WorldWideScience

Sample records for international geothermal activities

  1. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists.

  2. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists

  3. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This study was initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  4. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes a study initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  5. Geothermal training at the International Institute of Geothermal Research in Pisa, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, M.H.; Fanelli, M.

    1990-01-01

    Between 1985 and 1990 the International School of Geothermics of Pisa has held 5 long-term courses, attended by 93 trainees. This paper reports that since 1970, when it began its activity, the Italian geothermal training center has prepared a total of 293 goethermists from 64 countries. Under its present structure the International School of Geothermics organizes short courses and seminars, along with the long-term courses directed mainly at geothermal exploration

  6. Review of International Geothermal Activities and Assessment of US Industry Opportunites: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-08-01

    This report contains detailed summaries, with bibliographies, of past, present, and planned geothermal development in 71 selected countries and areas. The report gives a pretty good description of types of work that had been done in each country by the mid 1980s, but does not tell much about which geothermal-provider country did the work. There are maps for most of the countries. There are numbers for market factors, but not for estimated geothermal potential. The information in this document has been superceded by the country summaries in the World Geothermal Congress Transactions of 1995, 2000, and 2005. This report was prepared by Meridian Corporation, Alexandria, VA. (DJE 2005)

  7. Geothermal pilot study final report: creating an international geothermal energy community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresee, J.C.; Yen, W.W.S.; Metzler, J.E. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    The Geothermal Pilot Study under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was established in 1973 to apply an action-oriented approach to international geothermal research and development, taking advantage of the established channels of governmental communication provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Pilot Study was composed of five substudies. They included: computer-based information systems; direct application of geothermal energy; reservoir assessment; small geothermal power plants; and hot dry rock concepts. The most significant overall result of the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study, which is now complete, is the establishment of an identifiable community of geothermal experts in a dozen or more countries active in development programs. Specific accomplishments include the creation of an international computer file of technical information on geothermal wells and fields, the development of studies and reports on direct applications, geothermal fluid injection and small power plants, and the operation of the visiting scientist program. In the United States, the computer file has aready proven useful in the development of reservoir models and of chemical geothermometers. The state-of-the-art report on direct uses of geothermal energy is proving to be a valuable resource document for laypersons and experts in an area of increasing interest to many countries. Geothermal fluid injection studies in El Salvador, New Zealand, and the United States have been assisted by the Reservoir Assessment Substudy and have led to long-range reservoir engineering studies in Mexico. At least seven small geothermal power plants are in use or have been planned for construction around the world since the Small Power Plant Substudy was instituted--at least partial credit for this increased application can be assigned to the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study. (JGB)

  8. Proceedings of NEDO International Geothermal Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-11

    This is a proceedings of the NEDO International Geothermal Symposium held in Sendai in 1997. The worldwide geothermal energy power generation capacity exceeds 7000 MW. Geothermal energy is widely used also for heating, snow melting, greenhouse cultivation as well as electric power generation. Geothermal energy generates far less CO2 causing the global warming than fossil fuels. The geothermal energy is clean and renewable. Considering the environmental issue and energy supply/demand of the world, we have to exert further efforts for the geothermal development. In this conference, discussions were made on each country`s experiences of the geothermal development, and future prediction and strategies for geothermal utilization in the Asia/Pacific region, in particular. Further, in the technical session, conducted were the IEA study and technical presentation/discussion for technical cooperation. The proceedings includes research reports of more than 30, which are clarified into three fields: impacts of the geothermal development on the environment, technical development of the hot dry rock power generation system, and development of technology for collecting deep-seated geothermal resource

  9. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Prencipe, Loretta [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Todaro, Richard M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Cuyler, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eide, Elizabeth [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  10. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  11. Outline of geothermal activity in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franko, O.; Bodis, D.; Dendek, M.; Remsik, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in respect of different geothermal conditions in the Bohemian Massif (unfavorable) and in the West Carpathians (favorable), the development and utilization of geothermal energy are concentrated in Slovakia. THe utilization of geothermal energy for the heating of buildings in spas commenced in 1958. Thermal energy of geothermal waters was used for direct heating through heat exchangers, and in one case by a heat pump. Concentrated continuous development and utilization of geothermal energy started in 1971

  12. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1993-11-01

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  13. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, F.; Kappelmeyer, O.; Herde, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective of this brochure is to present the subject Geothermics and the possible use of geothermal energy to the public. The following aspects will be refered to: -present energy situation -geothermal potential -use of geothermal energy -environemental aspects -economics. In addition, it presents an up-dated overview of geothermal projects funded by the German government, and a list of institutions and companies active in geothermal research and developments. (orig./HP) [de

  14. FY 1998 annual report on the geothermal working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo chinetsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the geothermal working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. (General situations of the Geothermal Development and Utilization Center, and financial assistance to geothermal power generation development projects) outlines organizations of the Geothermal Development and Utilization Center, its budgets, current situations and future development targets of geothermal power stations in Japan, and financial assistance to geothermal power generation development projects. (Surveys for promotion of geothermal energy development) outlines the FY 1998 survey results, and the directions of future surveys for promoting geothermal energy development. (Surveys on validation of geothermal exploitation techniques) reports development of the reservoir stratum variable exploitation method and results of the geothermal resources in deep area. (Development of power generation plants using hot water) reports setting up an underwater, motor-driven DHP at the test site and shop test results of the demonstration unit as the major FY 1998 R and D results. (International-related projects) reports the joint study with Indonesia which started in FY 1997 as the research cooperation for exploitation of small-size geothermal resources in remote islands. (NEDO)

  15. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, Oscar P.; Tangir, Daniel; Perri, Matias S.

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  16. Geothermal FIT Design: International Experience and U.S. Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickerson, W.; Gifford, J.; Grace, R.; Cory, K.

    2012-08-01

    Developing power plants is a risky endeavor, whether conventional or renewable generation. Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies can be designed to address some of these risks, and their design can be tailored to geothermal electric plant development. Geothermal projects face risks similar to other generation project development, including finding buyers for power, ensuring adequate transmission capacity, competing to supply electricity and/or renewable energy certificates (RECs), securing reliable revenue streams, navigating the legal issues related to project development, and reacting to changes in existing regulations or incentives. Although FITs have not been created specifically for geothermal in the United States to date, a variety of FIT design options could reduce geothermal power plant development risks and are explored. This analysis focuses on the design of FIT incentive policies for geothermal electric projects and how FITs can be used to reduce risks (excluding drilling unproductive exploratory wells).

  17. Geothermal wells: a forecast of drilling activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.L.; Mansure, A.J.; Miewald, J.N.

    1981-07-01

    Numbers and problems for geothermal wells expected to be drilled in the United States between 1981 and 2000 AD are forecasted. The 3800 wells forecasted for major electric power projects (totaling 6 GWe of capacity) are categorized by type (production, etc.), and by location (The Geysers, etc.). 6000 wells are forecasted for direct heat projects (totaling 0.02 Quads per year). Equations are developed for forecasting the number of wells, and data is presented. Drilling and completion problems in The Geysers, The Imperial Valley, Roosevelt Hot Springs, the Valles Caldera, northern Nevada, Klamath Falls, Reno, Alaska, and Pagosa Springs are discussed. Likely areas for near term direct heat projects are identified.

  18. Correlation between the seismic activities and geothermal energy in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janchevski, Jane

    1995-01-01

    The manifestation of of contemporary seismicity and geothermal energy is a consequence of the effect of the geo tectonic processes within the most recent, neotectonic stage of evolution. The terrains within Macedonia during the Neogene-Quatemary period were subjected to the effect of extensive regime of stresses causing gravity faulting with zonation of the territory into morpho-structures of uplifting and subsidence. The destructive neotectonic processes act, basically, diametrically within two units: Western-Macedonian region of Iongitudal, stretching direction structures and the region of Central and Eastern macedonia, where structures have transversal and diagonal stretching direction. Both the seismicity and the geothermal energy can be incorporated in the stated scheme, i.e. the longitudal and the transversal zones of seismicity and geothermal energy are defined, whereby the zones mostly follow the fault dislocations along the boundary lined of the neotectonic uplifting and sinking. The fault structures represent the prevailing factor since displacement of blocks and accumulation of seismic energy occur along them and at the same time the fault inter spaces serve as supply channels for circulation of thermal waters from the deeper parts towards the ground surface. In addition to the global correlation, there are specific relations in the effect of the former or the later phenomenon, i.e., the earthquake can cause modifications in the geothermal regime, and vice versa, the geothermal disturbances can serve a precursory of an earthquake. Apart from exerting seismic activity areas with distribution of dominant structure elements particularly fault structures may represent a favorable environment for discovering of profitable geothermal energy. (Original)

  19. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  20. ELVIS: Multi-Electrolyte Aqueous Activity Model for Geothermal Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingerl, F. F.; Wagner, T.; Driesner, T.; Kulik, D. A.; Kosakowski, G.

    2011-12-01

    High temperature, pressure, and fluid salinities render geochemical modeling of fluid-rock interactions in Enhanced Geothermal Systems a demanding task. Accurate prediction of fluid-mineral equilibria strongly depends on the availability of thermodynamic data and activity models. Typically, the Pitzer activity model is applied for geothermal fluids. A drawback of this model is the large number of parameters required to account for temperature and pressure dependencies, which significantly reduces computational efficiency of reactive transport simulations. In addition, most available parameterizations are valid only at vapor-saturated conditions. As an alternative we implemented the EUNIQUAC local composition model [2] that needs substantially fewer fitting parameters. However, the current EUNIQUAC model design does not include provision for high temperature (>150°C) applications and lacks a formulation for pressure dependence. Therefore, its application to geothermal conditions requires a re-formulation and re-fitting of the model. We developed a new tool termed GEMSFIT that allows generic fitting of activity models (for aqueous electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions) and equations of state implemented in our geochemical equilibrium solver GEM-Selektor (http://gems.web.psi.ch). GEMSFIT combines a PostgreSQL database for storing and managing the datasets of experimental measurements and interaction parameters, the parallelized genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB° for the parameter fitting, and an interface to the numerical kernel of GEM-Selektor to access activity models and perform chemical equilibrium calculations. Benchmarking of the partly re-parameterized EUNIQUAC model against Pitzer revealed that the former is less accurate, which can result in incorrect predictions of mineral precipitation/dissolution. Consequently, we modified the EUNIQUAC model and concurrently introduced a pressure dependence to be able to fit experimental data over wide ranges of

  1. Modern geothermal power: GeoPP with geothermal steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The first part of the review presents information on the scale and specific features of geothermal energy development in various countries. The classification of geothermal power plant (GeoPP) process flow diagrams by a phase state of the primary heat source (a geothermal fluid), thermodynamic cycle, and applicable turbines is proposed. Features of geothermal plants using methods of flashing and steam separation in the process loop and a flowsheet and thermodynamic process of a geothermal fluid heat-to-power conversion in a GeoPP of the most widespread type using a double-flash separation are considered. It is shown that, for combined cycle power units, the specific power-to-consumption geothermal fluid ratio is 20-25% higher than that for traditional single-loop GeoPP. Information about basic chemical components and their concentration range for geothermal fluids of various formations around the world is presented. Three historic stages of improving geothermal energy technologies are determined, such as development of high-temperature geothermal resources (dry, superheated steam) and application of a two-phase wet-steam geothermal fluid in GeoPP power units with one or two expansion pressures and development of binary cycle GeoPPs. A current trend of more active use of binary power plants in GeoPP technological processes is noted. Design features of GeoPP's steam turbines and steam separating devices, determined by the use of low-potential geothermal saturated steam as a working medium, which is characterized by corrosion aggressiveness and a tendency to form deposits, are considered. Most promising Russian geothermal energy projects are determined. A list of today's most advanced geothermal turbine performance technologies is presented. By an example of a 25 MW steam turbine design, made by JSC Kaluga Turbine Works, advantages of the internal moisture separation with a special turbine-separator stage are shown.

  2. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  3. Internal structure of fault zones in geothermal reservoirs: Examples from palaeogeothermal fields and potential host rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonie Philipp, Sonja; Reyer, Dorothea; Meier, Silke; Bauer, Johanna F.; Afşar, Filiz

    2014-05-01

    Fault zones commonly have great effects on fluid transport in geothermal reservoirs. During fault slip all the pores and small fractures that meet with the slip plane become interconnected so that the inner part of the fault, the fault core, consisting of breccia or gouge, may suddenly develop a very high permeability. This is evidenced, for example by networks of mineral veins in deeply eroded fault zones in palaeogeothermal fields. Inactive faults, however, may have low permeabilities and even act as flow barriers. In natural and man-made geothermal reservoirs, the orientation of fault zones in relation to the current stress field and their internal structure needs be known as accurately as possible. One reason is that the activity of the fault zone depends on its angle to the principal stress directions. Another reason is that the outer part of a fault zone, the damage zone, comprises numerous fractures of various sizes. Here we present field examples of faults, and associated joints and mineral veins, in palaeogeothermal fields, and potential host rocks for man-made geothermal reservoirs, respectively. We studied several localities of different stratigraphies, lithologies and tectonic settings: (1) 58 fault zones in 22 outcrops from Upper Carboniferous to Upper Cretaceous in the Northwest German Basin (siliciclastic, carbonate and volcanic rocks); (2) 16 fault zones in 9 outcrops in Lower Permian to Middle Triassic (mainly sandstone, limestone and granite) in the Upper Rhine Graben; and (3) 74 fault zones in two coastal sections of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic age (mudstones and limestone-marl alternations) in the Bristol Channel Basin, UK. (1) and (2) are outcrop analogues of geothermal reservoir horizons, (3) represent palaeogeothermal fields with mineral veins. The field studies in the Northwest German Basin (1) show pronounced differences between normal-fault zones in carbonate and clastic rocks. In carbonate rocks clear damage zones occur that are

  4. Geothermal progress monitor: Report Number 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    Short articles are presented related to activities in the federal government and the geothermal industry, international developments, state and local government activities, technology development, and technology transfer. Power plant tables and a directory of organizations involved in geothermal resource development are included

  5. Geothermal progress monitor: Report Number 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Short articles are presented related to activities in the federal government and the geothermal industry, international developments, state and local government activities, technology development, and technology transfer. Power plant tables and a directory of organizations involved in geothermal resource development are included.

  6. In-situ test site at the International Geothermal Centre Bochum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Rolf; Wittig, Volker; Güldenhaupt, Jonas; Duda, Mandy; Stöckhert, Ferdinand; Bussmann, Gregor; Tünte, Henry; Saenger, Erik H.; Eicker, Timm; Löer, Katrin; Schäfers, Klaus; Macit, Osman; Jagert, Felix

    2017-04-01

    The in-situ test site at the International Geothermal Centre (GZB) is located on the campus of the Bochum University of Applied Sciences. The area represents a 10.000 m2 drill site with existing research, observation and production wells and allows further drill tests and drilling down to depths of 5.000 m - also in conjunction with the approved authorized 50 km2 mining area "Future Energies" and the GZB's own mobile dual drive drilling rig Bo.Rex capable of drilling down to depths of 1000 m. The site allows for a comprehensive characterization of the subsurface underneath the university's campus in terms of a case study in Bochum pursuing the objective to provide an in-situ test field to researchers from geosciences and other disciplines. The local geology comprises folded and fractured carboniferous sediments including sandstones, siltstones, claystones and coal seams with low matrix permeabilies. Currently, one research well, 29 production wells, and seven monitoring wells are available. The research well reaching to a depth of about 500 m with an open-hole section between 450 m and 500 m has been fully cored down to 200 m, selected sections were additionally cored down to 450 m. Production wells with depths of up to 200 m are equipped with borehole heat exchangers providing heating and cooling for the GZB and a new lecture building. Monitoring wells vary in depth and reach down to 200 m. The majority of wells were comprehensively characterized using the GZB's borehole geophysical logging system with deviation, caliper, gamma ray and acoustic imaging, but also full waveform sonic, flowmeter and electrical conductivity. Cuttings were collected, documented and partly stored. The in-situ test site will be complemented by a seismic and hydrogeological observatory comprising borehole seismometers at depths of up to 200 m. The seismic network will ensure permanent observation of natural and potential anthropogenic seismicity. Additionally, drilling activities

  7. Natural radioactivity levels of geothermal waters and their influence on soil and agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat Saç, Müslim; Aydemir, Sercan; Içhedef, Mutlu; Kumru, Mehmet N; Bolca, Mustafa; Ozen, Fulsen

    2014-01-01

    All over the world geothermal sources are used for different purposes. The contents of these waters are important to understand positive/negative effects on human life. In this study, natural radioactivity concentrations of geothermal waters were investigated to evaluate the effect on soils and agricultural activities. Geothermal water samples were collected from the Seferihisar Geothermal Region, and the radon and radium concentrations of these waters were analysed using a collector chamber method. Also soil samples, which are irrigated with geothermal waters, were collected from the surroundings of geothermal areas, and natural radioactivity concentrations of collected samples (U, Th and K) were determined using an NaI(Tl) detector system. The activity concentrations of radon and radium were found to be 0.6-6.0 and 0.1-1.0 Bq l(-1), respectively. Generally, the obtained results are not higher compared with the geothermal waters of the world. The activity concentrations in soils were found to be in the range of 3.3-120.3 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra (eU), 0.3-108.5 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th (eTh), 116.0-850.0 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K (% K).

  8. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  9. Geothermal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  10. Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; McDowell, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed study of calc-silicate mineral zones and coexisting phase relations in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system were used as examples for thermodynamic evaluation of phase relations among minerals of variable composition and to calculate the chemical characteristics of hydrothermal solutions compatible with the observed calc-silicate assemblages. In general there is a close correlation between calculated and observed fluid compositions. Calculated fugacities of O{sub 2} at about 320{degrees}C in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system are about five orders of magnitude less than that at the nearby Salton Sea geothermal system. This observation is consistent with the occurrence of Fe{sup 3+} rich epidotes in the latter system and the presence of prehnite at Cerro Prieto.

  11. Tectonic and Structural Controls of Geothermal Activity in the Great Basin Region, Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, J. E.; Hinz, N.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    We are conducting a thorough inventory of structural settings of geothermal systems (>400 total) in the extensional to transtensional Great Basin region of the western USA. Most of the geothermal systems in this region are not related to upper crustal magmatism and thus regional tectonic and local structural controls are the most critical factors controlling the locations of the geothermal activity. A system of NW-striking dextral faults known as the Walker Lane accommodates ~20% of the North American-Pacific plate motion in the western Great Basin and is intimately linked to N- to NNE-striking normal fault systems throughout the region. Overall, geothermal systems are concentrated in areas with the highest strain rates within or proximal to the eastern and western margins of the Great Basin, with the high temperature systems clustering in transtensional areas of highest strain rate in the northwestern Great Basin. Enhanced extension in the northwestern Great Basin probably results from the northwestward termination of the Walker Lane and the concomitant transfer of dextral shear into west-northwest directed extension, thus producing a broad transtensional region. The capacity of geothermal power plants also correlates with strain rates, with the largest (hundreds of megawatts) along the Walker Lane or San Andreas fault system, where strain rates range from 10-100 nanostrain/yr to 1,000 nanostrain/yr, respectively. Lesser systems (tens of megawatts) reside in the Basin and Range (outside the Walker Lane), where local strain rates are typically fracture density, and thus enhanced permeability. Other common settings include a) intersections between normal faults and strike-slip or oblique-slip faults (27%), where multiple minor faults connect major structures and fluids can flow readily through highly fractured, dilational quadrants, and b) normal fault terminations or tip-lines (22%), where horse-tailing generates closely-spaced faults and increased permeability

  12. High Fluoride and Geothermal Activities In Continental Rift Zones, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldesenbet, S. F.; Wohnlich, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Main Ethiopian Rift basin is a continental rift system characterized by volcano-tectonic depression endowed with huge geothermal resource and associated natural geochemical changes on groundwater quality. Chemical composition of groundwater in the study area showed a well defined trend along flow from the highland and escarpment to the rift floor aquifer. The low TDS ( 1000 mg/l) Na-HCO3-Cl type in volcano-lacustrine aquifers of the rift floor. High concentrations of fluoride (up to 97.2 mg/l) and arsenic (up to 98μg/l) are recognized feature of groundwaters which occur mostly in the vicinity of the geothermal fields and the rift lakes in the basin. Fluoride and arsenic content of dry volcaniclastic sediments close to these areas are in the range 666-2586mg/kg and 10-13mg/kg respectively. The relationship between fluoride and calcium concentrations in groundwaters showed negative correlation. Near-equilibrium state attained between the mineral fluorite (CaF2) and the majority of fluoride-rich (>30mg/l) thermal groundwater and shallow cold groundwater. This indicated that the equilibrium condition control the high concentration of fluoride in the groundwaters. Whereas undersaturation state of fluorite in some relatively low-fluoride (surface system is simulated with sediment-packed column leached by flowing water and applying temporary interruption of flow during the experiment. The result indicated that a sharp increase of fluoride concentration (up to 58mg/kg) observed in leachates before one pore-volume of water eluted from the column. The concentration of leached fluoride consequently declined with the increased flowing pore-volume of water and finally the lowest concentrations of leached fluoride occurred in the end of the experiment. Flow interruption during column leaching experiment causes a noticeable fluoride concentration perturbation due to the heterogeneity of the sediment.

  13. Fluoride and Geothermal Activities In Continental Rift Zones, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldesenbet, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Main Ethiopian Rift basin is a continental rift system characterized by volcano-tectonic depression endowed with huge geothermal resource and associated natural geochemical changes on groundwater quality. Chemical composition of groundwater in the study area showed a well defined trend along flow from the highland and escarpment to the rift floor aquifer. The low TDS ( 1000 mg/l) Na-HCO3-Cl type in volcano-lacustrine aquifers of the rift floor. High concentrations of fluoride (up to 97.2 mg/l) and arsenic (up to 98μg/l) are recognized feature of groundwaters which occur mostly in the vicinity of the geothermal fields and the rift lakes in the basin. Fluoride and arsenic content of dry volcaniclastic sediments close to these areas are in the range 666-2586mg/kg and 10-13mg/kg respectively. The relationship between fluoride and calcium concentrations in groundwaters showed negative correlation. Near-equilibrium state attained between the mineral fluorite (CaF2) and the majority of fluoride-rich (>30mg/l) thermal groundwater and shallow cold groundwater. This indicated that the equilibrium condition control the high concentration of fluoride in the groundwaters. Whereas undersaturation state of fluorite in some relatively low-fluoride (surface system is simulated with sediment-packed column leached by flowing water and applying temporary interruption of flow during the experiment. The result indicated that a sharp increase of fluoride concentration (up to 58mg/kg) observed in leachates before one pore-volume of water eluted from the column. The concentration of leached fluoride consequently declined with the increased flowing pore-volume of water and finally the lowest concentrations of leached fluoride occurred in the end of the experiment. Flow interruption during column leaching experiment causes a noticeable fluoride concentration perturbation due to the heterogeneity of the sediment.

  14. Geothermal handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    presented which will allow the Service to provide input to the federal leasing process. As an impact information source by which to judge the appropriateness of a specific activity at a specific site, a discussion of activities-impacts is provided on a phase by phase basis. Mitigation and possible enhancement techniques are also presented so that the impacts of the development can be dealt with and the fish and wildlife situation improved. The Service can achieve its objective only if biological input is made throughout the entire process of geothermal development, from exploration to testing to full field operation. A discussion of geothermal leasing procedures emphasizes the timing and nature of Service participation in current interagency lease processing, and there is a provision for the utilization of new knowledge, techniques, and responses as experience is accumulated.

  15. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana. Final report, 1 November 1983-31 October 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring of microseismic activity, land-surface subsidence, and surface and ground-water quality at three designed geopressured-geothermal test well sites in Louisiana. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual sections. (ACR)

  16. Geothermal Exploration Policy Mechanisms: Lessons for the United States from International Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Economy, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Regenthal, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report focuses on five of the policy types that are most relevant to the U.S. market and political context for the exploration and confirmation of conventional hydrothermal (geothermal) resources in the United States: (1) drilling failure insurance, (2) loan guarantees, (3) subsidized loans, (4) capital subsidies, and (5) government-led exploration. It describes each policy type and its application in other countries and regions. It offers policymakers a guide for drafting future geothermal support mechanisms for the exploration-drilling phase of geothermal development.

  17. Comparative Study of Earthquake Clustering in Relation to Hydraulic Activities at Geothermal Fields in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Garzón, P.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Kwiatek, G.; Bohnhoff, M.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate earthquake clustering properties from three geothermal reservoirs to clarify how earthquake patterns respond to hydraulic activities. We process ≈ 9 years from four datasets corresponding to the Geysers (both the entire field and a local subset), Coso and Salton Sea geothermal fields, California. For each, the completeness magnitude, b-value and fractal dimension are calculated and used to identify seismicity clusters using the nearest-neighbor approach of Zaliapin and Ben-Zion [2013a, 2013b]. Estimations of temporal evolution of different clustering properties in relation to hydraulic parameters point to different responses of earthquake dynamics to hydraulic operations in each case study. The clustering at the Geysers at local scale and Salton Sea are most and least affected by hydraulic activities, respectively. The response of the earthquake clustering from different datasets to the hydraulic activities may reflect the regional seismo-tectonic complexity as well as the dimension of the geothermal activities performed (e.g. number of active wells and superposition of injection + production activities).Two clustering properties significantly respond to hydraulic changes across all datasets: the background rates and the proportion of clusters consisting of a single event. Background rates are larger at the Geysers and Coso during high injection-production periods, while the opposite holds for the Salton Sea. This possibly reflects the different physical mechanisms controlling seismicity at each geothermal field. Additionally, a lower proportion of singles is found during time periods with higher injection-production rates. This may reflect decreasing effective stress in areas subjected to higher pore pressure and larger earthquake triggering by stress transfer.

  18. Microbial diversity in an anaerobic digester with biogeographical proximity to geothermally active region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rishi; Nikitina, Anna; Nozhevnikova, Alla; Goel, Gunjan

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass or wastes can offer renewable energy, to help meet the rise in energy demands. The performance of an anaerobic digester considerably depends upon the complex interactions between bacterial and archaeal microbiome, which is greatly influenced by environmental factors. In the present study, we evaluate a microbial community of digester located at two different geographical locations, to understand whether the biogeographical proximity of a digester to a geothermally active region has any influence on microbial composition. The comparative microbial community profiling, highlights coexistence of specific bacterial and archaeal representatives (especially, Prosthecochloris sp., Conexibacter sp., Crenarchaeota isolate (Caldivirga sp.), Metallosphaera sp., Pyrobaculum sp. and Acidianus sp.) in a digester with close proximity to geothermally active region (Site I) and their absence in a digester located far-off from geothermally active region (Site II). A Sörensen's index of similarity of 83.33% and 66.66% for bacterial and archaeal community was observed in both the reactors, respectively.

  19. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Testing Activity, Frio Formation, Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the Division of Geothermal Energy's decisions to expand the geothermal well testing activities to include sites in the Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana. It is proposed that drilling rigs be leased before they are removed from sites in the formation where drilling for gas or oil exploration has been unsuccessful and that the rigs be used to complete the drilling into the geopressured zone for resource exploration. This EA addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environment, and the possible impacts in a broad sense as they apply to the Gulf Coast well testing activity of the Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram of the Department of Energy. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay, Atlas) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. in the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource.

  20. Origin and Distribution of Thiophenes and Furans in Gas Discharges from Active Volcanoes and Geothermal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tassi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition of non-methane organic volatile compounds (VOCs determined in 139 thermal gas discharges from 18 different geothermal and volcanic systems in Italy and Latin America, consists of C2–C20 species pertaining to the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and O-, S- and N-bearing classes of compounds. Thiophenes and mono-aromatics, especially the methylated species, are strongly enriched in fluids emissions related to hydrothermal systems. Addition of hydrogen sulphide to dienes and electrophilic methylation involving halogenated radicals may be invoked for the formation of these species. On the contrary, the formation of furans, with the only exception of C4H8O, seems to be favoured at oxidizing conditions and relatively high temperatures, although mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the production of thiophenes can be suggested. Such thermodynamic features are typical of fluid reservoirs feeding high-temperature thermal discharges of volcanoes characterised by strong degassing activity, which are likely affected by conspicuous contribution from a magmatic source. The composition of heteroaromatics in fluids naturally discharged from active volcanoes and geothermal areas can then be considered largely dependent on the interplay between hydrothermal vs. magmatic contributions. This implies that they can be used as useful geochemical tools to be successfully applied in both volcanic monitoring and geothermal prospection.

  1. Origin and distribution of thiophenes and furans in gas discharges from active volcanoes and geothermal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Franco; Montegrossi, Giordano; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Vaselli, Orlando

    2010-03-31

    The composition of non-methane organic volatile compounds (VOCs) determined in 139 thermal gas discharges from 18 different geothermal and volcanic systems in Italy and Latin America, consists of C(2)-C(20) species pertaining to the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and O-, S- and N-bearing classes of compounds. Thiophenes and mono-aromatics, especially the methylated species, are strongly enriched in fluids emissions related to hydrothermal systems. Addition of hydrogen sulphide to dienes and electrophilic methylation involving halogenated radicals may be invoked for the formation of these species. On the contrary, the formation of furans, with the only exception of C(4)H(8)O, seems to be favoured at oxidizing conditions and relatively high temperatures, although mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the production of thiophenes can be suggested. Such thermodynamic features are typical of fluid reservoirs feeding high-temperature thermal discharges of volcanoes characterised by strong degassing activity, which are likely affected by conspicuous contribution from a magmatic source. The composition of heteroaromatics in fluids naturally discharged from active volcanoes and geothermal areas can then be considered largely dependent on the interplay between hydrothermal vs. magmatic contributions. This implies that they can be used as useful geochemical tools to be successfully applied in both volcanic monitoring and geothermal prospection.

  2. Final report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities. April 1, 1999 to December 31, 2001. USDOE Grant No. DE-FG01-99-EE35098

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    This is the final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association, and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  3. DEVELOPING THE NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM ADOPTION OF CKAN FOR DOMESTIC & INTERNATIONAL DATA DEPLOYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Ryan J. [Arizona Geological Survey; Kuhmuench, Christoph [Siemens Corporation; Richard, Stephen M. [Arizona Geological Survey

    2013-03-01

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) De- sign and Testing Team is developing NGDS software currently referred to as the “NGDS Node-In-A-Box”. The software targets organizations or individuals who wish to host at least one of the following: • an online repository containing resources for the NGDS; • an online site for creating metadata to register re- sources with the NGDS • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that enable access to NGDS data (e.g., WMS, WFS, WCS); • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that support dis- covery of NGDS resources via catalog service (e.g. CSW) • a web site that supports discovery and under- standing of NGDS resources A number of different frameworks for development of this online application were reviewed. The NGDS Design and Testing Team determined to use CKAN (http://ckan.org/), because it provides the closest match between out of the box functionality and NGDS node-in-a-box requirements. To achieve the NGDS vision and goals, this software development project has been inititated to provide NGDS data consumers with a highly functional inter- face to access the system, and to ease the burden on data providers who wish to publish data in the sys- tem. It is important to note that this software package constitutes a reference implementation. The NGDS software is based on open standards, which means other server software can make resources available, and other client applications can utilize NGDS data. A number of international organizations have ex- pressed interest in the NGDS approach to data access. The CKAN node implementation can provide a sim- ple path for deploying this technology in other set- tings.

  4. Continuous gravity monitoring of geothermal activity; Renzoku juryoku sokutei ni yoru chinetsu katsudo no monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    To clarify the geothermal activity in the geothermal fields in New Zealand, gravity monitoring was conducted using SCINTREX automatic gravimeter. The measurements were conducted between the end of January and the beginning of March, 1996. Firstly, continuous monitoring was conducted at the standard point for about ten days, and the tidal components were estimated from the records. After that, continuous monitoring was conducted at Waimangu area for several days. Continuous monitoring was repeated at the standard point, again. At the Waimangu area, three times of changes in the pulse-shape amplitude of 0.01 mgal having a width of several hours were observed. For the SCINTREX gravimeter, the inclination of gravimeter is also recorded in addition to the change of gravity. During the monitoring, the gravimeter was also inclined with the changes of gravity. This inclination was useful not only for the correction of gravity measured, but also for evaluating the ground fluctuation due to the underground pressure source. It is likely that the continuous gravity monitoring is the relatively conventional technique which is effective for prospecting the change of geothermal reservoir. 2 figs.

  5. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  6. Evaluation of noise associated with geothermal-development activities. Final report, July 31, 1979-April 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, M.; Stern, R.

    1982-01-01

    This report was prepared for the purpose of ascertaining the current state of noise generation, suppression, and mitigation techniques associated with geothermal development. A description of the geothermal drilling process is included as well as an overview of geothermal development activities in the United States. Noise sources at the well site, along geothermal pipelines, and at the power plants are considered. All data presented are measured values by workers in the field and by Marshall Long/Acoustics. One particular well site was monitored for a period of 55 continuous days, and includes all sources of noise from the time that the drilling rig was brought in until the time that it was moved off site. A complete log of events associated with the drilling process is correlated with the noise measurements including production testing of the completed well. Data are also presented which compare measured values of geothermal noise with federal, state, county, and local standards. A section on control of geothermal noise is also given. Volume I of this document presents summary information.

  7. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with Vshot source, and circulation to surface become high temperature hot water. Geothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  8. Plant adaptation to extreme environments: the example of Cistus salviifolius of an active geothermal alteration field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Giacomo; Bottega, Stefania; Forino, Laura M C; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Spanò, Carmelina

    2014-02-01

    Cistus salviifolius is able to colonise one of the most extreme active geothermal alteration fields in terms of both soil acidity and hot temperatures. The analyses of morpho-functional and physiological characters, investigated in leaves of plants growing around fumaroles (G leaves) and in leaves developed by the same plants after transfer into growth chamber under controlled conditions (C leaves) evidenced the main adaptive traits developed by this pioneer plant in a stressful environment. These traits involved leaf shape and thickness, mesophyll compactness, stomatal and trichome densities, chloroplast size. Changes of functional and physiological traits concerned dry matter content, peroxide and lipid peroxidation, leaf area, relative water and pigment contents. A higher reducing power and antioxidant enzymatic activity were typical of G leaves. Though the high levels of stress parameters, G leaves showed stress-induced specific morphogenic and physiological responses putatively involved in their surviving in active geothermal habitats. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Geothermal energy program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  10. Geothermal Energy Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained with the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost- effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy -- the heat of the Earth -- is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40% of the total US energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma ( the four types of geothermal energy) still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program

  11. Landscape linkages between geothermal activity and solute composition and ecological response in surface waters draining the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Catherine M.; Rowe, Gary L.; Triska, Frank J.; Fernandez, Jose F.; West, John

    1993-01-01

    Surface waters draining three different volcanoes in Costa Rica, ranging from dormant to moderately active to explosive, have a wide range of solute compositions that partly reflects the contribution of different types of solute-rich, geothermal waters. Three major physical transport vectors affect flows of geothermally derived solutes: thermally driven convection of volcanic gases and geothermal fluids; lateral and gravity-driven downward transport of geothermal fluids; and wind dispersion of ash, gases, and acid rain. Specific vector combinations interact to determine landscape patterns in solute chemistry and biota: indicator taxa of algae and bacteria reflect factors such as high temperature, wind-driven or hydrologically transported acidity, high concentrations of various solutes, and chemical precipitation reactions. Many streams receiving geothermally derived solutes have high levels of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) (up to 400 µg liter−1), a nutrient that is typically not measured in geochemical studies of geothermal waters. Regional differences in levels of SRP and other solutes among volcanoes were typically not significant due to high local variation in solute levels among geothermally modified streams and between geothermally modified and unmodified streams on each volcano. Geothermal activity along the volcanic spine of Costa Rica provides a natural source of phosphorus, silica, and other solutes and plays an important role in determining emergent landscape patterns in the solute chemistry of surface waters and aquatic biota.

  12. Mechanical behaviour of the Krafla geothermal reservoir: Insight into an active magmatic hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggertsson, Guðjón H.; Lavallée, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie E.

    2017-04-01

    Krafla volcano, located in North-East Iceland, holds an active magmatic hydrothermal system. Since 1978, this system has been exploited for geothermal energy. Today it is exploited by Landsvirkjun National Power of Iceland and the system is generating 60 MWg from 18 wells, tapping into fluids at 200-300°C. In order to meet further demands of environmentally sustainable energy, Landsvirkjun aims to drill deeper and source fluids in the super-heated, super high-enthalpy system which resides deeper (at 400-600°C). In relation to this, the first well of the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) was drilled in Krafla in 2009. Drilling stopped at a depth of 2.1 km, when the drill string penetrated a rhyolitic magma body, which could not be bypassed despite attempts to side-track the well. This pioneering effort demonstrated that the area close to magma had great energy potential. Here we seek a constraint on the mechanical properties of reservoir rocks overlying the magmatic systems to gain knowledge on these systems to improve energy extraction. During two field surveys in 2015 and 2016, and through information gathered from drilling of geothermal wells, five main rock types were identified and sampled [and their porosities (i.e., storage capacities) where determined with a helium-pycnometer]: basalts (5-60% porosity), hyaloclastites (geothermal reservoir. Uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength tests have been carried out, as well as indirect tensile strength tests using the Brazilian disc method, to measure the rock strengths. The results show that the rock strength is inversely proportional to the porosity and strongly affected by the abundance of microcracks; some of the rocks are unusually weak considering their porosities, especially at low effective pressure as constrained at Krafla. The results also show that the porous lithologies may undergo significant compaction at relatively low loads (i.e., depth). Integration of the observed mechanical behaviour and

  13. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  14. Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie Kell, Graham Kent, Neal Driscoll, Robert Karlin, Rob Baskin, John Louie, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting, San Diego, Oct. 23-26.

  15. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  16. Worldwide installed geothermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide electric energy production data are easy to compile, according to the informations given by individual countries. On the contrary, thermal applications of geothermics are difficult to quantify due to the variety of applications and the number of countries concerned. Exhaustive informations sometimes cannot be obtained from huge countries (China, Russia..) because of data centralization problems or not exploitable data transmission. Therefore, installed power data for geothermal heat production are given for 26 countries over the 57 that have answered the International Geothermal Association questionnaire. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 1 photo

  17. International activities of the GRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, R.; Hachenberg, G.; Schally, P.

    1990-01-01

    The individual activities fall into three main subject areas, each with differing objectives and functions: Cooperation in multilateral and bilateral bodies and organizations, cooperation in international research projects, performance of safety analyses. In addition to describing the international activities of GRS, the paper also shows how complexly interwoven the safety of nuclear facilities is at the international level, and how varied initiatives are required in order to ensure effective cooperation in the various fields. (orig.) [de

  18. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  19. Hydrothermal fluids circulation and travertine deposition in an active tectonic setting: Insights from the Kamara geothermal area (western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Andrea; Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Yalçıner, Cahit Çağlar; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco; Rimondi, Valentina; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Gandin, Anna; Boschi, Chiara; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence of thermal springs, travertine deposits and tectonic activity is a recurring feature for most geothermal areas. Although such a certainty, their relationships are debated mainly addressing on the role of the tectonic activity in triggering and controlling fluids flow and travertine deposition. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated study carried out in a geothermal area located in western Anatolia (Turkey), nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin). Our study focused on the relationships among hydrothermal fluids circulation, travertine deposition and tectonic activity, with particular emphasis on the role of faults in controlling fluids upwelling, thermal springs location and deposition of travertine masses. New field mapping and structural/kinematics analyses allowed us to recognize two main faults systems (NW- and NE-trending), framed in the Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonic evolution of western Anatolia. A geo-radar (GPR) prospection was also provided in a key-area, permitting us to reconstruct a buried fault zone and its relationships with the development of a fissure-ridge travertine deposit (Kamara fissure-ridge). The integration among structural and geophysical studies, fluids inclusion, geochemical, isotopic data and 230 Th/238 U radiometric age determination on travertine deposits, depict the characteristics of the geothermal fluids and their pathway, up to the surface. Hydrological and seismological data have been also taken in account to investigate the relation between local seismicity and fluid upwelling. As a main conclusion we found strict relationships among tectonic activity, earthquakes occurrence, and variation of the physical/chemical features of the hydrothermal fluids, presently exploited at depth, or flowing out in thermal springs. In the same way, we underline the tectonic role in controlling the travertine deposition, making travertine (mainly banded travertine) a useful proxy to reconstruct the

  20. Internal structure of the Aar Massif: What can we learn in terms of exploration for deep geothermal energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwegh, Marco; Baumberger, Roland; Wehrens, Philip; Schubert, Raphael; Berger, Alfons; Maeder, Urs; Spillmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The successful use of deep geothermal energy requires 3D flow paths, which allow an efficient heat exchange between the surrounding host rocks and the circulating fluids. Recent attempts to exploit this energy resource clearly demonstrate that the new technology is facing sever problems. Some major problems are related to the prediction of permeability, the 3D structure of the flow paths and the mechanical responses during elevated fluid pressures at depths of several kilometers. Although seemingly new in a technical perspective, nature is facing and solving similar problems since the beginning of the Alpine orogeny. Based on detailed studies in the Hasli Valley (Aar Massif) we can demonstrate that deformation and fluid flow are strongly localized along mechanical anisotropies (e.g. lithological variations, brittle and ductile faults). Some of them already evolved during Variscan and post-Variscan times. Interestingly, these inherited structures are reactivated over and over again during the Alpine orogeny. Their reactivation occurred at depths of ~13-15 km with elevated temperatures (400-475°C) and involved both ductile and brittle deformation processes. Brittle deformation in form of hydrofracking was always present due to the circulating fluids. It is this process, which was and still is responsible for seismic activity. With progressive uplift and exhumation of the Aar Massif, ductile deformation structures became replaced by brittle cataclasites and fault gouges during fault activity at shallower crustal levels. Existing hydrotest data from the Grimsel Test Site (Nagra's underground research laboratory) indicate that these brittle successors of the ductile shear zones are domains of enhanced recent fluid percolation. Note that although being exposed today, the continuation of these fault structures are still active at depth in both brittle and ductile deformation modes, a fact that can be inferred from recent uplift rates and the active seismicity. On the

  1. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The 48. session of the IAEA general conference was held in Vienna from 20 to 24 september 2004 with the participation of delegates from 125 members states and representatives of various international organisations. A number of resolutions were adopted by the conference in the following fields: nuclear safety, radiation, transport and waste safety. The general conference also adopted a resolution on measures to protect against nuclear terrorism. The Director General decided in 2003 to appoint a group of experts to explore and advise on issues related to nuclear liability. This group called the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (I.N.L.E.X.) consists of 20 experts members from nuclear power and non nuclear power countries and from shipping and non shipping states. It serves three major functions: to create a forum of expertise to explore and advise on issues related to nuclear liability; to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non nuclear states to an effective nuclear liability regime, inter alia, on the basis of the convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage and the annex thereto, the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage, the Paris convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, the joint protocol relating to the application of the vienna convention and the paris convention and the amendments thereto; and to assist in the development and strengthening of the national nuclear liability legal frameworks in IAEA members states to protect the public and the environment and to enhance nuclear safety. The second part of international regulatory concerns a directive on public access to environmental information made by the European Parliament. (N.C.)

  2. Geothermal spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.L.; Takahashi, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The spa business, part of the health and fitness industry that has sprung up in recent years, is highly successful world-wide. The most traditional type of spa is the geothermal spa, found in geothermal areas around the world. In Japan, for example, some 2,000 geothermal spas and resorts generate $6 billion annually. Hawaii has an ideal environment for geothermal spas, and several locations in the islands could supply warm mineral water for spa development. Hawaii receives about 6 million visitors annually, a high percentage of whom are familiar with the relaxing and therapeutic value of geothermal spas, virtually guaranteeing the success of this industry in Hawaii. Presently, Hawaii does not have a single geothermal spa. This paper reports that the geothermal spa business is an industry whose time has come, an industry that offers very promising investment opportunities, and one that would improve the economy while expanding the diversity of pleasurable vacation options in Hawaii

  3. International guidance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Allan C.B.

    1989-01-01

    International principles for setting Protective Action Guides (PAGs) are contained in two key documents that contain identical statements. One is Publication Number 40 of the ICRP, which was issued in 1985. The title is 'Protection of the Public in the Event of Major Radiation Accidents, Principles for Planning'. The other is the IAEA's Safety Series Publication Number 72, also issued in 1985, written by many of the same authors and titled, 'Principles for Establishing Intervention Levels'. The principles that were set forth in these documents were identical, were incomplete, and they are, unfortunately, the only principles that are now in effect, while proposed revisions go through one draft after another. There are several such draft revisions that are of significance. The most important is that of the ICRP. The basic guidance that applies to most planned exposure to radiation is ICRP Publication 26. That document has been under revision by the Commission for a number of years, and the new version will, for the first time, include recommendations for emergency response. They are now getting close to closure, and I think it should be a very much improved and useful document. But it isn't finished yet. Such guidance doesn't get developed in a vacuum, and there have been a couple of parallel efforts which have provided significant input to the ICRP, which is essentially a behind-closed-doors effort. These other efforts are more open. One of these is being carried out within the IAEA, which has convened annual meetings of national experts for a number of years in Vienna, to generate a replacement for Safety Series No. 72, mentioned earlier. There is a meeting scheduled this December to complete this effort; and, hopefully, we will reach closure at that meeting on at least the basic principles. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has also been at work. It has convened a group of experts from member nations that have been developing recommendations. There is an overlap

  4. The International Active Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    For me, internationalisation is a learning outcome, not just about international mobility. It is about ensuring that students actively participate in a learning experience that prepares them for a world that is more and more internationally and interculturally connected - that both Danish and non...

  5. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  6. Multipurpose Use of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.; Lund, John W. (eds.)

    1974-10-09

    The conference was organized to review the non-electric, multipurpose uses of geothermal energy in Hungary, Iceland, New Zealand, United States and the USSR. The international viewpoint was presented to provide an interchange of information from countries where non-electric use of geothermal energy has reached practical importance.

  7. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, Ph.; Lemale, J.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source which consists in exploiting the heat coming from the Earth. It covers a wide range of techniques and applications which are presented in this article: 1 - the Earth, source of heat: structure of the Earth, geodynamic model and plate tectonics, origin of heat, geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flux; 2 - geothermal fields and resources; 3 - implementation of geothermal resources: exploration, main characteristic parameters, resource exploitation; 4 - uses of geothermal resources: power generation, thermal uses, space heating and air conditioning heat pumps, district heating, addition of heat pumps; 5 - economical aspects: power generation, heat generation for district heating; 6 - environmental aspects: conditions of implementation, impacts as substitute to fossil fuels; 7 - geothermal energy in France: resources, organisation; 8 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  8. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, H.; Bouchot, V.; Lopez, S.; Bialkowski, A.; Colnot, A.; Rigollet, C.; Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.; Brach, M.; Asmundsson, R.; Giroud, N.

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal energy has shown a revival for several years and should strongly develop in a near future. Its potentiality is virtually unexhaustible. Its uses are multiple and various: individual and collective space heating, heat networks, power generation, heat storage, heat exchanges etc.. Re-launched by the demand of renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has become credible thanks to the scientific works published recently which have demonstrated its economical and technical relevance. Its image to the public is changing as well. However, lot of work remains to do to make geothermal energy a real industry in France. Several brakes have to be removed rapidly which concern the noise pollution of geothermal facilities, the risk of bad results of drillings, the electricity costs etc. This dossier gives an overview of today's main research paths in the domain of geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy in France: historical development, surface and deep resources, ambitions of the French national energy plan (pluri-annual investment plan for heat generation, incentives, regional 'climate-air-energy' schemes), specific regulations; 2 - geothermal energy at the city scale - sedimentary basins: Ile-de-France 40 years of Dogger reservoir exploitation, potentialities of clastic reservoirs - the Chaunoy sandstones example; 3 - geothermal power generation: conventional reservoirs - the Bouillante model (Guadeloupe, French Indies); the Soultz-sous-Forets pilot plant (Bas-Rhin, France); the supercritical reservoirs - the Krafla geothermal area (Iceland). (J.S.)

  9. Multidisciplinary exploratory study of a geothermal resource in the active volcanic arc of Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navelot, Vivien; Favier, Alexiane; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Corsini, Michel; Verati, Chrystèle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Mercier de Lépinay, Jeanne; Munschy, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The GEOTREF project (high enthalpy geothermal energy in fractured reservoirs), supported by the French government program, "Investissements d'avenir" develops a sustainable geothermal resource in the Vieux Habitants area, 8-km south of the currently exploited Bouillante geothermal field. The Basse Terre Island is a recent volcanic arc (geothermal gradient of 70 ˚ C/km.

  10. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth. It represents an inexhaustible source of energy. In many countries, which are mostly located within the geothermal belts of the world, geothermal energy is being used since many decades for electricity generation and direct heating applications comprising municipal, industrial and agricultural heating. Outside the geothermal anomalous volcanic regions, hot ground water from deep rock formations at temperatures above 70 o C is used for process heat and space heating. Low prices for gas and oil hinder the development of geothermal plants in areas outside positive geothermal anomalies; the cost of drilling to reach depths, where temperatures are above 50 o C to 70 o C, is high. The necessary total investment per MW th installed capacity is in the order of 5 Mio- DM/MW th (3 Mio $/MW th ). Experience shows, that an economic break even with oil is reached at an oil price of 30$ per barrel or if an adequate bonus for the clean, environmentally compatible production of geothermal heat is granted. Worldwide the installed electric capacity of geothermal power plants is approximately 6 000 MW e . About 15 000 MW th of thermal capacity is being extracted for process heat and space heat. The importance of the terrestrial heat as an energy resource would be substantially increased, if the heat, stored in the hot crystalline basement could be extracted at economical production costs. Geothermal energy is a competitive energy source in areas with high geothermal gradients (relative low cost for drilling) and would be competitive in areas with normal geothermal gradients, if a fair compensation for environmental implications from fossil and nuclear power production would be granted. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  11. Development of an active solar humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system integrated with geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elminshawy, Nabil A.S.; Siddiqui, Farooq R.; Addas, Mohammad F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Productivity increases with increasing geothermal water flow rate up to 0.15 kg/s. • Geothermal energy increases productivity by 187–465% when used with solar energy. • Daytime experimental productivity (8AM-5PM) up to 104 L/m 2 was achieved. • Daily experimental productivity (24 h) up to 192 L/m 2 was achieved. • Fresh potable water can be produced at 0.003 USD/L using this desalination setup. - Abstract: This paper investigates the technical and economic feasibility of using a hybrid solar-geothermal energy source in a humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system. The newly developed HDH system is a modified solar still with air blower and condenser used at its inlet and outlet respectively. A geothermal water tank in a temperature range 60–80 °C which imitates a low-grade geothermal energy source was used to supply heat to water inside the humidification chamber. The experiments were conducted in January 2015 under the climatological conditions of Madinah (latitude: 24°33′N, longitude: 39°36′0″E), Saudi Arabia to study the effect of geothermal water temperature and flow rate on the performance and productivity of proposed desalination system. Analytical model was also developed to compare the effect of solar energy and combined solar-geothermal energy on accumulated productivity. Daytime experimental accumulated productivity up to 104 L/m 2 and daily average gained output ratio (GOR) in the range 1.2–1.58 was achieved using the proposed desalination system. Cost of fresh water produced using the presented desalination system is 0.003 USD/L.

  12. Geothermal studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Yang, Wang; Mo-Xiang, Chen; Ji-An, Wang; Xiao, Deng; Jun, Wang; Hsien-Chieh, Shen; Liang-Ping, Hsiung; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhi-Cheng, Fan; Xiu-Wen, Liu; Ge-Shan, Huang; Wen-Ren, Zhang; Hai-Hui, Shao; Rong-Yan, Zhang

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuously since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research on geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; and (3) geothermal studies in mines. Regional geothermal studies have been conducted recently in North China and more than 2000 values of subsurface temperature have been obtained. Temperatures at a depth of 300 m generally range from 20 to 25°C with geothermal gradients from 20 to 40°C/km. These values are regarded as an average for the region with anomalies related to geological factors. To date, 22 reliable heat flow data from 17 sites have been obtained in North China and the data have been categorized according to fault block tectonics. The average heat flow value at 16 sites in the north is 1.3 HFU, varying from 0.7 to 1.8 HFU. It is apparent that the North China fault block is characterized by a relatively high heat flow with wide variations in magnitude compared to the mean value for similar tectonic units in other parts of the world. It is suggested that although the North China fault block can be traced back to the Archaean, the tectonic activity has been strengthening since the Mesozoic resulting in so-called "reactivation of platform" with large-scale faulting and magmatism. Geothermal resources in China are extensive; more than 2000 hot springs have been found and there are other manifestations including geysers, hydrothermal explosions, hydrothermal steam, fumaroles, high-temperature fountains, boiling springs, pools of boiling mud, etc. In addition, there are many Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins with widespread aquifers containing geothermal water resources in abundance. The extensive exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources began early in the 1970's. Since then

  13. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S. [eds.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  14. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  15. Twelve month follow-up report of the conference to promote international sales of US geothermal equipment (CORECT Project): Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.

    1988-12-01

    The reverse trade mission ''Conference to Promote International Sales of US Geothermal Equipment'' was organized and managed by the Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) in collaboration with the California Energy Commission (CEC). The mission was held in late September/October of 1987 and was well received by the 23 participants from 18 different countries. Approximately $275,000 in immediate sales can be attributed directly to the program and the estimate of potential future sales runs as high as $4,765,000. It was felt by the attendees that the program was well organized and executed and that the caliber of persons invited to attend was optimum. All of the attendees stated that the function was very informative and beneficial and that they would recommend to others that they attend similar functions. In order to be really effective in exporting a company, a country must be highly visible to potential purchasers. Although this function lasted only two weeks it was considered as a prime first step in the development of a strong US geothermal technology export base program. As a part of the effort to maintain this presence the GRC recommends that this function be followed by other similar functions, courses, seminars, and specific field trips. In addition every effort should be made for US government and industry representatives to visit various countries as often as possible. The GRC is working toward developing an international information-dissemination program, which would include the development of courses for geothermal units in foreign countries.

  16. Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie Kell, Graham Kent, Neal Driscoll, Robert Karlin, Rob Baskin, John Louie, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada: Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 35, 7 pp. Preprint at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/geothermal/Eisses-GRCpaper-sm.pdf The Pyramid Lake fault zone lies within a vitally important area of the northern Walker Lane where not only can transtension can be studied through a complex arrangement of strike-slip and normal faults but also geothermal activity can be examined in the extensional regime for productivity. This study used advanced and economical seismic methods in attempt to develop the Paiute Tribe’s geothermal reservoir and to expand upon the tectonics and earthquake hazard knowledge of the area. 500 line-kilometers of marine CHIRP data were collected on Pyramid Lake combined with 27 kilometers of vibrator seismic on-land data from the northwest side of the basin were collected in 2010 that highlighted two distinct phases of faulting. Preliminary results suggest that the geothermal fluids in the area are controlled by the late Pleistoceneto Holocene-aged faults and not through the mid-Miocene-aged conduits as originally hypothesized.

  17. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    A state-by-state review of major geothermal-development activities during 1982 is presented. It also inlcudes a summary of recent drilling and exploration efforts and the results of the 1982 leasing program. Two complementary sections feature an update of geothermal direct-use applications and a site-by-site summary of US geothermal electric-power development.

  18. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of the past and present development of geothermal energy worldwide and a more detailed one in Switzerland. Worldwide installed electrical power using geothermal energy sources amounts to 8900 MW el . Worldwide utilization of geothermal energy for thermal applications amounts to 28,000 MW th . The main application (56.5%) is ground-coupled heat pumps, others are thermal spas and swimming pools (17.7%), space heating (14.9%), heating of greenhouses (4.8%), fish farming (2.2%), industrial uses (1,8%), cooling and melting of snow (1.2%), drying of agricultural products (0.6 %). Switzerland has become an important user of geothermal energy only in the past 25 years. Earlier, only the exploitation of geothermal springs (deep aquifers) in Swiss thermal baths had a long tradition, since the time of the Romans. Today, the main use of geothermal energy is as a heat source for heat pumps utilizing vertical borehole heat exchangers of 50 to 350 meters length. 35,000 installations of this type with heating powers ranging from a few kW to 1000 kW already exist, representing the highest density of such installations worldwide. Other developments are geostructures and energy piles, the use of groundwater for heating and cooling, geothermal district heating, the utilization of draining water from tunnels and the project 'Deep Heat Mining' allowing the combined production of heat and electric power

  19. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemale, J.

    2009-01-01

    The geothermal energy, listed among the new and renewable energy sources, is characterized by a huge variety of techniques and applications. This book deals with the access to underground geothermal resources and with their energy valorization as well. After a presentation of the main geological, hydrogeological and thermal exploitation aspects of this resource, the book presents the different geothermal-related industries in detail, in particular the district heating systems, the aquifer-based heat pumps, the utilizations in the agriculture, fishery and balneology sectors, and the power generation. (J.S.)

  20. Copper-arsenic decoupling in an active geothermal system: A link between pyrite and fluid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardani, Daniele; Reich, Martin; Deditius, Artur P.; Chryssoulis, Stephen; Sánchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Wrage, Jackie; Roberts, Malcolm P.

    2017-05-01

    Over the past few decades several studies have reported that pyrite hosts appreciable amounts of trace elements which commonly occur forming complex zoning patterns within a single mineral grain. These chemical zonations in pyrite have been recognized in a variety of hydrothermal ore deposit types (e.g., porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, epithermal Au deposits, iron oxide-copper-gold, Carlin-type and Archean lode Au deposits, among others), showing, in some cases, marked oscillatory alternation of metals and metalloids in pyrite growth zones (e.g., of Cu-rich, As-(Au, Ag)-depleted zones and As-(Au, Ag)-rich, Cu-depleted zones). This decoupled geochemical behavior of Cu and As has been interpreted as a result of chemical changes in ore-forming fluids, although direct evidence connecting fluctuations in hydrothermal fluid composition with metal partitioning into pyrite growth zones is still lacking. In this study, we report a comprehensive trace element database of pyrite from the Tolhuaca Geothermal System (TGS) in southern Chile, a young and active hydrothermal system where fewer pyrite growth rims and mineralization events are present and the reservoir fluid (i.e. ore-forming fluid) is accessible. We combined the high-spatial resolution and X-ray mapping capabilities of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) with low detection limits and depth-profiling capacity of secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in a suite of pyrite samples retrieved from a ∼1 km drill hole that crosses the argillic (20-450 m) and propylitic (650-1000 m) alteration zones of the geothermal system. We show that the concentrations of precious metals (e.g., Au, Ag), metalloids (e.g., As, Sb, Se, Te), and base and heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Co, Ni, Pb) in pyrite at the TGS are significant. Among the elements analyzed, As and Cu are the most abundant with concentrations that vary from sub-ppm levels to a few wt.% (i.e., up to ∼5 wt.% As, ∼1.5 wt.% Cu). Detailed wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS) X

  1. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, P.T.

    2002-08-31

    This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2001. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy.

  2. Geothermal progress monitor report No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part II of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  3. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  4. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  5. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  6. Geothermal activity and hydrothermal mineral deposits at southern Lake Bogoria, Kenya Rift Valley: Impact of lake level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Robin W.; Owen, R. Bernhart; Ego, John K.

    2017-05-01

    Lake Bogoria, a saline alkaline closed-lake in a drainage basin of Neogene volcanic rocks in the central Kenya Rift, is fed partly by ∼200 hot alkaline springs located in three groups along its margins. Hot springs along the midwest shoreline (Loburu, Chemurkeu) and their travertine deposits have been studied, but little is known about the geothermal activity at southern Lake Bogoria. Observations, field measurements and analyses (geochemical and mineralogical) of the spring waters and deposits, spanning three decades, show that the southern spring waters are more saline, the hydrothermal alteration there is more intense, and that most hot spring deposits are siliceous. Geothermal activity at southern Lake Bogoria (Ng'wasis, Koibobei, Losaramat) includes littoral boiling springs and geysers, with fumaroles at slightly higher elevations. Modern spring deposits are ephemeral sodium carbonates, opal-A crusts and silica gels. Local fossil spring deposits include diatomaceous silica-cemented conglomerates that formed subaqueously when the lake was then dilute and higher than today, and outlying calcite tufa deposits. In contrast, mineral deposits around neighbouring fumarole vents and sites of hydrothermal alteration include clays (kaolinite), sulfate minerals (jarosite, alunite), and Fe-oxyhydroxides linked to rising acidic fluids. When lake level falls, the zone of acidity moves downwards and may overprint older alkaline spring deposits. In contrast, rising lake level leads to lake water dilution and vents in the lower parts of the acidic zone may become dilute alkaline springs. The new evidence at Lake Bogoria shows the potential for using the mineralogy of geothermal sediments to indicate former changes in lake level.

  7. International Union of Radioecologists' activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The International Union of Radioecologists (I.U.R.) has maintained a vigorous program of activities in accordance with the goals of its charter. To meet these goals, the I.U.R. has sponsored a number of workshops, meetings, and other related activities aimed at improving our ability to understand and predict the consequences of release of radionuclides to the environment. These include: intercomparison and harmonization of methodologies and a continuous feedback between scientists engaged in mathematical modeling and those carrying out field studies. Specialized workshops dealing with problems in understanding transfer coefficients in the terrestrial environment are being held. In the marine environment, long-distance transport in sediments plays an important role for the spread of radioisotopes released from reprocessing plants (e.g., in the Eastern Atlantic, the Northland Baltic Sea). Representatives of the countries concerned (including from Northern Countries) will define conditions of information exchange, sampling (time, character of sediments), and modelisation

  8. Geothermal Information Dissemination and Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clutter, Ted J. [Geothermal Resources Council (United States)

    2005-02-18

    Project Purpose. To enhance technological and topical information transfer in support of industry and government efforts to increase geothermal energy use in the United States (power production, direct use, and geothermal groundsource heat pumps). Project Work. GRC 2003 Annual Meeting. The GRC convened the meeting on Oct. 12-15, 2003, at Morelia's Centro de Convenciones y ExpoCentro in Mexico under the theme, International Collaboration for Geothermal Energy in the Americas. The event was also sponsored by the Comision Federal de Electricidad. ~600 participants from more than 20 countries attended the event. The GRC convened a Development of Geothermal Projects Workshop and Geothermal Exploration Techniques Workshop. GRC Field Trips included Los Azufres and Paricutin Volcano on Oct. 11. The Geothermal Energy Association (Washington, DC) staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Annual Meeting Opening Session was convened on Oct. 13, and included the governor of Michoacan, the Mexico Assistant Secretary of Energy, CFE Geothermal Division Director, DOE Geothermal Program Manager, and private sector representatives. The 2003 Annual Meeting attracted 160 papers for oral and poster presentations. GRC 2004. Under the theme, Geothermal - The Reliable Renewable, the GRC 2004 Annual Meeting convened on Aug. 29-Sept. 1, 2004, at the Hyatt Grand Champions Resort at Indian Wells, CA. Estimated total attendance (including Trade Show personnel, guests and accompanying persons) was ~700. The event included a workshop, Geothermal Production Well Pump Installation, Operation and Maintenance. Field trips went to Coso/Mammoth and Imperial Valley/Salton Sea geothermal fields. The event Opening Session featured speakers from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the private sector. The Geothermal Energy Association staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Geothermal Education Office staged its Geothermal Energy Workshop. Several local radio and

  9. Geothermal energy program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the lead federal role in the research and development (R D) of technologies that will assist industry in economically exploiting the nation's vast geothermal resources. The GTD R D Program represents a comprehensive, balanced approach to establishing all forms of geothermal energy as significant contributors to the nation's energy supply. It is structured both to maintain momentum in the growth of the existing hydrothermal industry and to develop long-term options offering the greatest promise for practical applications. This volume, Volume 2, contains a detailed compilation of each GTD-funded R D activity performed by national laboratories or under contract to industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions.

  10. The Geothermal Field Camp: Capacity building for geothermal energy systems in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, I.; Sule, R.; Saptadji, N. M.; Deon, F.; Herdianita, N. R.; Jolie, E.; Suryantini, N.; Erbas, K.

    2012-04-01

    In July 2011, the first geothermal field camp was hold on Java/Indonesia near the city Bandung south of the volcanic field Tangkuban Perahu. The course was organized by the Institut Teknologie Bandung (ITB) and International Centre for Geothermal Research (ICGR) of the German Centre of Geosciences (GFZ). The purpose of the Geothermal Field Camp is to combine both field based work and laboratory analysis to ultimately better understand the data collected in field and to integrate data gained by various disciplines. The training belongs to a capacity building program for geothermal energy systems in Indonesia and initially aims to train the trainers. In a later stage, the educational personal trained by the Geothermal Field Camp shall be able to hold their individual Geothermal Field Camp. This is of special interest for Indonesia where the multitude of islands hindered a broad uniform education in geothermal energy systems. However, Indonesia hold the largest geothermal potential worldwide and educated personal is necessary to successfully develop this huge potential scattered over region in future. The interdisciplinary and integrative approach combined with field based and laboratory methodologies is the guiding principle of the Geothermal Field Camp. Tangkuban Perahu was selected because this field allows the integration of field based structural geological analysis, observation and sampling of geothermal manifestations as hot springs and sinters and ultimately of structural geology and surface geochemistry. This innovative training introduces in methods used in exploration geology to study both, fault and fracture systems and fluid chemistry to better understand the selective fluid flow along certain fractures and faults. Field geology covered the systematic measurement of faults and fractures, fault plane and fracture population analysis. In addition, field hydro-geochemistry focused on sampling techniques and field measurements onsite. Subsequent data analysis

  11. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana; Final report, 1 January 1992--31 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has operated continuous-recording, microearthquake monitoring networks at geopressured-geothermal test well sites since 1980. These microseismic networks were designed to detect microearthquakes indicative of fault activation and/or subsidence that can potentially result from the deep subsurface withdrawal and underground disposal of large volumes of brine during well testing. Seismic networks were established before the beginning of testing to obtain background levels of seismicity. Monitoring continued during testing and for some time after cessation of flow testing to assess any delayed microseismicity caused by the time dependence of stress migration within the earth. No flow testing has been done at the Hulin well since January 1990, and the Pleasant Bayou well has been shut down since September 1992. Microseismic monitoring continued at the Hulin and Pleasant Bayou sites until 31 December 1992, at which time both operations were shut down and field sites dismantled. During 1992, the networks recorded seismic signals from earthquakes, sonic booms, geophysical blasting, thunderstorms, etc. However, as in previous years, no local microseismic activity attributable to geopressured-geothermal well testing was recorded.

  12. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  13. International energy-promotion-activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.

  14. Geothermal energy in Italy and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo di Calvisi, C.

    2001-01-01

    Geothermal systems and fields are analysed giving particular evidence to the value of the geothermal source as an important natural source of energy. The paper analyses hydrothermal systems and describes the international experimental studies on the use of geothermal reservoirs in hot rocks with geopressured and magmatic systems. Experts are optimistic as far as the use of this innovative source of energy is possible in the medium-short term [it

  15. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase I and Phase II. Volume IV. Field activities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, C.

    1984-01-01

    This volume describes those activities which took place at the Sperry DOE Gravity Head plant site at the East Mesa Geothermal Reservoir near Holtville, California between February 1980, when site preparation was begun, and November 1982, when production well 87-6 was permanently abandoned. Construction activities were terminated in July 1981 following the liner collapse in well 87-6. Large amounts of program time manpower, materials, and funds had been diverted in a nine-month struggle to salvage the production well. Once these efforts proved futile, there was no rationale for continuing with the site work unless and until sufficient funding to duplicate well 87-6 was obtained. Activities reported here include: plant construction and pre-operational calibration and testing, drilling and completion of well 87-6, final repair effort on well 87-6, abandonment of well 87-6, and performance evaluation of well 87.6. (MHR)

  16. Japanese geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the end of the seventies, the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry have started two independent projects of deep geothermics research in Honshu island (Japan). The two sites are 50 km apart of each other and the boreholes have been drilled up to 2300 and 1100 m of depth, respectively, in hot-dry moderately fractured volcanic rocks. These sites are characterized by high geothermal gradients with a rock temperature reaching 250 C at the bottom of the wells. Hydraulic circulation tests are still in progress to evaluate the profitability of these sites. (J.S.). 1 fig., 1 photo

  17. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The following mission and goal statements guide the overall activities of the Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy.

  18. Learning Activities for International Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  19. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The following are included: geothermal power plants proposed and on-line; direct heat applications proposed and operational; trends in drilling activities; exploration; leases; outreach and technical assistance; feasibility studies and application demonstrations; geothermal loan guaranty program; research and development activities; legal, institutional, and regulatory activities; environmental activities; reports and publications; and a directory. (MHR)

  20. Boron isotopes in geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.

    1997-01-01

    Boron is a highly mobile element and during water-rock reactions, boron is leached out of rocks with no apparent fractionation. In geothermal systems where the water recharging the systems are meteoric in origin, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal fluid reflects the B isotope ratio of the rocks. Seawater has a distinctive B isotope ratio and where seawater recharges the geothermal system, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal system reflects the mixing of rock derived B and seawater derived B. Any deviations of the actual B isotope ratio of a mixture reflects subtle differences in the water-rock ratios in the cold downwelling limb of the hydrothermal system. This paper will present data from a variety of different geothermal systems, including New Zealand; Iceland; Yellowston, USA; Ibusuki, Japan to show the range in B isotope ratios in active geothermal systems. Some of these systems show well defined mixing trends between seawater and the host rocks, whilst others show the boron isotope ratios of the host rock only. In geothermal systems containing high amounts of CO 2 boron isotope ratios from a volatile B source can also be inferred. (auth)

  1. Stress concentrations at structural discontinuities in active fault zones in the western United States: Implications for permeability and fluid flow in geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Drew; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Faulds, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Slip can induce concentration of stresses at discontinuities along fault systems. These structural discontinuities, i.e., fault terminations, fault step-overs, intersections, bends, and other fault interaction areas, are known to host fluid flow in ore deposition systems, oil and gas reservoirs, and geothermal systems. We modeled stress transfer associated with slip on faults with Holocene-to-historic slip histories at the Salt Wells and Bradys geothermal systems in western Nevada, United States. Results show discrete locations of stress perturbation within discontinuities along these fault systems. Well field data, surface geothermal manifestations, and subsurface temperature data, each a proxy for modern fluid circulation in the fields, indicate that geothermal fluid flow is focused in these same areas where stresses are most highly perturbed. These results suggest that submeter- to meter-scale slip on these fault systems generates stress perturbations that are sufficiently large to promote slip on an array of secondary structures spanning the footprint of the modern geothermal activity. Slip on these secondary faults and fractures generates permeability through kinematic deformation and allows for transmission of fluids. Still, mineralization is expected to seal permeability along faults and fractures over time scales that are generally shorter than either earthquake recurrence intervals or the estimated life span of geothermal fields. This suggests that though stress perturbations resulting from fault slip are broadly important for defining the location and spatial extent of enhanced permeability at structural discontinuities, continual generation and maintenance of flow conduits throughout these areas are probably dependent on the deformation mechanism(s) affecting individual structures.

  2. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  3. 2012 geothermal energy congress. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    ); (15) GEOGRUND*: Transfer of the TCS process into the borehole (David Sauer); (16) 'Heat-in-place-density' - An example for the evaluation of the geothermal potential in Saarland (Hagen Deckert); (17) Experiences of the acidity stimulation of geothermal aquifers and plants (Markus Wolfgramm); (18) Geothermal Atlas for the depiction of possible utilization competitions between CCS and deep geothermy - Methodology and results (E. Suchi); (19) Development of a cooling system for geothermal bore hole probes (Benedict Holbein); (20) Geothermal energy in the context of international radiation protection recommendations (Sebastian Feige); (21) Innovative treatment of groundwater as a condition of an efficient air conditioning in buildings by utilization of near-surface geothermal energy (C. Meyer); (22) Preparation of planning maps for the utilization of near-surface geothermal energy with geo-physical methods (Reinhard Kirsch); (23) Deep geothermal probe Heubach - Progress of the project and facility planning by using an application example (David Kuntz); (24) Realistic numeric models for the simulation of potential geothermal reservoirs in the north-west German basin (Dorothea Reyer); (25) Monobore tracer test sensitivity compared with crack parameters and rock parameter: Lection Horstberg (Iulia Ghergut); (26) Infrastructure of fault zones in red sandstone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Johanna F. Bauer); (27) Characterization of fault zones in shell limestone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Silke Meier).

  4. Geothermal policy project. Quarterly report, August 1-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1979-11-01

    The NCSL geothermal policy project continued with initiating geothermal studies in new project states and furthering policy development in existing states. Activities of the project staff are reviewed. (MHR)

  5. Deformation study of Kamojang geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdhani, B. D.; Meilano, I.; Sarsito, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    GPS has proven to be an indispensable tool in the effort to understand crust deformation before, during, and after the big earthquake events through data analysis and numerical simulation. The development of GPS technology has been able to prove as a method for the detection of geothermal activity that related to deformation. Furthermore, the correlation of deformation and geothermal activity are related to the analysis of potential hazards in the geothermal field itself. But unfortunately, only few GPS observations established to see the relationship of tectonic and geothermal activity around geothermal energy area in Indonesia. This research will observe the interaction between deformation and geothermal sources around the geothermal field Kamojang using geodetic GPS. There are 4 campaign observed points displacement direction to north-east, and 2 others heading to south-east. The displacement of the observed points may have not able proven cause by deformation of geothermal activity due to duration of observation. Since our research considered as pioneer for such investigation in Indonesia, we expect our methodology and our findings could become a starter for other geothermal field cases in Indonesia.

  6. Geothermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Mangor, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Vast amounts of heat exist below the planet's surface. Geothermal Energy shows how scientists are tapping into this source of energy to heat homes and generate electricity. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject. Features include a table of contents, infographics, a glossary, additional resources, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  7. Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-15

    important from the geothermal point of view. These are known as La Tacita, Hacienda de Agua Fria, Banos del Chino, Laguna Verde, El Nopal...Institute for the Electrical Industry has begun to study surface geo- logy, photointerpretation, and gas and water sampling. La Primavera . - La ... Primavera is situated close to and west of the city of Guadalajara, capital of the State of Jalisco . It is described as a volcanic caldera, and the

  8. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) is the 11th since the inception of the publication in 1980. It continues to synthesize information on all aspects of geothermal development in this country and abroad to permit identification and quantification of trends in the use of this energy technology. In addition, the GPM is a mechanism for transferring current information on geothermal technology development to the private sector, and, over time, provides a historical record for those interested in the development pathway of the resource. In sum, the Department of Energy makes the GPM available to the many diverse interests that make up the geothermal community for the multiple uses it may serve. This issue of the GPM points up very clearly how closely knit many of those diverse interests have become. It might well be called an international issue'' since many of its pages are devoted to news of geothermal development abroad, to the efforts of the US industry to participate in overseas development, to the support given those efforts by federal and state agencies, and to the formation of the International Geothermal Association (IGA). All of these events indicate that the geothermal community has become truly international in character, an occurrence that can only enhance the future of geothermal energy as a major source of energy supply worldwide. 15 figs.

  9. Engineered Geothermal System Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, Susan

    2014-06-19

    In June 2009, AltaRock Energy began field work on a project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “Use of Multiple Stimulations to Improve Economics of Engineered Geothermal Systems in Shallow High Temperature Intrusives.” The goal of the project was to develop an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) in the portion of The Geysers geothermal field operated by the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA). The project encountered several problems while deepening Well E-7 which culminated in the suspension of field activities in September 2009. Some of the problems encountered are particular to The Geysers area, while others might be encountered in any geothermal field, and they might be avoided in future operations.

  10. Geothermal energy - availability - economy - prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1992-01-01

    The heat contained in the earth's crust represents an inexhaustible reservoir of energy on the technical scale, which is available at all times of day and at all seasons. In the volcanically active zones, the earth's heat is used industrially: Worldwide, the electrical power of geothermal powerstations is about 5000 MW; in addition, about 10,000 MW are used for direct thermal applications (heating) in regions with normal geothermal conditions. The geothermal power plants have been expanded at an annual rate of 12.2% since 1970. In many developing countries, the geothermal energy is the most important home source of energy for electricity generation. In Europe, in the Paris Basin, hot groundwater is pumped from a depth of about 2 km and is used for heating blocks of flats. In France as a whole, about 170,000 flats have been supplied with heat and hot water from underground for more than a decade. (orig./DG) [de

  11. Active-Source Seismic Tomography at Bradys Geothermal Field, Nevada, with Dense Nodal and Fiber-Optic Seismic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, C. H.; Parker, L.; Li, P.; Fratta, D.; Zeng, X.; Feigl, K. L.; Ak, E.; Lord, N.

    2017-12-01

    We deployed a dense seismic array to image the shallow structure in the injection area of the Brady Hot Springs geothermal site in Nevada. The array was composed of 238 5 Hz, three-component nodal instruments and 8,700 m of distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) fiber-optic cable installed in surface trenches plus about 400 m installed in a borehole. The geophone array had about 60 m instrument spacing in the target zone, whereas DAS channel separations were about 1 m. The acquisition systems provided 15 days of continuous records including active source and ambient noise signals. A large vibroseis truck (T-Rex) was operated at 196 locations, exciting a swept-frequency signal from 5 to 80 Hz over 20 seconds using three vibration modes. Sweeps were repeated up to four times during different modes of geothermal plant operation: normal operation, shut-down, high and oscillatory injection and production, and normal operation again. The cross-correlation method was utilized to remove the sweep signal from the geophone records. The first P arrivals were automatically picked from the cross-correlation functions using a combination of methods, and the travel times were used to invert for the 3D P-wave velocity structure. Models with 100 m and 50 m horizontal node spacing were obtained, with vertical node spacing of 10 to 50 m. The travel time data were fit to about 30 ms, close to our estimated picking uncertainty. We will present our 3D Vp model and the result of our search for measurable temporal changes, along with preliminary results for a 3D Vs model. The work presented herein was funded in part by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-EE0006760.

  12. Geothermal Potential Analysis Using Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 (Case Study: Mount Ijen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukojo, B. M.; Mardiana, R.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is also a heat energy contained in the earth’s internal. Indonesia has a total geothermal potential of around 27 GWe. The government is eager for the development of geothermal in Indonesia can run well so that geothermal can act as one of the pillars of national energy. However, the geothermal potential has not been fully utilized. One of the geothermal potention is Mount Ijen. Mount Ijen is a strato volcano that has a crater lake with a depth of about 190 m and has a very high degree of acidity and the volume of lake water is very large. With the abundance of potential geothermal potential in Indonesia, it is necessary to have an activity in the form of integrated geoscience studies to be able to maximize the potential content that exists in a geothermal area. One of the studies conducted is to do potential mapping. This research performs image data processing of Landsat 8, Sentinel 2, RBI Map, and preliminary survey data. This research carried out the Vegetation Index, surface temperature and altitude. The equipment used in this research includes image processing software, number processing software, GPS Handheld and Laptop. Surface Temperatures in the Mount Ijen have anomalies with large temperatures ranging between 18° C to 38° C. The best correlation value of altitude and ground surface temperature is -0.89 ie the correlation of January surface temperature. While the correlation value of Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 vegetation index was 0.81. The land cover confidence matrix scored 80%. Land cover in the research area is dominated by forests by 35% of the research area. There is a potential area of geothermal potential is very high on Mount Ijen with an area of 39.43 hectares located in Wongsorejo District and adjacent to District Sempol.

  13. Towards understanding the puzzling lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet (China): Insight from a comparison with Yellowstone (USA) and some active volcanic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Guo, Qinghai; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2014-01-01

    Explanations for the lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet are inferred from a comprehensive hydrochemical comparison of Tibetan geothermal waters with those discharged from Yellowstone (USA) and two active volcanic areas, Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Miravalles (Costa Rica) where acid springs are widely distributed and diversified in terms of geochemical characteristic and origin. For the hydrothermal areas investigated in this study, there appears to be a relationship between the depths of magma chambers and the occurrence of acid, chloride-rich springs formed via direct magmatic fluid absorption. Nevado del Ruiz and Miravalles with magma at or very close to the surface (less than 1–2 km) exhibit very acidic waters containing HCl and H2SO4. In contrast, the Tibetan hydrothermal systems, represented by Yangbajain, usually have fairly deep-seated magma chambers so that the released acid fluids are much more likely to be fully neutralized during transport to the surface. The absence of steam-heated acid waters in Tibet, however, may be primarily due to the lack of a confining layer (like young impermeable lavas at Yellowstone) to separate geothermal steam from underlying neutral chloride waters and the possible scenario that the deep geothermal fluids below Tibet carry less H2S than those below Yellowstone.

  14. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Laney

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or

  15. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently

  16. Geothermal in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the current market for geothermal projects in the US and overseas. The topics of the article include future capacity needs, upgrading the Coso Geothermal project, the productivity of the Geysers area of Northern California, the future of geothermal, and new projects at Soda Lake, Carson Basin, Unalaska Island, and the Puna Geothermal Venture in Hilo, Hawaii

  17. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J. (comps.)

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  18. Developing Internal Controls through Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, F. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Life events can include the Tuesday afternoon cooking class with the group worker or the Saturday afternoon football game, but in the sense that Fritz Redl thought of them, these activities are only threads in a fabric of living that includes all the elements of daily life: playing, working, school-based learning, learning through activities,…

  19. EM international activities: May 1998 highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This publication is produced twice a year by the International Technology Systems Application staff. This issue is divided into the following sections: (1) Global Issues Facing Environmental Management; (2) Activities in Western Europe; (3) Activities in Central and Eastern Europe; (4) Activities in Russia; (5) Activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim; (6) Activities in South America; (7) Activities in North America; (8) Country studies; and (9) International Organizations. Some topics discussed are nuclear materials management, radioactive waste and hazardous waste management, and remedial action programs

  20. Geothermal Progress Monitor 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-12-01

    Some of the more interesting articles in this GPM are: DOE supporting research on problems at The Geysers; Long-term flow test of Hot Dry Rock system (at Fenton Hill, NM) to begin in Fiscal Year 1992; Significant milestones reached in prediction of behavior of injected fluids; Geopressured power generation experiment yields good results. A number of industry-oriented events and successes are reported, and in that regard it is noteworthy that this report comes near the end of the most active decade of geothermal power development in the U.S. There is a table of all operating U.S. geothermal power projects. The bibliography of research reports at the end of this GPM is useful. (DJE 2005)

  1. The geothermal KWh cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous factors can influence the cost of geothermal electricity production: the size and power of production units, the conversion technology used (Rankine cycle or water steam), the resource quality (dry vapor or water-vapor mixing), the resource depth, the drilling activity in the country and the work people costs. In the United States of America the geothermal kWh cost ranges from 2.5 to 8.5 US cents, while in Italy and Nicaragua it ranges from 3 and 10 cents and from 5.7 to 6 cents, respectively. Results of a comparative study of the kWh production cost from different energy sources is also summarized. (J.S.). 1 tab

  2. Geothermal Program Overview: Fiscal Years 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-11-01

    Geothermal energy represents the largest U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. This overview looks at the basic science behind the various geothermal technologies and provides information on DOE Geothermal Energy Program activities and accomplishments.

  3. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The report summarizes geothermal activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the second quarter of FY-95. It describes 92 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research activities are summarized on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low temperature resource assessment and ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct heat Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  4. High- and middle-energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    High and middle energy geothermal resources correspond to temperature intervals of 220-350 C and 90-180 C, respectively, and are both exploited for electricity production. Exploitation techniques and applications of high and of middle energy geothermics are different. High energy geothermics is encountered in active volcanic and tectonic zones, such as the circum-Pacific fire-belt, the lesser Antilles, the peri-Mediterranean Alpine chain or the African rift zone. The geothermal steam is directly expanded in a turbine protected against gas and minerals corrosion. About 350 high energy plants are distributed in more than 20 different countries and represent 6000 M We. The cost of high energy installed geothermal kWh ranges from 0.20 to 0.50 French Francs. Middle energy geothermics is encountered in sedimentary basins (between 2000 and 4000 m of depth), in localized fractured zones or at lower depth in the high energy geothermal fields. Heat exchangers with organic fluid Rankine cycle technology is used to produce electricity. Unit power of middle energy plants generally ranges from few hundreds of k W to few MW and correspond to a worldwide installed power of about 400 M We. The annual progression of geothermal installed power is estimated to 4 to 8 % in the next years and concerns principally the circum-Pacific countries. In France, geothermal resources are mainly localized in overseas departments. (J.S.). 3 photos

  5. Assessment of Geothermal Data Resources and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of Geothermal Technologies Program activities and archives related to data collection and analysis. It includes an assessment of the current state of geothermal data, future program and stakeholder data needs, existence of and access to critical data, and high-level direction and prioritization of next steps to meet the Program’s data needs.

  6. Geothermal Money Book [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2004-02-01

    Small business lending is big business and growing. Loans under $1 million totaled $460 billion in June 2001, up $23 billion from 2000. The number of loans under $100,000 continued to grow at a rapid rate, growing by 10.1%. The dollar value of loans under $100,000 increased 4.4%; those of $100,000-$250,000 by 4.1%; and those between $250,000 and $1 million by 6.4%. But getting a loan can be difficult if a business owner does not know how to find small business-friendly lenders, how to best approach them, and the specific criteria they use to evaluate a loan application. This is where the Geothermal Money Book comes in. Once a business and financing plan and financial proposal are written, the Geothermal Money Book takes the next step, helping small geothermal businesses locate and obtain financing. The Geothermal Money Book will: Explain the specific criteria potential financing sources use to evaluate a proposal for debt financing; Describe the Small Business Administration's (SBA) programs to promote lending to small businesses; List specific small-business friendly lenders for small geothermal businesses, including those which participate in SBA programs; Identify federal and state incentives which are relevant to direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; and Provide an extensive state directory of financing sources and state financial incentives for the 19 states involved in the GeoPowering the West (GPW). GPW is a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored activity to dramatically increase the use of geothermal energy in the western United States by promoting environmentally compatible heat and power, along with industrial growth and economic development. The Geothermal Money Book will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve

  7. Status on high enthalpy geothermal resources in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutinas, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Greece is privileged to have many high and medium enthalpy geothermal resources. Related activities during the last 5 years were conducted mainly on the previously discovered geothermal fields of Milos, Nisyros and Lesvos islands, without any deep geothermal drilling. Most efforts were focused on the demonstration of a high enthalpy geothermal reservoir on Milos, by generating electricity from high salinity fluid, with a 2 MW pilot plant. Significant experience has been gained there, by solving technical problems, but still site specific constraints have to be overcome in order to arrive at a comprehensive feasibility study, leading to the development phase. A pre-feasibility study has been carried out in the Nisyros geothermal field. Moreover, a detailed geoscientific exploration program has been completed on Lesvos island, where very promising geothermal areas have been identified. In this paper, reference is made to the most important data concerning high enthalpy geothermal resources by emphasizing the Milos geothermal field

  8. Geothermal resources of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that geothermal energy applications and research are being actively pursued in the United Kingdom despite the relatively normal heat flow regime. The cumulative expenditure on geothermal activity from 1975 to 1989 has been approximately Brit-pounds 46 million of 32% of the Renewable Energy Research Budget to date. The first practical application is a 2 MWt scheme at Southampton as part of a district heating scheme. Commercial operation started in February 1988 and further expansion is planned. The UK's enthusiasm for Hot Dry Rock has dimmed slightly as the entire program is reappraised and the long heralded deep exploration hole has yet to materialize. Future activity looks likely to focus on geothermal opportunities that have multiple uses or applications for the fluids in small scale schemes and Hot Dry Rock research will probably be linked to a pan-European program based in France

  9. Towards the Understanding of Induced Seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Array Information Technology, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Dreger, Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heidbach, Oliver [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam (Germany, German Research Center for Geosciences; Hutchings, Lawrence [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This DOE funded project was a collaborative effort between Array Information Technology (AIT), the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It was also part of the European research project “GEISER”, an international collaboration with 11 European partners from six countries including universities, research centers and industry, with the goal to address and mitigate the problems associated with induced seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The goal of the current project was to develop a combination of techniques, which evaluate the relationship between enhanced geothermal operations and the induced stress changes and associated earthquakes throughout the reservoir and the surrounding country rock. The project addressed the following questions: how enhanced geothermal activity changes the local and regional stress field; whether these activities can induce medium sized seismicity M > 3; (if so) how these events are correlated to geothermal activity in space and time; what is the largest possible event and strongest ground motion, and hence the potential hazard associated with these activities. The development of appropriate technology to thoroughly investigate and address these questions required a number of datasets to provide the different physical measurements distributed in space and time. Because such a dataset did not yet exist for an EGS system in the United State, we used current and past data from The Geysers geothermal field in northern California, which has been in operation since the 1960s. The research addressed the need to understand the causal mechanisms of induced seismicity, and demonstrated the advantage of imaging the physical properties and temporal changes of the reservoir. The work helped to model the relationship between injection and production and medium sized magnitude events that have

  10. Microbiological Aspects of Geothermal Energy: Influence of Microbial Activity on Scaling and Clogging in a Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerm, Stephanie; Alawi, Mashal; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Vieth, Andrea; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    The development of strategies to substantially reduce emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere is one of the major challenges of the next decades. Therefore, the utilization of subsurface stored energy arouses increasing interest. Corrosion and scaling are major problems in geothermal operation which create significant maintenance and cleaning costs. In the scope of the research project AquiScreen the operational reliability of geothermal used aquifer systems was investigated under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical, and petrologic aspects (see also Alawi et al.; General Assembly EGU 2010). This presentation focuses on the investigation of a cold storage in Berlin (Reichstag building, depth 30-50 m). In order to evaluate the impact of microbial processes in the low saline aquifer (see also Vetter et al.; General Assembly EGU 2010), the microbial communities of fluid and filter samples were investigated by Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA fingerprinting techniques based on PCR amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. Analyses of fluid samples revealed a bacterial community dominated by iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria closely related to Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus, Gallionella sp. and Thiotrix unzii. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed iron hydroxide formation and precipitation in the filter of the top side facility and the well, corresponding to the abundance of iron oxidizing bacteria. Besides oxidizing bacteria sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were detected as well, indicating the formation of micro-habitats with divergent redox zones. After several years of operation and routine maintenance procedures the injectivity of the injection wells and the endurance of the top side facility filters were reduced drastically due to clogging. Mechanical cleaning and a disinfection treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were successful to re-establish the injectivity of the wells. The results of the microbiological investigations prove

  11. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume II. Infrastructure and community-services requirements, Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, G.A.; Buevens, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    The requirements of infrastructure and community services necessary to accommodate the development of geothermal energy on the Island of Hawaii for electricity production are identified. The following aspects are covered: Puna District-1981, labor resources, geothermal development scenarios, geothermal land use, the impact of geothermal development on Puna, labor resource requirments, and the requirements for government activity.

  12. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  13. Ademe - international activities report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) is a public agency under the joint supervision of the French Ministries for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Spatial Planning, and for Higher Education and Research. It participates in the implementation of public policies in the fields of the environment, energy and sustainable development. The agency makes its expertise and consultancy skills available to business, local communities, public authorities and the general public and helps them to finance projects in five areas (waste management, soil preservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies, air quality and noise abatement) and to make progress with their sustainable development procedures. 2007 was an exceptional year for ADEME. The 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' was the Agency's opportunity to apply its expertise and promote its proposals. The fight to stop climate change is now one of society's top priorities. The Agency played an unprecedented role in advising the Government and Grenelle stakeholders on energy efficiency, energy management and renewable energy as well as air quality and efforts to stem noise pollution. ADEME's expertise gave renewed momentum to discussions on the topic of waste. ADEME also took an active role in discussions on sustainable production and consumption. The societal changes deemed necessary by participants in the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' had been foreseen by ADEME. 2007 was also the first year of implementation for the new Charter agreement on objectives with the state. Priority was given to efforts to increase expertise, develop cross-functional approaches and demonstrate the effectiveness of the ADEME model, which permanently links research, field action, observation and evaluation. In 2008, ADEME will take on two challenges: translate the commitments of the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' into concrete results and contribute to the French presidency of the European Union. Beyond its support for

  14. International program activities in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The following areas of our international activities in magnetic fusion are briefly described: (1) policy; (2) background; (3) strategy; (4) strategic considerations and concerns; (5) domestic program inplications, and (6) implementation. The current US activities are reviewed. Some of our present program needs are outlined

  15. ADEME - International activities report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    policies and thanks to a very wide spectrum of actions it has been able to contribute to all of the previously mentioned developments: prolongation of national awareness campaigns, assistance in helping structure waste collection processes, notably WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment), expert assistance for establishing energy saving certificates, initiatives in the banking sector to develop new instruments stimulating improved energy control... 2006 was also a year for ADEME to develop a new Charter Agreement on Objectives (COB) based on frequent and fruitful exchanges with its governing bodies. This contract which was signed on 21 December 2006 underlines the Agency's capacity to adapt as well as the evolution of its functions and will enable it, within a fast changing context, to better approach the deployment of its initiatives for the 2007-2010 period. The generalisation of public policies for environmental protection and energy management add support to the role of ADEME while in parallel requiring it to adapt its operational procedures by means of strengthening its capacities of providing expertise. This contract enables better organisation of the Agency's actions in its fields of action (waste and soils, air, noise, energy saving and renewable energies) through these being organised into 4 types of activities: - Developing knowledge through research and observation; - Heightening public awareness, convincing and mobilizing by means of communication and training; - Advising, directly or via relays, by developing adapted methods and tools; - Support to achieve projects by means of direct expert input or investment aid or by initiating new financing tools. In the coming years, ADEME will continue its evolution to adapt to society's requirements and will intensify its initiatives notably regarding to: - Stimulating research and innovation through 10 headline research programmes, from fundamental research to industrial development; - Observation of flows and

  16. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  17. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  18. Origin and evolution of geothermal fluids from Las Tres Vírgenes and Cerro Prieto fields, Mexico – Co-genetic volcanic activity and paleoclimatic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, Peter; Marín, Enrique Portugal; Pinti, Daniele L.; Castro, M. Clara

    2016-01-01

    during the final stage of the Last Glacial Pluvial period. Quaternary recharge of the LTV geothermal reservoir is related to elevated precipitation rates during cooler-humid climate intervals in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. The probable replacement of connate water or pore fluids by infiltrating surface water might have been triggered by enhanced fracture and fault permeability through contemporaneous tectonic–volcanic activity in the Las Tres Vírgenes region. Fast hydrothermal alteration processes caused a secondary, positive δ 18 O-shift from 4‰ to 6‰ for LTV and from 2‰ to 4‰ for CP geothermal fluids since the Late Glacial infiltration. - Highlights: • U-Th/He ages for Cerro Prieto fluids show 4 He flux from granite basement or brines. • LTV geothermal water is composed of Quaternary meteoric water and fossil seawater. • 14 C and 4 He suggest Quaternary recharge of Las Tres Vírgenes geothermal reservoir. • Paleotemperatures point to cooler-humid climate in NW-Mexico during recharge.

  19. Update of geothermal energy development in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutroupis, N.

    1992-01-01

    Following the completion of the Geothermal Reconnaissance Study in Greece and the successful drilling of seven deep geothermal wells in the Aegean islands of Milos and Nisyros, PPC started the first step towards geothermal development for electricity production as follows: A geothermal electric pilot plant of 2 MW e nominal capacity was installed on the Zephyria plain in Milos island (1985). During a nine month operation of the plant, problems connected with its long term operation were solved (hot reinjection of the high salinity brine, turbine washing etc). A feasibility study regarding exploitation of the Nisyros geothermal resources was completed and PPC connected Nisyros island electrically to Kos island via submarine cables. As consequence of the reaction against geothermal development by the people of Milos in early 1989, the power plant is still out of operation and the feasibility study planned for Milos has been postponed. For similar reasons the Nisyros drilling contract for five new geothermal deep wells has not come into force as yet. This paper summarizes the main PPC geothermal activities to date, the problems caused by the reactions of the Milos and Nisyros population and the relevant PPC countermeasures, as well as outlining the PPC development program for the near future

  20. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  1. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The following mission and goal statements guide the overall activities of the Office. The goals are: (1) Reduce the levelized cost of generating geothermal power to 3-5 cents per kWh by 2007; (2) Double the number of States with geothermal electric power facilities to eight by 2006; and (3) Supply the electrical power or heat energy needs of 7 million homes and businesses in the United States by 2010. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2003. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy. balanced strategy for the Geothermal Program.

  2. Go local: morality and international activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Jokic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A step towards constructing an ethics of international activism is proposed by formulating a series of constraints on what would constitute morally permissible agency in the context that involves delivering services abroad, directly or indirectly. Perhaps surprisingly, in this effort the author makes use of the concept of ‘force multiplier’. This idea and its official applications have explanatory importance in considering the correlation between the post-Cold War phenomenal growth in the number of international non-governmental organizations and the emergence of the US as the sole, unchallenged superpower. Four moral constraints useful for morally assessing international activism are formulated and defended. The final outcome is an argument in favor of an overarching duty for any activist-minded Westerner to go local, while developing nations are urged to closely regulate, even criminalize, activities by international activists and ‘human rights organizations’ on their territory when not in solidarity or in support of local movements. The position defended, urging the normative primacy of local over international activism, also finds support in Immanuel Kant's Third Definitive Article for A Perpetual Peace.

  3. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The goals are: (1) Double the number of States with geothermal electric power facilities to eight by 2006; (2) Reduce the levelized cost of generating geothermal power to 3-5 cents per kWh by 2007; and (3) Supply the electrical power or heat energy needs of 7 million homes and businesses in the United States by 2010. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2002. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy. balanced strategy for the Geothermal Program.

  4. Start of the international tokamak physics activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.

    2001-01-01

    This newsletter comprises a summary on the start of the International Tokamak Physics activity (ITPA) by Dr. D. Campbell, Chair of the ITPA Co-ordinating Committee. As the ITER EDA drew to a close, it became clear that it was desirable to establish a new mechanism in order to promote the continued development of the physics basis for burning plasma experiments and to preserve the invaluable collaborations between the major international fusion communities which had been established through the ITER physics expert groups. As a result of the discussions of the representatives of the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States the agreed principles for conducting the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) were elaborated and ITPA topical physics groups were organized

  5. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1991-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1991. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  6. International Atomic Energy Agency: Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, A.

    1992-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1992. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  7. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update, FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel Lawrence

    2001-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: 1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and 2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research.

  8. World geothermal congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarov, O.A.; Tomarov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The World geothermal congress took place in the period from 28 May up to 10 June 2000 in Japan. About 2000 men from 43 countries, including specialists in the area of developing geothermal fields, creating and operating geothermal electrical and thermal plants and various systems for the earth heat application, participated in the work of the Congress. It was noted at the Congress, that development of the geothermal power engineering in the world is characterized by the large-scale application of geothermal resources for the electrical energy generation [ru

  9. Hawaii geothermal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  10. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  11. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Progress is reported on the following R&D activities: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Other activities are reported on technical assistance, technology transfer, and the geothermal progress monitor.

  12. South Dakota Geothermal Commercialization Project. Final report, July 1979-October 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegman, S.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the South Dakota Energy Office in providing technical assistance, planning, and commercialization projects for geothermal energy. Projects included geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, and active demonstration/commercialization projects. (ACR)

  13. Geothermal for kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemzer, M.; Condy, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that educating children about geothermal energy is crucial to the future growth of the geothermal industry. The Geothermal Education Office (GEO) was founded in 1989 to provide materials and support to teachers and the geothermal community in educating grades K-12 about geothermal energy. GEO's goals are to: provide easy access to or referral to appropriate sources of geothermal information; foster teacher interest; create posters, booklets, lesson plans and other educational materials; monitor and review textbooks, encyclopedias and other educational materials distributed by educational groups to ensure inclusion of appropriate, accurate information and to encourage fair treatment of alternative energy resources; contribute articles to industry, science and educational publications; and foster communication and cooperation among GEO, the geothermal industry, government agencies, and educational and environmental groups

  14. Geothermal energy. Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal energy has certain features that make it highly recommendable as a source of power production. It is noted by its high load factor; it may be used as a basic or peak source; its versatility and high availability among others. In spite of these advantages, geothermal energy has not attained a significant development up to now. There are several reasons for this to happen, while the main one is that it requires an important initial investment. Assessing if an area is potentially profitable for the obtention of a given type of energy implies performing a complex set of analyses and prospective work, but it is not so significant as that associated with petroleum. The strategy for the exploration of geothermal resources is based on the execution of consecutive stages ranging from a surveillance at a regional scale to a project feasibility study, with growing investments and using more and more complex techniques. Many Latin American countries are located in areas considered as promisory concerning the development of this type of exploitation. Another factor supporting this view is a special demographic feature, showing a very irregular distribution of the population, with extense isolated areas with a minimun number of inhabitants that does not justify the extension of the electric power network. There are plants operating in four countries producing, as a whole, 881 MW. In Argentina the activities are aimed to intensifying the knowledge about the availability of this resource within the local territory and to estimating the feasibility of its usage in areas where exploration is more advanced [es

  15. Bulgarian geothermal energy resources - state and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramatikov, P.S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dept. of Physical Engineering, South West Univ. `Neofit Rilsky`, Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    As special attention is paid to geothermal energy because the geothermal sources are distributed all over the territory of Bulgaria. Governmental incentives for initiating national action programs for energy efficiency, new renewable sources and the environment as well as educational activities are particularly important. The energy sector, as any other sector of the national economy, is currently undergoing considerable changes on its way to market relations, primarily connected to determining the role of the state as well as the form of ownership. The state energy policy is based on a long - term energy strategy complying with the natural conditions of the country, the expected macro - economic development, the geopolitical situation and regional development of energy cooperation with neighboring and closely situated countries. Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of thermal and electric energy. This is even more relevant for Bulgaria with small fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted and the environment notably polluted. Concerning local renewable sources of thermal energy and electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, also to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (orig./AKF)

  16. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-97. It describes 174 contracts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  17. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  18. Geothermal Energy in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Villalba, Fabio

    1999-11-01

    Energy represents an essential element for economy, and for any sustainable development strategy, assuming it is a basic input for all production activities. It is a fundamental contra int for country's competitivity and also a main component of population's standard of life. The Agenda 21 and the General Agreement on Climatic Changes emphasize that the development and sustainable use of energy should promote economy, but taking care of the environment. Under these basic concepts, for the particular case of energy, the sustain ability of development requires the adoption of a strategy which guarantee an energy supply in terms of quality, opportunity, continuity and afford ability and, in addition, without production of negative environmental impacts. Geothermal energy is a serious energetic option for sustainable development, since presents technical and economic advantages for production of electricity at medium and large scale. Furthermore, geothermal energy allows a wide spectrum of direct applications of heat in profitable projects of high social impact as green houses, drying of seeds and wood products, fish farming, recreation and others. All of them can help the increase of communal production activities in rural areas affected by poverty

  19. Decree from July 25, 2015 related to general prescriptions applicable to geothermal activities of minor importance. Decree from July 25, 2015 related to the certification of drilling companies intervening in geothermal energy of minor importance. Decree from July 25, 2015 related to the zoning map in the field minor importance geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delduc, P.; Blanc, P.; Michel, L.

    2015-01-01

    These decrees concern various actors of the geothermal sector in the case of projects and works of minor importance. The first one defines general technical prescriptions applicable to a geothermal site of minor importance, the conditions related to the implantation of a geothermal installation of minor importance, measures to be implemented when performing geothermal works and when stopping its exploitation, control and maintenance modalities in order to prevent risks for the environment and to preserve water resource quality. The second decree defines measures to be implemented by drilling companies in the case of geothermal projects of minor importance. The third decree defines the map of geothermal areas of minor importance, specifies the map elaboration methodology and its reviewing modalities

  20. Geothermal power production in future electricity markets. A scenario analysis for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purkus, Alexandra; Barth, Volker [Department of Economics, Business Administration and Law, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Development and diffusion of new renewable energy technologies play a central role in mitigating climate change. In this context, small-scale deep geothermal power has seen growing interest in recent years as an environmentally friendly, non-intermittent energy source with large technical potential. Following the first successful demonstration projects, the German geothermal industry is currently experiencing an internationally unparalleled growth. In this study we explore the factors driving this development, and the role geothermal power production could play in the future of the German electricity market. For this, we apply the scenario technique, based on literature analysis and interviews with companies operating actively in the field. Our findings highlight the importance of political support and framework conditions in the electricity market, with the best prospects in a decentralised energy system based on renewable energy sources, where high investment costs and the risk of discovery failure are balanced by the benefits of low-carbon base load power. (author)

  1. Geothermal technology in Australia: Investigating social acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, Anne-Maree; Boughen, Naomi; Ashworth, Peta; Carr-Cornish, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Issues of social acceptance, such as lack of awareness and negative community perceptions and reactions, can affect low emission energy technology development, despite general support observed for reducing carbon emissions and mitigating climate change. Negative community reactions and lack of understanding have affected geothermal developments, as demonstrated by the fearful community reactions and negative media experienced in response to seismic disturbances caused by 'hot rock' geothermal energy generation in Switzerland and Germany. Focusing on geothermal energy, this paper presents the results of using a participatory action research methodology to engage diverse groups within the Australian public. A key finding is that the majority of the Australian public report limited the knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology and have various concerns including water usage and seismic activity instigated by geothermal drilling. However, geothermal energy receives general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources in preference to traditional forms of energy generation and controversial technologies. This paper also demonstrates the effectiveness of using an engagement process to explore public understanding of energy technologies in the context of climate change, and suggests a way forward for governments and industry to allocate resources for greatest impact when communicating about geothermal technology. - Highlights: → Majority of Australians have limited knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology. → Various concerns, including water usage and seismic activity instigated by drilling, were raised. → Geothermal energy has general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources. → Methodology shows the effectiveness of an engagement process to explore public understanding. → Participants expressed intention to change behaviours, which can be a catalyst for change.

  2. Geothermal and volcanism in west Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, I.; Indarto, S.; Sudarsono; Fauzi I, A.; Yuliyanti, A.; Lintjewas, L.; Alkausar, A.; Jakah

    2018-02-01

    Indonesian active volcanoes extend from Sumatra, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Flores, North Sulawesi, and Halmahera. The volcanic arc hosts 276 volcanoes with 29 GWe of geothermal resources. Considering a wide distribution of geothermal potency, geothermal research is very important to be carried out especially to tackle high energy demand in Indonesia as an alternative energy sources aside from fossil fuel. Geothermal potency associated with volcanoes-hosted in West Java can be found in the West Java segment of Sunda Arc that is parallel with the subduction. The subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate results in various volcanic products in a wide range of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic and magmatic rocks associated with geothermal systems are ill-defined. Comprehensive study of geochemical signatures, mineralogical properties, and isotopes analysis might lead to the understanding of how large geothermal fields are found in West Java compared to ones in Central and East Java. The result can also provoke some valuable impacts on Java tectonic evolution and can suggest the key information for geothermal exploration enhancement.

  3. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  4. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Tavera, L; Camacho, M E; Chavez, A; Pérez, H; Gómez, J

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m sup - sup 3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies.

  5. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Camacho, M.E.; Chavez, A.; Perez, H.; Gomez, J.

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m -3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies

  6. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program, Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    The report summarizes activities of the Geo-Heat Center (GHC) at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1995. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research is also being conducted on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low-temperature geothermal resource assessment, use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction materials and geothermal heat pumps. Outreach activities include the publication of a quarterly Bulletin on direct heat applications and dissemination of information on low-temperature geothermal resources and utilization.

  7. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinkovic, B.

    2008-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located. Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 2008 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  8. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  9. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  10. Geothermal energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Enriko

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal energy, as a natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades in order to generate electricity as well as district heating and industrial processes. The present geothermal electrical installed capacity in the world is about 10.000 MWe and the thermal capacity in non-electrical uses is about 8.200 MWt. Electricity is produced with an efficiency of 10-17%, and the cost of the kWh is competitive with conventional energy sources. In the developing countries, where a total installed electrical power is still low, geothermal energy can play a significant role: in El Salvador, for example, 25% of electricity comes from geothermal spring, 20% in the Philippines and 8% in Kenya. Present technology makes it possible to control the environmental impact of geothermal exploitation. Geothermal energy could also be extracted from deep geopressured reservoirs in large sedimentary basins, hot dry rock systems and magma bodies. (author)

  11. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  12. Success in geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, V.

    1992-01-01

    Success in geothermal development can be defined as the ability to produce geothermal energy at compatible energy prices to other energy sources. Drilling comprises usually the largest cost in geothermal development, and the results of drilling is largely influencing the final price of geothermal energy. For 20 geothermal fields with operating power plants, the ratio between installed capacity and the total number of well in the field is 1.9 MWe/well. The drilling history in 30 geothermal fields are analyzed by plotting the average cumulative well outputs as function of the number of wells drilled in the field. The range of the average well output is 1-10 MWe/well with the mean value 4.2 MWe/well for the 30 geothermal fields studied. A leaning curve is defined as the number of wells drilled in each field before the average output per well reaches a fairly constant value, which is characteristic for the geothermal reservoir. The range for this learning time is 4-36 wells and the average is 13 wells. In general, the average well output in a given field is fairly constant after some 10-20 wells has been drilled in the field. The asymptotic average well output is considered to be a reservoir parameter when it is normalized to the average drilling depth. In average, this reservoir parameter can be expressed as 3.3 MWe per drilled km for the 30 geothermal fields studied. The lifetime of the resource or the depletion time of the geothermal reservoir should also be considered as a parameter influencing the success of geothermal development. Stepwise development, where the reservoir response to the utilization for the first step is used to determine the timing of the installment of the next step, is considered to be an appropriate method to minimize the risk for over investment in a geothermal field

  13. Geothermal Today - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  14. Geothermal Today - 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Energy Program Highlights Partnering with Industry A New Power Source for Nevada Drilling Research Finding Geothermal Resources Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plants The Heat Beneath Your Feet R&D 100 Award Program in Review Milestones January 2000 The U.S. Department of Energy GeoPowering the West initiative was launched. February 2000 Grants totaling $4.8 million were awarded in six western states, primarily for development of reservoir exploration, character

  15. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  16. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low......-temperature heat resources are bringing geothermal energy to the spotlight as a renewable baseload energy option for a sustainable energy mix. Although the environmental impact and economic viability of geothermal exploitation must be carefully evaluated for each case, the use of deep low-temperature geothermal...

  17. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana: Annual report for the period 1 November 1984 to 31 December 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groat, C.G.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities carried out by Louisiana State University (LSU) under US Department of Energy Contract FC07-85NV10425 for the period 1 November 1984 through 31 December 1986. Other aspects of the LSU technical support program completed under prior contracts were covered in final form in reports preceding this one. During the contract period, the Louisiana Geological Survey, aided by subcontractors, monitored microseismic activity, land-surface subsidence, and surface and ground-water quality at three designed geopressured-geothermal test well sites in Louisiana and Texas. Don Stevenson supervised microseismic monitoring activities, and Drukell Trahan coordinated water quality and land-surface subsidence studies. This is a progress report in the sense that it discusses program components, provides raw data, and presents preliminary interpretations. The environmental monitoring program continues and will be the subject of subsequent annual reports.

  18. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    examined precipitation products like iron sulfides are indicating that microorganisms play an important role for the understanding of processes in engineered geothermal systems. The further identification of crucial process parameters influencing microbial activities will help to develop appropriate counter measures against microbial induced clogging and corrosion.

  19. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.

    1979-04-01

    The following are presented: the history of geothermal energy in Alaska; a history of Alaska land ownership; legal and institutional barriers; and economics. Development, the socio-economic and physical data concerning geothermal energy are documented by regions. The six regions presented are those of the present Alaska State Planning Activities and those of the Federal Land Use Commission. Site data summaries of the one hundred and four separate geothermal spring locations are presented by these regions. (MHR)

  20. Chemical conditions of the Japanese neutral geothermal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, H.

    1991-01-01

    The aqueous speciation were calculated for fluids of seven Japanese geothermal systems. The aqueous composition as well as CO 2 partial pressure of fluid in neutral pH geothermal reservoir are controlled by silicate, calcite and anhydrite minerals. The chemical composition of neutral pH geothermal reservoir can be predictable if two parameters (e.g. temperature and one of the cation activities) are provided. (author)

  1. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Hauber, L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  2. Internal control activities in small Turkish companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Bilgi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present major outcomes from an empirical study concerning internal control activities in small Turkish companies, as to propose the improvement guidelines. Methods of analysis and synthesis, descriptive statistics, and statistical comparison were used. The collected data was processed with the help of the SPSS software. Тhe study is limited to organizations based in the European part of Turkey. Most of them operate in areas around large cities, such as Istanbul, Edirne, Kırklareli, and Tekirdağ. They employ on average 19-20 people and have a turnover of about TRY 3 million (≈€715,000, https://sdw.ecb.europa.eu on average. The survey concentrates mainly on small family businesses, which have been present on the market for more than ten years, with managers of good education and other characteristics that presuppose availability of internal control systems. The research results were used to compile main points of a SWOT analysis, as a part of the broader effort to help modernizing the internal control system in Turkish small businesses.

  3. Geothermal Today: 2003 Geothermal Technologies Program Highlights (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-05-01

    This outreach publication highlights milestones and accomplishments of the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program for 2003. Included in this publication are discussions of geothermal fundamentals, enhanced geothermal systems, direct-use applications, geothermal potential in Idaho, coating technology, energy conversion R&D, and the GeoPowering the West initiative.

  4. Geothermal Program Review VI: proceedings. Beyond goals and objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Program Review VI was comprised of six sessions, including an opening session, four technical sessions that addressed each of the major DOE research areas, and a session on special issues. The technical sessions were on Hydrothermal, Hot Dry Rock, Geopressured and Magma resources. Presenters in the technical sessions discussed their R and D activities within the context of specific GTD Programmatic Objectives for that technology, their progress toward achieving those objectives, and the value of those achievements to industry. The ''Special Issues'' presentations addressed several topics such as the interactions between government and industry on geothermal energy R and D; the origin and basis for the programmatic objectives analytical computer model; and international marketing opportunities for US geothermal equipment and services. The unique aspect of Program Review VI was that it was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's Industry Round Table on Federal R and D. The Round Table provided a forum for open and lively discussions between industry and government researchers and gave industry an opportunity to convey their needs and perspectives on DOE's research programs. These discussions also provided valuable information to DOE regarding industry's priorities and directions.

  5. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  6. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  7. Prospects of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzella, A.; Bianchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy has great potential as a renewable energy with low environmental impact, the use of heat pumps is becoming established in Italy but the national contributions are still modest when compared to other nations. Mature technologies could double the installed geothermal power in Italy at 2020. [it

  8. Geothermal today: 1999 Geothermal Energy Program highlights (Clean energy for the 21st century booklet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.; Waggoner, T.

    2000-05-10

    The purpose of this publication is to educate and inform readers about research activities being carried out by the federal Geothermal Energy Program, and its achievements and future goals. This publication should help raise the visibility and awareness of geothermal energy contributions and potential, especially as part of the nation's clean energy technologies portfolio. The message of the publication is that program resources are being well spent and the results are real and tangible. A secondary message is that geothermal energy is a viable generation option with environmental, economic, and other benefits.

  9. Idaho Geothermal Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Gay Davis; Esposito, Louis; Montgomery, Martin

    1979-07-01

    Idaho's energy problems have increased at alarming rates due to their dependency on imports of gas and oil. The large hydroelectric base developed in Idaho has for years kept the electric rates relatively low and supplied them with energy on a consumer demand basis. However, this resource cannot be 4expected to meet their growing demands in the years to come. Energy alternatives, in whatever form, are extremely important to the future welfare of the State of Idaho. This handbook addresses the implications, uses, requirements and regulations governing one of Idaho's most abundant resources, geothermal energy. The intent of the Idaho Geothermal Handbook is to familiarize the lay person with the basis of geothermal energy in Idaho. The potential for geothermal development in the State of Idaho is tremendous. The authors hope this handbook will both increase your knowledge of geothermal energy and speed you on your way to utilizing this renewable resource.

  10. Geothermal Greenhouse Development Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the popular applications of low-to moderated-temperature geothermal resources. Using geothermal energy is both an economical and efficient way to heat greenhouses. Greenhouse heating systems can be designed to utilize low-temperature (>50oC or 122oF) resources, which makes the greenhouse an attractive application. These resources are widespread throughout the western states providing a significant potential for expansion of the geothermal greenhouse industry. This article summarizes the development of geothermal heated greenhouses, which mainly began about the mid-1970's. Based on a survey (Lienau, 1988) conducted in 1988 and updated in 1997, there are 37 operators of commercial greenhouses. Table 1 is a listing of known commercial geothermal greenhouses, we estimate that there may be an additional 25% on which data is not available.

  11. Draft Executive Summary Hawaii Geothermal Project - EIS Scoping Meetings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-03-01

    After introductions by the facilitator and the program director from DOE, process questions were entertained. It was also sometimes necessary to make clarifications as to process throughout the meetings. Topics covered federal involvement in the HGP-EIS; NEPA compliance; public awareness, review, and access to information; Native Hawaiian concerns; the record of decision, responsibility with respect to international issues; the impacts of prior and on-going geothermal development activities; project definition; alternatives to the proposed action; necessary studies; Section 7 consultations; socioeconomic impacts; and risk analysis. Presentations followed, in ten meetings, 163 people presented issues and concerns, 1 additional person raised process questions only.

  12. Geothermal Power Potential in the Tatun Volcano Group, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, H. H.; Song, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent energy issues have concentrated the attention on finding alternative ones. National demands for renewable and sustainable energy increase rapidly, especially the geothermal power production, which is viewed as the most potential opportunity. This study attempts to estimate the geothermal powers in the Tatung Volcano Group (TVG), Taiwan and evaluate the possibility to develop the Enhanced Geothermal System. Tatung Volcano Group is located at the northwest part of Taiwan. It has violent volcanism during 0.8-0.20Ma, and is still active with many thermal manifestations. The young volcanic activity provides the TVG with high geothermal gradient and is well suitable for exploiting geothermal resources. Many explorations on geothermal energy have been accomplished in this area during1966-1973. They included resistivity survey, magnetic prospecting, gravity method, seismic prospecting and etc. In this study, we base on previous data and apply the probabilistic volumetric method proposed by Geotherm EX Inc., modified from the approach introduced by the USGS to evaluate the geothermal power potential in TVG. Meanwhile, use a Monte Carlo simulation technique to calculate the probability distribution of potentially recoverable energy reserves. The results show that the mean value is 270Mw, and P50 is 254Mw for 30 years, separately. Furthermore, the power potential of enhanced geothermal system in TVG is also estimated by the quantitative model proposed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT 2006). The results suggest that the mean value is 3,000 MW and P50 is 2,780 MW for 30 years, separately.

  13. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  14. Geothermal country update of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy in Japan. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, present utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, information about geothermal localities, and wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources to January 1, 1990

  15. Geothermal energy in California: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citron, O.; Davis, C.; Fredrickson, C.; Granit, R.; Kerrisk, D.; Leibowitz, L.; Schulkin, B.; Wornack, J.

    1976-06-30

    The potential for electric energy from geothermal resources in California is currently estimated to be equivalent to the output from 14 to 21 large (1000 MW) central station power plants. In addition, since over 30 California cities are located near potential geothermal resources, the non-electric applications of geothermal heat (industrial, agriculture, space heating, etc.) could be enormous. Therefore, the full-scale utilization of geothermal resources would have a major impact upon the energy picture of the state. This report presents a summary of the existing status of geothermal energy development in the state of California as of the early part of 1976. The report provides data on the extent of the resource base of the state and the present outlook for its utilization. It identifies the existing local, state, and federal laws, rules and regulations governing geothermal energy development and the responsibilities of each of the regulatory agencies involved. It also presents the differences in the development requirements among several counties and between California and its neighboring states. Finally, it describes on-going and planned activities in resource assessment and exploration, utilization, and research and development. Separate abstracts are prepared for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) for Sections II--VI and the three Appendixes.

  16. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  17. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  18. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2015 and July 2016 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. Los Alamos focused on two main activities during this period: Discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling to describe flow and radionuclide transport in complex fracture networks that are typical of crystalline rock environments, and a comprehensive interpretation of three different colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport experiments conducted in a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland between 2002 and 2013. Chapter 1 presents the results of the DFN work and is divided into three main sections: (1) we show results of our recent study on the correlation between fracture size and fracture transmissivity (2) we present an analysis and visualization prototype using the concept of a flow topology graph for characterization of discrete fracture networks, and (3) we describe the Crystalline International work in support of the Swedish Task Force. Chapter 2 presents interpretation of the colloidfacilitated radionuclide transport experiments in the crystalline rock at the Grimsel Test Site.

  19. Geothermal Energy Research and Development Program; Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program document. This document contains summaries of projects related to exploration technology, reservoir technology, drilling technology, conversion technology, materials, biochemical processes, and direct heat applications. [DJE-2005

  20. Geothermal resource of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstein, M.P. (Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Geothermal Inst.); Sudarman, Sayogi (Pertamina, Jakarta (Indonesia). Geothermal Section)

    1993-06-01

    There are at least 30 high temperatures systems (with inferred reservoir temperatures > 200 C) along the active Sumatra Arc that transfer heat from crustal intrusions to the surface. These systems, together with eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano (Lake Toba), are controlled by the Sumatra Fault Zone, an active mega shear zone that follows the median axis of the arc. At least half of the active and degassing volcanoes are associated with volcanic geothermal reservoirs containing magmatic gases and acid fluids. Large, low temperature resources exist in the Tertiary sedimentary basins of east Sumatra (back-arc region), where anomalously higher thermal gradients (up to 8 C/100 m) have been measured. Volcanic activity was not continuous during the Cenozoic; subduction and arc volcanism probably decreased after the Eocene as a result of a clockwise rotation of Sumatra. In the Late Miocene, subduction started again, and andesitic volcanism reached a new peak of intensity in the Pliocene and has been continuous ever since. Rhyolitic volcanism, which has produced voluminous ignimbrite flows, began later (Pliocene/Pleistocene). All known rhyolitic centers associated with ignimbrite flows appear to lie along the Sumatra Fault Zone.

  1. Tapping the earth's geothermal resources: Hydrothermal today, magma tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1986-12-17

    The paper discusses geothermal resources, what it is, where it is, and how to extract energy from it. The materials research activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory related to geothermal energy extraction are discussed. These include high-temperature, light-weight polymer cements, elastomers, biochemical waste processing techniques, and non-metallic heat exchanger tubing. The economics of geothermal energy is also discussed. (ACR)

  2. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1996--September 1996. Federal Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-96. It describes 152 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  3. Geological model of supercritical geothermal reservoir related to subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station on 3.11 (11th March) 2011, geothermal energy came to be considered one of the most promising sources of renewable energy for the future in Japan. The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. Supercritical geothermal resources could be evaluated in terms of present volcanic activities, thermal structure, dimension of hydrothermal circulation, properties of fracture system, depth of heat source, depth of brittle factures zone, dimension of geothermal reservoir. On the basis of the GIS, potential of supercritical geothermal resources could be characterized into the following four categories. 1. Promising: surface manifestation d shallow high temperature, 2 Probability: high geothermal gradient, 3 Possibility: Aseismic zone which indicates an existence of melt, 4 Potential : low velocity zone which indicates magma input. Base on geophysical data for geothermal reservoirs, we have propose adequate tectonic model of development of the supercritical geothermal reservoirs. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550

  4. Geothermal progress monitor: Report No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    This issue synthesizes information on all aspects of geothermal development in this country and abroad to permit identification and quantification of trends in the use of this source of energy. The contents include: (1) the Federal Beat; (2) The Industry Scene; (3) Financing; (4) Development Status; (5) Leasing and Drilling; (6) State and Local; (7) International; and (8) Technology Transfer. (ACR)

  5. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D, and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center. It describes 95 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with goethermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics, and resources. Research activities are summarized on geothermal district heating system cost evaluation and silica waste utilization project. Outreach activities include publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, goethermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  6. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  7. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  8. Geothermal electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal conversion, as discussed here, is the conversion of the heat bound within the topmost three kilometres of the upper crust of the earth into useful energy, principally electricity. The characteristics of a geothermal reservoir and its individual technical features are highly site-specific. Applications therefore must be designed to match the specific geothermal reservoir. An estimate of the electric energy potential world-wide made by the Electric Power Research Institute (United States) in 1978 and based on sustaining a continuous 30-year operation is given in the box at the right for comparison purposes only. 8 refs, 5 figs

  9. Global geothermal energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Singh, A.; Pandey, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    To resolve the energy crisis efforts have been made in exploring and utilizing nonconventional energy resources since last few decades. Geothermal energy is one such energy resource. Fossil fuels are the earth's energy capital like money deposited in bank years ago. The energy to build this energy came mainly from the sun. Steam geysers and hot water springs are other manifestations of geothermal energy. Most of the 17 countries that today harness geothermal energy have simply tapped such resources where they occur. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Navy Geothermal Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  11. Quantifying the undiscovered geothermal resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released summary results of an assessment of the electric power production potential from the moderate- and high-temperature geothermal resources of the United States (Williams et al., 2008a; USGS Fact Sheet 2008-3082; http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3082). In the assessment, the estimated mean power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 Megawatts-electric (MWe), more than three times the estimated mean potential from identified geothermal systems: 9057 MWe. The presence of significant undiscovered geothermal resources has major implications for future exploration and development activities by both the government and private industry. Previous reports summarize the results of techniques applied by the USGS and others to map the spatial distribution of undiscovered resources. This paper describes the approach applied in developing estimates of the magnitude of the undiscovered geothermal resource, as well as the manner in which that resource is likely to be distributed among geothermal systems of varying volume and temperature. A number of key issues constrain the overall estimate. One is the degree to which characteristics of the undiscovered resources correspond to those observed among identified geothermal systems. Another is the evaluation of exploration history, including both the spatial distribution of geothermal exploration activities relative to the postulated spatial distribution of undiscovered resources and the probability of successful discoveries from the application of standard geothermal exploration techniques. Also significant are the physical, chemical, and geological constraints on the formation and longevity of geothermal systems. Important observations from this study include the following. (1) Some of the largest identified geothermal systems, such as The Geysers vapor-dominated system in northern California and the diverse geothermal manifestations found in Yellowstone

  12. The Coso geothermal area: A laboratory for advanced MEQ studies for geothermal monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.; Richards-Dinger, K.

    2004-01-01

    The permanent 16-station network of three-component digital seismometers at the Coso geothermal area, California, supplemented by 14 temporary instruments deployed in connection with the DOE Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Project, provides high-quality microearthquake (MEQ) recordings that are well suited to monitoring a producing geothermal area. We are currently using these data to investigate structure and active processes within the geothermal reservoir by applying three advanced methods: a) high-precision MEQ hypocenter location; b) time-dependent tomography; c) complete (moment tensor) MEQ source mechanism determination. Preliminary results to date resolve seismogenic structures in the producing field more clearly than is possible with conventional earthquake-location techniques. A shallow part of the producing field shows clear changes in the ratio of the seismic wave speeds, Vp/V s, between 1996 and 2002, which are probably related to physical changes in the reservoir caused by fluid extraction.

  13. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. New Zealand geothermal: Wairakei -- 40 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This quarterly bulletin highlights the geothermal developments in New Zealand with the following articles: A brief history of the Wairakei geothermal power project; Geothermal resources in New Zealand -- An overview; Domestic and commercial heating and bathing -- Rotorua area; Kawerau geothermal development: A case study; Timber drying at Kawerau; Geothermal greenhouses at Kawerau; Drying of fibrous crops using geothermal steam and hot water at the Taupo Lucerne Company; Prawn Park -- Taupo, New Zealand; Geothermal orchids; Miranda hot springs; and Geothermal pipeline.

  15. NGDC Geothermal Data Bases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geothermics is the study of heat generated in Earth's interior and its manifestation at the surface. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has a variety of...

  16. Effective geothermal heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelsen, Atle

    2006-01-01

    Scandinavia's currently largest geothermal heating project: the New Ahus hospital, is briefly presented. 300-400 wells on a field outside the hospital are constructed to store energy for both heating and cooling purposes

  17. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  18. Geothermics in Aquitaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The geothermal exploitation of the Aquitanian Basin (S W France) started 15 years ago and has extended today to 12 different places. Three main aquifers of different depth are exploited in Bordeaux region: the old alluvial deposits of Garonne river (20-30 m), the Middle Eocene aquifer (300-400 m), and the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer (900-1100 m) which is the deepest and most exploited for geothermal purposes. The drinkable quality of the water and the use of single-well technique are important factors that reduce the operating costs. Geothermics remains competitive with other energy sources due to the long-term stability of geothermal energy costs. (J.S.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 5 photos

  19. Geothermal Orientation Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-07-01

    This is a useful overview of the Department of Energy's outlook on geothermal energy development in the U.S. as of late 1983. For example, Exhibit 4 shows how electric utility planners' estimates of likely amounts of geothermal power on line for 1990 and 2000 first increased and then declined over time as they were surveyed in 1977 through 1983 (date are from the EPRI Survey). Additions to direct heat uses in 1979 through 1981 are in Exhibit 7. A Table (not numbered) at the back of the report "Historical Development of Geothermal Power ..." shows world installed geothermal capacity by nation at decadal intervals from 1950 to 1980, and the first year of power production for each country. (DJE 2005)

  20. Geothermal energy - Overview of research in 2002; Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohran, H. L.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy reviews activities in the area of geothermal energy usage in Switzerland in 2002. Several main points of interest are discussed, including Deep Heat Mining, the thermal use of drainage water from alpine railway tunnels, the quality assurance aspects of geothermal installations and pilot and demonstration (P+D) activities designed to promote the use of geothermal energy. Also, the use of constructional elements such as energy piles and novel applications such as geothermally heated greenhouses and fish farms are discussed. Examples of various P+D projects that utilise bore-hole heat exchangers and piles are given. Also, examples of the thermal use of deep aquifers are quoted and projects involving the mapping of geothermal resources and the creation of quality labels are described. Prospects for future work are discussed. The report is rounded off with lists of research and development projects and P+D projects.

  1. The aspects and activities of international banking

    OpenAIRE

    Madzova, Violeta; Davcev, Ljupco

    2012-01-01

    Banking is an information based industry and banks develop relationships with and obtain information on their customers. Following them abroad, therefore, is a motivating factor for banks to continue providing banking services. Liberalization, international trade agreements and reduced trade barriers and more open markets have allowed banks to expand internationally. The range of services that a bank offers results from the strategy and is influenced from the sources of the bank. Intern...

  2. International Trade, Multinational Activity, and Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    C. Fritz Foley; Kalina Manova

    2014-01-01

    An emerging new literature brings unique ideas from corporate finance to the study of international trade and investment. Insights about differences in the development of financial institutions across countries, the role of financial constraints, and the use of internal capital markets are proving central in understanding international economics. The ability to access financial capital to pay fixed and variable costs affects choices firms make regarding export entry and operations, and, as a ...

  3. Industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy is currently limited by the limited knowledge of the resource's distribution. However, the resource assessment activity in the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, has identified a number of fairway or potential resource zones. These zones are located in Kenedy County; in and about Corpus Christi and Nueces Bays in Nueces, San Patricio, and Aransas Counties; in the coastal zones of Matagorda County; and in a crescent-shaped zone parallel to the coastline in Brazoria and Galveston Counties. The Kenedy and Matagorda County zones are situated in rural areas with little or no industrial activity. The Corpus Christi and Brazoria-Galveston zones are in and adjacent to highly industrialized and urbanized districts. The rural zones will require the establishment of new industries for geothermal fluid utilization while the industrial-urban zones will require either new industry, expansion to existing industry, or modification to existing plant and process. Proposed industries for geothermal fluid utilization can be considered with respect to fitting the industry to the available fluids; this has been the usual approach. An alternate approach is to fit the abailable fluids to the proposed industry. In order to follow the alternate approach requires consideration of ways to upgrade the quality of existing geothermal fluids or geothermal-derived or -energized fluids.

  4. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  5. Twelfth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Rivera, J. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1987-01-22

    Preface The Twelfth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 20-22, 1987. The year ending December 1986 was very difficult for the domestic geothermal industry. Low oil prices caused a sharp drop in geothermal steam prices. We expected to see some effect upon attendance at the Twelfth Workshop. To our surprise, the attendance was up by thirteen from previous years, with one hundred and fifty-seven registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and Turkey. Despite a worldwide surplus of oil, international geothermal interest and development is growing at a remarkable pace. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Seven technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published; they concern geothermal developments and research in Iceland, Italy, and New Zealand. In addition to these forty-eight technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was John R. Berg from the Department of Energy. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants his thoughts on the expectations of this agency in the role of alternative energy resources, specifically geothermal, within the country???s energy framework. His talk is represented as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, K. Goyal, G.S. Bodvarsson, A.S. Batchelor, H. Dykstra, M.J. Reed, A. Truesdell, J.S. Gudmundsson, and J.R. Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank Jean Cook, Marilyn King, Amy Osugi, Terri Ramey, and Rosalee Benelli for their valued help with the meeting

  6. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  7. Geothermal environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armannsson, H.; Kristmannsdottir, H.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal utilization can cause surface disturbances, physical effects due to fluid withdrawal noise, thermal effects and emission of chemicals as well as affect the communities concerned socially and economically. The environmental impact can be minimized by multiple use of the energy source and the reinjection of spent fluids. The emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuels as an industrial energy source wherever possible

  8. Geothermal System Extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnerson, Jon [Boise City Corporation, ID (United States); Pardy, James J. [Boise City Corporation, ID (United States)

    2017-09-30

    This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0000318. The City of Boise operates and maintains the nation’s largest geothermal heating district. Today, 91 buildings are connected, providing space heating to over 5.5 million square feet, domestic water heating, laundry and pool heating, sidewalk snowmelt and other related uses. Approximately 300 million gallons of 177°F geothermal water is pumped annually to buildings and institutions located in downtown Boise. The closed loop system returns all used geothermal water back into the aquifer after heat has been removed via an Injection Well. Water injected back into the aquifer has an average temperature of 115°F. This project expanded the Boise Geothermal Heating District (Geothermal System) to bring geothermal energy to the campus of Boise State University and to the Central Addition Eco-District. In addition, this project also improved the overall system’s reliability and increased the hydraulic capacity.

  9. Thermodynamics of geothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1981-03-01

    A model to predict the thermodynamic properties of geothermal brines, based on a minimum amount of experimental data on a few key systems, is tested. Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride, taken from the literature, are represented by a parametric equation over the range 0 to 300{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 1 kbar. Density measurements at 20 bar needed to complete the volumetric description also are presented. The pressure dependence of activity and thermal properties, derived from the volumetric equation, can be used to complete an equation of state for sodium chloride solutions. A flow calorimeter, used to obtain heat capacity data at high temperatures and pressures, is described. Heat capacity measurements, from 30 to 200{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 200 bar, are used to derive values for the activity coefficient and other thermodynamic properties of sodium sulfate solutions as a function of temperature. Literature data on the solubility of gypsum in mixed electrolyte solutions have been used to evaluate model parameters for calculating gypsum solubility in seawater and natural brines. Predictions of strontium and barium sulfate solubility in seawater also are given.

  10. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  11. Geothermal power production in future electricity markets-A scenario analysis for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purkus, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.purkus@uni-oldenburg.d [Department of Economics, Business Administration and Law, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Barth, Volker [Department of Economics, Business Administration and Law, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Development and diffusion of new renewable energy technologies play a central role in mitigating climate change. In this context, small-scale deep geothermal power has seen growing interest in recent years as an environmentally friendly, non-intermittent energy source with large technical potential. Following the first successful demonstration projects, the German geothermal industry is currently experiencing an internationally unparalleled growth. In this study we explore the factors driving this development, and the role geothermal power production could play in the future of the German electricity market. For this, we apply the scenario technique, based on literature analysis and interviews with companies operating actively in the field. Our findings highlight the importance of political support and framework conditions in the electricity market, with the best prospects in a decentralised energy system based on renewable energy sources, where high investment costs and the risk of discovery failure are balanced by the benefits of low-carbon base load power. - Research highlights: {yields} Small scale geothermal plants could provide base load for RES based power systems. {yields} New technologies allow its use even in geologically inactive regions like Germany. {yields} Key factors for growth are political support and power market framework conditions. {yields} Main investment barriers are comparatively high investment costs and discovery risks. {yields} Scale of use depends on technological evolution and energy system structure.

  12. Absence of remote earthquake triggering within the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Lin, Guoqing; Zhan, Zhongwen; Chen, Xiaowei; Qin, Yan; Wdowinski, Shimon

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal areas are long recognized to be susceptible to remote earthquake triggering, probably due to the high seismicity rates and presence of geothermal fluids. However, anthropogenic injection and extraction activity may alter the stress state and fluid flow within the geothermal fields. Here we examine the remote triggering phenomena in the Coso geothermal field and its surrounding areas to assess possible anthropogenic effects. We find that triggered earthquakes are absent within the geothermal field but occur in the surrounding areas. Similar observation is also found in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We hypothesize that continuous geothermal operation has eliminated any significant differential pore pressure between fractures inside the geothermal field through flushing geothermal precipitations and sediments out of clogged fractures. To test this hypothesis, we analyze the pore-pressure-driven earthquake swarms, and they are found to occur outside or on the periphery of the geothermal production field. Therefore, our results suggest that the geothermal operation has changed the subsurface fracture network, and differential pore pressure is the primary controlling factor of remote triggering in geothermal fields.

  13. Geothermal power plants principles, applications, case studies and environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    DiPippo, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Now in its 3e, this single resource covers all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation using fundamental scientific and engineering principles. Its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of case studies from real plants that increase the reader's understanding of geothermal energy conversion and provide a unique compilation of hard-to-obtain data and experience. Important new chapters cover Hot Dry Rock, Enhanced Geothermal Systems, and Deep Hydrothermal Systems. New, international case studies provide practical, hands-on knowledge.

  14. Geothermal Program Review VII: proceedings. DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an indepth review of its entire geothermal R and D program. The 2--3 day conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R and D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. This year's conference, Program Review 7, was held in San Francisco on March 21--23, 1989. As indicated by its title, ''DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace'', Program Review 7 emphasized developing technologies, concepts, and innovations having potential for commercial application in the foreseeable future. Program Review 7 was comprised of eight sessions including an opening session and a special presentation on the ''Role of Geothermal Energy in Minimizing Global Environmental Problems.'' The five technical sessions covered GTD-sponsored R and D in the areas of hydrothermal (two sessions), hot dry rock, geopressured, and magma. Presentations were made by the relevant field researchers, and sessions were chaired by the appropriate DOE Operations Office Geothermal Program Manager. The technical papers and commentary of invited speakers contained in these Proceedings have been compiled in the order in which they were presented at Program Review 7.

  15. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Defluoridation study for Boise geothermal water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigdon, L.

    1980-06-03

    Methods of removing fluorides from water are reviewed and recommendations are made for treating geothermal water used by the Boise Geothermal Project, Boise, Idaho. The Boise geothermal water except for its high fluoride content would be high quality, suitable for primary drinking water. Fluoride ranges from about 15 to 25 mg/l in water from various wells in the Boise region where the Project plans to obtain hot water. Four techniques for removing fluorides from water have been studied extensively during the past 15 years or so. Electrodialysis and reverse osmosis are useful in reducing total dissolved solids from brackish water, but are nonspecific and are too expensive for treatment of the Boise geothermal water. Selective precipitation is a widely used technique for treating water, but would also prove expensive for the Boise geothermal water because of the relatively high solubility of fluoride salts and consequently high concentration (and cost) of precipitants required to reduce the fluorides to an acceptable level. Ion-exchange separation using activated alumina as the exchange medium appears to be the most promising technique and we recommend that some laboratory and pilot studies be conducted to establish suitability and operating boundaries.

  17. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

    1998-08-01

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  18. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

    1998-09-20

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  19. Geothermal progress monitor. Report No. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This issue, the 16th since 1980, illustrates the potential of the liquid-dominated geothermal resource. Achievement of this potential by publicly held companies, who are required to publish financial statements, has involved the use of high-quality resources and the best available technologies or, in some instances, their own innovative modifications of existing technologies as well as a high degree of technical and management expertise. This issue also documents some effects of the new climate of utility deregulation and competition among independent power producers on the geothermal industry. The continuing importance attached to geothermal heat pumps as a preferred space conditioning technology by a number of disparate interests is illustrated by a number of articles. Magma Power Co. reported record gains in both 1993 revenues and earnings over 1992; California Energy has acquired Magma, creating the largest geothermal energy producer in the world. Owing to stagnation in USA, it was decided to focus on international markets. After the introduction, the issue has sections on: Federal beat, industry scene, financing, technology development, direct use technology, state and local, international, technology transfer, and directory.

  20. Sixteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1991-01-25

    The Sixteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23-25, 1991. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Mohinder Gulati of UNOCAL Geothermal. Dr. Gulati gave an inspiring talk on the impact of numerical simulation on development of geothermal energy both in The Geysers and the Philippines. Dr. Gulati was the first recipient of The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award. The registered attendance figure of one hundred fifteen participants was up slightly from last year. There were seven foreign countries represented: Iceland, Italy, Philippines, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Japan. As last year, papers on about a dozen geothermal fields outside the United States were presented. There were thirty-six papers presented at the Workshop, and two papers were submitted for publication only. Attendees were welcomed by Dr. Khalid Aziz, Chairman of the Petroleum Engineering Department at Stanford. Opening remarks were presented by Dr. Roland Horne, followed by a discussion of the California Energy Commission's Geothermal Activities by Barbara Crowley, Vice Chairman; and J.E. ''Ted'' Mock's presentation of the DOE Geothermal Program: New Emphasis on Industrial Participation. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: hot dry rock, geochemistry, tracer injection, field performance, modeling, and chemistry/gas. As in previous workshops, session chairpersons made major contributions to the program. Special thanks are due to Joel Renner, Jeff Tester, Jim Combs, Kathy Enedy, Elwood Baldwin, Sabodh Garg, Marcel0 Lippman, John Counsil, and Eduardo Iglesias. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Angharad Jones, Rosalee Benelli, Jeanne Mankinen, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also

  1. Imperial County geothermal development semi-annual report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The current geothermal progress in Imperial County is reported. Three areas are reported: Geothermal Administration, Geothermal Planning, and other Geothermal Activities. Geothermal Administration addresses the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of Geothermal field inspections. In addition, the cooperative efforts between industry and the County; Master EIR for the Salton Sea KGRA and the resurveying of the subsidence detection network are covered. Geothermal Planning addresses a Board of Supervisor action on the Union Oil Geothermal Production Permit for 16 wells in the Salton Sea KGRA and a permit for Southern California Edison 10 megawatts power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA. Planning Commission action covers: Amendment of Magma Power's 49 megawatts Geothermal Production Permit to 28 megawatt power plant and relocation of the plant and wells within the Salton Sea KGRA; Exploration permit to Occidental Geothermal for four exploratory wells in East Brawley; Geothermal Production Permit to Southern California Edison to operate a 10 megawatt power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA; and Geothermal production permit to Union Oil for 16 production-injection wells in the Salton Sea KGRA. Lastly, EIR exemptions to CEQA were granted to Chevron for 70 shallow temperature observation holes and Union for fifteen. Other Geothermal Activity addresses the County Direct Heat Development study; the solicitation for district heating and cooling proposals; the new Geothermal Class II-1 disposal site; the DOE Region IX meeting in Tucson; and USGA designating a new KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, the Westmorland KGRA, and revising the southern border of the Salton Sea KGRA.

  2. Utilization of geothermal energy in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Pavolová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher demand for energy consumption and the importance of environmental issues has encouraged researchers and policy makers to consider renewable energies more seriously. Energetic projects, resulting from orientation to energetic effectiveness are contributing to the increase of energetic safety and reduction of economic dependence on unstable prices of gas and petroleum during their import. The contribution studies possible ways of utilization of individual types of renewable energies by the analysis of utilization of geothermal energy through characteristics of individual areas of geothermal energy in Slovakia according to the intensity of heat flow. The results of the analysis prove that Slovakia has the vast potential of geothermal energy. There is, therefore, necessary to support business activities, orientated to the energy saving projects.

  3. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  4. 2015 Annual Report - Geothermal Technologies Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-01

    Over the past year, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) supported a number of exciting initiatives and research and development (R&D)activities! The GTO budget was increased in Fiscal Years (FY) 2015-2016, providing the opportunity to invest in new technologies and initiatives, such as the DOE-wide Subsurface Crosscut Initiative, and the Small Business Vouchers (SBV)Program, which is focused on growing our small business and national laboratory partnerships. These efforts will continue to advance geothermal as an economically competitive renewable energy.

  5. Geothermal energy statistics 2002-2003 for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signorelli, S.; Andenmatten Bertoud, N.; Kohl, T.; Rybach, L.

    2004-01-01

    Herein, the Swiss geothermal energy production of the years 2002 and 2003 is statistically compiled. Again, an increase of the total geothermal-driven energy can be noted, reaching more than 1.1 TWh, with a geothermal energy share greater than 860 GWh. (The difference is the non-geothermal energy needed by the heat pump systems involved.) Since 2000 the installed capacity could be increased by 20%, i.e. 40 MW per year. Geothermal energy is mainly used in combination with heat pump- (HP-) systems for heating purposes (>700 GWh), of which >80% are produced by borehole heat exchanger (BHE) systems. The remaining HP-utilization splits up into ground water utilization (about 15%), deep BHE, foundation pile systems and tunnel water. Non HP-dependent geothermal utilizations are mainly thermal-springs applications for balneological use. Their contribution is nearly constant over the year. Together with the HP sales figures, the BHE drilling meters are now included in the present statistics. Since 2003, the compilation of the drilled lengths also includes the specifications of BHE fields with more than 10 BHE each. Such BHE fields make up >10% of the total drilled length. More and more frequently, such fields are used for the cooling of buildings as well. In order to clearly display these geothermal applications in the future, such BHE fields should be systematically registered, as it is now done for foundation pile systems and BHE systems. Of great importance for the promotion of geothermal energy are the activities of the Center of Competence 'Geothermal energy' and its regional information centers. The currently available funding allows the financing of information and know-how dissemination as well as education. All of these activities are essential for a further increase in geothermal energy production. (author)

  6. Geothermal energy prospects for the next 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    Three facets of geothermal energy--resource base, electric power potential, and potential nonelectric uses--are considered, using information derived from three sources: (1) analytic computations based on gross geologic and geophysical features of the earth's crust, (2) the literature, and (3) a worldwide questionnaire. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: geothermal resources; electric energy conversion; nonelectric uses; recent international developments; environmental considerations, and bibliography. (JGB)

  7. Development of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the geothermal development promotion survey project. NEDO is taking the lead in investigation and development to reduce risks for private business entities and promote their development. The program is being moved forward by dividing the surveys into three ranks of A, B and C from prospects of geothermal resource availability and the state of data accumulation. The survey A lacks number of data, but covers areas as wide as 100 to 300 km{sup 2}, and studies possible existence of high-temperature geothermal energy. The survey B covers areas of 50 to 70 km{sup 2}, investigates availability of geothermal resources, and assesses environmental impacts. The survey C covers areas of 5 to 10 km{sup 2}, and includes production well drilling and long-term discharge tests, other than those carried out by the surveys A and B. Results derived in each fiscal year are evaluated and judged to establish development plans for the subsequent fiscal year. This paper summarizes development results on 38 areas from among 45 areas surveyed since fiscal 1980. Development promotion surveys were carried out over seven areas in fiscal 1994. Development is in progress not only on utilization of high-temperature steam, but also on binary cycle geothermal power generation utilizing hot waters of 80 to 150{degree}C. Fiscal 1994 has carried out discussions for spread and practical use of the systems (particularly on economic effects), and development of small-to-medium scale binary systems. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Geothermal resources in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saibi, Hakim [Laboratory of Geothermics, Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The geothermal resources in Algeria are of low-enthalpy type. Most of these geothermal resources are located in the northeastern of the country. There are more than 240 thermal springs in Algeria. Three geothermal zones have been delineated according to some geological and thermal considerations: (1) The Tlemcenian dolomites in the northwestern part of Algeria, (2) carbonate formations in the northeastern part of Algeria and (3) the sandstone Albian reservoir in the Sahara (south of Algeria). The northeastern part of Algeria is geothermally very interesting. Two conceptual geothermal models are presented, concerning the northern and southern part of Algeria. Application of gas geothermometry to northeastern Algerian gases suggests that the reservoir temperature is around 198 C. The quartz geothermometer when applied to thermal springs gave reservoir temperature estimates of about 120 C. The thermal waters are currently used in balneology and in a few experimental direct uses (greenhouses and space heating). The total heat discharge from the main springs and existing wells is approximately 642 MW. The total installed capacity from producing wells and thermal springs is around 900 MW. (author)

  9. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  10. The Geothermal Potential, Current and Opportunity in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sheng-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Located in the west Pacific Rim of Fire, Taiwan possesses rich geothermal resources due to volcanic activities and rapid uplifting of plate collision. Based on available data prior to 1980, Taiwan may have about 1 GWe of potential shallow geothermal energy, which is less than 3% of the national gross power generation. A 3-Mw pilot power plant, therefore, was constructed in 1981 and terminated in 1993 in the Chingshui geothermal field of Ilan, northeastern Taiwan. Recently, one of the National Science & Technology Program (NSTP) projects has been conducting research and reevaluating the island-wide deep geothermal energy. Four hot potential sites have been recognized. They are: (1) Tatun Volcano Group of northern Taiwan; (2) I-Lan Plain of NE Taiwan; (3) Lu-Shan area of Central Taiwan; and (4) Hua-Tung area of eastern Taiwan. We found that the geothermal resource in Taiwan may be as high as 160 GWe, with 33.6 GWe of exploitable geothermal energy. There are no any commercial geothermal power plants until now in Taiwan, although the potential is great. However, geothermal energy has been listed as one of major tasks of National Energy Program, Phase II (NEP-II) in Taiwan. We will conduct more detailed geothermal energy surveys on some proposed hot sites and to construct an EGS pilot geothermal plant with 1 MWe capability in a few years. Currently, there are three nuclear power plants, named No. 1, 2 & 3, in operations, which produce 16.5% gross generation of electricity and one (No. 4) is under construction, but is stopped and sealed now in Taiwan. Furthermore, the life-span of 40-year operation for those three power plants will be close-at hand and retire in 2018-2019, 2021-2023 and 2024-2025, respectively. Therefore, to find alternative energy sources, especially on the clean, renewable and sustainable ones for generating electricity are emergent and important for Taiwan's government in next few years. Among various energy sources, geothermal energy can be as base

  11. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  12. Motivating the Study of International Trade: A Classroom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a classroom activity for use in introductory economics courses to motivate the study of international trade. The learning activity highlights the importance of international trade in students' everyday lives by having students inventory their on-hand belongings and identify where the items were manufactured.…

  13. Geothermal heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; Tinti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, for several types of buildings and users, the choice of conditioning by heat pump and low enthalpy geothermal reservoir has been increasing in the Italian market. In fact, such systems are efficient in terms of energy and consumption, they can perform, even at the same time, both functions, heating and cooling and they are environmentally friendly, because they do not produce local emissions. This article will introduce the technology and will focus on critical points of a geothermal field design, from actual practice, to future perspectives for the geo exchanger improvement. Finally, the article presents a best practice case in Bologna district, with an economic analysis showing the convenience of a geothermal heat pump. Conclusions of the real benefits of these plants can be drawn: compared to a non-negligible initial cost, the investment has a pay-back period almost always acceptable, usually less than 10 years. [it

  14. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  15. Proposal for the further development of the 'Ribeira Grande' agricultural geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril; De Medeiros, Jorge Rosa; Rodrigues, Ana Catarina Tavares

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal project Ribeira Grande has been the first trial to introduce the possibilities of direct application of geothermal energy at Azores. As all the first experiences, it's development has been escorted with a list of difficulties and problems, resulting with non proper completion of some systems and installations. However, even not complete, the reached results justified both technically and economically the indigenous resource door for further activities and development. Presented proposal for the second phase of project development consists two very important advantages: 1) Enables development of new demonstration and productive projects, without engaging new import of fuels or other energents; 2) Enables development based on the already existing economy sectors at the islands and makes them more profitable and accommodated to the requests of the national and international market. However, influencing national and international preconditions for the realization of the proposed activities are not very convenient and are requesting a concentrate engagement of the Institute for Innovative Technologies of Azores INOVA during the period of next 5 years. The final success of this engagement shall open very wide possibilities for direct application of geothermal energy development in this isolated EC community, presently mainly orientated towards import both of energy and food. (Authors)

  16. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, J.L.

    2001-08-15

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: (1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and (2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research.

  17. Geothermal Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.; Bennett, M.; Atkins, D.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2008) outlined a mean 30 GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western United States. One goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. DOE has focused efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont and Foster, 1990-1992) will give developers central location for information gives models for identifying new geothermal areas, and guide efficient exploration and development of these areas. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with GTO to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In 2012, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In 2013, ten additional case studies were completed, and Semantic MediaWiki features were developed to allow for more data and the direct citations of these data. These case studies are now in the process of external peer review. In 2014, NREL is working with universities and industry partners to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough data set to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  18. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: (1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and (2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research

  19. Geothermal energy planning and communication for native Americans. Final report. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.

    1982-03-30

    The purpose was to explore and develop geothermal energy resources on Indian lands. Activities included the following: (1) continued review of Indian communities and their potential for geothermal energy development; (2) introduced tribes to the availability of geothermal energy and removed the barriers to the implementation of this energy source; (3) provided information by telephone and by mailing packages of information; (4) published articles on geothermal energy development in the UIPA newsletter and supplied articles to other Indian publication; (5) conducted two seminars specific to geothermal energy development on Indian lands in western states; (6) carried out survey of Indian attitudes and opinions toward energy in general and geothermal energy in specific; (7) incorporated geothermal energy development information in Economic Development Administration sponsored tribal government management programs, and (8) developed draft written material addressing Indian planning problems and supporting their ability to affect a more productive working relationship with government agencies and reduced dependency.

  20. National and global exploitation of deep geothermal energy. 2013 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczik, Sebastian; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A number of plants for the utilisation of deep geothermal energy have been completed in Germany and other parts of the world in the course of the past year. In Germany four cogeneration plants with an total electrical capacity of 12 MW were in operation in 2012, producing a total of around 25 GWh of electrical energy and 0.32 PJ of thermal energy in that year. Furthermore, Germany's national fleet of geothermal heating plants had an overall thermal output capacity of 200 MW and a thermal yield of 1.2 PJ (330 GWh) in 2012. This amounts to savings of 107,000 tons of CO 2 equivalent. Total electricity and heat production from geothermal energy worldwide showed continued growth through 2012. The total electrical capacity installed rose by almost 3% to 11.3 GW. Between them the world's geothermal power plants in existence at the end of 2012 had fed around 72 TWh of electrical energy into the grids in the course of the year. In addition these plants totalled an installed thermal capacity of approximately 15.4 GW, producing some 217 PJ (60 TWh) of heat. Many other activities towards making greater use of thermal energy from the deep underground were observed both in Germany and around the globe in 2012. In view of these developments it appears probable that the production of heat and/or electricity from geothermal energy will continue to grow in the years to come and that this option will gain significance in the realms of economic and environmental policy at both the national and international level.

  1. Victorian first for geothermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    AGL Limited (AGL) will assist Maroondah Sports Club to save hundreds of thousands of dollars on its energy bills over the next decade by commencing work to install Victoria's first GeoAir geothermal cooling and heating system. Utilising the earth's constant temperature, the new GeoAir geothermal system provides a renewable source of energy that will save the club up to $12,000 in the first year and up to $150,000 over the next 10 years

  2. Geothermal and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The production of geothermal-electric energy, presents relatively few contamination problems. The two bigger problems associated to the geothermal production are the disposition of waste fluids and the discharges to the atmosphere of non-condensable gases as CO 2 , H 2 O and NH 3 . For both problems the procedures and production technologies exist, like it is the integral use of brines and gases cleaning systems. Other problems consist on the local impact to forest areas for the effect of the vapor discharge, the contamination for noise, the contamination of aquifer shallow and the contamination related with the construction and termination of wells

  3. Understanding the circulation of geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau using oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hongbing; Zhang, Yanfei; Zhang, Wenjie; Kong, Na; Zhang, Qing; Huang, Jingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique geothermal resources in Tibetan Plateau were discussed. • Isotopes were used to trace circulation of geothermal water. • Magmatic water mixing dominates geothermal water evolution. - Abstract: With the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, many of the world’s rarest and most unique geothermal fields have been developed. This study aims to systematically analyze the characteristics of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of geothermal, river, and lake waters to understand the circulation of groundwater and to uncover the mechanism of geothermal formation in the Tibetan Plateau. Field observations and isotopic data show that geothermal water has higher temperatures and hydraulic pressures, as well as more depleted D and 18 O isotopic compositions than river and lake waters. Thus, neither lakes nor those larger river waters are the recharge source of geothermal water. Snow-melt water in high mountains can vertically infiltrate and deeply circulate along some stretching tensile active tectonic belts or sutures and recharge geothermal water. After deep circulation, cold surface water evolves into high-temperature thermal water and is then discharged as springs at the surface again in a low area, under high water-head difference and cold–hot water density difference. Therefore, the large-scale, high-temperature, high-hydraulic-pressure geothermal systems in the Tibetan Plateau are developed and maintained by rapid groundwater circulation and the heat source of upwelled residual magmatic water. Inevitably, the amount of geothermal water will increase if global warming accelerates the melting of glaciers in high mountains

  4. The missing link between submarine volcano and promising geothermal potential in Jinshan, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. C.; Hutchings, L.; Chang, C. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic group (TVG) and the Keelung submarine volcano (KSV) are active volcanoes and surrounding three nuclear plant sites in north Taiwan. The famous Jinshan-Wanli hot springs locates between TVG and KSV, moreover, the geochemical anomalies of acidic boiling springs on the seacoast infer that the origin is from magmatic fluids, sea water and meteoric water mixture, strongly implying that mantle fluids ascends into the shallow crust. The evidence for a magma chamber, submarine volcano, and boiling springs have a close spatial relationship. Based on UNECE specifications to Geothermal Energy Resources (2016), the Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area could be classified as Known Geothermal Energy Source for geothermal direct use and Potential Geothermal Energy Source for conventional geothermal system. High resolution reservoir exploration and modeling in Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area is developing for drilling risk mitigation. The geothermal team of National Taiwan Ocean University and local experts are cooperating for further exploration drilling and geothermal source evaluation. Keywords: geothermal resource evaluation, Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area, submarine volcano

  5. International Project Management Committee: Overview and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the purpose and composition of the International Project Management Committee (IMPC). The IMPC was established by members of 15 space agencies, companies and professional organizations. The goal of the committee is to establish a means to share experiences and best practices with space project/program management practitioners at the global level. The space agencies that are involved are: AEB, DLR, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, KARI, and NASA. The industrial and professional organizational members are Comau, COSPAR, PMI, and Thales Alenia Space.

  6. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  7. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-97 (July--September 1997). It describes 213 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps, geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, acquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, and industrial applications. Research activities include the completion of a Comprehensive Greenhouse Developer Package. Work accomplished on the revision of the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook are discussed. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 3), dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses, and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  8. High Temperature Perforating System for Geothermal Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Moises E. [Schlumberger Technology Corporation, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The objective of this project is to develop a perforating system consisting of all the explosive components and hardware, capable of reliable performance in high temperatures geothermal wells (>200 ºC). In this light we will focused on engineering development of these components, characterization of the explosive raw powder and developing the internal infrastructure to increase the production of the explosive from laboratory scale to industrial scale.

  9. Measured ground-surface movements, Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley, 30 kilometers southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, incurred slight deformation because of the extraction of hot water and steam, and probably, active tectonism. During 1977 to 1978, the US Geological Survey established and measured two networks of horizontal control in an effort to define both types of movement. These networks consisted of: (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from stations on an existing US Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border; and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the present and planned geothermal production area. Electronic distance measuring instruments were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks in 1978, 1979 and 1981. Lines in the regional net averaged 25 km. in length and the standard deviation of an individual measurement is estimated to be approx. 0.3 part per million of line length. The local network was measured using different instrumentation and techniques. The average line length was about 5 km. and the standard deviation of an individual measurement approached 3 parts per million per line length. Ground-surface movements in the regional net, as measured by both the 1979 and 1981 resurveys, were small and did not exceed the noise level. The 1979 resurvey of the local net showed an apparent movement of 2 to 3 centimeters inward toward the center of the production area. This apparent movement was restricted to the general limits of the production area. The 1981 resurvey of the local net did not show increased movement attributable to fluid extraction.

  10. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-01-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development

  11. Geothermal policy project. Quarterly report, March 1-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, T.D.

    1980-06-01

    Efforts continued to initiate geothermal and groundwater heat pump study activities in newly selected project states and to carry forward policy development in existing project states. Minnesota and South Carolina have agreed to a groundwater heat pump study, and Maryland and Virginia have agreed to a follow-up geothermal study in 1980. Follow-up contacts were made with several other existing project states and state meetings and workshops were held in eleven project states. Two generic documents were prepared, the Geothermal Guidebook and the Guidebook to Groundwater Heat Pumps, in addition to several state-specific documents.

  12. CO2 flux geothermometer for geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J. V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C. F.; Bloomberg, S.; Fridriksson, T.; Oladottir, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    A new geothermometer (TCO2 Flux) is proposed based on soil diffuse CO2 flux and shallow temperature measurements made on areas of steam heated, thermally altered ground above active geothermal systems. This CO2 flux geothermometer is based on a previously reported CO2 geothermometer that was designed for use with fumarole analysis. The new geothermometer provides a valuable additional exploration tool for estimating subsurface temperatures in high-temperature geothermal systems. Mean TCO2 Flux estimates fall within the range of deep drill hole temperatures at Wairakei (New Zealand), Tauhara (New Zealand), Rotokawa (New Zealand), Ohaaki (New Zealand), Reykjanes (Iceland) and Copahue (Argentina). The spatial distribution of geothermometry estimates is consistent with the location of major upflow zones previously reported at the Wairakei and Rotokawa geothermal systems. TCO2 Flux was also evaluated at White Island (New Zealand) and Reporoa (New Zealand), where limited sub-surface data exists. Mode TCO2 Flux at White Island is high (320 °C), the highest of the systems considered in this study. However, the geothermometer relies on mineral-water equilibrium in neutral pH reservoir fluids, and would not be reliable in such an active and acidic environment. Mean TCO2 Flux at Reporoa (310 °C) is high, which indicates Reporoa has a separate upflow from the nearby Waiotapu geothermal system; an outflow from Waiotapu would not be expected to have such high temperature.

  13. Geothermal injection monitoring project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, L.

    1981-04-01

    Background information is provided on the geothermal brine injection problem and each of the project tasks is outlined in detail. These tasks are: evaluation of methods of monitoring the movement of injected fluid, preparation for an eventual field experiment, and a review of groundwater regulations and injection programs. (MHR)

  14. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  15. Very low energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Very low energy geothermics correspond to temperatures below 30 C and has been developed to cover heating and cooling needs of recent individual houses or tertiary industries using heat pumps and low depth aquifers (<100 m). Geothermal heat pumps industry has made great strides in European Northern countries, China, Japan and the United States of America. Geothermal heat pumps are less energy consuming than air heat pumps and require less cooling fluid and maintenance. The Aquapac procedure has been developed in France in 1983 by the AFME (French Energy Control Agency), EdF and the BRGM (Geologic and Mining Research Office) to encourage the use of geothermal heat pump for domestic and sanitary water heating and to make a survey of low-depth aquifers in the whole french territory. The decay of energy costs that started in 1986 has led to a loss of interest for the Aquapac procedure, even in the tertiary industries for which the air-conditioning demand is growing up. (J.S.). 1 tab

  16. Simulation of geothermal subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, I.; Dershowitz, W.; Jones, K.; Myer, L.; Roman, K.; Schauer, M.

    1980-03-01

    The results of an assessment of existing mathematical models for subsidence simulation and prediction are summarized. The following subjects are discussed: the prediction process, physical processes of geothermal subsidence, computational models for reservoir flow, computational models for deformation, proficiency assessment, and real and idealized case studies. (MHR)

  17. Review of geothermal subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.L.; Fair, J.A.; Henderson, F.B. III; Schwartz, S.R.

    1975-09-01

    Forty-nine citations are included most of which deal with geothermal subsidence. Other citations deal with subsidence caused by groundwater overdraft and oil and gas exploitation. Most of the entries have abstracts. A subject index, an author index, a list of references, and a glossary are included. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal investigations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ravnik

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and the results of geothermal investigations, based on seventy-two boreholes in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.The data of fundamental geothermal quantities: formation temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production of rocks as well as surface heat flow density are stored in a computerized data base. Their synthesis is given in the map of formation temperatures at 1000 m depth and in the map of surface heat flow density. In both maps the thermal difference between the Pannonian basin in theeastern and the Dinarides in the western part of Slovenia is clearly expressed.However, in the boundary area between these two tectonic units, for a distance of about 100 km in SW-NE direction, elevated horizontal gradients of formation temperature as well as heat flow density are evident. A small positive thermal anomaly in the Ljubljana depression is conspicuous.The low-temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia such as thermalsprings and thermal water from boreholes, are estimated to have a flow rate of 1120 kg/s, corresponding to the ideal total heat production of 144 MWt. In the geothermally promising areas amounting to 3200 km2 the rate of accessible resource base (ARB down to the depth of 3 km has been assessed to about 8.5 x lO 20» J.

  19. Geothermal energy. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Brief descriptions of geothermal projects funded through the Department of Energy during FY 1978 are presented. Each summary gives the project title, contractor name, contract number, funding level, dates, location, and name of the principal investigator, together with project highlights, which provide informaion such as objectives, strategies, and a brief project description. (MHR)

  20. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  1. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD’s International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  2. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD's International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  3. International Collaboration Activities on Engineered Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program has been engaging in international collaborations between repository R&D programs for high-level waste (HLW) disposal to leverage on gathered knowledge and laboratory/field data of near- and far-field processes from experiments at underground research laboratories (URL). Heater test experiments at URLs provide a unique opportunity to mimetically study the thermal effects of heat-generating nuclear waste in subsurface repository environments. Various configurations of these experiments have been carried out at various URLs according to the disposal design concepts of the hosting country repository program. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier Experiment in Crystalline Host Rock) project is a large-scale heater test experiment originated by the Spanish radioactive waste management agency (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. – ENRESA) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) URL in Switzerland. The project was subsequently managed by CIEMAT. FEBEX-DP is a concerted effort of various international partners working on the evaluation of sensor data and characterization of samples obtained during the course of this field test and subsequent dismantling. The main purpose of these field-scale experiments is to evaluate feasibility for creation of an engineered barrier system (EBS) with a horizontal configuration according to the Spanish concept of deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. Another key aspect of this project is to improve the knowledge of coupled processes such as thermal-hydro-mechanical (THM) and thermal-hydro-chemical (THC) operating in the near-field environment. The focus of these is on model development and validation of predictions through model implementation in computational tools to simulate coupled THM and THC processes.

  4. Program planner's guide to geothermal development in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, W.W.S.; Chambers, D.M.; Elliott, J.F.; Whittier, J.P.; Schnoor, J.J.; Blachman, S.

    1980-09-30

    The resource base, status of geothermal development activities, and the state's energy flow are summarized. The present and projected geothermal share of the energy market is discussed. The public and private sector initiatives supporting geothermal development in California are described. These include legislation to provide economic incentives, streamline regulation, and provide planning assistance to local communities. Private sector investment, research, and development activities are also described. The appendices provide a ready reference of financial incentives. (MHR)

  5. Eleventh workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Counsil, J.R. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1986-01-23

    The Eleventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 21-23, 1986. The attendance was up compared to previous years, with 144 registered participants. Ten foreign countries were represented: Canada, England, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand and Turkey. There were 38 technical presentations at the Workshop which are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Six technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published and one presentation is not published. In addition to these 45 technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by J. E. Mock from the Department of Energy. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Jim Combs of Geothermal Resources International, Inc. We thank him for his presentation on GEO geothermal developments at The Geysers. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the Workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, E. Iglesias, A. Moench, S. Prestwich, and K. Pruess. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank J.W. Cook, J.R. Hartford, M.C. King, A.E. Osugi, P. Pettit, J. Arroyo, J. Thorne, and T.A. Ramey for their valued help with the meeting arrangements and preparing the Proceedings. We also owe great thanks to our students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment. The Eleventh Workshop was supported by the Geothermal Technology Division of the U.S. Department of Energy through Contract DE-AS03-80SF11459. We deeply appreciate this continued support. January 1986 H.J. Ramey, Jr. P. Kruger R.N. Horne W.E. Brigham F.G. Miller J.R. Counsil

  6. Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council fifth annual report. Final draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Fred H.

    1981-07-07

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth, and can be tapped as a clean, safe, economical alternative source of energy. Much of the geothermal energy resource is recoverable with current or near-current technology and could make a significant contribution both to increasing domestic energy supplies and to reducing the US dependence on imported oil. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural process applications. This report describes the progress for fiscal year 1980 (FY80) of the Federal Geothermal Program. It also summarizes the goals, strategy, and plans which form the basis for the FY81 and FY82 program activities and reflects the recent change in national policy affecting Federal research, development and demonstration programs. The Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC) believes that substantial progress can and will be made in the development of geothermal energy. The IGCC goals are: (1) reduce the institutional barriers so that geothermal projects can be on-line in one-half the current time; (2) make moderate temperature resources an economically competitive source of electricity; (3) remove the backlog of noncompetitive lease applications; (4) competitive lease all KGRA lands; and (5) cut the cost of hydrothermal technology by 25%.

  7. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  8. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150 0 C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  9. Reliability and validity of international physical activity questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), a standardised method for assessing physical activity, has been tested at 14 centres in 12 countries on adults aged 18 to 65 years. However, there is no standardised instrument to determine levels of physical activity amongst Malay-speaking adults in Malaysia.

  10. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, January - March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the second quarter of FY-97. It describes 176 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on well pumping in commercial groundwater heat pump systems. A memorandum of understanding between the GHC and EIA is described. Work accomplishments on the Guidebook are discussed. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  11. Geothermal system 'Toplec' and geothermal potential of Dojran Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakashev, Deljo; Delipetrov, Marjan; Jovanov, Kosta

    2004-01-01

    The Toplec geothermal spring that expands into a wide geothermal net in the watershed of Lake Dojran along the geophysical exploration work carried out in the terrain, indicated the presence of a significant geothermal potential in the region. In the future it may become the major factor for the development of vegetable growing, the use of the medicinal properties of the mineral spas and tourism as well cis the prosperity of the region. Water temperature in Lake Dojran amounts from 15 to 28 o C during the year that is much higher compared with the temperatures of water lakes in neighbouring Greece. This indicates that beneath Lake Dojran there are other geothermal sources that replenish the lake with thermal water. Such manifestations of geothermal energy in the region along with other thermal phenomena speak for the presence of large reserves of geothermal energy in the Dojran depression. (Author)

  12. National Geothermal Data System: Transforming the Discovery, Access, and Analytics of Data for Geothermal Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, Kim [Arizona Geological Survey

    2013-05-01

    data are insufficient for promoting geothermal exploration. Authors of this paper are Arlene Anderson, US DOE Geothermal Technologies Office, David Blackwell, Southern Methodist University (SMU), Cathy Chickering (SMU), Toni Boyd, Oregon Institute of Technology’s GeoHeat Center, Roland Horne, Stanford University, Matthew MacKenzie, Uberity, Joe Moore, University of Utah, Duane Nickull, Uberity, Stephen Richard, Arizona Geological Survey, and Lisa Shevenell, University of Nevada, Reno. “NGDS User Centered Design: Meeting the Needs of the Geothermal Community,” discusses the user- centered design approach taken in the development of a user interface solution for the NGDS. The development process is research based, highly collaborative, and incorporates state-of-the-art practices to ensure a quality user interface for the widest and greatest utility. Authors of this paper are Harold Blackman, Boise State University, Suzanne Boyd, Anthro-Tech, Kim Patten, Arizona Geological Survey, and Sam Zheng, Siemens Corporate Research. “Fueling Innovation and Adoption by Sharing Data on the DOE Geothermal Data Repository Node on the National Geothermal Data System,” describes the motivation behind the development of the Geothermal Data Repository (GDR) and its role in the NGDS. This includes the benefits of using the GDR to share geothermal data of all types and DOE’s data submission process. Authors of this paper are Jon Weers, National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Arlene Anderson, US DOE Geothermal Technologies Office. Finally, “Developing the NGDS Adoption of CKAN for Domestic & International Data Deployment,” provides an overview of the “Node-In-A-Box” software package designed to provide data consumers with a highly functional interface to access the system, and to ease the burden on data providers who wish to publish data in the system. It is important to note that this software package constitutes a reference implementation and that the NGDS architecture

  13. Environment - Geothermal, the energy to wake up - Stimulation rather than fracturing - Iceland, the Texas of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandes, Camille; Moragues, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    A first article comments the current efforts for the development of geothermal in France after a period during which it has been given up. It evokes the project of a geothermal plant near Paris (to supply Arcueil and Gentilly with energy), the increasing number of projects in different countries. It outlines the French delay in this sector, and that geothermal energy is as difficult to find as oil. It evokes the new actors of the sector and outlines the fierce competition in front of Icelander, Italian, US and Japanese actors, and the opportunities for the French ones. A second article comments the use of the hydraulic stimulation in geothermal energy exploration rather than hydraulic fracturing as in shale gas exploration, and outlines that according to geothermal energy actors this technique avoids the risk of micro-earthquake. A last article describes the activity of the geothermal sector in Iceland: geothermal energy supplies two thirds of primary energy consumption in this country. It exploits the Icelander volcanism. This development has been particularly noticeable since 2000, but some questions are raised regarding the production potential

  14. Geothermal progress monitor: Report No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    DOE is particularly concerned with reducing the costs of geothermal power generation, especially with the abundant moderate to low-temperature resources in the US. This concern is reflected in DOE`s support of a number of energy conversion projects. Projects which focus on the costs and performance of binary cycle technology include a commercial demonstration of supersaturated turbine expansions, which earlier studies have indicated could increase the power produced per pound of fluid. Other binary cycle projects include evaluations of the performance of various working fluid mixtures and the development and testing of advanced heat rejection systems which are desperately needed in water-short geothermal areas. DOE is also investigating the applicability of flash steam technology to low-temperature resources, as an economic alternative to binary cycle systems. A low-cost, low-pressure steam turbine, selected for a grant, will be constructed to utilize fluid discharged from a flash steam plant in Nevada. Another project addresses the efficiency of high-temperature flash plants with a demonstration of the performance of the Biphase turbine which may increase the power output of such installations with no increase in fluid flow. Perhaps the most noteworthy feature of this issue of the GPM, the 17th since its inception in 1980, is the high degree of industry participation in federally-sponsored geothermal research and development. This report describes geothermal development activities.

  15. Geothermal Fields on the Volcanic Axis of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, S.; Gonzalez, A.

    1980-12-16

    At present in Mexico, geothermal energy is receiving a great impulse due to the excellent results obtained in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, in which a geothermoelectric plant is operated. This plant has four units of 37.5 MW each, with a total capacity of 150 MW, and under program 470 MW more by 1984. The Government Institution, Comisi6n Federal de Electricidad, is in charge of the exploration and exploitation of geothermal fields as well as construction and operation of power plants in Mexico. By this time CFE has an extensive program of exploration in the central part of Mexico, in the Eje Neovolcdnico. In this area, several fields with hydrothermal alteration are under exploration, like the Michoac6n geothermal area, where Los Azufres geothermal field is being developed. Seventeen wells have been drilled and twelve of them presented excellent results, including two dry steam wells. In other areas, such as Arar6, Cuitzeo, San Agustln del Maiz,Ixtldn de Los Hervores and Los Negritos, geological, geophysical and geochemical explorations have been accomplished, including shallow well drilling with good results. Another main geothermal area is in the State of Jalisco with an extension of 5,000 m2, where La Primavera geothermal field shows a lot of volcanic domes and has an intensive hydrothermal activity. Deep wells have been drilled, one of them with a bottom temperature of 29OOC. Other fields in this area, like San Narcos, Hervores de La Vega, La Soledad, Villa Corona, etc., have a good geothermal potential. A new geothermal area has been explored recently in the eastern part of the country named Los Humeros, Puebla. In this area studies are being made and there are plans for well drilling exploration by the beginning of 1981. Like this one, there are many other areas in the country in which 300 hydrothermal alteration zones are been classified and 100 of them are considered economically exploitable.

  16. Do International Students Appreciate Active Learning in Lectures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marrone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Active learning has been linked with increased student motivation, engagement and understanding of course material. It promotes deep learning, helping to develop critical thinking and writing skills in students. Less well understood, however, are the responses of international students to active learning. Using social constructivist theory, the purpose of this study is to examine domestic and international student perceptions of active learning introduced into large undergraduate Accounting Information Systems lectures. Several active learning strategies were implemented over one semester and examined through the use of semi-structured interviews as well as pre- and post- implementation surveys. Our results suggest broad improvements for international students in student engagement and understanding of unit material when implementing active learning strategies. Other key implications include international student preference for active learning compared with passive learning styles, and that international students may receive greater benefits from active learning strategies than domestic students due to social factors. Based on these findings this paper proposes that educators should seek to implement active learning to better assist and integrate students of diverse backgrounds.

  17. Numerical modeling of shear stimulation in naturally fractured geothermal reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Ucar, Eren

    2018-01-01

    Shear-dilation-based hydraulic stimulations are conducted to create enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) from low permeable geothermal reservoirs, which are initially not amenable to energy production. Reservoir stimulations are done by injecting low-pressurized fluid into the naturally fractured formations. The injection aims to activate critically stressed fractures by decreasing frictional strength and ultimately cause a shear failure. The shear failure leads to a permanent ...

  18. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  19. Geothermal heat can cool, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstein, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at how geothermal energy can not only be used to supply heating energy, but also be used to provide cooling too. The article reports on a conference on heating and cooling with geothermal energy that was held in Duebendorf, Switzerland, in March 2008. The influence of climate change on needs for heating and cooling and the need for additional knowledge and data on deeper rock layers is noted. The seasonal use of geothermal systems to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer is discussed. The planning of geothermal probe fields and their simulation is addressed. As an example, the geothermal installations under the recently renewed and extended 'Dolder Grand' luxury hotel in Zurich are quoted. The new SIA 384/6 norm on geothermal probes issued by the Swiss Association of Architects SIA is briefly reviewed.

  20. Geothermal emissions data base, Wairakei geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.R. (comp.)

    1978-04-01

    A database subset on the gaseous emissions from the Wairakei geothermal field is presented. Properties and states of the reservoir fluid such as flow rates, wellhead pressure, and enthalpy are included in the file along with the well name and constituent measurement. This subset is the result of an initial screening of the data covering 1965 to 1971, and new additions will be appended periodically to the file. The data is accessed by a database management system as are all other subsets in the file. Thereby, one may search the database for specific data requirements and print selective output. For example, one may wish to locate reservoir conditions for cases only when the level of the constituent exceeded a designated value. Data output is available in the form of numerical compilations such as the attached, or graphical displays disposed to paper, film or magnetic tape.

  1. Seismicity preliminary results in a geothermal and volcano activity area: study case Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system in Southern Andes, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estay, N. P.; Yáñez Morroni, G.; Crempien, J. G. F.; Roquer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid transport through the crust takes place in domains with high permeability. For this reason, fault damage zones are a main feature where fluids may circulate unimpeded, since they have much larger permeability than normal country rocks. With the location of earthquakes, it is possible to infer fault geometry and stress field of the crust, therefore we can determine potential places where fluid circualtion is taking place. With that purpose, we installed a seismic network in an active volcanic-geothermal system, the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS), located in Puyuhuapi, Southern Andes (44°-45°S). This allowed to link epicentral seismicity, focal mechanisms and surface expression of fluid circulation (hot-springs and volcanos). The LOFS is composed by two NS-striking dextral master faults, and several secondary NE-striking dextral and normal faults. Surface manifestation of fluid circulation in Puyuhuapi area are: 1) six hot-springs, most of them spatially associated with different mapped faults; 2) seven minor eruptive centers aligned over a 10-km-along one of the master NS-striking fault, and; 3) the Melimouyu strato-volcano without any spatial relationship with mapped faults. The network consists of 6 short period seismometers (S31f-2.0a sensor of IESE, with natural frequency of 2Hz), that were installed between July 2016 and August 2017; also 4 permanent broad-band seismometers (Guralp 6TD/ CD 24 sensor) which belong to the Volcano Observatory of Southern Andes (OVDAS). Preliminary results show a correlation between seismicity and surface manifestation of fluid circulation. Seismicity has a heterogeneous distribution: most of the earthquake are concentrated is the master NS-striking fault with fluid circulation manifestations; however along the segments without surface manifestation of fluids do not have seismicity. These results suggest that fluid circulation mostly occur in areas with high seismicity, and thus, the increment in fluid pressure enhances

  2. Economic analysis of geothermal projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, G.; Cappetti, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the high investment costs typical of geothermal energy which necessitate careful verification of the resource before embarking on a development project. Moreover, they require the adoption of all strategies aimed at limiting investment costs and times as much as possible in order to contain the tie-up of capital in the construction activities. For this purpose a series of choices has been made regarding the constructional standardization of plants and the adoption of organizational criteria that allow cost reduction and better management of the various phases of a development project. A computer program has also been developed which makes it possible to examine the bearing the various parameters relating to the reservoir characteristics have on the cost of the kWh and to optimize resource utilization for the various activities of a development project

  3. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Federal assistance program. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-96. It describes 90 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment and resources. Research activities are summarized on low-temperature resource assessment, geothermal district heating system cost evaluation and silica waste utilization project. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, development of a webpage, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  4. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  5. Geothermal development. Semi-annual report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    Three areas are reported: geothermal administration, geothermal planning, and other geothermal activities. Administration covers the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of the geothermal field inspections. Planning addresses Board of Supervisor actions, Planning Commission actions, notice of exemptions, and the master Environmental Impact Report for Salton Sea. The other activity includes the County Direct Heat Development study; the solicitation for district heating and cooling proposals; the new Geothermal Class II-1 disposal site; the DOE Region IX meeting in Tucson; and USGA designating a new KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, the Westmoreland KGRA, and revising the southern border of the Salton Sea KGRA. (MHR)

  6. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, James William [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  8. The status and future of geothermal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, Charles F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Geothermal electricity production in the United States began in 1960. Today there are over 20 plants in the western United States providing a total of about 2,200 MW of clean and reliable electricity. Currently identified resources could provide over 20,000 MW of power in the U.S., and undiscovered resources might provide 5 times that amount. In the 1990s industry growth slowed due to the loss of market incentives and competition from natural gas. However, increased interest in clean energy sources, ongoing technological improvements, and renewed opportunities abroad hold promise for a resurgence in the industry. This review paper covers the status of the technology, the issues faced, and the latest research. While the focus is on geothermal in the U.S., a brief description of the large international market is included.

  9. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  10. Wetlands may clean geothermal water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of geothermal resources may help to ease energy problems, but water quality problems could result from the disposal of spent geothermal brines. Research by EG&G Idaho shows that man-made wetlands may provide a more economic disposal system than do conventional treatment and disposal methods.Most geothermal water contains high concentrations of dissolved solids and trace elements, including fluoride and boron, which can be harmful to water quality and organisms. Because of these high concentrations, only a limited number of methods can be used to dispose of used geothermal water. These include injection wells, evaporation ponds, and disposal into surface waterways.

  11. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  12. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  13. Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreddine Ghaffour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting.

  14. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference

  15. Colorado geothermal commercialization program: community development of geothermal energy in Pagosa Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    A district heating system for the Pagosa Springs central business district is in the planning stage. A detailed analysis of the project is presented. It comprises area and site specific studies and describes in detail the recent, current, anticipated, and postulated geothermal development activities. (MHR)

  16. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference.

  17. Three-Dimensional Geothermal Fairway Mapping: Examples From the Western Great Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, Drew L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology; Faulds, James E. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    2013-09-29

    Elevated permeability along fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Accurate location of such fluid flow pathways in the subsurface is crucial to future geothermal development in order to both accurately assess resource potential and mitigate drilling costs by increasing drilling success rates. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we present detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems, the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, Nevada. 3D modeling provides the framework for quantitative structural analyses. We combine 3D slip and dilation tendency analysis along fault zones and calculations of fault intersection density in the two geothermal systems with the locations of lithologies capable of supporting dense, interconnected fracture networks. The collocation of these permeability promoting characteristics with elevated heat represent geothermal ‘fairways’, areas with ideal conditions for geothermal fluid flow. Location of geothermal fairways at high resolution in 3D space can help to mitigate the costs of geothermal exploration by providing discrete drilling targets and data-based evaluations of reservoir potential.

  18. Thirteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1988-01-21

    PREFACE The Thirteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 19-21, 1988. Although 1987 continued to be difficult for the domestic geothermal industry, world-wide activities continued to expand. Two invited presentations on mature geothermal systems were a keynote of the meeting. Malcolm Grant presented a detailed review of Wairakei, New Zealand and highlighted plans for new development. G. Neri summarized experience on flow rate decline and well test analysis in Larderello, Italy. Attendance continued to be high with 128 registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico and The Philippines. A discussion of future workshops produced a strong recommendation that the Stanford Workshop program continue for the future. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Four technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published. In addition to these forty five technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Gustavo Calderon from the Inter-American Development Bank. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants a description of the Bank???s operations in Costa Rica developing alternative energy resources, specifically Geothermal, to improve the country???s economic basis. His talk appears as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: J. Combs, G. T. Cole, J. Counsil, A. Drenick, H. Dykstra, K. Goyal, P. Muffler, K. Pruess, and S. K. Sanyal. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Marilyn King, Pat Oto, Terri Ramey, Bronwyn Jones

  19. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Doug [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Leggett, Jim [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-07-29

    The Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager project has a goal to develop a wireline ultrasonic imager that is capable of operating in temperatures up to 300°C (572°F) and depths up to 10 km (32,808 ft). This will address one of the critical needs in any EGS development of understanding the hydraulic flow paths in the reservoir. The ultrasonic imaging is well known in the oil and gas industry as one of the best methods for fracture evaluation; providing both high resolution and complete azimuthal coverage of the borehole. This enables fracture detection and characterization, both natural and induced, providing information as to their location, dip direction and dip magnitude. All of these factors are critical to fully understand the fracture system to enable the optimization of the thermal drainage through injectors and producers in a geothermal resource.

  20. Guidelines to the Preparation of Environmental Reports for Geothermal Development Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-02-01

    The US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) through its Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) is the federal agency responsible for certain actions that pertain to the development of geothermal resources. Such resources include (1) all products of geothermal processes, embracing indigenous steam, geopressured fluids, hot water, and brines; (2) steam and other gases, hot water and hot brines resulting from water, and natural gas or other fluids introduced into geothermal formations; (3) any by-products derived from geothermal resources, such as minerals or gases. By-products must either have a value less than 75% of the value of the geothermal resources from which they are derived or must not be of sufficient value alone to warrant extraction and production. in order to encourage the development of geothermal resources, ERDA conducts a program to assess those resources and to establish the technical, economic, and environmental acceptability of geothermal technologies. This program includes some proposed actions that could affect the environment. As a means of obtaining information essential to satisfying the requirements of NEAP and its own regulations (10 CFR Part 711), ERDA requests that certain participants in the agency's programmatic activities submit an environmental report. The report describes the proposed programmatic activities and considers the potential impacts of those activities with respect to the existing environment. This guidelines document has been developed to provide assistance to participants in the preparation of environmental reports about geothermal activities.

  1. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  2. Geothermal resources of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  3. Colorado Geothermal Commercialization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, F.C.

    1980-04-01

    Chaffee County, located in central Colorado, has immense potential for geothermal development. This report has been prepared to assist residents and developers in and outside the area to develop the hydrothermal resources of the county. Data has been collected and interpreted from numerous sources in order to introduce a general description of the area, estimate energy requirements, describe the resources and postulate a development plan. Electric power generation and direct heat application potential for the region are described.

  4. Shape memory alloy seals for geothermal applications. Final report. Report ESG-82-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friske, Warren H.; Schwartzbart, Harry

    1982-07-30

    A novel temperature-actuated seal for geothermal applications is under development. This program uses the shape memory property of nickel-titanium (Nitinol) alloys to achieve an improved seal in geothermal downhole pumps. Nitinol flange face seals and pump shaft seals have been designed, fabricated, and tested. It has been demonstrated that the shape memory effect of Nitinol alloys can be utilized to activate and maintain a leaktight seal in geothermal environments.

  5. International conference activation analysis and its applications (ICAAA): abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    International conference on the Activation Analysis and its Applications was hold in Beijing of China on October 15-19, 1990. It was organized and co-sponsored by Division of Activation Analysis and Radioanalysis, National Natural Science Foundation of China and China Nuclear Society, etc.. 159 pieces of Articles in the field were received in the conference, from many countries

  6. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  7. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  8. Environmental Assessment -- Hydrothermal Geothermal Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    This environmental impact assessment addresses the design, construction, and operation of an electric generating plant (3 to 4 MWe) and research station (Hawaii Geothermal Research Station (HGRS)) in the Puna district on the Island of Hawaii. The facility will include control and support buildings, parking lots, cooling towers, settling and seepage ponds, the generating plant, and a visitors center. Research activities at the facility will evaluate the ability of a successfully flow-tested well (42-day flow test) to provide steam for power generation over an extended period of time (two years). In future expansion, research activities may include direct heat applications such as aquaculture and the effects of geothermal fluids on various plant components and specially designed equipment on test modules. Construction-related impacts would be relatively minor. Construction of the facility will require the distance of about 1.7 ha (4.1 acres). No further disturbance is anticipated, unless it becomes necessary to replace the seepage pond with an injection well, because the production well is in service and adjacent roads and transmission lines are adequate. Disruption of competing land uses will be minimal, and loss of wildlife habitat will be acceptable. Noise should not significantly affect wildlife and local residents; the most noise activities (well drilling and flow testing) have been completed. Water use during construction will not be large, and impacts on competing uses are unlikely. Socio-economic impacts will be small because the project will not employ a large number of local residents and few construction workers will need to find local housing.

  9. International inspection activity impacts upon DOE safeguards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zack, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    The US has placed certain special nuclear materials declared excess to their strategic needs under international safeguards through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This Presidential initiative has obligated materials at several Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for these safeguards activities to demonstrate the willingness of the US to ban production or use of nuclear materials outside of international safeguards. However, IAEA inspection activities generally tend to be intrusive in nature and are not consistent with several domestic safeguards procedures implemented to reduce worker radiation exposures and increase the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of accounting for and storing of special nuclear materials. To help identify and provide workable solutions to these concerns, the Office of Safeguards and Security has conducted a program to determine possible changes to the DOE safeguards and security requirements designed to help facilities under international safeguards inspections more easily comply with domestic safeguards goals during international inspection activities. This paper will discuss the impact of international inspection activities on facility safeguards operations and departmental safeguards procedures and policies

  10. Gulf of Mexico rig activity up, international lags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappold, K.

    1994-01-01

    Demand for jack up and semisubmersible rigs has improved in the Gulf of Mexico following a decline in activity earlier this year. International drilling activity, however, has shown slight declines in several regions. Relatively firm natural gas prices have helped buoy rig activity in North America. Rig day rates have not followed suit, mainly because of the influx of rigs from weaker international markets. Day rates in the US may not increase until international activity picks up and the world-wide drilling market tightens. Oil prices have hit almost $20/bbl, mainly because of the recent oil worker' strike in Nigeria and good demand. Natural gas prices in the US have hovered around $2.00/MMBTU, and many industry analysts expect gas prices to remain strong over the next few years. This paper gives data on drilling rig counts and crude oil and gas prices in the Gulf of Mexico and onshore

  11. Geothermal research at Oklahoma State University: An integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.D.

    1997-12-31

    Oklahoma State University and the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA) are active in providing technical support to government and industry through technology transfer, technology development, technical assistance, and business development support. Technology transfer includes geothermal heat pump (GHP) system training for installers and architects and engineers, national teleconferences, brochures, and other publications. Technology development encompasses design software development, GLHEPRO, in-situ thermal conductivity testing methods and verification of data reduction techniques, and specifications and standards for GHP systems. Examples of technical assistance projects are a Navy officers quarters and a NASA Visitors Center which required design assistance and supporting information in reducing the life cycle cost to make them viable projects.

  12. Activity of bacteria in water of hot springs from Southern and Central Kamchatskaya geothermal provinces, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Natalia L; Tazaki, Kazue; Zakharova, Juliya R; Parfenova, Valentina V

    2007-01-01

    The hot-spring waters of numerous hot springs at the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia differ in their chemical characteristics and elemental composition. Total bacterial abundance (TBA) as well as enzymatically active and respiring bacteria was enumerated in water samples collected from the Nalychevskie, Oksinskie, Apapelskie, and Dachnye hot springs. 5-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate activity was detected in all water samples and comprised 29-65% of the TBA as determined by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining. The respiratory activity of iron-oxidizing bacteria was assayed by 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride reduction. Respiring cells accounted for 9-14% of the TBA, indicating a positive correlation with the number of iron-oxidizing bacteria from the hot-spring biomats. Enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria revealed a high-density bacterial population only in the water of the Apapelskie hot spring, which has a temperature of 36 degrees C. Therefore, it appears that heterotrophic and iron-oxidizing bacteria inhabiting the hot-spring waters are essential for the geochemical processes occurring in hydrothermal systems.

  13. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal Borehole Televiewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  14. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal borehole televiewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  15. A sustainability analysis of geothermal energy development on the island of Dominica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kiyana Marie-Jose

    Dominica is heavily dependent on fossil fuels to meet its electricity generation needs. Dominica's volcanic origin and current volcanic activity allow the island to be an ideal place for the production of geothermal energy. Once geothermal exploration and development has begun in Dominica, it is uncertain whether the efforts will produce an environmentally, economically and socially feasible exploitation of the resource. Using content analysis and cost benefit analysis, this study examined the impacts of geothermal energy development based on the triple bottom line of sustainability for the Wotten Waven community, as well as the island as a whole. The results indicate that this project will have an overall positive impact on the triple bottom line of sustainability for Dominica. Therefore, geothermal energy may provide substantial net benefits to economic and sustainable development of the island. Assessing the sustainability of geothermal development is important as Dominica begins to produce geothermal energy.

  16. Preliminary study of Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokawaty, Ribka; Nugroho, Indra; Satriana, Joshua; Hafidz, Muhamad; Suryantini

    2017-12-01

    Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area is located on Bacan Island, Northern Molluca Province. Geothermal systems in this area associated with three Quartenary volcanoes, such as Mt. Pele-pele, Mt. Lansa, and Mt. Bibinoi. Based on literature study, five surface manifestations such as hot springs and alteration occurred within this area. The active manifestations indicate that Songa-Wayaua area has potential geothermal resource. This study objective is to evaluate Songa-Wayaua geothermal system on preliminary study stage by using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis to delineate the boundary of geothermal system area. The result of this study showed that Songa-Wayaua prospect area has four heat sources potential (e.g. Pele-pele Hummock, Lansa Hummock, Songa Hummock, and Bibinoi Hummock), controlled by geological structure presented by Pele-pele Normal Fault, and had three places as the recharge and discharge area which are very fulfilling as a geothermal system.

  17. Thermal springs, fumaroles and gas vents of continental Yemen: Their relation with active tectonics, regional hydrology and the country's geothermal potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minissale, Angelo; Mattash, Mohamed A.; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Al-Ganad, Ismail N.; Selmo, Enrico; Shawki, Nasr M.; Tedesco, Dario; Poreda, Robert; Ad-Dukhain, Abdassalam M.; Hazzae, Mohammad K.

    2007-01-01

    Most thermal springs of continental Yemen (about 65 emergences at 48 sampling sites) and a couple of fumaroles and boiling water pools have been sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition in the liquid phase and the associated free-gas phase. Whatever the emergence, all the water discharges have an isotopic signature of meteoric origin. Springs seeping out from high altitudes in the central volcanic plateau show a prevalent Na-HCO 3 -composition, clearly affected by an anomalous flux of deep CO 2 deriving from active hydrothermal systems located in the Jurassic Amran Group limestone sequence and/or the Cretaceous Tawilah Group, likely underlying the 2000-3000 m thick volcanic suite. At lower elevations, CO 2 also affects the composition of some springs emerging at the borders of the central volcanic plateau. Although mixing to a limited extent with organic CO 2 infiltrating together with the meteoric recharge waters cannot be ruled out, all the CO 2 -rich gas samples have a δ 13 C-CO 2 signature that falls in the range of mantle CO 2 (-3 13 C 3 He/ 4 He (1 a 2 -rich springs and also some mixed N 2 -CO 2 gas vents in the far east Hadramaut region support the presence of mantle magmas and related hydrothermal systems residing at the crust level in several areas of Yemen. This well agrees with the presence of Quaternary basaltic magmatic activity along the Gulf of Aden, as well as inside the central Yemen volcanic plateau. Presently, the thermal springs of Yemen are prevalently used for spas and/or bathing. Nevertheless, liquid- and gas-geothermometry and geological considerations suggest that there are at least three areas (Al Lisi, Al Makhaya and Damt) inside the Yemen volcanic plateau (around Dhamar) that may be promising prospects for the future development of geothermal energy in Yemen. Alternatively, they could be used as a source of energy for small-to-medium scale agriculture and/or industrial purposes. Moreover, most of the thermal water

  18. Investigation of geothermal resources in Korea (Geothermal Resources Maps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jeong Ung; Lee, Seung Gu; Yum, Byoung Woo; Kim, Hyoung Chan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula forms a part of the stable foreland of Far East Asia and is a part of Sino-Korean Craton, where, hence, is not associated with high potential geothermal resources. Nevertheless, there are several geothermal springs, of which water temperature ranges from 23 to 76 deg. C. This study was aimed to draw various geothermal base maps in the Korean Peninsula, such as thermal conductivity map, heat flow map, geothermal gradient map, depth contour map of 25 deg. C and various geochemical figures of geothermal waters. In this study, the thermal springs was surveyed for well inventory, the determination of thermal conductivities of rocks, and chemical analyses of geothermal waters. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope values ({delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O) of geothermal waters were also calculated, which would be useful to evaluate the origin of water. Map of geothermal gradient distribution illustrates geothermally anomalous areas - such as Deoksan, Dogo, Onyang and Yusong areas in ChungNam district, Jungwon area in Chungbuk district, Pocheon area in Gyeonggi district, Gosung area in Gwangwon district, Deokgu, Baekam, and Pohang areas in Gyeongbuk district and Busan, Mageumsan and Bugok area in Gyeongnam district. Heat flow map also shows similar features to geothermal anomalies. Most of thermal waters form the Korean Peninsula are alkaline and belongs to Na-HCO{sub 3} type. Their contents are characterized of low total dissolved solids and high contents of fluoride and sodium, of which results are same as those of the researches which was conducted before. (author). 21 refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Geothermal engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the engineering required to bring geothermal resources into use. The book covers specifically engineering aspects that are unique to geothermal engineering, such as measurements in wells and their interpretation, transport of near-boiling water through long pipelines, turbines driven by fluids other than steam, and project economics. The explanations are reinforced by drawing comparisons with other energy industries.

  20. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, Michelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  1. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  2. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  3. Compilation of geothermal information: exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The Database for Geothermal Energy Exploration and Evaluation is a printout of selected references to publications covering the development of geothermal resources from the identification of an area to the production of elecric power. This annotated bibliography contains four sections: references, author index, author affiliation index, and descriptor index.

  4. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  5. World Geothermal Congress WGC-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses materials and results of the World Geothermal Congress that was held in Melbourne (Australia) from April 19 to April 25, 2015. Information on the extent and technological features of utilization of geothermal resources for heat supply and power production, as well as in other economic areas, is given. A stable growth in the capacity and number of geothermal power systems that is determined by ecological cleanliness, economic efficiency, and the highest (among renewable energy sources) indicators of installed capacity utilization is shown. It was noted that combined schemes of geothermal power plants (GPPs), such as turbine units of different type (binary units, units with one or two separation pressures, etc.), have become more frequently used to increase the efficiency of utilization of geothermal heat carrier. Actual data determining room heating systems with the total worldwide capacity of nearly 50000 MW thermal (MWt) as the most currently significant segment of consumption of geothermal waters are given. In addition, geothermal resources are also utilized in soil pumps, balneological and sports basins, greenhouse complexes, and other manufactures. It was noted that geological studies were carried out in more than 40 countries, with the development of methods of simulation of tanks for the existing and new geothermal fields. Trends of development and the role of geothermal power engineering in the energy supply of many countries are shown. It was shown that prospects for the development of geothermal power generation are significantly associated with utilization of low-temperature geothermal sources in binary power generating units, as well as with the increase in installed capacity of operating geothermal power plants (GPPs) without drilling additional wells, i.e., by using waste geothermal heat carrier in binary-cycle or combined-cycle power plants. The article provides data on a pilot binary power unit at Pauzhetka GPP and on a

  6. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  7. Geopressured geothermal bibliography (Geopressure Thesaurus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. A thesaurus is a compilation of terms displaying synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system, the system vocabulary. The Thesaurus' role in the Geopressured Geothermal Information System is to provide a controlled vocabulary of sufficient specificity for subject indexing and retrieval of documents in the geopressured geothermal energy field. The thesauri most closely related to the Geopressure Thesaurus in coverage are the DOE Energy Information Data Base Subject Thesaurus and the Geothermal Thesaurus being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The Geopressure Thesaurus differs from these thesauri in two respects: (1) specificity of the vocabulary or subject scope and (2) display format.

  8. Geothermal Field Investigations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, N.; Özer, N.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is a type of energy that are found in the accessible depth of the crust, in the reservoirs by way of the permeable rocks, specially in heated fluid. Geothermal system is made of 3 main components; heat source, reservoir, and fluid bearing heat. Geothermal system mechanism is comprise of fluid transmission. Convection current (heat transmission) is caused by heating and causes the fluid in the system to expand. Heated fluid with low density show tendency to rise in system. Geothermal system occurs with variable geophysics and geochemical properties. Geophysical methods can determine structural properties of shallow and deep reservoirs with temperature, mineralization, gas amount, fluid movement, faulting, and sudden change in lithostratigraphic strata. This study revealed possible reservoir structures and showed examples of geophysics and gas measuring results in Turkey which is wealthy in regard to Geothermal sources.

  9. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  10. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you

  11. The International Association for Promoting Geoethics: Mission, Organization, and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.; Peppoloni, S.; Di Capua, G.

    2017-12-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) was founded in 2012, during the 34th IGC in Brisbane (Australia), to provide a multidisciplinary platform for widening the discussion and creating awareness about principles and problems of ethics as applied to the geosciences. It is a scientific, non-governmental, non-political, non-profit, non-party institution, headquartered at the Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy. IAPG focuses on behaviors and practices where human activities interact with the Earth system, and deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience knowledge, education, research, practice and communication. Its goal is to enhance awareness of the social role and responsibility of geoscientists in conducting their activities such as geoeducation, sustainability, and risk prevention. IAPG is a legally recognized non-profit association with members in 115 countries on 5 continents, and currently has 26 national sections. As of the date of this abstract, IAPG has been involved with approximately 70 international meetings (scientific conferences, symposia, seminars, workshops, expositions, etc.). Other activities range from exchanging information with newsletters, blogs, social networks and publications; promoting the creation of working groups and encouraging the participation of geoscientists within universities and professional associations for the development of geoethics themes; and cooperating with national and international organizations whose aims are complementary, e.g., International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), Geological Society of London (GSL), Geoscience Information in Africa - Network (GIRAF), American Geophysical Union (AGU), International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG), International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), Association of Environmental & Engineering

  12. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endeshaw, A.; Belaineh, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  13. New geochemical investigations in Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites (Honduras)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, Franco; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Cioni, Roberto; Lelli, Matteo; Menichini, Matia; Ranaldi, Massimo; Ricci, Tullio; Tarchini, Luca

    2013-05-01

    Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites of Honduras are located in an inner part of the Caribbean Plate far from the active volcanic front of Central America. Here geology indicates that there are not the conditions for the occurrence of shallow magmatic heat sources for high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Geothermal perspectives are related to the possibility of a deep circulation of meteoric water along faults and the storage of the heated fluid in fractured permeable reservoirs. Geochemical geothermometers indicate a temperature for the deeper part of the geothermal reservoir close to 200 °C for Platanares and of 150-170 °C for Azacualpa. Calcite scaling, with subordinate silica deposition has to be expected in both sites. CO2 soil flux investigations have been carried out in both areas and reveal the presence of positive anomalies likely corresponding to the presence at depth of fractured degassing geothermal reservoirs. Compared with the geothermal areas of Central Italy whose reservoirs are hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g. Latera (Chiodini et al., 2007), the CO2 soil flux measured in Honduras is significantly lower (mean of 17 g/m2day at Platanares and of 163 g/m2day at Azacualpa) probably because of the dominant silicate nature of the deep reservoirs.

  14. Experimental thermomechanical damage as first approach to understand the petrophysical behavior of the granitic host-rocks from an active fractured-geothermal system (Liquiñe, Chile - 39º S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Piernas, E.; Sepúlveda, J.; Arancibia, G.; Roquer, T.; Morata, D.; Bracke, R.; Vázquez, P.

    2017-12-01

    Chile's location along an active subduction zone has endowed it with a high geothermal potential. However, a better understanding of the thermomechanical and fluid transport properties of rocks is required to assess the potential of geothermal systems and thereby enhance the possibilities for their use. We have focused in the area surrounding Liquiñe, in the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone (Chile, 39º S). This area hosts several recent thermal manifestations, predominantly hot springs, and it is affected by the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ), which controls the position of the modern volcanic arc in southern Chile and cuts the Patagonian batholith. We have carried out experimental analyzes in order to understand this geothermal system and the influence of the thermomechanical features over the granitic host-rocks (low-porous crystalline rocks). To do this, physical properties such as capillary water absorption coefficient, Vp-wave velocity and compressive resistance were evaluated before and after heating rock samples at 150 ºC and 210 ºC (at ambient pressure) in an oven at a heating rate of 6 °C/min and maintaining the maximum temperature for 4 hours. The cooling rate was less than 2 °C/min to avoid shrinkage phenomena. The results show that the damage by heat was greater at 210 ºC than 150 ºC, likely due to an increased capillary coefficient ( 30% and 25%). On the contrary, Vpvelocity ( -19% and -13%) and compressive resistance ( -27% in both cases) decreased, with respect to unheated samples. Consequently, we can infer an inherent effect on the later fracture process due to the thermal stress when this granitic body was at depth. After that, and considering the local and regional strain-stress state, both factors have facilitated the fluid flow, increasing the permeability of this granitic host-rock allowing the presence of hot-springs. Future work will be to acquire complementary petrophysical parameters, such as porosity, permeability, thermal

  15. Crossing the Barriers: An Analysis of Permitting Barriers to Geothermal Development and Potential Improvement Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Developers have identified many non-technical barriers to geothermal power development, including permitting. Activities required for permitting, such as the associated environmental reviews, can take a considerable amount of time and delay project development. This paper discusses the impacts to geothermal development timelines due to the permitting challenges, including the regulatory framework, environmental review process, and ancillary permits. We identified barriers that have the potential to prevent geothermal development or delay timelines and defined improvement scenarios that could assist in expediting geothermal development and permitting timelines and lead to the deployment of additional geothermal resources by 2030 and 2050: (1) the creation of a centralized federal geothermal permitting office and utilization of state permit coordination offices as well as (2) an expansion of existing categorical exclusions applicable to geothermal development on Bureau of Land Management public lands to include the oil and gas categorical exclusions passed as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. We utilized the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) and the Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM) to forecast baseline geothermal deployment based on previous analysis of geothermal project development and permitting timelines. The model results forecast that reductions in geothermal project timelines can have a significant impact on geothermal deployment. For example, using the ReEDS model, we estimated that reducing timelines by two years, perhaps due to the creation of a centralized federal geothermal permitting office and utilization of state permit coordination offices, could result in deployment of an additional 204 MW by 2030 and 768 MW by 2050 - a 13% improvement when compared to the business as usual scenario. The model results forecast that a timeline improvement of four years - for example with an expansion of existing categorical

  16. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim. The aim is to develop the energy efficient technologies to explore hydro geothermal resources of different energy potential.Methods. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies has been carried out with the use of physical and mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and the physical and chemical experimental research.Results. We propose the technology of integrated exploration of low-grade geothermal resources with the application of heat and water resource potential on various purposes. We also argue for the possibility of effective exploration of geothermal resources by building a binary geothermal power plant using idle oil and gas wells. We prove the prospect of geothermal steam and gas technologies enabling highly efficient use of thermal water of low energy potential (80 - 100 ° C degrees to generate electricity; the prospects of complex processing of high-temperature geothermal brine of Tarumovsky field. Thermal energy is utilized in a binary geothermal power plant in the supercritical Rankine cycle operating with a low-boiling agent. The low temperature spent brine from the geothermal power plant with is supplied to the chemical plant, where the main chemical components are extracted - lithium carbonate, magnesium burning, calcium carbonate and sodium chloride. Next, the waste water is used for various water management objectives. Electricity generated in the binary geothermal power plant is used for the extraction of chemical components.Conclusions. Implementation of the proposed technologies will facilitate the most efficient development of hydro geothermal resources of the North Caucasus region. Integrated exploration of the Tarumovsky field resources will fully meet Russian demand for lithium carbonate and sodium chloride.

  17. Geothermal Direct Heat Applications Program Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-25

    Because of the undefined risk in the development and use of geothermal energy as a thermal energy source, the Department of Energy Division of Geothermal Energy solicited competitive proposals for field experiments in the direct use of geothermal energy. Twenty-two proposals were selected for cost-shared funding with one additional project co-funded by the State of New Mexico. As expected, the critical parameter was developing a viable resource. So far, of the twenty resources drilled, fourteen have proved to be useful resources. These are: Boise, Idaho; Elko heating Company in Nevada; Pagosa Springs, Colorado; Philip School, Philip, South Dakota; St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota; Utah Roses near Salt Lake City; Utah State Prison, Utah; Warm Springs State Hospital, Montana; T-H-S Hospital, Marlin, Texas; Aquafarms International in the Cochella Valley, California; Klamath County YMCA and Klamath Falls in Oregon; Susanville, California and Monroe, utah. Monroe's 164 F and 600 gpm peak flow was inadequate for the planned project, but is expected to be used in a private development. Three wells encountered a resource insufficient for an economical project. These were Madison County at Rexburg, Idaho; Ore-Ida Foods at Ontario, Oregon and Holly Sugar at Brawley, California. Three projects have yet to confirm their resource. The Navarro College well in Corsicana, Texas is being tested; the Reno, Moana, Nevada well is being drilled and the El Centro, California well is scheduled to be drilled in January 1982. The agribusiness project at Kelly Hot Springs was terminated because a significant archeological find was encountered at the proposed site. The Diamond Ring Ranch in South Dakota, and the additional project, Carrie Tingley Hospital in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico both used existing wells. The projects that encountered viable resources have proceeded to design, construct, and in the most advanced projects, to operate geothermal systems for

  18. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource-assessment program, Fiscal Year 1980. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N. (eds.)

    1981-08-01

    Magnetic, gravity, seismic-refraction, and seismic-reflection profiles across the Las Alturas Geothermal Anomaly, New Mexico, are presented. Studies in the Socorro area include the following: seismic measurements of the tertiary fill in the Rio Grande Depression west of Socorro, geothermal data availability for computer simulation in the Socorro Peak KGRA, and ground water circulation in the Socorro Geothermal Area. Regional geothermal exploration in the Truth or Consequences Area includes: geological mapping of the Mud Springs Mountains, hydrogeology of the thermal aquifer, and electrical-resistivity investigation of the geothermal potential. Other studies included are: geothermal exploration with electrical methods near Vado, Chamberino, and Mesquite; a heat-flow study of Dona Ana County; preliminary heat-flow assessment of Southeast Luna County; active fault analysis and radiometric dating of young basalts in southern New Mexico; and evaluation of the geothermal potential of the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico.

  19. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  20. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  1. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  2. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-98 (October--December 1997). It describes 216 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps and material for high school debates, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, electric power and snow melting. Research activities include work on model construction specifications of lineshaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, a comprehensive aquaculture developer package and revisions to the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 4) which was devoted entirely to geothermal activities in South Dakota, dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  3. International Centre for Theoretical Physics: scientific activities in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    A review of the scientific activities of the Centre, including workshops, research, and training-for-research is presented. The scientific program consists of seven main fields, Physics and Energy, Fundamental Physics, Physics and Technology, Physics of the Living State, Physics of the Environment, Physics and Development, and Mathematics. In addition to a brief description of each workshop, symposium, college, and meeting, tables summarizing the participation at ICTP activities are given. A list of preprints and internal reports issued in 1984 is included

  4. Current radiation protection activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program of the Radiation Safety Section is described in this paper. The Section has two main components: (1) the development of consensus safety documentation and (2) the use of that documentation as the basis for assisting countries to deal safely with their applications of radiation and radioactivity. Main activities of the section are listed for each of these components. Activities include documentation, coordinated research programs, and assistance to developing countries. 14 tabs

  5. Geothermal Energy and its Prospects in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeckas, B.

    1995-01-01

    Data on the geothermal resources in lithuania and on their prospective usage are presented. The analysis covers water horizons of the geothermal anomaly in West Lithuania and their hydrogeology. The energy of the 3 km thick geothermal source was evaluated. Technical and economical possibilities of using geothermal energy in West Lithuania are described. Some aspects of the investment and of the project of a geothermal power plant in Klaipeda are considered. (author). 6 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Gametogenic activity in three internally fertilized prosobranchs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-07-09

    Jul 9, 1987 ... Patterns of gametogenic activity in three prosobranchs with internal fertilization, Bumupena lagenaria, Nerita albicilla, and N. plicata, were determined. No seasonal trends were evident in the histological appearance of. N. albici/la gonads, indicating that gametogenesis was a continuous process.

  7. Gametogenic activity in three internally fertilized prosobranchs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of gametogenic activity in three prosobranchs with internal fertilization, Burnupena lagenaria, Nerita albicilla, and N. plicata, were determined. No seasonal trends were evident in the histological appearance of N. albicilla gonads, indicating that gametogenesis was a continuous process. Four distinct reproductive ...

  8. Third workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1977-12-15

    The Third Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 14, 1977, with 104 attendees from six nations. In keeping with the recommendations expressed by the participants at the Second Workshop, the format of the Workshop was retained, with three days of technical sessions devoted to reservoir physics, well and reservoir testing, field development, and mathematical modeling of geothermal reservoirs. The program presented 33 technical papers, summaries of which are included in these Proceedings. Although the format of the Workshop has remained constant, it is clear from a perusal of the Table of Contents that considerable advances have occurred in all phases of geothermal reservoir engineering over the past three years. Greater understanding of reservoir physics and mathematical representations of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated reservoirs are evident; new techniques for their analysis are being developed, and significant field data from a number of newer reservoirs are analyzed. The objectives of these workshops have been to bring together researchers active in the various physical and mathematical disciplines comprising the field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give the participants a forum for review of progress and exchange of new ideas in this rapidly developing field, and to summarize the effective state of the art of geothermal reservoir engineering in a form readily useful to the many government and private agencies involved in the development of geothermal energy. To these objectives, the Third Workshop and these Proceedings have been successfully directed. Several important events in this field have occurred since the Second Workshop in December 1976. The first among these was the incorporation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) into the newly formed Department of Energy (DOE) which continues as the leading Federal agency in geothermal reservoir engineering research. The Third

  9. Geothermal Development and the Use of Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, A.; Young, K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The federal environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) can be complex and time consuming. Currently, a geothermal developer may have to complete the NEPA process multiple times during the development of a geothermal project. One mechanism to reduce the timeframe of the federal environmental review process for activities that do not have a significant environmental impact is the use of Categorical Exclusions (CXs), which can exempt projects from having to complete an Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement. This study focuses primarily on the CX process and its applicability to geothermal exploration. In this paper, we: Provide generalized background information on CXs, including previous NEPA reports addressing CXs, the process for developing CXs, and the role of extraordinary circumstances; Examine the history of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) geothermal CXs; Compare current CXs for oil, gas, and geothermal energy; Describe bills proposing new statutory CXs; Examine the possibility of standardizing geothermal CXs across federal agencies; and Present analysis from the Geothermal NEPA Database and other sources on the potential for new geothermal exploration CXs. As part of this study, we reviewed Environmental Assessments (EAs) conducted in response to 20 geothermal exploration drilling permit applications (Geothermal Drilling Permits or Notices of Intents) since the year 2001, the majority of which are from the last 5 years. All 20 EAs reviewed for this study resulted in a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). While many of these FONS's involved proponent proposed or federal agency required mitigation, this still suggests it may be appropriate to create or expand an exploration drilling CX for geothermal, which would have a significant impact on reducing geothermal exploration timelines and up-front costs. Ultimately, federal agencies tasked with permitting and completing

  10. Crustal stress heterogeneity in the vicinity of a geothermal field: Coso Geothermal Field, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly

    Borehole induced structures seen in image logs from the Coso Geothermal Field, CA record variation in the azimuth of principal stress. Image logs of these structures from five boreholes were analyzed to quantify the stress heterogeneity for three geologically distinct locations: two boreholes within the Coso Geothermal Field (one in an actively produced volume), two on the margin of the Coso Geothermal Field and outside the production area, and a control borehole several tens of kilometers south of the Coso Geothermal Field. Average directions of Shmin and its standard deviation are similar along the eastern portion of the geothermal field at ˜107 +/- 28°; this is distinct from the western portion which has an azimuth of 081 +/- 18° and also distinct from outside the geothermal field where the average azimuth is 092 +/- 47°. These relationships suggest a correlation of stress orientation and heterogeneity with slip on the Coso Wash fault, suggesting that ˜20 years of production has not affected the Shmin.orientation. The slope of power spectrum quantifies the length-scale dependence of stress rotations for the volume of the brittle crust penetrated by each borehole. Spectral analysis was applied to the depth variation of stress direction and it demonstrates that: (1) the data set contains distinct wavelengths of stress rotation, (2) that the relative power of these wavelengths in the total scaling of stress directions demonstrates a fractal distribution and (3) in a manner consistent with earthquakes causing the stress rotations. While the vertically averaged Shmin orientation for the three eastern boreholes varied by as little as 1°, the spectral slopes varied by 0.4 log (deg2 *m)(m) from the inside to the margin unproduced areas of the Coso Geothermal Field. The two boreholes inside the field had spectral slopes within one standard deviation, even though Shmin orientations were not parallel. These results suggest that at the kilometer length scale, the

  11. International Year of Planet Earth - Activities and Plans in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2007-12-01

    IYPE started as a joint initiative by UNESCO and IUGS with participation of several geosciences organizations, and has developed into a major program in geosciences with inclusion of national committees. In this presentation we focus on current activities and plans in our country, and in the international activities. IYPE activities have concentrated in publications and organization of conferences and meetings. A book series on Earth Science Experiments for Children has been defined, with the first books published on "Atmospheric Pressure and Free Fall of Objects" and "Light and Colors". Following books are on "Standing on Archimedes" and "Foucault and the Climate". Books are distributed free to school children, with more than 10,000 copies given of first volume. Other publications include the special issues of El Faro science magazine edited by the National University, with last issue published and distributed electronically and in hard copies this August. Special events include Conference of IYPE Executive Director presented during the International Day of Science Museums in late May in Science Museum Universum. This was followed by a Planet Earth Week in the University. Current plans include an electronic open-access publication, additional publications of the Planet Earth series, articles and special issues in journals and magazines, and events on selected themes from the IYPE science program, particularly on Megacities, Hazards, Resources and Life. The metropolitan area of Mexico City, with around 20 million inhabitants presents special challenges, being at high altitude within an active tectonic and volcanic area requiring major efforts in water supply, water control, rains and waste disposal and management. Involvement in international activities includes translation into Spanish of IYPE publications and the participation in programs and activities. In addition to activities in the different countries, we consider that IYPE should result in initiatives for

  12. International Space Environment Service: Current Activities and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boteler, D. H.; H. Lundstedt, H.; Kunches, J.; Coffey, H.; Hilgers, A.; Patterson, G.; van der Linden, R.; Lam, H.-L.; Wang, H.; Buresova, D.; et al.

    The International Space Environment Service ISES is a permanent service of the Federations of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services FAGS with the mission to encourage and facilitate near-real-time international monitoring and prediction of the space environment This is done through the work of Regional Warning Centres RWC around the world who collaborate in the exploitation of a wide range of space-based and ground-based data Rapid exchange of information about the space environment is facilitated through the use of standard URSIgram codes RWCs also collaborate in sharing expertise in particular areas of specialty ISES also prepares the International Geophysical Calendar IGC each year giving a list of World Days during which scientists are encouraged to carry out their experiments and the monthly Spacewarn Bulletins which summarize the status of satellites in earth orbit and in the interplanetary medium ISES has its origins in the former URSI Central Committee of USRIgrams which initiated rapid international data interchange services in 1928 The modern system of regional warning centres was set up during the International Geophysical Year and now exist in every populated continent except Africa and South America ISES as part of its IGY 50 activities is working to develop RWCs in those continents ISES is also involved in developing new multi-national space weather services for example for trans-polar flights New space-based data on space weather activity will require extensive collaboration if it is to be

  13. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 3, March-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the following areas: electric uses; direct heat uses; drilling activities; exploration; leases; outreach and technical assistance; feasibility studies and application demonstrations; geothermal loan guarantee program; general activities; R and D activities; legal, institutional, and regulatory activities; environmental activities; and state, local, and private sector activities. Also included are a list of reports and publications and a directory of individuals in the geothermal community. (MHR)

  14. Geothermal Research at the Geo-Heat Center Oregon Institute of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    1997-01-01

    The Geo-Heat Center was established in 1975 to provide information and technical services for geothermal energy direct-use and development--mainly utilizing low- and moderate-temperature resources (<150oC). The Center is funded by the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). Our main functions are (1) technical assistance, (2) resource information, (3) advising and referrals, (4) speaker’s bureau, (5) tours of geothermal systems, (6) publications, (7) research, and (8) stocking a geothermal library. During 1997, the Geo-Heat Center staff provided assistance to 761 individuals, companies and municipalities--up to eight hours of technical assistance can be provided free of charge. Staff members have also participated in numerous international geothermal direct-use projects. The Center has developed a “Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook” and publishes a free “Quarterly Bulletin” on geothermal direct-use projects and research. The Geo-Heat Center also has a website (http://www.oit.edu/~geoheat). Several of these direct-use research projects are discussed in the paper, including: a) Downhole Heat Exchangers, b) A Cost Comparison of Commercial Ground- Source Heat Pump Systems, c) A Spreadsheet for Geothermal Energy Cost Evaluation, d) Utilization of Silica Waste from Geothermal Power Production, e) Fossil Fuel-Fired Peak Heating for Geothermal Greenhouses, f) Selected Cost Considerations for the Geothermal District Heating in Existing Single-Family Residential Areas, and g) Collocated Resources Inventory of Wells and Hot Springs in the Western U.S.

  15. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  16. National Geothermal Data System Hub Deployment Timeline (Appendix E-1-d)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudill, Christy [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey)

    2015-12-20

    Excel spreadsheet describing activity, spending, and development for the four data hubs (Arizona Geoloical Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois Geological Survey, and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology) serving data for the National Geothermal Data System under the State Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System Project.

  17. Geothermal energy. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    As most of the alternative power sources, geothermal energy started being considered as a tentative one during the early 1970s. At that time the world's demand for energy was mostly fed by means of petroleum, coal, gas and other primary materials. The low prices of these raw materials at that time and the lack of general consciousness on the environmental contamination problems caused by the combustion processes did not forecast any significant changes for the coming years. However, as from 1973, a constant raise in prices, specially for liquid fuels, started to take place. A few years later, in the early 1980s, a growing interest for nature and for the delicate equilibrium of the ecological and for systems started to awaken. These facts led several countries to re-evaluate their power resources and to reconsider those showing less negative incidence upon the environment. Among such alternatives, geothermal energy introduces certain features that make it highly advisable for developing countries, in addition to the fact that the mean heat reservoirs are located within this group of nations [es

  18. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  19. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  20. Status of UFD Campaign International Activities in Disposal Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    While the United States research program for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste over the past decades focused solely on an open tunnel emplacement in unsaturated densely fractured tuff, several international organizations have made significant progress in the characterization and performance evaluation of other disposal design options and host rock characteristics, most of which were very different from those studied in the U.S. As a result, areas of direct collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) and international geologic disposal programs were quite limited during that time. Recently, the decision by DOE to no longer pursue the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel at the Yucca Mountain site has shifted the nation’s focus to disposal design options and geologic environments similar to those being investigated by other nations. DOE started to recognize that close international collaboration is a beneficial and costeffective strategy for advancing disposal science and, in FY12, embarked on a comprehensive effort to identify international collaboration opportunities, to interact with international organizations and advance promising collaborations, and to plan/develop specific R&D activities in cooperation with international partners. This report describes the active collaboration opportunities available to U.S. researchers as a result of this effort, and presents specific cooperative research activities that have been recently initiated within DOE’s disposal research program. The focus in this report is on those opportunities that provide access to field data (and respective interpretation/modeling), and/or may allow participation in ongoing and planned field experiments.

  1. Estimations of internal dosimetry: practical calculations of incorporated activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes C, A.

    2003-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) carries out periodically measurements of corporal activity to Occupationally Exposed Personnel (POE) to determine that the received doses are in according to that settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Security. In this work the results of the incorporated activity estimates starting from the results of the measurements that were carried out in the one CNSNS laboratory are presented, with which it should be determine lastly the internal dose. Its were used different methodologies to estimate the incorporated activity: estimate with isolated data, estimate with global data and method of the best estimate, demonstrating this last to be the more appropriate to determine the internal dose. (Author)

  2. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. Scientific activities in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This publication gives a comprehensive overview of the scientific activities during 1994 of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. In particular, it gives (i) a summary of these activities accompanied by statistical data (comparison with 1993, participation by geographical area, breakdown by field of activity, activities held at and outside the ICTP, and participation by activity); (ii) an overview of the scientific programme (fundamental physics, condensed matter physics, mathematics, physics and energy, physics and the environment, physics of the living state, applied physics, diploma courses, and other research) while listing long-term visitors, networks of associate members and federal institutes, training and research at Italian laboratories, external activities, science, the high technology and development programme, the books and equipment programme, award; (iii) a list of publications, and (iv) a list of scientific support services

  3. Environmental impact in geothermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, P.; Torres R, V.; Gonzalez P, E.; Guevara G, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generally, water exploitation and deep steam of geothermal fields may be cause of a pollution potential on the surface, specially by the chemical composition of geothermal water which has a high concentration of minerals, salts and heavy metals. The utilization of stable isotopes as deuterium and oxygen 18 as radioactive tracers and water origin indicators allow to know the trajectories and sources of background waters as well as possible moistures between geothermal waters and meteoric waters. Some ions such as chlorides and fluorides present solubilities that allow their register as yet long distances of their source. (Author)

  4. Geothermal potential of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report aims to analyze the geothermal potential of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site selected for the Cigeo project, primarily based on data available in the literature and particularly on those recently Acquired by Andra near this site. It also analyzes the report made on the same topic by Geowatt AG at The request of the CLIS of Bure. For the Meuse/Haute-Marne area relevant to Cigeo, the present report concludes to the existence of A low-energy geothermal resource in the lower Triassic. For the Permian and the basement, a medium To high-energy geothermal resource is conceivable, but its occurrence is hypothetical. Beneath the site, exploiting the Triassic would depend on the possibility of re-injecting the produced Brine. National and international experiences show the difficulty to carry out such a reinjection in Silty-clayey formations. The profitability of such exploitation in the Triassic, the Permian or in the basement is questionable. Indeed, the Meuse/Haute-Marne area neither shows an exceptional nature nor a specific interest Compared to other formations or zones for which either the geothermal potential is better Demonstrated, such as for instance the Dogger formation in the central part of the Paris basin with Easier exploitation conditions, or where the geothermal gradients are higher. (authors)

  5. Fracture properties from tight reservoir outcrop analogues with application to geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Sonja L.; Reyer, Dorothea; Afsar, Filiz; Bauer, Johanna F.; Meier, Silke; Reinecker, John

    2015-04-01

    In geothermal reservoirs, similar to other tight reservoirs, fluid flow may be intensely affected by fracture systems, in particular those associated with fault zones. When active (slipping) the fault core, that is, the inner part of a fault zone, which commonly consists of breccia or gouge, can suddenly develop high permeability. Fault cores of inactive fault zones, however, may have low permeabilities and even act as flow barriers. In the outer part of a fault zone, the damage zone, permeability depends mainly on the fracture properties, that is, the geometry (orientation, aperture, density, connectivity, etc.) of the fault-associated fracture system. Mineral vein networks in damage zones of deeply eroded fault zones in palaeogeothermal fields demonstrate their permeability. In geothermal exploration, particularly for hydrothermal reservoirs, the orientation of fault zones in relation to the current stress field as well as their internal structure, in particular the properties of the associated fracture system, must be known as accurately as possible for wellpath planning and reservoir engineering. Here we present results of detailed field studies and numerical models of fault zones and associated fracture systems in palaeogeo¬thermal fields and host rocks for geothermal reservoirs from various stratigraphies, lithologies and tectonic settings: (1) 74 fault zones in three coastal sections of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic age (mudstones and limestone-marl alternations) in the Bristol Channel Basin, UK. (2) 58 fault zones in 22 outcrops from Upper Carboniferous to Upper Cretaceous in the Northwest German Basin (siliciclastic, carbonate and volcanic rocks); and (3) 16 fault zones in 9 outcrops in Lower Permian to Middle Triassic (mainly sandstone and limestone) in the Upper Rhine Graben shoulders. Whereas (1) represent palaeogeothermal fields with mineral veins, (2) and (3) are outcrop analogues of reservoir horizons from geothermal exploration. In the study

  6. Rock geochemistry related to mineralization processes in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, A. Al; Indarto, S.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    Abundant geothermal systems in Indonesia suggest high heat and mass transfer associated with recent or paleovolcanic arcs. In the active geothermal system, the upflow of mixed fluid between late stage hydrothermal and meteoric water might contain mass of minerals associated with epithermal mineralisation process as exemplified at Lihir gold mine in Papua New Guinea. In Indonesia, there is a lack of study related to the precious metals occurrence within active geothermal area. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the possibility of mineralization process in active geothermal area of Guci, Central Java by using geochemical analysis. There are a lot of conducted geochemical analysis of water, soil and gas by mapping the temperature, pH, Hg and CO2 distribution, and estimating subsurface temperature based on geothermometry approach. Then we also apply rock geochemistry to find minerals that indicate the presence of mineralization. The result from selected geothermal area shows the presence of pyrite and chalcopyrite minerals on the laharic breccias at Kali Putih, Sudikampir. Mineralization is formed within host rock and the veins are associated with gold polymetallic mineralization.

  7. CDGP, the data center for deep geothermal data from Alsace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaming, Marc; Grunberg, Marc; Jahn, Markus; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Cuenot, Nicolas; Genter, Albert; Dalmais, Eléonore

    2016-04-01

    CDGP (Centre de données de géothermie profonde, deep geothermal data center, http://cdgp.u-strasbg.fr) is set by the LabEX G-EAU-THERMIE PROFONDE to archive the high quality data collected in the Upper Rhine Graben geothermal sites and to distribute them to the scientific community for R&D activities, taking IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) into account. Collected datasets cover the whole life of geothermal projects, from exploration to drilling, stimulation, circulation and production. They originate from the Soultz-sous-Forêts pilot plant but also include more recent projects like the ECOGI project at Rittershoffen, Alsace, France. They are historically separated in two rather independent categories: geophysical datasets mostly related to the industrial management of the geothermal reservoir and seismological data from the seismic monitoring both during stimulations and circulations. Geophysical datasets are mainly up to now from the Soultz-sous-Forêts project that were stored on office's shelves and old digital media. Some inventories have been done recently, and a first step of the integration of these reservoir data into a PostgreSQL/postGIS database (ISO 19107 compatible) has been performed. The database links depths, temperatures, pressures, flows, for periods (times) and locations (geometries). Other geophysical data are still stored in structured directories as a data bank and need to be included in the database. Seismological datasets are of two kinds: seismological waveforms and seismicity bulletins; the former are stored in a standardized way both in format (miniSEED) and in files and directories structures (SDS) following international standard of the seismological community (FDSN), and the latter in a database following the open standard QuakeML. CDGP uses a cataloging application (GeoNetwork) to manage the metadata resources. It provides metadata editing and search functions as well as a web map viewer. The metadata editor supports ISO19115

  8. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Allen [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Darlow, Rick [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sanchez, Angel [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Pierce, Michael [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sellers, Blake [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  9. Analysis of ecological effects of geopressured-geothermal resource development. Geopressured-geothermal technical paper No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The activities involved in geopressured-geothermal resource production are identified and their ecological impacts are discussed. The analysis separates those activites that are unique to geopressured-geothermal development from those that also occur in oil and gas and other resource developments. Of the unique activities, those with the greatest potential for serious ecological effect are: (1) accidental brine discharge as a result of a blowout during well drilling; (2) subsidence; (3) fault activation and enhanced seismicity; and (4) subsurface contamination of water, hydrocarbon, and mineral reservoirs. Available methods to predict and control these effects are discussed.

  10. Potential for Geothermal Energy in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin Soe Moe

    2010-12-01

    Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself from kilometers deep into the earth's crust in some places of world. It is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. It is a renewable energy source because the heat is continuously produced inside the earth. Geothermal energy originates from the heat retained within the Earth's core since the orginal formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Most high temperature geothermal heat is harvested in regions close to tectonic plate boundaries where volcanic activity rises up to the surface of the Earth. It is one of the best renewable sources of energy and is capable of maintaining its temperature. The heating cost is very low. It uses less electricity and 75 per cent more efficient than the oil furnace and 48 per cent more efficient than the gas furnace. The energy is not only used for heating a place but also for cooling down the site. It generates uniform energy and creates no sound pollution. Maintenance cost is very cheap. The life of the underground piping is more than 50 year.

  11. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R&D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O&M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R&D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with U.S. geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  12. OFFENCES AND PENALTIES IN THE INTERNAL AUDIT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Iuliana DUMITRU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the offences and penalties that can be instituted as a result of actions performed by the internal audit. On the other hand, we sought to highlight the mechanisms used for the ascertainment of offences and the establishment of the corresponding penalties. For this purpose, we started from the basic concepts related to the offence and penalty problems in the internal audit missions and we continued with their application at practical level in the accomplishment of an actual audit mission. We also tried to highlight the role and place of the offence and of the penalty respectively in the process of exercising the internal audit activity, and also the finality at the level of entities and persons responsible for the improper exercise of the designated actions.

  13. Characterizations of geothermal springs along the Moxi deep fault in the western Sichuan plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jihong; Xu, Mo; An, Chengjiao; Wu, Mingliang; Zhang, Yunhui; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Guoping

    2017-02-01

    Abundant geothermal springs occur along the Moxi fault located in western Sichuan Province (the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau), highlighted by geothermal water outflow with an unusually high temperature of 218 °C at 21.5 MPa from a 2010-m borehole in Laoyulin, Kangding. Earthquake activity occurs relatively more frequently in the region and is considered to be related to the strong hydrothermal activity. Geothermal waters hosted by a deep fault may provide evidence regarding the deep underground; their aqueous chemistry and isotopic information can indicate the mechanism of thermal springs. Cyclical variations of geothermal water outflows are thought to work under the effect of solid earth tides and can contribute to understanding conditions and processes in underground geo-environments. This paper studies the origin and variations of the geothermal spring group controlled by the Moxi fault and discusses conditions in the deep ground. Flow variation monitoring of a series of parameters was performed to study the geothermal responses to solid tides. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are evaluated with Na-K-Mg data. The abundant sulfite content, dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) data are discussed to study the oxidation-reduction states. Strontium isotopes are used to trace the water source. The results demonstrate that geothermal water could flow quickly through the Moxi fault the depth of the geothermal reservoir influences the thermal reservoir temperature, where supercritical hot water is mixed with circulating groundwater and can reach 380 °C. To the southward along the fault, the circulation of geothermal waters becomes shallower, and the waters may have reacted with metamorphic rock to some extent. Our results provide a conceptual deep heat source model for geothermal flow and the reservoir characteristics of the Moxi fault and indicate that the faulting may well connect the deep heat source to shallower depths. The

  14. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, Ahmad [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-08-11

    The objective of this is to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I, II, and III (tensile, shear, and out-of-plane) propagation of multiple fractures and fracture clusters to accurately predict geothermal reservoir stimulation using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB). Effective development of enhanced geothermal systems can significantly benefit from improved modeling of hydraulic fracturing. In geothermal reservoirs, where the temperature can reach or exceed 350oC, thermal and poro-mechanical processes play an important role in fracture initiation and propagation. In this project hydraulic fracturing of hot subsurface rock mass will be numerically modeled by extending the virtual multiple internal bond theory and implementing it in a finite element code, WARP3D, a three-dimensional finite element code for solid mechanics. The new constitutive model along with the poro-thermoelastic computational algorithms will allow modeling the initiation and propagation of clusters of fractures, and extension of pre-existing fractures. The work will enable the industry to realistically model stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. The project addresses the Geothermal Technologies Office objective of accurately predicting geothermal reservoir stimulation (GTO technology priority item). The project goal will be attained by: (i) development of the VMIB method for application to 3D analysis of fracture clusters; (ii) development of poro- and thermoelastic material sub-routines for use in 3D finite element code WARP3D; (iii) implementation of VMIB and the new material routines in WARP3D to enable simulation of clusters of fractures while accounting for the effects of the pore pressure, thermal stress and inelastic deformation; (iv) simulation of 3D fracture propagation and coalescence and formation of clusters, and comparison with laboratory compression tests; and (v) application of the model to interpretation of injection experiments (planned by our

  15. World status of geothermal energy use: past and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, John

    2000-01-01

    The past and potential development of geothermal energy is reviewed, and the use of geothermal energy for power generation and direct heat utilisation is examined. The energy savings that geothermal energy provides in terms of fuel oil and carbon savings are discussed. Worldwide development of geothermal electric power (1940-2000) and direct heat utilisation (1960 to 2000), regional geothermal use in 2000, the national geothermal contributions of geothermal energy, and the installed geothermal electric generating capacities in 2000 are tabulated

  16. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN CONDITIONS OF INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Lyasnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the conceptual basis for the formation of international marketing, the characteristic of the main exit strategies on the world market, revealed features of international marketing that national companies are obliged to take into account the examples of international marketing strategies of international companies such as Apple, Google, Nike, the Russian company Natura Siberica.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international marketing activities of multinational companies and the development of proposals for improving this process.Methodology. To complete this article, no such analysis methods were used as comparative and Economics and Statistics.Conclusions / relevance. The results are of practical value, they can be used in a lecture course teachers of educational institutions in the preparation of managers, as well as direct marketing specialists. In the study, the author was able to draw a number of conclusions that facilitate the development of the set of eff ective combinations, each of which represents a unique scenario of territorial expansion. Promising further expansion of the practice of implementation of marketing approaches in the organization of the entities of multinational companies, in Vol. H. The use of new technologies.

  17. Global Practices of Interprofessional Education (IPE) and Relevant International Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Naoko

    2017-01-01

    Activities related to interprofessional education (IPE) vary between countries according to local and national health needs and systems. The International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Education Initiative endeavors to provide a global vision in IPE by the sharing of experiences and gathering of evidence collaboratively to facilitate country-level initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the further development of IPE activities in pharmacy in Japan through sharing global perspectives and activities related to IPE. FIP Education Initiative published the Interprofessional Education in a Pharmacy Context: Global Report in September 2015, which marked a milestone in the growing recognition of IPE in pharmacy globally. The paper shared global and regional perspectives and experiences in IPE in pharmacy, both from the report and FIP activities. This paper can be seen as a snapshot of IPE-related international activities, which enables gaps and challenges in implementing IPE activities in Japan to be identified. This paper provides an opportunity to explore global trends and initiatives regarding IPE, and to consider how to form and implement IPE specifically based on Japanese health needs and systems.

  18. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  19. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  20. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  1. Geothermal Technologies Program: Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-08-01

    This general publication describes geothermal direct use systems, and how they have been effectively used throughout the country. It also describes the DOE program R&D efforts in this area, and summarizes several projects using direct use technology.

  2. Geothermal Program Review IV: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The research and development program of DOE's Geothermal Technology Division is reviewed in separate presentations according to program area. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  3. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  4. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  5. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  6. Geothermal energy applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, X.; Tang, N.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper updates geothermal energy applications in China. To total energy consumption for electricity is 20.38 MWe, and for direct use is 41,222 TJ/yr, even though the beneficial heat was estimated to be 7,198 TJ/yr. The attached tables are the basic geothermal information mainly the years 1985-1989. Some of the tables are additions to the report or preceeding years

  7. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development

  8. Hawaii Geothermal Project: initial Phase II progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-02-01

    Results of Phase I of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP), which consisted of a two-year study on the potential of geothermal energy for the Big Island of Hawaii, are reviewed. One conclusion from Phase I was that preliminary results looked sufficiently encouraging to warrant the drilling of the first experimental geothermal well in the Puna area of the Big Island. During the first two months of drilling, parallel activity has continued in all research and support areas. Additional gravity, seismic, and electrical surveys were conducted; water and rock samples were collected; and analysis and interpretation of data has proceeded. Earlier work on mathematical and physical modeling of geothermal reservoirs was expanded; analysis of liquid-dominated geothermal systems continued; and studies on testing of geothermal wells were initiated. An environmental assessment statement of HGP No. 1 was prepared and baselines established for crucial environmental parameters. Economic, legal, and regulatory studies were completed and alternatives identified for the development of geothermal power in Hawaii. Early stages of the drilling program proceeded slowly. The initial 9 7/8-inch drill hole to 400 feet, as well as each of the three passes required to open the hole to 26 inches, were quite time consuming. Cementing of the 20-inch surface casing to a depth of 400 feet was successfully accomplished, and drilling beyond that depth has proceeded at a reasonable rate. Penetration below the surface casing to a depth of 1050 feet was accomplished at a drilling rate in excess of 150 feet per day, with partial circulation over the entire range.

  9. Geothermal brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Note, N.R.

    1981-11-24

    A process is provided for treating spent geothermal brine to remove silica. The process includes introducing the brine into the reaction zone of a reactor-clarifier and allowing the brine to flow therefrom into the clarification zone of the reactorclarifier. In the clarification zone, particles settle from the brine and are urged to the center of the tank beneath the reaction zone, and the settled particles are drawn upwardly into the reaction zone by an impeller. The particles mix with the brine in the reaction zone to form a substantially uniform distribution therein to provide nuclei for silica precipitation from the brine. A stream of sludge is removed from the bottom of the reactor-clarifier and disposed of.

  10. Geothermal brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-08

    A system is provided for treating spent geothermal brine to remove silica. The process includes introducing the brine into the reaction zone of a reactor-clarifier and allowing the brine to flow therefrom into the clarification zone of the reactor clarifier. In the clarification zone, particles settle from the brine and are urged to the center of the tank beneath the reaction zone, and the settled particles are drawn upwardly into the reaction zone by an impeller. The particles mix with the brine in the reaction zone to form a substantially uniform distribution therein to provide nuclei for silica precipitation from the brine. A stream of sludge is removed from the bottom of the reactor-clarifier and disposed of.

  11. Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanloz, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Stone, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); et al.

    2013-12-31

    DOE, through the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, requested this study, identifying a focus on: i) assessment of technologies and approaches for subsurface imaging and characterization so as to be able to validate EGS opportunities, and ii) assessment of approaches toward creating sites for EGS, including science and engineering to enhance permeability and increase the recovery factor. Two days of briefings provided in-depth discussion of a wide range of themes and challenges in EGS, and represented perspectives from industry, government laboratories and university researchers. JASON also contacted colleagues from universities, government labs and industry in further conversations to learn the state of the field and potential technologies relevant to EGS.

  12. Geothermal energy geopressure subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geopressured-geothermal resource fluid well for intermittent production testing over the first year of the test. During the next two years, long-term testing of 40,000 BPD will be flowed. A number of scenarios may be implemented, but it is felt that the total fluid production will approximate 50 million barrels. The test well will be drilled with a 22 cm (8.75 in.) borehole to a total depth of approximately 5185 m (17,000 ft). Up to four disposal wells will provide disposal of the fluid from the designated 40,000 BPD test rate. The following are included in this assessment: the existing environment; probable environmental impacts-direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, regional, and local agencies; and alternative actions. (MHR)

  13. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  14. Gamma dose from activation of internal shields in IRIS reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, Stefano; Cammi, Antonio; Garlati, Luisella; Lombardi, Carlo; Padovani, Enrico

    2005-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure is a modular pressurised water reactor with an integral design. This means that all the primary system components, such as the steam generators, pumps, pressuriser and control rod drive mechanisms, are located inside the reactor vessel, which requires a large diameter. For the sake of better reliability and safety, it is desirable to achieve the reduction of vessel embrittlement as well as the lowering of the dose beyond the vessel. The former can be easily accomplished by the presence of a wide downcomer, filled with water, which surrounds the core region, while the latter needs the presence of additional internal shields. An optimal shielding configuration is under investigation, for reducing the ex-vessel dose due to activated internals and for limiting the amount of the biological shielding. MCNP 4C calculations were performed to evaluate the neutron and the gamma dose during operation and the 60Co activation of various shields configurations. The gamma dose beyond the vessel from activation of its structural components was estimated in a shutdown condition, with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2002 and the MicroShield software. The results of the two codes are in agreement and show that the dose is sufficiently low, even without an additional shield.

  15. Gamma dose from activation of internal shields in IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Cammi, A.; Garlati, L.; Lombardi, C.; Padovani, E.

    2005-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure is a modular pressurised water reactor with an integral design. This means that all the primary system components, such as the steam generators, pumps, pressurizer and control rod drive mechanisms, are located inside the reactor vessel, which requires a large diameter. For the sake of better reliability and safety, it is desirable to achieve the reduction of vessel embrittlement as well as the lowering of the dose beyond the vessel. The former can be easily accomplished by the presence of a wide downcomer, filled with water, which surrounds the core region, while the latter needs the presence of additional internal shields. An optimal shielding configuration is under investigation, for reducing the ex-vessel dose due to activated internals and for limiting the amount of the biological shielding. MCNP 4C calculations were performed to evaluate the neutron and the gamma dose during operation and the 60 Co activation of various shields configurations. The gamma dose beyond the vessel from activation of its structural components was estimated in a shutdown condition, with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2002 and the MicroShield software. The results of the two codes are in agreement and show that the dose is sufficiently low, even without an additional shield. (authors)

  16. International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Scientific activities in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The Centre's scientific programme for 1980 falling under five main fields, i.e. Physics and Energy, Physics and Technology, Physics and Frontiers of Knowledge, Applicable Mathematics and Planning Models, and Physics of the Environment and of Natural Resources, is briefly discussed. Participation in the research and training-for-research activities of the ICTP during 1980 and the stable resources for the period 1970 to 1981 are shown in tables. A detailed ''post-spectus'' of the seminars, meetings, and courses which the centre organized in 1980 is given. A list of titles of the preprints and internal reports produced during the year is also given for each area of activity

  17. International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Scientific activities in 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    A review of the scientific activities of the Centre, including workshops, research, and training-for-research is presented. The scientific program consists of ten main fields, Physics and Energy, Fundamental Physics, Physics of Condensed Matter, Applied Physics, Physics of the Living State, Physics of the Environment, Mathematics, Physics Teaching, Experimental Physics Training, and Physics and Development. In addition to a brief description of each workshop, symposium, college, and meeting, tables summarizing the participation at ICTP activities are given. A list of preprints and internal reports issued in 1985 is included

  18. International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Scientific activities in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    A review of the scientific activities of the ICTP Trieste in 1987, including workshops, research and training for research is presented. The scientific program consists of eight main fields: fundamental physics, condensed matter, atomic and molecular physics, mathematics, physics and energy, physics and environment, applied physics and high technology, physics and development. In addition to a brief description of each workshop, symposium, college, meeting and activity or project sponsored by ICTP, a list of preprints and internal reports issued in 1987 is included. Tabs

  19. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. Scientific activities in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The annual report of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics from Trieste for 1993 contains four parts. Part I gives statistical data on the main activities of the Centre. Part II presents the scientific programme structured as follows: Fundamental physics, Condensed matter physics, Mathematics, Physics and energy, Physics and environment, Physics of the living state, Applied physics, Adriatico Research Conferences, Diploma Course, Laboratories, Long-term visitors, Network of Associate Members and Federal Institutes, Training and research at italian laboratories, External Activities, Science, High Technology and Development Programme, Meeting hosted, Awards. Part III lists the publications issued in 1993. Part IV presents the scientific support services. Tabs

  20. International Centre for Theoretical Physics: Scientific activities in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    A review of the scientific activities of the Centre in 1986, including workshops, research and training-for-research is presented. The scientific program consists of eight main fields: Physics and Energy, Fundamental Physics, Physics of Condensed Matter, Applied Physics, Mathematics, Physics of the Environment and of National Resources, Physics of the Living State, Physics and Development. In addition to a brief description of each workshop, symposium, college and meeting, tables summarizing the participation of ICTP activities are given. A list of preprints and internal reports issued in 1986 is included

  1. Basic Principles of the International Labour Organization Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Sh. Matchanova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the basic principles on which activities of one of UN specialized agencies – the International Labour Organization are based. The principles formulated in the Charter of the ILO, the Declaration on the purposes and tasks of the ILO, the Declaration of the ILO on the fundamental principles and the rights in the sphere of work are stated. Special attention is paid to the principles according to which activities of the ILO are directly performed: universality, ripartism, control of observance of conventions.

  2. Hydrothermal Geothermal Subprogram, Hawaii Geothermal Research Station, Hawaii County, Hawaii: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This environmental impact assessment addresses the design, construction, and operation of an electric generating plant (3 to 4 MWe) and research station (Hawaii Geothermal Research Station (HGRS)) in the Puna district on the Island of Hawaii. The facility will include control and support buildings, parking lots, cooling towers, settling and seepage ponds, the generating plant, and a visitors center. Research activities at the facility will evaluate the ability of a successfully flow-tested well (42-day flow test) to provide steam for power generation over an extended period of time (two years). In future expansion, research activities may include direct heat applications such as aquaculture and the effects of geothermal fluids on various plant components and specially designed equipment on test modules. 54 refs., 7 figs., 22 tabs.

  3. CSAMT investigations of the Caferbeyli (Manisa/Turkey) geothermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Western Turkey is one of the most remarkable regions of very active continental extension in the world. The most significant structures of this region are Alaşehir, Gediz, and Büyük Menderes Grabens. Geothermal activity around city of Manisa in Gediz Graben has been investigated by many researchers and many ...

  4. CSAMT investigations of the Caferbeyli (Manisa/Turkey) geothermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Western Turkey is one of the most remarkable regions of very active continental extension in the world. The most significant structures of this region are Alasehir, Gediz, and Büyük Menderes Grabens. Geothermal activity around city of Manisa in Gediz Graben has been investigated by many researchers and many ...

  5. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Maricopa County Geothermal Development Plan evaluated the market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified six potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F) and in addition, four suspected intermediate temperature areas (90{sup 0} to 150{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0} to 300{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in and near the Phoenix metropolitan area where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing, trade and service sectors of the regional economy provides opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. A regional energy use analysis is included containing energy use and price projections. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support this growth, though agricultural water use is expected to diminish. The study also contains a detailed section matching geothermal resources to potential users. Two comparative analyses providing economic details for space heating projects are incorporated.

  6. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities. September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the most important activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency during the period September 1992 - September 1993, in particular in the following areas: (i) nuclear power; (ii) nuclear fuel cycle; (iii) radioactive waste management; (iv) comparative assessment of energy sources; (v) IAEA laboratory activities; (vi) nuclear applications in the food industry and in agriculture; (vii) human health applications of nuclear techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of diseases and in the analysis of health problems related to the environment; (viii) industry and earth sciences; (ix) physical and chemical sciences; (x) radiation protection; (xi) safety of nuclear installations; (xii) safeguards and non-proliferation activities; (xiii) activities in the area of public and technical information such as the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and other IAEA computerized databases and reference systems, the publication Nuclear Fusion, a monthly scientific journal of articles on thermonuclear fusion research and development, and the organization of meetings on atomic energy; and (xiv) a description of the Agency's technical assistance activities, including financial data

  7. Energy Exploitation of High-Temperature Geothermal Sources in Volcanic Areas—a Possible ORC Application in Phlegraean Fields (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Algieri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the energy performances of small-scale Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs for the exploitation of high temperature geothermal sources in volcanic areas. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model has been developed, and a parametric analysis has been performed that considers subcritical and transcritical configurations, and different organic fluids (isobutane, isopentane, and R245ca. The investigation illustrates the significant effect of the temperature at the entrance of the expander on the ORC behaviour and the rise in system effectiveness when the internal heat exchange (IHE is adopted. As a possible application, the analysis has focused on the active volcanic area of Phlegraean Fields (Southern Italy where high temperature geothermal reservoirs are available at shallow depths. The work demonstrates that ORC systems represent a very interesting option for exploiting geothermal sources and increasing the share of energy production from renewables. In particular, the investigation has been performed considering a 1 kg/s geothermal mass flow rate at 230 °C. The comparative analysis highlights that transcritical configurations with IHE guarantee the highest performance. Isopentane is suggested to maximise the ORC electric efficiency (17.7%, while R245ca offers the highest electric power (91.3 kWel. The selected systems are able to fulfil a significant quota of the annual electric load of domestic users in the area.

  8. KINAC/INSA International Training Activities and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Chul

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to strengthen the coordination of the nuclear security training and support centers, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established the International Network for Nuclear Security Training and Support Centres (NSSC Network) in February 2012. In February 2013, NSSC Network members from China, Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) established the 'Asia Regional Network' under the auspices of the NSSC Network to enhance regional collaboration to harmonize activities of the regional CoEs to provide effective support on nuclear security. Japan opened its CoE, Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) in February 2011. The Chinese CoE, so called State Nuclear Security Technology Center (SNSTC), is expected to open in March 2016. As one of ROK's national commitments at the 2010 NSS, the KINAC/INSA was established in 2014 in order to share ROK's expertise and support the Summit's mission. International training activities of the KINAC/INSA for two years have been introduced and the lessons learned from those activities have been identified. While the KINAC/INSA as the ROK's CoE has begun on the right foot, it still remains challenging to achieve real excellence in training. Such international training efforts of the KINAC/INSA will eventually contribute to the ROK acknowledged as a global leader in the area of nuclear nonproliferation and security and a nuclear supplier fulfilling responsibility on global nuclear nonproliferation and security regime

  9. International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG): an update on activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on

  10. Asymmetric impacts of international energy shocks on macroeconomic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While limited by its scarcity of natural resources, the impacts of energy price changes on Taiwan's economic activities have been an important issue for social public and government authorities. This study applies the multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. By separating energy price changes into the so-called decrease and increase regimes, we can realize different impacts of energy price changes and their shocks on economic output. The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for the energy-output nexus. The optimal threshold levels are exactly where the oil price change is at 2.48%, the natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and the coal price change is at 0.25%. The impulse response analysis suggests that oil price and natural gas shocks have a delayed negative impact on macroeconomic activities. - Highlights: ► This study applies multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. ► The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for energy-output nexus. ► The optimal threshold levels are exactly found where oil price change is at 2.48%, natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and coal price change is at 0.25%.

  11. Tracers for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen Wright; George Redden; Carl D. Palmer; Harry Rollins; Mark Stone; Mason Harrup; Laurence C. Hull

    2010-02-01

    Information about the times of thermal breakthrough and subsequent rates of thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is necessary for reservoir management, designing fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting economic return. Thermal breakthrough in heterogeneous porous media can be estimated using conservative tracers and assumptions about heat transfer rates; however, tracers that undergo temperature-dependent changes can provide more detailed information about the thermal profile along the flow path through the reservoir. To be effectively applied, the thermal reaction rates of such temperature sensitive traces must be well characterized for the range of conditions that exist in geothermal systems. Reactive tracers proposed in the literature include benzoic and carboxylic acids (Adams) and organic esters and amides (Robinson et al.); however, the practical temperature range over which these tracers can be applied (100-275°C) is somewhat limited. Further, for organic esters and amides, little is known about their sorption to the reservoir matrix and how such reactions impact data interpretation. Another approach involves tracers where the reference condition is internal to the tracer itself. Two examples are: 1) racemization of polymeric amino acids, and 2) mineral thermoluminescence. In these cases internal ratios of states are measured rather than extents of degradation and mass loss. Racemization of poly-L-lactic acid (for example) is temperature sensitive and therefore can be used as a temperature-recording tracer depending on the rates of racemization and stability of the amino acids. Heat-induced quenching of thermoluminescence of pre-irradiated LiF can also be used. To protect the tracers from alterations (extraneous reactions, dissolution) in geothermal environments we are encapsulating the tracers in core-shell colloidal structures that will subsequently be tested for their ability to be transported and to protect the

  12. Applications of stable isotopes and radioisotopes in the exploration and reservoir management of Philippine geothermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, H.P.; Alvis-Isidro, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    The development of indigenous geothermal energy resources is currently one of the primary thrusts of the country's energy program. Presently, the Philippines has a total of geothermal generating capacity of about 1400 MWe. This comprises about 20% of the total energy mix and electricity requirements of the country. By 1998, an additional capacity of about 500 MWe will be commissioned, and the PHilippines would be generating 1900 MWe of electricity from geothermal energy resources. From 1990 to 1993, PNOC EDC (Philippine National Oil Company, Energy Development Corporation) has been granted a research contract by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Company has also been a recipient since 1991 of an IAEA Technical Assistance on the use of stable isotope techniques in geothermal hydrology. Stable isotopes, particularly 18 O and 2 H, in conjunction with other geochemical parameters and geological and geophysical data, have been used to: a) establish the local meteoric water line; b) determine the origin of geothermal fluids; c) delineate the elevation of recharge of geothermal and ground water systems; d) confirm pre-exploitation hydrochemical models; e) identify physical and chemical processes due to exploitation of the geothermal resource (i.e. reinjection fluid returns, incursion of cold meteoric water, boiling due to pressure drawdown and mixing with acidic steam condensates); and, f) estimate reservoir temperatures. Techniques using radioisotopes, such as 14 C, have also been used for the age-dating of charred wood samples collected from some of our geothermal exploration areas. The detection of 3 H has also been used as an indicator for the incursion of recent cold meteoric water into the geothermal system. Tracer studies using 131 I, have also been previously carried out, in coordination with the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, to determine local hydrology and flow paths of reinjected water in some of our geothermal fields

  13. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L. (ed.)

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  14. Integrated Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar Observations of Underground Seepage of Hot Water at Blawan-Ijen Geothermal Field

    OpenAIRE

    Maryanto, Sukir; Suciningtyas, Ika Karlina Laila Nur; Dewi, Cinantya Nirmala; Rachmansyah, Arief

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal resource investigation was accomplished for Blawan-Ijen geothermal system. Blawan geothermal field which located in the northern part of Ijen caldera presents hydrothermal activity related with Pedati fault and local graben. There were about 21 hot springs manifestations in Blawan-Ijen area with calculated temperature about 50°C. We have performed several geophysical studies of underground seepage of hot water characterization. The geoelectric resistivity and GPR methods are used i...

  15. Hydrogeochemistry Characteristics and Daily Variation of Geothermal Water in the Moxi Fault,Southwest of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jihong; Xu, Mo; An, Chenjiao; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    The Xianshuihe Fault with frequent earthquakes activities is the regional deep fault in China. The Moxi Fault is the southern part of the Xianshuihe Fault, where the strong activities of geothermal water could bring abundant information of deep crust. In this article, some typical geothermal springs were collected along the Moxi fault from Kangding to Shimian. Using the the Na-K-Mg equilibrium diagram, it explains the state of water-rock equilibrium, and estimates the reservoir temperature basing appropriate geothermometers. Basing on the relationship between the enthalpy and chlorine concentration of geothermal water, it analyze the mixing progress of thermal water with shallow groundwater. Moreover, the responses of variation of geothermal water to the solid tides are considered to study the hydrothermal activities of this fault. The Guanding in Kangding are considered as the center of the geothermal system, and the hydrothermal activities decrease southward extending. Geothermal water maybe is heated by the deep heat source of the Himalayan granites, while the springs in the south area perform the mixture with thermal water in the sub-reservoir of the Permian crystalline limestone. It improves the research of hydrothermal activities in the Moxi Fault, meanwhile using the variation of geothermal water maybe become a important method to study the environment of deep earth in the future.

  16. Modern geothermal power: Binary cycle geothermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    In the second part of the review of modern geothermal power plant technologies and equipment, a role, a usage scale, and features of application of binary cycle plants in the geothermal economy are considered. Data on the use of low-boiling fluids, their impact on thermal parameters and performance of geothermal binary power units are presented. A retrospective of the use of various low-boiling fluids in industrial binary power units in the world since 1965 is shown. It is noted that the current generating capacity of binary power units running on hydrocarbons is equal to approximately 82.7% of the total installed capacity of all the binary power units in the world. At the same time over the past 5 years, the total installed capacity of geothermal binary power units in 25 countries increased by more than 50%, reaching nearly 1800 MW (hereinafter electric power is indicated), by 2015. A vast majority of the existing binary power plants recovers heat of geothermal fluid in the range of 100-200°C. Binary cycle power plants have an average unit capacity of 6.3 MW, 30.4 MW at single-flash power plants, 37.4 MW at double-flash plants, and 45.4 MW at power plants working on superheated steam. The largest binary cycle geothermal power plants (GeoPP) with an installed capacity of over 60 MW are in operation in the United States and the Philippines. In most cases, binary plants are involved in the production process together with a steam cycle. Requirements to the fluid ensuring safety, reliability, and efficiency of binary power plants using heat of geothermal fluid are determined, and differences and features of their technological processes are shown. Application of binary cycle plants in the technological process of combined GeoPPs makes it possible to recover geothermal fluid more efficiently. Features and advantages of binary cycle plants using multiple fluids, including a Kalina Cycle, are analyzed. Technical characteristics of binary cycle plants produced by various

  17. SPI Conformance Gel Applications in Geothermal Zonal Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle [Clean Tech Innovations, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Zonal isolation in geothermal injection and producing wells is important while drilling the wells when highly fractured geothermal zones are encountered and there is a need to keep the fluids from interfering with the drilling operation. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) objectives are to advance technologies to make it more cost effective to develop, produce, and monitor geothermal reservoirs and produce geothermal energy. Thus, zonal isolation is critical to well cost, reservoir evaluation and operations. Traditional cementing off of the lost circulation or thief zones during drilling is often done to stem the drilling mud losses. This is an expensive and generally unsuccessful technique losing the potential of the remaining fracture system. Selective placement of strong SPI gels into only the offending fractures can maintain and even improve operational efficiency and resource life. The SPI gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a promising solution to thief zones and conformance problems with water and CO2 floods and potentially geothermal operations. This gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an initiator (either internal such as an additive or external such as CO2) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current mechanical methods of using packers, plugs, liners and cementing technologies that often severely damage the highly fractured area that is isolated. In the SPI gels, the initiator sets up the fluid into a water-like (not a precipitate) gel and when the isolated zone needs to be reopened, the SPI gel may be removed with an alkaline solution without formation damage occurring. In addition, the SPI gel in commercial quantities is expected to be less expensive than competing mechanical systems and has unique deep placement possibilities. This project seeks to improve upon the SPI gel integrity by modifying the various components to impart temperature stability for use in

  18. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. Scientific activities in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The annual report of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics from Trieste for 1995 contains three parts. Part 1 includes statistical data on the main activities of the Centre. Part 2 presents the scientific programme in various fields (Physics of Condensed Matter, Physics of High and Intermediate Energies, Mathematics, Physics and Energy, Physics of the Environment, Physics of Living State, Applied Physics and Miscellaneous) as well as other activities such as diploma course, long-term scientific visitors, associate members and federation arrangements, training and research at Italian laboratories, external activities, books and equipment donation programme, awards, and meetings hosted. Part 3 lists the publications issued in 1995 and gives information about the library of the Centre. 6 tabs

  19. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Owens, Lara [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Drakos, Peter [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Lewicki, Jennifer L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kennedy, Burton M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow

  20. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie

    2010-07-01

    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Briefing Book, Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC) Meeting of April 28, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-04-28

    The IGCC of the U.S. government was created under the intent of Public Law 93-410 (1974) to serve as a forum for the discussion of Federal plans, activities, and policies that are related to or impact on geothermal energy. Eight Federal Departments were represented on the IGCC at the time of this meeting. The main presentations in this report were on: Department of Energy Geothermal R&D Program, the Ormat binary power plant at East Mesa, CA, Potential for direct use of geothermal at Defense bases in U.S. and overseas, Department of Defense Geothermal Program at China Lake, and Status of the U.S. Geothermal Industry. The IGCC briefing books and minutes provide a historical snapshot of what development and impact issues were important at various time. (DJE 2005)

  2. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  3. An Evaluation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelacic, Allan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Fortuna, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); LaSala, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nathwani, Jay [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nix, Gerald [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Green, Bruce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Renner, Joel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bruton, Carol [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This 2008 document presents the results of an eight-month study by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its support staff at the national laboratories concerning the technological requirements to commercialize a new geothermal technology, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS).

  4. DMRC studies geothermal energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-01

    The Deep Mining Research Consortium (DMRC) is an industry-led research consortium that includes Vale Inco, Xstrata, Rio Tinto, Goldcorp, Agnico-Eagle, Barrick Gold, CANMET and the City of Sudbury. This article reported on the application of geothermal energy technologies to cool deep mine workings and use the heat from underground to produce energy to heat surface buildings. Researchers at the University of British Columbia's Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials have proposed the use of heat pumps and water-to-air heat exchangers at depth to chill mine workings. The heat pumps would act as refrigerators, taking heat from one area and moving it elsewhere. The purpose would be to extract heat from naturally occurring ground water and pass the chilled water through a heat exchanger to cool the air. The heated water would then be pumped to surface and used to heat surface facilities. The technology is well suited for using geothermal energy from decommissioned mines for district heating. The technology has been successfully used in Spring Hill, Nova Scotia, where geothermal energy from a decommissioned coal mine is used to heat an industrial park. A feasibility study is also underway for the city of Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories to produce up to 10 megawatts of heat from the Con Gold Mine, enough energy to heat half of Yellowknife. Geothermal energy can also be used to generate electricity, particularly in the Pacific Rim where underground temperatures are higher and closer to surface. In Sudbury Ontario, the enhanced geothermal systems technology would require two holes drilled to a depth of four kilometers. The ground between the two holes should be fractured to create an underground geothermal circuit. Geothermal energy does not produce any greenhouse gases or chemical wastes. 1 fig.

  5. NEDO geothermal energy subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO chinetsu bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Reporting on geothermal energy-related efforts, Taro Yamayasu, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director, explains the promotion of researches on geothermal energy exploitation, researches on small and medium scale geothermal binary power system utilization, researches on geothermal exploration technology verification, and joint researches on small scale geothermal exploration on remote islands. Achievement reports are delivered concerning geothermal survey technology verification involving the development of reservoir fluctuation probing technology, deep-seated geothermal resources survey, and international joint projects. Concerning the research cooperation promotion project, a joint research program is reported involving a comprehensive geothermal resources analysis system for a remote island in the eastern part of Indonesia. In relation with the development of thermal water power plants, reports are delivered on the development of a 10MW class demonstration plant, development of technologies (study of elements) for a hot dry rock power system, development of a hole bottom data detection system for drilling in thermal water, and the development of deep-seated geothermal resources sampling technologies. (NEDO)

  6. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  7. Mutnovo geothermal power complex at Kamchatka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvin, O.V.; Povarov, O.A.; Klochkov, E.F.; Tomarov, G.V.; Koshkin, N.L.; Luzin, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The data on geothermal resources at Kamchatka and experience in their application are presented. The description of the geothermal power complex objects at the Mutnovo deposit is given. The basic trends and stages of the prospective geothermal power development in this region are indicated. It is specified for unique huge geothermal heat reserves, which by different estimates may provide for the total electrical and thermal capacity, exceeding 2000 MW [ru

  8. Measured Fluid Flow in an Active H2O-CO2 Geothermal Well as an Analog to Fluid Flow in Fractures on Mars: Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Susan W.; Brown, K. L.; Simmons, Stuart F.; Watson, Arnold

    2004-01-01

    Water in the Earth's crust generally contains dissolved gases such as CO2. Models for both 'Blue Mars' (H2O-driven processes) and 'White Mars' (CO2-driven processes) predict liquid H2O with dissolved CO2 at depth. The fate of dissolved CO2 as this mixture rises toward the surface has not been quantitatively explored. Our approach is a variation on NASA's 'Follow the Water' as we 'Follow the Fluid' from depth to the surface in hydrothermal areas on Earth and extrapolate our results to Mars. This is a preliminary report on a field study of fluid flow in a producing geothermal well. For proprietary reasons, the name and location of this well cannot be revealed, so we have named it 'Earth1' for this study.

  9. Geophysics of Geothermal Areas: State of the Art and Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, Don R.

    In May 1980 a workshop organized by the Advanced School of Geophysics of the Ettore Majorana Center for Scientific Culture was held in Erice, Italy. The purpose was to present the state of the art and future development of geophysics as related to exploration for geothermal resources and the environmental impact of the development of geothermal systems. The workshop was addressed to “younger researchers working in scientific institutions and in public or private agencies and who are particularly interested in these aspects of the energy problem.” Fourteen formal lectures were presented to the workshop. This volume contains papers based on 10 of these lectures with a preface, forward, and introduction by the editors. The ten papers are “Heat Transfer in Geothermal Areas,” “Interpretation of Conductive Heat Flow Anomalies,” “Deep Electromagnetic Soundings in Geothermal Exploration,” “A Computation Method for dc Geoelectric Fields,” “Measurement of Ground Deformation in Geothermal Areas,” “Active Seismic Methods in Geothermal Exploration,” “The Role of Geophysical Investigations in the Discovery of the Latera Geothermal Field,” “Geothermal Resources Exploration in the European Community: The Geophysical Case,” “Activity Performed by AGIP (ENI Group) in the Field of Geothermal Energy,” and “Geothermal Exploration in the Western United States.” Six of the authors are from Italy, and one each is from Iceland, the Netherlands, West Germany, and the United States. All of the papers are in English.

  10. A method for U-Th isotopic analysis of saline and geothermal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    International audience; A method for U-Th isotopic analysis dedicated to saline and geothermal, including Si-rich waters has been performed. It involves a chemical separation step using a Chelex 100® resin, then a further U and Th purification step involving a specific UTEVA® resin. Both elements are analyzed together on a MC/ICP-MS. This method has been successfully applied to different water samples (Bouillante, French Guadalupe ; Vendée, France ; Iceland geothermal waters).

  11. Geothermal Modeling in Complex Geological Systems with the ComPASS Code

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez , Simon; Masson , Roland; Beaude , Laurence; Birgle , Nabil; Brenner , Konstantin; Kern , Michel; Smaï , Farid ,; Xing , Feng

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Deep geothermal systems often lie in complex geological settings, with multi-scale geological structures that exert a dominant control on convective processes and the transfer of geothermal heat. Methods based on the implicit description of geometrical objects offer an efficient framework to quickly build structural models of such contexts with the occurrence of discontinuities like faults and fractures. Yet, when it comes to discretizing such models the implicit natur...

  12. International Centre for Theoretical Physics: scientific activities in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Research and training-for-research were carried out in the following areas: physics and energy (nuclear physics, solar energy), physics and frontiers of knowledge (elementary particles and fundamental theory), physics of the living state, physics and technology (condensed matter physics), applicable mathematics and planning models (applicable mathematics, mathematical ecology), physics of the environment and of natural resources (geomagnetism, ionospheric and magnetospheric physics, atmospheric physics), and physics and development. Activities included both research at the Centre and a number of workshops and symposia. The subjects treated are briefly summarized, and references to preprints and internal reports are given

  13. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Sixth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1980-12-18

    researchers, engineers and managers involved in geothermal reservoir study and development and the provision of a forum for the prompt and open reporting of progress and for the exchange of ideas, continue to be met . Active discussion by the majority of the participants is apparent both in and outside the workshop arena. The Workshop Proceedings now contain some of the most highly cited geothermal literature. Unfortunately, the popularity of the Workshop for the presentation and exchange of ideas does have some less welcome side effects. The major one is the developing necessity for a limitation of the number of papers that are actually presented. We will continue to include all offered papers in the Summaries and Proceedings. As in the recent past, this sixth Workshop was supported by a grant from the Department of Energy. This grant is now made directly to Stanford as part of the support for the Stanford Geothermal Program (Contract No. DE-AT03-80SF11459). We are certain that all participants join us in our appreciation of this continuing support. Thanks are also due to all those individuals who helped in so many ways: The members of the program committee who had to work so hard to keep the program to a manageable size - George Frye (Aminoil USA), Paul G. Atkinson (Union Oil Company). Michael L. Sorey (U.S.G.S.), Frank G. Miller (Stanford Geothermal Program), and Roland N. Horne (Stanford Geothermal Program). The session chairmen who contributed so much to the organization and operation of the technical sessions - George Frye (Aminoil USA), Phillip H. Messer (Union Oil Company), Leland L. Mink (Department of Energy), Manuel Nathenson (U.S.G.S.), Gunnar Bodvarsson (Oregon State University), Mohindar S. Gulati (Union Oil Company), George F. Pinder (Princeton University), Paul A. Witherspoon (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), Frank G. Miller (Stanford Geothermal Program) and Michael J. O'Sullivan (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory). The many people who assisted behind the scenes

  15. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  16. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  17. Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Honjas, Bill [Optim

    2016-08-01

    J. N. Louie, Pullammanappallil, S., and Honjas, W., 2011, Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development: Proceedings of the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2011, Nov. 21-23, Auckland, paper 32, 7 pp. Preprint available at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/geothermal/Louie-NZGW11.pdf

  18. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  19. 78 FR 22530 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Program for International Student...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Program for International Student Assessment... of Collection: Program for International Student Assessment (PISA 2015) Recruitment and Field Test.... Total Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 6,313. Abstract: The Program for International Student...

  20. 78 FR 72746 - Activities of the International Telecommunication Advisory Committee and Preparations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8539] Activities of the International Telecommunication Advisory Committee and Preparations for Upcoming International Telecommunications Meetings This notice announces a meeting of the Department of State's International Telecommunication Advisory Committee (ITAC...

  1. Prospects of geothermal resource exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrelier, P.H.; Cornet, F.; Fouillac, C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy to generate electricity has only occurred during the past 50 years by drilling wells in aquifers close to magmas and producing either dry steam or hot water. The world's production of electricity from geothermal energy is over 6000 MWe and is still growing. The direct use of geothermal energy for major urban communities has been developed recently by exploitation of aquifers in sedimentary basins under large towns. Scaling up the extraction of heat implies the exploitation of larger and better located fields requiring an appropriate method of extraction; the objective of present attempts in USA, Japan and Europe is to create heat exchangers by the circulation of water between several deep wells. Two field categories are considered: the extension of classical geothermal fields beyond the aquifer areas, and areas favoured by both a high geothermal gradient, fractures inducing a natural permeability at large scale, and good commercial prospects (such as in the Rhenan Graben). Hot dry rocks concept has gained a large interest. 1 fig., 5 tabs., 11 refs

  2. State policies for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  3. The International Atomic Energy Agency: activities and relationship with Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abud Osuna, Javier.

    1987-01-01

    Legal and political studies on the activities of the IAEA infer that the pacific uses of nuclear energy become more significant every day in the ambit of international relationships. The studies analyze as a whole relationships among member states. The first part is divided into four chapters, starting with the background and creation of the agency, its structure, statutes, amendments and the performance of its main organisms. It continues to describe mechanisms and programmes carried out, including cooperation agreements between the IAEA and other specialized organizations in the United Nations. It ends up with the IAEA performance resulting from different treaties. The second part examines Mexican norms on nuclear matter as well as relationships between Mexico and the IAEA. It demonstrates that achievements in the Agency have been possible because of the establishment of an international cooperation basis, which avoids duplicity of actions. The conclusions recommend joint efforts from both the developed and the developing countries in the following: a) to imbue public opinion with the goodness of nuclear energy; b) to discourage the construction and operation of nuclear installations; c) to unify national standards on nuclear safety and control; d) to decrease export restrictions, based on safeguards; e) to promote internal nuclear research in Mexico or throught regional integration agreements, with technical assistance and support from the IAEA. (author)

  4. The GRETA project: the contribution of near-surface geothermal energy for the energetic self-sufficiency of Alpine regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Casasso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Alpine regions are deeply involved in the challenge set by climate change, which is a threat for their environment and for important economic activities such as tourism. The heating and cooling of buildings account for a major share of the total primary energy consumption in Europe, and hence the energy policies should focus on this sector to achieve the greenhouse gas reduction targets set by international agreements. Geothermal heat pump is one of the least carbon-intensive technologies for the heating and cooling of buildings. It exploits the heat stored within the ground, a local renewable energy source which is widely available across the Alpine territory. Nevertheless, it has been little considered by European policies and cooperation projects. GRETA (near-surface Geothermal REsources in the Territory of the Alpine space is a cooperation project funded by the EU INTERREG-Alpine Space program, aiming at demonstrating the potential of shallow geothermal energy and to foster its integration into energy planning instruments. It started in December 2015 and will last three years, involving 12 partners from Italy, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and Slovenia. In this paper, the project is presented, along with the results of the first year of work.

  5. Geochemical studies of the geothermal area East of the Jombo Hill intrusion Coast Province. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tole, M.P.

    1985-09-01

    Geothermal resources in Kenya can be classified into two types; (i) High temperature geothermal resources, found within the Kenyan section of Rift Valley System, and (ii) Low temperature geothermal resources found outside the main Rift Valley System (figure 1). The high temperature geothermal resources have received first priority in research and development, and this has culminated in their exploitation at the Olkaria Geothermal Field which currently generates 45 MW of electricity, representing approximately 18% of Kenya's electricity requirements. Further research is directed at opening up electricity generating plants within the Rift Valley Geothermal Systems occuring between Lake Bogoria and Lake Magadi. The low temperature geothermal resources have received less attention in Kenya. In some countries, low temperature geothermal resources have been utilised for a number of domestic and commercial undertakings (table 1), among them (a) space heating (b) recreational baths (c) sugar refining. In china, low temperature (less than 90 o C) geothermal reservoirs have been used to provide energy for electrical generating plants (Reed and Bliss, 1983). An examination of the distribution of the low temperature geothermal sites in Kenya (figure 1) indicates that most of them could be easily utilised for one or more of the domestic and commercial activities mentioned above, by virtue of their location. In order that recommendations regarding the type of use that each of these hotsprings can be put to can be made, proper evaluation of each site must be made: in particular the underground hotwater temperatures as well as the extent of the geothermal field at each site must be evaluated. Geochemical studies provide the cheapest (most cost-effective) method of geothermal energy exploration. The purpose of this project was to determine the extent of the hot zone, as well as the underground reservoir temperatures in the geothermal field North East of the Jomo Hill intrusion

  6. Geothermal influences on the abyssal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Madec, G.

    2017-12-01

    Long considered a negligible contribution to ocean dynamics, geothermal heat flow (GHF) is now increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the large scale ocean's deep structure and circulation. This presentation will review the history of theories regarding geothermal influences on the abyssal ocean. Though the contribution to the thermal structure was recognized early on, its potential in driving a circulation [Worthington, 1968] was largely ignored on the grounds that it could not materially affect potential vorticity. Huang [JPO, 1999] proposed that GHF may provide 30-50% of the energy available for deep mixing, a calculation that later proved too optimistic [Wunsch & Ferrari ARFM 2004]. Model simulations suggested that a uniform GHF of 50 mW/m2 could drive an abyssal of a few Sverdrups (1 Sv = 106 m3.s-1) [Adcroft et al, GRL 2001], but it was not until Emile-Geay & Madec [OS, 2009] (EM09) that GHF began to be taken seriously [Mashayek et al, GRL 2013; Voldoire et al. Clim. Dyn. 2013; Dufresnes et al., Clim. Dyn. 2013]. Using analytical and numerical approaches, the study made 3 main points: GHF brings as much energy to the deep ocean as intense diapycnal mixing (1 cm2/s). GHF consumes the densest water masses, inducing a deep circulation of 5 Sv even without mixing. This circulation varies in inverse proportion to abyssal stratification. The spatial structure of GHF, highest at mid-ocean ridges and lowest in abyssal plains, matters far less than the fact that it bathes vast fractions of the ocean floor in a relatively low, constant flux. EM09 concluded that GHF "is an important actor of abyssal dynamics, and should no longer be neglected in oceanographic studies". Recent work has confirmed that geothermal heat flow is of comparable importance to ocean circulation as bottom-intensified mixing induced by internal wave breaking [De Lavergne et al, JPO 2016a,b]. Thus, including GHF in ocean general circulation models improves abyssal structure and

  7. Geothermal policy project. Quarterly report, June 1-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Efforts continued to initiate geothermal and water source heat pump study activities in newly selected project states and to carry forward policy development in existing project states. Follow-up contacts were made with several project states, and state meetings and workshops were held in nine project states. Two state-specific documents were prepared during this reporting period, for Nevada and Wyoming.

  8. Activation analysis utilizing byproduct neutrons of cyclotron internal target runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, K.; Finn, R.; Smith, P.; Tavano, E.; Dwyer, J.; Sheh, H.

    1985-01-01

    The neutron flux generated by the CS-30 cyclotron at Mt Sinai Medical Center during routine internal target runs was characterized by employing various elements as neutron monitors. The characteristic (p,xn) nuclear reactions from internal targets bombarded by 26.5 Mev protons and the cyclotron inner wall bombarded by stray protons produce a neutron flux of approximately 2 x 10 9 cm -2 s -1 at energies up to 22 MeV at a point immediately outside the cyclotron vacuum chamber. Samples exposed to neutron fluences up to 5 x 10 14 cm -2 were analyzed with a Ge(Li) detector. Although the detection limits are relatively high (i.e., Au-0.2 μg; In-1 μg; Na-50 μg), this mode of neutron activation analysis is ancillary to other irradiations and allows a large number of samples to be monitored. This approach may provide an alternative to a neutron generator for research activation applications. (orig.)

  9. Used fuel disposition campaign international activities implementation plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutt, W. M. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-06-29

    expertise from those countries with more mature programs. The U.S. fuel cycle is a once through fuel cycle involving the direct disposal of UNF, as spent nuclear fuel, in a geologic repository (previously identified at Yucca Mountain, Nevada), following at most a few decades of storage (wet and dry). The geology at Yucca Mountain, unsaturated tuff, is unique among all countries investigating the disposal of UNF and HLW. The decision by the U.S. Department of Energy to no longer pursue the disposal of UNF at Yucca Mountain and possibly utilize very long term storage (approaching 100 years or more) while evaluating future fuel cycle alternatives for managing UNF, presents a different UNF and HLW management R&D portfolio that has been pursued in the U.S. In addition, the research and development activities managed by OCRWM have been transferred to DOE-NE. This requires a reconsideration of how the UFDC will engage in cooperative and collaborative activities with other countries. This report presents the UFDC implementation plan for international activities. The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has cooperated and collaborated with other countries in many different 'arenas' including the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and through bilateral agreements with other countries. These international activities benefited OCRWM through the acquisition and exchange of information, database development, and peer reviews by experts from other countries. DOE-NE cooperates and collaborates with other countries in similar 'arenas' with similar objectives and realizing similar benefits. However the DOE-NE focus has not typically been in the area of UNF and HLW management. This report will first summarize these recent cooperative and collaborative activities. The manner that the UFDC will cooperate and collaborate in the future is

  10. Geological Model of Supercritical Geothermal Reservoir on the Top of the Magma Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, N.

    2017-12-01

    We are conducting supercritical geothermal project, and deep drilling project named as "JBBP: Japan Beyond Brittle Project" The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550 °C under lithostatic pressures, and then pressures dropped drastically. The solubility of silica also dropped, resulting in formation of quartz veins under a hydrostatic pressure regime. Connections between the lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure regimes were key to the formation of the hydrothermal breccia veins, and the granite-porphyry system provides useful information for creation of fracture clouds in supercritical geothermal reservoirs. A granite-porphyry system, associated with hydrothermal activity and mineralization, provides a suitable natural analog for studying a deep-seated geothermal reservoir where stockwork fracture systems are created in the presence of supercritical geothermal fluids. I describe fracture networks and their formation mechanisms using petrology and fluid inclusion studies in order to understand this "beyond brittle" supercritical geothermal reservoir, and a geological

  11. Crossing the Barriers: An Analysis of Land Access Barriers to Geothermal Development and Potential Improvement Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Developers have identified many non-technical barriers to geothermal power development, including access to land. Activities required for accessing land, such as environmental review and private and public leasing can take a considerable amount of time and can delay or prevent project development. This paper discusses the impacts to available geothermal resources and deployment caused by land access challenges, including tribal and cultural resources, environmentally sensitive areas, biological resources, land ownership, federal and state lease queues, and proximity to military installations. In this analysis, we identified challenges that have the potential to prevent development of identified and undiscovered hydrothermal geothermal resources. We found that an estimated 400 MW of identified geothermal resource potential and 4,000 MW of undiscovered geothermal resource potential were either unallowed for development or contained one or more significant barriers that could prevent development at the site. Potential improvement scenarios that could be employed to overcome these barriers include (1) providing continuous funding to the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) for processing geothermal leases and permit applications and (2) the creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures. The model results forecast that continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 80 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 124 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures coupled with continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 97 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 152 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The small impact on potential deployment in these improvement scenarios suggests that these 4,400 MW have other barriers to development in addition to land access. In other words, simply

  12. Geothermal Play-Fairway Analysis of the Tatun Volcano Group, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Ru; Song, Sheng-Rong

    2017-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a sustainable and low-emission energy resource. It has the advantage of low-cost and withstanding nature hazards. Taiwan is located on the western Ring of Fire and characteristic of widespread hot spring and high surface heat flows, especially on the north of Taiwan. Many previous studies reveal that the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) has great potential to develop the geothermal energy. However, investment in geothermal development has inherent risk and how to reduce the exploration risk is the most important. The exploration risk can be lowered by using the play-fairway analysis (PFA) that integrates existing data representing the composite risk segments in the region in order to define the exploration strategy. As a result, this study has adapted this logic for geothermal exploration in TVG. There are two necessary factors in geothermal energy, heat and permeability. They are the composite risk segments for geothermal play-fairway analysis. This study analyzes existing geologic, geophysical and geochemical data to construct the heat and permeability potential models. Heat potential model is based on temperature gradient, temperature of hot spring, proximity to hot spring, hydrothermal alteration zones, helium isotope ratios, and magnetics. Permeability potential model is based on fault zone, minor fault, and micro-earthquake activities. Then, these two potential models are weighted by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and combined to rank geothermal favorability. Uncertainty model is occurred by the quality of data and spatial accuracy of data. The goal is to combine the potential model with the uncertainty model as a risk map to find the best drilling site for geothermal exploration in TVG. Integrated results indicate where geothermal potential is the highest and provide the best information for those who want to develop the geothermal exploration in TVG.

  13. Geothermal Progress Monitor: Report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor, the 14th since its inception in 1980, highlights the anticipated rapid growth in the use of geothermal heat pumps and documents the continued growth in the use of geothermal energy for power generation, both in this country and abroad. In countries with a relatively large demand for new generation capacity, geothermal, if available, is being called on as a preferable alternative to the use of domestic or imported oil. On the other hand, in this country where current demand for new capacity is less, geothermal energy is commonly being put to use in small power generation units operating on the hot water resource.

  14. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, related to geothermal energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on geothermal energy—Contract Number DE-FG03-01SF22367—with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of geothermal energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of responses to information requests on geothermal energy and publications. The publications addressed: geothermal leasing, geothermal policy, constitutional and statutory authority for the development of geothermal district energy systems, and state regulation of geothermal district energy systems. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about geothermal energy for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to geothermal energy in the states. Coordination with the National Geothermal Collaborative: NCSL worked and coordinated with the National Geothermal Collaborative (NGC) to ensure that state legislatures were represented in all aspects of the NGC's efforts. NCSL participated in NGC steering committee conference calls, attended and participated in NGC business meetings and reviewed publications for the NGC. Additionally, NCSL and WSUEP staff drafted a series of eight issue briefs published by the

  15. Modeling thermal stress propagation during hydraulic stimulation of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Gunnar; Miller, Stephen A.

    2017-04-01

    A large fraction of the world's water and energy resources are located in naturally fractured reservoirs within the earth's crust. Depending on the lithology and tectonic history of a formation, fracture networks can range from dense and homogeneous highly fractured networks to single large scale fractures dominating the flow behavior. Understanding the dynamics of such reservoirs in terms of flow and transport is crucial to successful application of engineered geothermal systems (also known as enhanced geothermal systems or EGS) for geothermal energy production in the future. Fractured reservoirs are considered to consist of two distinct separate media, namely the fracture and matrix space respectively. Fractures are generally thin, highly conductive containing only small amounts of fluid, whereas the matrix rock provides high fluid storage but typically has much smaller permeability. Simulation of flow and transport through fractured porous media is challenging due to the high permeability contrast between the fractures and the surrounding rock matrix. However, accurate and efficient simulation of flow through a fracture network is crucial in order to understand, optimize and engineer reservoirs. It has been a research topic for several decades and is still under active research. Accurate fluid flow simulations through field-scale fractured reservoirs are still limited by the power of current computer processing units (CPU). We present an efficient implementation of the embedded discrete fracture model, which is a promising new technique in modeling the behavior of enhanced geothermal systems. An efficient coupling strategy is determined for numerical performance of the model. We provide new insight into the coupled modeling of fluid flow, heat transport of engineered geothermal reservoirs with focus on the thermal stress changes during the stimulation process. We further investigate the interplay of thermal and poro-elastic stress changes in the reservoir

  16. Geothermal regimes of the Clearlake region, northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, M. [ed.; Burns, K.L.; Potter, R.M.

    1998-06-01

    The first commercial production of power from geothermal energy, at The Geysers steamfield in northern California in June 1960, was a triumph for the geothermal exploration industry. Before and since, there has been a search for further sources of commercial geothermal power in The Geysers--Clear Lake geothermal area surrounding The Geysers. As with all exploration programs, these were driven by models. The models in this case were of geothermal regimes, that is, the geometric distribution of temperature and permeability at depth, and estimates of the physical conditions in subsurface fluids. Studies in microseismicity and heat flow, did yield geophysical information relevant to active geothermal systems. Studies in stable-element geochemistry found hiatuses or divides at the Stoney Creek Fault and at the Collayomi Fault. In the region between the two faults, early speculation as to the presence of steamfields was disproved from the geochemical data, and the potential existence of hot-water systems was predicted. Studies in isotope geochemistry found the region was characterized by an isotope mixing trend. The combined geochemical data have negative implications for the existence of extensive hydrothermal systems and imply that fluids of deep origin are confined to small, localized systems adjacent to faults that act as conduits. There are also shallow hot-water aquifers. Outside fault-localized systems and hot-water aquifers, the area is an expanse of impermeable rock. The extraction of energy from the impermeable rock will require the development and application of new methods of reservoir creation and heat extraction such as hot dry rock technology.

  17. Geothermal country report of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottlik, P.

    1990-01-01

    There is a slow but steady increase in the number of geothermal wells in Hungary. The rate of increase is 3-5 new wells/year. In the last years technical development and the raising of efficiency came to the front in utilization of geothermal energy. Technical development is supported by the state. This paper reports that the main directions were: developing a pump suitable for Hungarian conditions, working out the model of sandy and karstic aquifers for simulation and prediction, and developing new chemicals and methods for treating thermal water

  18. New Mexico Geothermal Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witcher, J.C.; Whittier, J.; Morgan, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the New Mexico Geothermal Data Base (NMGDB) which is a comprehensive public-domain data base of low-temperature geothermal resource information for New Mexico that is designed to assist researchers and developers. A broad range of geoscience, engineering, climatic, economic, and land status information are complied in the dBASE III PLUS data base management system for use on an IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer. A user friendly menu format with on-screen prompts allows easy and convenient use

  19. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program quarterly project progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the third quarter of FY98 (April--June, 1998). It describes 231 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with included requests for general information including material for high school and university students, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, spacing heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, snow melting and electric power. Research activities include work on model construction specifications for line shaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, and a comprehensive aquaculture developers package. A brochure on Geothermal Energy in Klamath County was developed for state and local tourism use. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 19, No. 2) with articles on research at the Geo-Heat Center, sustainability of geothermal resources, injection well drilling in Boise, ID and a greenhouse project in the Azores. Other outreach activities include dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisitions and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  20. Mexican geothermal development and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, J.M.E.V.

    1998-01-01

    Geothermics in Mexico started in 1954, by drilling the first geothermal well in Pathe, State of Hidalgo, which reached a depth of 237 meters. In 1959 electrical generation from geothermal origin began, with an installed capacity of 3.5 MW. From 1959 to 1994 Mexico increased its installed capacity to 753 MW, by developing three geothermal fields: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, and Los Humeros. Currently, 177 wells produce steam at a rate of 36 tons per hour (t/h) each. Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE, Federal Commission of Electricity) has planned to increase the geothermal-electric installed capacity through construction and installation of several projects. Repowering of operating units and development of new geothermal zones will also allow Mexican geothermal growth

  1. The self-potential method in the geothermal exploration of Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolopoulos, G. [Ministry of Development, Athens (Greece). General Secretariat for Research and Technology; Louis, I.; Lagios, E. [Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    1997-11-01

    Self-potential (SP) anomalies are generated by flows of fluid, heat, and ions in the earth. SP investigations have been used to locate and delineate sources associated with such flows in three areas of geothermal interest in Greece -- Lesvos Island, Loutra Hypatis (central Greece), and Nisyros Island. A combination of geophysical methods, with SP being the primary method, has been applied in these areas. The SP method is adversely influenced by various sources of noise. Field procedures have been suggested to minimize their effects by monitoring electrode polarization and telluric activity. The interpretation of SP contour maps is preferred to using profile data. A procedure was adopted for SP interpretation, and the results were satisfactory. However, this model is based on thermoelectric sources only and is not related directly to hot fluid movement. In all three survey areas, the geothermal zones delimited by the SP interpretation in combination with data acquired by other geophysical methods result in an integrated interpretation of the geothermal system. Since SP and very-low-frequency (VLF) anomalies can be generated by the same geological source (i.e., geothermal, highly conductive zone), the corresponding results are compared to provide a strong indication of the presence of geothermal zones. The activity of geothermal zones affects the conductivity of the surrounding medium, which also can be detected by dc resistivity and audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) methods. In addition, geothermal zones can be related to various interfaces or tectonic features that can be detected by gravity or seismic methods.

  2. Microbiological Characterization and Concerns of the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Wieland, Paul O.

    2005-01-01

    Since January 1999, the chemical the International Space Station Thermal Control System (IATCS) and microbial state of (ISS) Internal Active fluid has been monitored by analysis of samples returned to Earth. Key chemical parameters have changed over time, including a drop in pH from the specified 9.5 +/- 0.5 ta = 58.4, an increase in the level of total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved nickel (Ni) in the fluid, and a decrease in the phosphate (PO,) level. In addition, silver (AS) ion levels in the fluid decreased rapidly as Ag deposited on internal metallic surfaces of the system. The lack of available Ag ions coupled with changes in the fluid chemistry has resulted in a favorable environment for microbial growth. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria have increased from less than 10 colony-forming units (CFUs)/l00 mL to l0(exp 6) to l0(exp 7) CFUs/100 mL. The increase of the microbial population is of concern because uncontrolled microbiological growth in the IATCS can contribute to deterioration in the performance of critical components within the system and potentially impact human health if opportunistic pathogens become established and escape into the cabin atmosphere. Micro-organisms can potentially degrade the coolant chemistry; attach to surfaces and form biofilms; lead to biofouling of filters, tubing, and pumps; decrease flow rates; reduce heat transfer; initiate and accelerate corrosion; and enhance mineral scale formation. The micro- biological data from the ISS IATCS fluid, and approaches to addressing the concerns, are summarized in this paper.

  3. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  4. Activation monitoring accuracy in experiments on internal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, L.Z.; Buklej, A.E.; Gavrilov, V.B.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments showed that by using combined targets, comprising a monitor aluminium foil and the substance examined, in the internal beam of a proton synchrotron, one can determine the number of particles that had passed through the target by the induced activity of 24 Na in aluminium. A combined target consisting of three aluminium foils (2.3 m.g./sq.cm) and a foil of the test substance (30-170 mg/sq.cm) was used. Monitoring was performed by the activity of the middle aluminium foil. Subsequent to respective measurements, the foils were extracted from the accelerator chamber and aged for 12-16 hr to cause decay of short-lived activities. The foil γ-ray spectrum was then recorded by means of a coaxial Ge-Li detector (40 cc, 8 keV). Results of control measurements were cited. The method ensured relatively accurate measurements (ca. 2%) of the dependence of cross-sections of the atomic number of the target nucleus

  5. National and international astronomical activities in Chile 1849--2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.

    2003-03-01

    At all times and in many ways, Chilean astronomy has been influenced externally, either by astronomical expeditions from other parts of the world, or by astronomers that immigrated from other countries. We outline the history of the Chilean National Observatory, beginning with its origins out of Gilliss' US Naval Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere, over its directors Moesta, Vergara, Obrecht, Ristenpart to the middle of the 20th century, as well as the astronomical development at the Universidad Católica. In addition, various international expeditions, which aimed at observations of solar eclipses, the Venus transit of 1882, and the Mars opposition of 1907, were carried out. While a major photometric project of Harvard Observatory was active for only six weeks in the north of Chile, the spectroscopic Mills expedition of Lick Observatory in Santiago lasted several decades, and the solar observatory of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory near Calama even longer. Finally we give a brief overview of the evolution and the actual state of the international observatories Cerro Tololo, La Silla, Paranal, and Las Campanas.

  6. Quality assurance activities and proposals at the international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, M.

    1985-01-01

    A number of international bodies have attempted to stimulate wider interest in Quality Assurance in X-ray departments. A major initiative has been taken by WHO with the publication of its recommendations in 1982 under the title Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology, in which they indicated the action that should be taken at various national, professional and local levels. The recommendations of ICRP in Publication 26 point to the need for quality assurance programmes that will obtain optimum diagnostic information at minimum cost and minimum patient dose. ICRU have been considering the need for cost-effective quality assurance programmes and the specification of standards for image quality. The IEC and various manufacturers' organisations have begun to consider the part they can play in setting up quality control procedures. The most active group has been the ISRRT, which has arranged a series of seminars and workshops for radiographers in various parts of the world. Future needs for international support lie in the provision of training programmes, the publication of comparative statistical data and the development of image quality standards. (author)

  7. Fluorite solubility equilibria in selected geothermal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Jenne, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Calculation of chemical equilibria in 351 hot springs and surface waters from selected geothermal areas in the western United States indicate that the solubility of the mineral fluorite, CaF2, provides an equilibrium control on dissolved fluoride activity. Waters that are undersaturated have undergone dilution by non-thermal waters as shown by decreased conductivity and temperature values, and only 2% of the samples are supersaturated by more than the expected error. Calculations also demonstrate that simultaneous chemical equilibria between the thermal waters and calcite as well as fluorite minerals exist under a variety of conditions. Testing for fluorite solubility required a critical review of the thermodynamic data for fluorite. By applying multiple regression of a mathematical model to selected published data we have obtained revised estimates of the pK (10,96), ??Gof (-280.08 kcal/mole), ??Hof (-292.59 kcal/mole), S?? (16.39 cal/deg/mole) and CoP (16.16 cal/deg/mole) for CaF2 at 25??C and 1 atm. Association constants and reaction enthalpies for fluoride complexes with boron, calcium and iron are included in this review. The excellent agreement between the computer-based activity products and the revised pK suggests that the chemistry of geothermal waters may also be a guide to evaluating mineral solubility data where major discrepancies are evident. ?? 1977.

  8. Market risk stress testing for internationally active financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Petar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a comprehensive framework for market risk stress testing in internationally active financial institutions. We begin by defining the scope and type of the stress test and explaining how to select risk factors and the stress time horizon. We then address challenges related to data gathering, followed by in-depth discussion of techniques for developing realistic shock scenarios. Next the process of shock application to a particular portfolio is described, followed by determination of portfolio profit and loss. We conclude by briefly discussing the issue of assigning probability to stress scenarios. We illustrate the framework by considering the development of a ‘worst case’ scenario using global financial market data from Thomson Reuters Datastream.

  9. Current state of exploitation of low enthalpy geothermal energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisdet, A.; Fouillac, C.; Jaudin, F.; Menjoz, A.; Rojas, J.; Ferrandes, R.; Lemale, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that at present, the geothermal exploitation in France is characterized by sixty plants using geothermal energy for direct heat in district heating. Drilling and connection to networks occurred mainly during the years 1980-1985. From 1985 to 1990, the research efforts have been focused on detailed reservoir knowledge, corrosion-scaling process induced by the fluid composition, methods and techniques for maintenance, rehabilitation of some wells and equipments after work over. Concentrated in two main area, the Paris and Aquitaine basins, the French geothermal potential is large. The improved knowledge obtained during the last five years spared to the valorization of existing plants will allow a new start of geothermal exploitation. Nevertheless this latter is highly dependent on the international energy context

  10. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Drilling and Testing Activity (Frio, Wilcox, and Tuscaloosa Formations, Texas and Louisiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program to evaluate the feasibility of developing the geothermal-geopressured energy resources of the Louisiana-Texas Gulf Coast. As part of this effort, DOE is contracting for the drilling of design wells to define the nature and extent of the geopressure resource. At each of several sites, one deep well (4000-6400 m) will be drilled and flow tested. One or more shallow wells will also be drilled to dispose of geopressured brines. Each site will require about 2 ha (5 acres) of land. Construction and initial flow testing will take approximately one year. If initial flow testing is successful, a continuous one-year duration flow test will take place at a rate of up to 6400 m{sup 3} (40,000 bbl) per day. Extensive tests will be conducted on the physical and chemical composition of the fluids, on their temperature and flow rate, on fluid disposal techniques, and on the reliability and performance of equipment. Each project will require a maximum of three years to complete drilling, testing, and site restoration.

  11. New Mexico low-temperature geothermal resources and economic development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittier, J.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on New Mexico's low-temperature geothermal resources which have been utilized to promote economic development initiatives within the state. Public funds have been leveraged to foster exploration activities which have led to the establishment of several direct-use projects at various sites within New Mexico. State policies have focused on attracting one business sector, the commercial greenhouse industry, to expand and/or relocate in New Mexico. Geothermal-related promotional activities have begun to show success in achieving economic growth. New Mexico now has almost half of the geothermally-heated greenhouse space in the nation. It is anticipated that the greenhouse sector will continue to grow within the state. Future economic development activities, also relying upon the geothermal resource base, will include vegetable dehydration and aquaculture with a focus on the microalgae sector

  12. A Comprehensive Study of Fracture Patterns and Densities in The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir Using Microearthquake Shear-Wave Splitting Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter E. Malin; Eylon Shalev; Min Lou; Silas M. Simiyu; Anastasia Stroujkova; Windy McCausland

    2004-02-24

    In this project we developed a method for using seismic S-wave data to map the patterns and densities of sub-surface fractures in the NW Geysers Geothermal Field/ (1) This project adds to both the general methods needed to characterize the geothermal production fractures that supply steam for power generation and to the specific knowledge of these in the Geysers area. (2)By locating zones of high fracture density it will be possible to reduce the cost of geothermal power development with the targeting of high production geothermal wells. (3) The results of the project having been transferred to both US based and international geothermal research and exploration agencies and concerns by several published papers and meeting presentations, and through the distribution of the data handling and other software codes we developed.

  13. Engineering aspects of geothermal development with emphasis on the Imperial Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M.

    1978-01-01

    This review was prepared in support of a geothermal planning activity of the County of Imperial. Engineering features of potential geothermal development are outlined. Acreage requirements for drilling and powerplants are estimated, as are the costs for wells, fluid transmission pipes, and generating stations. Rough scaling relationships are developed for cost factors as a function of reservoir temperature. Estimates are made for cooling water requirements, and possible sources of cooling water are discussed. Availability and suitability of agricultural wastewater for cooling are emphasized. The utility of geothermal resources for fresh water production in the Imperial Valley is considered.

  14. Hydrogeology of the Owego-Apalachin Elementary School Geothermal Fields, Tioga County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-12-22

    The hydrogeology of the Owego-Apalachin Elementary School geothermal fields, which penetrate saline water and methane in fractured upper Devonian age bedrock in the Owego Creek valley, south-central New York, was characterized through the analysis of drilling and geophysical logs, water-level monitoring data, and specific-depth water samples. Hydrogeologic insights gained during the study proved beneficial for the design of the geothermal drilling program and protection of the overlying aquifer during construction, and may be useful for the development of future geothermal fields and other energy-related activities, such as drilling for oil and natural gas in similar fractured-bedrock settings.

  15. Investigation of the geothermal potential of the UK. A preliminary assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Geologically, Britain is an extremely stable area without active volcanism. In this situation the development of geothermal resources depends upon the occurrence of permeable rocks in deep sedimentary basins or the successful development of the hot dry rock concept. The average geothermal gradient is about 25C/km, but two belts of above average heat flow extend across northern and south-western England. In these areas the gradient can be 30C/km or more. The principal aquifers occur in the Mesozoic and the greatest geothermal potential is in sandstones of the Permo-Triassic where their occurrence at depth coincides with the high heat flow belts.

  16. Environmental protection for geothermic exploratory drilling in Mexico: Review of a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Rubio, A.; Diaz, S.; Arguelles, C.; Arriaga, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noveste, La Paz (Mexico)

    1995-06-01

    Mexican legislation specifically establishes very particular measures in order to prevent and/or to mitigate the potential environmental impacts produced by geothermic exploratory drilling. During 1991, we developed an environmental impact assessment study to evaluate the possible environmental impacts produced by the exploratory drilling at the Las Tres Virgenes Geothermic field. We determined that the geothermic electrical project activities analysed have observed most of the official recommendations. As a result, all the potential environmental impacts are local, restricted in extent and time, and mitigated or reversed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. The GEOTREF program, a new approach for geothermal investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Frédéric; Viard, Simon; Garcia, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The GEOTREF is an R&D program supported by the ADEME, French environmental agency and by the «Investissement d'Avenir », a French government program to found innovative projects. The GEOTREF program aims to develop an integrated analysis of high temperature geothermal reservoir in volcanic context. It is a collaborative program between nine research laboratories and two industrial partners. This program is supported for four years and funds 12 PhDs and 5 post-doctoral grants in various fields: geology, petrography, petrophysics, geophysics, geochemistry, reservoir modelling. The first three years are dedicated to the exploration phases that will lead to the drilling implantation. The project has two main objectives. 1.- Developing innovative and interactive methods and workflows leading to develop prospection and exploration in per volcanic geothermal target. This objective implicates: Optimization of the targeting to mitigate financial risks Adapting oil and gas exploration methods to geothermal energy, especially in peri-volcanic context. 2.- Applying this concept to different prospects in the Caribbean and South America The first target zone is located in Guadeloupe, an island of the active arc of the subduction zone where the Atlantic plate subducts under the Caribbean one. The GEOTREF prospect zone is on the Basse Terre Island in its south part closed to the Soufriere volcano, the active volcanic system. On the same island a geothermal field is exploited in Bouillante, just northward from the GEOTREF targeting area.

  18. Geothermal GW cogeneration system GEOCOGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grob, Gustav R.

    2010-09-15

    GEOCOGEN is the GW zero pollution, no risk solution to replace nuclear and fossil fuelled power plants. It can be built near the energy consumption centers, is invisible and produces electricity and heat at a fraction of the cost of any other the energy mix options. It is a break through deep well geothermal energy technology lasting forever driving also millions of electric vehicles.

  19. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  20. The low-energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Low-energy geothermal resources are characterized by temperatures ranging from 30 to 100 C. The principal worldwide applications are: towns and greenhouses heating, spa bathing, agriculture products drying, etc.. Sources depth ranges from 1500 to 2500 m in porous and permeable formations (sandstones, sands, conglomerates, limestones..) carrying aquifers. The worldwide installed power was of about 11500 MWth in 1990, with an annual production of about 36000 GWh (about 1% of worldwide energy consumption). The annual production rate is estimated to 10% and would represent a 30000 and 80000 MWth power in 2000 and 2010, respectively. In France, low-energy geothermal resources are encountered principally in Mesozoic sediments of the Parisian and Aquitanian basins. French geothermics has developed during the last 30 years and principally between 1980 and 1985 after the second petroleum crack. After 1985, the decay of fossil fuel costs and the development of corrosion problems in the geothermal wells have led to the abandonment of the less productive fields and to the study of technical solutions to solve the corrosion problems. (J.S.). 1 fig., 5 photos