region. Accomplishing objectives of its agenda the APEC takes advantage of policy, finance and expert potential as well as instruments and mechanisms of the international organizations (model “governance through multilateral organizations”. The model of “catalytic influence” is applied by the APEC in very rare cases. APEC applies the model of “parallel treatment” when it establishes its own bodies. APEC uses the “core group” model when it defines the mission of its own bodies as well as gives mandates to the international

  18. Clinical governance and clinical competence to support new scenarios and role of internal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Mazzone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex patient, who has often multiple, chronic and progressive disorders, who has undergone polytherapy, should be evaluated totally with respect not only to medical side, but also to psychological and clinical side. The shortage of specialists in disciplines that require technical skills, obtained by training and performing a sufficient number of annual procedures, contributes to the need for reorganizing health care; in this background the Internist devolves less time to charitable activities in favor of competences related to the processes. The knowledge of the clinical governance (CG should be the common heritage of all the actors of the health system, that need to be made up of professionals able to coordinate and make easy the implementation and the spread the CG culture. At least initially we propose to focus the testing strictly on the medical department. As already mentioned above, the natural Internist predisposition, cultural and training, leads him to a multidisciplinary vision of medicine that allows acquiring more easily the tools that make up the structure of CG, being able to facilitate the application. The acquisitions of professional competence and clinical governance play a key role in the Internist culture. The purpose of an Internist with professional skills and managerial capacity, is to act within the department to facilitate and simplify the horizontal interaction among other similar corporate structures and to help the Management to improve structural and clinical appropriateness in Hospital and to better the relations between hospital and territory, identifying the critical issues and the possible solutions.

  19. Associations among the Five Components within COSO Internal Control-Integrated Framework as the Underpinning of Quality Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Rae

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the associations among COSO components and how they affect the monitoring function of organisations. Five components of an effective internal control system are described using the framework designed by COSO (1992 and have been selected because they have been identified as underpinning quality corporate governance. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used first to run confirmatory factor analysis to determine the measurement models for the five COSO components. The COSO report (1992 described the internal control framework as a multidirectional iterative and situational (contingent process. The primary structural model was designed to reflect the one-way directional associations in the model described and shown in Exhibit 1 within the COSO report (1992. SEM analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Additional secondary SEM analyses were undertaken to investigate the reciprocal associations suggested in the COSO report (1992. Findings from the primary SEM analysis provide partial support for associations among the COSO components and enhanced monitoring quality that leads to good corporate governance. The results show that control environment is associated with three dimensions of information and communication (information accuracy, information openness, communication and learning. Additionally, two dimensions of information and communication (communication and learning and information feedback flow were found to be associated with risk assessment. An indirect association is supported by the results between control environment and risk assessment through the associations among three dimensions of information and communication (information accuracy, information openness and information feedback flow. Risk assessment is associated with control activities, which is subsequently associated with monitoring. The results of the additional secondary SEM analyses supported the reciprocal associations among risk assessment

  20. Competition between Bending and Internal Pressure Governs the Mechanics of Fluid Nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorselen, Daan; MacKintosh, Fred C; Roos, Wouter H; Wuite, Gijs J L

    2017-03-28

    Nanovesicles (∼100 nm) are ubiquitous in cell biology and an important vector for drug delivery. Mechanical properties of vesicles are known to influence cellular uptake, but the mechanism by which deformation dynamics affect internalization is poorly understood. This is partly due to the fact that experimental studies of the mechanics of such vesicles remain challenging, particularly at the nanometer scale where appropriate theoretical models have also been lacking. Here, we probe the mechanical properties of nanoscale liposomes using atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation. The mechanical response of the nanovesicles shows initial linear behavior and subsequent flattening corresponding to inward tether formation. We derive a quantitative model, including the competing effects of internal pressure and membrane bending, that corresponds well to these experimental observations. Our results are consistent with a bending modulus of the lipid bilayer of ∼14kbT. Surprisingly, we find that vesicle stiffness is pressure dominated for adherent vesicles under physiological conditions. Our experimental method and quantitative theory represents a robust approach to study the mechanics of nanoscale vesicles, which are abundant in biology, as well as being of interest for the rational design of liposomal vectors for drug delivery.

  1. Parameters and characteristics governing cellular internalization and trans-barrier trafficking of nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Karmani Murugan, Yahya E Choonara, Pradeep Kumar, Divya Bijukumar, Lisa C du Toit, Viness Pillay Wits Advanced Drug Delivery Platform Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Abstract: Cellular internalization and trans-barrier transport of nanoparticles can be manipulated on the basis of the physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of nanoparticles. Research has shown that these factors significantly influence the uptake of nanoparticles. Dictating these characteristics allows for the control of the rate and extent of cellular uptake, as well as delivering the drug-loaded nanosystem intra-cellularly, which is imperative for drugs that require a specific cellular level to exert their effects. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles should be optimal for the nanosystem to bypass the natural restricting phenomena of the body and act therapeutically at the targeted site. The factors at the focal point of emerging smart nanomedicines include nanoparticle size, surface charge, shape, hydrophobicity, surface chemistry, and even protein and ligand conjugates. Hence, this review discusses the mechanism of internalization of nanoparticles and ideal nanoparticle characteristics that allow them to evade the biological barriers in order to achieve optimal cellular uptake in different organ systems. Identifying these parameters assists with the progression of nanomedicine as an outstanding vector of pharmaceuticals. Keywords: nanoparticles, transport mechanisms, cellular uptake, size, shape, charge

  2. The European Union and International Governance: Still on the Path to a Global Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Daniela MIHALCEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union represents an artificial construct built on the same pattern of formation of the nation states, being defined as „the imaginary political community of Europe (McNamara, 2011. The dynamic evolution of the European Union from an economic entity to a supranational political entity continues to draw a series of critics due to the fact that it represents „an unusual entity, whose principles and constitutional status are ambiguous and incomplete (Ericksen and Fossum, 2004, p.436. This article investigates: on the one hand, the way in which the process of globalisation and the emergence of the European project have changed the relationship between the nation-state and its citizens; and, on the other hand, the EU’s relationship with it’s most important stakeholders and supporters: young Europeans. This article seeks to offer, from the perspective of young Romanians, a complex approach concerning the EU’s role in global governance on an economic, social, political and security level.

  3. INTER NATIONAL DIVISION OF LA BOR AND GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROCESSES;AN ANALYSIS OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN AUTOMOBILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Krempel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many political discussions share a common understanding of a rapidly changing world. A global market economy is seen to pose new demands for national markets and is expected to increase the international competition concerning locational factors. Globalization is the keyword of this debate. It describes an economic process that results from changes in the investment, production and distribution decisions made by individual firms and households. Unfortunately, the term globalization can mean different things to different people. Some observers define globalization as market integration (Frieden/ Rogowski 1997; others refer to the internationalization of production processes (Pauly/ Reich 1997; Archibugi / Michie 1998. Though the two concepts arc not mutually exclusive, they neither share a common definition nor do they examine the same processes. Whereas from the macroeconomic perspective ofJeff Frieden and Ronald Rogowski (1997, evidence for a globalizing or even a globalizcd world economy is to be found in the convergence of prices for goods, capital and services, the approach of Daniele Archibugi and Jonathan Michie (1998 regards globalization as a consequence of the growing number of transnational companies. In this paper we concentrate exclusively on the latter perspective and analyze globalization on a sectoral and systemic level. The information that allows us to trace globalization involves sector-specific trade flows, which are available for a period of fourteen years. Network visualizations, a technique that we illustrate more closely in the following section, also help to describe the structural change to the world trade in automobiles on the systemic level.

  4. The Effect of Used Information Technology, Internal Control, and Regional Accounting System on the Performance of City Governance Agency of Banda Aceh City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Djalil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of utilization of information technology, internal control system, and regional financial accounting system on the performance of city government agencies in Banda Aceh city government, Indonesia.The population of the research is 39 city government agencies (SKPK of Banda Aceh and by using the simple random sampling technique, it is selected 28 agencies within city government as a sample and employed 84 persons as respondents. The primary data of this research arecollected by using questionnaire and analyzed by using the multiple regression regresion method with a SPSS application software.The result shows that perceived by simultaneously statistical test indicated that the utilization of information technology, internal control system and implementation of regionalfinancial accounting system have a significant positive effect on the performance of city government agency. Similarly, tested partially, utilization of information technology, internalcontrol system, and implementation of the regional financial accounting system also have a significant positive effect on the performance of city government agencies in the city government of Banda Aceh, Indonesia.Keywords: Information Technology, Internal Control System, Regional Financial Accounting System, and Performance of City Governance.

  5. International Environment Governance of Ocean Acidification%海洋酸化问题的国际治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆珍

    2014-01-01

    海洋酸化是21世纪人类面临的除气候变化以外的另一个重大环境问题,现在还没有一个专门的国际环境法律机制来解决这一问题,海洋酸化问题在某种程度上处于国际法律的边缘地带,这对世界海洋生态的完整性造成了严重的威胁。加强海洋酸化的国际环境法研究尤为紧迫和必要,我们需要以一种全面的、综合的和协调一致的方式促进海洋环境的国际治理。%Ocean acidification is another one of major environmental problems which human face in the 21st century besides climate change, but now there is no a new international environment law mechanism to solve this problem , so to some extent ocean acidification is on the edge of international law, which has caused more serious threat to the marine ecological integrity .It is particularly urgent and necessary to strengthen international envi-ronmental law research of ocean acidification .We should coordinate to promote marine environment governance by the means of comprehensive and integrated way.

  6. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals.

  7. A novel clinical score (InterTAK Diagnostic Score) to differentiate takotsubo syndrome from acute coronary syndrome: results from the International Takotsubo Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadri, Jelena R; Cammann, Victoria L; Jurisic, Stjepan; Seifert, Burkhardt; Napp, L Christian; Diekmann, Johanna; Bataiosu, Dana Roxana; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Ding, Katharina J; Sarcon, Annahita; Kazemian, Elycia; Birri, Tanja; Ruschitzka, Frank; Lüscher, Thomas F; Templin, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Clinical presentation of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) mimics acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and does not allow differentiation. We aimed to develop a clinical score to estimate the probability of TTS and to distinguish TTS from ACS in the acute stage. Patients with TTS were recruited from the International Takotsubo Registry ( www.takotsubo-registry.com) and ACS patients from the leading hospital in Zurich. A multiple logistic regression for the presence of TTS was performed in a derivation cohort (TTS, n = 218; ACS, n = 436). The best model was selected and formed a score (InterTAK Diagnostic Score) with seven variables, and each was assigned a score value: female sex 25, emotional trigger 24, physical trigger 13, absence of ST-segment depression (except in lead aVR) 12, psychiatric disorders 11, neurologic disorders 9, and QTc prolongation 6 points. The area under the curve (AUC) for the resulting score was 0.971 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-0.98] and using a cut-off value of 40 score points, sensitivity was 89% and specificity 91%. When patients with a score of ≥50 were diagnosed as TTS, nearly 95% of TTS patients were correctly diagnosed. When patients with a score ≤31 were diagnosed as ACS, ∼95% of ACS patients were diagnosed correctly. The score was subsequently validated in an independent validation cohort (TTS, n = 173; ACS, n = 226), resulting in a score AUC of 0.901 (95% CI 0.87-0.93). The InterTAK Diagnostic Score estimates the probability of the presence of TTS and is able to distinguish TTS from ACS with a high sensitivity and specificity. NCT0194762. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society of Cardiology.

  8. The effect of government internal auditors moral reasoning and situational pressure on the tendency to commit fraud when auditing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Puspasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of government internal auditors moral levels and situational pressures on the tendency to commit fraud when conducting audit. Based on the hypothesis, despite the situational pressures, the government internal auditors who have a high moral level will not commit fraud at the time of auditing. Meanwhile, the government internal auditors who have a low moral level will com-mit fraud at the time of auditing when there is situational pressure. To test the hypothesis, a 22 factorial experiment is conducted involving 68 students of STAR-BPKP of Jenderal Soedirman University. The results indicate that the government internal auditors who have a high moral level will not commit fraud in the time of auditing despite some situational pressures. Meanwhile, the government internal auditors who have a low moral level will commit fraud at the time of auditing either there is a situational pressure or not. The implications of this study are to streng-then the supervisory system for the internal auditors at the time of auditing, to provide protection for whistle- blowers who report the presence of fraud committed by auditors, and to be consistent in giving reward to professional auditors and pu-nishment to auditors who are convicted of fraud at the time of auditing.

  9. Greenland as a self-governing sub-national territory in international relations: past, current and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackrén, Maria; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Greenland was used by the US as a platform and as an extended arm within its security and foreign policy during the World War II and the cold war. After this things changed, although Greenland remained important in Danish-US relations under the umbrella of NATO. Nowadays, the geostrategic position....... This article reviews developments from the World War II to the present regarding international relations from a Greenlandic perspective. As a self-governing sub-national territory within the realm of Denmark, Greenland does not have the ultimate decision-making power within foreign and security policy. The new...... of Greenland between North America and Europe is gaining fresh prominence in the race for natural resources in the Arctic. Many issues arise from the prospective opening of the Arctic, all of which may have fateful impacts on future development in the region. Climate change, claims related to the extension...

  10. The Value Basis of University Internal Governance:Educational Justice Perspective%论大学的内部治理:教育正义的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解瑞红

    2015-01-01

    University internal governance is the coordination of various interest subjects in universities. Education justice is the basic value of University governance, University internal governance should be based on the educational justice. But in reality, the pursuit of utility, the administrative guidance, the dependent culture leads to the lack of education justice in the internal governance of universities. Through the multiple interests of the main body of the university internal control and evaluation and the evaluation of the university regulations of the system to ensure that the university internal governance has always been based on the value of education justice.%大学内部治理是对大学内部各种利益主体关系的协调。教育正义是大学治理最基本的价值前提,大学内部治理应当以教育正义为依据。但现实中大学对功利的追求、行政的泛化、依附的文化导致大学内部治理中教育正义缺失,需要通过多元利益主体参与和评价大学内部治理以及大学章程的制度保障来确保大学内部治理始终以教育正义为价值依据。

  11. Evolution of different dual-use concepts in international and national law and its implications on research ethics and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Johannes; Ischi, Monique; Perkins, Dana

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the various dual-use concepts applied in national and international non-proliferation and anti-terrorism legislation, such as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, and national export control legislation and in relevant codes of conduct. While there is a vast literature covering dual-use concepts in particular with regard to life sciences, this is the first paper that incorporates into such discussion the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. In addition, recent developments such as the extension of dual-use export control legislation in the area of human rights protection are also identified and reviewed. The discussion of dual-use concepts is hereby undertaken in the context of human- and/or national-security-based approaches to security. This paper discusses four main concepts of dual use as applied today in international and national law: civilian versus military, peaceful versus non-peaceful, legitimate versus illegitimate and benevolent versus malevolent. In addition, the usage of the term to describe positive technology spin-offs between civilian and military applications is also briefly addressed. Attention is also given to the roles civil society and research ethics may play in the governance of dual-use sciences and technologies.

  12. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-12-15

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

  13. THE INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF INTERACTION BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS IN THE SPHERE OF INNOVATION: NEW TOOLS FOR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Yurievna Nikitaeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of international experience of interaction between government and business in the innovative development of the industrial sector. Purpose of the paper is to determine the features and content of the new mechanisms of industrial development, based on integration platform of economic agents’ partnership.Methodology. The complex of system, synergy, institutional, evolutionary, and endogenous approaches is used as a methodological basis of research. Methodological apparatus of the article is presented by methods of the analysis, synthesis, abstraction, logical generalization.Results: the assessment of influence of government and commercial structures partnership on the innovative industrial development is given; the tendency of expansion of a partnership segment in the innovative sphere of the industry is empirically illustrated; features and key technologies of the new integration mechanism of industrial development are given.Conclusion: complication of innovative processes in combination with other factors results in expediency of development of partnership of economic entities in the sphere of industrial development. The extent and effectiveness of partnership practices in innovation is largely determined by the role of state institutions. For innovation of industrial development it is expedient to form the mechanisms using the integrated capacity of public and private institutions.Practical implications: the results of the study can be used in the justification of the priorities and measures of the state innovation and industrial policy, the development of concepts and programs of clustering of the regions and the development of public-private partnerships, and also formation of strategy of development of industrial structures.

  14. Integrative environmental governance: enhancing governance in the era of synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.

    2015-01-01

    The issue of regime complexity in global environmental governance is widely recognized. The academic debate on regime fragmentation has itself however been rather fragmented, with discussions circling around different concepts, including inter-organizational relations, polycentric governance, integr

  15. Second inter-association evaluation of the PNLCC implementation. PNLCC 2000-2003: The Government economizes its energy; Deuxieme evaluation interassociative de la mise en oeuvre du PNLCC. PNLCC 2000-2003: Le gouvernement economise son energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    A group of associations (RAC-F, FNE, WWF, ''les amis de la terre'', CLER, Greenpeace, Helio international, Hespul, ''energies et territoires'', Detente, ''sortir du nucleaire'') realized its own 2002 evaluation of the PNLCC implementation. For each chapters of the Plan (industry, transports, buildings, agriculture and forests, wastes, energy production and conservation and cooling gases, the document takes stock on the actions decided and realized and shows the deficiencies of the government management. (A.L.B.)

  16. A Study of the Inter-Government Cooperation in Building the Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone%山东半岛蓝色经济区建设中的地方政府间合作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 王学栋

    2011-01-01

    The Shandong peninsula blue economic zone is a part of national maritime strategy, as well as an important part of the domain of China's regional development. Building the Shandong peninsula blue economic zone is also an important measure to promote the regional economic integration. Mutually beneficial cooperation within local governments in the area plays a critical role in building the Shandong peninsula blue economic zone. Compared with other domestic inter-governmental cooperation, the one being built in the Shandong peninsula blue economic zone has its own characters in various aspects, such as the interaction space, cooperation motivation, driving force, cooperative strategies, and implementation path, etc. Local government leaders should focus on changing their mind, exploring the law of development, establishing a win-win concept, and continuously improving the ability of cooperation, so as to promote regional integration and achieve synergistic effect. Provincial government and relevant departments should also play an important role in planning, directing, coordinating and regulating the cooperation within local governments in the area.%山东半岛蓝色经济区建设是国家海洋战略的一部分,是中国区域发展版图中的重要一块。也是促进山东半岛区域经济一体化的重大举措。区域内地方政府间的互利合作将对山东半岛蓝色经济区建设起到至关重要的作用。与国内其他区域内政府间合作相比,山东半岛蓝色经济区建设中的地方政府间合作在作用空间、合作动因、推动力量、合作策略和实现路径等方面都具有自身特点。地方政府领导者应着力转变思维、探索规律、树立共赢观念、不断提高合作能力,以促进区域融合,实现协同效应。省级政府及相关部门也应在区域内地方政府间合作中起到积极的规划、指导、协调和规范作用。

  17. 日本地方高校内部治理结构探究%Research on the Internal Governance Structure of Japan's Public Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚加惠

    2012-01-01

    Since the first public university created after World War I, the internal governance structure of public u- niversities in Japan has gone through nearly a hundred years of development and evolution, being gradually im- proved and perfected. From the inductive case analysis of two fairly representative of the Japanese public universi- in the internal governance structure, we sum following features: corporate governance of dual ance, "School - College or Faculty "two - tier the governance, governance up that internal governance structure of public universities has the committees, on behalf of the school interests of unilateral govern- level of governance, academic and administrative tracks parallel to coordination through specific or various committees.%自第一次世界大战后创建的第一所公立大学以来,日本公立大学内部治理结构经历了近百年的发展和演变,逐步走向完善。通过对两所颇具代表性的日本公立大学内部治理结构进行案例剖析,从中归纳出公立大学内部治理结构具有如下特征:双会共同治理,代表校内利益的单边治理,"校——学院或学部"双层级治理,学术与行政双轨并行治理,通过特定人员或各类委员会进行治理协调等。

  18. 试论我国政府内部控制建设%On the construction of government internal control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚小娴

    2015-01-01

    随着内部控制理论和实践研究的不断深入,政府内部控制在政府经济活动管理中发挥着越来越重要的作用. 但在现实中也存在由于政府内部控制体系不完善、不健全而产生的一系列问题,不仅严重侵害了纳税人的权益,而且有损民众对政府公信力的信任. 我国正式实施《行政事业单位内部控制规范》已有一年,我国政府内部控制也从2014年开始迈向了一个新的阶段. 文章从政府内部控制研究的意义和其基本内容出发,结合具体事例来指出目前我国政府内部控制中存在问题,并围绕这些问题从汲取企业内部控制中的合理因素、建立分层责任到位的内部控制观、优化政府内部控制评价和监督体制等方面提出了完善内部控制体系建设的对策.%With the study of internal control theory and practice, the internal control of government plays a more and more important role in the management of government economic activities. However, in reality, there are a series of problems caused by imperfect government control system, which is not only a serious violation of the interests of taxpayers, but also the public trust in the government's public trust. China formally implemented the"internal control standards of the administrative institutions"for a year, the internal control of our government from 2014 began to move towards a new stage. This paper points out the existing problems in the internal control of our government, and puts forward some countermeasures to improve the internal control system based on the internal control system, the internal control system, the internal control system.

  19. Renewal through Participation in Global Food Security Governance: Implementing the International Food Security and Nutrition Civil Society Mechanism to the Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.; Barling, D.

    2012-01-01

    The food commodity price rises from 2006 to 2008 engendered a period
    of political renewal and reform in the governance of global food security. The
    Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was designated as the main international forum dealing with food security and nutrition in 2009 as part o

  20. 内部审计在中央银行治理中的作用%Role of Internal Auditing in the Governance of Central Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖萌

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对内部审计在中央银行的外部治理和内部治理中的作用分析,认为内部审计在中央银行治理的各个方面都能发挥作用。其中,内部审计在中央银行内部治理的内部控制、风险管理、财务管理、决策机制、分支机构建设等若干方面,能够发挥重要的积极作用,在中央银行增强透明度、完善问责制、提高独立性等方面也起到一定作用。%Through analyzing the role of internal auditing in the external and internal governance of central banks, this paper believes that internal auditing can play a role in every aspect of the governance of central banks. Among these, internal auditing plays an important role in several aspects of central banks’ governance, such as the internal control,risk management, financial management,policy-making mechanism,branch development. It can also play a role in increasing transparency of central banks,perfecting accountability system and enhancing independence.

  1. ANALISIS PENGARUH MEKANISME INTERNAL DAN EXTERNAL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP PROFITABILITAS DAN KEBIJAKAN DIVIDEN PERUSAHAAN (Studi Empiris Pada Perusahaan Go Publik di Pasar Modal Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Fara Dharmastuti

    2015-04-01

    Dividend policy is an interesting topic to be discussed despite the fact that there are contentious arguments on theories about dividend. In this research dividend policy will be viewed through the agency theory by considering the effect of the company's corporate governance, in particular through the separation mechanism of internal and external corporate governance (Gillan, 2006 which are mediated by profitability. The study was conducted by all non-financial companies at the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2007 to 2010. AMOS 16.0 program is used in estimating the completion path model and testing hypotesis. The results shows that the mechanisms of internal corporate governance via the existence of independent commissioner and executive compensation can not significantly influence the company's financial performance, while mechanisms of external corporate governance as measured by the stability and the percentage of institutional ownership significantly influence the companys financial performance. This indicates that the external corporate governance has a greater power to monitor and influence the financial policies of the company.

  2. On the Internal Governance Structure of Modern Universities%现代大学内部治理结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢潇潇; 朱煜明

    2016-01-01

    大学是复杂的非营利性专业组织,也是需要不断进行治理的高度制度化组织,其内部治理结构的持续完善是回归大学自由本质的核心。治理体系和治理能力的推进已经成为当下大学发展的战略性选择。在党委领导下校长负责制的制度引领下,完善制度保障体系、规范行政权利机构、配置权利制衡机制,构建科学、完善的现代大学内部治理结构是我国大学发展的实践旨归。%Universities are complex non‐profit , professional , highly institutionalized organizations . Continuous improvement of their internal governance structures and governance capabilities is the key to preserve the freedom of universities . Improving the governance system and governing capacity has become a strategic choice for the further development of universities . With the president responsibility system under the leadership of the Party Committee as chief orientation , the practical orientation of Chinese universities should be perfecting the internal governance structure throughimproving the institutional system , standardizingexecutive authority , and configuring checks and balances mechanism .

  3. Water pollution and environmental governance systems of the Tai and Chao Lake Basins in China in an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei Qiu; M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter); H. Wang (Huimin)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe Tai and Chao Lake basins are currently facing a serious water pollution crisis associated with the absence of an effective environmental governance system. The water pollution and the water governance system of the two basins will be compared. The reasons for water pollution in

  4. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...... in the four dimensions of time, task, team, and transition. Specifically, we report on new collaboration procedures that are characterized by an ad-hoc and non-linear management of time; a sense of shared commitment to the accomplishment of tasks; a serendipitous recruitment of team members based on expertise...

  5. School of Optometry at Inter American University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Henry W.

    1981-01-01

    The optometry program at the Inter American University in Puerto Rico is profiled, with highlights of admission criteria, temporary and permanent facilities, faculty, governance structure, curriculum, research opportunities, and relationship with the university as a whole. (MSE)

  6. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  7. New Paradigms in International University/Industry/Government Cooperation. Canada-China Collaboration in Advanced Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgak, Akif Asil; Liquan, He

    1996-01-01

    A Chinese university and a Canadian university collaborated on an advanced manufacturing technologies project designed to address human resource development needs in China. The project featured university/industry/government partnership and attention to environmental issues. (SK)

  8. New Paradigms in International University/Industry/Government Cooperation. Canada-China Collaboration in Advanced Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgak, Akif Asil; Liquan, He

    1996-01-01

    A Chinese university and a Canadian university collaborated on an advanced manufacturing technologies project designed to address human resource development needs in China. The project featured university/industry/government partnership and attention to environmental issues. (SK)

  9. 浅议国际多式联运中如何更好地分清各方责任%Liability Attribution Among Parties of International Inter-modal Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珉

    2011-01-01

    对国际多式联运的网状责任制原则与多式联运经营人的赔偿责任限制进行了理论综述,指出网状责任制的最大弊端和实践中国际货运市场供求关系决定责任归属的现状.通过尝试从企业实践中另辟蹊径,提出了货运单据和科技创新设备在划分各关系方责任方面的实际作用.%The paper reviews literatures on the principle of liabilities and liability limitation for inter-modal transport operators in inter-national inter-modal transportation, points out the most serious limitation of the net-structured distribution of liabilities among the concerned parties as well as the fact that, in practice, demand-supply relationship of the international freight forwarding market determines liability attribution. Then, in an effort at innovation, the paper studies enterprise practices, investigating the roles of BOL and high-tech equipment in the determination of liabilities of the various parties in the relationship.

  10. The Concept of “Indirect Expropriation”, its appearance in the international system and its effects in the regulatory activity of governments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtenay Barklem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The protection of an alien’s property in a host country against direct expropriation has long existed in the international arena. Examples of direct expropriation include nationalization, physical seizure of assets or legislated transfer of assets to the state. However such physical takings are no longer common practice. Nowadays, expropriation comes mainly in the form of “indirect expropriation”: acts and steps taken by governments which interfere with the right to the property or diminish the value of the property.This paper explores the most relevant antecedents of the concept of indirect expropriation, its appearance in the international system, the inclusion in BITs and Investment Chapters of FTAs, and the effect that the concept is having on the regulatory activity of governments.

  11. Effect Of Implementation Of Good Corporate Governance And Internal Audit Of The Quality Of Financial Reporting And Implications Of Return Of Shares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlynda Y. Kasim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of financial reporting produced by the company are expected to meet the quality characteristics to Achieve the objective of the conceptual framework of financial reporting. Good implementation of adequate corporate governance in a company is one of the factors that Determine the quality of financial reporting. Similarly the internal implementation of audit firm certainly factors Affect the quality of financial reporting. Quality financial reporting will certainly get a market response that can be seen from the level of the stock return. The paper examines two independent variables items namely Good Corporate Governance and Internal Audit and its influence on the quality of financial reporting and its implications to Return Shares. In the design of this study will be performed on companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange with multiple linear regression method.

  12. The Integration of Corporate Internal Control System: Based On Corporate Governance%基于公司治理的内部控制整合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永清; 夏大慰

    2009-01-01

    文章在分析公司治理和内部控制关系的基础上,探讨了基于公司治理的内部控制的逻辑起点,详细研究了内部控制的整合问题,包括内部控制整合的基础工作、内部控制整合的框架、内部控制整合的模块,最后以采购为例对内部控制制度整合进行了具体设计.%The paper firstly analyzes the relationship between corporate governance and internal control, and the logical start of internal control based on corporate governance. Then, it studies internal control integration, which includes the basic works, the framework, and the modules of internal control integration. Finally, it takes the purchase business as an example to illustrate the integration of internal control.

  13. Pengaruh good corporate governance dan implementasi International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) terhadap manajemen laba (studi empiris pada perusahaan pertambangan yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Arthauly

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the influence of good corporate governance and Implementation of International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) to the earning management of minning industries that listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange period 2010 up to 2013. This study was also intended to know which performance measures have the most significant effect to the earning management and company performance. Data that used in this research is annual report from each company, publized thro...

  14. Renewal through Participation in Global Food Security Governance: Implementing the International Food Security and Nutrition Civil Society Mechanism to the Committee on World Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The food commodity price rises from 2006 to 2008 engendered a period of political renewal and reform in the governance of global food security. The Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was designated as the main international forum dealing with food security and nutrition in 2009 as part of this reform. Through the CFS reform process, civil society organizations secured the right to co-ordinate autonomously their engagement in the Committee as official participants and are doing so through ...

  15. 政府干预和内部人控制与企业多元化研究%Reseach on Government Intervention, Internal Control and Enterprises' Diversification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕燕; 黄国良

    2015-01-01

    Diversification should berestricted by enterprises' resources, which aims at making full use of remaining resources. Under the system background of"government intervention" coexisting with "internal control", government and the internal would influence the enterprises' diversification strategy by resources to realize their own interests. This paper gives a systematic review and summary of relevant literatures about the impact of government intervention and internal control on the enterprise resources and diversification. Then the paper proposes that it should bring government intervention, internal control as well as enterprise resources into the research frame of diversification to reflect the dynamic relationships among them; It should expand the research content to the degree of government and the internal influencing on diversification mode and how to regulate their behavior and diversification mode to promote enterprises' value;Moreover, it should improve the measuring method of resources as well as compare the change before and after the share splitting reform.%多元化作为企业剩余资源的配置活动要受到企业资源的制约。在“政府干预”和“内部人控制”并存的制度背景下,政府和内部人为实现自身的利益要求,有能力也有动力利用掌控的资源对国有企业的多元化战略施加影响。文章系统梳理和总结了政府干预、内部人控制对企业资源和多元化经营影响的相关文献,提出:研究框架上应突破单一视角的藩篱,将政府干预、内部人控制和企业资源同时纳入多元化的研究框架,反映它们之间的动态关系;研究内容上应在政府和内部人对多元化模式的影响程度以及如何规范他们的行为和企业多元化模式方面加以扩展;研究深度上应在资源的测度方法、股改前后政府和内部人影响多元化的动机、模式和效果是有所变化等方面加以深入。

  16. A Review of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's International Education Surveys: Governance, Human Capital Discourses, and Policy Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…

  17. Understanding the Programmatic and Contextual Forces That Influence Participation in a Government-Sponsored International Student-Mobility Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Laura W.; Orosz, Kata; Jumakulov, Zakir; Kishkentayeva, Marina; Ashirbekov, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Although prior research establishes the forces that "push" and "pull" students to participate in foreign study, the transferability of findings from earlier studies is limited by the absence of theoretical grounding. In addition, relatively little is known about how a government-sponsored student mobility program promotes…

  18. A Review of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's International Education Surveys: Governance, Human Capital Discourses, and Policy Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…

  19. Towards integration and differentiation in environmental health risk governance. An international comparative quick-scan of policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, L.; Bree, L. van; Driessen, P.P.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decades several shifts can be identified in the field of environmental health risk reduction policies in the Netherlands. In response to the shortcomings of traditional sector-based (environmental) policy, the government has proposed a new approach to deal with health risks that encour

  20. International competition and strategic response in the Dundee jute industry during the inter-war (1919-1939) and post-war (1945-1960s) period : the case of jute industries, Buist Spinning, Craiks and Scott & Fyfe

    OpenAIRE

    Masrani, Swapnesh

    2008-01-01

    This research uses the ‘demand-side thesis’ to examine the decline of the Dundee jute industry. In particular, it examines the effect of international competition and the strategic response of the industry during the inter-war (1919-1939) and the post-war (1945-1960s) period to counter this challenge. The strategic response is studied by examining strategies employed at the firm and the industry level. Strategy at the firm level is studied in the form of capability development usi...

  1. Study on the Reform of Internal Governance Structure in Univer-sities and the Construction of a Clean Government%大学内部治理结构改革与党风廉政建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪保安; 吴忠宁

    2015-01-01

    In universities, to deepen the reform of the internal governance structure and strengthen the cultivation of the Party’s conduct and a clean government are not only the core content of modern university system with Chinese characteristics, but also an important guarantee to promote a comprehensive reform of universities. The underlying causes of the frequent occurrence of corruption include unclear power and responsibility, imperfect power constraint mechanism, and weakened power supervision. To formulate and implement the university statutes and promote the modernization of university governance, we can standardize, balance and supervise public power, which will fundamentally promote the construction of the Party conduct and the clean gov-ernment. It is the mark of the maturity and the inevitable choice of modern universities with Chinese characteristics.%深化内部治理结构、加强党风廉政建设,既是中国特色现代大学制度的核心内容,也是全面推进高校综合改革的重要保障。高校腐败现象发生的根源在于权力配置和责任不清晰、权力约束机制不健全、权力监督问责弱化等问题。制定和实施大学章程,推动大学治理现代化,从源头上规范、制衡、监督权力,从根本上促进高校党风廉政建设,这也是中国特色现代大学走向成熟的标志和必然选择。

  2. Neo-Liberalist Government Concept and International Financial Crisis%新自由主义政府观与国际金融危机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂圣平

    2012-01-01

    The neo-liberalist government concept is always noted for its view of "small government,big society".But this kind of negative and conservative political and economical viewpoint has not been able to adapt to the requirements of the risky society,which is one of reasons for the outbreak of international financial crisis.Only an active government can deal with the risky society and resist financial crisis.During the process of vigorous government activities,however,attention should always be paid to the appearance of the so-called "leviathan".%新自由主义政府观一直以"小政府、大社会"的政府观著称于世,但这种消极保守式的政治经济主张已无法适应风险社会的要求,这是国际金融危机爆发的根源之一。政府积极有为才是应对风险社会和抗击金融危机的根本之道。但在政府积极有为的过程中,需时刻防范"利维坦"的出现。

  3. 76 FR 20305 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot (MFFAPP). The notice stated that eligible applicants...

  4. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  5. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  6. Options and Opportunities for Whole-of-Government Contributions in the Campaign Against International Piracy: Capstone Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    of the U.S.-flagged MV Maersk Alabama showed that even the United States is vulnerable to Somali piracy. Our study The circumstances in Somalia...protect shipping, secure sea lines of communications, and interdict pirates, the problem of Somali piracy persists. U.S. Naval Forces Africa (USNAVAF...through the enterprise lens. We find that pirate activities in both areas can be broken down along the above lines . Doing so can enable governments

  7. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176991662

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  8. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  9. SU-C-210-07: Assessment of Intra-/Inter-Fractional Internal Tumor and Organ Movement in Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer Using On-Board Cine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Dolly, S; Anastasio, M; Fischer-Valuck, B; Kashani, R; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Mutic, S; Gay, H; Thorstad, W; Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Victoria, J; Dempsey, J [ViewRay Incorporated, Oakwood Village, OH (United States); Ruan, S [University of Rouen, QuantIF - EA 4108 LITIS, Rouen (France); Low, D [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Head and neck (H&N) internal organ motion has previously been determined with low frequency and temporary nature based on population-based pre- and post-treatment studies. Using immobilization masks and adding a 4–6 mm planning-tumor-volume margin, geometric uncertainties of patients are routinely considered clinically inconsequential in H&N radiotherapy. Using the first commercially-available MR-IGRT system, we conducted the first quantitative study on inter-patient, intra- and inter-fractional H&N internal motion patterns to evaluate the necessity of individualized asymmetric internal margins. Methods: Ninety cine sagittal MR image sequences were acquired during the entire treatment course (6–7 weeks) of three H&N cancer patients using the ViewRay™ MR-IGRT system. The images were 5 mm thick and acquired at 4 frames/per second. One of the patients had a tracheostomy tube. The cross-sectional H&N airway (nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx portions) movement was analyzed comprehensively using in-house developed motion detection software. Results: Large inter-patient variations of swallowing frequency (0–1 times/per fraction), swallowing duration (1–3 seconds), and pharyngeal cross-sectional area (238–2516 mm2) were observed. Extensive pharyngeal motion occurred during swallowing, while nonzero and periodic change of airway geometry was observed in resting. For patient 1 with tracheostomy tube replacement, 30.3%, 30.0%, 48.7% and 0.3% of total frames showed ≥ 4 mm displacements in the anterior, posterior, inferior, and superior airway boundaries, respectively; similarly, (5.7%, 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.3%) and (23.3%, 0.0%, 35.7%, 1.7%) occurred for patients 2 and 3. Area overlapping coefficients with respect to the first frame were 76.3+/−6.4%, 90.3+/−0.6%, and 92.3+/−1.2% for the three patients, respectively. Conclusion: Both the resting and swallowing motions varied in frequency and amplitude among the patients and across fractions of a

  10. The Juscelino Kubitschek government and the Brazilian Malaria Control and Eradication Working Group: collaboration and conflicts in Brazilian and international health agenda, 1958-1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, a disease which was under control in the beginning of Juscelino Kubitschek government, became the most important endemic disease in 1958, when Brazil made a commitment with the World Health Organization to convert its control programs into eradication programs. For this purpose a Malaria Control and Eradication Group was set up under the leadership of the malaria specialist Mário Pinotti. Malaria would become an important bargaining chip in the context of the development policies of Kubitschek. This article focuses on path of the Malaria Control and Eradication Working Group in Brazil, in its varying relationships with the arguments and guidelines established at international level

  11. The 9/21 earthquake in Taiwan: a local government disaster rescue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yungnane

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs a three-element model to examine how the disaster rescue system of the government of Nantou County in Middle Taiwan functioned following the earthquake of 21 September 1999. The three elements are information gathering, local government mobilisation, and inter-organisational cooperation. The paper finds that the Nantou County government needs to address many problems associated with these three elements. Disaster information, for example, was not processed instantly because of the destruction of the electricity and telephone systems in the earthquake. Insufficient information caused ineffectiveness in the realms of mobilisation and inter-organisational cooperation. As for mobilisation, while the Nantou County magistrate successfully used specific information to encourage flows of huge resources in the county, he did not successfully mobilise human resources there. With regard to inter-organisational cooperation, myriad voluntary actors and international rescue teams travelled to Nantou County, but the fire and police services experienced cooperation and coordination problems.

  12. International sports organization in governance and development of Olympic sports [Mezhdunarodnye sportivnye organizacii v upravlenii i razvitii olimpijskikh vidov sporta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonets V.I.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aspects of development of physical culture and Olympic types of sport are considered from positions of approach of the systems. The structure of the socio-economic system is presented: global, international, national level of administrative mechanism. The basic going is investigational near management. The role of international organizations is certain in a management development of Olympic types of sport. The role of the National Olympic committees which regulate the processes of management development of physical culture and sport a sphere at state level is exposed. The tendencies of bringing in of off-budget facilities Olympic organizations of the separate European countries are marked.

  13. INTERNAL CONTROL IN BRAZILIAN MUNICIPALITIES AN ANALYSIS ON LOCAL COMPTROLLER GENERAL OFFICES, IN VIEW OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT MODEL OF THE CONTROLADORIA-GERAL DA UNIÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Meirelles Toledo Cruz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The obligation to constitute an internal control system within municipalities is established in the Federal Constitution of Brazil. Recently, and possibly inspired by the Controladoria Geral da União (CGU model, some municipalities have created comptroller’s offices to perform the role of internal control units at local level. The present paper analyses the role which is currently being performed by these comptroller offices, based on the model implemented in the Federal Government. The investigation was carried out based on a questionnaire with open and closed questions, which was directly transmitted to 34 municipalities which have a General Municipal Comptroller Office (CGM. It was concluded that the role performed by the CGU since its creation and the diffusion of its model to the Brazilian municipalities is still incipient, on the one hand, and that the comptroller offices need to make progress in the implementation of the LAI and in the dissemination of their activities, on the other.

  14. 48 CFR 225.7303-2 - Cost of doing business with a foreign government or an international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limited by FAR Part 31), such as— (i) Maintaining international sales and service organizations; (ii) Sales commissions and fees in accordance with FAR Subpart 3.4; (iii) Sales promotions, demonstrations... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions for Foreign Military Sales 225.7303-2 Cost of doing business...

  15. Corporate governance versus corporate governance : an international review: uma análise comparativa da produção acadêmica do tema governança corporativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique César Melo Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analizó comparativamente la producción académica del tema Gobernanza Corporativa sobre la óptica de los siguientes periódicos: Corporate Governance y Corporate Governance: An International Review, en el período de 2001 a 2012. Metodológicamente se realizó un estudio bibliométrico con análisis de redes sociales, en un universo de 1.008 artículos. Los resultados permiten concluir que hay una centralidad de red de los autores, IESs y países. Kakabadse, N., fue el autor más proficuo; Cranfield University, fue la IES que más publicó; Inglaterra, el país más productivo. Las temáticas más vistas en los artíc ulos fueron: Consejo de Administración, Responsabilidad Social Corporativa y Estructura de Propiedad.

  16. User-tailored Inter-Widget Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hoisl, Bernhard; Waglecher, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hoisl, B., & Wagenlecher, C. (2010, 16 September). User-tailored Inter-Widget Communication. Extending the Shared Data Interface for the Apache Wookie Engine, International Conference on Interactive Computer Aided Learning 2010, Hasselt, Belgium.

  17. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Brown, Dana

    2015-01-01

    to promote international competitiveness of domestic businesses. Both sets of explanations see governments as driving CSR policies to meet particular national government goals. Support is found for the thesis that CSR policies are often related to international competitiveness, yet our findings suggest...

  18. The importance of internal communication in organizational change: Case study of the structural change in a Belgian government agency

    OpenAIRE

    Van Praet, Ellen; Van Leuven, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Internal communication is an essential element to create willingness to change in organizations (Elving 2005a, 2005b; Clampitt et al. 2000; Armenakis et al. 2007). In this paper, we present the results of a mixed method research assessing change communication in a Belgian governmental institution which recently implemented a change in its organizational structure. Our approach to the data was twofold. The descriptive, quantitative first part of the research relies on a survey of 718 staff...

  19. An Improvement in the Internal Governance Structure of Higher Educational Institutions%完善高等学校内部治理结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马陆亭

    2014-01-01

    The focus of current higher educational reform is to improve the internal governance structure in colleges and universities . Improving this internal governance structure does not only guarantee university autonomy for improvement but also higher education connotative development. Recent work has focused on the construction of an implementation mode of a new community of scholars ,which defines a power division mechanism of “Party leadership,University President responsibility”,peels off the official titles of nonacademic administrative responsible positions ,and reforms the university president selection system etc. ,so as to promote the modernization of university governance ability.%完善高校内部治理结构是当前高等教育的改革重点。完善高校内部治理结构既是保障大学办学自主权的需要,也是促进高等教育内涵式发展的需要,必须以战略性架构来推动。近期的工作重点是构建新型学者共同体实现模式、界定“党委领导、校长负责”的分工机制、剥离非学术型行政岗位负责人的职称头衔、改革大学校长的遴选制度等,以此推进高校治理能力现代化。

  20. 基于内部控制视角的政府审计强度研究%A Study of the Government Audit Effort from the Perspective of Internal Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武恒光; 王帆

    2012-01-01

    Based on the establishment of government audit effort model, the paper analyses the decision - mak- ing behaviors of auditors and related responsible parties, and discusses the factors that influence government audit ef- fort and its functional mechanism . The main conclusions are as follows : the ratio of the control test average marginal effort and substantive test average marginal effort equals the ratio of the control test marginal cost and substantive test marginal cost, and the ratio is negative; the substantive test effort increases with the increase of responsible parties' irregular revenue and the prior possibility of responsible parties being of dishonest types, and decreases with the in- crease of internal control strength and the increase of the cost of responsible parties overriding internal control; con- strutting and pursuing the legal responsibilities of auditors' auditing failure can deter responsible parties' irregular behaviors ; when the cost of responsible parties overriding internal control is positive, the responsible parties will not choose the best internal control strength ; internal control in China is not only a matter of methodology and technolo- gy, but a matter concerning systems ; as the important part of the whole immune system of society or business, inter- nal control system may not function well, which should be one of the root causes for some irregular behaviors which can not be eradicated by auditing.%通过构建一个政府审计强度模型分析了审计人员和责任人的决策行为,以探讨政府审计强度的影响因素和其作用机理。主要结论如下:政府审计实质性测试水平平均数的增量与控制测试水平的增量之比等于控制测试与实质性测试边际成本之比,且该比值为负值;实质性测试水平随着责任人的违规收益、责任人为不诚实类型的先验概率的增加而增加,随着内部控制强度、责任人逾越控制成本的增加而减小;

  1. Internal Governance of Limited Partnership Private Equity Investment Funds%有限合伙制私募股权投资基金的内部治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江曒华

    2015-01-01

    近几年,资本市场的需求使得我国私募股权投资基金呈现良好的发展势头,基于独特的组织形式制度优势,有限合伙制在我国私募股权投资基金领域得到更广泛的应用。但实践中,公司制法人作为有限合伙制私募股权投资基金的普通合伙人的常态化,可能会给其经营管理的运行带来消极影响。对于此类“组织形式有限合伙制、治理结构半公司制”的基金,本文将通过分析其内部构成,内部关系,发现其内部缺陷,从而提出激励和约束机制并存的治理方案。%In recent years, the demand of capital market makes the private equity investment funds in China enjoy a sound development momentum, based on the strengths of unique organization form system, limited partnership is widely used in the field of private equity investment funds in China. But in practice, as the normality of general partner of limited partnership of private equity investment fund, company legal person may bring negative impact on its management and operation. This paper will analyze the internal structure and internal relations to find its internal defect, thus proposing the governance programmes with coexistence of incentive and restraint mechanisms for the fund of"organization form limited partnership and half-company governance structure".

  2. 权力制衡与体制创新:A大学内部治理结构变革研究%The Balance of Powers and Institutional Innovation:Study of the Internal Governance Structure Reform of A University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹; 张端鸿; 马磊

    2016-01-01

    The internal governance structure is the key factor for stimulating university’ s vitality in school running and promoting university system reform.By studying the internal governance structure reform of the case university,we find that:firstly,in public universities will the reform of the inter-nal governance structure be driven by an induced institutional change,rather than the imposed institu-tional change as before.Secondly,the balance of the academic power and administrative power and the balance of the authority and the schools are the core issues of the internal governance reform,and the handling of these two balances is vital to the success or failure of the internal governance reform. Thirdly,the construction of the University Statutes and other institutions should be the power con-straint of the public university.Only by legalizing the exercising of power can we really implement running and administrating school by law.%完善公立大学内部治理结构是激发学校办学活力、推动高等教育体制变革的关键要素。文章通过对A大学内部治理结构变革的动因、内容及过程研究后指出:公立大学内部治理变革将由强制性制度变迁向诱致性制度变迁转变,推动公立大学内部治理变革的重要因素将逐渐由外转向内;平衡学术权力与行政权力、学校和院系两对关系是公立大学内部治理变革的核心问题,是否能够处理好这两对关系事关大学内部治理结构改革成败;以大学章程为首的公立大学制度规范将成为约束大学内部权力运行的“制度笼子”,将权力行使纳入法制框架才能真正实现依法办学、依法治校。

  3. 浅议行政事业单位内部会计控制%Government Internal Accounting Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林津晶

    2014-01-01

    Under the socialist market economy system, the administrative institution occupies an irreplaceably im-portant role in China, the development of which can directly boost the quality of social public service and raise the level of public administration. A fine internal control system of the administrative institution will ensure its ef-fective work and guarantee its high-qualified management of public affairs, excellent provision of public service and so on. Based upon the present internal accounting control system, this paper analyses the existent problems therein and proposes the countermeasures accordingly.%行政事业单位在社会主义市场经济条件下的中国有着不可取代的地位,行政事业单位的发展直接推动了整个社会公共服务质量和公共管理水平的提高。一个优良的内部控制制度能够保证行政事业单位的工作切实有效,保证行政事业单位保质保量的完成其管理公共事务,提供公共服务等工作。

  4. From Soft Power to Economic Diplomacy? A Comparison of the Changing Rationales and Roles of the U. S. and Canadian Federal Governments in International Education. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.2.15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai

    2015-01-01

    Through a historical and comparative analysis of international education policy development in Canada and the U.S., this paper will map the similarities and differences in the two countries. It will highlight the contributions and challenges of the government's involvement in international education (IE) in the two federal states and in…

  5. The UK Stem Cell Bank: a UK government-funded, international resource center for stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn; Hunt, Charles J

    2006-01-01

    The UK Stem Cell Bank is a UK Research Council-funded initiative that aims to provide ethically sourced and quality controlled stocks of cells for researchers and also establish seed stocks of cell lines for clinical trials. Whilst the Bank is prohibited from carrying out basic stem cell research (to avoid conflicts of interest) it is working to improve stem cell banking procedures including cryopreservation, characterization and quality control. The Bank also supports training activities and has provided the hub for the International Stem Cell Initiative, which includes 17 expert stem cell centers aiming to characterize a large number of human embryonic stem cell lines in a standardized way to improve our understanding of the characteristics of these cells.

  6. Government and Opposition in the Argentine Congress, 1989-2007: Understanding Inter-Party Dynamics through Roll Call Vote Analysis Gobierno y oposición en el Congreso Argentino, 1989-2007: Entender la dinámica interpartidaria mediante el análisis de votaciones nominales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Jones

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article employs roll call vote data and Bayesian ideal point estimation to examine inter-party dynamics in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies between 1989 and 2007. It highlights the presence in the Argentine Congress of a strong government vs. opposition dimension as well as identifies the relative position on this dimension, vis-à-vis the governing party, of the most prominent non-governing parties. Special attention is paid to the evolution of inter-party legislative dynamics during Argentina’s brief experience with coalition government (1999-2001 and to party behavior in the Chamber during the final two years of President Néstor Kirchner’s term in office (2005-07 El presente artículo analiza la dinámica interpartidaria en la Cámara de Diputados argentina entre 1999 y 2007 utilizando votaciones nominales y técnicas Bayesianas de estimación de puntos ideales. El análisis destaca la presencia de una fuerte dimensión gobierno-oposición en la arena legislativa, así como la posición relativa que adoptan los principales partidos opositores respecto del partido de gobierno. El trabajo explora con particular atención la evolución de la dinámica interpartidaria durante la breve experiencia de gobierno de coalición (1999-2001 y la performance partidaria en el Congreso durante los últimos dos años del mandato presidencial de Néstor Kirchner (2005-07.

  7. SOME ISSUES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN LAW INSTITUTIONS AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE INTERNATIONAL MASTER’S DOUBLE DEGREE PROGRAM «EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LAW»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Marochkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is a necessity for law-students not only to master professional legal knowledge, but also knowledge and skills in the management of corporations and enterprises. This issue is particularly relevant for the course of European law, as well as for the corresponding master’s degree programs «Jurisprudence». Key attention is paid to the necessity of including such academic disciplines for students as the topic «Corporate governance» and the theme «Corporate Law» into the magister program of two diplomas «European and International Law» for the universities of Eastern Europe. In this context, development of corporate governance in Central Europe and Russia is compared; the problems of such management in the Russian economy are designated. The aim of this study is analysis and systematization of theoretical and methodological aspects, as well as practical guidance in the development of teaching and studying of corporate governance in high law schools and colleges. To achieve this task the following objectives were: to analyze the basic acting model of legal education and modern educational technologies necessary for the implementation of the system of higher education; organize and summarize the theoretical and methodical bases of corporate governance, its principles; define the role corporate governance in the implementation of business activity, as well as to compare its role in Russia and Central Europe; explore the practical importance of training in the field of corporate law Methods. The research is based on the dialectic method regulating legislative norms, including the corporate right and activity of managing subjects. The retrospective analysis of pedagogical achievements and forecasting were used. Results. Working models of the juridical education and the modern educational technologies are considered in the present paper. Such models help promote systemization and generalisation of leading positions of a

  8. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  9. International NGOs’ Governance Communication in China%国际非政府组织在中国的治理传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2013-01-01

    With the development of globalization and global issues, international NGOs play an increasingly significant role in global governance, and gradually become an important bridge between China and the world by conducting governance communication in China. On one hand, international NGOs in China have made considerable efforts in promoting Chinese people’s livelihood, environment protection and social development in accordance with China’s harmonious society construction. On the other hand, they are also subject to obstacles in policy, funds, social participation and their own structural problems.%  随着全球化的发展和全球性问题的突出,国际非政府组织在全球治理中日益扮演着重要角色,通过在华开展治理传播,已成为向中国展示世界和向世界说明中国的重要窗口。他们一方面在涉及中国民生、环保、社会发展等重要问题上发挥了不可忽视的作用,一定程度上与中国构建和谐社会的目标达成一致;另一方面又往往受制于政策门槛、资金准入、社会参与、自身结构性问题等方面的障碍,活动绩效受到负面影响。

  10. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Alexandru SITARU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed to examine the issues “corporate governance” involves, with the goal set to clarify the meanings of such notion, and to provide an overall image of the positive effects arising implementing the corporate governance principles. The first section includes a series of definitions for the purpose of explaining and outlining the concept of “corporate governance”, subsequently giving a definition that appears adequate to us, from the legal standpoint pre eminently. The second section has for purpose to state the corporate governance Principles, and briefly examine the same. Its purpose also includes concretely illustrating the efficient operation methods for a “corporation”, as well as the main dilemmas, and the existing solutions for the same within the internal structure of a joint stock company to adopt, and subject itself to, such principles. Finally, the last section of the work underlines the corporate governance importance, and states the goals to be attained for purposes of securing effective, balanced, and not in the last place profitable management.

  11. Land Value Capture and Multi-level Governance for Inter-city Passenger Rail Transit in the Zhujiang River Delta%跨市轨道交通溢价回收策略与多层级管治:以珠三角为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雄斌; 杨家文; 李贵才; 刘龙胜; 栾晓帆; 陈文

    2016-01-01

    Under the context of rapid urbanization and motorization in urban China, the demand for multi-juris-dictional passenger transport is becoming increasingly significant for regional integrated development. Follow-ing this trend, inter-city passenger rail transit has been viewed by the local governments as an important alter-native to driving, particularly when issues of road congestion, land development and regional integration are considered. However, how to obtain the capital to cover huge constructive and operational costs is challenging inter-city passenger rail transit. Current literature has focused on funding for municipal passenger rail transit and the issue of value capture policies and distribution arrangement. The value capture setup for inter-city rail transit has rarely been discussed. In this research, we first review some perceived difficulties and strategies for value capture in China, and then we present a case study of Inter-city Passenger Rail Transit in the Zhujiang River Delta. The case study describes the relevant planning and development processes. In particular, it ex-plains how the funding for this project has evolved from a collaborative effort between Guangdong Provincial Government and The Ministry of Railways to that between the Provincial Government and the relevant munici-pal governments. The ending arrangement is a new value-capture mechanism for funding the inter-city passen-ger rail. The innovation of this funding mechanism and the concurrent implementation difficulties are valuable experience for other mega-regions where similar inter-city transport projects have been considered.%随着城市化和机动化的发展,跨市轨道交通建设成为应对交通拥堵,引导土地开发与通勤结构,促进区域一体化的策略。面对轨道交通巨额建设运营成本,多层级政府管治(Multi-level Governance)下的投融资模式和溢价回收(Value Capture)策略成为推动跨市轨道交通建设的基

  12. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes......, supranational nor totally denationalised. It is neither arbitrary nor accidental that we present our inquiries into this phenomenon in the series of International Studies on Private Law Theory....... of democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international...

  13. Inter-Organizational Collaborative Capacity (ICC) Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hocevar, Susan Page; Jansen, Erik; Thomas, Gail Fann

    2012-01-01

    Effective collaboration across organizational boundaries is important for achieving governance reform. But, given the complexities of both aligning and competing interests, collaboration is often a challenge. The Inter-­‐Organizational Collaborative Capacity (ICC) model was originally developed to help public sector agencies (municipal, state, regional and federa...

  14. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    , what determines their boundaries and internal organization), but would also be helpful for informing strategy issues, such as understanding strategic flexibility, strategic options, and the sources of competitive advantage. This volume brings together prominent voices on competence, governance...

  15. Web-based environments government discussed the internal control of accounting information%基于网络环境下政府会计信息化内部控制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡杰

    2014-01-01

    伴随着科技的迅速发展,人类已经进入了信息的时代,在网络不断普及的今天,政府信息化开始全面推动起来,也引起了政府内部的变革,包括政府会计信息化内部控制,同时政府信息化使得政府的监督手段也更加地先进,使其可以利用高科技获取更多的信息,促进了政府的监督,有效地推动了政府内部控制能力。%With the rapid development of technology,mankind has entered the information era,the growing popularity of the Internet today,the government has begun to push up the information,but also caused a change within the government,including government internal control of accounting information,while the government information also means making more government oversight to advanced so that it can take advantage of high-tech for more information,and promote the government's supervision,to effectively promote the Government's internal control.

  16. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...... development in Scandinavia, the paper focuses on the unintended effects of the new international standards. The Bologna process was reframed and recontextualized in ways that undermined the very system it was set out to transform and govern....

  17. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-01-01

    Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the st...

  18. Using IT Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  19. 禁核试法外国家的规范维度与国际法规制%Normative Study on Outlaw States of International Norms Governing Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Their Regulation by International Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李将

    2016-01-01

    朝鲜第四次核试验再次触动了国际社会的敏感神经。禁核试国际规范是否能够约束和规制法外国家的核扩散行为频受质疑。法外国家是指秉持其国际法基本立场而拒不按照国际体系的规则行事的国家。主权的绝对性和平等性是法外国家的基本国际法立场。法外国家的形成和行为方式有着深刻的规范诱因,其政治回应和规范抵制挑战禁核试国际规范的普遍效力。朝鲜第四次核试验使地区政治与军事对抗加剧,客观上损害了各方政治和外交努力进程的规范基础。国际社会必须着力削减和化解禁核试规范共识与规范约束得以确立和实施的阻碍因素,使朝核问题在规范约束与政治运作的良性互动中得到解决。%The fourth nuclear test by North Korea aroused much concern about international law�s normative regulation of nuclear non⁃proliferation. Outlaw states are members of international community who stick to the absoluteness of sovereignty and equality and refuse to be bound by the rules of international legal sys⁃tem. Normative elements contribute to the formation of outlaw states and their distinctive behavior model. Political responses and normative resistance of outlaw states pose great challenges to the universal applica⁃tion of international norms governing nuclear non⁃proliferation. North Korea�s nuclear test worsens the re⁃gional geo⁃political situation and damages the normative consensus upon which political and diplomatic pro⁃gresses can be achieved. International community, especially the great powers, should advance the positive interaction between normative constraints and political efforts, and cooperate to build an international legal framework with outlaw states involved to clinch the peninsula nuclear issue.

  20. 基于委托代理的内部审计与公司治理关联机制研究%Research on Correlation Mechanism of Internal Audit and Corporate Governance Based on the Principal-agent Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军波; 朱丽丽; 冼洁

    2012-01-01

    本文试图基于委托代理理论来探讨内部审计与公司治理的内在关联性,并提出内部审计运行效率的提升策略,进一步发挥内部审计在公司治理过程中的反馈、监督、评价作用.%This paper attempts to explore the internal relevancy of internal audit and corporate governance based on the principal-agent theory, and pute forward strategy for promoting the efficiency of internal audit operation, so as to further exert functions of feedback, supervision and evaluation of internal audit in process of corporate governance.

  1. Internal control, corporation governance and risk management - - On the perspective of function%内部控制、公司治理与风险管理——一个职能论的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白华

    2012-01-01

    现有研究大多认为内部控制是制度,内部控制、公司治理和风险管理之间存在交叉重叠的关系。这会导致多套管理制度并存于企业的混乱局面。事实上,内部控制不是制度,而是职能,是管理职能中的控制职能。内部控制、公司治理与风险管理不存在谁包含谁的问题,内部控制与风险管理涵义相同,公司治理中体现了内部控制或风险管理思想。内部控制、公司治理和风险管理具有内在一致性,可以统一于一套企业管理制度之中。%Most of the current researches indicate that the enterprises internal control is the interweaving and overlapping of the system, internal control, corporation governance and risk management. This will cause the confusion due to the coexistence of multiple sets of management system in the enterprises. In fact, the internal control is not a system but a function, and it is the controlling function in management function. Concerning internal control, corporation governance and risk management, none of them includes any other. Internal control and risk management are of the same meaning, and the corporation governance embodies the thought of internal control and risk management. The internal control, corporation governance and risk management are internally consistent with each other, and they can be integrated in the enterprises management system.

  2. Contribution of the working group 2 to the fourth evaluation report of the inter government expert group on the climatic change. Evaluation 2007 of the climatic changes: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; Contribution du Groupe de travail 2 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'expert intergouvernemental sur l'evolution du climat. Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: impacts, adaptation et vulnerabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document exposes the results of the fourth evaluation report of the working group II of the inter government experts group on the climatic change. This evaluation presents the today scientific understanding of the climatic change impacts on the humans and their adaptation ability and vulnerability. It is based on the GIEC evaluations and new knowledge added since the third evaluation report. (A.L.B.)

  3. Theorizing governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Verrest, H.; Jaffe, R.; Gupta, J.; Pfeffer, K.; Verrest, H.; Ros-Tonen, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of governance theories and discusses the emergence of governance as an analytical and a normative tool. It reviews theories that conceptualize the relations between different governance actors, including debates on interactive and hybrid governance, and presents

  4. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium designed to enhance collaboration among epidemiologists studying lymphoma, to provide a forum for the exchange of research ideas, and to create a framework for collaborating on analyses that pool data from multiple studies

  5. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  6. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  7. A Review of Internal Auditing from the Perspective of Corporate Governance%内部审计研究述评:基于公司治理视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈维成

    2011-01-01

    内部审计是有效公司治理程序中一个不可或缺的组成部分,关于内部审计的公司治理功能形成了大量学术研究机会。本文回顾了公司治理视角的内部审计研究文献,现有文献主要从理论基础、影响关系、配置方式以及实证检验等方面展开研究,在评述的基础上从研究方法的改进、独立性的内在矛盾以及提升职业胜任能力三个角度对内部审计未来研究方向作了分析和展望。%Internal auditing is a necessary element of corporate governance. There are a lot of academic research opportunities about governance function of internal auditing. This paper sorts out the research documents on internal auditing from the perspective of corporate governance, and finds that the existing documents mainly study the theoretical basis of corporate governance function of internal auditing, the basic relation, the mode, and the empirical research. And it analyses and outlooks the future of internal auditing in terms of research method improvement, the inner contradiction of independence and professional competence promotion from the perspective of corporate governance.

  8. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Apostol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was focused on measuring the performance level of corporate governance in Romania. This is carried out by evaluating the importance level given to the principles of corporate governance in the Romanian economy, while the practices of transparency and dissemination of companies’ information in the selected sample were monitored. To achieve the objectives of the study, we need to examine the Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Sample companies were selected and their information from the “Comply or Explain” Statements was analyzed.The research method is a non-participating observation—based on the information from the “Comply or Explain” Statement to determine whether companies are applying corporate governance and transparency elements. The research results highlight the progress of Romanian companies in the process of exercising to the principles of corporate governance, becoming internationally recognized, and integrating into the Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange.

  9. Moral Internalization Theory Horizon On the Local Government Credibility Construction%论道德内化视域下地方政府公信力建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 李祺; 郭静

    2012-01-01

    政府公信力问题直接影响着政府的合法性和权威性,是整个社会信用体系的核心和支柱。强烈的道德责任感是政府公信力的基础,只有在道德内化的前提下,政府公信力的建设才会更顺利、稳固。基于政治道德是地方政府公信力建设的关键因素的观点,以阐述地方政府公信力概念和对其现状的分析,提出地方政府公信力弱化中政治道德方面的原因,并基于政治道德内化提出了地方政府公信力建设的相应对策。%The govemment's public credit issues directly affect the legitimacy and authority of the government, which is the whole social credit de- partment of core and pillar. A strong sense of moral responsibility is the basis of govemmentb public credit, only under the political moral internali- zation, the construction of the govemment's public credit will be more smooth and stable. The thesis holds that political moral is the key to construct local govemment~ public credit, it expounds the definition and analyses the status quo of govemment's public credit, brings out the reasons that locad govemment's public credit undermines political moral, and based on the political moral internalization puts forward some countermeasures for the construction of local govemment's public credit.

  10. Knowledge Flows, Governance and the Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben

    This work contributes to the understanding of knowledge governance in the multinational corporation. Intra-firm and inter-firm processes of knowledge creation, sharing and exploitation have attracted increasingly managerial and scholarly interest. However the relation between particular knowledge...

  11. Local government financial autonomy in Nigeria: The State Joint Local Government Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Okafor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the statutory financial relations and financial autonomy of local government in Nigeria, and the freedom of local government to generate revenue from its assigned sources without external interference. It focuses particularly on a financial instrument called the State Joint Local Government Account (SJLGA and how its operations have positively or negatively affected the financial autonomy of local government councils and the inter-relations between state and local government in Nigeria.

  12. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments...... explore some of the more fundamental questions about governance theory. For example, although governance is talked about a great deal political science has done relatively little about how to measure this concept. Likewise, the term multi-level governance has become widely used but its important...

  13. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  14. Innovation and inter-firm linkages : new implications for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the implications for competition, innovation and learning of different forms of inter-firm linkage, ways to govern them, different 'generic systems' of innovation, and government policy. It employs a transformed theory of transactions that can deal with innovation and learning

  15. Monetary policy games and international migration of labor in interdependent economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiomirgianakis, G M

    1998-01-01

    "In this paper we incorporate the possibility of international migration into a monetary policy game played by governments in unionized interdependent economies. We show that contrary to usual presumptions, established by earlier studies that ignore the possibility of international migration, inter-government cooperation in the monetary field may well turn out to be advantageous. This has important implications for the European economies, since it suggests that measures taken towards encouraging international migration within EU [the European Union] will not only harmonize the European labor markets but will also make monetary policy cooperation within Europe, as required by the Maastrict Treaty, more advantageous." excerpt

  16. Inter-plant coordination and its relationships with supply chain integration and operational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Chaudhuri, Atanu; Farooq, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Based on the data obtained from the sixth version of International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS VI), this paper explores the relationships at the level of plant between (1) inter-plant coordination and operational performance, and (2) between inter-plant coordination and internal/external ...... and customer integration; and (3) the relationships between inter-plant coordination and cost/flexibility are fully mediated by supplier integration.......Based on the data obtained from the sixth version of International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS VI), this paper explores the relationships at the level of plant between (1) inter-plant coordination and operational performance, and (2) between inter-plant coordination and internal...

  17. Governing education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Bronneman-Helmers

    2011-01-01

    Governing education. Trends in Dutch education policy 1990-2010 The Dutch government is responsible for e a cohesive and properly functioning education system. This report discusses the way in which the government fulfilled that responsibility in the period 1990-2010.  The study is

  18. Research on Governance Structure and External Environment of International Sports Organization%国际体育组织的治理架构和外部环境研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢岚岚

    2015-01-01

    研究方法:文献资料法、归纳总结法、逻辑分析法等。研究结果和结论:国际体育组织的治理架构具有复杂性、正式化、集权化等特点,其组织治理形态又体现在简单结构形态、一般科层结构、专业式科层结构、变形虫组织等若干方面。国际体育组织的发展环境包括外部环境和内部环境两个方面。%Research Method: literature material, induction and summarization and logical analysis. Research Result and Conclusion: international sports organization governance structure has the features of complexity,formalization and centralization etc. Its organizational governance form shows several aspects in simple structure configuration, general hierarchical structure, professional-style hierarchical structure, differentiated form, amoeba organization etc. External environment of the international sports organization includes three aspects as working environment, general environment and internal environment. Through the analysis of the governance structure and the external environment of the international sports organization, hopefully it will help to further deepen the sports system reform in China.

  19. 内部审计服务高校治理的现状与对策--以浙江省高校为例%A Case Study of Internal Audit to Serve University Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文光

    2016-01-01

    高校内部审计主要通过开展建设工程审计、领导干部经济责任审计、财务收支审计、专项审计调查等形式服务高校治理,在服务过程中存在着审计业务仍需拓展、重点领域审计和审计整改仍需加强等问题,同时还面临着内审机构地位不高、内审队伍不强、领导对内审作用认识滞后、审计结果运用强制力不足等制约因素。最后,从组织领导、氛围营造、队伍建设、业务拓展和结果运用等方面提出了内部审计服务高校治理的对策建议。%Internal audit, an important part of universities’ governance system, serves the improvement of internal governance and power restriction. The paper studies the cases of internal audit to serve university governance in Zhejiang Province through auditing construction projects, leadership economic responsibility, financial revenue and expenditure, special investigation. It has disclosed such problems as audit extension, focal audit areas, audit rectification, internal institutional status, inadequate audit team, leadership’s backward recognition, insufficient enforcement of audit results, etc. It, thus, proposes specific countermeasures to promote internal audit to serve university governance from the aspects of audit organizations, atmosphere cultivation, team buildup, auditing scopes and application of results.

  20. An International Comparison of Corporate Governance Models: a study on the formal independence and governance of one-tier and two-tier corporate boards of directors in the United States of America, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Maassen (Gregory)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAccording to Cochran and Wartick (1988), corporate governance is an umbrella term that covers many aspects related to concepts, theories and practices of boards of directors and their executive and non-executive directors. It is a field that concentrates on the relationship between bo

  1. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity...

  2. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  3. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  4. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  5. 基于债务风险的政府或有负债会计信息披露:国际经验与中国现实%Accounting Information Disclosure of Government Contingent Liability Based on Debt Risks:International Experience and the Reality of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马蔡琛; 尚妍

    2016-01-01

    或有负债可能引发的债务风险是导致政府财政危机的重要因素。当前我国的政府会计及报告体系未能有效地规范或有负债的信息披露,尤其在政府或有负债的确认、计量和报告上,存在着诸多管理真空。借鉴国际经验,需要从以下方面规范政府或有负债的会计信息披露:依据或有事项的发生可能性、事项性质、能否可靠计量等因素进行分类报告;在负债确认后加以持续关注;结合财务核算能力,对计量方法和报告方式做出具体规定;逐步完善政府会计基础向权责发生制转变;推进将或有负债纳入全口径预算管理。%The debt risk caused by contingent liability is an important factor leading to governments' debt crisis. The current governmental accounting and reporting system fails to regulate the disclosure of contingent liability. Especially there are a lot of governance vacuums in the confirmation,measurement and reporting of government's contingent liability. Learning from inter-national experience,we should regulate the accounting information disclosure of government's contingent liability from the fol-lowing aspects:reporting in different classifications based on the possibilities and properties of contingencies,as well as whether they can be measured reliably or not;keeping attention after the liability is recognized;making specific provisions for methods of measurement and reporting based on financial accounting capacity;gradually improving the government accounting basis into accrual basis;bringing contingent liability into full-covered budget management.

  6. Global Ocean Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Pyc

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a few general comments on the effective global ocean governance (GOG). The Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) establishes fundamental legal principles for the governance of the marine environment and its resources. Furthermore, in the context of GOG the international community is conscious that improving of global and regional cooperation ought to be in the mainstream of socio-economic and political discourse. Nowadays, the UNCLOS is not able to give an answer for a...

  7. 大学内部治理中监督权的实现%On the Realization of the Supervision Right of the Internal Governance of University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱珍; 崔芳芳

    2015-01-01

    The right of supervision is one of the basic constitutional rights of every citizen and an effective form of citizen participa-tion in politics. In university internal governance of our country,the right of supervision is still a derivative power with strong“inner poverty”due to many factors,affecting the healthy development of the university. Therefore,universities must cognize and understand the significance of the realization of the supervision right to university development from aspects of the connotation of the supervision right,component parts and value. Combined with the current development status of education,universities should promote the con-struction and improvement of university supervision system,and create a good environment to ensure the realization of the supervision right to promote the healthy and sustainable development of the university.%监督权是宪法赋予每位公民的一项基本政治权利,是公民参政议政的有效形式。在我国大学内部治理中,由于受多种因素的影响监督权还是一种派生性权力,具有强烈的“内在贫困性”,影响了大学的健康发展。因此,大学人必须从监督权的内涵、构成要素和价值等方面认识、理解监督权的实现对大学发展的意义,结合当前教育发展现状促进大学监督体系的建设与完善,创建良好的监督环境,确保监督权的实现,推动大学的健康和可持续发展。

  8. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  9. 48 CFR 750.7110-6 - Inter-agency coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inter-agency coordination. 750.7110-6 Section 750.7110-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7110-6 Inter-agency coordination. (a) General. Where...

  10. 完善高职院校内部治理结构的思路与对策%Thoughts and Countermeasures to Improve the Internal Governance Structure of Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童丰生; 张海峰

    2016-01-01

    当前高职院校的治理结构存在的问题主要是内部治理结构不完善,外部关系要素影响内部治理。针对高职院校治理结构存在的问题,其解决的基本思路包括两个方面:一是政府放权,让高职院校实施自主办学;二是明确高职院校内部各方权力职责,发挥系统成员合力,实现共治共赢。%The main problems of governance structure in higher vocational colleges are imperfect internal gover-nance structure and influencing external elements. Regarding this problem,the countermeasures are:Firstly,to delegate authority of government,which makes it possible for colleges to carry out teaching independently. Second-ly,to clarify the powers and responsibilities of related internal departments,so as to unite the whole force and bring about a common governance and win-win result .

  11. Ethics and regulation of inter-country medically assisted reproduction: a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Carmel; Moreno, Adi; Eyal, Hedva; Leibel, Michal; Schuz, Rhona; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) for the treatment of infertility has brought benefit to many individuals around the world. But infertility and its treatment continue to be a cause of suffering, and over the past decade, there has been a steady growth in a new global market of inter-country medically assisted reproduction (IMAR) involving 'third-party' individuals acting as surrogate mothers and gamete donors in reproductive collaborations for the benefit of other individuals and couples who wish to have children. At the same time there is evidence of a double standard of care for third-party women involved in IMAR, violations of human rights of children and women, and extreme abuses that are tantamount to reproductive trafficking. This paper is the report of an inter-disciplinary working group of experts who convened in Israel to discuss the complex issues of IMAR. In Israel too IMAR practices have grown rapidly in recent years, mainly because of restrictions on access to domestic surrogacy for same sex couples and a chronically insufficient supply of egg cells for the treatment of couples and singles in need. Drawing upon local expertise, the paper describes documented practices that are harmful, suggests principles of good practice based on an ethic of care, and calls for action at the international, national and professional levels to establish a human rights based system of international governance for IMAR based on three regulatory models: public health monitoring, inter-country adoption, and trafficking in human beings, organs and tissues.

  12. Evaluation of Inter Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This article (revised conference lecture from the 10th World Congress of Music Therapy, Oxford July 2002)) emphasizes the evaluation of the training of Inter Therapy for music therapy students at the MA training at Aalborg University. The students take turns in being client and therapist within...

  13. Private Governance, Hegemonic Struggles, and Institutional Outcomes in the Transnational Cotton Commodity Chain

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Transnational firms have rolled out new forms of private governance at the same time as the rise of new economic powerhouses like China has fomented growing inter-state tensions. This points to critical questions: how does inter-state competition shape private governance of transnational commodity chains and how does private governance shape inter-state rivalries? I explore these questions by tracing the construction and dissolution of sectoral hegemonic coalitions that govern commodity chain...

  14. Realizing e-government benefits with minimal capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    that are not dealt with by existing literature were identified: 1) Benefits realization requires not just organizational capabilities, but also inter-organizational capabilities, 2) Coordination of benefits realization across organizational units, local and central government and across internal organizational...... levels is both essential and very challenging, 3) Managing benefits realization include much more than integrating benefits realization practices in IT projects, 4) Different benefits realization practices are needed at central government level, local management level and case worker level, 5) Different...... but to fully automate processes the reliance on formal benefits realization practices is decreased. Research limitations/implications — The findings are based on single case. Originality/value — There is only little empirical research studying benefits realization in a public sector context. Furthermore...

  15. Information Systems for Government and Business: Trends, Issues, Challenges. Proceedings of the Kawasaki International Seminar on the Information Systems Challenge for Government and Business (2nd, Kawasaki City, Japan, July 21-24, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Centre for Regional Development, Nagoya (Japan).

    The 25 papers in this proceedings were presented by national and international information systems experts, development planners, and scholars at a seminar that was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Centre for Regional Development and the city of Kawasaki, Japan. Designed to reach a wider group of interested planning practitioners and…

  16. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  17. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded freedom for…

  18. Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; UN Global Compact

    2017-01-01

    Corporate citizenship - a commitment to ethical behavior in business strategy, operations, and culture - has been on the periphery of corporate governance and board leadership, linked mainly to corporate reputation. However, in today’s globalized and interconnected world, investors, creditors, and other stakeholders have come to recognize that environmental, social, and governance responsi...

  19. 生态文明与气候治理--第三届气候变化与公共政策国际学术会议综述%Ecological Civilization and Climate Governance---Review of the Third International Forum on Climate Change and Public Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈华清; 史军

    2013-01-01

    虽然国际社会对气候变化的科学认知还存在差异,但普遍认为人类活动对气候变化的影响绝对不容忽视,所有人均要承担相应的责任。第三次气候变化与公共政策国际学术会议围绕生态文明与气候治理这一主题展开,在科学认知全球气候变化与人类活动,理性思辨应对气候变化的伦理基础及实现路径,合理定位气候治理对策与气候变化应对机制,有效融合能源战略、生态环境与经济的管理对策等方面进行了深入探讨。%Though the cognitions on the effects of climate change are still different among the nations, it is supported by all nations and people that common responsibility should be shared. The theme of the third Inter-national Forum is “Climate Governance and Ecological Civilization”. In the forum, the scholars and experts discussed the cognition of global climate change and human activities, the ethical basis and path of addressing climate change, the climate governance and mechanism, energy strategy, and ecological environmental and e-conomic policies.

  20. 城市商业银行应重视内部审计在公司治理中的作用%City Commercial Banks to Attach Importance to the Application of Internal Audit in Corporate Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新震

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, under the background that urban credit cooperatives have in succession restructured into urban commercial banks, the company governance mechanism has become the most important framework in the city commercial banks' management system, while through implementing effective supervision and evaluation on the operators and manag⁃ers, internal audit has become an important pillar of company governance mechanism. The article discusses the relation⁃ship between internal audit and corporate governance, analyzes the existing problems and the important role internal audit plays in corporate governance of the current city commercial banks , and then puts forward some suggestions for reference.%近几年,在城市信用社纷纷改制为城市商业银行的背景下,公司治理机制已成为城市商业银行管理制度中最重要的架构,内部审计通过对经营者、管理者实施有效监督和评价,成为了公司治理机制中的重要支柱。本文论述了内部审计与公司治理的关系,分析了目前城市商业银行中内部审计在公司治理方面的重要作用和存在的问题并提出一些建议,以供参考。

  1. International Organizations, Changing Governance and China's Policy Making in Higher Education: An Analysis of the World Bank and the World Trade Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui

    2010-01-01

    In a context of intensified globalization, the importance of international governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations as influencers and shapers of the global environment is becoming prominent. Participation in international organizations leads to active incorporation of nation-states with worldwide connotations. In higher…

  2. Evaluation of Inter Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This article (revised conference lecture from the 10th World Congress of Music Therapy, Oxford July 2002)) emphasizes the evaluation of the training of Inter Therapy for music therapy students at the MA training at Aalborg University. The students take turns in being client and therapist within...... the same partner constellation. Through this training they learn as a therapeutic method to contain and incorporate experiences from being in the client role into managing the therapist role....

  3. interés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Gómez del Valle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos paramétricos de los tipos de interés se basan, habitualmente, en restricciones arbitrarias sobre la tendencia y la volatilidad del proceso estocástico de los tipos de interés y el precio del riesgo de mercado. Sin embargo, recientemente se han comenzado a aplicar técnicas no paramétricas para explicar su comportamiento y aplicarlo posteriormente a la valoración de derivados del tipo de interés. El principal inconveniente de estos modelos es que no es posible obtener una solución analítica y es necesario aplicar métodos numéricos para su resolución. Habitualmente en la literatura se ha utilizado el Método de Simulación de Monte Carlo. Sin embargo, en este trabajo se muestra mediante gráficas de eficiencia que con los Métodos en Diferencias Finitas se obtienen soluciones más eficientes y una importante reducción del coste computacional. Además, se presenta cómo mediante la utilización de los Métodos en Diferencias Finitas sobre el modelo no paramétrico de tasas de interés de Stanton (1997 se obtienen curvas de rendimiento más próximas a las observadas en el mercado que las obtenidas con los modelos paramétricos clásicos que figuran en la literatura

  4. 77 FR 5442 - Indian Tribal Government Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI19 Indian Tribal Government Plans AGENCY: Internal...-08) relating to Indian tribal government plans. This notice supersedes the notice of public hearing...

  5. International Research Progress of E-government During the Latest 10 Years Based on Knowledge Mapping%基于知识图谱的近10年国际电子政务研究进展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董伟; 朱小梅; 徐少同

    2012-01-01

    Based on collecting the related international articles on e-government from Web of Science, the distribution of time, geographic regions and core authors regarding to e-government are analyzed by CiteSpace II. The filed of e-government is divided into three parts through discovering the hotspots and clustering the relevant research subjects. Finally, the research evolution of e-government is analyzed based on the clusters of the subjects.%在收集WOS数据库中近10年国际电子政务研究领域相关文献的基础上,借助CiteSpaceII,首先对研究文献的时空分布与核心作者分布等进行分析,然后通过对研究热点的发现以及相应研究主题的聚类分析,将国际电子政务的研究进行维度划分,最后在已有研究主题聚类分析的基础上进行研究演进的分析。

  6. 从政府间国际组织的联系解读中日两国的全球联系%The Global Connectivity of China and Japan with Respect to International Inter-Governmental Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏念; 薛德升

    2014-01-01

    政府间国际组织作为政治全球化中的一个重要作用者,体现出不同于经济维度的全球化联系。文章运用链锁网络模型计算中日两国政府间国际组织的两两连接度,分析中日两国的全球国际政治联系的图景与差异。研究发现:1)中日两国的政府间国际组织办公室数量接近,但日本的全球联系强于中国;2)在与中日两国联系较为紧密的国家中,日本与它们的联系普遍强于中国;3)中国与亚洲和非洲发展中国家的联系在中国的全球政治联系网络中占据相对重要的地位,而日本的全球政治联系主要发生在欧美发达国家之间。最后从战后国际政治秩序和地缘政治的角度对上述差异进行分析讨论,对中国未来参与联合国框架下的政府间国际事务及如何提高国际政治影响力提出了建议。%s:As one of the most important actors in world affairs, international inter-governmental Organizations (IGOs) provide a new angle for understanding the process of globalization since World War II. Using IGOs’ siting information and a series of interlocking network models, this article calculated China and Japan’s global connectivity, respectively, and analyzed their spatial distribution of connections. As the results show that:1) the total number of IGOs in these two countries is similar, but global connectivity of China is only 70 percent of that of Japan; 2) the top 25 connected countries with the two are mostly located in Asia and Africa, but Japan has tighter connection with them;3) Japan’s connection with European countries, such as Germany, Belgium et al. is very strong, while China’s is weak. It is concluded that Japan has had both wider and deeper interactions with other countries in world political system over the past half centuries. It is suggested that China needs to develop more IGOs, especially headquarter ones in its major cities, such as Shanghai, Guangzhou

  7. Experimentalist governance

    OpenAIRE

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J; D Levi-Faur

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately provisional frameworks for action and elaborates and revises these in light of recursive review of efforts to implement them in various contexts. Robust examples can be found in the United States and the E...

  8. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory, and the ......This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  9. Partner Type of Intergovernmental Relationship: the Trend of International Governance in the Chinese Government%伙伴型政府间关系:中国府际治理的趋向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡英辉

    2012-01-01

    我国当前政府间关系因条块纷争、城乡矛盾而呈现失序状态,中央部委、地方政府及其部门之间政策冲突屡屡发生。从法治环境、协商民主、信息共享、多方参与、平等信任角度解析,可见建构伙伴型府际关系的必要。伙伴型政府间关系尊重地方政府的选择,避免采取自上而下的强令措施,注重跨区域跨流域跨部门的政府间合作,意图建立政府间超越等级、定位清晰、平等对话、合作共赢的政策网络,为我国的政府间关系发展及政策制定提供路径指向。%China's current intergovernmental relationship presented disorderly state due to disputes between departments and regions and the contradiction between urban and rural areas. The policy con- flict has occurred frequently between the central ministries, local governments and their departments. Analyzing from the angles of environment of the rule of law, deliberative democracy, information sharing, multi - stakeholder involvement and equality and mutual trust, it was necessary to construct part- ner type of intergovernmental relationship. The intergovernmental relationship of partner type respected the choice of the local government, avoided to take the force measures from top to down, focused on the intergovernmental cooperation cross regions, basin and departments, aimed to establish the policy network beyond levels, clear positioning, equal dialogue, cooperation and win - win to provide a path point for the development of intergovernmental relationship and the policy making.

  10. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  11. 养老服务体系中政府责任的国际借鉴%International Reference for Government Responsibility in Elderly Care Service System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌

    2013-01-01

    China has entered into the era of accelerated aging. Economic and social transformation and the one-child policy have a big impact on the traditional pension model, and socialized elderly care service system need to be established. How to clarify the government responsibility is the important foundation to establish elderly care service system. Based on the analysis of foreign elderly service system and government responsibility, the paper proposes that the government should play a leading role in the development of social elderly service system in China, expenditure responsibilities of central and local governments should be deifned, and social multi-participation of elderly service should be actively encouraged.%我国已经进入加速老龄化时代,经济社会的转型和独生子女制度正冲击着传统的养老模式,社会化的养老服务体系亟待建立。如何厘清政府的责任是养老服务体系建立的重要基础。通过对国外养老服务体系定位和政府投入责任的分析,在我国发展社会养老服务时,政府应当发挥主导作用,要明确中央政府和地方政府的支出责任,国家应顺应经济社会的发展,积极引导和鼓励社会多方参与养老服务。

  12. Inter-Corporeity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algis Mickūnas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The essay explicates the phenomenological problematic of intersubjectivity on the level of bodily interaction with the world and with others. On this level, the concept of visibility is transformed in terms of the primacy of bodily “I can” and the kinaesthetic awareness that pervades all perceptual fields. In addition, the investigations into kinaesthetic awareness lead to the understanding that one’s own bodily action is extended as well as varied by the kinaesthetic activities of others and thus form an inter-corporeal field wherein visibility is located. Such an extended awareness is the bodily counterpart of transcendental domain. 

  13. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  14. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  15. adjudication and arbitrability of government construction disputes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    the government construction contracts law, as part of the administrative con- tracts law ... the principle of confidentiality in international commercial arbitration cou- pled with ...... to as governing their arbitration (lex electionis) other than the lex.

  16. 77 FR 3210 - Indian Tribal Government Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...-08] RIN 1545-BI19 Indian Tribal Government Plans AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... hearing on proposed regulations, (REG-133223-08) relating to Indian tribal government plans. DATES: The...

  17. Exploration and Practice of Beijing International Sports Events Government-sponsoring%北京市国际单项体育赛事政府资助的探索及实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令刚; 李颖川; 王家宏

    2014-01-01

    北京市在打造国际化体育中心城市的过程中积极申办和培育了一批国际单项体育赛事,在全国率先进行了政府资助的探索。采用文献资料调研、专家访谈和实地考察等方法,对北京市国际单项体育赛事政府资助的必要性予以阐述,在回顾和梳理北京现有资助经验的基础上,对北京市政府部门对国际体育赛事资助的现实困境及所存在的问题加以分析,提出了涉及北京市国际单项体育赛事政府资助的相关建议。%In the process of building international sports centre city ,Beijing take the lead in ex-ploration and practice of sports events sponsoring nationwide .Through adopting the method of literature review ,expert interview and field survey ,this paper elaborates the necessity of gov-ernment-sponsoring in Beijing international sport events ,and on the basis of retrospecting and summarizing the existing sports event sponsoring experience in Beijing ,analyzes the realistic difficulties of sports event sponsoring and existing main problems of Beijing municipal govern-ment departments ,and puts forward relevant suggestions about the Beijing international sports events government-sponsoring .

  18. 普通公立高校二级学院内部治理结构的优化设计%Optimization Design of the Colleges’Internal Governance Structure in State-Owned Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴德垠; 姚飞; 李东; 薛育余

    2016-01-01

    一流大学和一流学科建设需要通过体制机制改革来激发高校内生动力和活力,而高校体制机制改革的重要内容就是二级学院内部治理结构改革。二级学院内部治理结构主要内容就是学院内部与办学利益相关的师生员工(民主)、教授委员会(学术)、院务会议(行政)和党委会(政治)之间各种权力的分配、制约和利益实现的制度设计。而“学术委员会决策和党政共同治理下的院长负责制”是二级学院创新内部治理结构的有效模式,其核心是依托教授决策、党政共同治理、民主监督管理和院长牵头负责。%The construction of the first class university and the first class discipline needs the institutional mechanism reform to stimulate its endogenous power and vitality,while the important content of the reform is the reform of the internal governance structure in college levels. The stakeholder of running in the college is the teachers,students,staff members and workers( they represent democratic right),the professor committee (which represents academic right),the college affairs meeting(which represents the administrative right)and the party committee(which represents the political right). The governance structure in college rank mainly com-prises the institution installation,the system arrangement and mechanism design about the division of powers,re-striction of powers and the realization of benefits between these stakeholders. The dean′s responsibility relies on the academic committee′s decisions and the governance of party and government is an internal governance struc-ture of colleges in universities. Its core is the academic committee′s decisions,the party and government adminis-tration,democratic supervision and management,and the dean′s leadership.

  19. An update of the International Joint Commission's 1998 report, unsafe dams? seven years later what has changed? a report to the Governments of the United States and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    In February 1998, the International Joint Commission of Canada and the United States (IJC) submitted a report to the governments of the United States and Canada on the safety of dams and dykes that are directly subject to IJC Orders. One of the report's conclusions was that some regulated facilities that are under IJC Orders at the border are not subject to comprehensive government safety inspections and that oversight by governments was unsatisfactory. In early 2004, the IJC asked the owners of regulated facilities to update information furnished for the 1998 report, including information on safety inspections and emergency action plans, governmental oversight of inspections, inundation maps, security protocols and any other information concerning safety and security. In addition, the IJC asked for the assistance of its boards to provide information on steps that have been taken since 1998 to ensure the safety and security of these structures. Relevant federal, state and provincial government agencies were also requested to provide additional information regarding safety, security and governmental oversight of structures listed in the 1998 report. This document provided a summary of the information received pursuant to these requests as well as information from several other consultation processes. The report made several recommendations including that the governments take appropriate steps to ensure the safety and security of facilities at the border, particularly for those that are not regulated by the IJC. It was suggested that more United States federal funding be provided to Maine and Minnesota to increase the frequency of inspections. 2 tabs., 3 appendices.

  20. Inter-Cultural Communication in Student Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda

    This article describes a project undertaken at the University of Southern Denmark designed to support active group work and inter-cultural communication between international students. The project is based on using group work and cooperative learning principles to do student research, therefore...... challenging the students to solve problems as a group. The main aim of the research is to investigate the possible effects of using integrated student research and group work using cooperative learning methods to develop international communication skills of students in multi-cultural higher education courses....

  1. The International Society of Hypertension and World Hypertension League call on governments, nongovernmental organizations and the food industry to work to reduce dietary sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norman R C; Lackland, Daniel T; Chockalingam, Arun; Lisheng, Liu; Harrap, Stephen B; Touyz, Rhian M; Burrell, Louise M; Ramírez, Agustín J; Schmieder, Roland E; Schutte, Aletta E; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2014-02-01

    The International Society of Hypertension and the World Hypertension League have developed a policy statement calling for reducing dietary salt. The policy supports the WHO and the United Nations recommendations, which are based on a comprehensive and up-to-date review of relevant research. The policy statement calls for broad societal action to reduce dietary salt, thus reducing blood pressure and preventing hypertension and its related burden of cardiovascular disease. The hypertension organizations and experts need to become more engaged in the efforts to prevent hypertension and to advocate strongly to have dietary salt reduction policies implemented. The statement is being circulated to national hypertension organizations and to international nongovernmental health organizations for consideration of endorsement. Member organizations of the International Society of Hypertension and the World Hypertension League are urged to support this effort.

  2. Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S de la Harpe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal (PELJ is entirely dedicated to the concept of good governance. It is the outcome of the first Summer/Winter school on Good Governance which was held at North-West University, Potchefstroom (SA in January 2006 and at Tilburg University, Tilburg (NL in January 2007. This Summer/Winter school has now become a yearly event with a bi-annual theme. Academic staff from both universities collaborate in teaching this course. Students from the two universities who participate in the Summer/Winter school have the unique possibility to deepen their knowledge on a particular subject while enjoying a cross-cultural learning environment. The subject of good governance was not selected by chance but was chosen because of its impact in many fields and the many ways in which the concept is used. It was time for a deeper insight into this multiple role of the concept of good governance. The contributions to this journal are the analytical outcome of the research done in preparation for the lectures given during the Summer/Winter school. As the contributions directly apply the good governance concept to various specific fields of expertise, this introduction will be used to give a short reflection on the concept as such.

  3. Beijing-Tianjin Inter-city Railway Will Be Constructed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Liu Junsha, Minister of Railway, Wang Qishan, Mayor of Beijing and Dai Xianglong,Mayor of Tianjin represented Ministry of Railway, Beijing Municipal Government and Tianjin Municipal Government signed the contact. In July this year, Beijing-Tianjin Inter-city Railway will start to be constructed and will completed in December 2007. It is estimated that in July 2008, it will be put into operation.

  4. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation...... to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  5. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation...... to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  6. China’s Perspective on Global Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Zhenxi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, global governance has become a hot topic in the international community, receiving extensive attention and wide-ranging discussions. Currently, China’s comprehensive national strength has developed rapidly and China’s status and role in the international community have been dramatically enhanced. At the same time, China has increasingly participated in the global governance and deepened its involvement in international affairs. Therefore, to analyze global governance bears great importance on China’s participation in the reform of the international economic and security institutions and on enhancement of China’s say in international affairs under the current international background of globalization.

  7. Sound Governance in the Development of Mamminasata Metropolitan Areas in South Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Firdaus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The direction of development in Indonesia has strongly integrated with the concept of good governance started from the strengthening of international market that is both imperialist and colony thereby contradicting to the tradition of developing countries. This leads to the establishment of sound governance as an alternative concept to improve the government's capacity to innovate in policy and administration. The development of Mamminasata Metropolitan area in South Sulawesi province experiences difficulties in implementing the coordination, integration, synchronization and cannot accommodate the whole event in order to realize the interconnection of development across districts / cities, whereas the central government makes this as a National Strategic Areas (KSN and leading area in the East Indonesia. This study aims to explore and analyze the sound governance practices in the development program of Mamminasata Metropolitan area focusing on five dimensions, namely process, structure, values, management, and policy. The results show that 1 in the process dimension, the stakeholders involved in the Mamminasata development program establish inter-regional cooperation and coordinate externally and internally of the area ranging from planning to the implementation of development activities; 2 in the structure dimension, the government has established clear organization and regulation in regulating the development process. 3 in the value dimension, Mamminasata development program is based on the responsiveness of local government and has up-holded justice in accordance with the potential of each area; 4 in the management dimension, the government personnel has already had knowledge about the Mamminasata concept, but they are still experiencing problems in the use of technology because of limited resources; and 5 in the policy dimension, the government has encouraged the public to participate directly in policy making and implementation of

  8. Internal Entrepreneurship--A Trojan Horse of the Neoliberal Governance of Education? Finnish Pre- and In-Service Teachers' Implementation of and Resistance towards Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen, Katri; Naskali, Paivi; Korhonen, Maija; Keskitalo-Foley, Seija

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of neoliberal education policies, by examining how the Finnish pre- and in-service teachers engage with the discourses of "external" and "internal entrepreneurship", create related inclusions and exclusions, and implement or challenge the aim of educating enterprising and entrepreneurial citizens. Whereas the…

  9. Conformity of goods in international sales governed by CISG article 35: caveat venditor, caveat emptor and contract law as background law and as a competing set of rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2004-01-01

    35 creates uniform rules on the conformity of goods in international sales. The article first discusses the basic principles of Article 35. Then, the relationship to supplementary and competing rules is discussed. The article then analyses how theory and practice generally have seen Article 35...

  10. Internal Entrepreneurship--A Trojan Horse of the Neoliberal Governance of Education? Finnish Pre- and In-Service Teachers' Implementation of and Resistance towards Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen, Katri; Naskali, Paivi; Korhonen, Maija; Keskitalo-Foley, Seija

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of neoliberal education policies, by examining how the Finnish pre- and in-service teachers engage with the discourses of "external" and "internal entrepreneurship", create related inclusions and exclusions, and implement or challenge the aim of educating enterprising and entrepreneurial…

  11. The International nuclear France Agency- an initiative of the French government to answer to the demand of countries wishing to develop the civil nuclear energy;L'Agence France Nucleaire International une initiative gouvernementale francaise pour repondre a la demande de pays souhaitant developper l'energie nucleaire civile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallier, Ph. [Agence France Nucleaire International, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-09-15

    The French government decided to implement the International nuclear France Agency (A.F.N.I.) to provide its experience and competencies to governments that wish to develop nuclear energy. This agency is integrated to the Cea. A.F.N.I. proposes its assistance to any country considering to develop nuclear power plants to produce electric power. This assistance can be realised in three steps: a first one consisting in diplomatic contacts that needs a government validation about the pertinence of a such cooperation. The second phase concerns the feasibilities studies, this phase goes on several years and tackles training,help to implementation of laws and regulations, technological and economical studies, looking for a site. The following phase is a trade one and concern the industrialists. (N.C.)

  12. Project governance: "Schools of thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Christiaan Bekker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.

  13. Practice, science and governance in interaction: European effort for the system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Zampolini, Mauro; Juocevicius, Alvydas; Negrini, Stefano; Christodoulou, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Since its launch in 2001, relevant international, regional and national PRM bodies have aimed to implement the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), whereby contributing to the development of suitable practical tools. These tools are available for implementing the ICF in day-to-day clinical practice, standardized reporting of functioning outcomes in quality management and research, and guiding evidence-informed policy. Educational efforts have reinforced PRM physicians' and other rehabilitation professionals' ICF knowledge, and numerous implementation projects have explored how the ICF is applied in clinical practice, research and policy. Largely lacking though is the system-wide implementation of ICF in day-to-day practice across all rehabilitation services of national health systems. In Europe, system-wide implementation of ICF requires the interaction between practice, science and governance. Considering its mandate, the UEMS PRM Section and Board have decided to lead a European effort towards system-wide ICF implementation in PRM, rehabilitation and health care at large, in interaction with governments, non-governmental actors and the private sector, and aligned with ISPRM's collaboration plan with WHO. In this paper we present the current PRM internal and external policy agenda towards system-wide ICF implementation and the corresponding implementation action plan, while highlighting priority action steps - promotion of ICF-based standardized reporting in national quality management and assurance programs, development of unambiguous rehabilitation service descriptions using the International Classification System for Service Organization in Health-related Rehabilitation, development of Clinical Assessment Schedules, qualitative linkage and quantitative mapping of data to the ICF, and the cultural adaptation of the ICF Clinical Data Collection Tool in European languages.

  14. Nested governance for effective REDD+: Institutional and political arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kashwan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Forest Enhancement (REDD+ has become a central focus of global climate change mitigation efforts. Even though the international demand for forest-based carbon sequestration is the key driver of REDD+, forest protection strategies must be implemented on the ground. This cross-scale nature of REDD+ explains why scholars and policy makers increasingly favor nested governance arrangements over either fully centralized or fully decentralized REDD+ governance. The focus of the literature on nested REDD+ governance has mostly been on monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon emission reductions across sub-national, national, and international levels. We build on Ostrom’s principle of ‘nested enterprises’ to argue that REDD+ must be designed to systematically and formally link national policy reforms with the organization and execution of sub-national (regional and local forest conservation efforts led by forest users. We also contribute new insights on the political dimensions of nestedness in REDD+, with important roles for inter-community forestry associations and forest rights movements.

  15. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    of knowledge, belief and opinions in which engineering is immersed. Thus the overall objective is explorative. By investigating the language, practices and techniques by which engineering is governed the chapter sets out to point to the presumptions, stipulations and ‘limits’ of the dominant discourses...

  16. Military Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-07-01

    Public finance -------------------~·---------------------22 Civilian protection -------------------------------------23 Public health and sanitation...22. PUBLIC. ~INANCE.~q. Basic "planning data for public finance in- clude-- (1) ·rrax·ation systems: - .(2)- ~ethods of_tpaking appropriations.- ( 3...Probable ·adequacy- of public funds. (.4) Administrative .. _ organization for_ public finance sections. b. Military government -staff sections

  17. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  18. Coordination of international multicenter studies: governance and administrative structure Coordinación de estudios multicéntricos internacionales: estructura administrativa y reglamentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant I. Bangdiwala

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-conducted multicenter study needs to assure standardization, uniformity of procedures, high data quality, and collaboration across sites. This manuscript describes the organization and dynamics of multicenter studies, focusing on governance and administrative structures among countries of diverse cultures. The organizational structure of a multicenter study is described, and a system for oversight and coordination, along with roles and responsibilities of participants in the multicenter study, are presented. The elements of a governance document are also reviewed, along with guidelines and policies for effective collaboration. The experience of an ongoing multi-country collaboration, the World Studies of Abuse in the Family Environment (WorldSAFE, illustrates the implementation of these guidelines. It is essential that multicenter studies have an objective coordinating center and that the investigators jointly develop a written governance document to enable collaboration and preserve collegiality among participating investigators.La ejecución de estudios multicéntricos requiere el establecimiento de procedimientos uniformes, control de calidad, asegurar estandarización, y la colaboración entre las instituciones participantes. Este trabajo describe la estructura y la dinámica de los estudios multicéntricos internacionales, enfocando los aspectos de administración y reglamentación. Se describe la estructura organizativa de un estudio multicéntrico, así como los roles de los integrantes de un sistema de supervisión y coordinación. Se presentan los elementos de un documento de reglamentación y se describen algunas guías y políticas para una colaboración eficaz. La experiencia del estudio internacional colaborativo World Studies of Abuse in the Family Environment (WorldSAFE se utiliza como ejemplo de la aplicación de estas normas. Un centro de coordinación estadística, así como un documento de auto-reglamentación son

  19. 国际电子政务知识种群分析:演化、聚类及迁徙%International E-government Knowledge Ethnic Group Analysis:Evolution, Clustering and Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 吴郁松; 霍朝光

    2015-01-01

    Exploring status and evolution of international e-government knowledge ethnic group plays a significant role in analyzing re-search hotspots and directions. This paper analyzes the evolution, clustering and migration of knowledge ethnic groups by key words clus-tering and time sequence analysis based on the 5398 research subjects collected from the database of Web of Science. The results show that the research of international e-government it is in a transition, and the object is diversified;it has six research hotspots of theoretical re-search, technology foundation, application, performance evaluation, adoption of e-government and integration with social media;it has its future focuses on cloud service of e-government, adoption of mobile government, fusion with social media and online public opinion.%研究国际电子政务知识种群的发展现状对于系统梳理本领域的研究热点和发展方向具有积极意义。检索获取Web of Science数据库中5398篇国际电子政务研究文献,通过关键词聚类、时序分析等可视化方法探究了国际电子政务知识种群的演化、聚类和迁徙过程。研究结果发现:a.国际电子政务研究正处于转型期,研究对象呈多元化发展;b.目前,国际电子政务的研究集中在理论研究、技术基础、应用研究、绩效测评、采纳研究以及与社交媒体融合的研究等6个方面;c.未来国际电子政务的研究将集中在电子政务的云服务、移动电子政务的采纳行为、电子政务与社交媒体的融合及网络舆情等方面。

  20. World Government: Utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahram Ayvazyan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the possibility of having a world government, which world has been facing overarching changes since the end of Cold war, where bipolar world order has evolved into multipolar system through unipolarity. Analysis method in this paper have the sistematics: discussion of human nature and philosophical dimensions vis-à-vis individual, society and government, as well as society of societies; then briefly analyse globalization, the impact of individuals on interdependency of the current international arena and examine the individualism as the ongoing ideology “by individuals and for individuals.”; and then take the conclusion that the world government is not a utopia

  1. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? What is the rationale and purpose of these policies? Scholars from various disciplines including Political Science, International Relations and Management Studies have offered explanations...... for this phenomenon. Research has tended either to rely on cross-country comparisons that generalize tendencies within given countries; or to over-generalize global trends. The current paper analyzes particular CSR policies in two countries – Denmark and the United Kingdom. We find that the rationales for government...... initiatives on CSR are neither consistent across countries or within them. Instead, CSR policies are utilized to address multiple issues crossing various areas of governance, including domestic social policy, global competitiveness policies and foreign policy....

  2. Impact and Methods of Internal Management Audit in Corporate Governance%简论内部管理审计在公司治理中的作用及其措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞

    2011-01-01

    内部管理审计是公司治理结构的重要组成部分,在公司治理中起着重要作用.然而我国公司对内部管理审计却较为忽略,导致内部审计问题众多.为了完善公司治理,提高管理效率,必须通过调整内部管理审计的组织结构、规范内部审计程序、提高审计师素质和能力、以及优化具体审计措施等方面强化内部管理审计.%Being an integral part of corporate governance system, internal management audit plays an important role in running a business. However,it seldom gets deserved recognition and acceptance in many companies in China, which often leads to problematic situations. For better corporate governance and efficiency, internal management audit must be strengthened through balancing corporate organizational structure, standardizing audit procedures, enhancing auditors' capabilities, and optimizing auditing facilities.

  3. Learning and Innovation in Inter-Organizational Relationships and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of insights into inter-firm alliances and networks for innovation, from a constructivist, interactionist perspective on knowledge, which leads to the notion of 'cognitive distance'.It looks at both the competence and the governance side of relationships.Given cognitive dist

  4. El Sistema de Control Interno para el Perfeccionamiento de la Gestión Empresarial en Cuba (Internal Control System for the Improvement of Corporate Governance in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinaidys Gómez-Selemeneva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre los antecedentes del control interno empresarial, caracterizando el mismo en Cuba y exponiendo los principales postulados para la gestión del cambio empresarial y su aplicación. Así mismo se describe el proceso de cambio para la implementación del control interno en una organización. Abstract In this study we examine the history of corporate internal control in order to characterize it in Cuba and to expose the main tenets for business change management and implementation. It also describes the process of change for the implementation of internal control in an organization.

  5. On the forms of international tax avoidance and its governance%论国际避税的形式及其治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青莹

    2016-01-01

    International tax avoidance is a social and economic conduct using the national tax loopholes and differences, whose forms mainly include using the resident tax jurisdiction, operating “transfer pricing”, using “tax havens”, and using the loopholes of “tax deferral” etc. For a long time, the nature of international tax avoidance has been controversial in academic circles. The most fundamental nature is that the abuse of personal right damages the international community public interest. Preventing international tax avoidance not only requires the improvement of laws, but also needs to develop a variety of complementary measures.%国际避税是一种利用有关国家税法漏洞和差别的一种社会经济行为。其表现形式主要有规避居民税收管辖权进行避税、操作“转移定价”进行避税、利用“避税港”进行避税、以“延期纳税”的税收制度漏洞进行避税、滥用税收协定进行避税五种。长期以来,国际避税的性质一直为学术界多数学者所争议,权利滥用造成国际社会公共利益的损害是其最根本的性质。防治国际避税不仅需要完善相关法律,而且需要制定各种配套措施,从制度上杜绝国际避税行为。

  6. Small government or big government?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEO SPAHO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century, economists and philosophers were polarizedon their positions beyond the role that the government should have in the economy. On one hand John Maynard Keynes represented, within the optics of market economy, a position where the state should intervene in the economy to maintain the aggregate demand and the employment in the country, without hesitation in creating budget deficits and public debt expansion. This approach happens especially in the moments when the domestic economy and global economic trends show a weak growth or a recession. This means a heavy interference inthe economy, with higher income but with high expenditure to GDP too. On the other side, Liberals and Neoliberalsled by Friedrich Hayek advocated a withdrawal of the government from economic activity not just in moments of economic growth but also during the crisis, believing that the market has self-regulating mechanisms within itself. The government, as a result will have a smaller dimension with lower income and also low expenditures compared to the GDP of the country. We took the South-Eastern Europe countries distinguishing those with a "Big Government" or countries with "Small Government". There are analyzed the economic performances during the global crisis (2007-2014. In which countries the public debt grew less? Which country managed to attract more investments and which were the countries that preserved the purchasing power of their consumers? We shall see if during the economic crisis in Eastern Europe the Great Government or the Liberal and "Small" one has been the most successful the model.

  7. Urban Governance of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E. Fischer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth, urbanization, and the growing challenges faced by the urban poor require redefining the paradigm for public health interventions in the 21st century, creating new approaches that take urban determinants of health into consideration. The widening disparity between the urban poor and the urban rich further exacerbates health inequities. Existing tools for global governance of urban health risks fall short, particularly in the lack of formal mechanisms to strengthen collaboration and communication among national and municipal agencies and between their local and international non-governmental partners. There is also a clear disconnect between governance strategies crafted at the international level and implementation on the ground. The challenge is to find common ground for global goods and municipal needs, and to craft innovative and dynamic policy solutions that can benefit some of the poorest citizens of the global urban network.

  8. On Several Key Issues in Improving the Structure of University Internal Governance%完善大学内部治理结构应注意把握的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志平

    2014-01-01

    大学内部权力主体的角色与定位影响着大学内部治理结构。目前我国高校中存在政治权力与行政权力边界不清、行政权力与学术权力冲突、民主管理权力乏力等现象。要完善大学内部治理结构,就必须坚持党委领导下的校长负责制,在完善体制机制上做好文章,认真探索教授治学的体制机制,继续推进民主管理监督机制,大力构建权力保障机制。%The role and the orientation of the power-holders within a university determines its internal governance structure. At present, there exist in current China's universities phenomena such as the unclear boundary between the political power and the administrative power, conflicts between the administrative and the academic, and the weak democratic administration. To improve the university's internal governance structure, it is necessary to perfect the current model of the president being responsible under the leadership of the party committee in university, to actively fine-tune the systems and mechanisms of university management, to seriously explore the system and mechanism of professors governing academic affairs of the university, to continuously promote the mechanism of democratic management and supervision, and to positively construct the mechanism of power protection.

  9. The Nordic Corporate Governance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    governance and discusses its relevance as a development paradigm. The article quantitatively documents the existence of a Nordic governance model using data from the World Bank, Transparency International and other sources. Secondly, it is shown how Nordic corporate governance – Nordic civil law......, concentrated ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation and low-powered managerial incentives – has been shaped by the welfare state in ways consistent with systemic corporate governance theories. The article concludes with a skeptical discussion of the Nordic model as a development......The Nordic countries – Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland—have attracted attention in recent years. Some elements of the Nordic model—particularly the welfare state—are well understood, but its governance characteristics remain elusive to the international audience. This article reviews Nordic...

  10. ESA and IPSAS: harmonization of government financial reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, F.; Haakman, L.

    2013-01-01

    The European statistical guidelines for governments - prescribing how to determine government deficit and debt under Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) guidelines - and international government accounting standards have many similarities: they are both accrual accounting systems and they report on th

  11. National and International Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Canadian government policy dealing with internal matters of party politics and international questions of human rights. Describes the political situation in Burma as an oppressive military regime. Urges the Canadian government to take a firmer stand to influence the international community against tolerating regimes that are guilty of…

  12. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  13. Power Shift, Governance Deficit and a Sustainable Global Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAQING; QIN

    2013-01-01

    This paper puts forward three interrelated arguments.First,a tripartite power structure has been emerging,with the United States as the superpower,and Europe and the BRICS as major forces.Together they will shape the future world order.Second,the changed nature of security concerns from purely inter-state threats to trans-state ones provides opportunities for the three forces to cooperate,but genuine cooperation for the global commons is far from satisfying.It results in a gap between the demand for effective global governance and the supply of adequate international institutions.Hence there appears a global governance deficit.Third,the key to eliminating such a deficit is cooperation between the original major powers and the emerging ones for building a sustainable global order.If such cooperation is to be realized,emerging powers should be taken as equal partners rather than challengers in the international system.In this respect,their active participation in the reform of international institutions is of paramount significance.

  14. El Sistema de Control Interno para el Perfeccionamiento de la Gestión Empresarial en Cuba (Internal Control System for the Improvement of Corporate Governance in Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Dinaidys Gómez Selemeneva; Blanca Blanco Camping; Juan R. Conde Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Spanish abstract. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre los antecedentes del control interno empresarial, caracterizando el mismo en Cuba y exponiendo los principales postulados para la gestión del cambio empresarial y su aplicación. Así mismo se describe el proceso de cambio para la implementación del control interno en una organización. English abstract. In this study we examine the history of corporate internal control in order to characterize it in Cuba and to expose the main...

  15. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory......, and the incomplete-contracts or property-rights approach. We distill the main unifying characteristics of these streams, survey each stream, and offer some critical commentary and suggestions for moving forward....

  16. Explaining inter-ethnic harmony in Enugu city, South-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inter-relations in Enugu to determine why and how the city sustained ethnic coexistence ...... Special Adviser to the Executive Governor on Media Matters,. Government .... Ethnic conflict and civil life: Hindus and Muslims in India. New Haven ...

  17. Attitude of bachelor of dental surgery students and interns toward teaching-learning process in Government Dental College, Kottayam, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Gopalakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The educational environment affects the academic performance of students. One of the most widely utilized tools for measuring the educational environment is Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. The objective of the study was to assess the attitude toward study environment, as measured using DREEM questionnaire, and to find out the differences in perception of various batches of dental students. Materials and Methods: All Bachelor of Dental Surgery students from Government Dental College, Kottayam, Kerala, India, were included in the study. They were given the well-established DREEM questionnaire. A total of 234 students took part in the study, belonging to 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 batches. DREEM subcategories were analyzed for significance using analysis of variance. The significance of DREEM score across the different batches was further analyzed using post hoc test. Results: Overall, DREEM score was positive (111.14, but there is need for improvement. Individual questions also were given positive score for most questions. The maximum score was obtained for 3rd year students. Similar results are obtained for three of the five subcategories of DREEM. Conclusion: The total DREEM score was positive (111.14. The total score as well as the scores for the subcategories was highest in 3rd year dental students. The increase might be due to the excitement of clinical exposure for the first time in 3rd year students.

  18. Attitude of bachelor of dental surgery students and interns toward teaching-learning process in Government Dental College, Kottayam, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sandhya; Mathew, Philip; Vaidyanathan, Kannan

    2017-01-01

    The educational environment affects the academic performance of students. One of the most widely utilized tools for measuring the educational environment is Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). The objective of the study was to assess the attitude toward study environment, as measured using DREEM questionnaire, and to find out the differences in perception of various batches of dental students. All Bachelor of Dental Surgery students from Government Dental College, Kottayam, Kerala, India, were included in the study. They were given the well-established DREEM questionnaire. A total of 234 students took part in the study, belonging to 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 batches. DREEM subcategories were analyzed for significance using analysis of variance. The significance of DREEM score across the different batches was further analyzed using post hoc test. Overall, DREEM score was positive (111.14), but there is need for improvement. Individual questions also were given positive score for most questions. The maximum score was obtained for 3rd year students. Similar results are obtained for three of the five subcategories of DREEM. The total DREEM score was positive (111.14). The total score as well as the scores for the subcategories was highest in 3rd year dental students. The increase might be due to the excitement of clinical exposure for the first time in 3rd year students.

  19. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  20. 海运温室气体减排国际法律制度研究%Study on international laws governing the reduction in greenhouse gas emission from shipping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任为民

    2011-01-01

    介绍国际海事组织制定国际海运温室气体减排法律制度的背景,分析制定相关法律制度的可行性和形势,提出并探讨四个关键问题,即立法目的、共同但有区别责任原则的体现、法律文件的形式、是否构成海运服务贸易壁垒,揭示其背后深层次的政治、经济、技术和法律问题,指出国际海运温室气体减排法律制度将给船舶技术、国际海运贸易、航运经营与运营带来深远影响。%The background of developing international laws governing the reduction in greenhouse gas emission from shipping by International Maritime Organization is introduced. Following the analysis of the possibility and situation of introducing the relevant international laws, four key issues are addressed and discussed, namely the purpose of legislation, how to reflect the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, modality of legal texts, and whether or not constituting trade barriers. The political ,economic ,technical and legal ideas behind them are further explored. It is concluded that the forthcoming international laws will bring significant impact on shipbuilding technology,international shipping service ,shipping management and operation.

  1. Inter-American Institute Data and Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Achite

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI is an international institution supported by 19 countries in the Americas dedicated to foster scientific research, international collaboration and creation of networks and full and open exchange of scientific information. In general terms, the institute was conceived because of the need for an international non-governmental and non-profit institution whose main objective would be to support scientific development in the Americas, f...

  2. Improving Disaster Governance : Proposals for a Multi-Level Human Rights Disaster Governance Matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, Charlotte; Hesselman, Marlies

    2016-01-01

    'Good’ (natural) disaster governance faces multiple challenges given the broad range of resources, skills, expertise and international cooperation that adequate disaster response commands. Disaster governance needs coordinated action across space and time, at different levels and in the full disaste

  3. Advancing Theory on Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safavi, Mehdi; Håkanson, Lars

    -apprentice type of personal relationships, but make them inferior to firms in the pursuit of innovative, inter-disciplinary combinations of knowledge. The reasons behind these similarities and differences are explained, possible extensions of the knowledge-based theory of the firm are proposed and some tentative......In an exploratory case study of a university merger, this study inductively examines how governance structures in universities impact the creation and exploitation of knowledge, both in core academic activities (research and teaching) and in related and supporting administrative tasks. Similarities...... and differences in relation to knowledge governance in firms are identified. The findings suggest that university governance arrangements provide advantages primarily in knowledge creation through intra-disciplinary articulation of tacit knowledge, and in the transfer of such knowledge through master...

  4. Conceptualizing inter-organizational triads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Holma, Anne-Maria; Havila, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Interest in triads and triadic research settings for the study of inter-organizational issues is growing. A literature review of inter-organizational studies, claiming a use of triadic research design, shows that the terms “triad” and “triadic” have been used to describe many different types of i...

  5. The LADM based on INTERLIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germann, M.; Kaufmann, J.; Lemmen, C.H.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; De Zeeuw, K.

    2015-01-01

    Both the conceptual schema language INTERLIS and the land administration domain model (LADM) share the same model driven architecture (MDA) principles. In this paper we explore how INTERLIS and LADM complement each other in actual implementation of land administration system based on the LADM using

  6. Conformity of goods in international sales governed by CISG article 35: caveat venditor, caveat emptor and contract law as background law and as a competing set of rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: namely to analyse the battle between the principles of caveat venditor and caveat emptor and to analyse the relationship between Article 35 and the contract law as background law and as a competing set of rules. The aim is to illustrate whether or not Article...... 35 creates uniform rules on the conformity of goods in international sales. The article first discusses the basic principles of Article 35. Then, the relationship to supplementary and competing rules is discussed. The article then analyses how theory and practice generally have seen Article 35...... as an independent concept. Following this, the battle between caveat venditor and caveat emptor is described through an analysis of Art. 35(2)(a) and Article 35(3). Finally, the paper ends up concluding that the Article 35 operates in an area of tension between differing doctrines and rules of the law...

  7. The management of cytotoxic drug wastes in Shiraz, Iran: an overview of all government and private chemotherapy settings, and comparison with national and international guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarian, Mehrdad; Momeni, Mohsen; Danaei, Mina

    2013-06-01

    Excessive use of cytotoxic drugs owing to a dramatic increase in malignancy incidence leads to the production of high amounts of cytotoxic wastes. In Iran, management of hazardous wastes has been neglected in recent decades. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of intravenous cytotoxic drug wastes, their collection and disposal status in chemotherapy wards, and to compare the current status with standard guidelines in Shiraz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed using data collected during 2 consecutive months, from 22 June to 22 August 2011, in all 13 chemotherapy wards in Shiraz. The amount of prescribed drugs, drugs waste, collection and disposal status of cytotoxic drugs were recorded. We then compared the current status of waste collection and disposal in our samples with our national guideline. The prescription of cytotoxic drugs and the amount of total drugs waste reached approximately 6 and 0.2 kilograms respectively. Total vials volume was calculated to be approximately 1000 l in order to estimate the volume of containers required for the encapsulation method. The results demonstrated that the current status of cytotoxic waste collection and disposal is inappropriate, and none of the facilities under study followed our guidelines perfectly. The adherence to all recommendations and guidelines was poorer in private wards than in government-run ones. The management of cytotoxic wastes is inappropriate and our existing national guidelines are lacking. Suggestions for the best management of cytotoxic waste are revising the existing guidelines, allocating a sufficient budget, training healthcare workers, providing multiple administration options of cytotoxic drugs and accomplishing a surveillance system.

  8. Conceptualizing inter-organizational triads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Holma, Anne-Maria; Havila, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Interest in triads and triadic research settings for the study of inter-organizational issues is growing. A literature review of inter-organizational studies, claiming a use of triadic research design, shows that the terms “triad” and “triadic” have been used to describe many different types...... of inter-organizational phenomena. However, not all studies involving a context of three actors are actually examining triads. This paper offers a robust definition of three-actor constellations qualifying as triads. Moreover, it elaborates on different types of inter-organizational triads, based on two...... aspects of collectivity; cohesion and the ability to act as a single entity. The definition of inter-organizational triads and the categorization of different types of triads will hopefully encourage further studies of triads; the smallest and simplest network which offers insights, which cannot...

  9. Conflict of Internal Logical Relationship in Corporate Governance from the Perspective of Board of Directors' Behavior%公司治理内在逻辑关系冲突:董事会行为的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝云宏

    2012-01-01

    从行为治理的角度看,基于治理主体还是治理对象的视角.其基本的逻辑关系和行为方式会有很大的不同。传统的公司治理及其研究基于治理主体的视角。从一开始就是股东权利导向。假定股东利益与公司利益相一致,并以解决代理问题为核心,但其内含的股东所有权与公司法人所有权的逻辑复合与现实冲突会使得代理问题复杂化.诱发公司治理内在逻辑关系的冲突。这在实践中引发的困惑就是.以董事会为核心的代理人向股东负责.还是向公司以及法人财产负责?向全体股东负责还是向大股东或者推荐自己的股东负责?现实中的董事会行为通常是一种治理法规约束下的相机抉择和伦理决策。关注公司法人所有权导向,公司治理应该是基于公司的治理,代表问题与代理问题同等重要。董事会作为公司代表和重要的战略决策者。应当坚持公司法人所有权导向.关注公司成长战略决策.其相对独立性至关重要。%From the perspective of behavioral governance, the essential logical relationship and behavior will have great difference if the research perspectives are different, e.g. from the viewpoint of governance subject or object. The traditional corporate governance research is from the perspective of the governance subject, which is shareholder-oriented initially and assumed the benefit consistence between the shareholders, so the corporate in order to solve the agency problems. However, the logical overlaps of and practical conflicts between the shareholder ownership and corporation ownership may cause the complexity of agency under the relationship of shareholder ownership, which may therefore trigger the conflict among the internal logical relationships of corporate governance. It is argued in practice whether the agent represented by the board should be responsible for shareholders or the corporation and

  10. Governance: Government, governing, management or a new term »vladovanje«?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bačlija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a short contextualisation of use of the term governance at the international level and its uptake in Slovenian political and communication sciences. The authors then focus upon the lack of a clear consensus regarding the translation and definition of the term in Slovenian literature. They provide an analysis of Gigafida, the main corpus of the Slovenian language, concerning how the term governance is translated and used in the Slovenian language. The authors critically juxtapose the concepts of governance with the main current translations: government, governing and public administration and management. Finally, the authors propose that governance should be conceptualised as part of a newly coined term “vladovanje” (Splichal 2008 since the absence of such a completely new term reduces the accuracy of Slovenian terminology.

  11. Governance Reform at China's "985 Project" Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingnian, Xiong; Duanhong, Zhang; Hong, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Higher education reform in China is deepening, and the governance reform taking place at the 985 Project universities over the past decade has displayed a shift from government driven to internally driven, from adaptive to proactive, and from localized to systemic. This reflects the overall status of governance reform in China's higher education.…

  12. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  13. On Corporate Governance Guidelines & Developing Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁卫

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the questions of "What is the governance" and "How to make the governance guidelines", explores some special nature of the listed companies and the implications in China market. By doing so, we can focus on where, why and how china corporate governance guidelines falls short of international standards and expectations.

  14. Governance Reform at China's "985 Project" Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingnian, Xiong; Duanhong, Zhang; Hong, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Higher education reform in China is deepening, and the governance reform taking place at the 985 Project universities over the past decade has displayed a shift from government driven to internally driven, from adaptive to proactive, and from localized to systemic. This reflects the overall status of governance reform in China's higher education.…

  15. Research on International Governance of Geoengineering%气候变化背景下地球工程研究的国际管制探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯; 王刚

    2012-01-01

    在应对气候变化日益紧迫、国际社会减排协议难以落实的情况下,通过人为干预影响气候的地球工程技术引起了一些科学家的关注。目前地球工程技术的研究还处于初始阶段。由于地球工程技术本身的复杂性和不确定性,地球工程方案影响的全球性和非均衡性,以及地球工程可能引发的道德风险困境等原因,有必要加强对地球工程研究的管制。在当前情况下,达成统一的地球工程研究管制机制尚不成熟,但有必要形成地球工程研究的国际规范。减少二氧化碳排放是国际社会应对气候变化问题的首选,地球工程研究不应该成为延迟减排的借口。%With the urgency of responding to climate change and the difficulties of reaching agreements on e- mission reduction, deliberate intervention of climate change which is known as geoengineering attract some scien- tists' attention. The research of geoengmeering is at the initial phase, and because of the complexity and uncer- tainty of geoengineering technology, the global and uneven impact of geoengineering, plus the possible moral haz- ard by the implication of geoengineering strategies, it is imperative to strengthen the governance of geoengineenng research. Under the present situation, a comprehensive and global regulation is not possible, but some norms gov- erning geoengineering are badly needed. Emission reduction should be the first choice in responding to climate change, and geoengineering research should not be used as an excuse for delayed action on emission reduction.

  16. The Discussion of the Universities' Internal Governance Problem and Strategy%浅议我国大学内部治理的困境与策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金莲

    2012-01-01

    In our country,the universities have many problems in internal control process,and it has a great influence on the healthy development.This paper analyzes the present domestic universities' academic corruption and too much power on administration,and so on.According to the development characteristics of the universities,put forward to strengthening the academic power,participating in the academic authorities by teachers and students,and achieving the benign interaction between administrative powers and academic powers to solve these problems,and realize the orderly development of domestic universities.%我国大学在内部治理过程中存在很多问题,这在很大程度上影响着国内大学能否实现健康有序的发展。本文分析了目前国内大学在学术腐败、行政权力过大等问题,提出了应该根据大学自身的发展特点,通过强化学术权力、师生共同参与、学术权力与行政权力良性互动等方式解决这些问题,进而为实现国内大学的健康发展贡献一份力量。

  17. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill

  18. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  19. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  20. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...... administration. While organisation systems continue to make some kind of political control possible, this is not the case in relation to wars. The organisation system is the in-between that should mediatise politics and war but is not functionally equivalent to just and unjust wars. The paper investigates...

  1. An Evolutionary Game of Government Supported Enterprises' Intern Recruit and Training%政府扶持企业接收并培养实习生的演化博弈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁福蓉

    2015-01-01

    A major reason for college students ' difficulties in intern training and employment lies in the less motive force of these enterprises. As bounded rationality economy, the enterprises take benefits as the premise of intern training. The dominant strategy is rejection of intern training if the income is less than the cost. Using evolutionary game model, evolu?tionary stable strategy, copy dynamic equations and quantitative analysis, the evolution process and stable equilibrium state of these enterprises ' intern recruit and training were analyzed. The results show that the profits created by interns, the interns ' unemployment rate, unemployment compensation, social costs of unemployment, tax revenues contributed by employed students, financial subsidies, tax breaks and other factors influence the action strategy and the stable equilibri-um between government and enterprises.%高校学生实习难、就业难的一个主要原因在于企业参与接受培养实习生的动力不足.企业作为有限理性的经济体要接收大学生到本企业参与实习的前提是要能增加自身的收益.若收益低于成本则企业的占优策略将是拒绝接收实习生.面对学生实习难的问题,尝试利用演化博弈模型、演化稳定策略、复制动态方程,定量分析在政府群体的扶持策略下,企业群体接收并培养实习生策略的演化过程及稳定均衡状态.结果表明,实习生为企业创造的收益、经过企业培养后的实习生的失业率、政府需要承担的失业补助金、失业造成的社会成本、成功就业的学生为政府增加的税收收入、政府给予企业的财政补贴、税收减免等因素都会影响着政府和企业的行动策略和稳定均衡状态.

  2. Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has now become quite obvious that the Internet has brought significant changes to our society and a break on how we lived before its emergence. It is still too early to assess the impact on society of the new services at our disposal, such as the capacity to communicate faster and cheaper on a global scale, access information and, perhaps more importantly, to produce and disseminate information in a way that is accessible to all.It is clear that the advent of the Information Society implies changes in our society that constitute a point of no return. However, contrary to what happened when we entered the Industrial Age about three centuries ago, when the changing process was slow and led by older individuals, these days the entrance into the Information Society is taking place rapidly and the decisive players are younger people. The global nature of the Internet, the possibility of producing and distributing any type of content in digital form at almost zero cost, as well as the vast number of people who use the web, have highlighted the need for new forms of intervention in a sector where there are many types of players. It is in this context that the problem of Internet Governance becomes a very current issue, inasmuch as one feels the need to guarantee a diversity of rights and duties, which may appear difficult to reconcile.This paper presents a brief overview of the main players and initiatives which, in the field of Internet Governance, have tried to contribute to turning this network into a factor for social development and democraticity on a global scale.

  3. 我国高校内部治理结构中的深层问题及其破解%The Solutions to the Deep Problems of Internal Governance Structure in Universities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁利平; 段肖阳

    2015-01-01

    大学是因为学科及知识的发展而建立起来的高等教育机构. 我国建设现代大学目标的得以实现,须从传统管理走向现代治理,理清内部治理和外部治理中各种权力关系,协调各利益相关者的利益. 在高校内部治理中,要规范行政化管理的权力,提高管理效率,从而达到"去行政化",促进学术权力和行政权力齐心协力发展;要改变决策方式,从传统决策转向现代民主决策,扩大学生在治理中的参与度和决策权;最后通过制定大学章程,细化大学与外部及内部各主体的权力关系,通过"大学宪章"保证各项改革有理有力有据实施.%As a higher educational institution,university is established with the development of discipline and knowledge. In order to realize the goal of building modern university ,university gover-nance has got to shift from a traditional pattern to a modern one ,untangle the various power relations existing in internal and external governance ,and coordinate the interests of all parties. As regards in-ternal governance,reforms must be carried out in these fields as follow. First of all,standardizing the power of administrative management ,enhancing the management efficiency ,and promoting the harmonious development of academic power and administrative power ,so as to achieve "de-administration". Second-ly,implement democratic decision-making by transforming the pattern of decision-making,broaden the students' participation and management power in the process of policy-making. At last,refine the power relationships with regard to university both inside and outside by elaborating "University Charter",which can guarantee the reform to be put into use reasonably ,legitimately and effectively.

  4. Governance Mechanisms and Buyer Supplier Relationship: Static and Dynamic Panel Data Evidence from Tunisian Exporting SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellouma Meryem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand the effect of transactional and relational governance mechanisms on opportunism induced by the buyer supplier relationship. Using panel data of 386 Tunisian export companies between 2003 and 2008, the analysis shows that transactional as well as relational governance mechanisms are negatively related to the opportunistic behavior of the customer. In order to focus on internal corporate characteristics, the level of debt and the size of the buyer are controlled. This study supports the role of contracts as formal governance tool in reducing inter-firm opportunism which corroborates transaction cost economics. It also confirms some main notions in social exchange theory. The role of trust as relational mechanism in governing the buyer-supplier relationship has been verified. Finally, the findings of this paper sustain the complementarity view toward relational and transactional governance mechanisms. The paper offers insights to executives of companies to govern the buyer-supplier relationship in order to dispel opportunism by using simultaneously transactional and relational mechanisms.

  5. Peculiarities of Corporate Governance Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vladimirovna Prokhorova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of the quality and identification of priorities of institutional investors in corporate governance in Russia. The authors conclude that the main task of the corporate governance system is to create favorable conditions for broad attraction of foreign investments in Russian companies and to increase the role of shareholders in strategic management. At present, the companies from developed countries achieve higher economic performance through the introduction of modern methods of corporate governance. The adoption of the new Code of Corporate Governance in the Russian Federation in 2014 will create an opportunity to improve the efficiency of Russian companies and to conduct their activities in accordance with international standards through the introduction of modern corporate governance practices, including ensuring transparency of activities for investors. At the same time, despite significant improvements in corporate governance practices of Russian companies, the level of its quality in comparison with foreign countries remains low. The article highlights both positive and negative trends in the Russian practice of corporate governance. One of the effective corporate governance methods is to ensure feedback between Russian companies and institutional investors. The article presents the results of a survey of opinions of investors that allow to identify the main factors of corporate governance that motivate them to take investment decisions on the Russian market.

  6. Nordic Corporate Governance and Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    The Nordic countries have attracted considerable attention in recent years as a benchmark for good governance. However, while the political governance characteristics of the Nordic model – particularly the welfare state - are well understood, its corporate governance characteristics remain elusive...... to the international audience. This paper therefore reviews the Nordic corporate governance model with special emphasis on a unique ownership structure, industrial foundations (foundations that own business companies). Rather than a meticulous description of details it emphasizes the Nordic model as a mode...

  7. Radioxenon standards used in laboratory inter-comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohla, H; Auer, M; Cassette, Ph; Hague, R K; Lechermann, M; Nadalut, B

    2016-03-01

    Preparation methods for (133)Xe standards of activity concentration and the results of the 2014 (133)Xe laboratory inter-comparison exercise are described. One element of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program for laboratories of the International Monitoring System (IMS) will be regular inter-comparison exercises. However, until recently, no activity concentration standards for benchmarking were available. Therefore, two (133)Xe activity concentration reference standards were produced independently by Idaho National Laboratory and Seibersdorf Laboratories and used for the 2014 laboratory inter-comparison exercise. The preparation of a complementary (127)Xe activity concentration standard as well as a (127)Xe laboratory inter-comparison exercise suggests (127)Xe as a suitable isotope for QA/QC of remote IMS noble gas stations.

  8. Dawn of e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Helle Zinner; Damsgaard, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Danish initiative implemented to stimulate e-government adoption. The e-Day initiative simply yet powerfully states that 'one governmental authority has the right to demand that its communication with another authority must be in electronic format' which is expected to create ripple effects both...... internally and externally. The e-Day initiative represents a drastic change in the former policy statements concerning IT adoption and diffusion in Danish government. The policy statements had previously been based on voluntary adoption focusing on visions and pedagogical intervention in governmental......Most countries have defined strategies for e-government. The objectives for implementing e-government are often defined but the means for fuelling the adoption and diffusion of e-government are typically less well clear in the policy statements. The present study assesses the impact of latest...

  9. Managing inter-organizational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2005-01-01

    orweakened by partner- comfortability and dependability. Then we show how partnersperceived attraction towards an industrial company can be managed using a combinationof structural- and behavioral adjustments.Key words: Inter-organizational relationships; Relationship Management; Relationship...

  10. InterAction Database (IADB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.

  11. ANP's strategic regarding the government take considering the volumes of recoverable oil and the Brazilian attractiveness for upstream international investments; Estrategia da ANP quanto ao 'government take', considerando o volume recuperavel e a atratividade do Brasil para investimentos internacionais em 'upstream'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Regis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Industrial; Margueron, Claudio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Geologia; Aquino, Thereza C.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Geociencias

    2004-07-01

    This article discusses the Brazilian Petroleum Agency (ANP) strategy to boost the competitiveness of Brazil in attracting investments to the energy sector, analyzing it both technically and economically. The Campos basin, with its opportunities in heavy oil and deep water exploration, is used as a case study. Previous literature evaluated the economic potential of oil fields under different hypotheses for cost and price structures, reaching the conclusion that the fiscal regime of Brazil in 2000 was internationally competitive and the oil fields under investigation were attractive. This situation no longer applies. Some of the previous hypotheses are reviewed, using the creaming effect, which models both the diminishing success probabilities of drilling and volume levels as a given sedimentary basin approaches its mature stage of exploration. The main conclusion is that a reduction in the government take, lowering the fraction under ANP's control, would foster exploration and production in mature basins. Therefore, a large number of reserves with relatively small VOR's will become feasible, which are currently unattractive, given the hurdle rates observed by the international oil industry. (author)

  12. Advancing Theory on Knowledge Governance in Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safavi, Mehdi; Håkanson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The deep structure of university knowledge governance system is uncharted. In an exploratory case study of a university merger with an art college, this study inductively examines how knowledge governance structures in universities affect (and are affected by) the creation and passing...... on of knowledge. The authors found the university governance system to provide advantages primarily for the management of core academic activities of knowledge creation through articulation and for the passing on and dissemination of knowledge through replication. It is also conducive to the coordination...... and integration of specialized administrative expertise. However, despite insistent calls for more inter-disciplinary research, it tends to discourage the pursuit of innovative, inter-disciplinary combinations of knowledge. These findings shed light on the characteristics of the deep structure of university...

  13. 政治的自然之维:探寻国际生态政治理论图谱%The Natural Dimension of Politics:An Overview of Ecological Theories from the Perspective of Inter-national Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹德军; 陈剑煜

    2016-01-01

    随着经济全球化的深入发展,跨境生态环境问题日益成为重要的国际议题。国际生态政治理论是在新现实主义、新自由制度主义与国内生态理论的深刻影响下构建出的一种“嫁接式”理论架构。20世纪90年代以后,国际生态政治的新兴流派逐步崛起,建构主义的“认知共同体”理论、“全球公民社会”理论、“安全化”理论等均增加了国际生态政治分析的多维视角,但这些流派也存在诸多不足。只有把握生态政治研究的全球性转向,关注环境权力的发展趋势,才能在多维理论图谱中寻找学术创新支点。%With the deepening development of global economy, the transnational ecological environmental problems have become more and more significant international concerns. The theory of international ecopolitics is a “grafting”theoretical framework under the profound influence of western neo-realism, neo-liberal institutionalism and domestic ecological theories. Since 1990s new schools of international ecopolitics such as “epistemic community”in structuralism, “global civil society”and “securitization”have gradually come into being and provided multi-dimensional perspectives for international ecopolitical analysis. However, there are also some shortcomings of these new schools. Only by keenly following the global turn of ecopolitical research and focusing on the development tendency of environmental power can we find the key point of academic innovation in multi-dimensional theories.

  14. International Institutions and GHG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Jiyong

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is pushing public health crises beyond traditional national boundaries. It has also transformed international health governance into global health governance. Health security is one aspect of global public welfare. International institutions, such as the WHO, the WTO, the World Bank, and the BWC, are main providers of global public welfare for health. However, those institutions' role in global health governance is not optimized. An analysis of the shortcomings of the international institutions concerned with global heath can contribute to better global health governance. Some tentative solutions to such problems are put forward in this paper.

  15. Pension Fund governing board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...

  16. Pension Fund governing board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...

  17. 大学内部治理中监督权的缺失及原因分析%The Lack of Supervision in the Internal Governance of University and Cause Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱珍; 崔芳芳

    2014-01-01

    在我国大学内部治理中,由于受传统管理理念的影响,党政权力过分集中,学术权力虚化,监督权处于严重缺失的状态。我国多数大学存在这一现象,严重影响了高等教育的和谐发展。为此,文章探讨了大学监督权缺失的现状,并从校内监督制度、监督体系、监督主体等方面进行了原因分析,为监督权的有效实施提出有效对策,防止大学公权力的滥用,从而促进大学稳定健康发展。%In our country university internal governance, there is lack of the right of supervision, influenced by the traditional concept of management, the excessive concentration of Party and government power, academic power emptiness. It is a general phenomenon in University of our country, and has seriously affected the harmonious development of higher education. For this reason, the paper discusses the present situation of University supervision power loss, and analyses reason and from the aspects of the school supervision system, supervision system, supervision subject. It puts forward good countermeasures to prevent the abuse of public power of the University, so as to promote the stable and healthy development of University.

  18. The Best Adders of Opportunity Government Skills Initiatives in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is United Kingdom (UK govern¬ment initiatives over the last thirty years, or so, which have been designed to both up-skill the workforce and to improve the country’s international com¬petitive position. It also considers the impact which these educational inter¬ventions have had on the economic and human capital of the various stake¬holders including the government, employers and learners. It comes to the conclusion that, whilst some progress has been made in developing the human capital and the economic capital of the stakeholders these interventions have not significantly improved the United Kingdom’s global competitive position. The paper also points to the current political uncertainty in that country.

  19. Secure Inter-Process Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Radulescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the necessity in modern distributed systems for authentication of a process running in a distributed system and to provide a secure channel for inter-process communication in which both the client authenticates to the server and the server authenticates to the client. The distributed system is a client-server system based on ENEA LINX inter-process communication framework. Enea LINX is a Linux open source project which allows processes to exchange information between several media channels: shared memory (local process communication, Ethernet (local network inter process communication, TCP/IP (inter process communication through Internet in which nodes are communicating regardless of the underlying media. Because ENEA LINX offers no security mechanism it appears the need for securing the communicating over LINX protocol. Process authentication disables the need for personal authentication of the user and also prevents an attacker from starting a process which will harm the entire system. Besides authentication, using public key combined with symmetric key technologies the secure inter-process communication system must provide integrity and confidentiality.

  20. Government interventions in sustainable supply chain governance: Experience in Dutch front-running cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Kok, M.T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous multi-actor governance systems have recently emerged, ensuring sustainability of international traded products. Business and civil society actors play a dominant role in initiating and governing ‘sustainable supply chain governance systems’ (SSCG systems). Within specific product markets we

  1. GMMIP (v1.0) contribution to CMIP6: Global Monsoons Model Inter-comparison Project

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Tianjun; Turner, Andrew G.; Kinter, James L.; Qian, Yun; Chen, Xiaolong; Bo WU; Wang, Bin; Liu, Bo; Zou, Liwei; He, Bian

    2016-01-01

    The Global Monsoons Model Inter-comparison Project (GMMIP) has been endorsed by the panel of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP) as one of the participating model inter-comparison projects (MIPs) in the sixth phase of CMIP (CMIP6). The focus of GMMIP is on monsoon climatology, variability, prediction and projection, which is relevant to four of the “Grand Challenges” proposed by the World Climate Research Programme. At present, 21 international modeling groups are ...

  2. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  3. Poly-centricity, Self-governance and Inter-jurisdictional Cooperation: Ostrom's Police Service Theory and Its Inspiration%多中心、自主网络与跨域警务合作——奥斯特罗姆警察服务思想试探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志云

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Nobile Prize winner Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues started a research on police service for 15 years in the argument of Metropolitan Reform. The industrial perspective rather than the organizational perspective of police service allows a new approach to understanding the patterns and orders of police service in metropolitan areas. They examined the internal and external validity of polycentric order, auto-network and its effectiveness,and verified or falsified the relation between police performance and the numbers and scales of police organizations,as well as the relation between police performance and police organization structure. Their efforts were accomplished through research methods of in-depth case analysis and large sample analysis,and through constant attention to themes such as community organizations and police service,patterns of police service in metropolitan areas,inter-jurisdictional cooperation and police performance.%奥斯特罗姆的研究揭示:相比大城市的警察机构,地方社群控制的警察机构的产出水平更高,效率更高,更能满足公民的需要;大都市地区警察服务的生产者具有多样性,几乎不存在严格意义上的重复生产;不同层次的警察机构之间存在着丰富的关系网络,使得辅助服务被普遍地使用;机构规模的多样性和服务的不同组合,并不必然产生服务的浪费和混乱;交叉管辖背景下跨辖区警察组织的合作具有普遍性,且非正式(不成文)合作非常容易实现;警察绩效与正式合作协议的数量负相关;与非正式协议的数量正相关;绩效测量应该是一种学习更好地了解警察做什么和在其社区有什么影响效果的途径,在提出更好的问题方面比给出更好的答案方面更有用。奥斯特罗姆的理论的政策选择对于当下中国的公安警察改革和警察服务的组织具有深远的指导和借鉴意义。

  4. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE – WAY OF GOVERNANCE FOR MODERN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Through corporate governance is aimed the building of a structure enabling a wide degree of freedom, within the law, and includes several changes of principle in accordance with international standards of transparency. A good governance within an organization mitigate risk, increase performance, pave the way towards financial markets, brings competitive goods and services on market, improves management style, show transparency towards all stakeholders and social responsibility. The lack of some mandatory rules and structures can lead to chaos in business. The paper aims to present the role and the importance of the corporate governance for modern companies, as well as the principles on which this is based. In order to do that we also identified the main ways to quantificate the level of corporate governance, including also the non-financial performance criteria used by investors to assess companies listed on stock exchange.

  5. Unification of Patrimonial Laws Governing International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Should the laws of the world dealing with cross-border transactions be unified? Such unification presupposes an agreement on what we understand by ‘law’ and what its sources are. The drafters of uniform laws and lawyers who are preoccupied with comparative law often ask themselves: Is there, among...

  6. Danish Government passes three International Tax Bills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage

    1995-01-01

    I artiklen omtales lov nr. 945 af 23/11 1994, der ophævede dobbeltbeskatningsaftaleloven, der bemyndiger regeringen til at indgå dobbeltbeskatningsaftaler. For fremtiden skal dobbeltbeskatningsaftaler gennemføres ved lov. Artiklen omtaler tillige lov nr. 1118 af 21/12 1994 om misbrug af dobbeltbe...

  7. Government, Globalization, and Translation (International Technical Communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Offers the author's personal pricing experience for translations (both as a freelancer and in a large corporation) to argue that antitrust proceedings against the American Translator's Association are, in practical terms, seldom important to working translators. (SR)

  8. Beyond harvests in the commons: multi-scale governance and turbulence in indigenous/community conserved areas in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton Bray

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Some important elements of common property theory include a focus on individual communities or user groups, local level adjudication of conflicts, local autonomy in rule making, physical harvests, and low levels of articulation with markets. We present a case study of multi-scale collective action around indigenous/community conserved areas (ICCAs in Oaxaca, Mexico that suggests a modification of these components of common property theory. A multi-community ICCA in Oaxaca demonstrates the importance of inter-community collective action as key link in multi-scale governance, that conflicts are often negotiated in multiple arenas, that rules emerge at multiple scales, and that management for conservation and environmental services implies no physical harvests. Realizing economic gains from ICCAs for strict conservation may require something very different than traditional natural resource management. It requires intense engagement with extensive networks of government and civil society actors and new forms of community and inter-community collection action, or multi-scale governance. Multi-scale governance is built on trust and social capital at multiple scales and also constitutes collective action at multiple scales. However, processes of multi-scale governance are also necessarily “turbulent” with actors frequently having conflicting values and goals to be negotiated. We present an analytic history of the process of emergence of community and inter-community collective action around strict conservation and examples of internal and external turbulence. We argue that this case study and other literature requires an extensions of the constitutive elements of common property theory.

  9. Features of Speech Acts and Politeness Strategy in Inter-national Business Negotiation%国际商务谈判言语行为特征及礼貌策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡启海; 黄娣

    2015-01-01

    Successful business negotiation depends largely on many factors and proper application of strategies, among them politeness strategy is particularly important. Speech act in busi-ness negotiation has the features of stability, vagueness, debat-ing. From the perspective of politeness principle, proper use of politeness strategy including application of tact maxim, approba-tion maxim and euphemistic expressions can enhance the mutual trust and understanding among negotiators, so as to increase the odds for negotiation success and promote the development of in-ternational business negotiation.%谈判的成功取决于各种因素和语言策略的恰当运用,其中礼貌言语行为及其策略尤为重要。商务谈判语言具有程式化、模糊性和争辩性等特征。从礼貌原则的角度来看,得体性、赞誉性和委婉模糊性言语行为策略在国际商务谈判中的合理运用有利于增加谈判者之间的信任度,提高谈判效率,加速谈判目标的实现,从而促使国际贸易顺利发展。

  10. Multi-Instrument Inter-Calibration (MIIC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Currey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to have confidence in the long-term records of atmospheric and surface properties derived from satellite measurements it is important to know the stability and accuracy of the actual radiance or reflectance measurements. Climate quality measurements require accurate calibration of space-borne instruments. Inter-calibration is the process that ties the calibration of a target instrument to a more accurate, preferably SI-traceable, reference instrument by matching measurements in time, space, wavelength, and view angles. A major challenge for any inter-calibration study is to find and acquire matched samples from within the large data volumes distributed across Earth science data centers. Typically less than 0.1% of the instrument data are required for inter-calibration analysis. Software tools and networking middleware are necessary for intelligent selection and retrieval of matched samples from multiple instruments on separate spacecraft.  This paper discusses the Multi-Instrument Inter-Calibration (MIIC system, a web-based software framework used by the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO Pathfinder mission to simplify the data management mechanics of inter-calibration. MIIC provides three main services: (1 inter-calibration event prediction; (2 data acquisition; and (3 data analysis. The combination of event prediction and powerful server-side functions reduces the data volume required for inter-calibration studies by several orders of magnitude, dramatically reducing network bandwidth and disk storage needs. MIIC provides generic retrospective analysis services capable of sifting through large data volumes of existing instrument data. The MIIC tiered design deployed at large institutional data centers can help international organizations, such as Global Space Based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS, more efficiently acquire matched data from multiple data centers. In this paper we describe the MIIC

  11. Result-Based Public Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    the performance measure that guides the inspectors’ inspection (or nudging) of the businesses. The analysis shows that although a result-based governance system is advocated on a strategic level, performance measures which are not ‘result-based’ are developed and used in the daily coordination of work. The paper......Within the public sector, many institutions are either steered by governance by targets or result-based governance. The former sets up quantitative internal production targets, while the latter advocates that production is planned according to outcomes which are defined as institution......-produced effects on individuals or businesses in society; effects which are often produced by ‘nudging’ the citizenry in a certain direction. With point of departure in these two governance-systems, the paper explores a case of controversial inspection of businesses’ negative VAT accounts and it describes...

  12. An inter-religious humanitarian response in the Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mahony

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inter-religious action has played a key role in ensuring that social cohesion and inter-religious mediation remain on the international agenda in relation to response in the Central African Republic, where people’s faith is an integral part of their identity but where it has been manipulated in a horrific way.

  13. Solar power satellites (SPS) and international law. The system of international law governing science and technology projects for energy source development in outer space (Solar power satellites, lunar power systems, Helium-3 project); Solar Power Satellites und Voelkerrecht. Voelkerrechtliche Aspekte von Grossprojekten zur Energiegewinnung aus Weltraumressourcen (Solar Power Satellites, Lunar Power Systems, Helium-3-Projekt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.

    2000-07-01

    In addition to the utilization of renewable energy sources on earth, particular interest has been directed since the late 1960s to the exploitation of the energy of the sun via solar power satellites (SPS), and of other energy sources in outer space. The dissertation on hand presents a comprehensive survey and commented analysis, together with an exhaustive bibliography, of the available relevant international laws and treaties and regulatory framework that have been developed by the international legal community since the beginning of the R and D activities and now form the legal system governing the peaceful uses of solar power plants and other energy sources in outer space. The specific legal provisions and their application in the context of existing international laws and treaties are discussed in great depth. (CB) [German] Neben der Nutzung regenerativer Energiequellen auf der Erde ist seit Ende der sechziger Jahre die Errichtung und Nutzung von Solarenergiesatelliten (SPS) von besonderem Interesse. Die Doktorarbeit legt eine umfangreiche, ausfuehrlich erlaeuterte Dokumentation vor ueber die Entwicklung und den derzeitigen Stand von internationalem Recht und Vertraegen, die spezifisch fuer die F und E-Aktivitaeten und die Anwendung der SPS und anderer Energiequellen im Weltraum erforderlich und entwickelt wurden, sowie auch deren Einbettung in und Zusammenwirken mit bestehendem Voelkerrecht und internationalen Vereinbarungen. (CB)

  14. Information Strategies for Open Government: Challenges and Prospects for Deriving Public Value from Government Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon S. Dawes; Helbig, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Information-based strategies to promote open government offer many opportunities to generate social and economic value through public use of government information. Public and political expectations for the success of these strategies are high but they confront the challenges of making government data "fit for use" by a variety of users outside the government. Research findings from a study of public use of land records demonstrates the inherent complexity of public us...

  15. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...

  16. 基于时际范围经济的企业国际市场进入过程模型:知识观视角的研究%The Process Model of Entry of International Market Based Inter-Temporal Economies of Scope:from the Perspective of Knowledge Based View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆华; 王文平

    2011-01-01

    本文从知识观的视角分析了企业国际化扩张过程中的市场进入问题,并基于时际范围经济的原理提出了一个过程模型.根据过程模型,企业在国际市场进入过程中必须考虑以下几个方面的问题:第一,企业应当采取序贯进入国际市场的策略,以更加有效地追求和实现时际范围经济;第二,由于时间压缩不经济的存在,企业必须审慎考虑国际市场进入的跨度和节奏;第三,类似于企业对核心业务的专注,企业应当审慎考虑国际化扩张的市场范围,或者更明确地说,企业应当序贯进入具有前期知识积累的目标市场;第四,企业在制定和实施国际化扩张战略时,初始目标市场的选择显得尤其重要,需要根据企业所在产业的市场结构、企业的竟争地位和战略目标等因素综合权衡.%The paper discusses an company's entry into international market from the perspective of knowledge based view, and puts forth the process model based on the principle of inter-temporal economies of scope. On the basis of the process model, the paper argues that a company must take one thing with another in the course of entry into international market. First, a company should enter international market in a sequential order to gain inter-temporal economies of scope. Second, a company must think over the pace and rhythm of entry into international market by virtue of time compression diseconomies. Third, like as focus of core business, a company must think over the scope of extended international market, or must enter the target market with prophase knowledge sequentially.Forth, the first target market is very important for a company to formulate and implement its international strategy, and the corporate should think over the selection of the first target market on the basis of market structure, its competitive position and its strategic objective.

  17. 30th November 2010 - Norwegian Ministry of Government Administration, Reform and Church Affairs State Secretary R. Valle signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; visiting CERN Computer Centre with Information Technology Department Head F. Hemmer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    30th November 2010 - Norwegian Ministry of Government Administration, Reform and Church Affairs State Secretary R. Valle signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; visiting CERN Computer Centre with Information Technology Department Head F. Hemmer.

  18. Improving Unsustainable Environmental Governance in South Africa: the Case for Holistic Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ Kotze

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental law in South Africa has developed in a rapid fashion since the inception of the new constitutional dispensation in 1994. This development is evident from, inter alia, the constitutionalisation of the environmental right in section 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. Section 24 contains amongst other provisions, directive principles that impose duties on government to protect the environment for present and future generations through reasonable legislative and other measures. It is apparent from section 24 that these measures should ensure environmental governance practices that are aimed at the achievement of sustainable results. The South African environmental governance regime is, however, characterised by fragmentation that may negate the achievement of sustainable environmental governance. It is argued in this article that, for environmental governance to become sustainable, it is necessary to integrate environmental governance efforts, possibly by way of a holistic approach to environmental governance. In light of the above, this article: investigates the nature and extent of fragmentation; explores reasons for fragmentation; discusses disadvantages of fragmented governance efforts in South Africa; investigates the concept of integration and holistic governance as means to achieve sustainable environmental governance results; and makes recommendations regarding the eventual achievement of integrated, holistic and sustainable environmental governance.

  19. Global large carnivore conservation and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.

    2015-01-01

    International cooperation, including through international legal instruments, appears important for the conservation of large carnivores worldwide. This is due to, inter alia, the worrying conservation status and population trends of many large carnivore species; the importance of large carnivores f

  20. Global large carnivore conservation and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.

    2015-01-01

    International cooperation, including through international legal instruments, appears important for the conservation of large carnivores worldwide. This is due to, inter alia, the worrying conservation status and population trends of many large carnivore species; the importance of large carnivores

  1. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  2. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this fram

  3. Inter-dot coupling effects on transport through correlated parallel coupled quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shyam Chand; G Rajput; K C Sharma; P K Ahluwalia

    2009-05-01

    Transport through symmetric parallel coupled quantum dot system has been studied, using non-equilibrium Green function formalism. The inter-dot tunnelling with on-dot and inter-dot Coulomb repulsion is included. The transmission coefficient and Landaur–Buttiker like current formula are shown in terms of internal states of quantum dots. The effect of inter-dot tunnelling on transport properties has been explored. Results, in intermediate inter-dot coupling regime show signatures of merger of two dots to form a single composite dot and in strong coupling regime the behaviour of the system resembles the two decoupled dots.

  4. 高校政府采购的廉政风险和内部防控机制研究%On Integrity Risks and Internal Prevention-Control Mechanism of Government Procurement in Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铨禄

    2014-01-01

    由于高校政府采购运行的特殊性,一般的外部监督机制对采购运行的各环节难以形成有效监管,容易形成制度的真空和廉政风险。如在立项决策环节,随意立项和规避政府采购;在实施招标环节,专门为特定投标人量身定造“萝卜标”;在合同签署环节,不严格按中标结果签定合同;在验收环节,违规降格验收,等等。因此,建立有效的防控机制,要根据“科学分权、适度限权、合理放权”的原则,从实践层面完善内部工作机制,从制度层面构建相应的监管措施。%Due to the special natures of government procurement operation in universities, it is easy to form the system vacuum and generate the integrity risks because the external supervision mechanism fails to provide effective supervision and management for all the procurement parts. For examples, the project is established randomly and government procurement is evaded during project approval. Tailor standards for a particular bidder in the implementation of a tender, do not sign a contract strictly according to the bidding results, and violate the relevant regulations or downgrade standards to accept a project during acceptance. Therefore, the internal operating mechanisms should be improved in practice and the appropriate regulatory measures should be constructed in system so as to establish an effective prevention and control mechanism based on the principles scientific decentralization, moderate restriction and reasonable devolution.

  5. Expertise and governance of climate change; Expertise et gouvernance du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinas de Munagorri, R.; Colson, R. [Nantes Univ. (France); Denis, B. [Saint-Louis Univ. and Free Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Leclerc, O. [Paris Ouest-Nanterre La Defense Univ. (France); Rousseau, S. [CNRS, Lab. Droit et Changement Social (France); Torre-Schaub, M. [CNRS, Lab. Institutions et Dynamiques Historiques de l' Economie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France)

    2009-07-01

    Global warming has become in few years a prominent problem which requires the implementation of a world governance to be solved. However, the share of human activities in the global warming phenomenon and the actions susceptible to mitigate the greenhouse gases emission generate scientifical, political and legal conflicts at the same time. Assessing the taking into account of climate change by international institutions raises several questions. By what process a true fact can become established at the world scale? Are experts free or constrain by procedure rules? How to regulate the worldwide carbon trade? Is the governance requirement foreseen in international systems respected by decision making practices? How to explain experts' omnipresence in the observance mechanisms of climate change treaties? Is their influence determining, at the international and internal scale, in the elaboration of a climate law? These questions, analyzed by researchers in law and political science, are indissociable of method stakes with an inter-disciplinary horizon. This book, result of a collective work, is not limited to a description of standards and actors' practices in force. Its ambition is to apprehend law, science and politics in their interactions. Climate change is an appropriate topic to think about the links between the different scientific disciplines. The book concludes with a prospective about the contribution of laws analysis to expertise which involves the dogmatic, realistic and epistemologic aspects. (J.S.)

  6. Norms, legitimacy, and global financial governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R.D. Underhill; X. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Despite regular and serious systemic volatility, reform of international financial architecture remains limited, retaining market-oriented characteristics and adjustment mechanisms. A failure of the architecture to focus on the political underpinnings of global financial and monetary governance yiel

  7. Norms, legitimacy, and global financial governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.; Zhang, X.

    2006-01-01

    Despite regular and serious systemic volatility, reform of international financial architecture remains limited, retaining market-oriented characteristics and adjustment mechanisms. A failure of the architecture to focus on the political underpinnings of global financial and monetary governance

  8. Norms, legitimacy, and global financial governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.; Zhang, X.

    2006-01-01

    Despite regular and serious systemic volatility, reform of international financial architecture remains limited, retaining market-oriented characteristics and adjustment mechanisms. A failure of the architecture to focus on the political underpinnings of global financial and monetary governance yiel

  9. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the risk-based mode required by the new auditing standards has significantly enhanced the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance. Since the change in audit mode, the Big Ten have demonstrated a significantly better grasp of governance risk and allocated their audit effort accordingly, relative to smaller firms. The empirical evidence indicates that auditors have adjusted their audit strategy to meet the regulations, risk-based auditing is being achieved to a degree, reasonable and effective corporate governance helps to optimize audit resource allocation, and smaller auditing firms in particular should urgently strengthen their risk-based auditing capability. Overall, our findings imply that the mandatory switch to risk-based auditing has optimized audit effort in China.

  10. Earth System Governance: Facing the Challenges of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Camargo Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available YOUNG, Oran R. Institutional Dynamics: Emergent Patterns in International Environmental Governance. Cambridge (Massachusets, USA: The MIT Press, 2010. Earth System Governance Series. 225p. (Paperback; alkaline paper. ISBN 978-0-262-51440-8.

  11. Relevance of Corporate Governance in Nigerian Banks | Akinyomi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevance of Corporate Governance in Nigerian Banks. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... Although corporate governance is of general interests to the Nigerian public, that of the banking industry is of ...

  12. NEPAD and Governance Question in Nigeria: Progress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEPAD and Governance Question in Nigeria: Progress and Challenges. ... for Africa's rejuvenation of the spirit of good governance and development. ... as global economic meltdown, internal conflicts and state-centric interest which have ...

  13. Establishing local government in fragile states: experimental evidence from Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jochem; I. Murtazashvili; J. Murtazashvili

    2016-01-01

    International and domestic policy makers often promote elections to establish village government in fragile states. However, two additional options are available in such countries: formalization of self-governing village councils and formalization of community development councils (CDCs). We designe

  14. Corporate Governance, Management Control and Global Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela M Salvioni

    2005-01-01

    Corporate governance is a complex activity evolving in parallel with change within internal and external contexts. In particular, global competition shows how maintaining the conditions for company effectiveness implies: reviewing the corporate governance approach, emphasising relations between governance and management control and developing appropriate skills to adapt to the variables being monitored.The new outlook companies are up against tends to determine revising important critical fac...

  15. NASA InterCenter Collaboration Increases ROI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Kimberly; Best, Susan; Felton, Larry; Newhouse, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Funding for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space mission operations is tighter than ever in the current environment of federal government deficit reductions. Conventional wisdom would expect this environment to drive increasing competition between NASA centers for the limited available funds. However, recent inter-center activities at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center emphasize collaboration rather than competition and demonstrate the value of partnerships to increase the return on shrinking investments. These efforts cover a variety of activities and potential returns. To facilitate sharing data from test and verification through operations without levying requirements on data format or software tools, the HOSC is working with multiple centers on an evolutionary path toward a distributed data architecture and archive. The approach reduces the required investment by allowing the partners to reuse their existing formats and tools, while facilitating gone ]stop h user visibility into and controlled access to the full complement of data regardless of user or data location. The HOSC is also working on two activities to promote sharing operations implementations and leveraging the experts and expertise across multiple NASA sites. In one, the use of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards for the message abstraction layer provides an interoperability layer on top of existing ground data system communication architectures. This allows missions to select the most appropriate solutions for their requirements with a minimal investment in rehosting the components in a coherent operational environment. The other emphasizes shared tools and increased remote access to minimize travel for tests and critical activities and reduce the floor space required for a dedicated operations center. This paper summarizes these and other inter-center collaboration activities at the HOSC and the

  16. A taxonomy of systems of corporate governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, J.; Pape, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper argues that debate on corporate governance in an international context is hampered by the lack of a coherent framework. A taxonomy of systems of corporate governance is proposed as a remedy. The taxonomy is based upon eight characteristics: the prevailing concept of the firm, the board

  17. Norms, legitimacy, and global financial governance

    OpenAIRE

    Underhill, G.R.D.; Zhang, X.

    2006-01-01

    Despite regular and serious systemic volatility, reform of international financial architecture remains limited, retaining market-oriented characteristics and adjustment mechanisms. A failure of the architecture to focus on the political underpinnings of global financial and monetary governance yields crucial deficiencies. The article defends three propositions implying a serious challenge to political legitimacy in contemporary financial governance: i) external financial constraints conflict...

  18. 77 FR 58492 - Prohibitions Governing Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service 36 CFR Part 261 RIN 0596-AD08 Prohibitions Governing Fire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Fire. * * * * * (j) Operating or using any internal or external combustion engine without a spark...

  19. Alignment between chain quality management and chain governance in EU pork supply chains. A Transaction-Cost-Economics perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    Although inter-firm coordination of quality management is increasingly important for meeting end-customer demand in agri-food chains, few researchers focus on the relation between inter-firm quality management systems (QMS) and inter-firm governance structures (GS). However, failure to align QMSs

  20. Fourth Sino-British Local Government Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The 4th Sino-British Local Government Seminar jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the China International Friendship Cities Association, the China-EU Association and the Local Government International Bureau of the UK (LGIB) was held in Beijing on June 29, 2004. He Luli, vice-chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, attended the seminar and delivered a speech. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu made a keynote speech. Ken Bodfish,