Heyse, Liesbet; Zwitter, Andrej; Wittek, Rafael; Herman, Joost
This book presents a new framework of analysis to assess natural and man-made disasters and humanitarian crises, and the feasibility of interventions in these complex emergencies. The past half-century has witnessed a dramatic increase in such crises – such as in Haiti, Iraq and Sudan – and this
Situations of humanitarian crisis are often caused by armed conflicts. Given the prevalence of non-international armed conflicts today, ways of ameliorating these situations are at the forefront of concerns. The international humanitarian law rules governing non-international armed conflict remain much less developed than those for international armed conflicts. This is exacerbated by the lack of direct human rights obligations for non-state armed groups, which makes governing the behaviour o...
Dijkzeul, D.; Hilhorst, D.; Walker, P.
This introductory paper sets the stage for this special issue of Disasters on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises. It reviews definition(s) of evidence and it examines the different disciplinary and methodological approaches to collecting and analysing evidence. In humanitarian action, the
Ager, A; Burnham, G; Checchi, F; Gayer, M; Grais, R F; Henkens, M; Massaquoi, M B F; Nandy, R; Navarro-Colorado, C; Spiegel, P
Given the growing scale and complexity of responses to humanitarian crises, it is important to develop a stronger evidence base for health interventions in such contexts. Humanitarian crises present unique challenges to rigorous and effective research, but there are substantial opportunities for scientific advance. Studies need to focus where the translation of evidence from noncrisis scenarios is not viable and on ethical ways of determining what happens in the absence of an intervention. Robust methodologies suited to crisis settings have to be developed and used to assess interventions with potential for delivery at scale. Strengthening research capacity in the low- to middle-income countries that are vulnerable to crises is also crucial. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel
Abstract: Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier Gender and Development approach and the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda, analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, gender often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs...
Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel
Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier 'Gender and Development' approach and the 'Women, Peace, and Security Agenda', analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, 'gender' often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs and proposes a more relational approach to gender. It explores how the contributions to this special issue of Disasters revisit classic gender issues pertaining to violence, livelihoods, and institutions in different settings of humanitarian emergencies, while expanding one's vision beyond them. It draws from the seven papers a number of lessons for humanitarianism, concerning the entangled nature of gender relations, the risks of the unintended effects of gender programming, and the importance of paying sustained attention to how gender relations unfold in a time of crisis. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
The International Humanitarian Award recognizes extraordinary humanitarian services and activism by psychologists, including professional and volunteer work conducted primarily in the field with underserved populations. Award recipients are psychologists who, by their extraordinary service at a difficult time, improve the lives and contribute to the well-being of people in a large or small geographic area anywhere in the world. The 2017 recipient of the APA International Humanitarian Award was selected by the 2016 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2016 CIRP were Melissa Morgan Consoli, PhD, and Arpana G. Inman, PhD (Co-chairs); Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD; Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Frederic Bemak, EdD; Brigitte Khoury, PhD; Susan Nolan, PhD; Nancy Sidun, PsyD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Inman, Dr. Nolan, and Doctor Sidun were members of the subcommittee for the 2017 award. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Djindil, N.S.; Bruijn, de M.
Once a humanitarian disaster receives coverage in the global media, the international community usually mobilises to reduce the most severe consequences. However people in Chad are experiencing endemic crises that are detached from speci!c triggers, and they are not receiving any international
Full Text Available Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo did not happen by any geopolitical interest, but simply by an entirely humanitarian character which is closely connected with democratic principles, human rights, and the lack of moral order. Except for damages, massacres and destruction by fire of very sophisticated military artillery, Serbian army and police have forced with violence more than thousands of Kosovo Albanians to leave their home (Pllana, 2010, 241. With humanitarian intervention, NATO had shown it was ready to defend universal human values as the fundamental principle of humanity (free life. Main purpose of this article is an analysis of the international human intervention in Kosovo
The media are important actors in humanitarian crisis management and resolution, both in the countries facing the crises and in the rest of the world. Based on an inductive approach to a news sample from four Spanish newspapers, this study analyses the news frames used in the coverage of countries facing humanitarian crises. Results show that, with certain differences between countries, the Spanish press frames these countries as being theatres of war and violence, Islamic terrorism, and crim...
Djindil, N.S.; Bruijn, de, M.
Once a humanitarian disaster receives coverage in the global media, the international community usually mobilises to reduce the most severe consequences. However people in Chad are experiencing endemic crises that are detached from speci!c triggers, and they are not receiving any international assistance to help relieve the hardships they face. "is study involves 111 migrant households from central Chad that, as a result of war and drought, have lost everything and now have to live in squatte...
Muhren, W.J.; van den Eede, G.G.P.; van de Walle, B.A.
This paper reintroduces concepts from sensemaking in media synchronicity theory (MST). It focuses on how media should support synchronicity to fit communication needs when making sense of a humanitarian crisis situation. Findings from interviews with senior management of humanitarian aid
‘Resilience’ occupies a prominent place in contemporary discussions around the governance of humanitarian emergencies, protracted crises and insecurity more broadly. The aim of this study was to further our understanding of resilience as a governance rationality and a policy discourse, in particular
Full Text Available The media are important actors in humanitarian crisis management and resolution, both in the countries facing the crises and in the rest of the world. Based on an inductive approach to a news sample from four Spanish newspapers, this study analyses the news frames used in the coverage of countries facing humanitarian crises. Results show that, with certain differences between countries, the Spanish press frames these countries as being theatres of war and violence, Islamic terrorism, and crime. From a theoretical perspective, results also suggest that news frames should not be classified either as "generic" or "specific", but that they should instead be placed on a continuous scale ranging from "generic" through to "specific".
Persons who international humanitarian law applies have .... problems in applying the principle of distinction and seeks to find a standard for distinguishing what may appear ..... The advantage of employing drones in armed operatin is that no.
Bellamy, Alex J.
This essay examines contemporary debates about human protection by the UN Security Council and others in response to major humanitarian crises. It argues that there are clear signs of an emerging international human protection regime in the evolving practice of the Security Council and suggests that this regime is based on an accommodation between different moral accounts of humanitarian intervention. The first section examines some of the legal and moral debates that have arisen with respect...
I. V. Patlashynska
Therefore, the author stresses that despite the difference in approach, understanding the role and place of humanitarian operations in world politics, аnd their impact on the promotion of human rights and freedoms as essential moral guidance is extremely large.
In armed conflicts, death is not an exceptional occurrence, but becomes the rule and occurs on a daily basis. Dead bodies are sometimes despoiled, mutilated, abandoned without any funeral rite and without a decent burial. Unidentified remains may be counted by hundreds or thousands. As a result, families look for years for missing relatives, ignorant of the fate of their loved ones. International Humanitarian Law, also called the laws of war or the law of armed conflict, is an international law branch, which has been developed to regulate and, as far as possible, to humanize armed conflicts. It contains a number of clear and concrete obligations incumbent to belligerent parties on the management of dead bodies, which provide the legal framework for humanitarian forensic action. The purpose of this article is to present, in a simple and concise manner, these rules with a view to extrapolate some key legal principles, such as the obligation to respect the dignity of the dead or the right to know the fate of relatives, which shall guide anyone dealing with human remains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear.To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts.A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980-2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed.Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS and 35% using household water treatment (HWT. All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions. 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence.The current evidence base on the impact of WASH interventions on health outcomes in
Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Roberts, Bayard
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980-2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. The current evidence base on the impact of WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian
Syntyche Nakar Djindil
Full Text Available Once a humanitarian disaster receives coverage in the global media, the international community usually mobilises to reduce the most severe consequences. However people in Chad are experiencing endemic crises that are detached from speci!c triggers, and they are not receiving any international assistance to help relieve the hardships they face. "is study involves 111 migrant households from central Chad that, as a result of war and drought, have lost everything and now have to live in squatter areas of N’Djamena and Mongo, facing uncertainty and threats while negotiating their livelihoods. Qualitative and quantitative methods have been combined in this study to reveal the intriguing story of their daily lives in the face of complex and endemic crises. Anthropometric and health data were generated to determine the nutritional status of mothers and their children under !ve. Life histories, in-depth interviews and participatory observation allowed the researchers to capture the negotiation strategies they use to access food and shelter, their experiences of food insecurity and sanitary vulnerability, and the consequences these have on daily life. Results indicate that 62% of households were female headed, there were high rates of acute (40-50% and chronic (35-40% malnutrition and 46% of the mothers were underweight and anaemic. Infant mortality rates were also high at 30%-42% and 97% of the children had had incomplete or no vaccinations. No households had access to clean water, sanitation or public-health services. Endemic corruption and abuse by the authorities were identi!ed as major sources of day-to-day insecurity. Theese migrants were not expecting any improvement in their livelihoods in the foreseeable future and saw these miserable conditions as normal.
For too long international humanitarian aid has neglected the primary responsibility of the state to assist and protect its citizens in times of disaster. A focus on the role of the state in contexts where governments are active parties to a conflict and are failing to live up to these responsibilities is difficult and underpins many of the recurring dilemmas of humanitarian action. The fundamental principles of humanitarian action should offer a framework for principled engagement with governments in situations of conflict but too often they are still interpreted as shorthand for ignoring governments. Using principles to inform engagement with both states and other international actors engaged in crises could provide a way forward. However, this would need to be a humanitarian agenda that engages with developing country governments, with non-OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) donors, and with the stabilisation and security agendas of Western governments, and not one that attempts to ring-fence an ever-shrinking isolationist humanitarian space. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Recently and for first time, an organism of the orbit of the human rights put the finger in the wound of the problem that represents for Colombia the pipelines explosion and the social and environmental impact that those actions in this case the Defense of the People office, the institution that published a document related this denounces, in the one that sustains that the country it cannot continue of back with a serious and evident reality as the related with the explosions of pipelines. We are the only country of the world where happen these facts and enormous losses are not only causing to the Colombian economy, but rather our environmental wealth is affecting, the document, denounced the ignorance of the humanitarian international right on the part of those who apply to that class of attacks
Diep, Lisa; Stedt, Amanda
During the past five years the Red Cross has been involved in two different internal crises. All of them can be related to trustworthiness and brand image. Why would someone keep donating money to an organization that has been involved in fraud and suspicion of corruption? The purpose of this dissertation is to explore how non-governmental (NGO) and non-profit (NPO) organizations rebuild their brand image and trustworthiness after a crisis. We will look at the problem from both the organizati...
Olsen, Gorm Rye; Carstensen, Nils; Høyen, Kristian
This paper proposes a basic hypothesis that the volume of emergency assistance any humanitarian crisis attracts is determined by three main factors working either in conjunction or individually. First, it depends on the intensity of media coverage. Second, it depends on the degree of political interest, particularly related to security, that donor governments have in a particular region. Third, the volume of emergency aid depends on strength of humanitarian NGOs and international organisations present in a specific country experiencing a humanitarian emergency. The empirical analysis of a number of emergency situations is carried out based on material that has never been published before. The paper concludes that only occasionally do the media play a decisive role in influencing donors. Rather, the security interests of Western donors are important together with the presence and strength of humanitarian stakeholders, such as NGOs and international organisations lobbying donor governments.
Greenough, P Gregg; Nazerali, Rahim; Fink, Sheri; VanRooyen, Michael J
As the humanitarian health response industry grows, there is a need for technical health expertise that can build an evidence base around outcome measures and raise the quality and accountability of the health relief response. We propose the formation of technical support units (TSUs), entities of health expertise institutionalized within humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs), which will bridge the gap between the demand for evidence-based, humanitarian programming and the field capacity to accomplish it. With the input of major humanitarian NGOs and donors, this paper discusses the attributes and capacities ofTSUs; and the mechanisms for creating and enhancing TSUs within the NGO management structure.
Richey, Lisa Ann
humanitarian practices can now take place in many different realms: in consumption, entertainment, or across social media. These are all areas that are traditionally considered outside of the humanitarian scope, not least because of their association with market-driven and celebrity-oriented activity rather......, humanitarianism has expanded in reach to include an assortment of nebulous interventions on behalf of an assumed shared humanity. “Humanitarianism” now signifies the effort to ‘do-good’, to express sympathy in response to distant suffering, whether this distance is actually geographical or social. Everyday...
Humanitarian intervention is a controversial concept in international law. It is not .... See Corten, O. and Klein, P. 'Droit d' ingerence ou obligation de reaction? ... but should be preceded by a formal public declaration of the political objectives.
Garcia, Kelli K.; Gostin, Lawrence O.
Today’s global health challenges require a multi-sectoral approach in which health is a fundamental value within global governance and international law. “One Health, One World” provides a unified, harmonious vision of global health governance that supports the wellbeing of humans and animals living in a clean and temperate environment. This article focuses on five legal regimes—trade law, food security law, environmental law, humanitarian law, and refugee law—that play a pivotal role in infl...
M. M. Lebedeva
Full Text Available Since the end of the 20th century, with the increasing role of the human factor in the world, the importance of the social and humanitarian component in world politics has also increased. This manifested itself not only in humanitarian and social issues, but also in the fact that the human factor has become an important component of other issues, including military and economic ones. The analysis of the Russian international studies on social and humanitarian issues in the article has been carried out in two main areas related to each other: 1 soft power and public diplomacy; 2 human capital. Various approaches to understanding soft power and public diplomacy in Russia are analyzed under the framework of the first area. It is shown that rather often both these terms are understood as informational and propagandistic influence on the societies of other countries. In this regard, in recent years, Russian authors have paid special attention to the issues of information and hybrid wars. Russian researches on human capital in quantitative terms is much inferior to the research of the first area. At the same time Russian works on the issues of the role of higher education, its use as a soft power were to a great extend a pioneer ones. The main conclusion of the article is that humanitarian issues do not occupy the some prominaut place in the international studies they do in real life world politics.
Many so-called deregulated power markets experience a hardened energy and power balance and some have had supply crises. This report discusses the crises, their impacts and their causes as well as the measures taken by the authorities to solve the crises. It also considers the similarities or dissimilarities with respect to the situation in Norway the winter 2002/2003. Like Norway, many of the countries have a considerable share of hydroelectric power. It is found, however, that the dependence on water of its own is not the reason for the crises, but that the inflow conditions give the market greater challenges. Furthermore, the Norwegian market has greater flexibility in the consumption, greater import capacity, better price security possibilities and less problems with market power than most of the countries here considered. Various factors influence a country's power consumption and production capacity. Economic growth and the availability of inexpensive power contribute to accelerate the consumption, while predictable external conditions and sufficient expected investment earnings are necessary to achieve an increase of the capacity - both through new investments and attendance to existing capacity. In a smooth power market there must be a certain correspondence between consumption and installed capacity, and the capacity must be such that it can cover the continuous demand for power and at the same time be flexible enough to deliver power at peak loads. This is also true of the transmission capacity. In addition, some extra capacity must be available for unexpected events. The basic problem is, in any power market, that the consumption may rise fast, while the investments in new capacity typically occurs in leaps, with long and costly construction phases. Many countries have lately experienced a hardening of the balance between consumption and capacity and so have been vulnerable to unexpected increases in consumption or resource failure. This was also the
Full Text Available This text gives a brief account of the norms and perceptions regarding IHL (international humanitarian law and Human Rights have been applied in Colombia, and on moving the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, FARC-EP, ELN National Liberation and the Army, in which requires the exclusion of civilians from direct attacks in the context of the conduct of hostilities by armed forces in war, these settings are accompanied Martells Clause and Article 3 common.
Kelli K. Garcia
Full Text Available Today’s global health challenges require a multi-sectoral approach in which health is a fundamental value within global governance and international law. “One Health, One World” provides a unified, harmonious vision of global health governance that supports the wellbeing of humans and animals living in a clean and temperate environment. This article focuses on five legal regimes—trade law, food security law, environmental law, humanitarian law, and refugee law—that play a pivotal role in influencing health outcomes and are integral to achieving the One Health, One World vision. International trade, for example, opens markets not only to life-saving products such as vaccines, medicines, and medical equipment, but also to life-threatening products such as tobacco and asbestos. If strengthened and enforced, environmental law can decrease air and water pollution, major causes of death and disability. World hunger has been exacerbated by the global economic crisis and climate change, increasing the urgency for international law to enhance food security. Humanitarian law must similarly be strengthened to protect civilians adequately as the nature of warfare continues to change. Refugee law plays a pivotal role in protecting the health of deeply vulnerable people who lack food, shelter, and social stability. Higher standards and more effective compliance are necessary for international law to realize its full potential to safeguard the world's population.
Humanitarian intervention is a contraversial concept of international law doctrine because of its compatibility with the principles of state’s sovereignty and non - use of force in the contemporary international law. The Dissertation is intended for a systematic analysis of the concept of humanitarian intervention and its legality problem in order to provide coherent concept of humanitarian intervention in contemporary international law. This is one of the first efforts in the international l...
Full Text Available In recent years, armed conflicts have changed in nature (civil war, ‘terrorism’ and the means used are increasingly technological (robotisation, cyberwar. Faced with these developments, some would claim International Humanitarian Law (IHL is outdated. While these technological innovations present new challenges in the application of IHL, it still constitutes a relevant legal framework for armed conflicts and the conduct of hostilities. Indeed, the flexibility of IHL allows it to adapt to contemporary conflicts. Therefore, this shows that the statements about its obsolescence are primarily political in nature.
Stokes, Kenneth M.
The lasting theoretical significance of the South East Asian financial crisis of 1997/98 is that it poignantly offers a critical empirical assessment of equilibrium-centered (first generation) models of international financial crisis. Situating discussion initially in a vignette and commentary on recent events in Argentina, and while reflecting upon the S.E. Asian crisis, we comment upon policy and protocol shifts evident in the International Monetary Fund. These are indicative of a demand fo...
van den Boogaard, J.C.; Matthee, M.; Toebes, B.; Brus, M.
The rules of international humanitarian law of armed conflict are codified in a rather extensive body of treaty law. In addition, extensive research has been conducted into the rules of customary international humanitarian law. The author of this contribution will argue that there is another
Burkle, Frederick M; Kushner, Adam L; Giannou, Christos; Paterson, Mary A; Wren, Sherry M; Burnham, Gilbert
Since 1945, the reason for humanitarian crises and the way in which the world responds to them has dramatically changed every 10 to 15 years or less. Planning, response, and recovery for these tragic events have often been ad hoc, inconsistent, and insufficient, largely because of the complexity of global humanitarian demands and their corresponding response system capabilities. This historical perspective chronicles the transformation of war and armed conflicts from the Cold War to today, emphasizing the impact these events have had on humanitarian professionals and their struggle to adapt to increasing humanitarian, operational, and political challenges. An unprecedented independent United Nations-World Health Organization decision in the Battle for Mosul in Iraq to deploy to combat zones emergency medical teams unprepared in the skills of decades-tested war and armed conflict preparation and response afforded to health care providers and dictated by International Humanitarian Law and Geneva Convention protections has abruptly challenged future decision-making and deployments. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 7).
Ngamassi Tchouakeu, Louis-Marie
Massive international response to humanitarian crises such as the South Asian Tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 highlights the importance of humanitarian inter-organizational collaboration networks, especially in information management and exchange. Despite more than a decade old call for more research…
Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Gotway Crawford, Carol; Eriksson, Cynthia; Zhu, Julia; Sabin, Miriam; Ager, Alastair; Foy, David; Snider, Leslie; Scholte, Willem; Kaiser, Reinhard; Olff, Miranda; Rijnen, Bas; Simon, Winnifred
Background: International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives: To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology: We
Walker, Peter; Hein, Karen; Russ, Catherine; Bertleff, Greg; Caspersz, Dan
International humanitarian response to crises employs 210,000 people and accounts for nearly $15 billion in spending globally each year. Most action is carried out by not-for-profit organizations working with United Nations (UN) agencies, military organizations, and commercial entities. UN agencies employ many technical experts, often retaining them for five or more years. As yet there is no international professional apparatus to promote the quality and integrity of this workforce. This paper reports on research exploring the case for professionalizing humanitarian action through an international professional association, the development of core competencies, and the creation of a universal certification system for aid workers.
Kynes, J Matthew; Zeigler, Laura; McQueen, Kelly
Low- and middle-income countries carry a disproportionate share of the global burden of pediatric surgical disease and have limited local healthcare infrastructure and human resources to address this burden. Humanitarian efforts that have improved or provided access to necessary basic or emergency surgery for children in these settings have included humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, short-term surgical missions, and long-term projects such as building pediatric specialty hospitals and provider networks. Each of these efforts may also include educational initiatives designed to increase local capacity. This article will provide an overview of pediatric humanitarian surgical outreach including reference to available evidence-based analyses of these platforms and make recommendations for surgical outreach initiatives for children.
I model an international payments system with a financial center and periphery to reproduce various aspects of the International Gold Standard. This period was characterized by frequent crises associated with scarce stocks of reserves, high short-term interest rates with subsequent gold inflows and transmission of output contractions across countries. I find that a common international currency and no legal restrictions on exchange help the periphery share reserves with the financial center, ...
Bartels, R.; Fortin, K.
This article explores the ‘organizational’ or ‘organization’ criterion for both non-international armed conflict under international humanitarian law (IHL) and crimes against humanity under international criminal law (ICL) and considers how it affects the ability to address armed violence carried
Gill, T.D.; Tsagourias, N.; Buchan, R.
This chapter examines the application of international humanitarian law to cyber warfare in the sense of rising to the level of an armed conflict. Building upon the work of the Tallinn Manual on the Application of International Law to Cyber Warfare, it places particular emphasis on the application
Impeding humanitarian access and the starving of civilians is prohibited under international humanitarian law in times of both international and non-international armed conflicts. Such conduct is criminalised under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC Statute) when committed
The development of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) has often revealed the tight interrelation between refugee law, humanitarian law and international criminal law. It has been argued that the latter bodies of law have, in fact, played a major role in the development of most key concept of
Fortin, K.M.A.; Bartels, Rogier
This article explores the ‘organizational’ or ‘organization’ criterion for both noninternational armed conflict under international humanitarian law (IHL) and crimes against humanity under international criminal law (ICL) and considers how it affects the ability to address armed violence carried out
Ryan, Grace Kathryn; Bass, Judith K; Eaton, Julian
Introduction There is a severe shortage of specialist mental healthcare providers in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) affected by humanitarian crises. In these settings, talking therapies may be delivered by non-specialists, including lay workers with no tertiary education or formal certification in mental health. This systematic review will synthesise the literature on the implementation and effectiveness of talking therapies delivered by lay workers in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises, in order to develop a Theory of Change (ToC). Methods and analysis Qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods studies assessing the implementation or effectiveness of lay-delivered talking therapies for common mental disorders provided to adult survivors of humanitarian crises in LMICs will be eligible for inclusion. Studies set in high-income countries will be excluded. No restrictions will be applied to language or year of publication. Unpublished studies will be excluded. Seven electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycEXTRA, Global Health, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov. Contents pages of three peer-reviewed journals will be hand-searched. Sources of grey literature will include resource directories of two online mental health networks (MHPSS.net and MHInnovation.net) and expert consultation. Forward and backward citation searches of included studies will be performed. Two reviewers will independently screen studies for inclusion, extract data and assess study quality. A narrative synthesis will be conducted, following established guidelines. A ToC map will be amended iteratively to take into account the review results and guide the synthesis. Ethics and dissemination Findings will be presented in a manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated through a coordinated communications strategy targeting knowledge generators, enablers and users. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017058287. PMID
Ryan, Grace Kathryn; Bauer, Andreas; Bass, Judith K; Eaton, Julian
There is a severe shortage of specialist mental healthcare providers in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) affected by humanitarian crises. In these settings, talking therapies may be delivered by non-specialists, including lay workers with no tertiary education or formal certification in mental health. This systematic review will synthesise the literature on the implementation and effectiveness of talking therapies delivered by lay workers in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises, in order to develop a Theory of Change (ToC). Qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods studies assessing the implementation or effectiveness of lay-delivered talking therapies for common mental disorders provided to adult survivors of humanitarian crises in LMICs will be eligible for inclusion. Studies set in high-income countries will be excluded. No restrictions will be applied to language or year of publication. Unpublished studies will be excluded. Seven electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycEXTRA, Global Health, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov. Contents pages of three peer-reviewed journals will be hand-searched. Sources of grey literature will include resource directories of two online mental health networks (MHPSS.net and MHInnovation.net) and expert consultation. Forward and backward citation searches of included studies will be performed. Two reviewers will independently screen studies for inclusion, extract data and assess study quality. A narrative synthesis will be conducted, following established guidelines. A ToC map will be amended iteratively to take into account the review results and guide the synthesis. Findings will be presented in a manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated through a coordinated communications strategy targeting knowledge generators, enablers and users. CRD42017058287. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018
JEANNETTE IRIGOIN BARRENE
Full Text Available During an armed conflict, a change in the application of the human right regulations and international humanitarian law can be observed in the practice of contemporary international law. It is possible to observe at UN and International Courts’ levels an interesting trend in the sense of considering the application of both systems simultaneously in cases of international crisis as well as in internal conflicts. This innovation in contemporary international law can be observed initially in the change experimented by the legislation of the Human Rights’ European Court and specially and clearer in the Human Rights’ Inter American Court, which in cases against Honduras, Colombia, Paraguay and other countries, states that the State, being warrantor of the efficient protection of civil population, must apply and honor not only the Human Rights’ American Convention, but also the articles 13th and 14th of the II protocol of the Geneva Conventions of 1949. The convergence of both branches of the Law, and its application may help to achieve a better defense and efficiency of the fundamental rights of the human being.
The author first recalls the general principles of the International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and outlines its main gaps (application of the notion of protected person, classification between own territory and occupied territory). Then and in this respect, he comments the various characteristics of nuclear weapons considered as explosive devices, and notably as they are thus addressed by the International Court of Justice (ICJ). He comments the legal status of the ICJ advisory opinions, and more particularly the relationship between the ICJ advisory opinion on nuclear weapons and the IHL. Different aspects are addressed and discussed: the principle of distinction, the prohibition of the use of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. The author then comments NATO's nuclear policy in the international environment, and discusses the status and condition of nuclear deterrence. In order to address prospects for nuclear disarmament, the author notably compares differences between the arms control and non-proliferation approach, and the humanitarian disarmament approach
Eggen, Jerald D.; Mackenzie, R. Alec
To avoid emergency-driven work environments, crises should be anticipated to the extent possible; steps should be taken to prevent them or limit their consequences. Crises have both internal (personal) and external causes based on poor performance, unreasonable demands, or shifting priorities. Administrators need to cushion deadlines, clarify…
H. de Vries (Harwin)
markdownabstractHumanitarian crises like the Syrian war, Ebola, the earthquake in Haiti, the Indian Ocean tsunami, and the ongoing HIV epidemic prompt substantial demands for humanitarian aid. Logistics plays a key role in aid delivery and represents a major cost category for humanitarian
Burkle, Frederick M; Nickerson, Jason W; von Schreeb, Johan; Redmond, Anthony D; McQueen, Kelly A; Norton, Ian; Roy, Nobhojit
Following large-scale disasters and major complex emergencies, especially in resource-poor settings, emergency surgery is practiced by Foreign Medical Teams (FMTs) sent by governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). These surgical experiences have not yielded an appropriate standardized collection of data and reporting to meet standards required by national authorities, the World Health Organization, and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's Global Health Cluster. Utilizing the 2011 International Data Collection guidelines for surgery initiated by Médecins Sans Frontières, the authors of this paper developed an individual patient-centric form and an International Standard Reporting Template for Surgical Care to record data for victims of a disaster as well as the co-existing burden of surgical disease within the affected community. The data includes surgical patient outcomes and perioperative mortality, along with referrals for rehabilitation, mental health and psychosocial care. The purpose of the standard data format is fourfold: (1) to ensure that all surgical providers, especially from indigenous first responder teams and others performing emergency surgery, from national and international (Foreign) medical teams, contribute relevant and purposeful reporting; (2) to provide universally acceptable forms that meet the minimal needs of both national authorities and the Health Cluster; (3) to increase transparency and accountability, contributing to improved humanitarian coordination; and (4) to facilitate a comprehensive review of services provided to those affected by the crisis.
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Blaustein, Jarrett; McLay, Miki; McCulloch, Jude
This article introduces the concept of 'secondary harm mitigation' as a framework for improving the humanitarian credentials of international drug law enforcement agencies. The concept is rooted in a critical analysis of the compatibility of the harm reduction philosophy with Australia's international drug law enforcement practices. On a utilitarian level, the net benefits of international drug law enforcement are determined to be, at best inconclusive, arguably counterproductive and in most cases, incalculable. On a humanitarian level, international drug law enforcement is also determined to be problematic from a criminological standpoint because it generates secondary harms and it is indifferent to the vulnerability of individuals who participate in illicit drug trafficking. Accordingly, the article concludes that a philosophy of harm reduction grounded in the public health perspective is inadequate for mitigating secondary harms arising from Australia's efforts to combat international illicit drug trafficking. A tentative list of secondary harm mitigation principles is presented and the article argues that secondary harm mitigation should replace supply reduction as a core tenet of Australia's National Drug Strategy. The article also concludes that secondary harm mitigation may provide a viable framework for stimulating a productive dialogue between those who advocate prohibition and those who call for decriminalisation at the global level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Being one of the largest movements of displaced people through European borders since World War Two, the Syrian refugee crisis of 2015 and 2016, tested the coordination of the states and international organizations, and as well as the strategies for response of the latter to such enormous fluxes of displaced people along the Balkan corridor. The quick on-time reaction of the specialized humanitarian international organizations made significant achievements by the international organizations in terms of humanitarian assistance for the refugees and support for the governments of the region. Their approach mainly sought to create a partnership with the governments of the Balkan route in handling the serious humanitarian challenges (with a different strategy compared to other experiences, mainly this time through providing assistance and protection to the refugees throughout the corridor of the refugee crisis, it showed how important is such coordination at the end, with an aim to avoid further human catastrophes along refugee routes, and to avoid major security repercussions for the countries of the region.
Manuel Galvis - Martínez
Full Text Available The scandal caused by the assassination of a guerrilla leader by one of his subordinates and the payment of a substantial economic reward made to him by the State, led to the first questionings regarding the legality of the reward system in Colombia. This article seeks to establish if the state spon sored reward policy respects the rules of International Humanitarian Law applicable to the Colombian armed conflict. For this purpose the article will analyze both the legislative development and three of the most controversial situations raised in practice which prove the range and effects of the use of rewards as a strategic tactic within the armed conflict.
Results 8261 - 8270 of 8491 ... The international community faces no more critical issue currently than how to protect people caught in new and large-scale humanitarian crises — humanitarian intervention has been controversial both when it has happened, as in Kosovo, and when it. Publication Date. January 1, 2001.
Full Text Available The article considers the situation of Italy in the wake of the international financial and economic crisis. It is in particular stressed that Italy was already in a critical position before 2007-2008, mainly due to insufficient economic growth. The main reason for the country's low performance is identified in the insufficient expenditure on research and development, which caused innovation to slow down.JEL: O31, G01, O40
Borys I.KHOLOD; Anatoly O.ZADOYA
The paper analysis the main features of crisis phenomena in the early 21st century taking into consideration the overlapping stages of different types of business cycle (short and medium terms). The authors evaluate different kinds of economic cycles from the viewpoint of both history and modernity on the basis of opinions formulated during the International Nobel Economic Forum ôWord Economy in the 21th Century: Cycles and Crisesö (held in September 2008 at Dnipropetrovsk, University of Econ...
Kraft, Kathryn; Smith, Jonathan D
This paper explores the crucial part that faith-based organisations (FBOs) play in acting as intermediaries between international donors and local faith communities (LFCs) implementing humanitarian relief projects for Syrian refugees. Humanitarian responses to the mounting Syrian refugee crisis have coincided with greater collaboration between international donors and LFCs. This cooperation often is facilitated by a complex web of non-state intermediaries at the international, national, and local level. This study probes the breadth of roles of these intermediaries, drawing on primary data from case studies of two Christian intermediaries supporting Christian LFCs as they deliver aid primarily to Muslim Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon. The results of the study are connected to the wider literature on LFCs in humanitarian response, revealing how intermediaries address issues of accountability, capacity-building, impartiality, neutrality, and professionalism. The paper concludes by offering suggestions for further research on intermediaries as key actors in the localisation of humanitarian assistance. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Full Text Available This article presents the results from a study into international humanitarian service-learning experiences on young adult volunteers. Specifically, the service-learning experiences of emerging adults who had served in orphanages in Latin America were assessed, in a pre- and post-test design, for their development in areas of social competency such as identity, self-efficacy, self-esteem and ethnocentric attitudes. A mixed-methods design using both qualitative and quantitative measures was used. Both qualitative and quantitative results identified significant and important impacts on the development of the social competencies of these emerging adults. In addition, several qualitative themes illustrated that longer term international service-learning experiences have a profound impact on the social competence of emerging adults. Keywords: International humanitarian service, service-learning, emerging adult competency
Ion Gr. IONESCU
Full Text Available International financial environment is characterized as consisting of free trade and especially from the free movement of the capital on the financial markets, so very favourable, which also led to the rapid development of global financial markets. We lack the ability to keep the peace (silence for to counter the excesses of the financial markets. Without this ability, the global economy is exposed to the collapse. Financial capital enjoys a privileged position. He is more mobile than other factors of production and even more mobile than direct investment. Yet crises must be overcome. To support the arguments of this paper, we use a flexible methodology, starting from simple to complex, from theoretical to practical, from principle, to particularly, adding, specialty practice examples, from the international sphere, convinced that work-international banking must be healthy, able to generate profitable and dynamic business environments, safe for entrepreneurs and bankers, but also ordinary people.
Gerlach-Kristen, Petra; O'Connell, Brian; O'Toole, Conor
This paper considers the effect of systemic financial crises on aggregate consumption. Using a sample of 23 countries over 32 years, we find that consumption growth seems lower during banking crises, crises following credit booms and crises following house price booms. Moreover, the response to income growth seems to change, which may be due to credit constraints. In the long run, consumption appears to be linked to income, housing and other financial wealth.
Full Text Available This article disputes what seems to have become the dominant interpretation of the obligation to respect and to ensure respect for International Humanitarian Law, as codified in common Article 1 of the Geneva Conventions and in Article 1(1 of Additional Protocol I. According to this dominant interpretation, States are required to take all appropriate measures to ensure that IHL is observed universally, including by other States and by non-State actors operating in other States. It is argued that the intention of the High Contracting Parties, coupled with their subsequent practice, calls for a much more narrow interpretation of that obligation. Cet article conteste ce qui semble être devenue l’interprétation dominante de l’obligation de respecter et de faire respecter le Droit International Humanitaire, tel que codifiée à l’article 1 commun aux Conventions de Genève et à l’article 1(1 du Protocole additionnel I. Selon cette interprétation dominante, les États doivent prendre toutes les mesures appropriées pour assurer que le DIH soit observé de façon universelle, y compris par d’autres États ainsi que par des acteurs non étatiques qui opèrent à l’intérieur d’autres États. On soutient que l’intention des Hautes Parties contractantes, en conjonction avec leur pratique subséquentes, laisse entendre une interprétation beaucoup plus étroite de cette obligation.
Dencik, Lina; Allan, Stuart
This article examines the diverse factors shaping NGO involvement with humanitarian\\ud photography, paying particular attention to co-operative relationships with\\ud photojournalists intended to facilitate the generation of visual coverage of crises\\ud otherwise marginalised, or ignored altogether, in mainstream news media. The\\ud analysis is primarily based on a case study drawing upon 26 semi-structured interviews\\ud with NGO personnel (International Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement, Oxfam a...
Full Text Available When, scarcely five years after its advent, the movement of aid societies for the relief of soldiers wounded in battle in international wars, set out to examine what should their activities be in peacetime, many debates were opened up as to the feasibility of broadening their field of action to other warlike settings and disasters. The following is an examination of how these debates developed, providing evidence that (a the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC defended its position not to incorporate civil aims into the humanitarian purposes of the Red Cross international movement until after the First World War; and (b different national societies and committees of the Red Cross, disagreeing with this position, defended, within the framework of emergent paradigms in hygiene and public health, the care of the sick poor, and were involved as early as the 1870s and 1880s in first-aid to the sick and wounded in everyday life as well as in relief of disasters both natural and caused by famine.Cuando, apenas cinco años después de su puesta en marcha, el movimiento de sociedades de socorro a los soldados heridos en campaña en caso de guerras internacionales se propuso examinar en qué deberían consistir sus actividades en tiempo de paz, se abrieron los debates sobre la posibilidad de ampliar su campo de actuación a otros escenarios y calamidades. Se analiza cómo fueron esos debates, ofreciendo muestras de cómo (a el Comité Internacional de la Cruz Roja (CICR defendió no añadir objetivos civiles entre los propósitos humanitarios del movimiento internacional hasta después de la Primera Guerra Mundial; y (b diferentes sociedades nacionales y comités de la Cruz Roja, discrepando de esa posición, defendieron, en el marco de los paradigmas emergentes en la higiene y la salud pública, la asistencia a pobres enfermos y se implicaron, tan pronto como en las décadas de 1870 y 1880, tanto en la intervención rutinaria en socorro de
Barbara Lopes Cardozo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. OBJECTIVES: To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a longitudinal study in a sample of international non-governmental organizations. Study outcomes included anxiety, depression, burnout, and life and job satisfaction. We performed bivariate regression analyses at three time points. We fitted generalized estimating equation multivariable regression models for the longitudinal analyses. RESULTS: Study participants from 19 NGOs were assessed at three time points: 212 participated at pre-deployment; 169 (80% post-deployment; and 154 (73% within 3-6 months after deployment. Prior to deployment, 12 (3.8% participants reported anxiety symptoms, compared to 20 (11.8% at post-deployment (p = 0.0027; 22 (10.4% reported depression symptoms, compared to 33 (19.5% at post-deployment (p = 0.0117 and 31 (20.1% at follow-up (p = .00083. History of mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-12.50 contributed to an increased risk for anxiety. The experience of extraordinary stress was a contributor to increased risk for burnout depersonalization (AOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.17-1.83. Higher levels of chronic stress exposure during deployment were contributors to an increased risk for depression (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.02-1.20 comparing post- versus pre-deployment, and increased risk for burnout emotional exhaustion (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04-1.19. Social support was associated with lower levels of depression (AOR 0.9; 95% CI 0.84-0.95, psychological distress (AOR = 0.9; [CI] 0.85-0.97, burnout lack of personal accomplishment (AOR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.98, and greater life satisfaction (p = 0.0213. CONCLUSIONS: When recruiting and preparing aid workers for deployment, organizations should
Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan
This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273
This report describes the experience of the author in March 2005 during the relief efforts deployed in the region near Aceh, Indonesia (North Sumatra) by Handicap International, one of the 400 NGO that provided humanitarian aid following the tsunami disaster that struck Southeast Asia on December 26, 2004. Working in Banda Aceh and Meulaboh, the author was confronted with the extent of the devastation both in terms of property damage and human suffering. Clinical cases were often severe and rarely encountered in industrialized countries. The tsunami worsened the already poor sanitary conditions: rundown care facilities, poorly trained health care personnel, tropical disease, poor hygiene, and AVP.
Tania Milena Daza-Márquez
Full Text Available This article puts forward an analysis of the problem of the imprescriptibility of action and disciplinary sanctions for grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, committed by civil servants, particularly, members of the Military Forces and the National Police. The study deals with the regulation of disciplinary action for grave conduct within the disciplinary regime applicable to the Public Forces over the past thirty years and in the current Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Proceedures. I also illustrate the legal, political, social and economic consequences—for the Colombian State—of investigation and disciplinary sanctions for crimes against humanity or war crimes being ommitted or delayed through negligence of State offi- cials. The declaration of a prescription may be considered a means to impunity for administrative sanctions and, in turn, provides proof of the State’s failure to comply with International committments that guarantee and protect Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law. Finally, given the controversy regarding diciplinary imprescriptibility, this paper proposes a llegal reform which extends the term of prescription in order to preserve the rights of victims and the disciplined.
Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Kringos, Dionne S
This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and political crises. The descriptive analysis used a framework operationalizing Starfield's classic primary care model for health services research. A scoping review was performed using relevant sources, and expert consultations were conducted for completing and validating data. The descriptive analysis presents a complex narrative of a primary care system undergoing classical developmental processes of transitioning middle-income countries. The system is simultaneously under tremendous pressure to adapt to the continuously changing, complex and resource-intensive needs of sub-populations exhibiting varying morbidity patterns, within the context of protracted security, humanitarian, economic, and political crises. Despite exhibiting significant resilience in the face of the ongoing crises, the continued influx of IDPs and Syrian refugees, coupled with extremely limited resources and weak governance at policy, organizational and clinical levels threaten the sustainability of KRI's public primary care system. Diverse trajectories to the strengthening and development of primary care are underway by local and international actors, notably the World Bank, RAND Corporation, UN organizations and USAID, focusing on varying imperatives related to the protracted humanitarian and economic crises. The convergence, interaction and outcomes of the diverse initiatives and policy approaches in relation to the development of KRI's primary care system are complex and highly uncertain. A common vision of primary care is required to align resources, initiatives and policies, and to enable synergy between all local and international actors involved in the developmental and humanitarian response. Further
Scarnecchia, Daniel P; Raymond, Nathaniel A; Greenwood, Faine; Howarth, Caitlin; Poole, Danielle N
Crisis-affected populations and humanitarian aid providers are both becoming increasingly reliant on information and communications technology (ICTs) for finding and provisioning aid. This is exposing critical, unaddressed gaps in the legal and ethical frameworks that traditionally defined and governed the professional conduct of humanitarian action. The most acute of these gaps is a lack of clarity about what human rights people have regarding information in disaster, and the corresponding obligations incumbent upon governments and aid providers. This need is lent urgency by emerging evidence demonstrating that the use of these technologies in crisis response may be, in some cases, causing harm to the very populations they intend to serve. Preventing and mitigating these harms, while also working to responsibly ensure access to the benefits of information during crises, requires a rights-based framework to guide humanitarian operations. In this brief report, we provide a commentary that accompanies our report, the Signal Code: A Human Rights Approach to Information During Crisis, where we have identified five rights pertaining to the use of information and data during crisis which are grounded in current international human rights and customary law. It is our belief that the continued relevance of the humanitarian project, as it grows increasingly dependent on the use of data and ICTs, urgently requires a discussion of these rights and corresponding obligations.
Richey, Lisa Ann
showing themselves in some “do-gooding” relationship that appears to take place in the South. Through the posting of a new photograph every day, the “Humanitarians of Tinder” Tumblr blog and Facebook page have generated a public discussion on the politics of representing suffering strangers in attempts...... to enhance the appeal of western image producers. This article will investigate the phenomenon of the Humanitarians of Tinder in order to understand its representations of North–South relations from the photographs themselves and from the debates held around them in new media and old. Critical development...... studies, media studies and sociology will provide an interdisciplinary theoretical framework to understand the moral panic that these Tinder humanitarians have created through posting private photographs of humanitarian performances to increase their personal desirability....
We apply the fractionally integrated exponential GARCH with volatility-in-mean (FIEGARCH-M) model of Christensen, Nielsen & Zhu (2007) to estimate the risk premium after different crises occurred in major stock markets during the past two decades. The model allows keeping the long memory property......, and it is nonmonotic for different markets. Either volatility feedback or risk premium is a possible explanation for the risk factor. On the contrary, Asian financial crisis and other market-specific crises have no persistent impact on most markets....
Full Text Available From refugee flows to earthquake relief, it is invariably local groups which are on the humanitarian frontline. Should international agencies reinvent themselves as solidarity and advocacy networks and start letting Southern NGOs take the lead?
Greene, M Claire; Jordans, Mark J D; Kohrt, Brandon A; Ventevogel, Peter; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Hassan, Ghayda; Chiumento, Anna; van Ommeren, Mark; Tol, Wietse A
Delivery of effective mental health and psychosocial support programs requires knowledge of existing health systems and socio-cultural context. To respond rapidly to humanitarian emergencies, international organizations often seek to design programs according to international guidelines and mobilize external human resources to manage and deliver programs. Familiarizing international humanitarian practitioners with local culture and contextualizing programs is essential to minimize risk of harm, maximize benefit, and optimize efficient use of resources. Timely literature reviews on traditional health practices, cultural beliefs and attitudes toward mental health and illness, local health care systems and previous experiences with humanitarian interventions can provide international practitioners with crucial background information to improve their capacity to work efficiently and with maximum benefit. In this paper, we draw on experience implementing desk review guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNHCR, the United Nations Refugee Agency (2012) in four diverse humanitarian crises (earthquakes in Haiti and Nepal; forced displacement among Syrians and Congolese). We discuss critical parameters for the design and implementation of desk reviews, and discuss current challenges and future directions to improve mental health care and psychosocial support in humanitarian emergencies.
Mahy, Patrick; Collard, Jean-Marc; Gala, Jean-Luc; Herman, Philippe; Groof, Dirk De; Quoilin, Sophie; Sneyers, Myriam
The combination of changes in eating habits, ways of living, globalisation, extensive travelling and the migration of millions of people around the world may be contributing to increased health risks. Certainly, health crises today are proving highly complex. More and more people are travelling and may carry with them unexpected virus vectors such as mosquitoes. Preparedness is challenging and there is a need for action plans to safeguard the growing at-risk population. Health crises can potentially affect a large proportion of the population and may lead to a significant increase in mortality or to an abnormally high death rate. This should be integrated into the general concept of national and international surveillance in order to provide a prepared response in the event of crisis. This paper provides an inventory of the relevant laws, guidelines and tools in Europe (and to a lesser degree, beyond), and proposes answers to the health crisis problems associated with infectious and communicable diseases. In crisis management, communication is an important factor to consider. This paper can serve as a tool for people involved in crisis preparedness.
Faga, Hemen Philip
This paper is an attempt to draw distinctive lines between the concepts of cybercrime, cyber-attack, and cyber warfare in the current information age, in which it has become difficult to separate the activities of transnational criminals from acts of belligerents using cyberspace. The paper considers the implications of transnational cyber threats in international humanitarian law (IHL) with a particular focus on cyber-attacks by non-state actors, the principles of state responsibility, and t...
References to this study should include the foregoing statement.) Fair use determination or copyright permission has been obtained for the inclusion of...Coordinators); representative and inclusive Humanitarian Country Teams.”16 To increase the effectiveness of these responses, OCHA has developed...2016, http://www.eird.org/esp/ revista /No1_2001/pagina27.htm. 24 “International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR),” accessed February 20, 2016
Burkle, Frederick M; Kushner, Adam L; Giannou, Christos; Paterson, Mary A; Wren, Sherry M; Burnham, Gilbert
ABSTRACTNo discipline has been impacted more by war and armed conflict than health care has. Health systems and health care providers are often the first victims, suffering increasingly heinous acts that cripple the essential health delivery and public health infrastructure necessary for the protection of civilian and military victims of the state at war. This commentary argues that current instructional opportunities to prepare health care providers fall short in both content and preparation, especially in those operational skill sets necessary to manage multiple challenges, threats, and violations under international humanitarian law and to perform triage management in a resource-poor medical setting. Utilizing a historical framework, the commentary addresses the transformation of the education and training of humanitarian health professionals from the Cold War to today followed by recommendations for the future. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 14).
Terrorism has become the main international security challenge of the 21st century. From a historical perspective, terrorism has always been a serious concern for governments and nation states. The modern threat posed by terrorism has a much wider scope because of its international character. The much bigger threat posed by modern terrorism can also be explained by technological innovations and the reliance of terror networks on social networks both to propagate their message and as a recruit...
Full Text Available Since the last three decades, in developed and developing counties the liberalization and openness efforts have been witnessed. However, financial liberalization attempts (both internal and external without having macroeconomic stability lead to financial crises in many developing countries. Macroeconomic instabilities create fragile financial markets paving the way for future economic crises. The Turkish Economy, completed the liberalization process with foreign trade liberalization in 1980 and by removing controls on capital accounts in 1989. However, since 1990’s economy got into ‘growth-instability-crisis’ vicious circle, because of the fluctuations in the financial structure. By employing a factor analysis (principal components analysis, this work, aims to obtain the factors that effect crises in Turkey.
Full Text Available There is a large body of research that proves the co-movement of international stock markets over time. This co-movement manifests through various instruments ranging from stocks and bonds, to soft commodities and can be visualised as returns and volatility spill-over effects. During the most recent financial crisis, it was once again highlighted that no market is immune to spill-over effects from other international markets. By employing an aggregate-shock (AS model, returns and volatility spill-over effects of the Hang Seng, London, Paris, Frankfurt and New York stock markets to the JSE are confirmed. The findings also confirm the JSE All share index is directly affected through contagion by the returns of the economic area where the crisis originates. However, the results further confirm that South Africa has progressed in shielding its stock market against financial crises in recent times. These findings hold important implications for stock portfolio managers in South Africa.
The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)
Information and Communication Technology and the Humanitarian Field, ... of complex emergencies, defined by internal conflicts and political .... response tool, is an area where innovative ideas can have a huge impact. ...... example of an IVR is the systems used by banks where a caller can access accounting information ...
This study looks at the humanitarian space in Myanmar which includes not just the humanitarian operations in the country, the access to volatile zones by the humanitarian organisations, the humanitarian principles, but also a space which permits a complementary arrangement of diverse actors holding different positions and skill sets and deliver to those in need. The study is based on the practical experiences and reflections of these different actors on field and their operations in different...
Results 8271 - 8280 of 8491 ... ... new and large-scale humanitarian crises — humanitarian intervention has been ... network, the Internet, which affects every sphere of social life. ... to include gender-related stress, anxiety, and violence, this book ...
Vladimir Korolev; Nikolay Loktev; Irina Slastikhina
International humanitarian cooperation is one of the ways for Russia to propagate its interests abroad and maintain its image of a modern democratic state in front of the world community. The article discloses the multichannel implementation of Russias soft power potential, shows the necessity of a systemic organization of international humanitarian links, proposes the grouping of the implementation mechanisms of Russias potential soft powerinto program and extracurricular blocs.The object of...
Full Text Available Although the legality of approved humanitarian intervention is undisputable in the positive international law, this legal institute should be further regulated in order to remove certain legal ambiguity and difficulties in its application. The future regulation of humanitarian intervention may be carried out in one of the three ways: by adopting a special international treaty, by entering amendments in the UN Charter, or by embarking on the factual revision of the UN Charter. Due to the limiting effects of Article 103 of the UN Charter as well as the problematic status of UN member states which would not ratify the international agreements on humanitarian intervention, the regulation of future humanitarian intervention seems to be the least likely option. Formal revision of the UN Charter is not a viable option either because, thus far, the major world powers have been against introducing any substantial changes to this treaty. For this reason, the factual revision of the UN Charter is currently the most appropriate way of regulating future humanitarian interventions. When it comes to substantive rules governing humanitarian intervention, it is necessary to focus on the problem of humanitarian intervention decision-making as well as on the conditions and criteria for the approval and carrying out a humanitarian intervention. The UN Security Council must retain the right to decide on approving such an intervention but it is also necessary to establish an independent expert body whose task would be to determine the presence of serious and mass violations of human rights in a specific country and notify the Security Council about such occurrences. The specification of conditions and criteria for undertaking a humanitarian intervention should strengthen its legitimacy and prevent unreasonable disruption of states' territorial integrity and political independence.
Faga Hemen Philip
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to draw distinctive lines between the concepts of cybercrime, cyber-attack, and cyber warfare in the current information age, in which it has become difficult to separate the activities of transnational criminals from acts of belligerents using cyberspace. The paper considers the implications of transnational cyber threats in international humanitarian law (IHL with a particular focus on cyber-attacks by non-state actors, the principles of state responsibility, and the implications of targeting non-state perpetrators under IHL. It concludes that current international law constructs are inadequate to address the implications of transnational cyber threats; the author recommends consequential amendments to the laws of war in order to address the challenges posed by transnational cyber threats.
Burkle, Frederick M
For decades, military humanitarian assistance programs have avoided empirical scrutiny, leaving researchers, the humanitarian community and decision makers without proof of outcome. This Editorial highlights the findings of three major studies that disclose deficits in the quality of the performance and reporting of humanitarian missions, and offer guidance for change. The author suggests that, contrary to current plans to limit the military's role in humanitarian assistance, emerging crises actually increase civilian security risks and that it is time for a new partnership of military and civilian humanitarian resources to evolve in the interest of human security.
John M Quinn
Full Text Available Humanitarian crises are politically and socially charged, and as actors, donors and organizations move in to help, duplication of services can ensue. Despite the influx of humanitarian actors into the war zone of eastern Ukraine, more are still needed to address immediate threat to the health of more than 5 million at-risk people in the area. The humanitarian disaster in Ukraine requires fast support and stakeholder involvement to mitigate preventable death among at-risk populations. As the crisis unfolds and many more people are caught in the crossfire with no health security, WHO is leading the charge to organize healthcare and humanitarian action to relive human suffering and engender health security for all.
Giving orphaned students abroad the chance to study in Japan While Ashinaga originally only supported Japanese students who had lost parents, as time passed it became increasingly clear that we had the experience and means to assist orphaned students outside Japan as well. This first took the shape of fundraising for international humanitarian crises, but eventually grew into various financial aid and scholarship opportunities to benefit orphaned students from around the world. Wh...
Carlos Eduardo Carvalho
Full Text Available É surpreendente a resistência da economia brasileira à crise internacional nos primeiros meses de 2009. A queda da produção e dos investimentos foi intensa, mas não houve crise cambial, nem crise fiscal ou abalos no sistema financeiro. O governo conseguiu adotar medidas anticíclicas, com corte de impostos e redução dos juros, favorecido pela arrecadação fiscal elevada e pelo fortalecimento dos bancos, depois de anos de juros elevados, além de dispor dos bancos públicos e dos fundos públicos, instrumentos poderosos herdados do passado. No lado externo, a entrada de capitais é estimulada pela ampla liquidez gerada pelas políticas de expansão monetária dos Estados Unidos, enquanto as exportações refletem a sustentação da demanda chinesa, com forte aumento da participação de produtos primários e redução das vendas de produtos industrializados. A capacidade de reagir à crise é um grande teste para o modelo brasileiro de abertura e liberalização, da mesma forma que as dificuldades para sustentar as exportações de industrializados e para a recuperação dos investimentos e da atividade produtiva são também desafios consideráveis.Reviewing the first months of 2009, it's surprising to see the Brazilian economy resistance over the international crisis. The decline on production and investment were intense, however, there has not been neither a foreign exchange crisis nor fiscal and financial system breakthrough. The government could apply anti-cyclic policies, as tax cuts and interest reduction, helped by the actual large extend of tax collection and banks strength, after years of high interest rates, besides using the public banks and the public funds, valuable legacy instruments. Regarding the external side, the capital inflow is stimulated by the wider liquidity generate by the US recent monetary expansion policy, while the exports are due to China demand maintenance, with significant increase in basic commodities
Rodrigues Santos, A.L.
Humanitarian emergencies like the natural disasters in Nepal, Haiti or Pakistan or the thousands of refugees and internally displaced people fleeing from long-term conflict in Syria or South Sudan are likely to increase. To provide healthcare assistance, international humanitarian organizations
Full Text Available In recent years, our increasingly connected world has provided us with a greater understanding of the needs of our fellow global citizens. The devastating worldwide impact of natural disasters, disease, and poverty has been raised in our collective awareness and our ability to collectively alleviate this suffering has been brought to the fore. While many of us are familiar with donating our funds to better the lives of those less fortunate than ourselves, it is often easy to overlook a core component of facing these global challenges: information technology. The humanitarian open source movement seeks to ameliorate these sufferings through the creation of IT infrastructure to support a wide array of goals for the public good, such as providing effective healthcare or microloans to the poorest of the poor. Achieving these goals requires a sophisticated set of software and hardware tools, all of which work to save and improve lives in some of the most difficult of situations where the availability of electricity, data, IT knowledge, etc. may be low or lacking altogether. It should come as no surprise that the humanitarian open source domain attracts a great deal of attention from software developers, engineers, and others who find that they are able to both solve intense technical challenges while helping to improve the lives of others. However, to support ongoing humanitarian needs, the communities who produce humanitarian free and open source software (HFOSS and hardware have increasingly identified the need for business models to support their efforts. While the lower cost of using open source software and hardware solutions means that more funds can be directed to aid and comfort those in need, the goodwill of developer communities and the funds of grantees alone cannot grow the ecosystem sufficiently to meet ever-growing global needs. To face these challenges - poverty, global health crises, disaster relief, etc. - humanitarian open source
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
Abstract A cacophony of crises challenges neoliberalism and marks a fundamental reversal in capitalism itself. This is a systemic failure of the capitalist mode of production to renovate and renew itself through a multiplicity of environmental and resource crises and the financial crises which has...
This review surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the causes and consequences of banking crises, and summarizes the lessons learned from policy interventions to resolve banking crises. Despite their different origins, banking crises display similar patterns. Their causes lie in
Full Text Available Agencies working inside Myanmar to assist forcibly displacedpeople work within an extremely constricted operationalenvironment. Despite occasional glimmers of hope, carvingout sufficient humanitarian space to meet urgent needsremains an uphill struggle.
Jean-François Durieux; Sivanka Dhanapala
Agencies working inside Myanmar to assist forcibly displacedpeople work within an extremely constricted operationalenvironment. Despite occasional glimmers of hope, carvingout sufficient humanitarian space to meet urgent needsremains an uphill struggle.
Rianne ten Veen
Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.
vice a large-scale international effort like the 2004 tsunami. Myanmar also did not make it easier for humanitarian workers to get expedited visas or...Affected Areas of Myanmar : A Review,” Humanitarian Exchange, no. 41 (December 2008), 2–4, http://www.odihpn.org/ humanitarian -exchange-magazine/issue-41...negotiating- humanitarian -access-to-cyclone-affected-areas-of- myanmar -a-review. 21 Ibid. 6 Management and Emergency Response,” and on May 9 the
Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between humanitarian aid and ecologically unequal exchange in the context of post-disaster reconstruction. I assess the manner in which humanitarian aid became a central part of the reconstruction process in India's Tamil Nadu state following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. This article focuses on how the humanitarian “gift” of housing became a central plank of the state's efforts to push fishers inland while opening up coastal lands for various economic development projects such as ports, infrastructure, industries, and tourism. As part of the state and multilateral agency financed reconstruction process, the humanitarian aid regime provided “free” houses as gifts to recipients while expecting in return the formal abandonment of all claims to the coast. The humanitarian “gift” therefore helped depoliticize critical issues of land and resources, location and livelihood, which prior to the tsunami were subjects of long-standing political conflicts between local fisher populations and the state. The gift economy in effect played into an ongoing conflict over land and resources and effectively sought to ease the alienation of fishers from their coastal commons and near shore marine resource base. I argue that humanitarian aid, despite its associations with benevolence and generosity, presents a troubling and disempowering set of options for political struggles over land, resources, and social entitlements such as housing, thereby intensifying existing ecological and economic inequalities.
The crises in Southeast and East Asia have started a new round of debate on the benefits and disadvantages of globalisation. We have to ask whether the crises in Asia were the result of failures in national economic policy or whether they were the consequence of ill-constructed global financial markets. It can be concluded that the crises were caused by a number of factors, both internal and external, but that the decisive shifts came from actors on international financial markets as well as ...
Cedric De Koker
Full Text Available In 'Hassan' v 'United Kingdom', the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights reviewed the deprivation of liberty of a young male by British armed forces during the phase of active hostilities in Iraq, which had raised issues relating to extraterritoriality, the right to liberty and security in times of armed conflict and the relationship between international humanitarian law (IHL and human rights law (HRL.1 In its judgment of 16 September 2014, the Court ruled that by reason of the co-existence of the safeguards provided by IHL and by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR in time of armed conflict, the grounds of permitted deprivation of liberty found in both bodies of law should, as far as possible, be accommodated and applied concomitantly. The greatest merit of the judgment is that for the first time it explicitly offered its view on the interaction between IHL and HRL and did not rely on the lex specialis principle, the traditional but flawed method for explaining the relationship between these spheres of law. However, the judgment is also a missed opportunity as the Court limited its analysis to the case at hand and provided limited guidance for the future, leaving a number of questions unaddressed.
The work is aimed at identifying the main social-humanitarian aspects and giving grounds for the imperative of humanitarian reflection of nuclear energy, development of the concept of 'human dimension' in this sphere. Historical-philosophical and futurological as well as rational-irrational approaches are used. There are suggested several possible chains to consider the interrelation between some global phenomena with the nuclear one, as well as their impact on the fate of humankind. There is shown the meaning of cultural, historical and religious perspectives as tools for reaching better understanding on the issue of possession of nuclear energy and improving the contemporary communication nuclear technosphere - society. There is determined the humanitarian task of the nearest future and designated the cultural-historical potential of Germany, Japan and Russia to increase international cooperation on the issue. (author)
Venky Nagar; Gwen Yu
We provide among the first empirical evidence consistent with recent macro global-game crisis models, which show that the precision of public signals can coordinate crises (e.g., Angeletos and Werning, 2006; Morris and Shin, 2002, 2003). In these models, self-fulfilling crises (independent of poor fundamentals) can occur only when publicly disclosed signals of fundamentals have high precision; poor fundamentals are the sole driver of crises only in low precision settings. We find evidence con...
Jacobs, Gerard A.
Humanitarian psychological support as an organized field is relatively young. Pioneers in the field were involved primarily in providing psychological support to refugees and internally displaced persons in conflict and nonconflict situations. This article describes basic principles for the design of psychological support programs and…
van Bergen, L
Both the International and the Dutch Red Cross were heavily damaged by World War II. The Red Cross movement especially was blamed for its lack of care for persecuted Jews and political prisoners. To restore its reputation all kinds of initiatives were taken. Amongst these was an attempt of the Dutch Red Cross to cooperate with several pacifist movements in the Dutch Movement for International Peace and Security. It seemed a good and sensible initiative, especially in 1945, but although it was supported by international Red Cross resolutions, it failed. The DRC grew immensely in numbers in the years after 1945. With the cold war coming up the peace movement lost most of its popularity and therefore lost its attraction for the Red Cross as a partner. As in the rest of its mutual history, the attempt to humanise war did not mix with the wish to abolish it.
Murphy, Richard A; Chua, Arlene C
Humanitarian medical organizations focus on vulnerable patients with increased risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and are obligated to minimize them in inpatient departments (IPDs). However, in doing so humanitarian groups face considerable obstacles. This report will focus on approaches to reducing common HAIs that the authors have found to be helpful in humanitarian settings. HAIs are common in humanitarian contexts but there are few interventions or guidelines adapted for use in poor and conflict-affected settings to improve prevention and guide surveillance. Based on existing recommendations and studies, it appears prudent that all humanitarian IPDs introduce a basic infection prevention infrastructure, assure high adherence to hand hygiene with wide accessibility to alcohol-based hand rub, and develop pragmatic surveillance based on clinically evident nosocomial infection. Although microbiology remains out of reach for most humanitarian hospitals, rapid tests offer the possibility of improving the diagnosis of HAIs in humanitarian hospitals in the decade ahead. There is a dearth of new studies that can direct efforts to prevent HAIs in IPDs in poor and conflict-affected areas and there is a need for practical, field-adapted guidelines from professional societies, and international bodies to guide infection prevention efforts in humanitarian environments.
Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov
Amid good intentions, such as providing humanitarian assistance to refugees, the use of biometric technology in humanitarian refugee management may entail various risks for the implicated refugee populations. Drawing on insights from science and technology studies, this article introduces...... a distinction between risks stemming from technology failure and risks stemming from successful uses of biometric technology. The article thus departs from the literature in which technology failure has been in focus by showing that analysing the effect of technology success adds an important dimension to our...
Daly, A. L
.... States could conduct acts of genocide against their own population with impunity. After the intervention in Kosovo and the genocide in Rwanda, international law evolved to allow humanitarian intervention...
Diehl, Markus; Schweickert, Rainer
International investors' enthusiasm with respect to growth prospects in Southeast Asia has been followed by panic. Both the outstanding economic performance of Southeast Asian economies and their ability to master adjustment challenges had led most observers of these economies to the conclusion that "Asia is different". In comparison with previous currency crises, the macroeconomic fundamentals (GDP growth, inflation, fiscal deficit, external indebtedness, domestic savings, export performance...
Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.
Passino, Kevin M
The creation of new technologies that serve humanity holds the potential to help end global poverty. Unfortunately, relatively little is done in engineering education to support engineers' humanitarian efforts. Here, various strategies are introduced to augment the teaching of engineering ethics with the goal of encouraging engineers to serve as effective volunteers for community service. First, codes of ethics, moral frameworks, and comparative analysis of professional service standards lay the foundation for expectations for voluntary service in the engineering profession. Second, standard coverage of global issues in engineering ethics educates humanitarian engineers about aspects of the community that influence technical design constraints encountered in practice. Sample assignments on volunteerism are provided, including a prototypical design problem that integrates community constraints into a technical design problem in a novel way. Third, it is shown how extracurricular engineering organizations can provide a theory-practice approach to education in volunteerism. Sample completed projects are described for both undergraduates and graduate students. The student organization approach is contrasted with the service-learning approach. Finally, long-term goals for establishing better infrastructure are identified for educating the humanitarian engineer in the university, and supporting life-long activities of humanitarian engineers.
Unfinished Business: Canada’s Contribution to Promoting Compliance with International Humanitarian Law Through the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict Agenda of the United Nations Security Council
Joelle A. Martin
Full Text Available During its 1999-2000 term on the United Nations Security Council, Canada helped launch the Council’s “Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict” agenda. This aimed to reduce civilian war casualties through better respect for international humanitarian law [IHL]. This article reviews the agenda’s origins and evolution ten years on. The authors focus on Canada’s contributions in increasing the Council’s efforts to protect civilians, with three main assertions. First, Canada had a key role in creating and promoting the agenda, an important IHL initiative. Second, the agenda is well established in the Council’s work, but needs further effort to ensure greater impact in specific situations. Third, Canada could develop the agenda and improve respect for IHL if it joins the Security Council for the 2011-2012 term, picking up its “unfinished business” from its last Council term. Pendant son mandat de 1999-2000 au Conseil de Sécurité de l’ONU, le Canada a aidé à lancer le programme « La protection des civils dans les conflits armés » du Conseil. Le but était de réduire le nombre de victimes civiles de la guerre en faisant respecter davantage le droit international humanitaire [DIH]. Cet article passe en revue l’origine du programme et son évolution après dix années. Les auteurs portent leur attention sur les contributions du Canada pour augmenter les efforts du Conseil en vue de la protection des civils, en faisant trois affirmations principales. D’abord, le Canada a joué un rôle-clé dans la création et la promotion du programme, une initiative importante de DIH. Deuxièmement, le programme est bien établi au sein du travail du Conseil, mais nécessite des efforts additionnels afin d’assurer plus d’impact dans des situations particulières. Troisièmement, le Canada pourrait développer le programme et améliorer le respect du DIH s’il devient membre du Conseil de Sécurité pour 2011- 2012 lui permettant de
Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu
With the deployment of lethal autonomous weapons, there is the requirement that any such platform complies with the precepts of International Humanitarian Law. Humanitarian Algorithms[9: p. 9] ensure that lethal autonomous weapon systems perform military/security operations, within the confines of International Humanitarian Law. Unlike other existing techniques of regulating lethal autonomy this scheme advocates for an approach that enables Machine Learning. Lethal autonomous weapons must be ...
VanderSteen, J. D. J.; Hall, K. R.; Baillie, C. A.
There is an increasing interest in the humanitarian engineering curriculum, and a service-learning placement could be an important component of such a curriculum. International placements offer some important pedagogical advantages, but also have some practical and ethical limitations. Local community-based placements have the potential to be transformative for both the student and the community, although this potential is not always seen. In order to investigate the role of local placements, qualitative research interviews were conducted. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted and analysed, resulting in a distinct outcome space. It is concluded that local humanitarian engineering placements greatly complement international placements and are strongly recommended if international placements are conducted. More importantly it is seen that we are better suited to address the marginalised in our own community, although it is often easier to see the needs of an outside populace.
Do you fancy donating your brain to a good cause for 60 hours? Would you like to apply your knowledge and skills to solving humanitarian challenges? Are you motivated to demonstrate the value of science to society? Apply for our humanitarian hackathon taking place in IdeaSquare at CERN, from the 14 to the 16 October. You will work in an interdisciplinary team on challenges proposed by international organisations, humanitarian NGOs and academic institutions, e.g. ICRC, Handicap International, Global Humanitarian Lab, University of Geneva and Anglia Ruskin University. Example topics: Better emergency shelters Reducing risks posed by counterfeit drugs Sound for health Safe & clean field disposal of medical waste Sixty hand-picked innovators will be assembled into teams six weeks ahead of the event to give time for a “virtual preparation”, where you can dive into the problem, assisted by field experts, and start to conceptualise a possible solution. The applicatio...
Full Text Available The paper explores the status of unilateral humanitarian interventions in international law. The United Nations Charter prohibits the use of force, except in case of self-defense and the collective action authorized by the Security Council. The question is whether the non-existence of unilateral humanitarian intervention among these exceptions means that they are not in conformity with the Charter and if so, whether the right to such interventions exists as the part of customary law. The issue has become even more controversial after the adoption of the “responsibility to protect” principle. Findings of legal scholars on this issue differ significantly. This paper analyzes and interprets the Charter provisions in order to answer the question of compatibility of humanitarian interventions with the Charter and examines the state practice in order to conclude whether the customary law rule allowing the humanitarian intervention exists. The conclusion of the paper is that there is no evidence to support the contentions that interventions without the Security Council authorization are permissible, although there are elements which point to the possibility of the creation of customary law allowing them.
Full Text Available Humanitarian intervention is an attempt to prevent or stop the gross human rights violations with particular strengths (diplomatic and military in a State, either with or without the consent of the State (countries with internal conflict. The problems in this journal are: first, how the arrangement of international law on humanitarian intervention. Secondly, the role of the UN in humanitarian intervention in armed conflicts. The method used is a normative legal research methods with the main source of data collection procedures is a legal substance that contains of normative law. The results showed that the rules of international law on humanitarian intervention by the United Nations stipulated in the UN Charter and general principles of international law. Humanitarian intervention legally justified by following provisions in applicable international law, namely Articles 39-51 of UN Charter. While the role of the UN in humanitarian intervention in armed conflicts carried out by the Security Council as the organ of the United Nations in maintaining peace with the decision issued in the form of a resolution for areas experiencing conflict. Therefore, it takes an international treaty that regulates clearly about humanitarian intervention, so that in practice, remain consistent with the objectives and executive organs of humanitarian intervention. Keywords: Humanitarian Intervention, Security Council of UN, Armed Conflict.
Collinson, Sarah; Elhawary, Samir; Muggah, Robert
This paper explores the evolution of international stabilisation agendas and their significance for humanitarian action. Stabilisation includes a combination of military, humanitarian, political and economic activities to control, contain and manage areas affected by armed conflict and complex emergencies. Encompassing narrow security objectives and broader peace-building efforts, stabilisation is both a conservative and potentially transformative, comprehensive and long-term agenda. The open-ended approach allows for widely varying interpretations and applications in different circumstances and by different actors with an assortment of implications for humanitarian action. The relationship between the two is highly uncertain and contentious, due not only to the controversies surrounding stabilisation policies, but also to deep-seated ambiguities at the heart of humanitarianism. While humanitarian actors are preoccupied with the growing involvement of the military in the humanitarian sphere, the paper argues that it is trends in the humanitarian-political interface that represent the more fundamental dilemma. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
Leeuw, Sander; Regattieri, Alberto; Souza, Robert
This contributed volume combines conceptual and strategic research articles dealing with the "why" and "to what end" of sustainable operations in humanitarian logistics, as well as operational research contributions regarding the "how" from the United Nations as well as from researchers and organizations from different countries (Germany, Australia, Singapore, Italy, Denmark, Jordan). The target audience primarily comprises research experts, decision makers and practitioners in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
Romain Ranciere; Aaron Tornell; Frank Westermann
In this paper, we document the fact that countries that have experienced occasional financial crises have, on average, grown faster than countries with stable financial conditions. We measure the incidence of crisis with the skewness of credit growth, and find that it has a robust negative effect on GDP growth. This link coexists with the negative link between variance and growth typically found in the literature. To explain the link between crises and growth we present a model where contract...
Full Text Available The main subject of this paper are the ethical aspects of humanitarian military intervention. Author shows the weaknesses and difficulties of consequentialistic and deontological justification of humanitarian intervention. He points to the impossibility of a coherent moral theory of humanitarian intervention and argues that the humanitarian interventions of the nineties of the 20th century do not compliance just war. In his opinion, they represent an attempt of the quasi moral masking the real politics which lead the most powerful states in order to protect their national interests. .
Roberto Chacon de Albuquerque
Full Text Available Facing an international financial crisis that could lead its own financial system to the brink of collapse, the German government needed to show political will in order to save financial institutions in risky situations. This article analyzes the legal strategies used to rescue the financial system, including the statization of banking institutions as an ultima ratio. Prior to the bank statization established by the Rescue Takeover Act, the Financial Market Stabilization Act foresaw an increase in the capital of financial institutions by means of state control without statization. This last act, nonetheless, has not been considered enough to avoid the collapse of a banking institution that is relevant for the whole financial system such as Hypo Real Estate (HRE.Enfrentando uma crise financeira internacional que pode levar ao colapso de seu próprio sistema financeiro, o governo alemão precisou demonstrar vontade política para salvar instituições financeiras em situação de risco. Este artigo analisa as estratégias legais utilizadas no resgate do sistema financeiro, incluindo a estatização de instituições bancárias como ultima ratio. Antes da lei de estatização bancária, da Lei de Resgate de Empresas para a Estabilização do Mercado Financeiro, a Lei de Estabilização do Mercado Financeiro previa um aumento do capital das instituições financeiras com controle estatal sem estatização. Esta lei, no entanto, não foi considerada suficiente para evitar o colapso de uma instituição bancária relevante para todo o sistema financeiro como o Hypo Real Estate (HRE.
... lay at the bar of international justice to call the international community to account for failures of performance on humanitarian obligations. It is their case that I take up here, as a problem of ethics in international affairs, as the minimum of a philosopher's recompense owed this people today. African Studies Monograph Vol.
van de Walle, B.A.; van den Eede, G.G.P.; Muhren, W.J.; Loffler, J.; Klann, M.
In times of major disasters such as hurricane Katrina or the Sichuan earthquake, the need for accurate and timely information is as crucial as is rapid and coherent coordination among the responding humanitarian community. Effective humanitarian information systems that provide timely access to
Full Text Available but was described as fairly routine for a company of Walmart’s size with 117 distribution centres spread around the country. The nonchalant response by Rollin Ford, (Walmart’s executive vice president of logistics and supply chain) says it all, “that’s what we do...%20and%20challenges%22  Boorstin, J. 2005. New lessons to learn. Fortune. 3 October.  Davidson, A.L. 2006. Key Performance Indicators in Humanitarian Logistics. MLOG Thesis, 2006. Viewed 24 October 2006.  http...
Chen, Thai-Form; Tseng, Hsing-Chau
Extensive media coverage is warning of a crisis of trust that has emerged as a serious issue in our society. This article explores the meaning of "crisis," concepts of crisis management, mechanisms for building trust, and the underlying significance of trust and distrust. Evidence is adduced to testify to the erosion of trust and factors in our society that reflect the potential for crises of trust. Organizational decision makers, including hospital managers, are urged to identify and reflect upon weaknesses in their organizations in order that remedial action can be taken to preempt such crises.
Young Mok Bae
Full Text Available This paper studies the factors associated with the emergence of banking crises and currency crises and the interrelationship between the two crises in 21 American, European and Asian countries in 1973~2000 using a multivariate logit econometric model. And this analysis attempts to introduce the lag model to solve the causality problems in banking crises and currency crises. In case of the simple binary models without lag, banking crises were associated with economic recession, inflation, depreciation, the rise of real interest rate, lending boom. But in case of lag models, banking crises were caused by economic recession, inflation, the rise of real interest rate, lending boom, the rise of reserve ratio, the liberalization of capital account. Currency crises were associated with economic recession, the larger deficit of current account relative to import in case of the simple binary models without lag, But in case of lag models, currency crises were caused by economic recession, the rapid decrease of net foreign assets of banks, and the larger deficit of current account relative to import. And this analysis shows that currency crises can be a cause of banking crises, not vice versa. Nevertheless the two types of crises have positive correlation with each other.
Boin, Arjen; Busuioc, Madalina; Groenleer, Martijn
In recent years, the European continent has witnessed a substantial number of "transboundary crises" - crises that cross geographical borders and affect multiple policy domains. Nation states find it hard to deal with such crises by themselves. International cooperation, thus, becomes increasingly
DÍAZ BARRADO, Cástor M., FERNÁNDEZ LIESA, Carlos R., RODRÍGUEZ-VILLASANTE y PRIETO J. L. (Coords ., International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. Reflections about the Colombian Conflict. Pamplona, Thomson Reuters, 2013, ISBN: 978-84-470-4601-0, 736pp
Claudia Cárdenas Aravena
Full Text Available This collective work, prefaced by Mario Villarroel Lander, is the product of the research project "Dissemination and implementation of international humanitarian law in Colombia", of the CAP call of the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation (2012-2013, assigned to the Institute of International and European Studies Francisco de Vitoria of the Carlos III University of Madrid. Indeed, important part of the 24 texts that make up the work are dedicated to the Colombian conflict or have references to it.
Risco soberano brasileiro, crises internacionais e fluxos de investimentos estrangeiros em carteiras de ações El riesgo soberano de brasil, crisis internacionales y flujos de inversión extranjera en cartera Brazilian sovereign risk, international crises and foreign portfolio investment flows
Antônio André Cunha Callado
econometricamente a través de regresiones con variables explicativas, tales como, IBOVESPA, tasa de interés SELIC de corto plazo, reservas internacionales brasileñas, tasa de cambio del Real en relación al dólar americano y los flujos de inversiones extranjeras para carteras de acciones y renta fija. Las primeras cuatro variables son usadas para construir un índice de presión del mercado de cambio para identificar y mensurar períodos de crisis financiera internacional y modelar sus influencias sobre el riesgo soberano. Otro modelo explica las mudanzas en el riesgo soberano debido al índice de presión del mercado de cambio y a los flujos de inversiones extranjeras en carteras de acciones y obtuvo buenos resultados en una proyección dinámica sobre la variable dependiente riesgo soberano brasileño. Datos mensuales fueron usados en un test de casualidad de Granger para identificar relaciones rezagadas. Los resultados mostraron que las variables de mercado son determinadas simultáneamente, mientras la tasa de interés SELIC reacciona con algún retraso corto, mostrando que políticas monetarias reaccionan más a las crisis financieras que se antecipan a ellas. El test de casualidad de Granger ha sido usado para datos diarios y obtuvo el mismo resultado.The objective of this paper is to describe the behavior of Brazilian sovereign risk from 1995 to 2005 and evaluate the influence of international financial crises on the Brazilian sovereign risk in this period. The influence of international financial crises on the sovereign risk is analysed by econometric methods. The sovereign risk can econometrically be modelled ad hoc by regressing on explaining variables like the IBOVESPA, the short-term interest rate SELIC, the Brazilian international reserves, the exchange rate to the US$ and the foreign portfolio investment flows in equity and fixed income. The first four variables are used to construct an exchange market pressure index to identify and measure periods of
Büscher, Karen; Vlassenroot, Koen
This paper examines the impact of the presence of international humanitarian organisations on local urban transformation processes in the city of Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Rather than evaluating the direct effects of humanitarian interventions and strategies, it focuses on the indirect but profound effects of the presence of this 'humanitarian sector'. It argues that the international humanitarian presence became a significant factor in the recent shaping and reshaping of the city's profile and has reinforced competition over the urban political and socioeconomic space. The paper evaluates the direct and indirect impact of the international humanitarian presence on the local urban economy and the larger political economy of war in eastern DRC. It analyses how this presence has reinforced processes of spatial reconfiguration, how it has influenced urban planning, and how it has affected dynamics of gentrification and marginalisation on the urban spatial level.
VINTILA DENISIA MARIANA
Full Text Available The fundamental idea of International capital flows is that short-term flows can be easily reversed, while flows on a longer time horizon are more stable. Crises are associated with withdrawals of short-term capital flows and growth of the foreign direct investment flows. The current crisis has meant a major decline of international capital flows, also of the foreign direct investment. The analysis in this article tries to establish if and under which conditions foreign direct investments can bring greater stability during the crisis, comparing the evolution of foreign direct investments in the current crisis with their response in previous crises. We show that during previous crises foreign direct investments were stable, behaving differently from other types of capital. Yet, during the current crisis, foreign direct investments have proven to be not so stable and all the components declined, raising questions about the resumption of the positive trend. The stability of foreign direct investments in the past was given by the increase of mergers and acquisitions during the crisis, reflecting fire-sale FDI. This feature is not found in the current crisis as mergers and acquisitions were severe affected by the crises and recorded a major decline. The current paper is realized in the doctoral program entitled PhD in economics at the standards of European knowledge- DoEsEc, scientific coordinator Prof. PhD Rodica Zaharia, institution The Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Faculty of International Business, period of research 2009-2012.
... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Office of Food for Peace Announcement of Draft Request for Applications for Title II Non-Emergency Food... Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. [FR Doc. 2010-20874 Filed 8-20-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE P ...
... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace; Announcement of FFP Response to Zimbabwe Country Specific Guidance Comments..., Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. [FR Doc. 2010-1777 Filed 1-27-10; 8:45 am...
This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
are becoming increasingly commercialized. This paper explores the use of media discourse for the communication of ethical messages by humanitarian organizations, caught, as they are, in a tension between, on the one hand, the commercial strategies of visibility and still greater dependence on the media, and......The development of corporate communication in recent years has brought about a fading of the division of labor between commercial and non-commercial organizations. While the practices of commercial organizations are becoming increasingly ethicalized, so the practices of non-profit organizations......'s branding strategies testify to a high degree of reflexivity about the conditions of what Luc Boltanski calls a Crisis of Pity. The analysis illustrates how, in the face of compassion fatigue, the organization manages to carve out a new space for itself in the marketized ethical discourse, and leads...
Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick
Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between
Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter
Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Recently, the Trend Analysis Program (TAP) of the American Council of Life Insurance commissioned the Futures Group of Glastonbury, Connecticut, to examine the potential for large-scale catastrophic events in the near future. TAP was specifically concerned with five potential crises: the warming of the earth's atmosphere, the water shortage, the collapse of the physical infrastructure, the global financial crisis, and the threat of nuclear war. We are often unprepared to take action; in these cases, we lose an advantage we might have otherwise had. This is the whole idea behind forecasting: to foresee possibilities and to project how we can respond. If we are able to create forecasts against which we can test policy options and choices, we may have the luxury of adopting policies ahead of events. Rather than simply fighting fires, we have the option of creating a future more to our choosing. Short descriptions of these five potential crises and, in some cases, possible solutions are presented
Although the war in Liberia in July 2003 claimed hundreds of lives, the international community was reluctant to intervene. In this article, the author debates the question: does international military intervention equal protection of populations? The role of humanitarian organisations in military intervention is considered. Aid organisations cannot call for deployment of a protection force without renouncing their autonomy or appealing to references outside their own practices. Such organisations provide victims with vital assistance and contribute to ensuring that their fate becomes a stake in political debate by exposing the violence that engulfs them, without substituting their own voices for those of the victims. The political content of humanitarian action is also outlined and military intervention in the context of genocide is discussed. The author concludes that the latter is one of the rare situations in which humanitarian actors can consider calling for an armed intervention without renouncing their own logic.
At last year's THE Port hackathon, the Better Body Bags team emerged with a new approach to body-bag technology that catered to the needs of humanitarian organisations. What started as a weekend hack has developed into a full-scale R& D project, as the team joins forces with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to put their body bags into production. Ricardo Páramo Peláez, the team's product designer, presented the first prototype at THE Port Hackathon 2014. The "body" is his fellow team mate, João Cordovil Bárcia. A typical body bag is essentially a long plastic bag with handles: it breaks, leaks, smells and isn't cheap. “Little thought had gone into using new technology to improve the bags,” says Tim Head, an LHCb physicist who is leading the Better Body Bags team. “Simple improvements can keep bodies in better condition, thus improving the identification ...
Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Imran, Muhammad
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 130 million people are in constant need of humanitarian assistance due to natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and conflicts, among other factors. These health crises can compromise the resilience of healthcare systems, which are essential for achieving the health objectives of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN). During a humanitarian health crisis, rapid and informed decision making is required. This is often challenging due to information scarcity, limited resources, and strict time constraints. Moreover, the traditional approach to digital health development, which involves a substantial requirement analysis, a feasibility study, and deployment of technology, is ill-suited for many crisis contexts. The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies and social media platforms in the past decade, such as Twitter, has created a new paradigm of massive information and misinformation, in which new technologies need to be developed to aid rapid decision making during humanitarian health crises. Humanitarian health crises increasingly require the analysis of massive amounts of information produced by different sources, such as social media content, and, hence, they are a prime case for the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to help identify relevant information and make it actionable. To identify challenges and opportunities for using AI in humanitarian health crises, we reviewed the literature on the use of AI techniques to process social media. We performed a narrative literature review aimed at identifying examples of the use of AI in humanitarian health crises. Our search strategy was designed to get a broad overview of the different applications of AI in a humanitarian health crisis and their challenges. A total of 1459 articles were screened, and 24 articles were included in the final analysis. Successful case studies of AI applications in a humanitarian health crisis have
Full Text Available SUMMARY: Humanitarian aid has been present in some form throughout human history, yet the modern concept of humanitarian aid has only truly emerged since the later half of the 20th century. Through a complex progression of world events and largely brought about in response to armed conflict, modern humanitarian aid is provided by a multitude of organizations and actors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the history of humanitarian action, a review of the principles of humanitarian aid and an overview of the major documents which delineate those principles. Keywords: Humanitarian aid, human rights
This paper critically analyses from a political sociology standpoint the international conceptualization of war-affected populations as traumatized and in need of therapeutic interventions. It argues for the importance of looking beyond the epidemiological literature to understand trauma responses globally. The paper explores how the imperative for international psychosocial programmes lies in developments within donor countries and debates in their humanitarian sectors over the efficacy of traditional aid responses. The aim of the paper is threefold. First, it discusses the emotional norms of donor states, highlighting the psychologizing of social issues and the cultural expectations of individual vulnerability. Second it examines the demoralization of humanitarianism in the 1990s and how this facilitated the rise of international psychosocial work and the psychologizing of war. Third, it draws attention to the limitations of a mental health model in Croatia, a country which has been receptive to international psychosocial programmes. Finally it concludes that the prevalent trauma approaches may inhibit recovery and argues for the need to re-moralize resilience.
O'Dempsey, T J D; Munslow, B
A new political economy of conflict has emerged in the aftermath of colonialism and the Cold War. Complex political emergencies have been simmering in the post-colonial world for more than three decades. Intra-country armed conflict, often combined with natural disasters, at present contributes to the displacement of over 20 million people world-wide. The international community remains profoundly uncomfortable with the complex political emergencies of the new era, torn between the respect for national sovereignty upon which the international political system of the United Nations and other agencies is built, and the growth of concern with human rights and a burgeoning International Humanitarian Law. Globalisation may have brought many benefits to some but there are also many losers. The Word Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring that have resulted in a net reduction in expenditure on health, education and development. A downward spiral has been created of debt, disease, malnutrition, missed education, economic entrapment, poverty, powerlessness, marginalization, migration and instability. Africa's complex political emergencies are particularly virulent and tenacious. Three examples that are among the most serious humanitarian emergencies to have faced the world in recent times--those in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan--are reviewed here in detail. The political evolution of these emergencies and their impact on the health of the affected populations are also explored.
Bryan Andrew Kenyon Johnson
Full Text Available This paper examines how exchange rate policies and IMF Stand-By Arrangements affect debt crises using econometrics and a comparison between Argentina and Brazil. It refines an existing diagram outlining crisis development to propose crisis prevention strategies. Flexible exchange rate policies reduce a country's probability of default by over 4%, but Stand-By Arrangements increase it by an inconsequential percentage. Unlike Argentina, Brazil avoided a default via a freely-floating exchange rate system, fiscal deficit reduction, and a cooperative and coordinated relationship with the IMF. The results provide policymakers from developing countries with lessons to manage their countries' default risks more effectively.
Full Text Available Justice, sovereignty and self-determination for all human beings are fundamental foundations for healthcare and human rights. In any civilised society, the balance between medical ethics and human rights is critical for the delivery of healthcare. War is a deeply ethical issue. Combatants, whose violations of international conventions, laws and codes of ethics during war and political conflict are detrimental to civilian non-combatants, including healthcare workers, commit crimes against humanity. The war in Gaza is a humanitarian crisis.
Verma, Amol A
This paper draws on official records of international and British organizations, newspaper reports, and volunteer memoirs to study the failure to protect humanitarian workers in the Second World War. The Second World War saw a significant expansion in the use of air warfare and flying missiles and these technological advances posed a grave threat to civilians and humanitarian workers. In this context, the International Committee of the Red Cross advocated unsuccessfully to restrict air warfare and create safe hospital zones. The British Government grappled with the tension between military and humanitarian objectives in setting its bombardment policy. Ultimately, humanitarian principles were neglected in pursuit of strategic aims, which endangered civilians and left humanitarian workers particularly vulnerable. British Voluntary Aid Detachment nurses experienced more than six-fold greater fatality rates than civil defence workers and the general population. The lessons from failures to protect humanitarian workers in the face of evolutions in warfare remain profoundly relevant.
Full Text Available This paper reviews and presents findings on mini-case studies done on the difficulties and problems faced by humanitarian organisations in running logistics systems in Zimbabwe. Document analysis was done and this was complemented by mini-case studies and semi-structured interviews and site visits. Mini-case studies of the operations of the World Food Programme, the International Red Cross Society and the Zimbabwe Red Cross Society, the World Health Organisation, the United Nations Children's Fund and the Zimbabwean Civil Protection Organisation in Zimbabwe are discussed. These clarify the difficulties and problems faced such as the lack of trained logistics personnel, lack of access to specialised humanitarian logistics courses and research information, the difficulty in using and adapting existing logistics systems in attending to humanitarian logistics and the lack of collaborative efforts that address the area specifically. This study seeks to use primary and secondary information to inform decision-making in humanitarian logistics with possible lessons for neighbouring countries, other regions in Africa and beyond. Activities on collaborative networks that are beneficial to humanitarian logistics are also suggested.
Büscher, Monika; Liegl, Michael; Thomas, Vanessa
New practices of social media use in emergency response seem to enable broader `situation awareness' and new forms of crisis management. The scale and speed of innovation in this field engenders disruptive innovation or a reordering of social, political, economic practices of emergency response....... By examining these dynamics with the concept of social collective intelligence, important opportunities and challenges can be examined. In this chapter we focus on socio-technical aspects of social collective intelligence in crises to discuss positive and negative frictions and avenues for innovation...
Evans, Dabney P; Anderson, Mark; Shahpar, Cyrus; Del Rio, Carlos; Curran, James W
The objective of this report was to show how the Center for Humanitarian Emergencies (the Center) at Emory University (Atlanta, Georgia USA) has trained graduate students to respond to complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs) through innovative educational programs, with the goal of increasing the number of trained humanitarian workers. Natural disasters are on the rise with more than twice as many occurring from 2000-2009 as there were from 1980-1989. In 2012 alone, 144 million people were affected by a natural disaster or displaced by conflict worldwide. This has created an immense need for trained humanitarian workers to respond effectively to such disasters. The Center has developed a model for educational programming that targets learners along an educational continuum ranging from the undergraduate level through continuing professional education. These programs, based in the Rollins School of Public Health (RSPH) of Emory University, include: a competency-based graduate certificate program (the Certificate) in humanitarian emergencies; a fellowship program for mid-career professionals; and funded field practica. The competency-based Certificate program began in 2010 with a cohort of 14 students. Since then, 101 students have received the Certificate with 50 more due for completion in 2016 and 2017 combined. The fellowship program for mid-career professionals has hosted four fellows from conflict-affected or resource-poor countries, who have then gone on to assume leadership positions with humanitarian organizations. From 2009-2015, the field practicum program supported 34 students in international summer practicum experiences related to emergency response or preparedness. Students have participated in summer field experiences on every continent but Australia. Together the Certificate, funded field practicum opportunities, and the fellowship comprise current efforts in providing innovative education and training for graduate and post-graduate students of public
Shachmurove, Tomer; Shachmurove, Yochanan
Like many countries, Spain has gone through a series of financial crises, both before and after its industrialization. There are many underlying causes for these crises, as well as for the current Spanish downturn. It is worth noting that there are similarities between recessions throughout the history of Spain. The role of government spending, government regulation, credit institutions, budget deficits, the political climate, and international trade have been important determinants of the st...
In the last three decades, many countries and regions around the world have suffered from currency crises. This thesis investigates the causes of such crises and assesses the role of monetary policy as a tool to avoid them or limit the damage they impose. In addition, it studies the impact of the
Humanitarian aid has been present in some form throughout human history, yet the modern concept of humanitarian aid has only truly emerged since the later half of the 20th century. Through a complex progression of world events and largely brought about in response to armed conflict, modern humanitarian aid is provided by a multitude of organizations and actors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the history of humanitarian action, a review of the principles of humanitarian aid and an overview of the major documents which delineate those principles.
...) and peacekeeping operations. Humanitarian emergencies and peacekeeping operations are a complex mix of related activities that require the combined efforts of the UN, military, International Organizations (IOs...
Full Text Available Until recently, the humanitarian community had largely ignored the problem of climate change, thinking that mitigation – the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions – would minimise the need for adaptation to the effects of climate change. Events appear to be proving us wrong.
Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner
In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization's guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations.
Full Text Available Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenous communities for healing from the continuing traumatic effects of colonization, and the increasing corporatization of the academy as an apparatus of the neo-liberal state – to specify only a few. Edited by Professors Ljubica Matek and Jasna Poljak Rehlicki, these essays deploy a broad range of contemporary theories, representing recent developments in cultural studies, the new economic criticism, postcolonial film studies, feminism and gender studies, and the new historicism. The eleven essays selected by Matek and Rehlicki offer convincing support for their claim that humanistic research delving into Anglophone literature, far from being a “non-profitable” pursuit in an increasingly technologized society, affords clarifying insights into contemporary “economic, cultural, and social processes in the globalizing and globalized culture of the West” (ix.
Benjamin L. Savonen
Full Text Available Rapid manufacturing using 3-D printing is a potential solution to some of the most pressing issues for humanitarian logistics. In this paper, findings are reported from a study that involved development of a new type of 3-D printer. In particular, a novel 3-D printer that is designed specifically for reliable rapid manufacturing at the sites of humanitarian crises. First, required capabilities are developed with design elements of a humanitarian 3-D printer, which include, (1 fused filament fabrication, (2 open source self-replicating rapid prototyper design, (3 modular, (4 separate frame, (5 protected electronics, (6 on-board computing, (7 flexible power supply, and (8 climate control mechanisms. The technology is then disclosed with an open source license for the Kijenzi 3-D Printer. A swarm of five Kijenzi 3-D printers are evaluated for rapid part manufacturing for two months at health facilities and other community locations in both rural and urban areas throughout Kisumu County, Kenya. They were successful for their ability to function independently of infrastructure, transportability, ease of use, ability to withstand harsh environments and costs. The results are presented and conclusions are drawn about future work necessary for the Kijenzi 3-D Printer to meet the needs of rapid manufacturing in a humanitarian context.
Maxwell, Daniel; Watkins, Ben
Natural and man-made emergencies are regular occurrences in the Greater Horn of Africa region. The underlying impoverishment of whole populations is increasing, making it more difficult to distinguish between humanitarian crises triggered by shocks and those resulting from chronic poverty. Shocks and hazards can no longer be seen as one-off events that trigger a one-time response. In countries that are both poor and exposed to frequent episodes of debilitating drought or chronic conflict, information needs tend to be different from the straightforward early warning/commodity accounting models of information systems that have proven reliable in past emergencies. This paper describes the interdependent components of a humanitarian information system appropriate for this kind of complex environment, noting the analytical links between the components and operational links to programme and policy. By examining a series of case studies from the Greater Horn region, the paper demonstrates that systems lacking one or more of these components will fail to provide adequate information--and thus incur humanitarian costs. While information always comes with a cost, the price of poor information--or none--is higher. And in situations of chronic vulnerability, in which development interventions are likely to be interspersed with both safety nets and emergency interventions on a recurrent basis, investment in improved information is a good investment from both a humanitarian and a financial viewpoint.
Full Text Available Training within volunteer humanitarian organisations is one of the most important areas of adult education nowadays. It comprises informal types of education and independent learning (workshops, study circles, activities within small groups, project work, discussions, exchanging opinions and · experiences, visits, presentations, consulting for members. Its goal is primarily encouraging members to act more appropriately, to develop and change fixed habits, viewpoints and behaviour patterns, as well as developing the organisation they belong to.
This paper explores the challenges facing humanitarian NGOs that work in authoritarian settings. Drawing on examples from North Korea, Myanmar, Darfur, and Sri Lanka, the paper examines some of the central dilemmas facing humanitarian actors in these contexts and the strategies they have deployed to address these. The paper then examines the oft-repeated recommendation that humanitarian agencies need to engage in more rigorous and more strategic analysis of their work in order to improve prac...
The Back Pack Health Worker Team (BPHWT), a community- based health organization, provides primary health care to ethnic people in conflict, remote, and internally displaced areas, in Burma (aka Myanmar), controlled by ethnic armed organizations fighting against the Burma government. Its services include both curative and preventative health care through a network of 1,425 health personnel including community health workers and village-embedded traditional birth attendants and village health workers. The BPHWT organizational and program model may prove useful to Special Operations medical actions in support of insurgent movements and conversely with a host nation's counterinsurgency strategies, which include the extension of its health services into areas that may be remote and/or inhabited by indigenous people and have insurgency potential. In the former respect, special attention is directed toward "humanitarian struggle" that uses health care as a weapon against the counterinsurgency strategies of a country's oppressive military. 2017.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine (CDHAM) was formally established at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) by...
Relief organizations continue to provide humanitarian aid in sub-Saharan Africa, often with tough problems arising from inhospitable environment, insecurity, and political or ethnic generated conflicts...
Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine
To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals' and organisations' growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate, reflection and reform. Published by the BMJ Publishing
Full Text Available During latest times, financial crises have been a common occurrence in emerging market (and transition countries with negative influence for the economies. Financial crises have had negative effects on real output, work force, poverty and political instability. Latest crises (2008 that struck US become international, its consequence being received in European countries too. This paper wants to discuss some intervention measures taken in the European Union Area and some importants funds used as tools for crises fighting. The European Economic Recovery Plan and EU funding mechanisms (The European Social Fund (ESF and The European Globalization Adjustment Fund (EGF are taken into discussion.
Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James
There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development
Lina Gálvez Muñoz
Full Text Available This article presents a historical analysis of the economic crises of the last hundred years from a feminist economics perspective, highlighting three historical patterns that can help to advance in a deeper understanding of the current crisis and, above all, to guarantee a way out of this crisis with more and not less equality. The first pattern is that crises result in an intensification of women's work, especially the unpaid care work. The second one is that after economic crises male employment recovery is always previous to the female employment, which always ends even more precarious; and the third pattern is that crisis lead to setbacks in the advances made in gender equality in terms of regulation, equality policies and the rules of the game in general.
R. Samii (Ramina)
textabstractThis thesis explores an under-researched field: humanitarian organizations and their supply chains. Humanitarian organizations respond to the basic needs of populations that experience a tragic disruption in their lives. Given the challenging contexts they operate in, this thesis first
Kaplan, Aaron V; Harvey, Elisa D; Kuntz, Richard E; Shiran, Hadas; Robb, John F; Fitzgerald, Peter
The Second Dartmouth Device Development Symposium held in October 2004 brought together leaders from the medical device community, including clinical investigators, senior representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration, large and small device manufacturers, and representatives from the financial community to examine difficult issues confronting device development. The role of the Humanitarian Use Device/Humanitarian Device Exemption (HUD/HDE) pathway in the development of new cardiovascular devices was discussed in this forum. The HUD/HDE pathway was created by Congress to facilitate the availability of medical devices for "orphan" indications, ie, those affecting HDEs have been granted (23 devices, 6 diagnostic tests). As the costs to gain regulatory approval for commonly used devices increase, companies often seek alternative ways to gain market access, including the HUD/HDE pathway. For a given device, there may be multiple legitimate and distinct indications, including indications that meet the HUD criteria. Companies must choose how and when to pursue each of these indications. The consensus of symposium participants was for the HUD/HDE pathway to be reserved for true orphan indications and not be viewed strategically as part of the clinical development plan to access a large market.
Olwig, Mette Fog; Christiansen, Lene Bull
trends, it can, in a local national setting, develop in ways that are contrary to the political correctness characteristic of global celebrity humanitarianism. In the Danish cultural context we found that anti-elitist cultural norms and social codes, rooted in local understandings of democratic inclusion...... and equality, must be inscribed into celebrity performances. This form of performativity is often achieved through ostensibly politically incorrect, unassuming and underplayed, irony. It is, however, an unenlightened democracy, unaware of those it excludes - i.e. the Other who is kept invisible through...
Richey, Lisa Ann; Chouliaraki, Lillie
Our starting point in this special issue is in opening up traditional understandings and practices of humanitarianism to bring multi-faceted approaches to a classical area of political inquiry. As the rhetoric and practice of humanitarian good-doing becomes increasingly widespread in our public...... life—from celebrity culture to Twitter messaging and from Christmas shopping to concert-going—key questions arise. What does humanitarianism look like in the age of market-driven, digital media-based action? What happens to traditional humanitarian ideals, at the time of increasing bureaucratization...... and celebrification of humanitarian practice? What are the implications of such practices for the ethics and politics of contemporary benevolence? Do we live in an age of “post-humanitarianism” where doing good for others is intrinsically linked with feelings of gratification for the self? Universal questions...
Ana Laura Santos
Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of Systems Design in addressing the challenges of healthcare provision by international emergency relief organizations in developing countries. More specifically the challenges related to the safety and performance of medical equipment that is transferred in the aftermath of a humanitarian crisis. The aim of this paper is to describe the transfer of medical equipment and its associated challenges from a systems perspective and to reflect on the value of Systems Design as an approach to humanitarian innovation, addressing the identified systemic challenges. The concepts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and Product-Service Systems will be presented as valuable contributions to support designers in handling a larger degree of complexity throughout the design process and to support them to make informed choices regarding this particular context.
This article argues that international and national humanitarian NGOs have a far more fundamental bearing on the social reconstitution of Sri Lankan society as a political, cultural, and moral entity than is usually acknowledged. Through their interventions, humanitarian agencies affect the power...... relationship between state and non-state actors and between local organizations and the war-affected populations that make up their constituencies. But NGOs also affect the political order by introducing new understandings of the citizen and providing alternative moral arguments to legitimize power...... and authority. What is taking place, the author contends, is best conceived of as mediations, since the global and the local, the modern and the traditional are coexistent as sources to be strategically drawn upon by the actors....
Eric Barreto de Oliveira
A contabilidade a valor justo tem sido discutida desde meados do século passado; porém, tomou força maior a partir de publicações recentes do FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board) e do IASB (International Accounting Standards Board). Mais recentemente, em resposta à crise global de 2008, inicialmente chamada de crise do subprime, a SEC (Securities Exchange Comission), o FASB e o IASB rediscutiram exaustivamente este critério de mensuração, com o objetivo de detectar falhas que poderiam ...
In the 1980s and 1990s, currency crises occurred frequently in various parts of the world. This paper provides an overview of the currency crises theories, which investigate the cause of these currency crises, the determinant factors of their depth, and the mechanism of their effects on actual economy. Based on the three-generation classification, this paper surveys currency crises theories with focus on the differences among them.
Systemic banking crises often continue into recessions with large output losses. Governments and central banks intervene to preserve the key functions of the financial system and to mitigate the adverse impact of financial distress on economic growth. This thesis investigates how effective
H.J. van Heerde (Harald); K. Helsen; M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik)
textabstractProduct-harm crises are among a firm’s worst nightmares. Since marketing investments may be instrumental to convince consumers to purchase the firm's products again, it is important to provide an adequate measurement of the effectiveness of these investments, especially after the crisis.
Copenhagen Consensus (2004 : Copenhagen, Denmark); Lomborg, Bjørn
... our response most effectively. Each problem is introduced by a world-renowned expert who deﬁnes the scale of the problem and describes the costs and beneﬁts of a range of policy options to improve the situation. Debate is encouraged through the addition of two sets of 'alternative perspectives' for each proposal, each also written by an internationally recogni...
Choudhry, Misbah Tanveer; Marelli, Enrico; Signorelli, Marcello
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of financial crises on the youth unemployment rate (YUR). The authors consider different types of financial crises (systemic banking crises, non-systemic banking crises, currency crises and debt crises) and different groups of countries,
Fabiana santos Lima
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology to identify and classify regions by the type and frequency of disasters. The data on the clusters allow you to extract information that can be used in the preparedness phase as well as to identify the relief items needed to meet each cluster. Using this approach, the clusters are formed by using a computing tool that uses as the input the history data of the disasters in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, with a specific focus on: windstorms, hail, floods, droughts, landslides, and flash floods. The results show that the knowledge provided by the clustering analysis contributes to the decision making process in the response phase of Humanitarian Logistics (HL.
Eklund, Lisa; Tellier, Siri
For more than a decade the humanitarian community has been mandated to mainstream gender in its response to crises. One element of this mandate is a repeated call for sex-disaggregated data to help guide the response. This study examines available analyses, assessments and academic literature to ...
Regulations (HR)) art 3; Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and. Relating to the .... treaty and customary based rules of IHL, but rather to offer a comprehensive guide as to how to interpret the term ... ambit of those restricted acts which amount to direct participation in hostilities.38. Determining ...
Vestergaard Jørgensen, Anne
politicization. Some say that humanitarianism is in crisis. This article examines the development of humanitarian advertising through analysis of 124 newspaper ads published in the period from 1970 to 2005. Using a discourse analytical approach which combines institution analysis with multimodal text analysis...... organizations to external demands, in terms of their choice of beneficiaries for public attention and in terms of the symbolic relations they set up between donors and beneficiaries. It is argued that this development is associated with a paradox of power and results in humanitarian organizations surrendering...
Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr I Support food distribution with U.S. ARMY / WFP - 03 to 18Fev2010 15 Dias 637,5 Ton de alimentos ...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 – 21 a 28Mar2010 1.723 Ton de Alimentos em 30 Dias Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr II Supporting food...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 8 Dias 420 Ton de alimentos Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr III Supporting food distribution by
Pedraza-Martinez, Alfonso J; Stapleton, Orla; Van Wassenhove, Luk N
This paper presents the reflections of the authors on the differences between the language and the approach of practitioners and academics to humanitarian logistics problems. Based on a long-term project on fleet management in the humanitarian sector, involving both large international humanitarian organisations and academics, it discusses how differences in language and approach to such problems may create a lacuna that impedes trust. In addition, the paper provides insights into how academic research evidence adapted to practitioner language can be used to bridge the gap. When it is communicated appropriately, evidence strengthens trust between practitioners and academics, which is critical for long-term projects. Once practitioners understand the main trade-offs included in academic research, they can supply valuable feedback to motivate new academic research. Novel research problems promote innovation in the use of traditional academic methods, which should result in a win-win situation: relevant solutions for practice and advances in academic knowledge. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
THE Port is ready for the third edition of its hackathon with eight new challenges. Join us to discover how science can make a huge difference in people's life. Humanitarian hackathons organised by THE Port and hosted by CERN IdeaSquare have already confirmed that fundamental science can provide tech-enabled responses to humanitarian issues affecting the lives of millions of people around the globe. A great example of the success that technology and collaboration can bring is the substantial improvement of the food airdrop bags, requested by the ICRC to deliver assistance in South Sudan and other critical regions. Watch a 360° video or check out the pictures using the QR code. This year, eight teams will innovate the way humanitarian organisations handle the most critical aspects of field work during a 60-hour event. Groups of experts from all over the world will provide out-of-the-box proposals to tackle challenges set up by the ICRC, Handicap International, the United Natio...
Full Text Available At 9 November 2010, the European Court of Justice, in a preliminary ruling, decided to depart from the interpretation promoted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, in the matter of the application of the exclusion clauses. The European Court considered that no proportionality test between human rights protection and gravity of a crime is to be applied in the case of a person suspected of having committed an act contrary to the principles and purposes of the United Nations. By eliminating this test, the Court is sending a signal on rethinking the asylum institution, from a humanitarian tool that it became, to a political instrument. This decision could not be read alone; corroborated to the concerns already raised on the suitable use of the asylum instrument to address massive humanitarian needs, it would indicate a reorientation in the interpretation of international norms governing the refugee law. Still, the human rights organs and the European Court of Human Rights continue to refer to the asylum as a situation where a humanitarian perspective, reflected in the proportionality test, or for those mechanisms the risk of human rights violation probability test, is still valid. The two apparently divergent directions will need to converge in the implementation of the European Union regulations on asylum. This paper is exploring the possible reinterpretation of the European norms, trying to identify the new trends in the political perspective of asylum and the limitations to these trends that the respect for human rights is establishing.
Grayman, Jesse Hession
After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to critically explore whether crowdsourced Big Data enables an inclusive humanitarian response at times of crisis. We argue that all data, including Big Data, are socially constructed artefacts that reflect the contexts and processes of their creation. To support our argument, we qualitatively analysed the process of ‘Big Data making’ that occurred by way of crowdsourcing through open data platforms, in the context of two specific humanitarian crises, namely the 2010 earthquake in Haiti and the 2015 earthquake in Nepal. We show that the process of creating Big Data from local and global sources of knowledge entails the transformation of information as it moves from one distinct group of contributors to the next. The implication of this transformation is that locally based, affected people and often the original ‘crowd’ are excluded from the information flow, and from the interpretation process of crowdsourced crisis knowledge, as used by formal responding organizations, and are marginalized in their ability to benefit from Big Data in support of their own means. Our paper contributes a critical perspective to the debate on participatory Big Data, by explaining the process of in and exclusion during data making, towards more responsive humanitarian relief.
Hundreds of millions of people are affected by disasters each year. This thesis explores the use of supply chain management techniques to overcome the barriers encountered by logistics managers during humanitarian relief operations...
Kenneth V. Iserson
Full Text Available “Humanitarian catastrophes,” conflicts and calamities generating both widespread human suffering and destructive events, require a wide range of emergency resources. This paper answers a number of questions that humanitarian catastrophes generate: Why and how do the most-developed countries—those with the resources, capabilities, and willingness to help—intervene in specific types of disasters? What ethical and legal guidelines shape our interventions? How well do we achieve our goals? It then suggests a number of changes to improve humanitarian responses, including better NGO-government cooperation, increased research on the best disaster response methods, clarification of the criteria and roles for humanitarian (military interventions, and development of post-2015 Millennium Development Goals with more accurate progress measures. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:231–240.
In Asia, an economic crisis has occurred simultaneously with an immense increase in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS fueled by inadequate responses to the epidemic. This response has been further weakened by sudden budget cuts and changes in government priorities, and the situation has been exacerbated by its suddenness and by the fact that large numbers of people are at risk and are unemployed. Also, Asian countries are now seeking entry into the pool of countries where donors support HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs just as donors are reducing their aid budgets. Prevention programs are being severely compromised even before they became effective, and efforts to secure treatment are hindered by high prices, by devalued national currencies, and by an increasing trend towards the privatization of health care. In the long run, efforts to restore economic stability will be hindered by the socioeconomic impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In order to improve future prospects, the leadership of all national AIDS programs must reexamine the cost effectiveness of their priorities. Such a move would target marginalized groups, reduce use of expensive mass media campaigns, increase international cooperation over issues dealing with migrant workers, create programs recognizing the crucial role of women, increase the involvement of infected people in prevention programs, recognize the long-term socioeconomic benefits of providing adequate and equitable care and treatment, and recognize the benefits of prioritizing HIV/AIDS funding.
Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.
Dauenhauer-Pendley, Lizza Marie
Conceived on both an epistemic/post-colonial theory level and legal/ethical/pragmatic level, I will propose a theory of data colonialism in humanitarian information communications technologies (ICTs). Through two case studies, the first case study by lawyer and humanitarian ICT practitioner Sean Martin McDonald concerning the use of Call Detail Records (CDRs) as a response to the Ebola epidemic in Western Africa in 2014 and the second case study by the associate director of the International ...
Full Text Available Neste artigo defende-se a tese que a crise do capitalismo e a crise ecológica resultam da dinâmica do sistema capitalista que transforma seres humanos e recursos naturais em mercadorias necessárias à expansão dos negócios e a acumulação de lucros. Na sua feição atual a crise reflete as dificuldades da civilização capitalista industrial e do seu modo de vida caracterizado pelo american way of life, em manter-se sem rupturas. A questão ecológica, do meio ambiente, é central no capitalismo. As tentativas de soluções, a exemplo da Tratado de Kioto e as medidas pactuadas em Copenhagen em 2008, estão muito aquém das providências necessárias à resolução do problema . O ecosocialismo, em sua utopia, mas sem ser uma abstração, apresenta-se como um paradigma de civilização alternativo.
Aardema, Bastiaan; Churruca Muguruza, Cristina
The article presents the European Universities on Professionalisation on Humanitarian Action (EUPRHA) Project as an initiative that seeks to contribute to the professionalisation and quality assurance of the humanitarian sector. Its purpose is to explain the approach and the process leading to the
Williams, Holly; Downes, Elizabeth
The effects of climate change are far-reaching and multifactorial, with potential impacts on food security and conflict. Large population movements, whether from the aftermath of natural disasters or resulting from conflict, can precipitate the need for humanitarian response in what can become complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs). Nurses need to be prepared to respond to affected communities in need, whether the emergency is domestic or global. The purpose of the article is to describe a novel course for nursing students interested in practice within the confines of CHEs and natural disasters. The authors used the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards as a practical framework to inform the course development. They completed a review of the literature on the interaction on climate change, conflict and health, and competencies related to working CHEs. Resettled refugees, as well as experts in the area of humanitarian response, recovery, and mitigation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and nongovernmental organizations further informed the development of the course. This course prepares the nursing workforce to respond appropriately to large population movements that may arise from the aftermath of natural disasters or conflict, both of which can comprise a complex humanitarian disaster. Using The Sphere Project e-learning course, students learn about the Sphere Project, which works to ensure accountability and quality in humanitarian response and offers core minimal standards for technical assistance. These guidelines are seen globally as the gold standard for humanitarian response and address many of the competencies for disaster nursing (http://www.sphereproject.org/learning/e-learning-course/). © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Due to the lack of Ebola outbreak early warning alert, preparedness, surveillance and response systems, the most deadly, complex and largest ever seen Ebola war has been devastating West African communities. The unparalleled Ebola tsunami has prompted interrogations into, and uncertainties about, the effectiveness and efficiency of national, regional and international community's illed- responses using conventional humanitarian control and containment approaches and methods. The late humanitarian and local non-government organisations emergency responses and challenges to curb transmission dynamics and stop the ongoing spread in the Ebola outbreak in West Africa have led to an unprecedented toll of 14,413 reported Ebola cases in eight countries since the outbreak began, with 5,177 reported deaths including 571 health-care workers and 325 died as 14 November 2014. These indications the need of further evaluation of monitoring as substantial proportion of infections outside the context of Ebola epicentres, Ebola health centres treatment and care, infection prevention and control quality assurance checks in these countries. At the same time, exhaustive efforts should target ensuring an sufficient supply of optimal personal protective equipment (PPE) to all Ebola treatment facilities, along with the provision of training and relevant guidelines to limit to the minimum possible level of risk. The continent hosts a big proportion of the world's wealth, yet its people live in abject poverty, with governments unable to feed and govern them effectively, and who are condemned to endure even darker moments with the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Institutionalisation of practical and operational non-conventional emergency response models efficient health systems, and tailored programmes can clearly support to prevent, control and eventually stamp out Ebola geo-distribution in addition to population mental health services that are requisite to address the massive range of the
Full Text Available Background: Adverse drug events can cause serious consequences including death. A published report by Lazarou et al in 1998 showed that adverse drug events were the 4th to 6th leading cause of death in the United States. These events may lead to drug safety crises in some issues, which need to take crises management process for solving the problem and/or preventing similar events.Objectives: To evaluate nature of drug safety crises based on adverse events reported to Iranian Pharmacovigilance Center from 1999 through 2012. To mention success and failure outcomes of crises management process taken against detected crises.Methods: All adverse drug events received by Iranian Pharmacovigilance Center from 1999 through 2012 were evaluated for reports with fatal outcome. All alerting letters and manuscripts published by the Center during the same period were reviewed for detailed information on detected crises. World Health Organization definition was used for detecting drug safety crises.Results: Among 42036 registered cases in our database, 463 deaths were recorded. The most frequent suspected drug for adverse events with fatal outcome was ceftriaxone (100 cases. Ten different drug safety crises issues were detected during the study period and their successful or failure outcomes were evaluated. There were 112 issued alerting letters and 17 published manuscript during the same period which was monitored for detailed information. Conclusion: It is necessary for national pharmacovigilance centers to have prepared programs for crises management. This could be useful for reducing drug related mortality.
Peter N. Peregrine
Full Text Available Scholars employing world-system theory have tended to examine how world-systemsdevelop and expand, while few have addressed the fragmentation or collapse of world-systems. This paper explores the conditions of world-system collapse using Habermas's concept of legitimation crisis as a starting point. The paper posits that legitimation crises are a recurring problem in world-systems and have led to collapse in a number of cases. Prehistoric North American and Pacific world-systems are used as examples.
Baughan, Emily; Fiori, Juliano
This paper reflects on the foundational years of Save the Children, one of the oldest and largest Western humanitarian agencies and a mainstay of the humanitarian project. In doing so, it considers how and why, at an early stage, the organisation depoliticised its activities, centring its narrative on the innocent, pre-political child-the image of unsullied humanity. In addition, it seeks to recover the internationalist vision of Save the Children's 'forgotten founder', Dorothy Buxton. Save the Children's turn to non-politics is indicative of the broader depoliticisation of Western humanitarian action. Given the intensely contested spaces in which Western humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) operate, these entities cannot escape politics. This paper argues that Buxton's efforts to build an international solidarity network through humanitarian action after the end of the First World War in 1918 provide an instructive basis on which these NGOs can pursue a politics of solidarity in the present day. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.
Tatham, Peter; Spens, Karen
The challenges of achieving successful inter-agency logistic coordination in preparing for and responding to natural disasters and complex emergencies are both well understood and well documented. However, although many of these challenges remain unresolved, the literature reveals that the organisations that form the urban search and rescue (USAR) community have attained a high level of coherence and interoperability that results in a highly efficient and effective response. Therefore, this paper uses the idea of 'borrowing' from other fields as it explores how the processes and procedures used by the USAR community might be applied to improve humanitarian logistic operations. The paper analyses the USAR model and explores how the resultant challenges might be addressed in a humanitarian logistic context. The paper recommends that further research be undertaken in order to develop a modified USAR model that could be operationalised by the international community of humanitarian logisticians. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.
Full Text Available The 2011 Libya crisis brought into sharp focus how global migrationpatterns are re-defining the range and type of needs and vulnerabilities of persons affected by a humanitarian crisis.
Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Zhu, Jie
50% in magnitude during …financial crises. No such changes are observed during NBER recessions, so in this sense …financial crises are special. Applications to a number of major developed and emerging international stock markets confirm the increase in the leverage effect, whereas the international......We investigate the impact of financial crises on two fundamental features of stock returns, namely, the risk-return tradeoff and the leverage effect. We apply the fractionally integrated exponential GARCH-in-mean (FIEGARCH-M) model for daily stock return data, which includes both features...... and allows the co-existence of long memory in volatility and short memory in returns. We extend this model to allow the financial parameters governing the volatility-in-mean effect and the leverage effect to change during financial crises. An application to the daily U.S. stock index return series from 1926...
Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Zhu, Jie
% in magnitude during financial crises. No such changes are observed during NBER recessions, so in this sense financial crises are special. Applications to a number of major developed and emerging international stock markets confirm the increase in the leverage effect, whereas the international evidence......We investigate the impact of financial crises on two fundamental features of stock returns, namely, the risk-return tradeoff and the leverage effect. We apply the fractionally integrated exponential GARCH-in-mean (FIEGARCH-M) model for daily stock return data, which includes both features...... and allows the co-existence of long memory in volatility and short memory in returns. We extend this model to allow the financial parameters governing the volatility-in-mean effect and the leverage effect to change during financial crises. An application to the daily U.S. stock index return series from 1926...
Brooks, Julia; Erickson, Timothy B; Kayden, Stephanie; Ruiz, Raul; Wilkinson, Stephen; Burkle, Frederick M
The repeated use of prohibited chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict poses serious health, humanitarian, and security threats to civilians, healthcare personnel, and first responders. Moreover, the use of chemical weapons constitutes a clear and egregious violation of international law-likely amounting to a war crime-for which continued impunity is setting a dangerous precedent in relation to current and future conflicts. This debate article calls upon concerned states, organizations, and individuals to respond urgently and unequivocally to this serious breach of international legal and humanitarian norms. Based on health, humanitarian, and legal findings, this article calls for concrete action to: 1) reduce the risk of chemical weapons being used in current and future conflicts; 2) review and support the preparedness equipment and antidote supplies of first responders, humanitarian organizations, and military forces operating in Syria; 3) support international mechanisms for monitoring and enforcing the prohibition on chemical weapons, including through criminal accountability; 4) support civilian victims of chemical weapons attacks, including refugees; and 5) re-commit to the complete elimination of chemical weapons in compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993), a comprehensive treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their complete destruction. All involved states and organizations should take urgent steps to ensure the protection of the most vulnerable victims of conflict, including victims of chemical weapons attacks in Syria, and to reinforce international law in the face of such serious violations.
Bastiaan L. Aardema
Full Text Available The article presents the European Universities on Professionalisation on Humanitarian Action (EUPRHA Project as an initiative that seeks to contribute to the professionalisation and quality assurance of the humanitarian sector. Its purpose is to explain the approach and the process leading to the development of the Humanitarian Action Qualifications Framework as an example of good practice for other sectors aiming at improving the recognition of qualifications as a precondition of academic and professional mobility. With this aim, it introduces the educational and humanitarian trends that led to this project: the move from transnational qualifications frameworks of which the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF is the best example to sectoral qualifications frameworks and the increasing demand from the sector seeking to determine the competencies and required skills of a professional humanitarian aid worker. Based on the EQF and the Tuning methodology the framework will act as a translating device to make national and sectoral qualifications more readable and promote humanitarian workers’ and learners’ mobility between countries and organisations. It will facilitate inter-system transparency and recognition of (non-formal and informal learning by linking occupations, skills, competences, and qualifications, thus benefiting the Humanitarian Sector as a whole.
Ager, Alastair; Iacovou, Melina
Recent years have seen significant growth in both the size and profile of the humanitarian sector. However, little research has focused upon the constructions of humanitarian practice negotiated by agencies and their workers that serve to sustain engagement in the face personal challenges and critique of the humanitarian enterprise. This study used the public narrative of 129 website postings by humanitarian workers deployed with the health-focused international humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to identify recurrent themes in personal, organizationally-condoned, public discourse regarding humanitarian practice. Data represented all eligible postings from a feature on the agency's UK website from May 2002 to April 2012. The text of postings was analysed with respect to emergent themes on an iterative basis. Comprehensive coding of material was achieved through a thematic structure that reflected the core domains of project details, the working environment, characteristics of beneficiaries and recurrent motivational sub-texts. Features of the co-construction of narratives include language serving to neutralize complex political contexts; the specification of barriers as substantive but surmountable; the dominance of the construct of national-international in understanding the operation of teams; intense personal identification with organization values; and the use of resilience as a framing of beneficiary adaptation and perseverance in conditions that--from an external perspective--warrant despair and withdrawal. Recurrent motivational sub-texts include 'making a difference' and contrasts with 'past professional constraints' and 'ordinary life back home.' The prominence of these sub-texts not only highlights key personal agendas but also suggests--notwithstanding policy initiatives regarding stronger contextual rooting and professionalism--continuing organizational emphasis on externality and volunteerism. Overall, postings illustrate a
Patronage or partnership: Local capacity building in humanitarian crises. It is early 1998, on the outskirts of Bujumbura, the capital of Burundi. "People are dying like flies," says an understandably emotional American missionary running a refugee camp for four thousand Hutus. Asked by a reporter about a.
Results 11 - 20 of 21 ... ... for tobacco products responds to price and changes in income. Project. -. Science and Technology Policy Review 2005-2009 (Panama) ... than how to protect people caught in new and large-scale humanitarian crises ...
Ahmad Rasmi AlBattat; Ahmad Puad Mat Som
Safety and security are the most important issues to tourist while traveling and the first aspect they consider is to be protected from hazards. Emergency planning and preparedness for a crisis are the most significant components of dealing with disasters. Hospitality practitioners noticed a rising number of natural and man-made crises that harm the hospitality industry, regarding its vulnerability to crisis and intern...
Qiu, Lu; Gu, Changgui; Xiao, Qin; Yang, Huijie; Wu, Guolin
Extensive works have reported that a financial crisis can induce significant changes to topological structure of a stock network constructed with cross-correlations between stocks. But there are still some problems to be answered, such as what is the relationship between different crises in history and how to classify them? In the present work, we propose a new network-based solution to extract and display the relationships between the crises. The Dow Jones stock market is investigated as a typical example. The cross-correlation matrix between stocks is used to measure the state of stock market, called state matrix. All the states cluster into six sub-categories. A state network is constructed further to display the relationships between all the states, which contains a total of nine communities. It is found that three crises C , D and E (refer to the Lehman's bankruptcy in 2008, the Euro-zone and International Monetary Fund decide the first bailout for Greece in 2010, and the European sovereign debt crisis in 2011, respectively) belong to a specific sub-category and cluster in a single community. The mid-stage of C is closely linked with E, while the other stages with D. The other two crises A and B (refer to the financial crisis in Asia in 1997, and the burst of "dot-com bubble" in 2002, respectively) belong to another sub-category and gather in a corner of another single community. A and B are linked directly with C and D by two edges. By this way, we give a clear picture of the relationships between the crises.
Full Text Available New analyses of food crises in West Africa. The issue of crisis is a central element of debate and a strategic challenge for all stakeholders in West Africa. Food and nutrition crises are recurrent in the region, with a level of intensity and high variability constituting renewed challenges. The definition, delimitation and management of these crises are provided by an established and structured professional field, which favors intervention. Different conceptual and contextual approaches can be mobilized to account for the diversity and complexity of food and nutrition crises. Some more descriptive approaches list the causes and manifestations of these crises, while others insist on the fact that they are created, and identify their dynamic as being linked to interactions between various phenomena. To date, most of the various institutional actors involved in addressing food and nutrition crises, both at national and international levels, have favored the gradual improvement of expert systems providing technical short-term responses. In parallel, this has led to a harmonization of these frameworks of thought, which has been detrimental to the consideration of the diversity of questions and the integration of non-institutional actors. These are the boundaries and limitations that this article aims to question, in order to reinvoke the political dimension of the management of food crises (and their eventual resolution.
M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)
textabstractThis paper studies the impact of financial crises on society. Using data on 187 banking crises in 126 countries over the period 1970-2009, I examine the impact of a crisis not only on the economy and the financial sector, but also on health, education, poverty, and gender issues. A
Vermeulen, Robert; Hoeberichts, Marco; Vasicek, Borek; Zigraiova, Diana; Smidkova, Katerina; de Haan, Jakob
This paper develops a Financial Stress Index (FSI) for 28 OECD countries and examines its relationship to crises using a novel database for financial crises. A stress index measures the current state of stress in the financial system and summarizes it in a single statistic. Our results suggest that
as a place where celebrities intervene into existing politics and social processes, or as the generator of Southern celebrities engaged in ‘do-gooding’. This book examines what the diverse roster of celebrity humanitarians are actually doing in and across North and South contexts. Celebrity humanitarianism......Discussion over celebrity engagement is often limited to theoretical critique or normative name-calling, without much grounded research into what it is that celebrities are doing, the same or differently throughout the world. Crucially, little attention has been paid to the Global South, either...
Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos
Full Text Available Humanitarian workers often complain that international aid to victims of armed conflicts is more and more militarized because relief organizations are embedded into peacekeeping operations, used as a “force multiplier”, or manipulated as an instrument of diplomacy by proxy. Historically, however, charity has always been a military issue in times of war. We can distinguish four types of militarization of relief organizations in this regard. First is the use of charities to make “war by proxy”, as in Afghanistan or Nicaragua in the 1980s. The second pattern is “embedment”, like the Red Cross during the two world wars. The third is “self-defense”, as with the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem (now Malta in the 12th Century. The fourth, finally, is the model of “International Brigades” alongside the Spanish Republicans in 1936 or various liberation movements in the 1970s. In comparison, humanitarian aid today appears to be much less militarized. However, this perception also depends on the various definitions of the word “humanitarian”.
transfers has traditionally been treated as a question of arms control law, but in the recent debate about legal restrictions on states' liberty to transfer arms, norms of international humanitarian and human rights law have frequently been invoked. This article surveys the existing international legal......The unregulated international trade in conventional arms, especially in small arms and light weapons, has come to be viewed as an exacerbating factor in armed conflict, violent crime and internal repression. Concern about the negative humanitarian, development and security impact of this trade has...... been growing over the last decade. Against this backdrop, the UN General Assembly invited states in December 2006 to consider the feasibility of an instrument establishing common international standards for conventional arms transfers-also known as the ‘Arms Trade Treaty' (ATT). The legality of arms...
Full Text Available We extended the Cole and Kehoe model (1996 by adding trade and debt denominated in national currency. We then evaluated some external debt defaults and steep national currency devaluations occurred during last decades. Although default is unlikely, steep devaluation has been repeatedly triggered during financial distresses. It helps to overcome financial crisis as it improves trade balance and reduces national debt level. On the other hand, expected devaluation hurts welfare through both higher national debt cost and reductions in the investment level. We modeled such trade-offs and showed that trade openness, by and large, improves the expected welfare as it allows for a better devaluation-response technology. We ran model simulations based on past 48 crises occurred in 32 middle-income countries, reasonably fitting devaluation and default responses observed as from 1971.
The growing dependency of Europe as a whole on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future. The objective of the Study is to identify the threats leading to potential energy crises and suggest solutions for facing, in an appropriate way, the related key challenges. In addition, the Study intends to develop a number of indicators effective enough to assess the level of different types of vulnerability, as well the overall vulnerability of a country or region, including threats to physical disruption, higher energy prices etc. The use of vulnerability indicators is highly recommended for all WEC-European countries, as well as to policy makers and market players.
Full Text Available In his book Humanitarian Intervention and Legitimacy Wars: Seeking Peace and Justice in the 21st Century, Richard Falk argues that, with the growing prevalence of soft power, historical lessons of asymmetric warfare and legitimacy wars must be taken into account. Falk rejects the realist notion that the state is the only rational actor, offering a more constructivist approach that focuses on the norms, culture and morality of the international community. He asserts that humanitarian intervention is on the decline, and legitimacy wars are increasing. Much of this legitimacy is based on international law and its relevance in the international community.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the major financial crises in Ukraine at early twentieth century dealing with the crises of 1899–1902 and 1908–1910. The main attention is paid to the large-scale crisis of 1899–1902 at the new industrial region in Eastern Ukraine where numerous steel and mining companies based on massive foreign investment (mainly Belgian and French were created shortly. The general boom of new joint-stock companies and insufficient provision of these companies by state orders were the main reason of the crisis which was the reflection of the international industrial and financial crisis of those years. The author also researches the crisis of 1908–1910 in the Ukrainian sugar industry.
humanitarian workers have observed a sharp rise in gender -based crimes, including rape and sexual violence, as well as exploitation and discrimination ...threatening conditions; gender -based violence prevention and response; emergency support to refugee women and girls; mental health care; protection...immediate surrounding region, including Turkey, Lebanon , Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and other parts of North Africa. The situation is fluid and continues to
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section 515.575 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... meet basic human needs. Specific licenses may be issued authorizing transactions for multiple visits...
non-military development, such as the spreading of disease and movement of refugees. A shift in defence policy had to accommodate a broader, more inclusive mandate and roles for humanitarian peacekeeping operations in African countries such as Eritrea, Ethiopia, the DRC, Burundi and Sudan. Missions were to be.
Gottlieb, Nora; Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav
In the context of neo-liberal retrenchments humanitarian NGOs have become alternative healthcare providers that partially fill the vacuum left by the welfare state's withdrawal from the provision of services to migrants and other marginalized populations. In many cases they thus help to build legitimacy for the state's retreat from social responsibilities. Human rights organizations play an important role in advocating for migrants' rights, but in many cases they represent a legalistic and individualized conceptualization of the right to health that limits their claims for social justice. This paper analyzes the interactions and tensions between the discourses of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy using the example of an "Open Clinic" run by an Israeli human rights organization as a case-study: In 2007 dramatically increasing patient numbers provoked an intense internal debate concerning the proposal to temporarily close the "Open Clinic" in order to press the government to take action. Based on protocols from internal meetings and parliamentary hearings and in-depth interviews, we have analyzed divergent contextualizations of the Clinic's closure. These reflect conflicting notions regarding the Clinic's variegated spectrum of roles--humanitarian, political, legitimizing, symbolic, empowering and organizational--and underlying conceptualizations of migrants' "deservingness". Our case-study thus helps to illuminate NGOs' role in the realm of migrant healthcare and points out options for a possible fruitful relationship between the divergent paradigms of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy. Copyright Â© 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Aid agencies (AAs) provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a) Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly), principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b) Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work), and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs. PMID:22110413
Aid agencies (AAs) provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a) Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly), principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b) Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work), and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs.
Full Text Available Aid agencies (AAs provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly, principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work, and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs.
Foster, Angel M; Evans, Dabney P; Garcia, Melissa; Knaster, Sarah; Krause, Sandra; McGinn, Therese; Rich, Sarah; Shah, Meera; Tappis, Hannah; Wheeler, Erin
Since the 1990s, the Inter-agency field manual on reproductive health in humanitarian settings (IAFM) has provided authoritative guidance on reproductive health service provision during different phases of complex humanitarian emergencies. In 2018, the Inter-Agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises will release a new edition of this global resource. In this article, we describe the collaborative and inter-sectoral revision process and highlight major changes in the 2018 IAFM. Key revisions to the manual include repositioning unintended pregnancy prevention within and explicitly incorporating safe abortion care into the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) chapter, which outlines a set of priority activities to be implemented at the outset of a humanitarian crisis; stronger guidance on the transition from the MISP to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services; and the addition of a logistics chapter. In addition, the IAFM now places greater and more consistent emphasis on human rights principles and obligations, gender-based violence, and the linkages between maternal and newborn health, and incorporates a diverse range of field examples. We conclude this article with an outline of plans for releasing the 2018 IAFM and facilitating uptake by those working in refugee, crisis, conflict, and emergency settings.
Beek, Kristen; Dawson, Angela; Whelan, Anna
A lack of access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among displaced women and girls of reproductive age. Efforts to address this public health emergency in humanitarian settings have included the widespread delivery of training programmes to address gaps in health worker capacity for SRH. There remains a lack of data on the factors which may affect the ability of health workers to apply SRH knowledge and skills gained through training programmes in humanitarian contexts. We searched four electronic databases and ten key organizations' websites to locate literature on SRH training for humanitarian settings in low and lower-middle income countries. Papers were examined using content analysis to identify factors which contribute to health workers' capacity to transfer SRH knowledge, skills and attitudes learned in training into practice in humanitarian settings. Seven studies were included in this review. Six research papers focused on the response stage of humanitarian crises and five papers featured the disaster context of conflict. A range of SRH components were addressed including maternal, newborn health and sexual violence. The review identified factors, including appropriate resourcing, organisational support and confidence in health care workers that were found to facilitate the transfer of learning. The findings suggest the presence of factors that moderate the transfer of training at the individual, training, organisational, socio-cultural, political and health system levels. Supportive strategies are necessary to best assist trainees to apply newly acquired knowledge and skills in their work settings. These interventions must address factors that moderate the success of learning transfer. Findings from this review suggest that these are related to the individual trainee, the training program itself and the workplace as well as the broader environmental context. Organisations which provide SRH
Frederic S. Mishkin
This short paper argues that the view that monetary policy is ineffective during financial crises is not only wrong, but may promote policy inaction in the face of a severe contractionary shock. To the contrary, monetary policy is more potent during financial crises because aggressive monetary policy easing can make adverse feedback loops less likely. The fact that monetary policy is more potent than during normal times provides a rationale for a risk-management approach to counter the contra...
The aim of this paper is to consider the role of complacency in financial crises over the last two decades, with a closer look at the ongoing Subprime Mortgage Financial Crisis. The theme of complacency and the concept of financial crisis are both explored. Financial crises are better understood by explaining their economic drivers and the fundamental role of complacency in the various transmission mechanisms involved. These drivers are then illustrated by means of recent selected financial c...
Full Text Available The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT is an international treaty that should be implemented during both peace and wartime. However, the obligations included in the treaty are dependent upon states' attitudes regarding other issues. Non-use of nuclear weapons is directly related to negotiations done for the purpose of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, non-production or accumulation by other means and disarmament. In our day, prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been one of the issues of international law.The present study is of crucial significance due to its endeavor to clarify the general principles of Humanitarian Law in a relationship to the threat of nuclear weapons' up to now, a special norm; significantly limiting or completely prohibiting the use of nuclear weapons, has not been accepted in international law. However, customary international humanitarian law regarding the use of nuclear weapons holds great value because of its purpose in eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of war through ascertaining their non-use and also appeasing the importance of nuclear ascendancy. In this respect, the NPT regime and its relationship with international humanitarian law will be discussed. Firstly, the NPT background, formation, main objectives and principles will be analyzed. In order to evaluate the relationship between the NPT and humanitarian law, the humanitarian obligations in general, humanitarian obligations in the context of the NPT and fulfillmen t of these obligations under the NPT should be studied. One of the main parts of the study is nuclear disarmament obligation included in the NPT. In this section, nuclear disarmament obligation in the context of the NPT and the legal framework of possible, general and comprehensive disarmament will be examined.
Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; McSpadden, Lucia Ann; Garrett, Martha J
International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in humanitarian assistance employ millions of volunteers. One of the major challenges for the organizations is the high turnover rate among their personnel. Another is recruiting the right persons. As part of a series of studies investigating factors that affect the recruitment process and the success of assignment, this qualitative study examined health professionals' motivations for volunteering, their various concerns, and their expectations about themselves and the organizations for which they would work. The findings from focus group interviews with potential humanitarian volunteers were considered within the framework of Hertzberg's theory of motivations and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study has significant implications for personnel policy and practice in the humanitarian sector. Recruitment officers should have the self-actualized person, as described by Maslow, in mind when interviewing candidates. This perspective would make it easier for them to understand the candidates' thoughts and concerns and would lead to more effective interventions. Program officers should have satisfiers and dissatisfiers, as identified by Herzberg, in mind when planning programs. The probability that personnel will leave humanitarian work is lower if they perceive working conditions as good.
Watenpaugh, Keith David
The essay centers of the efforts by the League of Nations to rescue women and children survivors of the 1915 Armenian Genocide. This rescue -- a seemingly unambiguous good -- was at once a constitutive act in drawing the boundaries of the international community, a key moment in the definition of humanitarianism, and a site of resistance to the colonial presence in the post-Ottoman Eastern Mediterranean. Drawing from a wide range of source materials in a number of languages, including Turkish, Armenian, and Arabic, the essay brings the intellectual and social context of humanitarianism in initiating societies together with the lived experience of humanitarianism in the places where the act took form. In so doing, it draws our attention to the proper place of the Eastern mediterranean, and its women and children, in the global history of humanitarianism. The prevailing narrative of the history of human rights places much of its emphasis on the post-World War II era, the international reaction to the Holocaust, and the founding of the United Nations. yet contemporary human rights thinking also took place within practices of humanitarianism in the interwar period, and is necessarily inseparable from the histories of refugees, colonialism, and the non-West.
Bernad, Daniel Maxwell
The US FDA established the Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) and Humanitarian Device Exemption (HDE) program to encourage medical device firms to address rare diseases. Despite being in existence for over a decade, there has only been one peer-reviewed publication examining this field. The objective of this report is to investigate how the HUD/HDE program differs from the standard regulatory system, discuss its potential advantages and disadvantages, and to speculate which humanitarian devices will be brought to market within the next 5 years. A total of 40 semistructured interviews with stakeholders, representing approximately half (n = 20, 49%) of the firms that have successfully obtained HDE-approved products, were performed in order to acquire the primary data for this paper. There appear to be short-term gains and long-term drains associated with launching humanitarian devices to market. This report aims to provide sponsors with information that may allow them to make better decisions during their product development of humanitarian devices and may, hopefully, also play a role in encouraging other sponsors to take the necessary steps forward in helping to find treatments for patients with rare diseases.
Christiansen, Lene Bull
and proposes to look beyond the mainstream US/UK contexts in order to make this point. The paper takes point of departure in the annual Danish aid telethon Danmarks Indsamling (Denmark’s Collection). Against the backdrop of the local identity politics in Denmark revolving around immigration policies...... of a collective identity narrative are seen to draw on the above-mentioned gendered and colonialist discourses while simultaneously engaging in local politics around diversity and national identity......., 2009; Jefferess, 2002; Repo and Yrjölä, 2011). While these studies provide important insights, another side remains – that of collective identity narratives associated with humanitarian appeals. This paper posits that collective identity narratives have a vital importance in many humanitarian appeals...
Maxwell, Daniel; Bailey, Sarah; Harvey, Paul; Walker, Peter; Sharbatke-Church, Cheyanne; Savage, Kevin
Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability--downwards and upwards--but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.
Humanitarian organisations operate in increasingly hostile environments. Although authoritative statistics are scarce, anecdotal evidence suggests that aid workers face life-threatening risks that are exacerbated by the growing number of humanitarian organisations operating in the field, the diversity of their mandates, the lack of common professional security standards, and limited success in inter-agency security coordination. Despite broad acceptance of the need for better security management and coordination, many humanitarian organisations remain ambivalent about devoting increased resources to security management and security coordination. A critical lack of basic empirical knowledge of the field security environment hampers efforts to enhance security management practices. The absence of a systematic means of sharing incident data undermines the capacity of the humanitarian community to address proactively security threats. In discussions about humanitarian staff safety and security, the least common denominator remains cumulative anecdotal evidence provided by the many security personnel working for humanitarian organisations in the feld.
Wilna L. Bean
Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.
Odemene, Glory C.
The Niger Delta crises escalated beyond the borders of the Nigerian nation to become an issue that affected individuals and corporations around the world. This study led to the discovery of how the local crises escalated with international implications. This discovery was accomplished by addressing how the Niger Delta crises escalated from villages to international scenes, with notable impacts on the environment, health, safety, security, and financial segments of local, international, private, and corporate entities. Using Sweeny's crisis decision theory and Lazarus and Folkman's coping theory, the study considered the coping strategies of community members, the decisions, and actions they took in response to the management approaches of the government and the oil and gas companies (OGCs). This qualitative study utilized historical narrative to collect data by interviewing 4 participants who lived and worked in the region during the crises. NVivo was used for manual and automatic coding of data, as well as for categorization and connection of codes. Content analysis of identified codes and categories revealed the themes and trends in the experiences narrated by participants. Findings include the root causes, trend of escalation, and management strategies of the government and the OGCs that influenced the crises. These findings will help to influence policies and practices in the region and enhance effective management of current and emerging conflicts, with possibilities of restoring stability and security in the areas and in the nation at large.
Colon, E.; Cubber, G. De; Ping, H.; Habumuremyi, J-C; Sahli, H.; Baudoin, Y.
This paper summarises the main results of 10 years of research and development in Humanitarian Demining. The Hudem project focuses on mine detection systems and aims at provided different solutions to support the mine detection operations. Robots using different kind of locomotion systems have been designed and tested on dummy minefields. In order to control these robots, software interfaces, control algorithms, visual positioning and terrain following systems have also been developed. Typica...
Russell, Roberta S.; Hiller, Janine S.
With the growth in length and breadth of extended supply chains, more companies are employing risk management techniques and resilience planning to deal with burgeoning and costly supply chain disruptions. As companies can learn from humanitarian groups, so can humanitarian groups learn from industry how to respond, recover, and prepare for these disruptive events. This paper looks at industry leaders in supply chain risk management and explores how humanitarian supply chains can learn from i...
Mohd, S.; Fathi, M. S.; Harun, A. N.
Humanitarian aid distribution is associated with many activities, numerous disaster management stakeholders, enormous effort and different processes. For effective communication, humanitarian aid distribution activities require appropriate and up-to-date information to enhance collaboration, and improve integration. The purpose of this paper is to develop a humanitarian aid distribution framework for disaster management in Malaysia. The findings of this paper are based on a review of the huma...
Discourses and practices surrounding humanitarian organisations have changed over time. This is certainly the case for Palestinian non-governmental organisations, which have followed the structural and ideological transformations observed in local, regional and international contexts. There have been three successive but interlocking generations of groups active in health in Palestine: charitable societies, popular committees, and donor-based entities. Against this background, a village clinic in the West Bank is seen to have gone through various incarnations in the context of an emerging neo-liberal economic, administrative and political environment. Despite the critiques justifiably addressed towards them, non-governmental organisations may in some cases be functionally fluid. Communities and people continue to use them strategically in their relations with states, political groups, individuals and receivers of aid, making them potential networking sites in the context of an ongoing occupation.
Full Text Available , New York, USA square4 26 December 2004, Indian Ocean Region square4 29 August 2005, Hurricane Catherine, New Orleans, USA square4 ……….Tsunami, Darfur, Hurricanes, Earthquakes, South African Food Crises, HIV/AIDS pandemic…….. square4 Every year...
The Rise of Digital HumanitariansMapping Haiti LiveSupporting Search And Rescue EffortsPreparing For The Long Haul Launching An SMS Life Line Sending In The Choppers Openstreetmap To The Rescue Post-Disaster Phase The Human Story Doing Battle With Big Data Rise Of Digital Humanitarians This Book And YouThe Rise of Big (Crisis) DataBig (Size) Data Finding Needles In Big (Size) Data Policy, Not Simply Technology Big (False) Data Unpacking Big (False) Data Calling 991 And 999 Big (
security and vulnerability of rural communities have become more predictable and can be monitored effectively. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how current advances in the understanding of climate variability, weather patterns and food security could contribute to improved humanitarian decision-making. The paper will propose new approaches for triggering humanitarian responses to weather-induced food crises.
Smadi, Leena; Sumadi, Aiman Al
The study aimed to review oral and dental health aspects in female patients presented to Jordanian Royal Medical Services (RMS) international humanitarian missions over a 3-year period. Analysis of humanitarian missions of RMS data and records over a 3-year period (2011-2013) in regard to women's oral and dental health issues was done. The data were analyzed in regard to the number of women seen, the presenting conditions, and the prevalence of oral and dental diseases and procedures in these cases. During the 3-year period, 72 missions were deployed in four locations (Gaza, Ram Allah-West Bank, Jeneen-West Bank, and Iraq). The total number of females seen in this period was 86,436 women, accounting for 56 percent of adult patients seen by RMS humanitarian missions. Dental Clinics were deployed to only two missions (Iraq and Gaza), during which they received 13,629 visits; of these, 41 percent were females (5,588 patients), 29 percent were males, and 30 percent were in the pediatric age group. Trauma accounts for only 7 percent of the cases, while nonacute dental problems (caries and gingivitis) were responsible for the majority of cases (31.6 and 28.7 percent, respectively). RMS dental services during humanitarian mission deployment are a vital part of comprehensive healthcare. Women usually seek more dental care than men, with the majority of treatments for nonacute conditions. RMS experiences demonstrate the tremendous need for a well-defined preparedness plan for deployment of humanitarian missions that considers the contributions of all types of health professionals, the appropriate mobile technology to respond to emergent health risks, and a competent workforce ready and able to respond. Such preparation will require our dental education programs to develop disaster preparedness competencies to achieve the desired level of understanding.
Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena
Erikson (1959) proposed a theoretical basis for healthy psychosocial development. His theory posits eight critical conflict situations throughout one's lifetime, each of which can result in a favorable or unfavorable resolution. Autobiographies, memoirs, interviews, personal diaries, and oral histories of 97 international astronauts were content analyzed to assess reported resolutions of Erikson's psychosocial crises, regardless of chronological sequence. We made comparisons across flight phases (before, during, and after), gender, nationality of home space agency, and flight duration. Astronauts reported more favorable than unfavorable outcomes across flight phases and demographic variables. Differences across demographic variables and flight phases, as well as the changes as a result of the flight are discussed.
Russell, C; Russell, W M
To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution
Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca
By importing food and agricultural goods, countries cope with the heterogeneous global water distribution and often rely on water resources available abroad. The virtual displacement of the water used to produce such goods (known as virtual water) connects together, in a global water system, all countries participating to the international trade network. Local food-production crises, having social, economic or environmental origin, propagate in this network, modifying the virtual water trade and perturbing local and global food availability, quantified in terms of virtual water. We analyze here the possible effects of local crises by developing a new propagation model, parsimonious but grounded on data-based and statistically-verified assumptions, whose effectiveness is proved on the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09. The model serves as the basis to propose indicators of crisis impact and country vulnerability to external food-production crises, which highlight that countries with largest water resources have the highest impact on the international trade, and that not only water-scarce but also wealthy and globalized countries are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis reveals that global average vulnerability has increased over time and that stronger effects of crises are now found in countries with low food (and water) availability.
Tjoflåt, Ingrid; Karlsen, Bjørg; Saetre Hansen, Britt
To describe how Norwegian expatriate nurses engaged in humanitarian assignments overseas experience working with the local nurses promoting nursing care in the hospital ward. Western countries have a long tradition of providing nurses with expert knowledge in nursing care for humanitarian projects and international work overseas. Studies from humanitarian mission revealed that health workers rarely acknowledge or use the local knowledge. However, there is a lack of studies highlighting expatriate nurses' experiences working with local nurses to promote nursing care in the hospital ward. This study applies a descriptive explorative qualitative design. The data were collected in 2013 by means of seven semi-structured interviews and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The data analyses revealed three themes related to the expatriate nurses' experiences of working with the local nurses to promote nursing care in the hospital ward: (1) Breaking the code, (2) Colliding worlds and (3) Challenges in sharing knowledge. The findings reflect different challenges when working with the local nurses. Findings indicate valuable knowledge gained about local nursing care and the local health and educational system. They also demonstrate challenges for the expatriate nurses related to the local nursing standard in the wards and using the local nurses' experiences and knowledge when working together. The findings can inform nurses, humanitarian organisations and institutions working overseas regarding the recruitment and the preparation of nurses who want to work cross- culturally or in humanitarian missions overseas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tamara M. ELKANOVA
The interactional-gnostic component of author's conceptual and theoretical model of general humanitarian basis of education provides integration at the level of development of different in the ontologic ways of knowledge of the world, training in associative and figurative thinking, translation from objective external language into internal language of figurative and conceptual models of reality, strengthening of attention to axiological notional content of the received knowledge, formation o...
enforcement of human rights could prevent authoritarian governments from hurting their own populations. On the other hand, the violent protests in Syria...humanitarian intervention in its current form because it "reinforces authoritarianism , hard sovereignty, [and] militarization.൩ Furthermore, he asks...December 2011), p. 48. 78 Philip Cunliffe, Dangerous duties: power, paternalism and the ’responsibility to protect’, Review of International Studies (2010
Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca
The international trade of agricultural goods is associated to the displacement of the water used to produce such goods and embedded in trade as a factor of production. Water virtually exchanged from producing to consuming countries, named virtual water, defines flows across an international network of 'virtual water trade' which enable the assessment of environmental forcings and implications of trade, such as global water savings or country dependencies on foreign water resources. Given the recent expansion of commodity (and virtual water) trade, in both displaced volumes and network structure, concerns have been raised about the exposure to crises of individuals and societies. In fact, if one country had to markedly decrease its export following a socio-economical or environmental crisis, such as a war or a drought, many -if not all- countries would be affected due to a cascade effect within the trade network. The present contribution proposes a mechanistic model describing the propagation of a local crisis into the virtual water trade network, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries. The model, built on data-based assumptions, is tested on the real case study of the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09, when the internal agricultural production (measured as virtual water volume) decreased by 26% and the virtual water export of Argentina dropped accordingly. Crisis propagation and effects on the virtual water trade are correctly captured, showing the way forward to investigations of crises impact and country vulnerability based on the results of the model proposed.
Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis
of professional journalism in existential terms; the second focuses on the weaknesses of the professional model itself; the third defines the crisis in symbolic terms, as a morally problematic relation among journalists, citizens, and power holders. These three crisis frameworks raise different questions...... and professionally relatively robust countries like Finland and Germany, where symbolic issues loom large; to countries like the US, where economic, professional, and symbolic crises seem to coincide -- and are interpreted in large part through the lens of technology; to countries like France, Italy, and the UK......, where crises are seen to coincide but where the roots of crises are seen as predating the rise of the internet and the erosion of existing business models for journalism. Each interpretation of the crisis in Western journalism points to different solutions, from appeals to state intervention in several...
Urhammer, Emil; Røpke, Inge
Since the financial crisis in 2008, a series of publications on macroeconomic responses to the compound crises of the economy and the environment have emerged. Under labels such as green new deal, green growth and the great transition, attempts at offering coherent responses to the crises have been...... discourse theory and narrative analysis and investigates discourses by studying the narratives they produce. The study thus contributes to the long line of analyses on discourses on sustainable economy: empirically, by investigating and analysing a number of macroeconomic proposals for solving the system...
Whether and by what means nations can successfully de-escalate nuclear crises - and avoid the disastrous effects of nuclear war - will remain two of the most critical challenges facing humankind. Whatever the future of superpower relations, the United States, the Soviet Union, and other nations will undoubtedly continue to possess and to threaten the use of nuclear weapons. Moreover, the number of nations with nuclear weapons seems likely to increase. This examines how nations in crises might successfully move back from the brink of nuclear war - and how confidence-building measures might help and hinder the de-escalatory process
Full Text Available Refugee-led humanitarian initiatives by ‘established’ Palestinian refugees in response to the arrival of ‘new’ displaced Syrians to Shatila camp raise key questions about the limitations of the humanitarian system and representations of refugees as passive victims.
The increasing importance of services in SCM leads to a stronger focus on the customer perspective. Donors and beneficiaries are two distinct customer groups of humanitarian supply chains. This paper will analyse how this impacts performance measurement for example in the commonly used balanced scorecard, which includes a customer perspective. Keywords: Performance measurement, Humanitarian logistics, Customer perspective
Sangiamkul, Esther; van Hillegersberg, Jos
This article systematically reviews the literature on using IT (Information Technology) in humanitarian logistics focusing on disaster relief operations. We first discuss problems in humanitarian relief logistics. We then identify the stage and disaster type for each article as well as the article’s
Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the world crises have become more and more intensely and serious. The decoupling phenomenon between the financial flows and commodities flows has shown the political factors involvement in international monetary flows, reflected first of all by the increasing military expenses in the contemporary world economy. The petroleum shocks from ‘74-‘75 years had generated monetary flows of petrodollars that accentuated the international financial assumptions. The financial movements have overlapped to a less currency utilisation in the material trade owing to the fact that the consistent dropping of the world trade stimulated trade by swap. The unbalanced distribution of the international financial liquidities, the chronical disequilibrium of current account balance, approval of high rate of exchange rate volatility and multiple currency approvals explain somewhat the differing economic growth on the world level.
Full Text Available This paper summarises the main results of 10 years of research and development in Humanitarian Demining. The Hudem project focuses on mine detection systems and aims at provided different solutions to support the mine detection operations. Robots using different kind of locomotion systems have been designed and tested on dummy minefields. In order to control these robots, software interfaces, control algorithms, visual positioning and terrain following systems have also been developed. Typical data acquisition results obtained during trial campaigns with robots and data acquisition systems are reported. Lessons learned during the project and future work conclude this paper.
Since 2001, there has been a growing consensus that sexual exploitation and abuse of intended beneficiaries by humanitarian workers is a real and widespread problem that requires governance. Codes of conduct have been promoted as a key mechanism for governing the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers and, ultimately, preventing sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA). This article presents a systematic study of PSEA codes of conduct adopted by humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and how they govern the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers. It draws on Foucault's analytics of governance and speech act theory to examine the findings of a survey of references to codes of conduct made on the websites of 100 humanitarian NGOs, and to analyse some features of the organisation-specific PSEA codes identified. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
Helsloot, I.; Groenendaal, J.
Boin et al. (International Review of Public Administration, 18, 2013, 79) and others propose that public crisis leadership consists of several core tasks, among which crisis decision-making and meaning making stand out in “flash crises.” We however argue that successful leadership during a sudden
Helsloot, I.; Groenendaal, J.
Boin et al. (International Review of Public Administration, 18, 2013, 79) and others propose that public crisis leadership consists of several core tasks, among which crisis decision-making and meaning making stand out in “flash crises.” We however argue that successful leadership during a sudden
International Monetary Fund
Like most transition economies, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Mongolia suffered severe banking crises, which had to be resolved before growth could resume. The macroeconomic and institutional failings that led to these crises are described, and parallels are drawn with the causes of banking crises in industrial and developing countries. Resolving the crises proved technically and politically difficult, and setbacks occurred. Successful resolution required the implementation of a comprehensive and ...
Abstract: UNOSAT is part of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and has been hosted at CERN since 2001. This partnership allows UNOSAT to benefit from CERN's IT infrastructure whenever the situation requires, allowing the UN to be at the forefront of satellite-analysis technology. Specialists in geographic information systems (GIS) and in the analysis of satellite data, supported by IT engineers and policy experts, ensure a dedicated service to the international humanitarian and development communities 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The presentation will give an overview of the variety of activities carried out by UNOSAT over the last 15 years including support to humanitarian assistance and protection of cultural heritage, sustainable water management in Chad and training & capacity development in East Africa and Asia. The talk will be followed at 12:00 by the inauguration of the UNOSAT exhibition, in front of the Users' office. Speaker: Einar Bjor...
Full Text Available Evidence Aid is an international initiative to improve access to reliable evidence that will help people and organisations make well-informed decisions about interventions, actions and strategies in the disaster setting. It focuses on systematic reviews as the most reliable source of research evidence, maximising the power of existing research, avoiding undue emphasis on single studies and reducing the waste associated with research that is ignored or not accessible to decision makers. Evidence Aid is knowledge champion for influencers of the humanitarian sector, including funders, policy makers, NGOs, and humanitarian professionals. Evidence Aid was established by members of the Cochrane Collaboration after the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. It provides access to information relevant to disaster risk reduction, planning, response, recovery, resilience and rehabilitation. This presentation will discuss the need for Evidence Aid, and describes its activities.Find out more about Mike.
This paper focuses on the 'Sri Lankan model' of counter-insurgency and stabilisation and its implications for humanitarian and development actors. The Sri Lanka case shows that discourses, policies and practices associated with 'stabilisation' are not confined to 'fragile state' contexts in which there is heavy (and often militarised) international engagement--even though exemplars such as Afghanistan and Iraq have tended to dominate debates on this issue. Rather than being a single template, the 'stabilisation agenda' takes on very different guises in different contexts, presenting quite specific challenges to humanitarian and development actors. This is particularly true in settings like Sri Lanka, where there is a strong state, which seeks to make aid 'coherent' with its own vision of a militarily imposed political settlement. Working in such environments involves navigating a highly-charged domestic political arena, shaped by concerns about sovereignty, nationalism and struggles for legitimacy. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
Foley, Charles F.
The principal of Concord High School (New Hampshire) recounts the 1985-86 school year's four crises--the visits of teacher-astronaut Christa McAuliffe and Secretary of Education William Bennett, the shooting of a former student, and the Challenger space shuttle explosion. The greatest challenge was resuming the normal schedule and fielding media…
Andersen, Mads Bryde; Lookofsky, Joseph
of these exceptions - e.g. with specific focus on exceptions related to the possible effects of financial crises ("Hardship") - account must also be taken of their interaction in Danish legal theory and practice, not least because Danish courts do not always specify the exact legal principle which they apply when...
While virtually all modern models of exchange rate crises recognise that the decision to abandon an exchange rate peg depends on how harshly policy makers are willing to defend the regime, they virtually never model how the exchange rate is defended. We argue that incorporating both the mechanics of
We show that the diversification of risks at financial institutions has unwelcome effects by increasing the likelihood of systems crises.As a result, complete diversification is not warranted adn the optimal degree of diversification is arbitrarily low.We also identify externalities that cause
I.P. van Staveren (Irene)
textabstractThe paper looks at several financial crises in the past: the Asian financial crisis, the Brazilian, Argentine and Turkish financial crises, around the turn of the last century. Data are analyzed for a 10-year period around these crises. The data include gender indicators (mostly
A A Onosov
Full Text Available Within the framework of the existing scientific approaches, the authors consider the process of ethnization of the Russians’ mass consciousness under the expanding internal and external labor migration in Russia. The article presents the results of the situational analysis and humanitarian expertise of the set of key challenges determined by the migration. Based on the statistics, opinion polls data and expert assessments the article describes the empirical model of the identity of ethnic Russian population of Moscow and the Moscow region as the major centers of attraction for international migrants. The comprehensive analysis of the issues and controversies of the labor migration in the region and relationships of ethnic groups living in the region is preceded by the description of the identity of native inhabitants of the region as perceived by the ethnic Russian population. To measure the identity for the axiological ranking the authors use a number of relatively independent variables besides ethnic (national identity: religious involvement, civilizational orientation, cultural, professional, territorial and other important features. Thus, the authors present a multi-dimensional space of identity, in which each dimension has its specific meaning for personal self-identification and its own scale for assessing particular attributes.
Garfield, Richard; Polonsky, Jonny
The Darfur region of Sudan has been an intense focus of humanitarian concern since rebellions began there early in 2003. In 2004, the US Secretary of State declared that conflict in Darfur represented genocide. Since 2003, many sample surveys and various mortality estimates for Darfur have been made. Nonetheless, confusion and controversy surrounding mortality levels and trends have continued. For this project, results were reviewed from the highest quality field surveys on mortality in Darfur conducted between 2003 and 2008. Trend analysis demonstrated a dramatic decline in mortality over time in Darfur. By 2005, mortality levels had fallen below emergency levels and have continued to decline. Deaths directly due violence have declined as a proportion of all of the deaths in Darfur. Declining mortality in Darfur was not associated with other proximate improvements in well-being, such as improved nutrition. Without large-scale, humanitarian intervention, continuing high rates of mortality due to violence likely would have occurred. If mortality had continued at the high rate documented in 2004, by January 2009, there would have been 330,000 additional deaths. With the humanitarian assistance provided through the United Nations and non-governmental organizations, these people are alive today. A focus on excess deaths among noncombatants may draw attention away from other needs, such as establishing better security, improving service delivery to the displaced, and advocating for internally displaced persons to be reached today and to re-establish their lives and livelihoods tomorrow.
Full Text Available Stories of trafficking into the sex industry in Cambodia are a popular feature in local and international media, academic and development literature, policy and humanitarian debates, social and political discourse, and NGO interventions. These stories are powerful for their ability to evoke deep emotions and outrage from their intended audiences. However, they are equally powerful for the ways in which they can cause harm—namely to already marginalised populations of migrants and people involved in the sex trade either by choice, circumstance or coercion. One of the most contentious contemporary trafficking stories is that of the controversial case of Somaly Mam—the self-declared ‘sex slave’ turned ‘modern-day hero’. This paper outlines Mam’s prolific trajectory of self-representation according to the tropes of sexual humanitarianism and argues that these narratives helped to set in motion one of the most lucrative, and in many ways, most exploitative and problematic anti-trafficking endeavours in Cambodia, to date. The paper concludes with offering suggestions for how the anti-trafficking industry might better address real cases of trafficking and exploitation by focusing on structural violence and systemic injustice rather than on sensationalised humanitarian rhetoric, which can perpetuate harms.
Aciksoz, Salih Can
During the 2013 Gezi protests in Turkey, volunteering health professionals provided on-site medical assistance to protesters faced with police violence characterized by the extensive use of riot control agents. This led to a government crackdown on the medical community and the criminalization of "unauthorized" first aid amidst international criticisms over violations of medical neutrality. Drawing from ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews with health care professionals, and archival research, this article ethnographically analyzes the polarized encounter between the Turkish government and medical professionals aligned with social protest. I demonstrate how the context of "atmospheric violence"-the extensive use of riot control agents like tear gas-brings about new politico-ethical spaces and dilemmas for healthcare professionals. I then analyze how Turkish health professionals framed their provision of health services to protestors in the language of medical humanitarianism, and how the state dismissed their claims to humanitarian neutrality by criminalizing emergency care. Exploring the vexed role that health workers and medical organizations played in the Gezi protests and the consequent political contestations over doctors' ethical, professional, and political responsibilities, this article examines challenges to medical humanitarianism and neutrality at times of social protest in and beyond the Middle East.
Full Text Available SUMMARY: The right to water and sanitation is an inextricable human right. Water and sanitation are critical determinants for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, to reduce the risk of water-related disease and to provide for consumption, cooking and personal and domestic hygienic requirements. The main objective of WASH – (Water supply, Sanitation and Hygenie promotion programmes in disasters is to reduce the transmission of faeco-oral diseases and exposure to disease-bearing vectors through the promotion of: good hygiene practices, the provision of safe drinking water, the reduction of environmental health risks, the conditions that allow people to a healthy life with dignity, comfort and security. Keywords: Water, sanitation, disasters, humanitarian response, hygenie promotion, drainage, vector control, waste disposition
Full Text Available In this paper we are looking at the cause-effect relationship between the economic, financial, demographic and food crises. Crises are interrelated and need to be viewed together, as the effects of one crisis are or may represent causes for another crisis. The current food crisis translates today in food price increases, in the level of health of the population that does not have enough resources for a balanced diet and in obesity problems of the young generation (Romania ranks third among European countries. All these issues with immediate and direct effects over the population in our country have generated our interest to conduct a rigorous and careful observation on the development of the phenomenon of food crisis. Food crisis, its causes and consequences – aging population, the migration of the active population to other countries (especially from the rural areas and the agglomeration of the disadvantaged population in certain geographical areas, can cause social and economic imbalances.
The statistical foundation of disaster risk analysis is past experience. From a scientific perspective, history is just one realization of what might have happened, given the randomness and chaotic dynamics of Nature. Stochastic analysis of the past is an exploratory exercise in counterfactual history, considering alternative possible scenarios. In particular, the dynamic perturbations that might have transitioned a volcano from an unrest to an eruptive state need to be considered. The stochastic modeling of past volcanic crises leads to estimates of eruption probability that can illuminate historical volcanic crisis decisions. It can also inform future economic risk management decisions in regions where there has been some volcanic unrest, but no actual eruption for at least hundreds of years. Furthermore, the availability of a library of past eruption probabilities would provide benchmark support for estimates of eruption probability in future volcanic crises.
There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.
Felipe Amin Filomeno
Full Text Available O final do século XIX foi marcado, para Brasil e Argentina, por crescimento e instabilidade na economia. Neste período, ocorreram duas importantes crises econômicas, que ficaram conhecidas como crise Baring (na Argentina e crise do Encilhamento (no Brasil. Este artigo tem o objetivo de apresentar as conexões existentes entre essas duas crises e a conjuntura da economia-mundo capitalista das últimas décadas do século XIX, enfatizando o problema da dívida externa e da política econômica, e re-organizando algumas contribuições da historiografia econômica por meio da metodologia da "encompassing comparison" e da teoria dos ciclos mundiais de endividamento. O artigo mostra que ambas as crises estiveram condicionadas pela dinâmica da economia-mundo capitalista, especialmente pelos fluxos mundiais de capital, não sendo resultados exclusivos de políticas econômicas nacionais.The end of the 19th century was characterized by economic growth and instability in Brazil and Argentina. In this period, two important economic crises took place - the Baring Crisis (in Argentina and the Encilhamento Crisis (in Brazil. The aim of this paper is to present the connections between these two crises and the dynamics of the capitalist world-economy of the end of the 19th century, focusing on the problems of external debt and economic policy and re-organizing some contributions of economic historiography through the methodology of "encompassing comparison" and of the world debt cycles' theory. The paper concludes that both crises were influenced by the dynamics of the capitalist world-economy, especially by the international flows of capital, and that they were not exclusive results of national economic policies.
This is a review of Patrick Meier's 2015 book, Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. The book explores the role of technologies such as high-resolution satellite imagery, online social media, drones, and artificial intelligence in humanitarian responses during disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this analysis, the book is examined using a humanitarian health ethics perspective.
Fox, John G
The U.S.-led military intervention in Somalia, which began in 1992, had profound consequences for how the United States would view later humanitarian operations overseas and the use of military force, in general...
Sullivan, Donna Marie.
Due to the increasing demand on the military to conduct humanitarian operations, the need for logistics planning factors that are applicable to these operations has arisen. This thesis develops a model for humanitarian operations and employs the model to develop logistics planning factors for material consumption and a computer-assisted planning aid relating to the support of the victim population. U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.
organization consisted of military and civilian leadership, which managed the Pacification Programs throughout Vietnam. This program was a historic example...assistance efforts. The directorate that manages humanitarian assistance operations varies from theater to theater. The J9 Directorate labeled as either...2012) 12 (JP) 3-07.3, I-6. 13 A. Cooper Drury et al, The Politics of Humanitarian Aid: U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, 1964-1995, (Cambridge
Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of
This article describes the dissemination and knowledge transfer activities of Evidence Aid, which was established after the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 to provide a single source of evidence that would help people make well-informed decisions when preparing for and responding to disasters. Evidence Aid has a dedicated website (www.EvidenceAid.org) to provide access to more than 160 systematic reviews and several other documents relevant to people working on disaster risk reduction, planning, response, recovery, rehabilitation, and resilience. It combines this with a social media presence and Special Collections that bundle together related Cochrane Reviews (www.TheCochraneLibrary.com). The aim is to make it easier for users who need this evidence and don't have time to browse through multiple documents and distill them before making their decisions. Evidence Aid will continue to identify and share resources and knowledge with those who most need it at the time that they need it most. It is working with several partners to identify relevant Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews and is engaging with users who, by sharing their information and their knowledge needs, will allow Evidence Aid to target its efforts to these priority areas. © 2014 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
E I Ganshina
Full Text Available The article is devoted to Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation in the 90-ies of XX century. The author emphasizes the special importance of humanitarian cooperation between Russia and China for the promotion of national interests and the expansion of Russia's presence in China after the collapse of the USSR, as well as creating a positive image of the Russian state in China by applying the mechanism of “soft power”. The author notes that the 90-ies of XX century were the starting point of cooperation between Russia and China in the humanitarian sphere, it laid the legal foundation of Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation, moreover, the main directions and priorities of cooperation between the two countries in the humanitarian field have been identified. However, the author stresses that the practical realization of the objectives of the signed intergovernmental documents was carried out in an insufficiently wide format. And the main reason is the deep socio-economic crisis, which Russia had faced after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and, as a consequence, the lack of funding for joint Russian-Chinese projects in the humanitarian field.
Buck, Holly Jean
Climate engineering, or geoengineering, refers to large-scale climate interventions to lower the earth's temperature, either by blocking incoming sunlight or removing carbon dioxide from the biosphere. Regarded as ‘technofixes’ by critics, these strategies have evoked concern that they would extend the shelf life of fossil-fuel driven socio-ecological systems for far longer than they otherwise would, or should, endure. A critical reading views geoengineering as a class project that is designed to keep the climate system stable enough for existing production systems to continue operating. This article first examines these concerns, and then goes on to envision a regime driven by humanitarian agendas and concern for vulnerable populations, implemented through international development and aid institutions. The motivations of those who fund research and implement geoengineering techniques are important, as the rationale for developing geoengineering strategies will determine which techniques are pursued, and hence which ecologies are produced. The logic that shapes the geoengineering research process could potentially influence social ecologies centuries from now.
Full Text Available A comprehensive online learning programme with more than 200 courses was built by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies between starting with 2009 and 2015, offering development opportunities to the Red Cross and Red Crescent (RCRC volunteers and staff to broaden their understanding, to strengthen their organisations, and to be better prepared in providing humanitarian aid. While it is difficult to say to what extent factors such as training, job mentoring, and induction programmes contribute to job performance and to an organisation’s efficiency, it is certain that staff and volunteers willing to undertake courses are more open to transformative and creative approaches, more prepared to tackle with new challenges, more likely to have a stock of knowledge and competencies broader than their own specialisation. Learning and “knowing to learn” are conditions for competitiveness and high performance. Over time, generally speaking, implementation of training as a priority personnel policy proved to have the most significant effects on productivity growth, therefore, efforts towards building a learning culture and delivering quality (online learning are key for developing organisations, their staff, and the quality of services provided. An online training would make a significant difference in learners’ behaviour if it follows several practical guidelines in development, accompanied by thorough checklists to ensure relevance, consistency, alignment and to assist training programmes’ lifecycle.
Diseases that cause comparatively few problems in developed countries kill millions of people in the Third World each year. In many cases, people die because they cannot afford the medication needed to save their lives. In others, there are simply no drugs available because there are no wealthy western patients to justify pharmaceutical companies investing in a cure. This reveals a deep-seated problem within the patent system and the pharmaceutical industry that emphasises markets and profits at the expense of health and global welfare. Global efforts have seen substantial improvements in access to medicines in isolated areas, but with international agreements driving towards stronger patent protection and the expiry date for the TRIPS grace period fast approaching, it is time to consider alternatives which will allow the patent system to work for the humanitarian cause rather than against it. This paper considers two such problems in the patent system and pharmaceutical industry - prohibitive pricing and misdirected incentives - to offer a mode of regulation and enforcement that will support both a viable pharmaceutical industry and the human right to health and medication.
This paper concerns the manner in which the West is responding to protracted political crises beyond its borders. It examines the conceptual world-view that aid agencies bring to complex emergencies and which shapes action. The paper provides an analysis of developmentalism. That is, the currently dominant idea of development which is an adapted form of multiculturalism. It is based on the empowerment of cultural differences and the relativisation of progress. As a variant of multiculturalism, developmentalism is part of Western racial discourse. In terms of understanding conflict, it establishes a mirror-image relationship with new rascist ideas premised on cultural pluralism inevitably leading to social breakdown, violence and anarchy. To the contrary, with its functional view of social harmony, libertine developmentalism claims that even unresolved political crisis constitutes a development opportunity. Developmentalism, like culturalism generally, is incapable of analysing power. It therefore cannot understand the effects and significance of its own organisational forms. Moreover, since the absence of power translates into operational neutrality in a war zone, it is also unable to analyse the nature of new political formations emerging in the global periphery. That is, the so-called weak or failed states, warlords and so on. This functional ignorance has allowed a widespread incorporation of humanitarian aid into the fabric of political violence. Developmentalism is an essential underpinning for the growing organisational accommodation to ongoing conflict and eroding standards of justice and accountability.
Research on organizational crises has typically focused on case studies or measures for crisis prevention, while the social dimension of crises has remained largely unexplored. In some rare exceptions, differences in the efficacy of reactive strategies depending on the type of crisis have been reported. However, the mechanisms behind these differences remain unclear. This paper aims to fill this gap by arguing that organizational crises and effective reactions are linked by different dimensio...
Schermuly, Carsten C; Draheim, Michael; Glasberg, Ronald; Stantchev, Vladimir; Tamm, Gerrit; Hartmann, Michael; Hessel, Franz
Background The complexity of providing medical care in a high-tech environment with a highly specialized, limited labour force makes hospitals more crisis-prone than other industries. An effective defence against crises is only possible if the organizational resilience and the capacity to handle crises become part of the hospitals? organizational culture. To become more resilient to crises, a raised awareness?especially in the area of human resource (HR)?is necessary. The aim of this paper is...
Full Text Available L’Union européenne est durement affectée par la crise des dettes souveraines. Cette crise peut être interprétée comme la conséquence de plusieurs faits importants : une absence de leadership européen, des inégalités fortes parfois anciennes entre les performances macroéconomiques des pays membres, des faiblesses structurelles déjà observables avant la crise dans certains pays. Mais le principal facteur de fragilité de l’Union européenne réside dans sa division interne. Tant que la problématique de l’intégration européenne ne sera pas appropriée par les citoyens européens eux-mêmes et tant que certaines politiques ne seront pas davantage coordonnées, l’Union restera sur le fil du rasoir. Cette crise met en lumière l’essoufflement d’un certain modèle d’intégration. Dans cet article, on explore ces problématiques avec un regard géographique.
Münzberger, C.; Stingl, Verena; Oehmen, Josef
This paper introduces adaptive heuristics as a tool to identify crises in design projects and highlights potential applications of these heuristics as decision support tool for crisis identification. Crises may emerge slowly or suddenly, and often have ambiguous signals. Thus the identification...... for the application of heuristics in design sciences. To achieve this, the paper compares crises to 'business as usual', and presents sixteen indicators for emerging crises. These indicators are potential cues for adaptive heuristics. Specifically three adaptive heuristics, One-single-cue, Fast-and-Frugal-Trees...
Balfour, Margaret E; Tanner, Kathleen; Jurica, Paul J; Rhoads, Richard; Carson, Chris A
Crisis and emergency psychiatric services are an integral part of the healthcare system, yet there are no standardized measures for programs providing these services. We developed the Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES) framework to create measures that inform internal performance improvement initiatives and allow comparison across programs. The framework consists of two components-the CRISES domains (timely, safe, accessible, least-restrictive, effective, consumer/family centered, and partnership) and the measures supporting each domain. The CRISES framework provides a foundation for development of standardized measures for the crisis field. This will become increasingly important as pay-for-performance initiatives expand with healthcare reform.
Full Text Available Piecemeal fragmented strategies cannot address the pressing challenges facing humanity today. Economic theory has to be radically reinvented to squarely face the reality of rising unemployment, widening inequalities, growing ecological threats, frustrated social aspirations and unmet human needs. Monetary and fiscal policies are too crude and insufficient to steer the essential change of course required to address multidimensional demographic, ecological, economic, political and social crises. New values are needed to guide policy formulation and new institutions are needed to support peaceful social evolution and inclusive, equitable development in an increasingly globalized and interconnected world.
Alcir Bernardez Pecora
O artigo debate a situação contemporânea das humanidades num mundo de crise econômica, onde são elas as primeiras áreas a sofrer cortes orçamentários, bem como a perda da autonomia das Universidades com o atual processo de dependência de seus programas dos fundos advindos das agências de financiamento de pesquisa acadêmica. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Alcir Bernardez Pecora
Full Text Available O artigo debate a situação contemporânea das humanidades num mundo de crise econômica, onde são elas as primeiras áreas a sofrer cortes orçamentários, bem como a perda da autonomia das Universidades com o atual processo de dependência de seus programas dos fundos advindos das agências de financiamento de pesquisa acadêmica. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Sales de Gauzy, J; Trinchero, J-F; Jouve, J-L
Pediatric orthopedic surgery in humanitarian aid is conducted mainly in cooperation with emerging countries. Each mission is different, and depends on numerous parameters such as the country, the frequency of such missions, the pathologies encountered, the local structure and team, and the non-governmental organization (NGO) involved. Pathologies vary in etiology (tuberculosis, poliomyelitis) and severity. Each mission requires the presence of an experienced surgeon. Working conditions are often rudimentary. Surgical indications should be restricted to procedures that are going to be effective, with minimal postoperative complications, without any surgical "acrobatics". Teaching should be in association with the local university, and adapted to local needs. Mission objectives need to be realistic. Surgical indications should be adapted to local conditions, and the surgeon needs to be able to say "no" to procedures involving undue risk. The surgeon on mission should cooperate with local teams and be able to adapt to unusual situations. Assessment of results is essential to improving efficacy and evaluating the success of the mission. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Chiumento, Anna; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy
ABSTRACT Purpose: Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Method: Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented. Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country. Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. Results: A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples. Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure. Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Conclusions: Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice. These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing. PMID:29532739
Chiumento, Anna; Machin, Laura; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy
Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented. Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country. Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples. Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure. Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice. These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing.
Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia
commitment is at the basis of positive employee communicative actions, like advocacy and positive referrals, which finally protect the company’s reputation. After a theoretical exploration of these issues, this chapter presents first a case study showing how continuous internal communication efforts...... and factual communication based on managers’ and company’s actions are crucial in order to build quality relationships with employees. In turn, this leads to positive employee communicative actions when a crisis occurs. Second, it illustrates a survey of Italian companies which examined internal crisis...... reputation. The chapter concludes that employee communicative actions are fundamental in order to protect the company’s reputation in case of crises. In addition, during crises it is important to sustain the positive relationship capital developed during the pre-crisis phase by means of accommodative...
Full Text Available Europe faces challenges reminiscent of Latin American financial crises, namely unsustainable sovereign spreads, banking system distress, sudden stops in capital flows and growth rate collapse. The failure of recent liquidity support to normalize the situation suggests the need to refocus the policy debate on fundamentals: structural reform for growth and, where needed, restructuring to resolve banking crises and the debt overhang. Latin America’s experience yields relevant policy lessons for Europe on all these fronts, tempered only by the slight exception that sharp real devaluation, which was key to spearheading recovery in Latin America, is unfeasible in the eurozone. Struggling eurozone countries are caught between a rock and a hard place, as the currency union imposes strict policy constraints while the reintroduction of national currencies under conditions of crisis would be catastrophic. Nevertheless, contemporary Europe stands a better chance of recovery because, in contrast with the Latin America experience, the European Union possesses greater avenues for international cooperation. With respect to financial support, a resourceful European Central Bank able to avoid chaotic adjustment by brute force is a decisive advantage of Europe relative to Latin America, which only had access to the weaker and less reliable IMF. Arguably, the limited nature of external support strongly contributed to the depth of Latin America’s great collapses. European cooperation can explore and exhaust alternatives to a euro exit to the benefit of all union members and, if dissolution becomes unavoidable, ensure amicable support to ease the transition. The path to success remains uncharted, however, and implementation of the necessary regional mechanisms will require innovation and political will. If the available means of cooperation are not used effectively, crisis countries in Europe may fare worse than those in Latin America.
Schermuly, Carsten C; Draheim, Michael; Glasberg, Ronald; Stantchev, Vladimir; Tamm, Gerrit; Hartmann, Michael; Hessel, Franz
The complexity of providing medical care in a high-tech environment with a highly specialized, limited labour force makes hospitals more crisis-prone than other industries. An effective defence against crises is only possible if the organizational resilience and the capacity to handle crises become part of the hospitals' organizational culture. To become more resilient to crises, a raised awareness--especially in the area of human resource (HR)--is necessary. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the process robustness against crises through the identification and evaluation of relevant HR crises and their causations in hospitals. Qualitative and quantitative methods were combined to identify and evaluate crises in hospitals in the HR sector. A structured workshop with experts was conducted to identify HR crises and their descriptions, as well as causes and consequences for patients and hospitals. To evaluate the findings, an online survey was carried out to rate the occurrence (past, future) and dangerousness of each crisis. Six HR crises were identified in this study: staff shortages, acute loss of personnel following a pandemic, damage to reputation, insufficient communication during restructuring, bullying, and misuse of drugs. The highest occurrence probability in the future was seen in staff shortages, followed by acute loss of personnel following a pandemic. Staff shortages, damage to reputation, and acute loss of personnel following a pandemic were seen as the most dangerous crises. The study concludes that coping with HR crises in hospitals is existential for hospitals and requires increased awareness. The six HR crises identified occurred regularly in German hospitals in the past, and their occurrence probability for the future was rated as high.
Livorati, André L.P., E-mail: email@example.com [Departamento de Física, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Instituto de Física, IFUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, Rua do Matão, Tr.R 187, Cidade Universitária, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Caldas, Iberê L. [Instituto de Física, IFUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, Rua do Matão, Tr.R 187, Cidade Universitária, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dettmann, Carl P. [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Leonel, Edson D. [Departamento de Física, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)
Highlights: • We studied a dissipative bouncing ball dynamics. • A two-dimensional nonlinear mapping describes the dynamics. • Crises between attractors and its manifolds were characterized. • A new physical crisis between vibrating platform and an attractor was characterized. • The existence of a ‘robust’ chaotic attractor was set. - Abstract: The dynamics of a bouncing ball model under the influence of dissipation is investigated by using a two-dimensional nonlinear mapping. When high dissipation is considered, the dynamics evolves to different attractors. The evolution of the basins of the attracting fixed points is characterized, as we vary the control parameters. Crises between the attractors and their boundaries are observed. We found that the multiple attractors are intertwined, and when the boundary crisis between their stable and unstable manifolds occurs, it creates a successive mechanism of destruction for all attractors originated by the sinks. Also, a physical impact crisis is described, an important mechanism in the reduction of the number of attractors.
Full Text Available No contexto de elevada incerteza decorrente da crise econômica mundial, é inevitável que surjam comparações entre o momento atual e a experiência dramática da Grande Depressão, que subverteu o mundo entre 1929 e 1933. Mas, apesar das perdas financeiras e da desaceleração da economia, a disposição para a intervenção estatal é hoje um elemento determinante que diferencia nitidamente as iniciativas da política econômica. Este é um fator decisivo que projeta um futuro menos sombrio para a evolução da crise atual.In the current context of high uncertainty, many parallels have been traced between the economic crisis of 2008 and the Great Depression, that stirred the world between 1929 e 1933. However, despite the financial losses that recently occurred, the disposition for state intervention in our days is much higher and thus an important element in the formulation of economic policies. This is a difference that suggests a less catastrophic outcome to the current crisis.
Full Text Available This article explores prospects of using Ubuntu and Capabilities Approach to expand the scope of humanitarian action, to design one which serves humanity better even in the absence of disaster to essentially fulfil human development needs. It is considerate of the fact that humanitarian works contributes immensely in determining the extent to which humanity thrives. The traditional view on humanitarianism presupposes action-driven initiatives geared towards devising interventions to restore or reinforce human social order, improve livelihoods and quality of life. In sociological terms, human development is dependent on realizing and safeguarding, amongst others, human well-being, civil liberties and social security. The article utilizes core values enshrined in Ubuntu, Africa’s historic philosophy of life, and Amartya Sen’s Capabilities Approach as tools of analysis, with the view to expressing how to operationalize what should be considered stable humanitarian conditions and human well-being. Owing to persistent socio-economic challenges, especially the poverty problem, it is asserted that humanitarian action ought to depart from being a post-disaster intervention strategy, to being a pro-active and preventative pre-disaster orientated action, intended to nurture well-being and resultantly enable human development.
Shaw, Malcolm N
International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.
Korff, Valeska P.; Balbo, Nicoletta; Mills, Melinda; Heyse, Liesbet; Wittek, Rafael
High employee turnover rates constitute a major challenge to effective aid provision. This study examines how features of humanitarian work and aid workers' individual characteristics affect retention within one humanitarian organisation, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) Holland. The study extends
Caroline Abu Sa’Da
Full Text Available The massive and continuing flows of Syrian and Palestinian refugees to Syria’s neighbours have shown the limitations of humanitarian practice and present new challenges for medical and humanitarian interventions.
... Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace, Announcement of Request for..., Policy and Technical Division, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian...
Tamea, S.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.
In recent years, the international trade of food and agricultural commodities has undergone a marked increase of exchanged volumes and an expansion of the trade network. This globalization of trade has both positive and negative effects, but the interconnectedness and external dependency of countries generate complex dynamics which are often difficult to understand and model. In this study we consider the volume of water used for the production of agricultural commodities, virtually exchanged among countries through commodity trade, i.e. the virtual water trade. Then, we set up a parsimonious mechanistic model describing the propagation, into the global trade network, of food-production crises generated locally by a social, economic or environmental event (such as war, economic crisis, drought, pest). The model, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries, bases on rules derived from observed virtual water flows and on data-based and statistically verified assumption. It is also tested on real case studies that prove its capability to capture the main features of crises propagation. The model is then employed as the basis for the development of an index of country vulnerability, measuring the exposure of countries to crises propagating in the virtual water trade network. Results of the analysis are discussed within the context of socio-economic and environmental conditions of countries, showing that not only water-scarce, but also wealthy and globalized countries, are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis for the period 1986-2011 reveals that the global average vulnerability has strongly increased over time, confirming the increased exposure of countries to external crises which may occur in the virtual water trade network.
This dissertation is about currency and related financial crises such as the contagious Southeast Asian crisis of 1997 or Argentina's collapse and default in 2001. It argues that key to understanding these crises is the doubt that they inflict on market participants about the intentions and actions
Oropeza, Barbara A. Clark; And Others
Notes that student services professionals manage a number of mental health crises as part of their job responsibilities. Examines some issues that arise from assisting foreign college students experiencing such crises, with special focus on psychiatric committal, withdrawal from school, and return to the home country. (Author)
Berger, A.N.; Bouwman, C.H.S.
This paper empirically examines how capital affects a bank’s performance (survival and market share) and how this effect varies across banking crises, market crises, and normal times that occurred in the US over the past quarter century. We have two main results. First, capital helps small banks to
Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra
.... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately 2 million Iraqis who have been displaced within Iraq itself...
Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra
.... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...
Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra
.... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...
As a result of civilian deaths in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Chechnya, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq and Lebanon, cluster munitions have been recognised to pose a grave threat to civilian populations because of their limited precision and problematically high rate of initial failure to explode. Efforts are intensifying to ban cluster munitions and to mandate those who have discharged them to defuse them effectively so as to reduce the risks to civilians. This editorial reviews these efforts and identifies a need for them to be actively supported by both the legal and medical communities.
sont inadéquates, surannées et doivent être révisées. Une école de pensée soutient que l’obstacle principal à la protection de femmes civiles au cours d’hostilités est l’inobservation du DIH existant. Une deuxième école de pensée croit qu’il faut quelque chose de plus fondamental pour atteindre le but de protéger les femmes civiles pendant une guerre : la révision et la reconceptualisation du DIH pour tenir compte de l’inégalité systématique entre les sexes. Cet article examine l’état de ce débat dans trois domaines du DIH que plusieurs considèrent être des aspects légaux qui se situent au centre de l’expérience de femmes civiles prises dans un conflit armé : les dispositions générales contre la discrimination, la protection spécifique aux femmes civiles contre la violence sexuelle et la protection spécifique de femmes enceintes et de mères. On conclut que quoiqu’un débat animé ait été tenu au sein de cercles féministes en rapport avec la suffisance des dispositions existantes du DIH, l’action principale a eu tendance à être concentrée sur l’application de la loi. C’est malheureux, car cela signifie que certaines intuitions quant à l’impact sur le conflit d’inégalités profondes entre les sexes demeurent en grande partie inexplorées.
The tendency today to privatise many activities hitherto considered the exclusive preserve of the state has given rise to sharp debate. The specific nature of humanitarian emergencies elucidates in particularly stark contrast some of the main challenges connected to the privatisation and outsourcing of essential public services, such as the provision of drinking water and health care. Privatising the realms of defence and security, which are at the very core of state prerogative, raises several legal and humanitarian concerns. This article focuses on the roles and responsibilities of the various parties involved in armed conflicts, especially those of private companies engaged in security, intelligence and interrogation work, and in the provision of water supply and health services. It highlights the need for humanitarian and development actors to grasp better the potential risks and opportunities related to privatisation and outsourcing with a view to supplying effective protection and assistance to communities affected by war.
...] Extension of the Application Deadline for Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program AGENCY: United States Patent and... Trademark Office (USPTO) announced the Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program, which recognizes patent holders... extending the deadline for applications to the Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program by two months until October...
JUAN FRANCISCO LOBO FERNÁNDEZ
Full Text Available After analyzing war as an institutional fact, and particularly humanitarian intervention as a way of Just War, this article studies the current humanitarian crisis in Syria to determine if an eventual humanitarian intervention would be considered as a Just War.
Susan F. Martin
In June 2016, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) announced that more than 65 million persons have fled conflict and persecution. While certainly large in its own right, the number actually underestimates displacement in today’s world. Many millions more are displaced each year and cumulatively from a much broader range of life-threatening humanitarian crises than are captured by UNHCR’s figures. An average of 26.4 million were displaced annually by acute natural hazards...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health needs of children and adolescents in humanitarian emergencies are critical to the success of relief efforts and reduction in mortality. Measles has been one of the major causes of child deaths in humanitarian emergencies and further contributes to mortality by exacerbating malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. Here, we review measles vaccination activities in humanitarian emergencies as documented in published literature. Our main interest was to review the available evidence focusing on the target age range for mass vaccination campaigns either in response to a humanitarian emergency or in response to an outbreak of measles in a humanitarian context to determine whether the current guidance required revision based on recent experience. Methods We searched the published literature for articles published from January 1, 1998 to January 1, 2010 reporting on measles in emergencies. As definitions and concepts of emergencies vary and have changed over time, we chose to consider any context where an application for either a Consolidated Appeals Process or a Flash Appeal to the UN Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF occurred during the period examined. We included publications from countries irrespective of their progress in measles control as humanitarian emergencies may occur in any of these contexts and as such, guidance applies irrespective of measles control goals. Results Of the few well-documented epidemic descriptions in humanitarian emergencies, the age range of cases is not limited to under 5 year olds. Combining all data, both from preventive and outbreak response interventions, about 59% of cases in reports with sufficient data reviewed here remain in children under 5, 18% in 5-15 and 2% above 15 years. In instances where interventions targeted a reduced age range, several reports concluded that the age range should have been extended to 15 years, given that a significant proportion of cases occurred
Maurilio Lima Botelho
Full Text Available O artigo procura retomar o tema da crise do trabalho discutindo três dimensões: o papel do desenvolvimento tecnológico na eliminação de postos de trabalho; a constante transformação nos processos produtivos que cria instabilidade no emprego e a improdutividade progressiva da força de trabalho mundial. Essas reflexões são a base para uma discussão mais ampla sobre a crise da sociedade do trabalho, isto é, a contradição estrutural que enfrentamos hoje de uma sociedade que tornou o trabalho como mecanismo básico de socialização, mas mobiliza todos os meios para eliminá-lo.
Full Text Available Abstract At the end of the 1990s, researchers involved in the debate on the new wars introduced discussion about the urban dimension of contemporary conflicts into the International Relations discipline. The innovative debate about urban fragility is one of the many lines of inquiry that emerge within the framework of the relationship between cities and contemporary conflicts. This paper seeks to demonstrate that the concept of ‘fragile city’ offers a new and relevant analytical framework for understanding contemporary urban violence and inequality. Moreover, this same concept could also be instrumental in making fragile cities the new locus of international humanitarianism. The notion of fragile city emerges to describe new emergency situations more closely linked to urban contexts than to national dynamics, as previously described in the literature on fragile states. The concept of fragile city is a groundbreaking tool for understanding the human consequences of inequality in urban settings, but might also be used as a rhetorical vehicle for the reproduction of old dynamics and the inauguration of new intervention practices in urban areas that were previously inaccessible to humanitarian action, especially cities in Latin America.
Full Text Available Based on a short field research conducted at the refugee transit center in Slavonski Brod, the paper analyzes contemporary asylum policies in Croatia. The author is suggesting that the structure and function of a centre plays a crucial role in the securitization and humanitarization of the asylum policy. The analysis has shown that the asylum policy in Croatia has the same structure as the dominant asylum policies in Europe. Both of them oscillate between two poles: compassion and repression. Humanitarian policy in Croatia is more restrictive and is based on radical inequality, nationalism, racism, the suspension of rights and the normalization of structural violence. Due to its exclusive national focus, it will not provide any long term solutions for dealing with refugees in the future.
Letícia P D Mortoza
Full Text Available Capital flows are responsible for a strong influence on the foreign exchange rates and stock prices macroeconomic parameters. In volatile economies, capital flows can change due to several types of social, political and economic events, provoking oscillations on these parameters, which are recognized as economic crises. This work aims to investigate how these two macroeconomic variables are related with crisis events by using the traditional complex measures due to Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC and to Shiner-Davison-Landsberg (SDL, that can be applied to any temporal series. Here, Ibovespa (Bovespa Stock Exchange main Index and the "dollar-real" parity are the background for calculating the LMC and SDL complexity measures. By analyzing the temporal evolution of these measures, it is shown that they might be related to important events that occurred in the Brazilian economy.
Mortoza, Letícia P D; Piqueira, José R C
Capital flows are responsible for a strong influence on the foreign exchange rates and stock prices macroeconomic parameters. In volatile economies, capital flows can change due to several types of social, political and economic events, provoking oscillations on these parameters, which are recognized as economic crises. This work aims to investigate how these two macroeconomic variables are related with crisis events by using the traditional complex measures due to Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) and to Shiner-Davison-Landsberg (SDL), that can be applied to any temporal series. Here, Ibovespa (Bovespa Stock Exchange main Index) and the "dollar-real" parity are the background for calculating the LMC and SDL complexity measures. By analyzing the temporal evolution of these measures, it is shown that they might be related to important events that occurred in the Brazilian economy.
Schultz, Nils Voisin
Cet article examine les caractères idéologique et affectif de deux essais écrits respectivement par Alain Finkielkraut et Richard Millet sur la crise actuelle du vivre-ensemble en France. Les deux penseurs critiquent la société multiculturelle, mais alors que pour Finkielkraut cette société est une...... chance pour la France à condition que le dialogue interculturel soit renforcé et que l’idée d’une culture française y garde sa place, elle reste pour Millet une impossibilité. L’enjeu de l’analyse est de dévoiler la capacité des discours à générer par l’affectivité une peur capable d’intensifier l’argumentation...
How economic crises impact the boundaries of firms has been offered virtually no attention in the literature on the theory of the firm. I review the best-known theories of the firm and identify the variables that matter for the explanation of firm boundaries. I then examine how an economic crisis...... may impact these variables and change efficient firm boundaries. The various theories of the firm have difficulties explaining how firms efficiently adapt their boundaries to such prominent characteristics of economic crisis as declining demand and increased costs of external finance. However, all...... these theories stress uncertainty as an antecedent of firm organization, and as uncertainty is also an important characteristic of an economic crisis I examine how uncertainty is allowed to play out in the various theories in order to identify what predictions we can derive from the theory regarding changes...
Kaoru Hosono; Hiroko Iwaki; Kotaro Tsuru
We investigate the effectiveness of market discipline by depositors during the period of 1992-2002 in the four crisis-hit Asian countries: Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. In Indonesia, the crises first weakened and then strengthened market, which is consistent with the wake-up-call effect found for the Latin American crisis-hit countries (Martinez Peria and Schmukler, 2001). Unlike Indonesia, we could not find an increase in depositors' responsiveness to bank risk after the crisis in...
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This paper provides an empirical analysis of the role of financial development and financial integration in the growth dynamics of transition countries. We focus on the role of financial integration in determining the impact of financial development on growth, distinguishing “normal times” from periods of financial crises. In addition to confirming the significant positive effect on growth exerted by financial development and financial integration, our estimates show that a higher degree of financial openness tends to reduce the contractionary effect of financial crises, by cushioning the effect on the domestic supply of credit. Consequently, the high reliance on international capital flows by transition countries does not necessarily increase their financial fragility. This implies that financial protectionism is a self-defeating policy, at least for transition countries.
Cristian - Sorin Prună
Full Text Available The defining marks of the thesis regard the creation of new scientific premises, that shouldstructure the approached issue – crises management by relating it to the present international contextcoordinates. The suggested approach has the purpose of establishing the elements which define crisisand of highlighting specific issues in the crisis management process (including in what the states’participation at maintaining peace operations and multinational operations deployed in differenttheatres of war. In the effort of organising such a scientifical background, we have tried to realizeclear, concise delimitations, by the research method – the study and analysis of the determinantfactors and conflicts. Thus, we have disclosed the characteristics of the situation and crisis state, therequirements and the stages in the crises situation management process, its characteristics,customizing the circumstances which contribute to planning the answers and establishing themoments favourable to the abolishment of the crisis or preserving it in a balance that should allowsubsequent diffuses.
Full Text Available It’s disclosed the features of the international government securities market during 1993 – 2012: main players are the developed countries (Western Europe, Canada, USA with the increasing role of developing countries; debt crises have the negative impact as on the development of the international government securities market, but also on the international capital market as a whole; debt crises are not a spontaneous phenomenon, and usually occur as a result of inadequate growth in GDP increasing government debt.
Full Text Available Institutions play a central role in advancing the field of reproductive health in humanitarian settings (RHHS, yet little is known about organizational capacity to deliver RHHS and how this has developed over the past decade. This study aimed to document the current institutional experiences and capacities related to RHHS.Descriptive study using an online questionnaire tool.Respondents represented 82 institutions from 48 countries, of which two-thirds originated from low-and middle-income countries. RHHS work was found not to be restricted to humanitarian agencies (25%, but was also embraced by development organizations (25% and institutions with dual humanitarian and development mandates (50%. Agencies reported working with refugees (81%, internally-displaced (87% and stateless persons (20%, in camp-based settings (78%, and in urban (83% and rural settings (78%. Sixty-eight percent of represented institutions indicated having an RHHS-related policy, 79% an accountability mechanism including humanitarian work, and 90% formal partnerships with other institutions. Seventy-three percent reported routinely appointing RH focal points to ensure coordination of RHHS implementation. There was reported progress in RHHS-related disaster risk reduction (DRR, emergency management and coordination, delivery of the Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP for RH, comprehensive RH services in post-crisis/recovery situations, gender mainstreaming, and community-based programming. Other reported institutional areas of work included capacity development, program delivery, advocacy/policy work, followed by research and donor activities. Except for abortion-related services, respondents cited improved efforts in advocacy, capacity development and technical support in their institutions for RHHS to address clinical services, including maternal and newborn health, sexual violence prevention and response, HIV prevention, management of sexually-transmitted infections
Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen
to 1 bandwidth with a return loss better than 10 dB from 0.4 to 3.8 GHz is presented. A wideband balun covering the frequency range of the antenna was developed. The constructed spiral antenna is very useful in a stepped frequency ground penetrating radar for humanitarian demining due to the very...
Wijnmaalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Johannes T.
Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such
Full Text Available The Fleet Forum, a group of more than 40 aid agencies, is working to slash by 25% the annual $800 million cost of running some 60,000 vehicles. Darfur has shown the need to work together to achieve more cost-efficient and safe humanitarian transport.
Full Text Available Approximately 60,000 Syrians are trapped in ‘the Berm’, a desolate area on the Syria-Jordan border. When security concerns are prioritised over humanitarian needs, and aid agencies turn to militant groups to deliver aid, the consequences can be deplorable.
May 5, 2016 ... Young women ask for help in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan's destruction in the Philippines ... decades have pushed the global humanitarian system to the limits. ... even years, resources are quickly exhausted and the lines between ... in harder to access areas, and that are cost-efficient, accountable, ...
... behaviour and ability to cooperate with other actors in a complex emergency. Humanitarian actors may act in concert or in contention with one another, or somewhere in between. Conflict of interest, competition for resources, incompatible organisational structures and cultures and overlapping functions are the challenges ...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humanitarian projects authorized. 500.572 Section 500.572 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... from private sources, including but not limited to accredited degree-granting institutes of education...
Abidi, H.; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Klumpp, M.
Design/methodology/approach - A literature review has been conducted using a structured method based on Denyer and Tranfield (2009) and Rousseau et al. (2008). The state of the art on humanitarian supply chain performance management with a focus on measurement frameworks and indicators and their
Full Text Available The article analyses the humanitarian education as a representative sphere of cultural creativity in the Crimean polyethnic space. Under conditions of contact zone of dominant macroethnoses, the Crimean Turkic people and Crimean Slavs, the system of education should be orientated not only to harmonisation of inter-ethnic relations but mainly to consolidation of nation, creation of integral polyethnic cultural space.
L'Hermitte, Cécile; Brooks, Benjamin; Bowles, Marcus; Tatham, Peter H
This study investigates the strategic antecedents of operational agility in humanitarian logistics. It began by identifying the particular actions to be taken at the strategic level of a humanitarian organisation to support field-level agility. Next, quantitative data (n=59) were collected on four strategic-level capabilities (being purposeful, action-focused, collaborative, and learning-oriented) and on operational agility (field responsiveness and flexibility). Using a quantitative analysis, the study tested the relationship between organisational capacity building and operational agility and found that the four strategic-level capabilities are fundamental building blocks of agility. Collectively they account for 52 per cent of the ability of humanitarian logisticians to deal with ongoing changes and disruptions in the field. This study emphasises the need for researchers and practitioners to embrace a broader perspective of agility in humanitarian logistics. In addition, it highlights the inherently strategic nature of agility, the development of which involves focusing simultaneously on multiple drivers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
Full Text Available With the frequency and magnitude of disasters on the rise, millions of people suffer huge losses every year. Scholars have recently proposed various frameworks in disaster relief management in order to guide the research in this field. Although successful disaster relief requires the entire humanitarian supply chain to respond in harmony, it is surprising that there exists no humanitarian relief framework drawn from the perspective of supply chain management. In this article, we create a new research framework for Humanitarian Supply Chain Management (HSCM that is complimentary but distinct from commercial supply chain management (CSCM frameworks. The framework we developed offers a new lens for humanitarian researchers. We also conduct a systematic literature review in this field and identify some opportunities for future research. The results strongly suggest the need for additional empirical research to test the existing concepts and models. Second, there is evidence that research focusing on “upstream” relief chain has been neglected relative to “downstream”. Additionally, due to its rapid advancement, information technology related research opportunities in this field would always be there. Keyword
... culturally sensitive to the needs of the victims of the humanitarian crisis. In emergency situations, the roles of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) may have to be modified without compromising the ethical standards that health researchers have globally attempted to achieve. Malawi Medical Journal Vol. 20 (2) 2008: pp.
Gry Høngsmark Knudsen
Full Text Available In this paper we address the interplay between networked media and humanitarian communication through the lens of meditization theory in order to forward a more balanced understanding of networked humanitarianism. We analyze a case of humanitarian communication that travelled Facebook in unpredictable ways and demonstrate the breakdown between sender and receiver positions. The case shows how communicative practices are challenged and how humanitarian organizations are destabilized in a new and unpredictable communication environment. We argue that in order to deepen the critical perspective on networked humanitarian communication, it is important to better understand how the institutional logic of humanitarianism changes when mediatized through networked media. Further, we suggest that a broader consideration of media amalgamation enables a critical discussion of networked media influence humanitarianism.
Carrillo Jaimes, Carmen Sofía; Arcos González, Pedro Ignacio
Complex Emergencies are an international Public Health problem currently becoming increasingly more frequent and of growing proportions which lead to major death and disease rates, especially during the acute stage thereof. This study is aimed at identifying and analyzing the top-priority areas of intervention in the acute stage of a complex emergency drafted in the operating manuals of the main aid agencies, as well as the degree of development and structuring of the activities proposed in each area on which priority has been placed. The intervention manuals drafted by nine major aid agencies were used as study material. A quantitative analysis was then made of the 16 intervention priorities set out, as well as of the degree to which each priority was defined based on the development of 73 variables of aspects of the proposals set out in the manuals. The ACNUR manual includes 90% of the 73 variables for further expansion upon the priorities, the UN Humanitarian Affaire Coordination Office manual including 35% of the 73 variables. ACNUR better expands upon the non-healthcare variables, followed by MSF and USAID. Doctors without borders shows a 97.3% degree of expansion of the healthcare variables) followed by ACNUR (94.7%), USAID (92.1%). ACNUR has been found to have the most integral proposal, the UN Humanitarian Affairs Coordination Office having the most discreet. There is a general trend towad further expanding upon and unifying the health indicators, whilst other aspects are not further expanded upon.
Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide an analysis of the features that have shaped the state's decision-making process in the United Nations, with regard to the humanitarian intervention in Darfur from 2003 onwards. Design/methodology/approach: The methodological approach to the study is a review of political statement papers grounded in…
Lestano, [No Value; Jacobs, Jan; Kuper, Gerard H.
Indicators of financial crisis generally do not have a good track record. This paper presents an early warning system for six countries in Asia, in which indicators do work.We distinguish three types of financial crises, currency crises, banking crises and debt crises, and extract four groups of
Full Text Available Crises are never convenient as they are destructive. Any institution or organization may face a crisis situation, able to endanger its normal activity and reputation. Some crises are predictable and can be prevented, others cannot be grasped and thus prevented. Experience proved that, despite all technical, economical, financial or educational cautions taken to stop or control a crisis, it can get out of control and develop. In these circumstances, the crisis can bring serious prejudices to the organization if not properly managed from all points of view. Communication during crisis is extremely important, aiming at generating changes and taking action against the crisis. Above all, crises management consists in interpersonal relations. Management activity in crises situations develops a constant and complex communication process with the aid of which, the manager, the crisis cell, the entire staff interact in order to find the optimal strategies to survive the crisis situation.
Dinh, T.H.T.; Kleimeier, S.; Straetmans, S.T.M.
Adverse selection inherent in the bank-borrower relationship typically intensifies during crises. This problem is expecially severe in emerging markets, characterized by weak institutions and banks with poorly developed monitoring and screening abilities. Exploiting a unique sample of Vietnamese
Muenzberg, Christopher; Gericke, K.; Oehmen, Josef
, which leads to the absence of crisis-specific design support [Münzberg et al.2015]. We conducted an explorative interview study to address the first research question. In this study 15 experienced design engineers were interviewed about their experiences with crises. We documented their understanding...... the interview results, by reflecting them against product development success factors [Gericke et al. 2013]. We propose these as a design support tool for crises, which is suitable for industrial practice. By answering the two questions, this paper contributes to theory by identifying "context factors", which...... of the interview study. In Section 4, crises are characterised and example situations are presented. Section 5 focuses on success factors. Section 6 closes with a discussion and conclusion, examining the answers to the research questions and developing a novel definition of crises in product development....
Ahmad Rasmi AlBattat
Full Text Available Safety and security are the most important issues to tourist while traveling and the first aspect they consider is to be protected from hazards. Emergency planning and preparedness for a crisis are the most significant components of dealing with disasters. Hospitality practitioners noticed a rising number of natural and man-made crises that harm the hospitality industry, regarding its vulnerability to crisis and internal and external hazards. By using secondary data, this study aims to shed some light on this issue, contributing to knowledge and awareness on emergency preparedness for the hospitality industry. Moreover, the study aims to explain the management’s commitment to adopt, develop, and update emergency plans. The results of this study explain that tourism as an international mobile industry must respond to internal and external hazards such as disease movement and terrorist attacks. Marketing safety is important to promote hotels and tourist destinations to the guests and holiday advisors. Hotels have a long history of being a soft target for terrorist attacks, as can be seen in several accidents that have shaken the hotel industry in the past few decades. Hotels invest a lot to install protective techniques, but terrorists are becoming more organized. Practitioners propose disaster management frameworks using several measurements. Recovery from crisis and learning help business retention that minimizes negative impacts and prevent losses. Finally, evaluation and feedback are very important to overcome the hazards and return to normal, as well as adopting new ideas to deal with emergencies. Single- and double-loop organizational learning should benefit proactive preparedness.
Marcos Antonio Macedo Cintra
Full Text Available A crise financeira iniciada com a elevação da inadimplência e a desvalorização dos imóveis e dos ativos financeiros associados às hipotecas americanas de alto risco (subprime recolocou em debate a arquitetura do sistema financeiro americano e internacional, seus potenciais riscos sistêmicos e seus mecanismos de supervisão e regulação. Uma grande variedade de instituições financeiras frouxamente reguladas e displicentemente supervisionadas passou a constituir a contraparte da transferência de riscos de crédito do sistema bancário e a carregar riscos crescentes. O artigo procura discutir a interação dessas instituições financeiras, incluindo algumas características do principal palco dessa interação - os mercados de balcão - e a utilização de determinadas inovações financeiras que amplificaram a crise. Dada a complexidade e opacidade dessas instituições e mercados, busca ainda explicitar a necessidade de aperfeiçoamentos na sua regulação e supervisão.The financial crisis triggered by increasing default rate, real estate devaluation and financial asset depreciation combined with U.S. subprime mortgages brought about the debate over the framework of the U.S. and international financial systems, their potential systemic risks, and their regulatory and supervisory mechanisms. A great variety of financial institutions which were poorly regulated and badly supervised changed into the counterpart of the credit risk transfer from the banking system and started to hold increasing risks. This paper deals with the interaction of these financial institutions, including a description of some features of the major stage in this process - the so-called over-the-counter (OTC market - and the use of financial innovations which amplified the crisis. It also aims to clarify the need for improvements in terms of regulation and supervision considering the complexity and opacity of these institutions and markets.
Marzocchi, Warner; Newhall, Christopher; Woo, Gordon
Sound scientific management of volcanic crises is the primary tool to reduce significantly volcanic risk in the short-term. At present, a wide variety of qualitative or semi-quantitative strategies is adopted, and there is not yet a commonly accepted quantitative and general strategy. Pre-eruptive processes are extremely complicated, with many degrees of freedom nonlinearly coupled, and poorly known, so scientists must quantify eruption forecasts through the use of probabilities. On the other hand, this also forces decision-makers to make decisions under uncertainty. We review the present state of the art in this field in order to identify the main gaps of the existing procedures. Then, we put forward a general quantitative procedure that may overcome the present barriers, providing guidelines on how probabilities may be used to take rational mitigation actions. These procedures constitute a crucial link between science and society; they can be used to establish objective and transparent decision-making protocols and also clarify the role and responsibility of each partner involved in managing a crisis.
Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)
Full Text Available O autor discute as sucessivas crises econômicas ocorridas nos países capitalistas desde os anos 1970, interpretando-as como produto de tensões e contradições endêmicas entre mercados capitalistas e políticas democráticas.The article retraces the successive economic crises in the capitalist countries since the 1970's, reading them as the result of tensions and contradictions between capitalist markets and democratic politics.
Full Text Available Different scientific studies provide many valuable recommendations how to manage crises in order to lessen their negative effect on relations with consumers. But the question whether the same business crises management rules can be applied for different industries, or they must be adapted depending on industries specifics, has not received sufficient scientific attention. Knowledge gaps about industry specific effect on consumer reactions to business crises remain. This study focuses on understanding the differences in consumers’ reactions in business crises situations with regard to controversial evaluation in the society of “the sin industries” (alcohol, tobacco, gambling, etc. and ordinary industries (not having controversial associations. Experimental research design, including online experiment with tobacco, beer and functional soft drinks consumers (in total 306 respondents, was chosen for competing research hypotheses testing. Empirical evidence was in line with theoretical argumentation about less negative consumers’ reactions during business crises in case of “sin industries” versus ordinary industry. This study shows that consumers attitudes, such as perception of company’s product quality, trust, social responsibility and behavioural intentions, such as intention to buy and recommend company’s products, are less negative during business crises in lower reputation “sin industries” than in ordinary industries.
Matheus Silva De Gregori
Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a crise do meio ambiente sob uma abordagem epistemológica, ou seja, a partir do conhecimento produzido em relação à natureza. Verifica-se que o pensamento ocidental, manifestado pelos paradigmas da Ciência Moderna, está ligado à organização dos sistemas econômicos que reconheceram historicamente a natureza apenas como recurso e potencial de produção de capital, vindo a encontrar, por esta via, o limite entrópico da biosfera e, por conseguinte, do crescimento. Abordou-se o processo de construção do conhecimento, questionando-se a possibilidade de concepção de outras perspectivas, fundadas na inseparabilidade entre sujeito-objeto, ação-pensamento e homem-natureza. É percebida a necessidade do ser humano de se re-significar no mundo, conhecendo a complexidade da natureza e pensando além da crise ecológica.
This study sought to identify how humanitarian actors in natural disasters coordinate (or communicate) with the military to identify the needs of disaster-affected populations, identify how coordination should be undertaken for the delivery of relief goods, perceive the effectiveness of such coordination, perceive the role that training played in preparation for coordinating with the military and the effectiveness of this training, and view the overall civil-military engagement and its implications for the independence of the humanitarian sector. A survey instrument focused on participant perceptions of the civil-military engagement in response to Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines was sent to country directors and agency leads who played a role in the response. Although the data supported anecdotal accounts that the coordination between civilian and military actors during the disaster relief efforts in Typhoon Haiyan worked well, they also revealed that fewer than half of the respondents were familiar with the Guidelines on the Use of Foreign Military and Civil Defence Assets in Disaster Relief (the "Oslo Guidelines") and only 12% of respondents thought that the Oslo Guidelines were used to develop organizational policy on humanitarian aid agency engagement with military actors. Humanitarians felt that international militaries and the Philippines Armed Forces played an important role in ensuring that aid reached people in need, particularly in the early days of the response. However, less than half of the respondents were familiar with the Oslo Guidelines.
Kienzler, Hanna; Pedersen, Duncan
This essay analyses how the relationships between Cold War and post-Cold War politics, military psychiatry, humanitarian aid and mental health interventions in war and post-war contexts have transformed over time. It focuses on the restrictions imposed on humanitarian interventions and aid during the Cold War; the politics leading to the transfer of the PTSD diagnosis and its treatment from the military to civilian populations; humanitarian intervention campaigns in the post-Cold War era; and the development of psychosocial intervention programs and standards of care for civilian populations affected by armed conflict. Viewing these developments in their broader historical, political and social contexts reveals the politics behind mental health interventions conducted in countries and populations affected by warfare. In such militarized contexts, the work of NGOs providing assistance to people suffering from trauma-related health problems is far from neutral as it depends on the support of the military and plays an important role in the shaping of international politics and humanitarian aid programs.
Dohaney, J. A.; Hudson-Doyle, E.; Brogt, E.; Wilson, T. M.; Kennedy, B.
To further our understanding of how to enhance student science and risk communication skills in natural hazards and earth science courses, we conducted a pilot study to assess the different perceptions of expert scientists and risk communication practitioners versus the perceptions of students. These differences will be used to identify expert views on best practice, and improve the teaching of communication skills at the University level. In this pilot study, a perceptions questionnaire was developed and validated. Within this, respondents (geoscientists, engineers, and emergency managers; n=44) were asked to determine their agreement with the use and effectiveness of specific communication strategies (within the first 72 hours after a devastating earthquake) when communicating to the public. In terms of strategies and information to the public, the respondents were mostly in agreement, but there were several statements which elicited large differences between expert responses: 1) the role and purpose of the scientific communication during crises (to persuade people to care, to provide advice, to empower people to take action); 2) the scientist's delivery (showing the scientists emotions and enthusiasm for scientific concepts they are discussing); and 3) the amount of data that is discussed (being comprehensive versus 'only the important' data). The most disagreed upon dimension was related to whether to disclose any political influence on the communication. Additionally, scientists identified that being an effective communicator was an important part of their job, and agreed that it is important to practice these skills. Respondents generally indicated that while scientists should be accountable for the science advice provided, they should not be held liable.
Full Text Available This article explores how I teach about human rights and so-called humanitarian interventions to MA and Ph.D. students. The course has three main themes or foci. First, what are human rights and why have the social and economic human rights laid out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights been so neglected or rejected, especially by the U.S. Second, how has American foreign policy used and abused human rights. Third, why have liberal or humanitarian interventions of a militarized sort become so prevalent since the end of the Cold War and why are they so damaging. The goal is to get students to look critically at the meaning and uses of human rights, about which many display a naive enthusiasm.
Full Text Available Preparedness addresses the strategy in disaster management that allows the implementation of successful operational response immediately after a disaster. With speed as the main driver, product design for humanitarian aid purposes is a key factor of success in situations of high uncertainty and urgency. Within this context, a telecommunications container (TC has been designed that belongs to a group of containers that serve the purpose of immediate response to global disasters. The TC includes all the necessary equipment to establish a telecommunication centre in the destroyed area within the first 72 hours of humanitarian operations. The design focuses on defining the topology of the various parts of equipment by taking into consideration factors of serviceability, functionality, human-product interaction, universal design language, energy consumption, sustainability and the interrelationship with the other containers. The concept parametric design has been implemented with SolidWorks® CAD system.
Full Text Available With several rising powers emerging as new actors on the humanitarian scene, viewing all ‘emerging donors’ as a homogenous group inevitably undermines efforts to constructively engage with them. With Turkey’s widely recognized engagement in Somalia and Syria, the country merits a nuanced analysis. How does it conceptualize humanitarian assistance? What norms and interests shape its humanitarian engagement? How is such an engagement financed and organized? Thoroughly evaluating how foreign and domestic agendas shape Turkey’s humanitarian engagement, the paper details how Ankara designs and implements its humanitarian assistance. The collaborative relationship between the government, faith-based businesses, and the religious segment of a generally deeply divided civil society emerges as a unique feature of Turkey’s humanitarian assistance. This set-up calls for an informed approach towards working with specific Turkish actors. It also questions the sustainability and scalability of current aid levels.
The paper seeks to link contemporary thinking on urban shelter in the humanitarian sector to debates in the field of 'critical urban theory'. It argues that current humanitarian thinking on urban shelter shares many common concerns with critical urban theory, but that these concerns are rarely translated effectively into humanitarian practice. It attributes this disconnect not only to weaknesses in implementation capacity, but also to the need to reorient humanitarian action to address more definitively questions of power and justice. Humanitarian actors need to step back from product-delivery approaches and find ways of integrating into their analytical, planning, implementation and monitoring tools questions about access, exclusion and the historically specific ways in which these aspects converge in particular urban spaces. By doing so, the humanitarian community would benefit from a more explicit, systematic and sustained engagement with the catalytic theoretical resources that critical urban theory has to offer. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.
Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree
New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Somalia today is the site of three major threats: the world's worst humanitarian crisis; the longest-running instance of complete state collapse; and a robust jihadist movement with links to Al-Qa'ida. External state-building, counter-terrorism and humanitarian policies responding to these threats have worked at cross-purposes. State-building efforts that insist humanitarian relief be channelled through the nascent state in order to build its legitimacy and capacity undermine humanitarian neutrality when the state is a party to a civil war. Counter-terrorism policies that seek to ensure that no aid benefits terrorist groups have the net effect of criminalising relief operations in countries where poor security precludes effective accountability. This paper argues that tensions between stabilisation and humanitarian goals in contemporary Somalia reflect a long history of politicisation of humanitarian operations in the country. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
response to the flood in Pakistan: "According to the [National Disaster Management Authority] NDMA , unusually heavy rainfall and flooding in late July...Widespread flooding affected 82 ofPakistan’s 122 districts, according to the NDMA . As a result, more than 12 million people required humanitarian...MAGTF Marine Air Ground Task Force MEDCAPS Medical Civic Assistance Programs MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit NDMA National Disaster Management
civil war . Africa’s worst drought hit the country in 1992, driving up food prices and causing extreme malnutrition . People began to leave their...affect the region’s overall leveragement to conduct humanitarian aid. Buchanan (2008) mentions the ethnic civil war and genocide occurring in the...Darfur region that began in February 2003. The war started because nomadic herders traveled farther south than normal into Sudan due to 29 drought and
Vitoriano, Begoña; Ortuño, M. Teresa; Tirado, Gregorio; Montero, Javier
Natural disasters are phenomenons which strike countries all around the world. Sometimes, either by the intensity of the phenomenon or the vulnerability of the country, help is requested from the rest of the world and relief organizations respond by delivering basic aid to those in need. Humanitarian logistics is a critical factor in managing relief operations and, in general, there is a lack of attention on the development of mathematical models and solution algorithms for strategic and tact...
Abdi, H; De Leeuw, S; Klumpp, M
Purpose - The main purposes of this study are 1) to identify the state of the art of performance measurement and management in humanitarian supply chains, 2) to categorize performance measurement indicators in the five supply chain phases of Gunasekaran and Kobu (2007) and evaluate them based on the evaluation criteria of Caplice and Sheffi (1995), 3) to define gaps as well as challenges in this field and give insights for future research in this domain. Design/methodology/approach - A litera...
Throughout Africa today Christian missionaries from the United States and Europe are providing more medical assistance than ever before and yet they remain, in much recent scholarship, more often associated with the colonial past than the humanitarian present. In many rural areas of Africa these missionaries provide much of the day-to-day healthcare that is available, treating commonplace afflictions, such as malaria, broken limbs or complications associated with childbirth. This dissertation...
Kunz, Nathan; Gold, Stefan
Disaster response operations aim at helping as many victims as possible in the shortest time, with limited consideration of the socio-economic context. During the disaster rehabilitation phase, the perspective needs to broaden and comprehensively take into account the local environment. We propose a framework of sustainable humanitarian supply chain management (SCM) that facilitates such comprehensive performance. We conceptualize the framework by combining literature from the fields of susta...
necessities of life. In these situations, individuals, groups and nations join together to provide food, water , clothing, shelter, and medical supplies ...Humanitarian Daily Rations (HDR), bottled water and other supplies between 501-2,200-lb in mass quantities. It utilizes an A-22 cargo container and a 64-ft...A C-17 can carry a total of 40 CDS bundles equating to nearly 6,000-gal of water . With a conservative 25% loss rate (unfound and damaged packages
PRISM 2, no. 1 leSSoNS leaRNed | 131 On Christmas morning 2005, at Saint Patrick’s Catholic Church in Auckland , New Zealand, a priest stepped up to... economically difficult to sustain. However, the HA/DR cam- paign in Pakistan, Operation Lifeline, provides a useful model of how humanitarian...35 The two field hospitals became symbols of the American-Pakistani military partnership and an asymmetric advantage for the United States as
In recent years, protracted crises and fragile post-conflict settings have challenged the co-existence, and even the linear continuum, of relief and development aid. Forced migration has tested humanitarian and development paradigms where sudden-onset emergencies, violence and displacement arise alongside ongoing development work. Drawing on Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in the region from December 2010 to May 2011, this paper examines aid and healthcare responses to displacement in Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; it focuses on challenges to the maintenance of preparedness for such foreseeable emergencies and to adaptation in response to changing situations of displacement and insecurity. This 'backsliding' from development to emergency remains a substantial challenge to aid; yet, in exactly such cases, it also presents the opportunity to ensure access to medical care that is much more urgently needed in times of crisis, including the suspension of user fees for medical care. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Bitelli, Gabriele; Eleias, Magdalena; Franci, Francesca; Mandanici, Emanuele
During the last years, remote sensing data along with GIS have been largely employed for supporting emergency management activities. In this context, the use of satellite images and derived map products has become more common also in the different phases of humanitarian crisis response. In this work very high resolution satellite imagery was processed to assess the evolution of Za'atari Refugee Camp, built in Jordan in 2012 by the UN Refugee Agency to host Syrian refugees. Multispectral satellite scenes of the Za'atari area were processed by means of object-based classifications. The main aim of the present work is the development of a semiautomated procedure for multi-temporal camp monitoring with particular reference to the dwellings detection. Whilst in the emergency mapping domain automation of feature extraction is widely investigated, in the field of humanitarian missions the information is often extracted by means of photointerpretation of the satellite data. This approach requires time for the interpretation; moreover, it is not reliable enough in complex situations, where features of interest are often small, heterogeneous and inconsistent. Therefore, the present paper discusses a methodology to obtain information for assisting humanitarian crisis management, using a semi-automatic classification approach applied to satellite imagery.
Hardie, Kate; Selgelid, Michael J; Waldman, Ronald J; Strebel, Peter; Rees, Helen; Durrheim, David N
Abstract Humanitarian emergencies result in a breakdown of critical health-care services and often make vulnerable communities dependent on external agencies for care. In resource-constrained settings, this may occur against a backdrop of extreme poverty, malnutrition, insecurity, low literacy and poor infrastructure. Under these circumstances, providing food, water and shelter and limiting communicable disease outbreaks become primary concerns. Where effective and safe vaccines are available to mitigate the risk of disease outbreaks, their potential deployment is a key consideration in meeting emergency health needs. Ethical considerations are crucial when deciding on vaccine deployment. Allocation of vaccines in short supply, target groups, delivery strategies, surveillance and research during acute humanitarian emergencies all involve ethical considerations that often arise from the tension between individual and common good. The authors lay out the ethical issues that policy-makers need to bear in mind when considering the deployment of mass vaccination during humanitarian emergencies, including beneficence (duty of care and the rule of rescue), non-maleficence, autonomy and consent, and distributive and procedural justice. PMID:23599553
a cure . Affected countries collapse into anarchy. Violent uprisings occur across the globe. International trade slows to a crawl. Governments...the 1918 pandemic, work absentee rates were 20-40% in some areas. Railroad worker absenteeism threatened transportation systems in the U.S.74 21
Full Text Available Despite widespread beliefs that the United States has not used chemical weapons since the distant past of World War I, this study suggests a more complicated history by examining U.S. use of herbicides and incapacitating gases in the Vietnam War and its use of herbicides in the "War on Drugs." This article places such use of toxic violence within a context of U.S. hegemony, by which U.S. officials have used contested forms of violence to secure geopolitical goals, but have also been pressured to comply with humanitarian norms or-when there is a gap between norms and state policy-to do legitimating work in order to maintain domestic and international consent. Based on case study analysis of archival and secondary sources, this article identifies three main techniques U.S. officials use to legitimate contested forms of violence. These techniques are defensive categorization, humanitizing discourse, and surrogacy.
Brolan, Claire E; Gouda, Hebe
Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are typically run by governments to record every birth, adoption, death, marriage, and divorce that occurs among a country's population. Registration of vital events provides individuals with a formal relationship with the State and each other, and is the foundation of a person's identity, nationality, and legal status. At a population level, vital statistics are essential for effective planning and implementation of policies and services. Globally, strong CRVS systems are increasingly recognised as a crucial backbone for redressing health inequities and as a priority in strengthening global health and development efforts. Many countries, however, currently lack adequate and reliable CRVS systems, leaving many people vulnerable to statelessness, limited access to important government services (such as education and health services), and effective legal protection. Public health and humanitarian emergencies in such contexts can expose those already disadvantaged and marginalised to heightened risk. CRVS systems weakened by crises make registration difficult or impossible and unregistered people may be displaced or separated from their families, exacerbating their susceptibility. The presence of a strong CRVS system, therefore, can facilitate effective and cost-effective emergency responses, help prevent exploitation of individuals (particularly women and children), and help to rebuild communities post-crisis. This article will consequently review the international legal mandates that exist to strengthen CRVS systems globally, with particular view to public health and humanitarian emergencies. Identity and citizenship, and the socio-political contexts in which these concepts co-exist, are inevitably interconnected with CRVS. This can create potential for CRVS systems and data to be exploited as a political instrument. Grounding CRVS strengthening in a single binding, human rights law instrument is a potential way
Bajde, Domen; Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark
Social media have been argued to have transformed humanitarian communication and those involved in it. Networked humanitarian organizations are supposedly more open and transparent (Kanter and Fine 2010) and their “audiences” too are networked and "cause-wired" (Watson 2009), implying an unpreced......Social media have been argued to have transformed humanitarian communication and those involved in it. Networked humanitarian organizations are supposedly more open and transparent (Kanter and Fine 2010) and their “audiences” too are networked and "cause-wired" (Watson 2009), implying...
Hofmeister, Ute; Navarro, Susana
Forensic humanitarian action is aimed at alleviating suffering and maintaining human dignity, with the victims and their families at the core. International recommendations emphasize the importance of psychological support and psychosocial work as an integral part of forensic investigations into missing persons. Psychosocial action does not simply refer to emotional support but is based on the idea of the individual being the holder of rights, encouraging decision taking, affirming actions, and elaborating personal and collective histories. In this framework, forensics and psychosocial sciences need to work in complementary and coordinated interaction for the benefit of the families and communities. For forensic investigations to be restorative - their ultimate humanitarian objective - there are certain additional conditions apart from those of scientific quality and ethics: respect, information and coordination are among the main pillars for forensic action with a psychosocial approach, taking into account the need to treat on an individual and collective level the continuous psychological affectations caused by the disappearance of a loved one. On this basis, psychological and psychosocial accompaniment of the victims can contribute to the victims' healing process and also improve the forensic investigations themselves. This article, which is based on the experience of two decades of practical forensic and psychosocial work in the field, explains the main psychological effects of disappearances and the resulting needs. It gives a short historical overview of the origins and developments in psychosocial support and a perspective in relation to the search for missing persons and forensic interventions in Latin America. It goes on to demonstrate how coordinated interaction among the forensic and psychosocial fields strengthens both of them to the benefit of the affected families, groups and communities. Finally, it takes up some of the international recommendations
Beran, David; Aebischer Perone, Sigiriya; Alcoba, Gabriel; Bischoff, Alexandre; Bussien, Claire-Lise; Eperon, Gilles; Hagon, Olivier; Heller, Olivia; Jacquerioz Bausch, Frédérique; Perone, Nicolas; Vogel, Thomas; Chappuis, François
In 2007 the "Crisp Report" on international partnerships increased interest in Northern countries on the way their links with Southern partners operated. Since its establishment in 2007 the Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine at the Geneva University Hospitals has developed a variety of partnerships. Frameworks to assess these partnerships are needed and recent attention in the field of public management on collaborative governance may provide a useful approach for analyzing international collaborations. Projects of the Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine were analyzed by collaborators within the Division using the model proposed by Emerson and colleagues for collaborative governance, which comprises different components that assess the collaborative process. International projects within the Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine can be divided into four categories: Human resource development; Humanitarian response; Neglected Tropical Diseases and Noncommunicable diseases. For each of these projects there was a clear leader from the Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine as well as a local counterpart. These individuals were seen as leaders both due to their role in establishing the collaboration as well as their technical expertise. Across these projects the actual partners vary greatly. This diversity means a wide range of contributions to the collaboration, but also complexity in managing different interests. A common definition of the collaborative aims in each of the projects is both a formal and informal process. Legal, financial and administrative aspects of the collaboration are the formal elements. These can be a challenge based on different administrative requirements. Friendship is part of the informal aspects and helps contribute to a relationship that is not exclusively professional. Using collaborative governance allows the complexity of managing partnerships to be presented. The framework used highlights the
began to become broadly available during hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the Gulf of Mexico in 2005 (Figure 1). NGOs, international organizations (IOs...coordinates.15 An early example was a epidemiological map of a cholera epidemic in London made by John Snow and colleagues in 1854.16 The map showed the...Horizon, Gulf of Mexico National Oceanic Atmosphe Figure 36. British Petroleum Deep Water Horizon Disaster April 20, 2010 Website186 The National
Stosic, Darko; Stosic, Dusan; Ludermir, Teresa; de Oliveira, Wilson; Stosic, Tatijana
This paper examines the effects of financial crises on foreign exchange (FX) markets, where entropy evolution is measured for different exchange rates, using the time-dependent block entropy method. Empirical results suggest that financial crises are associated with significant increase of exchange rate entropy, reflecting instability in FX market dynamics. In accordance with phenomenological expectations, it is found that FX markets with large liquidity and large trading volume are more inert - they recover quicker from a crisis than markets with small liquidity and small trading volume. Moreover, our numerical analysis shows that periods of economic uncertainty are preceded by periods of low entropy values, which may serve as a tool for anticipating the onset of financial crises.
Elise Danielle Thorburn
Full Text Available This paper argues that the means of communication are sites for, and aspects of, social reproduction. In contemporary capitalism, motivated as it is by new, networked digital technologies, social reproduction is increasingly virtualised through the means of communication. Although recent political struggles have demonstrated how networked technologies can liberate social reproduction from the profit motive and from commodifying impulses, the tendency is to invoke and accelerate socially reproductive crises—crises in the capacity to reproduce ourselves both daily and intergenerationally. These crises have psychic and corporeal impacts, and intensify Tronti’s “social factory” thesis of capital’s technical composition. In order to develop modes and means of liberatory communication in the integrated circuit it is necessary to untangle and chart both the pathways and outcomes of the crises networked social reproduction invokes.
Defining the criteria for intervening in the affairs of sovereign states has become a pressing issue for the international community. Pre-emptive actions, based on a unilateral view of evil or risk, have caused divisions and questions of legitimacy, whilst the failures to take collective actions against extreme suffering reflect a lack of coherence in international decision making. The current concerns about terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and failed states lack clear definition of these and of how risks might be estimated, to whom the risks apply and the responsibilities of the various players. The primacy of the United States is without question, but opinion within and without is divided, many feeling the US should use its power to do what is best for the world as a whole and not just act out of self-interest. There is a need to engage with the US and its institutions at all levels. There is also a need to develop more robust conflict prevention strategies with adequate resources, personnel and management, such as suggested in the BASIC conflict prevention service.
Hladil, Jindřich; Slavík, Ladislav; Koptíková, Leona; Schnabl, Petr; Vacek, F.; Bábek, O.; Geršl, M.
Roč. 34, 4/6 (2008), s. 1343596-1343596 ISSN 0161-6951. [International Geological Congress /33./. 06.08.2008-14.08.2008, Oslo] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130702; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB300130613; GA AV ČR KJB307020602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetic suceptibility * limestone * impurity * ocean-atmosperic circulation * past global crises Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy
Arrizabalaga, Jon; García-Reyes, Juan Carlos
Spain was officially represented at the preliminary international conference the "International Committee for the Assistance to Sick and Wounded Soldiers" (better known as the "Geneva Committee") organised at Geneva in October 1863; and joined the Red Cross one year later on the occasion of the first Geneva Convention in August 1864. This article explores the ambivalence between the humanitarian ethos and the military efficiency in the early Spanish Red Cross through the works of Nicasio Landa (1830-1891). A medical major of the Spanish Military Health Service, the co-founder of the Spanish section of the Red Cross in 1864, and its general inspector in 1867, Landa was its most active promoter, and responsible for its connections with the Geneva Committee and other national sections of this international association during its early times. He was not only an active correspondent, but also a prolific author of monographs, leaflets and articles in specialized and daily newspapers on humanitarianism and war medicine, in addition to being the founder of the Spanish Red Cross journal La Caridad en la Guerra in 1870.
Kenneth N Kuttner
Banking crises were a relatively common occurrence in 19th century England. Like the Federal Reserve today, the Bank of England struggled to quell panics by acting as the lender of last resort, while at the same time maintaining monetary stability. This article surveys the events leading up to and the Bank's response to the four post-1844 crises, highlights some of the similarities between the Victorian era panics and the 2007–08 crisis, and draws on the 19th century experience to illustrate ...
L'objectif de cette recherche est d'étudier les répercussions de la récente crise alimentaire sur les ménages de même que les stratégies développées en réaction aux effets de la crise. La démarche méthodologique adoptée dans le cadre de cette recherche est essentiellement basée sur la recherche documentaire et les ...
Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca
Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...
Ansell, C; Boin, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/161938876; Keller, A
In recent years, crises have become increasingly transboundary in nature. This exploratory paper investigates whether and how the transboundary dimensions of crises such as pandemics, cyber attacks and prolonged critical infrastructure failure accentuate the challenges that public and private
Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert
The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All
Rowley, Elizabeth; Burns, Lauren; Burnham, Gilbert
To identify the most and least commonly cited security management messages that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are communicating to their field staff, to determine the types of documentation that NGOs most often use to communicate key security messages, and to distinguish the points of commonality and divergence across organizations in the content of key security messages. The authors undertook a systematic review of available security policies, manuals, and training materials from 20 international humanitarian NGOs using the InterAction Minimum Operating Security Standards as the basis for a review framework. The most commonly cited standards include analytical security issues such as threat and risk assessment processes and guidance on acceptance, protection, and deterrence approaches. Among the least commonly cited standards were considering security threats to national staff during staffing decision processes, incorporating security awareness into job descriptions, and ensuring that national staff security issues are addressed in trainings. NGO staff receive security-related messages through multiple document types, but only 12 of the 20 organizations have a distinct security policy document. Points of convergence across organizations in the content of commonly cited standards were found in many areas, but differences in security risk and threat assessment guidance may undermine communication between aid workers about changes in local security environments. Although the humanitarian community has experienced significant progress in the development of practical staff security guidance during the past 10 years, gaps remain that can hinder efforts to garner needed resources, clarify security responsibilities, and ensure that the distinct needs of national staff are recognized and addressed.
Akbarzada, Sumaira; Mackey, Tim K
Ongoing failure by the international community to resolve the Syrian conflict has led to destruction of critical infrastructure. This includes the collapse of the Syrian health system, leaving millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in urgent need of healthcare services. As the conflict intensifies, IDP populations are suffering from infectious and non-communicable disease risks, poor maternal and child health outcomes, trauma, and mental health issues, while healthcare workers continually exit the country. Healthcare workers who remain face significant challenges, including systematic attacks on healthcare facilities and conditions that severely inhibit healthcare delivery and assistance. Within this conflict-driven public health crisis, the most susceptible population is arguably the IDP. Though the fundamental 'right to health' is a recognised international legal principle, its application is inadequate due to limited recognition by the UN Security Council and stymied global governance by the broader international community. These factors have also negatively impacted other vulnerable groups other than IDPs, such as refugees and ethnic minorities, who may or may not be displaced. Hence, this article reviews the current Syrian conflict, assesses challenges with local and global governance for IDPs, and explores potential governance solutions needed to address this health and humanitarian crisis.
violence, internal and international political crises, zero-tolerance attitudes which ... coverage in the media, first by the New York Herald, then by the French press, ... humanitarian, political and scientific Foundation dedicated to Africa.
Humanitarian NGOs face difficult choices about whom to help and whom not on a daily basis. The research question in this article is how humanitarian NGOs make these difficult decisions and why in a particular way. March's study on consequential and appropriate decision-making processes is used to
... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0847] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) Designations... public comment ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use...
Anatoly V. Zavrazhin
Full Text Available In the article the author emphasizes the role and importance of humanitarian knowledge not only in education, training future professionals, but in an objective, true evaluation of the events which occur today in the modern world. Reveals the methodological foundations, purpose, main directions and methods of humanitarian knowledge. Highlighted the special role in the Humanities.
Sahli, H.; Bruschini, C.; Kempen, L. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Breejen, E. den
The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology
Turhan, Muhammed; Akgül, Tülin
This study investigates the relationship between students' perception of school climate and their adherence to humanitarian values. To this end, the study group consisted of 1094 students in 21 secondary schools in Elazig province of Turkey. The "School Climate Scale," developed by Çalik and Kurt, and the "Humanitarian Values…
Abidi, H.; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Klumpp, M.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the value of fourth-party logistics (4PL) services in a humanitarian supply chain. Furthermore, it shows a framework for a fourth-party humanitarian logistics concept. Design/methodology/approach – The research paper presents a framework of
S A Bokeriya
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the ground aspects of NATO’s humanitarian activities after the termination of the Cold War. Main principles of NATO’s concept of humanitarian intervention and its application in the territory of former Yugoslavia, in Afghanistan, Iraq and Sudan are under analysis.
Humanitarian aid workers are faced with many challenges, from possible terrorist attacks to dealing with difficult stakeholders and securing operational space free from violence. To do their work properly and safely, they need effective intelligence. Humanitarian intelligence refers to the use of
Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov
Full Text Available Active growth of trade volume between India and Africa which has increased in twenty times since the beginning of the twenty-first century or in seventy times since 1991, certainly actualized a question of features of the modern Indo-African relations. In this regard the purpose of article is consideration of features of policy of India to the African countries. The author does the short historical review of the Indo-African relations, and considers key spheres of realization of modern regional strategy of India on the African continent - humanitarian projects, foreign trade and investments. The main methods of research are the comparative-historical approach and the statistical analysis, being used for identification of positive or negative dynamics of development of the Indo-African cooperation. Now the African region takes strategic significance for India. Rapid economic development of the African countries and increase in a standard of living of the population turn the continent into a perspective sales market of the Indian goods and services. Besides, India actively develops humanitarian projects and renders the financial help to many African countries. However, India faces set of problems and factors - geographical remoteness, the discrimination and racism, instability of political systems of many African countries and the African policy of China. The active economic policy of China on the African continent has compelled India to develop cooperation with the countries of Africa more actively. In recent years India also as well as China tries to make active and modernize the economic and humanitarian policy in Africa. Struggle for commodity markets of the goods and services in Africa makes Africa by strategic region not only in the Indo-Chinese relations, but in foreign policy of India as a whole.
Full Text Available The goal of the article is to describe the theoretical and empirical research of characteristics of families under non-normative crises, having as an example the families of combatants participated in the anti-terrorist operation in Ukraine. The following family crises are discussed: normative crises, as period of transition from one stage of the family life cycle to another and non-normative crises caused by traumatic life events.
Organizational crises can be conceptualized as interactions between organizations and stake-holders around the breach and reestablishment of common norms and social codes, i.e. per-ceptions of legitimacy. This paper contributes to the understanding of organizational crises by exploring the roles of dimensions of legitimacy in organizational crises as well as the role of different reactions in the resolution of crises. Results of two qualitative multiple-case studies based on analyses of media...
Thomsen, Jørgen L.
Humanitarian Forensic Action is aimed at relieving suffering by comforting and informing the relatives of disaster victims. It is not a priority to report human rights abuses to the authorities. It is thereby different from forensic human rights work with an inquisitive way of demonstrating culpa...... culpability. The following tasks are relevant. The forensic scientist as an interviewer of the next of kin and witnesses. Emphasizing independency in armed conflicts. Assisting in man-made and natural disasters Assisting in the prevention and of the spread of epidemics....
Clarke, Laura S.; Embury, Dusty Columbia; Jones, Ruth E.; Yssel, Nina
Most schools have crisis plans to support student safety, but few plans address the complex needs of students with disabilities. School supports should include analysis of school plans and student strengths and needs to ensure that students with disabilities have the best opportunity to be safe in school crises. Recommendations include developing…
Boonman, Tjeerd M.; Jacobs, Jan P.A.M.; Kuper, Gerard H.
The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) has aected many regions including Latin America. This paper focuses on currency crises in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. We estimate an Early Warning System, consisting of a dynamic factor model and an ordered logit model, with monthly data for 1990-2007. Ex ante
Uses chaos theory to model public relations situations in which the salient feature is volatility of public perceptions. Discusses the premises of chaos theory and applies them to issues management, the evolution of interest groups, crises, and rumors. Concludes that chaos theory is useful as an analogy to structure image problems and to raise…
Full Text Available An increase in the frequency and intensity of environmental crises associated with accelerating human-induced global change is of substantial concern to policy makers. The potential impacts, especially on the poor, are exacerbated in an increasingly connected world that enables the emergence of crises that are coupled in time and space. We discuss two factors that can interact to contribute to such an increased concatenation of crises: (1 the increasing strength of global vs. local drivers of change, so that changes become increasingly synchronized; and (2 unprecedented potential for the propagation of crises, and an enhanced risk of management interventions in one region becoming drivers elsewhere, because of increased connectivity. We discuss the oil-food-financial crisis of 2007 to 2008 as an example of a concatenated crisis with origin and ultimate impacts in far removed parts of the globe. The potential for a future of concatenated shocks requires adaptations in science and governance including (a an increased tolerance of uncertainty and surprise, (b strengthening capacity for early detection and response to shocks, and (c flexibility in response to enable adaptation and learning.
The paper explores the dynamics of cultural change and the erosion of cultural heritage vis-à-vis the consequent developmental crises that have enveloped the Nigerian nation for several decades. It is divided into five sections. In the introductory section, the concept of culture is defined, described, and contextualized within ...
Patrício A. S. Carneiro Carneiro
Full Text Available O presente artigo discute a evolução da ciência moderna, bem como a crise desse paradigma dominante e seus efeitos sobre a geografia. Destaca ainda a necessidade da construção de um novo pensamento científico para além das fronteiras disciplinares e do método absoluto.
hither and thither by recurrent crises of regional or state illegitimacy, often impairing efforts at ... at the notion of Identity and how it explains the crisis of development and ... network of politically silent identities, coupled with a history of protracted ...... Understanding the emerging trends of terrorism in Nigeria: A case study.
Dorel Dumitru CHIRITESCU
Full Text Available Nothing is more natural inside the evolution of a living system than the crisis itself, the only thing that distinguishes systems from each other is represented by how crises are solved and future developments. The biggest mistake would be to think that there are companies that can develop linearly. Arbitrary, indeterminacy they are well outlined in any development.
Rivoal, Morgane; Haselip, James Arthur
Over the past two decades, the global number of forcibly displaced people has doubled, reaching 65.6 million in 2017. Reducing energy poverty has been identified as a priority on the international agenda since September 2015, when the UN adopted seventeen Sustainable Development Goals including...... Goal 7 which seeks to ‘ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030’. However, recent research sheds light on the magnitude of energy poverty in humanitarian settings. In Sub-Saharan Africa, as much as 85% of the refugee population living in camps lack access...... to enough energy to cover their basic needs for cooking, heating and lighting. The inefficient use of energy by displaced people emitted 14.3 million tonnes of Carbon Dioxide (tCO2) in 2014, globally. The topic of humanitarian energy entails three aspects: the energy services (e.g. lighting, cooking...
Tharcisio Cotta Fontainha
Full Text Available The role of private stakeholders in disaster operations goes far beyond the delivery of profits to its shareholders. Disasters and humanitarian operations literature acknowledges the importance of private sector in disaster lifecycle; however, it lacks an analysis of the risks and benefits of each different form of their engagement in such operations (contractual relationships, one-off relationships and CSR - Corporate Social Responsibility partnerships. To address this research gap, a literature review was conducted on papers covering the perspective of private stakeholders when engaging in disaster and humanitarian operations with stakeholders from public and social groups. The results revealed that some challenges are specific from one approach and others are common for all of them. Moreover, despite the increasing of reputation capital and organizational learning being used to motivate CSR approach, they are mentioned as benefits in approaches with lower engagement - contractual and one-off relationship approaches. Thus, the benefits and risks of each approach need to be carefully addressed by scholars and field professionals in order to seek better results from the engagement of private organizations.
Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin
Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.
Laraby, Patrick R; Bourdeaux, Margaret; Casscells, S Ward; Smith, David J; Lawry, Lynn
The US Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to meet new security challenges in the twenty-first century. Today's challenges result from growing political, environmental, and economic instability in important areas of the globe that threaten national and global security. Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times of violent instability or natural disaster fosters security and stability both for the affected country and for the United States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) is a rapidly evolving military mission that addresses conflict prevention, conflict, postconflict, and natural disasters. With DOD's extensive global medical resources, it is often uniquely qualified to execute a critical role in relief and/or public health efforts. When and how the American military will act in FHA and disaster relief is a still evolving doctrine with three issues deserving particular attention: aligning operations with host government leadership, preserving humanitarian space, and tailoring the US military's unique resources to the specific political and medical situation at hand. The DOD's response to a large-scale earthquake in Peru suggests useful approaches to these three issues, provides a template for future FHA mission, and points to strategic decisions and operational capabilities that need further development to establish the FHA mission firmly within DOD's repertoire of security engagement activities.
Full Text Available Human progress is stimulated by external threats and pressures. Values distilled from long experience possess the essential knowledge and power needed for continuous development and evolution. Successive waves of foreign invasions following the collapse of the Roman Empire coalesced the tribes of England into a nation state. Centuries of incessant warfare finally compelled the countries of Western Europe to evolve a regional union within which war has become unthinkable. Most recently, the rising incidence of terrorism has compelled national security institutions to forge a network for global coordination unimaginable during the Cold War. Challenges met are converted into opportunities. Opportunities missed degenerate into problems. All crises are psychological in origin. The remedy always calls for a change of attitude and values. The greatest threats confronting human beings today do not come from external aggressors. They are the result of problems that affect humanity as a whole and can only be addressed collectively by the entire human race. International financial instability, unemployment, terrorism, proliferation of nuclear weapons and climate change are indications that humanity is entering a higher phase in social evolution that compels us to evolve more effective instruments for governance at the global level. No nation or group of nations acting on its own can protect itself from these threats. Effective action to address these issues is unlikely to come from governments whose source of power and very identity are based on national sovereignty and separateness. Mechanisms for global governance will not be effective unless founded upon universally accepted values in fact as well as in principle, a condition violated by the undemocratic character of the UN system. Power relents only in the face of greater power. Power that exceeds that of the five permanent members of the Security Council can only come from representatives of humanity
Dawson, Sonja; Elliott, Doug; Jackson, Debra
To appraise the literature related to voluntary humanitarian work provided by international nurses in low- to middle-income countries. Nurses and other health professionals are engaged with both governmental and nongovernmental organisations to provide care within international humanitarian relief and development contexts. Current literature describes accounts of charitable health professional activity within short-term health-focused humanitarian trips; however, there is minimal research describing the care that nurses provide and the professional roles and tasks they fulfil whilst participating in international volunteer healthcare service. Integrative review. A search of articles published between 1995-2015 was conducted using seven bibliographic databases. Inclusion criteria incorporated nurses and allied health professionals' involvement in a volunteer short-term medical team capacity. Papers describing military and/or disaster response with a service-learning focus were excluded. Nineteen papers were selected for review, description and discussion of findings. Findings revealed limited data describing the care nurses provide and the professional roles and tasks they fulfil within the context of international humanitarian short-term medical trips. Issues raised included a description of demographic data regarding participants and sending agencies, motivation for volunteer participation, perceptions of effectiveness of particular programmes and sustainability issues related to cultural, ethical or moral obligations of foreign health professionals working in a low- to middle-income countries. Study findings highlighted that although nurses are recruited and participate in health-focused humanitarian activities in low- to middle-income countries, there is extremely limited documented research about the amount and type of care that nurses specifically provide in this context. Furthermore, when identified, it is most often hidden within studies outlining services
Full Text Available Almost a million people from Middle East and North Africa have passed through the territory of Serbia on their way to Western Europe during 2015 and 2016. Although Serbia has predominantly been a transit country for migrants, this recent passage of a large number of people, as well as a longer retention of some migrants, opened up a number of questions on capacities for emergent acceptance but also on long term integration of this population. The paper examines the characteristics of citizens’ attitudes towards the migrant population with the intention of determining which perspective - security, humanitarian or integrative - is being distinguished as a dominant one? Under the security perspective, it is understood that migrants pose a potential risk for the security of domestic population. The humanitarian perspective refers to a belief that migrants need to be provided with necessary assistance on their way to destination countries. The third, integrative perspective represents the “most open” attitude towards migrants and implies that it is necessary to provide the opportunity for more permanent integration of the migrant population. In addition to that, the paper examines the existence of statistically significant variations in the degree of acceptance of the attitudes measuring mentioned perspectives in terms of socio-demographic and socio-cultural factors. The analysis is based on the data collected through the survey conducted in the spring of 2016 on a representative sample of Serbian citizens (without Kosovo that numbered 998 respondents. Findings show that the humanitarian perspective is the most prevalent in the population, which is in line with the transitional character of migration. Ethnic distance is the most influential factor in shaping attitudes towards migrants. This finding indicates that attitudes toward migrants are more the result of the socio-psychological factors than the micro-structural factors or the demographic
The work challenges faced by doctors, nurses and other health professionals in the humanitarian field are overwhelming. This article highlights the psychological effects on humanitarian workers and the support available, both while on a 'mission' and on return home. It is impossible not to be psychologically affected by witnessing gross acts of violence, starvation, epidemics, displacement and despair, or hearing tales of slaughter, rape and killing. Just as those populations who are subjected to traumatic experiences develop post-traumatic psychological problems, so too can those humanitarian workers who assist them.
Full Text Available Book review: Chomsky N. A New Generation Draws the Line: Humanitarian Intervention and the “Responsibility to Protect” Today.Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2012. 176 p. The book under review examines controversial norm of “humanitarian intervention”. It clearly demonstrates that the norm was used selectively and with different argumentations in various situations. Noam Chomsky has managed to present a fair and balanced account of positive and negative aspects of humanitarian interventions as well as provide thought-provoking policy recommendations for improving human rights protection.
Luís Henrique Rauber
Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe discutir a importância do uso das comunidades virtuais na atualidade e sua relação com as crises de imagem nas organizações. Entendendo que o público usuário das marcas (cliente-consumidor, a partir do contato e da possibilidade de interação com estas comunidades virtuais, pode opinar e, também, receber informações sobre os produtos e serviços (sejam estas positivas ou negativas, estabelecer-se-ão exemplos de como isso ocorre, mencionando a comunidade virtual oficial da Coca-Cola na rede social Orkut. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Comunidades virtuais. Crises de imagem. Rede social. Publicidade. Coca-Cola.
Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo estudar o enquadramento midiático construído em torno da crise hídrica que se instalou no Estado de São Paulo, com maior período de seca entre os anos de 2014 e 2015. No intuito de analisar como o tema foi retratado pelos meios de comunicação, a revista Veja foi eleita objeto deste estudo, que pretende elencar como ocorreu o enquadramento da crise e as atribuições de responsabilidade veiculadas por essa mídia, ao governador reeleito Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB, a Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo (Sabesp, aos cidadãos e ao meio ambiente, no período de 1º de janeiro a 31 de março de 2015.
Aldy Fernandes da Silva
Full Text Available The 2008 economic crisis challenged accounting, either demanding recognition and measurement criteria well adjusted to this scenario or even questioning its ability to inform appropriately entities’ financial situation before the crisis occurred. So, our purpose was to verify if during economic crises listed companies in the Brazilian capital market tended to adopt earnings management (EM practices. Our sample consisted in 3,772 firm-years observations, in 13 years – 1997 to 2009. We developed regression models considering discretionary accruals as EM proxy (dependent variable, crisis as a macroeconomic factor (dummy variable of interest, ROA, market-to-book, size, leverage, foreign direct investment (FDI and sector as control variables. Different for previous EM studies two approaches were used in data panel regression models and multiple crises were observed simultaneously. Statistics tests revealed a significant relation between economic crisis and EM practices concerning listed companies in Brazil in both approaches used.
Full Text Available Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabilities to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we develop a model to handle network congestion on various geographical scales. We offer a resilient response strategy to energy shortages and quantify its effectiveness for a variety of relevant scenarios. In essence, Europe's gas supply can be made robust even to major supply disruptions, if a fair distribution strategy is applied.
Borenstein,Miriam Susskind; Erdmann,Alacoque Lorenzini
O estudo aborda a situação de saúde do cliente que apresenta crise hipertensiva ao chegar numa emergência hospitalar. Explora dados relativos às características pessoais e clínico epidemiológicas gerais, além de hábitos de vida que nos dão uma noçãoda amplitude da problemática de estar com a saúde "em estado de emergência". Finalizando, as autoras tecem algumas considerações sobre a necessidadede ultrapassar o foco somente biológico no atendimento a clientes com crise hipertensiva, buscando n...
Jakobsen, Peter Viggo
Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....
Doner, Richard F.; Wad, Peter
The automotive industries of Southeast Asia have grown significantly but unevenly. Thailand has outperformed its neighbours in Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines with regard to production and, most notably, export volumes. But the Thai auto industry has not exhibited the level of local...... (indigenous) technology capacity and input growth seen in South Korea, Taiwan and, increasingly, in China. The 1997–98 and 2008 financial and economic crises generally reinforced pre-existing national automotive strategies, but to different degrees: They strongly accelerated an earlier Thai move to exports...... whose very success weakened pressures for upgrading; encouraged more moderate automotive liberalisation in Indonesia and, to a lesser extent, in the Philippines; but promoted only minimal changes to Malaysia’s relatively protectionist national car strategy. The fact that the crises served more...
Miriam Susskind Borenstein
Full Text Available O estudo aborda a situação de saúde do cliente que apresenta crise hipertensiva ao chegar numa emergência hospitalar. Explora dados relativos às características pessoais e clínico epidemiológicas gerais, além de hábitos de vida que nos dão uma noçãoda amplitude da problemática de estar com a saúde "em estado de emergência". Finalizando, as autoras tecem algumas considerações sobre a necessidadede ultrapassar o foco somente biológico no atendimento a clientes com crise hipertensiva, buscando novos hábitos saudáveis de vida.
Hart, Jason; Forte, Claudia Lo
This paper considers the efforts of United Nations and international agencies to address the threats to Palestinian children arising from Israeli occupation. It contains an account of the reasons why agencies have failed, over many years, to prevent systematic violations by the Israeli authorities and settlers. The discussion is organised around two inter-related domains: institutional and political. The paper argues that, in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), limitations to the ways in which child protection has been conceptualised and pursued in practice are abundantly evident. Nevertheless, political pressure by Western donor governments serves to constrain an approach to child protection that is more preventative in nature, that addresses more explicitly Israeli violations of international law, and that reflects the experience and aspirations of Palestinian children themselves. Ultimately, therefore, the failure to protect Palestinian children must be seen not only as a result of humanitarian miscalculation but also as a consequence of political strategy. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Pando L, C.L.; Cerdeira, H.A.
We show that the four-level model for the CO 2 laser with modulated losses predicts a critical exponent close to 1/2 for the characteristic times in two homoclinic crises. In the five-dimensional Poincare map corresponding to this model, a sequential horseshoe formation due to the period three unstable orbit takes place after a region of multistability. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs
De Waal, B
Some financial experts have blamed deficiencies in Basel II capital regulation for the exacerbation of financial crises in 2007 to 2012. In response to this, new proposals in the form of Basel III attempt to raise the quality, consistency and transparency of the regulatory capital base in order to enhance the risk coverage of Basel II via appropriate ratios. In this article, the authors explore how the new Basel liquidity standards, as encapsulated by the liquid coverage ratio ...
Margaret served as President of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) from 2008-2013, where she oversaw Canada's international development and humanitarian assistance efforts worldwide. Previously, Margaret served as Deputy Secretary to the Cabinet and Assistant Secretary, Priorities and ...
Full Text Available Many studies have been carried out to investigate the impact of recent European financial crises on the performance of financial instruments in other regions. Nevertheless, there have been insufficient studies explaining such impact on Islamic financial instrument. In particular, whether Greece Financial crises have affected performance of Sukuk traded in Gulf Markets needs to be answered. This study is aimed at empirically investigating the causality of credit and liquidity risk on Sukuk Markets in Gulf economies in the period of Greece Financial Crises. We analyzed the Sukuk data by employing Granger casuality test, with all the associated vector autoregression model procedures. Our findings show that Bahrain sukuk market is cointegrated with those of Qatar and UAE in the full period observation. Meanwhile, during the crisis, Qatar Sukuk market is cointegrated with those of UAE Bahrain. We also find that Bahrain Sukuk triggers market shock in both Qatar and UAE Sukuk markets. Bahrain consistently causes changes in price and spread of UAE Sukuk, both in the context of the full period and the during-crisis period.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i1.3733
Runciman, W B; Merry, A F
A "crisis" in health care is "the point in the course of a disease at which a decisive change occurs, leading either to recovery or to death". The daunting challenges faced by clinicians when confronted with a crisis are illustrated by a tragic case in which a teenage boy died after a minor surgical procedure. Crises are challenging for reasons which include: presentation with non-specific signs or symptoms, interaction of complex factors, progressive evolution, new situations, "revenge effects", inadequate assistance, and time constraints. In crises, clinicians often experience anxiety- and overload-induced performance degradation, tend to use "frequency gambling", run out of "rules" and have to work from first principles, and are prone to "confirmation bias". The effective management of crises requires formal training, usually simulator-based, and ideally in the inter-professional groups who will need to function as a team. "COVER ABCD-A SWIFT CHECK" is a pre-compiled algorithm which can be applied quickly and effectively to facilitate a systematic and effective response to the wide range of potentially lethal problems which may occur suddenly in anaesthesia. A set of 25 articles describing additional pre-compiled responses collated into a manual for the management of any crisis under anaesthesia has been published electronically as companion papers to this article. This approach to crisis management should be applied to other areas of clinical medicine as well as anaesthesia.
Fonseca, Gabriela; Cunha, Diana; Crespo, Carla; Relvas, Ana Paula
The present study is a systematic review of empirical literature from the last 35 years on families' responses to economic distress in the context of macroeconomic crises. Thirty-nine studies published between 1983 and 2015 in 12 countries were identified, resulting in 3 main findings. First, economic distress was associated with negative changes in family dynamics, specifically couple relationships and parenting. Second, protective factors were found to buffer the adverse effects of economic distress on family and individual outcomes. Third, the results suggest that individual responses to macroeconomic crises may be moderated by sex. Implications for future research encompass using validated assessment instruments, including participants beyond 2-parent families with adolescent children and conducting both longitudinal and qualitative studies that focus on the processes and meanings of adaptation within this risk context. Conclusions highlighted the need to assist families dealing with macroeconomic crises' demands, encouraging the development and validation of macrosystemic intervention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov
This article traces a development from UNHCR's initial use of biometrics in a few pilot projects (early/mid-2000s), to the emergence of a UNHCR policy where biometric registration is considered a "strategic decision". Next it engages key insights from current debates about 'materiality' and agentic...... capacity in combination with current debates about new forms of intervention. Finally, these insights are combined into a framework through which the last part of the article engages critically with this development of humanitarian refugee biometrics by posing the following question: how does an approach...... biometric refugee data, has affected the relationship between UNHCR, donor states, host states and refugees, the article shows how UNHCR's trialling of new biometric technologies, combined with actual and potential data-sharing practices, has advanced the technology's performance as well as its...
Rafael Ajangiz Sánchez
Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, foreign and defence policies of the NATO member states have been focussed on missions intervening in third countries, a circumstance that has led to far-reaching reforms in military structures and a new discourse of legitimacy. Public opinion has played a decisive role in the push toward humanitarian and peacemaking interventions and, has backed a new line of action. The scant resolution and effectiveness shown by the governments in these missions and their interest in carrying out others most motivated by interests of state, however, have discouraged that mighthave been a way to a real democratization of foreign policy and produces disillusionment. Evidence is for an end to this cycle and a return to the traditional divorce between governments and societies in this area.
Full Text Available Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool.
Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima
Celebrity engagement in global “helping” is not a simple matter of highly photogenic caring for needy others across borders; it is a complex relationship of power that often produces contradictory functions in relation to the goals of humanitarianism, development, and advocacy. This article argues...... that celebrities are acting as other elite actors in international affairs: investing considerable capital into processes that are highly political. It traces the emergence and practices of the elite politics of celebrities in North-South relations, an evolution made possible by recent changes in aid practices......, media, and NGOs, then considers exemplary cases of Angelina Jolie in Burma, Ben Affleck in the Democractic Republic of Congo, and Madonna in Malawi. These celebrity practices as diplomats, experts, and humanitarians in international affairs illustrate the diverse and contradictory forms of engagement...
Moslehi, Shandiz; Fatemi, Farin; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Mozafarsaadati, Hossein; Karami, Shirzad
Access to affected people pays an important role in United Nation Organization for Coordination and Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The aim of this article is to identify the main obstacles of humanitarian access and the humanitarian organization responses to these obstacles and finally suggest some recommendations and strategies. In this narrative study the researchers searched in different databases. This study focused on the data from five countries in the following areas: access challenges and constraints to affected population and response strategies selected for operations in the affected countries by humanitarian organizations. Three main issues were studied: security threats, bureaucratic restrictions and indirect constraint, which each of them divided to three subcategories. Finally, nine related subcategories emerged from this analysis. Most of these constraints relate to political issues. Changes in policy structures, negotiations and advocacy can be recommended to solve most of the problems in access issues.
Witzig Davidson, Lisa; Daly Hayes, Margaret; Landon, James J
The workshop on "Humanitarian and Peace Operations: The NGO/Interagency Interface" was held at the National Defense University on 18-19 April 1996, the seventh in a series that explores advanced command relationships...
... Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace Announcement of Request for... Majernik, Grants Manager, Policy and Technical Division, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy...
... inspection, information that is not desired to be made public, such as an address or phone number, should not... or researchers) on the effectiveness or actual use of an invention to address humanitarian needs...
Anjomshoae, Ali; Hassan, Adnan; Kunz, Nathan; Wong, Kuan Yew; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.
Purpose – In recent years, the balanced scorecard (BSC) has received considerable interest among practitioners for managing their organization’s performance. Unfortunately existing BSC frameworks, particularly for humanitarian supply chains, lack causal relationships among performance indicators,
The humanitarian sector has grown enormously over the past two decades. Some fear that professionalisation comes at the expense of altruistic volunteering. This may be a valid concern if altruism is the product of organisational culture and individual experiences rather than an innate trait. This paper examines advances in evolutionary biology and neurology that provide evidence in support of both the nature and nurture arguments, echoing earlier insights from social sciences. It then questions to what extent humanitarian principles build on altruistic impulses or instead seek to constrain them, and reviews recruitment profiles of selected humanitarian organisations and applicants' letters accordingly. This initial investigation warrants further research to identify how altruism as a personal trait and an organisational principle has influenced diverse humanitarian actors and traditions. This paper outlines how training curricula and organisational reward systems can build on-rather than stifle-natural altruism to nurture critical, reflexive practitioners. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
Evans, Andrea B; Hulme, Jennifer M; Nugus, Peter; Cranmer, Hilarie H; Coutu, Melanie; Johnson, Kirsten
The evaluation tool was first derived from the formerly Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies' (CBHA; United Kingdom), now "Start Network's," Core Humanitarian Competency Framework and formatted in an electronic data capture tool that allowed for offline evaluation. During a 3-day humanitarian simulation event, participants in teams of eight to 10 were evaluated individually at multiple injects by trained evaluators. Participants were assessed on five competencies and a global rating scale. Participants evaluated both themselves and their team members using the same tool at the end of the simulation exercise (SimEx). All participants (63) were evaluated. A total of 1,008 individual evaluations were completed. There were 90 (9.0%) missing evaluations. All 63 participants also evaluated themselves and each of their teammates using the same tool. Self-evaluation scores were significantly lower than peer-evaluations, which were significantly lower than evaluators' assessments. Participants with a medical degree, and those with humanitarian work experience of one month or more, scored significantly higher on all competencies assessed by evaluators compared to other participants. Participants with prior humanitarian experience scored higher on competencies regarding operating safely and working effectively as a team member. This study presents a novel electronic evaluation tool to assess individual performance in five of six globally recognized humanitarian competency domains in a 3-day humanitarian SimEx. The evaluation tool provides a standardized approach to the assessment of humanitarian competencies that cannot be evaluated through knowledge-based testing in a classroom setting. When combined with testing knowledge-based competencies, this presents an approach to a comprehensive competency-based assessment that provides an objective measurement of competency with respect to the competencies listed in the Framework. There is an opportunity to advance the use of
Full Text Available The actual article is intended to underline the way in which crises and local and regional conflicts nowadays influence the global economic development The dependence of the small states on the actions of the more developed countries, the economic growth accelerated by the scientific-technological developments and the attitude of the geopolitical actors on global context, describe in detail the ideas extracted from the theme of this article. The economic development is necessary, convenient and unavoidable, the main problems appearing when the main raw materials and essential resources for human survival must be insured. The present international relations and the ways in which political-diplomatic differences are solved, support the need of existence and involvement of some organizations and unbiased pacifist forums wherever societies have differences of opinions.
Albuquerque, Sara; Eriksson, Anneli; Alvesson, Helle M
Low retention of humanitarian workers poses constraints on humanitarian organisations' capacity to respond effectively to disasters. Research has focused on reasons for humanitarian workers leaving the sector, but little is known about the factors that can elucidate long-term commitment. To understand what motivates and supports experienced humanitarian health workers to remain in the sector. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 experienced nurses who had been on at least three field missions with Médecins Sans Frontières Sweden. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to go on missions, how nurses were supported and how they looked back on those experiences. Transcripts were analysed through content analysis informed by van Gennep's concept of 'Rite of Passage', combined with elements of the self-determination theory. The findings indicate that their motivations and how nurses thought of themselves, as individuals and professionals, changed over time. For initiation and continued engagement in humanitarian work, participants were motivated by several personal and professional ambitions, as well as altruistic principles of helping others. When starting their first humanitarian missions, nurses felt vulnerable and had low self-esteem. However, through experiencing feelings of autonomy, competence and relatedness during missions, they underwent a process of change and gradually adjusted to new roles as humanitarian health workers. Reintegration in their home community, while maintaining the new roles and skills from the missions, proved very challenging. They individually found their own ways of overcoming the lack of social support they experienced after missions in order to sustain their continuation in the sector. The findings highlight the importance of social environments that facilitate and support the adjustment of individuals during and after field missions. Learning from positive examples, such as nurses with several years of
Howard, N; Clements-Hunt, A
This second edition represents a thorough updating and revision of the first edition. The structure remains similar, but includes an additional chapter on humanitarian coordination. All chapters have been revised to reflect changes in best practices, improvements in technologies, availability of new tools, and changes in WHO recommendations. The interagency handbook was developed to set out effective malaria control responses in humanitarian emergencies, particularly during the acute phase wh...
Buchanan, Elizabeth; Berg, Devin; Lee, Tina; Buchanan, Elizabeth; Lacksonen, Tom
Exploring, Documenting, and Improving Humanitarian Service Learning through Engineers without Borders-USA is a four-year project exploring a variety of challenges and opportunities in university-based service learning programs. Specifically, this project looks holistically at the inception and evolution of a new Engineers Without Borders USA chapter, while analyzing characteristics, values, and demographics of individuals involved in EWB community-based humanitarian projects in multiple chapt...
Roh, Saeyeon; Pettit, Stephen John; Harris, Irina; Beresford, Anthony Kenneth Charles
Using pre-positioned warehouses at strategic locations around the world is an approach commonly taken by some humanitarian relief organisations to improve their capacities to deliver sufficient relief aid within a relatively short time frame, and to provide shelter and assistance to disaster victims. Although research into the facility location problem is extensive in both theory and application, such approaches have received little attention from the humanitarian relief perspective. In this ...
Full Text Available By the end of 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP began to see a steady rise in the number of Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC from Central America, particularly from the Northern Triangle countries—El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala—arriving to the US-Mexico border. The number of children entering the United States from these countries more than doubled during fiscal year (FY 2012 and continued to grow through FY 2014. In FY 2013, CBP apprehended over 35,000 children. That number almost doubled to 66,127 in FY 2014, with Central American children outnumbering their Mexican counterparts for the first time. Research has identified high levels of violence perpetrated by gangs and drug cartels in the Northern Triangle countries and Mexico as a primary reason for this surge. Under the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA passed with bi-partisan support in 2008, children from Central America cannot be immediately deported and must be given a court hearing.In contrast, unless there are indicia of trafficking, Mexican children are returned immediately to their country. Advocates have expressed concern that expedited removal of Mexican children places children with valid humanitarian claims at risk of being returned to harm, including forcible recruitment into drug cartels and trafficking rings. After the spike in arrivals in FY 2014, several members of Congress called for a change in the TVPRA, urging that Central American children be treated like Mexican children and undergo expedited procedures for their removal. Many of their constituents supported such measures. The Obama administration requested additional funds to strengthen border security, speed up deportation procedures and implement measures to address the humanitarian crisis in Central America. Groups and individuals across the country came together to provide shelter, medical and psychological care and legal representation to many
Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher
On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful.
Organizational crises are rare, yet they fundamentally influence the evolution of organizations. An aspect of crises deserving more attention is the interaction of organizations and their stakeholders during a crisis from a legitimation perspective. This paper presents a simulation model mapping causal relationships behind this interaction. Results suggest that the nature and timing of organizational response to crises has considerable effect on the success and duration of attempts of regaini...
Zhang A. Long; William Crandall; John Parnell
In this paper, the authors address three recent organizational crises that have occurred in China; the SK-II cosmetic incident, the Sharon Stone comment on the May 2008 earthquake in China, and the melamine milk contamination crisis. Each held significant notoriety due to the crises involving major companies and an assortment of negative outcomes. After presenting an overview of each case, the authors outline their reflections on the management of these crises in relation to their cultural co...
Francisco Paulo Cipolla
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta criticamente diferentes interpretações da crise atual. Orientaram a seleção das várias contribuições a representatividade das teorias marxistas clássicas de crise e a importância das novas abordagens correspondentes aos novos fenômenos em desenvolvimento no capitalismo atual. O exame crítico dessas contribuições revela uma linha divisória entre aqueles que concebem a crise como tendo sido causada pelo afluxo dos lucros da produção para as finanças (Husson e Foster /Magdoff e aqueles para os quais o aumento do crédito de consumo foi resultado de uma reestruturação dos fluxos de crédito das empresas, cada vez mais autônomas no mercado de dinheiro, às famílias assalariadas, cada vez mais dependentes do financiamento bancário. Essa linha divisória reflete a importância que o primeiro grupo adjudica à diminuição do ritmo de crescimento vis-à-vis os teóricos da School of Oriental and African Studies. A análise revela também que a atrofia da economia política leva a um abandono precoce da teoria bancária e financeira de Marx em favor dos instrumentos teóricos pós-keynesianos imediatamente disponíveis para o uso.This article is a critical survey of different interpretations of the 2007-2008 financial crises. They were chosen either because they represented classical Marxian views on crisis, such as the underconsumption or over-accumulation theories, or else because they were newly developed interpretations based on recent newly economic developments, as it is the case of the financial expropriation theory. The analysis reveals three main points of view. The first is that the cause of crisis is the stagnation of the economy and the ensuing transfer of profits from production to finance, process that caused the housing-financial bubble (Husson and Foster/Magdoff. The second view argues that it was the structural change in financial markets which led banks to increasingly rely on consumer credit
Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S
The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts.
Major economic crises tend to be followed by crises in subjective well-being. Following the financial and debt crises, politicians and social scientists have engaged in heated discussions of ways to alleviate such losses. In particular, should governments intervene more or less? This paper explores...... whether liberalizing economic institutions, a type of reform favoured by some economists, is likely to alleviate such loses. Estimating the effects of crises across European states 1975–2011 suggest that countries with relatively easy market regulations suffered smaller well-being losses....
Arkhipova Ekaterina Vladimirovna
Full Text Available EU Humanitarian Programs in the Southern Caucasus States are considered in the article. The increasing number and importance of the programs developing person-toperson contacts for the conflicting areas are noted. The influence of TRACECA and INOGATE programs was very significant in developing the local economies. Humanitarian aspects became important since 1992 when the first peace-building conferences of the Minsk group on Nagorno-Karabakh conflict took place. The political cooperation was institutionalized in 2004 with the implementing the European Neighborhood program. According to the “Eastern Partnership” a number of grants was offered to develop so called “new democracies”. A lot of educational programs provided the space for the personal cooperation in the area now are implementing. Mobility Partnerships program provides the regional cooperation in the migration policy. Consequently all the EU programs make the European volumes popular for the Caucasian inhabitants. That’s why the author puts the question about possible transformations in the regional identity. The states elites declare the importance for developing close contacts with EU institutes. Still there are some arguable issues. The status of sexual minorities in Azerbaijan provides the base for the mutual discontent in their relations with EU. Yet Azerbaijan has enough financial resources (based on the petrol supplies to reduce the EU influence in some objectionable fields. Georgia under M. Saakashvili ruling showed a strong trend towards EU and “Western” values on the whole. But this trend was mainly based on the strategies of the state financial surviving. There are some evidences proving that the main target of this police was to make a distance from the Russian policy. Armenia may be introduces as the state with strong interests in European cooperation for developing its economy. But there are also some important projects connecting Armenia with Russia, still
Full Text Available En 2007 et 2008 a éclaté la plus importante crise alimentaire depuis 1974. La hausse du prix des denrées alimentaires sur le marché international, en particulier du blé, du riz, du soja et du maïs, a entraîné une augmentation sans précédent du nombre de personnes sous-alimentées. Malgré une diminution relative du prix des denrées alimentaires depuis l’été 2008, le nombre de personnes sous-alimentées a continué à augmenter en 2009. Cette crise alimentaire a remis la lutte contre la faim au cœur des préoccupations internationales. Depuis le mois de mars 2008, les Etats, les agences des Nations unies et une grande partie des mouvements sociaux ont pris position sur les causes de la crise et les moyens d’y remédier. Malheureusement, alors que ces acteurs tentent de coordonner leurs activités et de proposer des solutions nouvelles, ce sont souvent des recettes anciennes, visant à augmenter la production alimentaire, qui sont mises en avant. Les propositions faites sont souvent contradictoires et les réflexions sur les causes profondes de la faim et de la crise alimentaire – les exclusions sociales, économiques et politiques et les discriminations – ne semblent pas avoir été entendues. Le premier Objectif du Millénaire pour le développement, qui vise à réduire de moitié la proportion des personnes souffrant de sous-alimentation et vivant dans l’extrême pauvreté d’ici 2015, est devenu clairement inatteignable. Mais la crise alimentaire pourrait être à l’origine de la création d’un nouvel ordre alimentaire mondial, basé sur les trois piliers que sont l’aide alimentaire, la sécurité alimentaire et le droit à l’alimentation.
Adam C. Levine
Full Text Available Between June and August 2011, International Medical Corps deployed a field hospital near the front-line of the fighting between government troops and opposition fighters in Western Libya. The field hospital cared for over 1300 combatants and non-combatants from both sides of the conflict during that time period, the vast majority of them presenting with war-related injuries. Over 60% of battle-related injuries were due to shrapnel wounds and blast injuries from exploding small mortars, with smaller percentages due to battle-related motor vehicle accidents, gun shot wounds, burns, and other causes. The most pertinent lessons learned from our experience were the importance of dedicating significant resources to logistics and supply chain management, the rewards garnered from building strong ties with the local community early in the deployment of the field hospital, and the need to pay careful attention to basic principles of humanitarian ethics.
Akira Kohsaka; Jun-ichi Shinkai
We examine the role of financial shocks in business cycles in general and in financial crises in particular in East Asia (Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand) since the 1990s. Estimating a Financial Conditions Index, we found that financial shocks explain most of business downturns in all the economies in the Asian Financial Crisis (AFC) in 1997-98, but that the effects of financial shocks are diverse across economies in the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) in 2008-09. In the GFC, the financ...
Full Text Available The author discusses the role of corporate governance in preventing economic crises, both in the enterprise and in the economy. The article is based on the research of literature. It presents the concept of corporate governance, crisis, and factors affecting the effectiveness of the supervisory board. In the final part, it presents the principles of effective corporate governance established by the OECD, and the recommendations for redefining of the rules resulting from the analysis of experiences of the last global financial crisis.
Stephan V. Arthur
Full Text Available Ethics and trust can avoid crises, just as, as recent events have clearly proved, the reverse is true. The paper is simply constructed: Section 1 provides a historical analysis; Section 2 deals with today‟s situation, drawing similarities and differences and the possible outcomes thereby arising; the final section concludes. Historical data are difficult to come by for most countries, especially when they should also be comparable across time. In general, and for this reason, US data have been used: however, the situation in other countries was little different, as will be shown, so that the data may be considered to be representative.
Psychological disorders which become manifest as adolescent crises must be seen as complex phenomena and treated thoroughly: besides the genetic, biographic and psychosocial background of the youthful individual the cultural and economic aspects play an important role. Nevertheless we must admit that associated causal explanations, e.g. for accelerated or late development are lacking. Focal points for the subsequent symptom complexes of sexual behavior in puberty are: psychosexual prematurity or retardation, masturbation, homosexual relations, pubertal asceticism and premature and frequently changing sexual relations.
Reginaldo Benedito Dias
Full Text Available O presente artigo demonstra como os acontecimentos que levaram à crise e desintegração dos países do bloco soviético foram analisados no calor dos acontecimentos, tomando como parâmetro os livros "Nós, o povo" e "A desintegração do monolito", selecionados por causa das diferentes perspectivas metodológicas e ideológicas que representam.
Philippe AGHION; Philippe BACCHETTA; Abhijit BANERJEE
This paper analyzes the optimal interest rate policy in currency crises. Firms are credit constrained and have debt in domestic and foreign currency, a situation that may easily lead to a currency crisis. An interest rate increase has an ambiguous effect on firms since it both makes more difficult to borrow and may decrease the foreign currency debt burden. In some cases it is actually best to decrease the interest rate. We also show how these issues are related to development of the financia...
Aghion, Philippe; Bacchetta, Philippe; Banerjee, Abhijit
This paper analyzes the optimal interest rate policy in currency crises. Firms are credit constrained and have debt in domestic and foreign currency, a situation that may easily lead to a currency crisis. An interest rate increase has an ambiguous effect on firms since it both makes more difficult to borrow and may decrease the foreign currency debt burden. In some cases it is actually best to decrase the interest rate. We also show how these issues are related to the development of the finan...
Tito Belchior Silva Moreira
Full Text Available This article uses a crisis index based on an average of the variations in currency and financial crises indicators, referred to as "twin crises", adjusting them to the same volatility. Thus, the objective is to measure the degree of vulnerability to twin crises within a group of 19 countries in the context of the East Asian crisis. Based on the crisis index regarding data from 1996, the most vulnerable countries of the twin crises can be ordered and identified a year before the onset of the crises. East Asian countries, in contrast with Latin American countries, were identified as the most vulnerable to twin crises.