WorldWideScience

Sample records for international drought monitoring

  1. The Drought Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Mark; Lecomte, Doug; Hayes, Mike; Heim, Richard; Gleason, Karin; Angel, Jim; Rippey, Brad; Tinker, Rich; Palecki, Mike; Stooksbury, David; Miskus, David; Stephens, Scott

    2002-08-01

    information about drought and to receive regional and local input that is in turn incorporated into the product. This paper describes the Drought Monitor and the interactive process through which it is created.

  2. Toward Global Drought Early Warning Capability - Expanding International Cooperation for the Development of a Framework for Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Will; Sheffield, Justin; Stefanski, Robert; Cripe, Douglas; Pulwarty, Roger; Vogt, Jurgen V.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Brewer, Michael J.; Svoboda, Mark; Westerhoff, Rogier; hide

    2013-01-01

    Drought has had a significant impact on civilization throughout history in terms of reductions in agricultural productivity, potable water supply, and economic activity, and in extreme cases this has led to famine. Every continent has semiarid areas, which are especially vulnerable to drought. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has noted that average annual river runoff and water availability are projected to decrease by 10 percent-13 percent over some dry and semiarid regions in mid and low latitudes, increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought, along with its associated impacts. The sheer magnitude of the problem demands efforts to reduce vulnerability to drought by moving away from the reactive, crisis management approach of the past toward a more proactive, risk management approach that is centered on reducing vulnerability to drought as much as possible while providing early warning of evolving drought conditions and possible impacts. Many countries, unfortunately, do not have adequate resources to provide early warning, but require outside support to provide the necessary early warning information for risk management. Furthermore, in an interconnected world, the need for information on a global scale is crucial for understanding the prospect of declines in agricultural productivity and associated impacts on food prices, food security, and potential for civil conflict. This paper highlights the recent progress made toward a Global Drought Early Warning Monitoring Framework (GDEWF), an underlying partnership and framework, along with its Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS), which is its interoperable information system, and the organizations that have begun working together to make it a reality. The GDEWF aims to improve existing regional and national drought monitoring and forecasting capabilities by adding a global component, facilitating continental monitoring and forecasting (where lacking), and improving these tools at

  3. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

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    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  4. Nonparametric Integrated Agrometeorological Drought Monitoring: Model Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Qin; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun; Huang, Qingzhong; Sun, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Drought is a major natural hazard that has massive impacts on the society. How to monitor drought is critical for its mitigation and early warning. This study proposed a modified version of the multivariate standardized drought index (MSDI) based on precipitation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture, i.e., modified multivariate standardized drought index (MMSDI). This study also used nonparametric joint probability distribution analysis. Comparisons were done between standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), standardized soil moisture index (SSMI), MSDI, and MMSDI, and real-world observed drought regimes. Results indicated that MMSDI detected droughts that SPEI and/or SSMI failed to do. Also, MMSDI detected almost all droughts that were identified by SPEI and SSMI. Further, droughts detected by MMSDI were similar to real-world observed droughts in terms of drought intensity and drought-affected area. When compared to MMSDI, MSDI has the potential to overestimate drought intensity and drought-affected area across China, which should be attributed to exclusion of the evapotranspiration components from estimation of drought intensity. Therefore, MMSDI is proposed for drought monitoring that can detect agrometeorological droughts. Results of this study provide a framework for integrated drought monitoring in other regions of the world and can help to develop drought mitigation.

  5. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Anderson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010–2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI surface energy balance algorithm, and physically based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the

  6. Development of an Experimental African Drought Monitoring and Seasonal Forecasting System: A First Step towards a Global Drought Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Sheffield, J.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Extreme hydrologic events in the form of droughts are a significant source of social and economic damage. Internationally, organizations such as UNESCO, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) have recognized the need for drought monitoring, especially for the developing world where drought has had devastating impacts on local populations through food insecurity and famine. Having the capacity to monitor droughts in real-time, and to provide drought forecasts with sufficient warning will help developing countries and international programs move from the management of drought crises to the management of drought risk. While observation-based assessments, such as those produced by the US Drought Monitor, are effective for monitoring in countries with extensive observation networks (of precipitation in particular), their utility is lessened in areas (e.g., Africa) where observing networks are sparse. For countries with sparse networks and weak reporting systems, remote sensing observations can provide the real-time data for the monitoring of drought. More importantly, these datasets are now available for at least a decade, which allows for the construction of a climatology against which current conditions can be compared. In this presentation we discuss the development of our multi-lingual experimental African Drought Monitor (ADM) (see http://hydrology.princeton.edu/~nchaney/ADM_ML). At the request of UNESCO, the ADM system has been installed at AGRHYMET, a regional climate and agricultural center in Niamey, Niger and at the ICPAC climate center in Nairobi, Kenya. The ADM system leverages off our U.S. drought monitoring and forecasting system (http://hydrology.princeton.edu/forecasting) that uses the NLDAS data to force the VIC land surface model (LSM) at 1/8th degree spatial resolution for the estimation of our soil moisture drought index (Sheffield et al., 2004). For the seasonal forecast of drought, CFSv2 climate

  7. An extended multivariate framework for drought monitoring in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-Rangel, Roberto; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrián; Breña-Naranjo, Agustín; Alcocer-Yamanaka, Víctor

    2017-04-01

    Around the world, monitoring natural hazards, such as droughts, represents a critical task in risk assessment and management plans. A reliable drought monitoring system allows to identify regions affected by these phenomena so that early response measures can be implemented. In Mexico, this activity is performed using Mexico's Drought Monitor, which is based on a similar methodology as the United States Drought Monitor and the North American Drought Monitor. The main feature of these monitoring systems is the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations that is ultimately validated by local experts. However, in Mexico in situ records of variables such as precipitation and streamflow are often scarce, or even null, in many regions of the country. Another issue that adds uncertainty in drought monitoring is the arbitrary weight given to each analyzed variable. This study aims at providing an operational framework for drought monitoring in Mexico, based on univariate and multivariate nonparametric standardized indexes proposed in recent studies. Furthermore, the framework has been extended by taking into account the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) for the drought severity assessment. The analyzed variables used for computing the drought indexes are mainly derived from remote sensing (MODIS) and land surface models datasets (NASA MERRA-2). A qualitative evaluation of the results shows that the indexes used are capable of adequately describes the intensity and spatial distribution of past drought documented events.

  8. A new multi-sensor integrated index for drought monitoring

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    Jiao, W.; Wang, L.; Tian, C.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is perceived as one of the most expensive and least understood natural disasters. The remote-sensing-based integrated drought indices, which integrate multiple variables, could reflect the drought conditions more comprehensively than single drought indices. However, most of current remote-sensing-based integrated drought indices focus on agricultural drought (i.e., deficit in soil moisture), their application in monitoring meteorological drought (i.e., deficit in precipitation) was limited. More importantly, most of the remote-sensing-based integrated drought indices did not take into consideration of the spatially non-stationary nature of the related variables, so such indices may lose essential local details when integrating multiple variables. In this regard, we proposed a new mathematical framework for generating integrated drought index for meteorological drought monitoring. The geographically weighted regression (GWR) model and principal component analysis were used to composite Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based temperature condition index (TCI), the Vegetation Index based on the Universal Pattern Decomposition method (VIUPD) based vegetation condition index (VCI), tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) based Precipitation Condition Index (PCI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) based soil moisture condition index (SMCI). We called the new remote-sensing-based integrated drought index geographical-location-based integrated drought index (GLIDI). We examined the utility of the GLIDI for drought monitoring in various climate divisions across the continental United States (CONUS). GLIDI showed high correlations with in-situ drought indices and outperformed most other existing drought indices. The results also indicate that the performance of GLIDI is not affected by environmental factors such as land cover, precipitation, temperature and soil conditions. As such, the GLIDI has considerable potential for

  9. A component-based system for agricultural drought monitoring by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Heng; Li, Jun; Yuan, Yanbin; You, Lin; Chen, Chao

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, various kinds of remote sensing-based drought indexes have been proposed and widely used in the field of drought monitoring. However, the drought-related software and platform development lag behind the theoretical research. The current drought monitoring systems focus mainly on information management and publishing, and cannot implement professional drought monitoring or parameter inversion modelling, especially the models based on multi-dimensional feature space. In view of the above problems, this paper aims at fixing this gap with a component-based system named RSDMS to facilitate the application of drought monitoring by remote sensing. The system is designed and developed based on Component Object Model (COM) to ensure the flexibility and extendibility of modules. RSDMS realizes general image-related functions such as data management, image display, spatial reference management, image processing and analysis, and further provides drought monitoring and evaluation functions based on internal and external models. Finally, China's Ningxia region is selected as the study area to validate the performance of RSDMS. The experimental results show that RSDMS provide an efficient and scalable support to agricultural drought monitoring.

  10. A component-based system for agricultural drought monitoring by remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Dong

    Full Text Available In recent decades, various kinds of remote sensing-based drought indexes have been proposed and widely used in the field of drought monitoring. However, the drought-related software and platform development lag behind the theoretical research. The current drought monitoring systems focus mainly on information management and publishing, and cannot implement professional drought monitoring or parameter inversion modelling, especially the models based on multi-dimensional feature space. In view of the above problems, this paper aims at fixing this gap with a component-based system named RSDMS to facilitate the application of drought monitoring by remote sensing. The system is designed and developed based on Component Object Model (COM to ensure the flexibility and extendibility of modules. RSDMS realizes general image-related functions such as data management, image display, spatial reference management, image processing and analysis, and further provides drought monitoring and evaluation functions based on internal and external models. Finally, China's Ningxia region is selected as the study area to validate the performance of RSDMS. The experimental results show that RSDMS provide an efficient and scalable support to agricultural drought monitoring.

  11. Drought monitoring with soil moisture active passive (SMAP) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok; Vu, Tue; Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-09-01

    Recent launch of space-borne systems to estimate surface soil moisture may expand the capability to map soil moisture deficit and drought with global coverage. In this study, we use Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture geophysical retrieval products from passive L-band radiometer to evaluate its applicability to forming agricultural drought indices. Agricultural drought is quantified using the Soil Water Deficit Index (SWDI) based on SMAP and soil properties (field capacity and available water content) information. The soil properties are computed using pedo-transfer function with soil characteristics derived from Harmonized World Soil Database. The SMAP soil moisture product needs to be rescaled to be compatible with the soil parameters derived from the in situ stations. In most locations, the rescaled SMAP information captured the dynamics of in situ soil moisture well and shows the expected lag between accumulations of precipitation and delayed increased in surface soil moisture. However, the SMAP soil moisture itself does not reveal the drought information. Therefore, the SMAP based SWDI (SMAP_SWDI) was computed to improve agriculture drought monitoring by using the latest soil moisture retrieval satellite technology. The formulation of SWDI does not depend on longer data and it will overcome the limited (short) length of SMAP data for agricultural drought studies. The SMAP_SWDI is further compared with in situ Atmospheric Water Deficit (AWD) Index. The comparison shows close agreement between SMAP_SWDI and AWD in drought monitoring over Contiguous United States (CONUS), especially in terms of drought characteristics. The SMAP_SWDI was used to construct drought maps for CONUS and compared with well-known drought indices, such as, AWD, Palmer Z-Index, sc-PDSI and SPEI. Overall the SMAP_SWDI is an effective agricultural drought indicator and it provides continuity and introduces new spatial mapping capability for drought monitoring. As an

  12. FORECASTING AND MONITORING AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Perez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring and forecasting sytem is developed to assess the extent and severity of agricultural droughts in the Philippines at various spacial scales and across different time periods. Using Earth observation satellite data, drought index, hazard and vulnerability maps are created. The drought index, called Standardized Vegetation-Temperature Ratio (SVTR, is derived using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Land Surface Temperature (LST. SVTR is evaluated by correlating its values with existing agricultural drought index, particulary Evaporative Stress Index (ESI. Moreover, the performance of SVTR in detecting drought occurrences was assessed for the 2015-2016 drought event. This period is a strong El Niño year and a large portion of the country was affected by drought at varying degrees, making it a good case study for evaluating drought indices. Satellitederived SVTR was validated through several field visits and surveys across different major agricultural areas in the country, and was found to be 73% accurate. The drought hazard and vulnerability maps are produced by utilizing the evapotranspration product of MODIS, rainfall climatology from the Tropical Rainfall Microwave Mission (TRMM and ancillary data, including irrigation, water holding capacity and land use. Finally, we used statistical techniques to determine trends in NDVI and LST and generate a sixmonth forecast of drought index. Outputs of this study are being assessed by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA and the Department of Agriculture Bureau of Soils and Water Management (DABSWM for future integration in their operations.

  13. GRACE-Assimilated Drought Indicators for the U.S. Drought Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, Bruce; Teng, Bill; Loeser, Carlee; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matt

    2018-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission detects changes in Earth's gravity field by precisely monitoring the changes in distance between two satellites orbiting the Earth in tandem. Scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center generate GRACE-assimilated groundwater and soil moisture drought indicators each week, for drought monitor-related studies and applications. The GRACE-assimilated Drought Indicator Version 2.0 data product (GRACE-DA-DM V2.0) is archived at, and distributed by, the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center). More information about the data and data access is available on the data product landing page at https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/datasets /GRACEDADM_CLSM0125US_7D_2.0/summary. The GRACE-DA-DM V2.0 data product contains three drought indicators: Groundwater Percentile, Root Zone Soil Moisture Percentile, and Surface Soil Moisture Percentile. The drought indicators are of wet or dry conditions, expressed as a percentile, indicating the probability of occurrence within the period of record from 1948 to 2012. These GRACE-assimilated drought indicators, with improved spatial and temporal resolutions, should provide a more comprehensive and objective identification of drought conditions. This presentation describes the basic characteristics of the data and data services at NASA GES DISC and collaborative organizations, and uses a few examples to demonstrate the simple ways to explore the GRACE-assimilated drought indicator data.

  14. Multivariate Drought Characterization in India for Monitoring and Prediction

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    Sreekumaran Unnithan, P.; Mondal, A.

    2016-12-01

    Droughts are one of the most important natural hazards that affect the society significantly in terms of mortality and productivity. The metric that is most widely used by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) to monitor and predict the occurrence, spread, intensification and termination of drought is based on the univariate Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). However, droughts may be caused by the influence and interaction of many variables (such as precipitation, soil moisture, runoff, etc.), emphasizing the need for a multivariate approach for drought characterization. This study advocates and illustrates use of the recently proposed multivariate standardized drought index (MSDI) in monitoring and prediction of drought and assessing its concerned risk in the Indian region. MSDI combines information from multiple sources: precipitation and soil moisture, and has been deemed to be a more reliable drought index. All-India monthly rainfall and soil moisture data sets are analysed for the period 1980 to 2014 to characterize historical droughts using both the univariate indices, the precipitation-based SPI and the standardized soil moisture index (SSI), as well as the multivariate MSDI using parametric and non-parametric approaches. We confirm that MSDI can capture droughts of 1986 and 1990 that aren't detected by using SPI alone. Moreover, in 1987, MSDI indicated a higher severity of drought when a deficiency in both soil moisture and precipitation was encountered. Further, this study also explores the use of MSDI for drought forecasts and assesses its performance vis-à-vis existing predictions from the IMD. Future research efforts will be directed towards formulating a more robust standardized drought indicator that can take into account socio-economic aspects that also play a key role for water-stressed regions such as India.

  15. Ecological and meteorological drought monitoring in East Asia

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    Kim, J. B.; Um, M. J.; Kim, Y.; Chae, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to how well the ecological drought index can capture the drought status in the East Asia. We estimated the drought severe index (DSI), which uses the evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggested by Mu et al. (2013) to define the ecological drought. In addition, the meteorological drought index, which is standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index (SPEI), are estimated and compared to the DSI. The satellite data by moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) are used to analyze the DSI and the monthly precipitation and temperature data in the climate research unit (CRU) are applied to estimate the SPEI for 2000-2013 in the East Asia. We conducted the statistical analyses to investigate the drought characteristics of the ecological and meteorological drought indices (i.e. the DSI and SPEI, respectively) and then compared those characteristics drought indices depending on the drought status. We found the DSI did not well captured the drought status when the categories originally suggested by Mu et al. (2013) are applied to divide the drought status in the study area. Consequently, the modified categories for the DSI in this study is suggested and then applied to define the drought status. The modified categories in this study show the great improvement to capture the drought status in the East Asia even though the results cannot be acquired around Taklamakan desert due to the lack of the satellite data. These results illustrate the ecological drought index, such as the DSI, can be applied for the monitoring of the drought in the East Asia and then can give the detailed information of drought status because the satellite data have the relatively high spatial resolutions compared to the observations such as the CRU data. Reference Mu Q, Zhao M, Kimball JS, McDowell NG, Running SW (2013) A remotely sensed global

  16. Climate Engine - Monitoring Drought with Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegewisch, K.; Daudert, B.; Morton, C.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Drought has adverse effects on society through reduced water availability and agricultural production and increased wildfire risk. An abundance of remotely sensed imagery and climate data are being collected in near-real time that can provide place-based monitoring and early warning of drought and related hazards. However, in an era of increasing wealth of earth observations, tools that quickly access, compute, and visualize archives, and provide answers at relevant scales to better inform decision-making are lacking. We have developed ClimateEngine.org, a web application that uses Google's Earth Engine platform to enable users to quickly compute and visualize real-time observations. A suite of drought indices allow us to monitor and track drought from local (30-meters) to regional scales and contextualize current droughts within the historical record. Climate Engine is currently being used by U.S. federal agencies and researchers to develop baseline conditions and impact assessments related to agricultural, ecological, and hydrological drought. Climate Engine is also working with the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) to expedite monitoring agricultural drought over broad areas at risk of food insecurity globally.

  17. The U.S./Canadian GEO Bilateral Drought Indices and Definitions Study: Implications for the Canadian Drought Monitor and a Global Drought Early Warning System

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    Hadwen, T.; Heim, R. R.; Howard, A.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a difficult phenomenon to define; the way in which it is monitored, measured, assessed and even the very definition of drought vary from location to location based on the regional climate and the potential impacts. Drought is not an absolute condition but an evolving state brought on by relatively dry weather, growing more severe over time. There are many factors that define a drought and many more that define its impacts. Many definitions and indices are based solely on meteorological characteristics. Although this approach has merit, it is often necessary to go further to define those meteorological conditions in a way that is relevant to the land and water use in a region. A Drought Indices and Definitions Study was initiated in 2010 as part of a GEO Bilateral effort to examine drought across the U.S. and Canada. The Study's deliverables will include a survey of the drought indices used to monitor drought, and a bibliography of research addressing the nature of drought, across the diverse climates of the continent. With an increasing pressure to utilize drought monitoring as a primary indicator of need for disaster assistance, the reliability of drought indices must be validated and utilized in appropriate in various regions. In 2009, following over five years of participation in the North American Drought Monitor (NA-DM), the National Agroclimate Information Service of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada initiated a project to develop a Canadian Drought Monitor (Can-DM), based on primary principles used in the NA-DM and the US Drought Monitor (US-DM). The process of developing an operational monitoring tool and using drought indices in a vast and environmentally diverse country has been challenging. in Canada, many of the commonly used indices are not appropriate in certain regions or data densities do not allow for proper use. This paper will discuss the experiences that the Can-DM team has had dealing with these challenges, how these experiences

  18. The current California drought through EDDI's eyes: early warning and monitoring of agricultural and hydrologic drought with the new Evaporative Demand Drought Index.

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    Hobbins, M.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Wood, A. W.; Morton, C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a physically based, multi-scalar drought index—the Evaporative Demand Drought Index (EDDI)—to improve treatment of evaporative dynamics in drought monitoring. Existing popular drought indices—such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index that informs much of the US Drought Monitor (USDM)—have primarily relyied on precipitation and temperature (T) to represent hydroclimatic anomalies, leaving evaporative demand (E0) most often derived from poorly performing T-based parameterizations then used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) from LSMs. Instead, EDDI leverages the inter-relations of E0 and ET, measuring E0's physical response to surface drying anomalies due to two distinct land surface/atmosphere interactions: (i) in sustained drought, limited moisture availability forces E0 and ET into a complementary relation, whereby ET declines as E0 increases; and (ii) in "flash" droughts, E0 increases due to increasing advection or radiation. E0's rise in response to both drought types suggests EDDI's robustness as a monitor and leading indicator of drought. To drive EDDI, we use for E0 daily reference ET from the ASCE Standardized Reference ET equation forced by North American Land Data Assimilation System drivers. EDDI is derived by aggregating E0 anomalies from its long-term mean across a period of interest and normalizing them to a Z-score. Positive EDDI indicates drier than normal conditions (and so drought). We use the current historic California drought as a test-case in which to examine EDDI's performance in monitoring agricultural and hydrologic drought. We observe drought development and decompose the behavior of drought's evaporative drivers during in-drought intensification periods and wetting events. EDDI's performance as a drought leading indicator with respect to the USDM is tested in important agricultural regions. Comparing streamflow from several USGS gauges in the Sierra Nevada to EDDI, we find that EDDI tracks most major

  19. Low-cost sensors to monitor groundwater drought in Somalia

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    Buytaert, W.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Caniglia, D.; Haibe, K.; Butler, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Somalia is one of the poorest countries in the world, devastated by conflict and suffering from the most severe droughts in living memory. Over 6 million people are in need of assistance, and about 3 million are threatened with famine. In April 2017, the WHO estimated that more than 25,000 people have been struck by cholera or acute watery diarrhoea and this number is rising quickly. About half a million Somalis have been displaced internally, many of which in search of water. Some 3 million pastoralists have lost 70% of livestock as a result of the drought. Humanitarian organisations and government agencies invest large amounts of resources to alleviate these conditions. It is paramount to inform the design, focus, and optimisation of these interventions by monitoring and quantifying water resources. Yet, regions such as Somalia are extremely sparsely gauged as a result of a combination of lack of resources and technical expertise, as well as the harsh geographical and geopolitical conditions. Low-cost, robust, and reliable sensors may provide a potential solution to this problem. We present the results of a research project that aimed to leverage new developments in sensor, logger, and data transmission technologies to develop low-cost water level sensors to monitor hand-dug groundwater wells in real time. We tested 3 types of sensor types, i.e. pressure transducers, ultrasound-based distance sensors, and lidar, which were coupled to low-cost logging systems. The different designs were tested both in laboratory conditions, and in-situ in hand-dug wells in Somaliland. Our results show that it is technically possible to build sensors with a total cost of around US$250 each, which are fit-for-purpose for the required application. In-situ deployment over a period of 2 months highlights their robustness despite severe logistical and practical challenges, though further tests are required to understand their long-term reliability. Operating the sensors at one

  20. Assessing the utility of meteorological drought indices in monitoring summer drought based on soil moisture in Chongqing, China

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    Chen, Hui; Wu, Wei; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2018-04-01

    Numerous drought indices have been developed to analyze and monitor drought condition, but they are region specific and limited by various climatic conditions. In southwest China, summer drought mainly occurs from June to September, causing destructive and profound impact on agriculture, society, and ecosystems. The current study assesses the availability of meteorological drought indices in monitoring summer drought in this area at 5-day scale. The drought indices include the relative moisture index ( M), the standardized precipitation index (SPI), the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), the composite index of meteorological drought (CIspi), and the improved composite index of meteorological drought (CIwap). Long-term daily precipitation and temperature from 1970 to 2014 are used to calculate 30-day M ( M 30), SPI (SPI30), SPEI (SPEI30), 90-day SPEI (SPEI90), CIspi, and CIwap. The 5-day soil moisture observations from 2010 to 2013 are applied to assess the performance of these drought indices. Correlation analysis, overall accuracy, and kappa coefficient are utilized to investigate the relationships between soil moisture and drought indices. Correlation analysis indicates that soil moisture is well correlated with CIwap, SPEI30, M 30, SPI30, and CIspi except SPEI90. Moreover, drought classifications identified by M 30 are in agreement with that of the observed soil moisture. The results show that M 30 based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration is an appropriate indicator for monitoring drought condition at a finer scale in the study area. According to M 30, summer drought during 1970-2014 happened in each year and showed a slightly upward tendency in recent years.

  1. Drought Monitoring and Forecasting: Experiences from the US and Africa

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    Sheffield, Justin; Chaney, Nate; Yuan, Xing; Wood, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Drought has important but very different consequences regionally due to differences in vulnerability. These differences derive from variations in exposure related to climate variability and change, sensitivity of local populations, and coping capacity at all levels. Managing the risk of drought impacts relies on a variety of measures to reduce vulnerability that includes forewarning of drought development through early-warning systems. Existing systems rely on a variety of observing systems from satellites to local observers, modeling tools, and data dissemination methods. They range from sophisticated state-of-the-art systems to simple ground reports. In some regions, systems are virtually non-existent due to limited national capacity. This talk describes our experiences in developing and implementing drought monitoring and seasonal forecast systems in the US and sub-Saharan Africa as contrasting examples of the scientific challenges and user needs in developing early warning systems. In particular, early warning can help improve livelihoods based on subsistence farming in sub-Saharan Africa; whist reduction of economic impacts is generally foremost in the US. For the US, our national drought monitoring and seasonal forecast system has been operational for over 8 years and provides near real-time updates on hydrological states at ~12km resolution and hydrological forecasts out to 9 months. Output from the system contributes to national assessments such as from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and the US National Drought Monitor (USDM). For sub-Saharan Africa, our experimental drought monitoring system was developed as a translation of the US system but presents generally greater challenges due to, for example, lack of ground data and unique user needs. The system provides near real-time updates based on hydrological modeling and satellite based precipitation estimates, and has recently been augmented by a seasonal forecast component. We discuss the

  2. Application of Regional Drought and Crop Yield Information System to enhance drought monitoring and forecasting in Lower Mekong region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S.; Dutta, R.; Basnayake, S. B.; Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K. M.; Das, N.; Markert, K. N.; Cutter, P. G.; Towashiraporn, P.; Anderson, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Lower Mekong Region has been experiencing frequent and prolonged droughts resulting in severe damage to agricultural production leading to food insecurity and impacts on livelihoods of the farming communities. Climate variability further complicates the situation by making drought harder to forecast. The Regional Drought and Crop Yield Information System (RDCYIS), developed by SERVIR-Mekong, helps decision makers to take effective measures through monitoring, analyzing and forecasting of drought conditions and providing early warnings to farmers to make adjustments to cropping calendars. The RDCYIS is built on regionally calibrated Regional Hydrologic Extreme Assessment System (RHEAS) framework that integrates the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT) models, allowing both nowcast and forecast of drought. The RHEAS allows ingestion of numerus freely available earth observation and ground observation data to generate and customize drought related indices, variables and crop yield information for better decision making. The Lower Mekong region has experienced severe drought in 2016 encompassing the region's worst drought in 90 years. This paper presents the simulation of the 2016 drought event using RDCYIS based on its hindcast and forecast capabilities. The regionally calibrated RDCYIS can help capture salient features of drought through a variety of drought indices, soil variables, energy balance variables and water balance variables. The RDCYIS is capable of assimilating soil moisture data from different satellite products and perform ensemble runs to further reduce the uncertainty of it outputs. The calibrated results have correlation coefficient around 0.73 and NSE between 0.4-0.5. Based on the acceptable results of the retrospective runs, the system has the potential to generate reliable drought monitoring and forecasting information to improve decision-makings at operational, technological and

  3. Improving Multi-Sensor Drought Monitoring, Prediction and Recovery Assessment Using Gravimetry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakouchak, Amir; Tourian, Mohammad J.

    2015-04-01

    Development of reliable drought monitoring, prediction and recovery assessment tools are fundamental to water resources management. This presentation focuses on how gravimetry information can improve drought assessment. First, we provide an overview of the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS) which offers near real-time drought information using remote sensing observations and model simulations. Then, we present a framework for integration of satellite gravimetry information for improving drought prediction and recovery assessment. The input data include satellite-based and model-based precipitation, soil moisture estimates and equivalent water height. Previous studies show that drought assessment based on one single indicator may not be sufficient. For this reason, GIDMaPS provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) and the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) which combines SPI and SSI probabilistically. MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions and provides composite multi-index drought information for overall characterization of droughts. GIDMaPS includes a seasonal prediction component based on a statistical persistence-based approach. The prediction component of GIDMaPS provides the empirical probability of drought for different severity levels. In this presentation we present a new component in which the drought prediction information based on SPI, SSI and MSDI are conditioned on equivalent water height obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Using a Bayesian approach, GRACE information is used to evaluate persistence of drought. Finally, the deficit equivalent water height based on GRACE is used for assessing drought recovery. In this presentation, both monitoring and prediction components of GIDMaPS will be discussed, and the results from 2014

  4. Multisource Data-Based Integrated Agricultural Drought Monitoring in the Huai River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Wen, Qingzhi; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun

    2017-10-01

    Drought monitoring is critical for early warning of drought hazard. This study attempted to develop an integrated remote sensing drought monitoring index (IRSDI), based on meteorological data for 2003-2013 from 40 meteorological stations and soil moisture data from 16 observatory stations, as well as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data using a linear trend detection method, and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. The objective was to investigate drought conditions across the Huai River basin in both space and time. Results indicate that (1) the proposed IRSDI monitors and describes drought conditions across the Huai River basin reasonably well in both space and time; (2) frequency of drought and severe drought are observed during April-May and July-September. The northeastern and eastern parts of Huai River basin are dominated by frequent droughts and intensified drought events. These regions are dominated by dry croplands, grasslands, and highly dense population and are hence more sensitive to drought hazards; (3) intensified droughts are detected during almost all months except January, August, October, and December. Besides, significant intensification of droughts is discerned mainly in eastern and western Huai River basin. The duration and regions dominated by intensified drought events would be a challenge for water resources management in view of agricultural and other activities in these regions in a changing climate.

  5. Building the vegetation drought response index for Canada (VegDRI-Canada) to monitor agricultural drought: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tsegaye; Champagne, Catherine; Wardlow, Brian D.; Hadwen, Trevor A.; Brown, Jesslyn; Demisse, Getachew B.; Bayissa, Yared A.; Davidson, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    Drought is a natural climatic phenomenon that occurs throughout the world and impacts many sectors of society. To help decision-makers reduce the impacts of drought, it is important to improve monitoring tools that provide relevant and timely information in support of drought mitigation decisions. Given that drought is a complex natural hazard that manifests in different forms, monitoring can be improved by integrating various types of information (e.g., remote sensing and climate) that is timely and region specific to identify where and when droughts are occurring. The Vegetation Drought Response Index for Canada (VegDRI-Canada) is a recently developed drought monitoring tool for Canada. VegDRI-Canada extends the initial VegDRI concept developed for the conterminous United States to a broader transnational coverage across North America. VegDRI-Canada models are similar to those developed for the United States, integrating satellite observations of vegetation status, climate data, and biophysical information on land use and land cover, soil characteristics, and other environmental factors. Collectively, these different types of data are integrated into the hybrid VegDRI-Canada to isolate the effects of drought on vegetation. Twenty-three weekly VegDRI-Canada models were built for the growing season (April–September) through the weekly analysis of these data using a regression tree-based data mining approach. A 15-year time series of VegDRI-Canada results (s to 2014) was produced using these models and the output was validated by randomly selecting 20% of the historical data, as well as holdout year (15% unseen data) across the growing season that the Pearson’s correlation ranged from 0.6 to 0.77. A case study was also conducted to evaluate the VegDRI-Canada results over the prairie region of Canada for two drought years and one non-drought year for three weekly periods of the growing season (i.e., early-, mid-, and late season). The comparison of the Veg

  6. Review of broad-scale drought monitoring of forests: Toward an integrated data mining approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Norman; Frank H. Koch; William W. Hargrove

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to monitor the broad-scale impacts of drought on forests often come up short. Drought is a direct stressor of forests as well as a driver of secondary disturbance agents, making a full accounting of drought impacts challenging. General impacts  can be inferred from moisture deficits quantified using precipitation and temperature measurements. However,...

  7. Assessment of TRMM 3B43 product for drought monitoring in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mou Leong; Chua, Vivien P.; Tan, Kok Chooi; Brindha, K.

    2017-10-01

    Drought is one of the most hazardous natural disasters for human beings and the environment. Using only rain gauge is insufficient to monitor the drought pattern effectively as it impacts large areas. This situation is more critical on small island countries, with limited rain gauges for monitoring drought pattern over the ocean regions. This study aims to assess the capability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 product in monitoring drought in Singapore from 1998 to 2014. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at various time-scales is used for identifying drought patterns. Results show moderate to good correlations between TMPA- 3B43 and rain gauges in the SPI estimations. Besides that, TMPA-3B43 exhibits a similar temporal drought behavior as the rain gauges. These findings indicate the TMPA 3B43 product as a very useful tool to study drought pattern over Singapore.

  8. More than just consumers: Integrating local observations into drought monitoring to better support decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Masayesva, A.; Meadow, A. M.; Crimmins, M.

    2016-12-01

    Drought monitoring and drought planning are complex endeavors. Measures of precipitation or streamflow provide little context for understanding how social and environmental systems impacted by drought are responding. In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, this challenge is particularly acute since social-ecological systems are already well-adapted to dry conditions. Understanding what drought means in these regions is an important first step in developing a decision-relevant monitoring system. Traditional drought indices may be of some use, but local observations may ultimately be more relevant for informing difficult decisions in response to unusually dry conditions. This presentation will focus on insights gained from a collaborative project between the University of Arizona and the Hopi Tribe-a Native American community in the U.S. Southwest-to develop a drought information system that is responsive to local needs. The primary goal of the project was to develop a system that: is based on how drought is experienced by Hopi citizens and resource managers, can incorporate local observations of drought impacts as well as conventional indicators, and brings together local expertise with conventional science-based observations. This kind of drought monitoring system can harnesses as much available information as possible to inform resource managers, political leaders, and citizens about drought conditions, but such a system can also engage these local drought stakeholders in observing, thinking about, and helping guide planning for drought.

  9. Investigate the Capabilities of Remotely Sensed Crop Indicators for Agricultural Drought Monitoring in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Although agricultural production has been rising in the past years, drought remains the primary cause of crop failure, leading to food price instability and threatening food security. The recent 'Global Food Crisis' in 2008, 2011 and 2012 has put drought and its impact on crop production at the forefront, highlighting the need for effective agricultural drought monitoring. Satellite observations have proven a practical, cost-effective and dynamic tool for drought monitoring. However, most satellite based methods are not specially developed for agriculture and their performances for agricultural drought monitoring still need further development. Wheat is the most widely grown crop in the world, and the recent droughts highlight the importance of drought monitoring in major wheat producing areas. As the largest wheat producing state in the US, Kansas plays an important role in both global and domestic wheat markets. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the capabilities of remotely sensed crop indicators for effective agricultural drought monitoring in Kansas wheat-grown regions using MODIS data and crop yield statistics. First, crop indicators such as NDVI, anomaly and cumulative metrics were calculated. Second, the varying impacts of agricultural drought at different stages were explored by examining the relationship between the derived indicators and yields. Also, the starting date of effective agricultural drought early detection and the key agricultural drought alert period were identified. Finally, the thresholds of these indicators for agricultural drought early warning were derived and the implications of these indicators for agricultural drought monitoring were discussed. The preliminary results indicate that drought shows significant impacts from the mid-growing-season (after Mid-April); NDVI anomaly shows effective drought early detection from Late-April, and Late-April to Early-June can be used as the key alert period for agricultural

  10. Using Enhanced Grace Water Storage Data to Improve Drought Detection by the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; Rodell, Matthew; Lawrimore, Jay; Li, Bailing; Reichle, Rolf; Heim, Richard; Rosencrans, Matthew; Tinker, Rich; Famiglietti, James S.; Svoboda, Mark; hide

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations of the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including groundwater. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has great potential to improve the Drought Monitors by filling this observational gap. GRACE TWS data were assimilating into the Catchment Land Surface Model using an ensemble Kalman smoother enabling spatial and temporal downscaling and vertical decomposition into soil moisture and groundwater components. The Drought Monitors combine several short- and long-term drought indicators expressed in percentiles as a reference to their historical frequency of occurrence. To be consistent, we generated a climatology of estimated soil moisture and ground water based on a 60-year Catchment model simulation, which was used to convert seven years of GRACE assimilated fields into drought indicator percentiles. At this stage we provide a preliminary evaluation of the GRACE assimilated moisture and indicator fields.

  11. Timescale differences between SC-PDSI and SPEI for drought monitoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Gao, Ge; An, Wei; Zou, Xukai; Li, Haitao; Hou, Meiting

    2017-12-01

    The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) has been widely used to monitor drought. Its characteristics are more suitable for measuring droughts of longer timescales, and this fact has not received much attention. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) can better reflect the climatic water balance, owing to its combination of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we selected monthly average air temperature and precipitation data from 589 meteorological stations of China's National Meteorological Information Center, to compare the effects of applying a self-calibrating PDSI (SC-PDSI) and SPEI to monitor drought events in the station regions, with a special focus on differences of event timescale. The results show the following. 1) Comparative analysis using SC-PDSI and SPEI for drought years and characters of three dry periods from 1961 to 2011 in the Beijing region showed that durations of SC-PDSI-based dry spells were longer than those of 3-month and 6-month SPEIs, but equal to those of 12-month or longer timescale SPEIs. 2) For monitoring evolution of the fall 2009 to spring 2010 Southwest China drought and spring 2000 Huang-Huai drought, 3-month SPEI could better monitor the initiation, aggravation, alleviation and relief of drought in the two regions, whereas the SC-PDSI was insensitive to drought recovery because of its long-term memory of previous climate conditions. 3) Analysis of the relationship between SC-PDSI for different regions and SPEI for different timescales showed that correlation of the two indexes changed with region, and SC-PDSI was maximally correlated with SPEI of 9-19 months in China. Therefore, SC-PDSI is only suitable for monitoring mid- and long-term droughts, owing to the strong lagged autocorrelation such as 0.4786 for 12-month lagged ones in Beijing, whereas SPEI is suitable for both short- and long-term drought-monitoring and should have greater application prospects in China.

  12. Using Satellite Data to Build Climate Resilience: A Novel East Africa Drought Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinski, K.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    East Africa is affected by recurrent drought. The 2015-2016 El Niño triggered a severe drought across East Africa causing serious impacts to regional water security, health, and livelihoods. Ethiopia was the hardest hit, with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs calling the recent drought the worst in 50 years. Resources to monitor the severity and progression of droughts are a critical component to disaster risk reduction, but are challenging to implement in regions with sparse data collection networks such as East Africa. Satellite data is used by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Global Information and Early Warning System, the USAID Famine Early Warning System, and the Africa Drought and Flood Monitor. These systems use remotely sensed vegetation, soil moisture, and meteorological data to develop drought indices. However, they do not directly monitor impacts to water resources, which is necessary to appropriately target drought mitigation efforts. The current study combines new radar data from the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 mission with satellite imagery to perform a retrospective analysis of the impact of the 2015-2016 drought in East Africa on regional surface water. Inland water body extents during the drought are compared to historical trends to identify the most severely impacted areas. The developed tool has the potential to support on-the-ground humanitarian relief efforts and to refine predictions of water scarcity and crop impacts from existing hydrologic models and famine early warning systems.

  13. Incorporation of GRACE Data into a Bayesian Model for Groundwater Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinski, K.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.; Porter, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater drought, defined as the sustained occurrence of below average availability of groundwater, is marked by below average water levels in aquifers and reduced flows to groundwater-fed rivers and wetlands. The impact of groundwater drought on ecosystems, agriculture, municipal water supply, and the energy sector is an increasingly important global issue. However, current drought monitors heavily rely on precipitation and vegetative stress indices to characterize the timing, duration, and severity of drought events. The paucity of in situ observations of aquifer levels is a substantial obstacle to the development of systems to monitor groundwater drought in drought-prone areas, particularly in developing countries. Observations from the NASA/German Space Agency's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have been used to estimate changes in groundwater storage over areas with sparse point measurements. This study incorporates GRACE total water storage observations into a Bayesian framework to assess the performance of a probabilistic model for monitoring groundwater drought based on remote sensing data. Overall, it is hoped that these methods will improve global drought preparedness and risk reduction by providing information on groundwater drought necessary to manage its impacts on ecosystems, as well as on the agricultural, municipal, and energy sectors.

  14. An improvement of drought monitoring through the use of a multivariate magnitude index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-Rangel, R. A.; Alcocer-Yamanaka, V. H.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Breña-Naranjo, J. A.; Ocón-Gutiérrez, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    In drought monitoring activities it is widely acknowledged that the severity of an event is determined in relation to monthly values of univariate indices of one or more hydrological variables. Normally, these indices are estimated using temporal windows from 1 to 12 months or more to aggregate the effects of deficits in the variable of interest. However, the use of these temporal windows may lead to a misperception of both, the drought event intensity and the timing of its occurrence. In this context, this work presents the implementation of a trivariate drought magnitude index, considering key hydrological variables (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture and runoff) using for this the framework of the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI). Despite the popularity and simplicity of the concept of drought magnitude for standardized drought indices, its implementation in drought monitoring and early warning systems has not been reported. This approach has been tested for operational purposes in the recently launched Multivariate Drought Monitor of Mexico (MOSEMM) and the results shows that the inclusion of a Magnitude index facilitates the drought detection and, thus, improves the decision making process for emergency managers.

  15. Drought monitoring over the Horn of Africa using remotely sensed evapotranspiration, soil moisture and vegetation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, J.; Gokmen, M.; Eden, U.; Abou Ali, M.; Vekerdy, Z.; Su, Z.

    2012-04-01

    The need to good drought monitoring and management for the Horn of Africa has never been greater. This ongoing drought is the largest in the past sixty years and is effecting the life of around 10 million people, according to the United Nations. The impact of drought is most apparent in food security and health. In addition secondary problems arise related to the drought such as large migration; more than 15000 Somalia have fled to neighboring countries to escape the problems caused by the drought. These problems will only grow in the future to larger areas due to increase in extreme weather patterns due to global climate change. Monitoring drought impact and managing the drought effects are therefore of critical importance. The impact of a drought is hard to characterize as drought depends on several parameters, like precipitation, land use, irrigation. Consequently the effects of the drought vary spatially and range from short-term to long-term. For this reason a drought event can be characterized into four categories: meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socio-economical. In terms of food production the agricultural drought, or short term dryness near the surface layer, is most important. This drought is usually characterized by low soil moisture content in the root zone, decreased evapotranspiration, and changes in vegetation vigor. All of these parameters can be detected with good accuracy from space. The advantage of remote sensing in Drought monitoring is evident. Drought monitoring is usually performed using drought indices, like the Palmer Index (PDSI), Crop Moisture Index (CMI), Standard Precipitation Index (SPI). With the introduction of remote sensing several indices of these have shown great potential for large scale application. These indices however all incorporate precipitation as the main surface parameter neglecting the response of the surface to the dryness. More recently two agricultural drought indices, the EvapoTranspiration Deficit

  16. Monitoring drought using multi-sensor remote sensing data in cropland of Gansu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Linglin; Shan, Jie; Xiang, Daxiang

    2014-01-01

    Various drought monitoring models have been developed from different perspectives, as drought is impacted by various factors (precipitation, evaporation, runoff) and usually reflected in various aspects (vegetation condition, temperature). Cloud not only plays an important role in the earth's energy balance and climate change, but also directly impacts the regional precipitation and evaporation. As a result, the change of cloud cover and cloud type can be used to monitor drought. This paper proposes a new drought composite index, the Drought Composite Index (DCI), for drought monitoring based on multi-sensor remote sensing data in cropland of Gansu Province. This index combines the cloud classification data (CLS) from FY satellite and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) which was calculated using the maximum and minimum NDVI values for the same time period from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Pearson correlation was performed to correlate NDVI, VCI, CLS and DCI values to precipitation data and soil moisture (SM) data collected from 20 meteorological stations during the growing season of 2011 and 2012. Better agreement was observed between DCI and precipitation as compared with that between NDVI/VCI and precipitation, especially the one-month precipitation, and there is an obvious time lag in the response of vegetation to precipitation. In addition, the results indicated that DCI well reflected precipitation fluctuations in the study area promising a possibility for early drought awareness necessary and near real-time drought monitoring

  17. Drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quevauviller, P.; Lanen, Van Henny A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the most extreme weather-related natural hazards. It differs from other hydrometeorological extremes in several ways. It develops gradually and usually over large areas (transnational), mostly resulting from a prolonged period (from months to years) of below-normal

  18. Monitoring 2015 drought in West Java using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrina Amalo, Luisa; Ma’rufah, Ummu; Ayu Permatasari, Prita

    2018-05-01

    Drought is a slow developing phenomenon that accumulates over period and affecting various sectors. It is one of natural hazards that occurs each year, particularly in Indonesia over Australian Monsoon period. During drought event, vegetation’s cover can be affected by water stress. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) is a method for water resource assessment and known to be strongly related to the plant water content. NDWI is produced from MODIS bands Near-infrared (NIR) and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR). This research aims to monitor drought using NDWI in West Java during El Niño 2015 and its impact on rainfall variability. The result showed rainfall was decreased significantly starting from May-June, then increased in November. According to NDWI, it also showed that mostly West Java Region affected by drought during May-November. Very strong drought occurred on September-November. On December, areal extent of drought was decreasing significantly because rainfall had increased during November. Generally, areal extent of drought in West Java was dominated by strong and moderate drought. It implied that El Niño 2015, give great impact on increasing drought and decreasing rainfall in West Java. NDWI can be detected drought occurrence as it have good correlation with rainfall spatially.

  19. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions

  20. Internal pump monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Toshikazu.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a thermometer is disposed at the upper end of an internal pump casing of a coolant recycling system in a BWR type reactor to detect leakage of reactor water thereby ensuring the improvement of reliability of the internal pump. Namely, a thermometer is disposed, which can detect temperature elevation occurred when water in the internal pump leaked from a reactor pressure vessel passes through the gap between a stretch tube and an upper end of the pump casing. Signals from the thermometer are transmitted to a signal processing device by an instrumentation cable. The signal processing device generates an alarm when the temperature signal exceeds a predetermined value and announces that leakage of reactor water occurs in the internal pump. Since the present invention can detect the leakage of the reactor water in the pump casing in an early stage, it can contribute to the improvement of the safety and reliability of the internal pump. (I.S.)

  1. Measures of Groundwater Drought from the Long-term Monitoring Data in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, E.; Park, J.; Woo, N. C.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, drought has been increased in its severity and frequency along the climate change in Korea. There are several criteria for alarming drought, for instance, based on the no-rainfall days, the amount of stream discharge, and the water levels of reservoirs. However, farmers depending on groundwater still have been suffered in preparing drought especially in the Spring. No-rainfall days continue, groundwater exploitation increases, water table declines, stream discharge decreases, and then the effects of drought become serious. Thus, the drought index based on the groundwater level is needed for the preparedness of drought disaster. Palmer et al.(1965, USGS) has proposed a method to set the threshold for the decline of the groundwater level in 5 stages based on the daily water-level data over the last 30 years. In this study, according to Peters et al.(2003), the threshold of groundwater level was estimated using the daily water-level data at five sites with significant drought experiences in Korea. Water levels and precipitations data were obtained from the national groundwater monitoring wells and the automatic weather stations, respectively, for 10 years from 2005 to 2014. From the water-level changes, the threshold was calculated when the value of the drought criterion (c), the ratio of the deficit below the threshold to the deficit below the average, is 0.3. As a result, the monthly drought days were high in 2009 and 2011 in Uiryeong, and from 2005 to 2008 in Boeun. The validity of the approach and the threshold can be evaluated by comparing calculated monthly drought days with recorded drought in the past. Through groundwater drought research, it is expected that not only surface water also groundwater resource management should be implemented more efficiently to overcome drought disaster.

  2. Assessment of NDVI, land surface temperature and precipitation anomalies for drought monitoring in Bayankhongor province, Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Joana Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade Mongolia’s region was characterized by a rapid increase of both severity and frequency of drought events, leading to pasture reduction. Drought monitoring and assessment plays an important role in the region’s early warning systems as a way to mitigate the negative impacts in social, economic and environmental sectors. Nowadays it is possible to access information related to the hydrologic cycle through remote sensing, which provides a continuous monitoring of variables...

  3. Monitoring and Assessing the 2012 Drought in the Great Plains: Analyzing Satellite-Retrieved Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Drought Indices, and Gross Primary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF and several meteorological drought indices, including the multi-time-scale standard precipitation index (SPI and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI, to evaluate the potential of using SIF to monitor and assess drought. We found significant positive relationships between SIF and drought indices during the growing season (from June to September. SIF was found to be more sensitive to short-term SPIs (one or two months and less sensitive to long-term SPI (three months than were the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI or the normalized difference water index (NDWI. Significant correlations were found between SIF and PDSI during the growing season for the Great Plains. We found good consistency between SIF and flux-estimated gross primary production (GPP for the years studied, and synchronous declines of SIF and GPP in an extreme drought year (2012. We used SIF to monitor and assess the drought that occurred in the Great Plains during the summer of 2012, and found that although a meteorological drought was experienced throughout the Great Plains from June to September, the western area experienced more agricultural drought than the eastern area. Meanwhile, SIF declined more significantly than NDVI during the peak growing season. Yet for senescence, during which time the reduction of NDVI still went on, the reduction of SIF was eased. Our work provides an alternative to traditional reflectance-based vegetation or drought indices for monitoring and assessing agricultural drought.

  4. AVHRR-based drought-observing system for monitoring the environment and socioeconomic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, F.

    From all natural disaster, drought is the least understandable and the most damaging environmental phenomenon. Although in pre-satellite era, climate data were used for drought monitoring, drought specifics created problems in early drought detection start/end, monitoring its expansion/contraction, intensity and area coverage and the most important, timely estimation of the impacts on the environment and socioeconomic activities. The latest prevented to take prompt measures in mitigating negative consequences of drought for the society. Advances in remote sensing of the past ten years, contributed to the development of comprehensive drought monitoring system and numerous applications, which helped to make decisions for monitoring the environment and predicting sustainable socioeconomic activities. This paper discusses satellite-based land-surface observing system, which provides wells of information used for monitoring such unusual natural disaster as drought. This system was developed from the observations of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) flown on NOAA operational polar-orbiting satellites. The AVHRR data were packed into the Global Vegetation Index (GVI) product, which have served the global community since 1981. The GVI provided reflectances and indices (4 km spacial resolution) every seven days for each 16 km map cell between 75EN and 55ES covering all land ecosystems. The data includes raw and calibrated radiances in the visible, near infrared and infrared spectral bands, processed (with eliminated high frequency noise) radiances, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), 20-year climatology, vegetation condition indices and also products, such as vegetation health, drought, vegetation fraction, fire risk etc. In the past ten years, users around the world used this information addressing different issues of drought impacts on socioeconomic activities and responded positively to real time drought information place regularly on the

  5. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Data Products for National Drought Monitor Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Drought effects are either direct or indirect depending on location, population, and regional economic vitality. Common direct effects of drought are reduced crop, rangeland, and forest productivity; increased fire hazard; reduced water levels; increased livestock and wildlife mortality rates; and damage to wildlife and fish habitat. Indirect impacts follow on the heels of direct impacts. For example, a reduction in crop, rangeland, and forest productivity may result in reduced income for farmers and agribusiness, increased prices for food and timber, unemployment, reduced tax revenues, increased crime, foreclosures on bank loans to farmers and businesses, migration, and disaster relief programs. In the United States alone, drought is estimated to result in annual losses of between $6 - 8 billion. Recent sustained drought in the United States has made decision-makers aware of the impacts of climate change on society and environment. The eight major droughts that occurred in the United States between 1980 and 1999 accounted for the largest percentage of weather-related monetary losses. Monitoring drought and its impact that occurs at a variety of scales is an important government activity -- not only nationally but internationally as well. The NDMC (National Drought Mitigation Center) and the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) RMA (Risk Management Agency) have partnered together to develop a DM-DSS (Drought Monitoring Decision Support System). This monitoring system will be an interactive portal that will provide users the ability to visualize and assess drought at all levels. This candidate solution incorporates atmospherically corrected VIIRS data products, such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and Ocean SST (sea surface temperature), and AMSR-E soil moisture data products into two NDMC vegetation indices -- VegDRI (Vegetation Drought Response Index) and VegOUT (Vegetation Outlook) -- which are then input into the DM-DSS.

  6. Drought is Coming: Monitoring Vegetation Response to Water Scarcity through Variable Chlorophyll a Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagno, C. R.; Beverly, D.; Pleban, J. R.; Speckman, H. N.; Ewers, B. E.; Weinig, C.

    2017-12-01

    Aridity is one of the most pronounced environmental limits to plant survival, and understanding how plants respond to drought and recovery is crucial for predicting impacts on managed and natural ecosystems. Changes in soil moisture conditions induce a suite of physiological responses from the cell to ecosystem scale, complicating the assessment of drought effects. Characterizing early indicators of water scarcity across species can inform biophysical models with improved understanding of plant hydraulics. While indexes exist for drought monitoring across scales, many are unable to identify imminent vegetative drought. We explore a method of early diagnosis using leaf-level and kinetic imaging measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. This is a fast and reliable tool capturing leaf physiological changes in advance of changes in NDVI or passive solar induced fluorescence. Both image and leaf level Pulse Amplitude Method (PAM) measurements illustrate the utility of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence for monitoring vegetative drought. Variable fluorescence was monitored across populations of crops, desert shrubs, montane conifers and riparian deciduous trees under variable water regimes. We found a strong correlation (R = 0.85) between the maximum efficiency of photosystem II measured using variable fluorescence (Fv'Fm') and leaf level electrolyte leakage, a proximal cause of drought stress induced by cellular damage in leaves. This association was confirmed in two gymnosperm species (Picea engelmannii and Pinus contorta) and for diverse varieties of the crop species Brassica rapa. The use of chlorophyll a fluorescence per image also allowed for early detection of drought in aspen (Populus tremuloides). These results provide evidence that variable chlorophyll fluorescence decreases between 25% and 70% in mild and severely droughted twigs with respect to ones collected from trees in wet soil conditions. While current systems for monitoring variable fluorescence

  7. In Situ Stem Psychrometry: toward a Physiologically-Based Drought Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOCH, G. W.; Williams, C.; Ambrose, A.

    2012-12-01

    Plant water potential is a synoptic variable that integrates soil and atmospheric moisture stress and interacts with plant-internal factors to regulate gas exchange and determine vulnerability to drought-induced hydraulic dysfunction. Despite its importance, methods for measuring water potential are labor intensive. This limitation reduces measurement frequency, likely causes important transient events to be overlooked, and restricts development of a richer understanding of the impacts of integrated water stress on plant and ecosystem function. Recent technological advances have enabled in-situ, automated measurement of branch water potential over periods of weeks to months using stem psychrometers. We evaluated this technology through laboratory and field comparisons to standard pressure chamber measurements and with field installations in temperate forest, semi-arid woodland, and chaparral ecosystems. Performance was highly sensitive to installation procedures. With proper sealing, insulation, and radiation shielding, psychrometers typically differed from pressure chamber measurements by less than 0.2 MPa down to water potentials as low as -7 MPa. Measurements in tall trees reaffirmed the influence of gravity on water potential as previously documented with the pressure chamber. Psychrometer performance in situ was stable for periods of several weeks to months, with tissue wound response degrading sensor operation over time. We conclude that stem psychrometer technology is now suitable to serve as the foundation for a physiologically-based drought monitoring network that can anticipate important ecosystem impacts including changes in whole-system fluxes and mortality events.

  8. High-Resolution Near Real-Time Drought Monitoring in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhar, S.; Mishra, V.

    2017-12-01

    Drought in South Asia affect food and water security and pose challenges for millions of people. For policy-making, planning and management of water resources at the sub-basin or administrative levels, high-resolution datasets of precipitation and air temperature are required in near-real time. Here we develop a high resolution (0.05 degree) bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data that can be used to monitor near real-time drought conditions over South Asia. Moreover, the dataset can be used to monitor climatic extremes (heat waves, cold waves, dry and wet anomalies) in South Asia. A distribution mapping method was applied to correct bias in precipitation and air temperature (maximum and minimum), which performed well compared to the other bias correction method based on linear scaling. Bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data were used to estimate Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to assess the historical and current drought conditions in South Asia. We evaluated drought severity and extent against the satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomalies and satellite-driven Drought Severity Index (DSI) at 0.05˚. We find that the bias-corrected high-resolution data can effectively capture observed drought conditions as shown by the satellite-based drought estimates. High resolution near real-time dataset can provide valuable information for decision-making at district and sub- basin levels.

  9. AGRHYMET: A drought monitoring and capacity building center in the West Africa Region

    OpenAIRE

    Seydou B. Traore; Abdou Ali; Seydou H. Tinni; Mamadou Samake; Issa Garba; Issoufou Maigari; Agali Alhassane; Abdallah Samba; Maty Ba Diao; Sanoussi Atta; Pape Oumar Dieye; Hassan B. Nacro; Kouamé G.M. Bouafou

    2014-01-01

    The AGRHYMET Regional Center, a specialized institution of the Permanent Interstates Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), was created in 1974 at the aftermaths of the severe droughts that affected this region in the early 1970s. The mission assigned to the Center was to train personnel, provide adequate equipment for the meteorological and hydrological stations networks, and set up regional and national multidisciplinary working groups to monitor the meteorological, hydrologica...

  10. Application of NARR-based NLDAS Ensemble Simulations to Continental-Scale Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, C. J.; Cosgrove, B. A.

    2008-05-01

    Government estimates indicate that droughts cause billions of dollars of damage to agricultural interests each year. More effective identification of droughts would directly benefit decision makers, and would allow for the more efficient allocation of resources that might mitigate the event. Land data assimilation systems, with their high quality representations of soil moisture, present an ideal platform for drought monitoring, and offer many advantages over traditional modeling systems. The recently released North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) covers the NLDAS domain and provides all fields necessary to force the NLDAS for 27 years. This presents an ideal opportunity to combine NARR and NLDAS resources into an effective real-time drought monitor. Toward this end, our project seeks to validate and explore the NARR's suitability as a base for drought monitoring applications - both in terms of data set length and accuracy. Along the same lines, the project will examine the impact of the use of different (longer) LDAS model climatologies on drought monitoring, and will explore the advantages of ensemble simulations versus single model simulations in drought monitoring activities. We also plan to produce a NARR- and observation-based high quality 27 year, 1/8th degree, 3-hourly, land surface and meteorological forcing data sets. An investigation of the best way to force an LDAS-type system will also be made, with traditional NLDAS and NLDASE forcing options explored. This presentation will focus on an overview of the drought monitoring project, and will include a summary of recent progress. Developments include the generation of forcing data sets, ensemble LSM output, and production of model-based drought indices over the entire NLDAS domain. Project forcing files use 32km NARR model output as a data backbone, and include observed precipitation (blended CPC gauge, PRISM gauge, Stage II, HPD, and CMORPH) and a GOES-based bias correction of downward solar

  11. Remote monitoring in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.; Johnson, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, technology that permits the integration of monitoring sensors and instruments into a coherent network has become available. Such integrated monitoring systems provide a means for the automatic collection and assessment of sensor signals and instrument readings and for processing such signals and readings in near real time. To gain experience with the new monitoring system technology, the US Department of energy, through bilateral agreements with its international partners, has initiated a project to emplace demonstration systems in various nuclear facilities and conduct field trials of the technology. This effort is the International Remote Monitoring Project. Under this project, remote monitoring systems are being deployed around the world in an incremental manner. Each deployment is different and each offers lessons for improving the performance and flexibility of the technology. Few problems were encountered with the operation of the installations to date, and much has been learned about the operation and use of the new technology. In the future, the authors believe systems for safeguards applications should be capable of being monitored remotely, emphasize the use of sensors, and utilize selective triggering for recording of images. Remote monitoring across national borders can occur only in the context of a cooperative, nonadversarial implementation regime. However, significant technical and policy work remains to be done before widespread safeguards implementation of remote monitoring should be considered. This paper shows that an abundance of technology supports the implementation of integrated and remote monitoring systems. Current field trials of remote monitoring systems are providing practical data and operational experience to aid in the design of tomorrow's systems

  12. Predicting US Drought Monitor (USDM) states using precipitation, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration anomalies, Part I: Development of a non-discrete USDM index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) classifies drought into five discrete dryness/drought categories based on expert synthesis of numerous data sources. In this study, an empirical methodology is presented for creating a non-discrete U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) index that simultaneously 1) represents th...

  13. Evaluating new SMAP soil moisture for drought monitoring in the rangelands of the US High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel B.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Level 3 soil moisture datasets from the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite are evaluated for drought monitoring in rangelands.Validation of SMAP soil moisture (SSM) with in situ and modeled estimates showed high level of agreement.SSM showed the highest correlation with surface soil moisture (0-5 cm) and a strong correlation to depths up to 20 cm.SSM showed a reliable and expected response of capturing seasonal dynamics in relation to precipitation, land surface temperature, and evapotranspiration.Further evaluation using multi-year SMAP datasets is necessary to quantify the full benefits and limitations for drought monitoring in rangelands.

  14. G-REALM: A lake/reservoir monitoring tool for drought monitoring and water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, C. M.; Ricko, M.; Beckley, B. D.; Yang, X.; Tetrault, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    G-REALM is a NASA/USDA funded operational program offering water-level products for lakes and reservoirs and these are currently derived from the NASA/CNES Topex/Jason series of satellite radar altimeters. The main stakeholder is the USDA/Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) though many other end-users utilize the products for a variety of interdisciplinary science and operational programs. The FAS utilize the products within their CropExplorer Decision Support System (DSS) to help assess irrigation potential, and to monitor both short-term (agricultural) and longer-term (hydrological) drought conditions. There is increasing demand for a more global monitoring service that in particular, captures the variations in the smallest (1 to 100km2) reservoirs and water holdings in arid and semi-arid regions. Here, water resources are critical to both agriculture and regional security. A recent G-REALM 10-day resolution product upgrade and expansion has allowed for more accurate lake level products to be released and for a greater number of water bodies to be monitored. The next program phase focuses on the exploration of the enhanced radar altimeter data sets from the Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 missions with their improved spatial resolution, and the expansion of the system to the monitoring of 1,000 water bodies across the globe. In addition, a new element, the monitoring of surface water levels in wetland zones, is also being introduced. This aims to satisfy research and stakeholder requirements with respect to programs examining the links between inland fisheries catch potential and declining water levels, and to those monitoring the delicate balance between water resources, agriculture, and fisheries management in arid basins.

  15. Ecohydrological drought monitoring and prediction using a land data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Y.; Koike, T.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the importance of the ecological and agricultural aspects of severe droughts, few drought monitor and prediction systems can forecast the deficit of vegetation growth. To address this issue, we have developed a land data assimilation system (LDAS) which can simultaneously simulate soil moisture and vegetation dynamics. By assimilating satellite-observed passive microwave brightness temperature, which is sensitive to both surface soil moisture and vegetation water content, we can significantly improve the skill of a land surface model to simulate surface soil moisture, root zone soil moisture, and leaf area index (LAI). We run this LDAS to generate a global ecohydrological land surface reanalysis product. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how useful this new reanalysis product is to monitor and analyze the historical mega-droughts. In addition, using the analyses of soil moistures and LAI as initial conditions, we can forecast the ecological and hydrological conditions in the middle of droughts. We will present our recent effort to develop a near real time ecohydrological drought monitoring and prediction system in Africa by combining the LDAS and the atmospheric seasonal prediction.

  16. Localizing drought monitoring products to support agricultural climate service advisories in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamer, F. M.; Matin, M. A.; Yadav, N. K.; Bajracharya, B.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Krupnik, T. J.; Hussain, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change identifies drought as one of the major climate risks in South Asia. During past two decades, a large amount of climate data have been made available by the scientific community, but the deployment of climate information for local level and agricultural decision making remains less than optimal. The provisioning of locally calibrated, easily accessible, decision-relevant and user-oriented information, in the form of drought advisory service could help to prepare communities to reduce climate vulnerability and increase resilience. A collaborative effort is now underway to strengthen existing and/or establish new drought monitoring and early warning systems in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan by incorporating standard ground-based observations, earth observation datasets, and numerical forecast models. ICT-based agriculture drought monitoring platforms, hosted at national agricultural and meteorological institutions, are being developed and coupled with communications and information deployment strategies to enable the rapid and efficient deployment of information that farmers can understand, interpret, and act on to adapt to anticipated droughts. Particular emphasis is being placed on the calibration and validation of data products through retrospective analysis of time series data, in addition to the installation of automatic weather station networks. In order to contextualize monitoring products to that they may be relevant for farmers' primary cropping systems, district level farming practices calendars are being compiled and validated through focus groups and surveys to identify the most important times and situations during which farmers can adapt to drought. High-resolution satellite crop distribution maps are under development and validation to add value to these efforts. This programme also aims to enhance capacity of agricultural extension staff to better understand

  17. Remote monitoring for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Remote monitoring is not a new technology, and its application to safeguards-relevant activities has been examined for a number of years. On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy and international partners, remote monitoring systems have been emplaced in nuclear facilities and laboratories in various parts of the world. The experience gained from these Geld trials of remote monitoring systems has shown the viability of the concept of using integrated monitoring systems. Although a wide variety of sensors has been used in the remote monitoring field trials conducted to date, the possible range of instrumentation that might be used has scarcely been touched. As the technology becomes widespread, large amounts of data will become available to inspectors responsible for safeguards activities at the sites. Effective use of remote monitoring will require processing, archiving, presenting, and assessing of these data. To provide reasonable efficiency in the application of this technology, data processing should be done in a careful and organized manner. The problem will be not an issue of poring over scant records but of surviving under a deluge of information made possible by modern technology Fortunately, modem technology, which created the problem of the data glut, is available to come to the assistance of those inundated by data. Apart from the technological problems, one of the most important aspects of remote monitoring is the potential constraint related to the transmission of data out of a facility or beyond national borders. Remote monitoring across national borders can be seriously considered only in the context of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime. (author)

  18. Drought monitoring of Tumen river basin wetlands between 1991 and 2016 using Landsat TM/ETM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Zhu, W.; Lee, W. K.; Heo, S.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands area described as "the kidney of earth" owing to the importance of functions for stabilizing environment, long-term protection of water sources, as well as effectively minimize sediment loss, purify surface water from industrial and agricultural pollutants, and enhancing aquifer recharge. Drought monitoring in wetlands is vital due to the condition of water supply directly affecting the growth of wetland plants and local biodiversity. In this study, Vegetation Temperature Condition Index derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature is used to observe drought status from 1991 to 2016. For doing this, Landsat TM/ETM+ data for six periods are used to analytical processing. On the other hand, soil moisture maps which are acquired from CMA Land Data Assimilation System Version 1.0 for validating reliability of drought monitoring. As a result, the study shows most of area at normal moist level (decreased 25.8%) became slightly drought (increased 29.7%) in Tumen river basin cross-border (China and North Korea) wetland. The correlation between vegetation temperature condition index and soil moisture are 0.69, 0.32 and 0.2 for the layers of 0 5cm, 0 10cm, and 10 20cm, respectively. Although climate change probably contributes to the process of drought by decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature, human activities are shown as main factor that led to the process in this wetland.

  19. A Groundwater Resource Index (GRI) for drought monitoring and forecasting in a mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendicino, Giuseppe; Senatore, Alfonso; Versace, Pasquale

    2008-08-01

    SummaryDrought indices are essential elements of an efficient drought watching system, aimed at providing a concise overall picture of drought conditions. Owing to its simplicity, time-flexibility and standardization, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has become a very widely used meteorological index, even if it is not able to account for effects of aquifers, soil, land use characteristics, canopy growth and temperature anomalies. Many other drought indices have been developed over the years, with monitoring and forecasting purposes, also with the purpose of taking advantage of the opportunities offered by remote sensing and improved general circulation models (GCMs). Moreover, some aggregated indices aimed at capturing the different features of drought have been proposed, but very few drought indices are focused on the groundwater resource status. In this paper a novel Groundwater Resource Index (GRI) is presented as a reliable tool useful in a multi-analysis approach for monitoring and forecasting drought conditions. The GRI is derived from a simple distributed water balance model, and has been tested in a Mediterranean region, characterized by different geo-lithological conditions mainly affecting the summer hydrologic response of the catchments to winter precipitation. The analysis of the GRI characteristics shows a high spatial variability and, compared to the SPI through spectral analysis, a significant sensitivity to the lithological characterization of the analyzed region. Furthermore, the GRI shows a very high auto-correlation during summer months, useful for forecasting purposes. The capability of the proposed index in forecasting summer droughts was tested analyzing the correlation of the GRI April values with the mean summer runoff values of some river basins (obtaining a mean correlation value of 0.60) and with the summer NDVI values of several forested areas, where correlation values greater than 0.77 were achieved. Moreover, its performance

  20. Relative skills of soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture condition is an important indicator for agricultural drought monitoring. Through the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), vegetation optical depth (VOD) as well as surface soil moisture (SM) can be retrieved simultaneously from brightness temperature observations from the Advanced Mi...

  1. Benchmarking the performance of a land data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of land data assimilation systems to operational agricultural drought monitoring requires the development of (at least) three separate system sub-components: 1) a retrieval model to invert satellite-derived observations into soil moisture estimates, 2) a prognostic soil water balance...

  2. High-resolution near real-time drought monitoring in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Aadhar, Saran; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    Drought in South Asia affect food and water security and pose challenges for millions of people. For policy-making, planning, and management of water resources at sub-basin or administrative levels, high-resolution datasets of precipitation and air temperature are required in near-real time. We develop a high-resolution (0.05°) bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data that can be used to monitor near real-time drought conditions over South Asia. Moreover, the dataset can be used to m...

  3. Development and assessment of Transpirative Deficit Index (D-TDI) for agricultural drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna; Rienzner, Michele; Gandolfi, Claudio; Facchi, Arianna

    2017-04-01

    Drought is a major cause of crop yield loss, both in rainfed and irrigated agroecosystems. In past decades, many approaches have been developed to assess agricultural drought, usually based on the monitoring or modelling of the soil water content condition. All these indices show weaknesses when applied for a real time drought monitoring and management at the local scale, since they do not consider explicitly crops and soil properties at an adequate spatial resolution. This work describes a newly developed agricultural drought index, called Transpirative Deficit Index (D-TDI), and assesses the results of its application over a study area of about 210 km2 within the Po River Plain (northern Italy). The index is based on transforming the interannual distribution of the transpirative deficit (potential crop transpiration minus actual transpiration), calculated daily by means of a spatially distributed conceptual hydrological model and cumulated over user-selected time-steps, to a standard normal distribution (following the approach proposed by the meteorological index SPI - Standard Precipitation Index). For the application to the study area a uniform maize crop cover (maize is the most widespread crop in the area) and 22-year (1993-2014) meteorological data series were considered. Simulation results consist in maps of the index cumulated over 10-day time steps over a mesh with cells of 250 m. A correlation analysis was carried out (1) to study the characteristics and the memory of D-TDI and to assess its intra- and inter-annual variability, (2) to assess the response of the agricultural drought (i.e., the information provided by D-TDI) to the meteorological drought computed through the SPI over different temporal steps. The D-TDI is positively auto-correlated with a persistence of 30 days, and positively cross-correlated to the SPI with a persistence of 40 days, demonstrating that D-TDI responds to meteorological forcing. Correlation analyses demonstrate that soils

  4. Organization of internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badreddine, A.

    1986-07-01

    The nuclear energy takes a big part in the world's energy production. The nuclear techniques are used in most fields of life. Nevertheless the use of radioactive materials may cause prejudice to human beings by radiation contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection gives the general rules and regulations to avoid this danger. In the publication No. 30, the ICRP gives a metabolic model for the respiratory system and values of Annual Limit of Intake. The ALI for inhalation supposes a standard AMAD (Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of 1 um. We have measured the AMAD in a laboratory under different conditions of functioning in order to show its variation. Then we have analysed the effect of this variation on the internal contamination monitoring. Thus we have calculated the Effective Committed Dose (ECD), the ALI, then the Derived Investigation Level (DIL) for different values of AMAD for Whole-Body Counting (WBC)

  5. Drought monitoring in the Seybouse basin (Algeria over the last decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khezazna Amina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Algeria is amongst the African countries most affected by climate change impacts especially by drought which caused considerable economic losses in the past decades. In this paper, drought monitoring for the period between 1970 and 2011 was conducted in the Seybouse watershed by analysing annual rainfall data in terms of variability and trends along with the calculation of the standardized precipitation index (SPI. The results indicated important inter-annual rainfall fluctuation and a significant increasing trend. The estimated drought indices indicated that the Seybouse watershed experienced in the past a long dry period with a moderate severity followed by a long wet period at the majority of the study area. Moreover, the interpolation of the standardized precipitation indices (SPI on the entire Seybouse basin in GIS allowed visualizing and evaluating the spatial-temporal evolution of drought in the region which should help the decision-makers in the management of water resources, agriculture and other activities that may be affected by drought.

  6. Droughts and floods monitoring in Poland with SMOS, SEVIRI and model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, A. Z.; Stankiewicz, K.; Słomiński, J.; Słomińska, E.; Marczewski, W.

    2012-04-01

    Droughts and floods represent the extreme cases of hydrological regime. Both significantly influence ecological processes in the environment as well as socio-economic situation of human activity. Measurements of soil moisture and rainfall is being recognized as fundamental for droughts and floods monitoring. We used Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) L2 soil moisture data and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) rain rate approximation to evaluate the intensity and extend of droughts/floods events in Poland in 2010 and 2011. SEVIRI Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimate rain rates were used for calculation of monthly rain accumulation (24 SEVIRI L2 datasets per day), then projected to match SMOS spatial reference. Based on SEVIRI data, monthly sum of precipitation was estimated for each SMOS DGG cell within area of interest (the ROI covers Poland and the closest neighborhood). At the DGG level, SMOS SM and SEVIRI precipitation data were compared for each month since May 2010. Nearly two year series provided a background for droughts and floods events. Final L3 products of SMOS SM and SEVIRI precipitation were compared with operational, traditionally-developed drought risk maps, in order to evaluate the degree of agreement between remotely sensed products and models calculated with surface-based measurements only.

  7. Testing a new application for TOPSIS: monitoring drought and wet periods in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Ghanghermeh, AbdolAzim; Grab, Stefan W.

    2018-01-01

    Globally, droughts are a recurring major natural disaster owing to below normal precipitation, and are occasionally associated with high temperatures, which together negatively impact upon human health and social, economic, and cultural activities. Drought early warning and monitoring is thus essential for reducing such potential impacts on society. To this end, several experimental methods have previously been proposed for calculating drought, yet these are based almost entirely on precipitation alone. Here, for the first time, and in contrast to previous studies, we use seven climate parameters to establish drought/wet periods; these include: T min, T max, sunshine hours, relative humidity, average rainfall, number of rain days greater than 1 mm, and the ratio of total precipitation to number of days with precipitation, using the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) algorithm. To test the TOPSIS method for different climate zones, six sample stations representing a variety of different climate conditions were used by assigning weight changes to climate parameters, which are then applied to the model, together with multivariate regression analysis. For the six stations tested, model results indicate the lowest errors for Zabol station and maximum errors for Kermanshah. The validation techniques strongly support our proposed new method for calculating and rating drought/wet events using TOPSIS.

  8. Internal Electrostatic Discharge Monitor - IESDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wousik; Goebel, Dan M.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses an innovation designed to effectively monitor dielectric charging in spacecraft components to measure the potential for discharge in order to prevent damage from internal electrostatic discharge (IESD). High-energy electrons penetrate the structural materials and shielding of a spacecraft and then stop inside dielectrics and keep accumulating. Those deposited charges generate an electric field. If the electric field becomes higher than the breakdown threshold (approx. =2 x 10(exp 5) V/cm), discharge occurs. This monitor measures potentials as a function of dielectric depth. Differentiation of potential with respect to the depth yields electric field. Direct measurement of the depth profile of the potential in a dielectric makes real-time electronic field evaluation possible without simulations. The IESDM has been designed to emulate a multi-layer circuit board, to insert very thin metallic layers between the dielectric layers. The conductors serve as diagnostic monitoring locations to measure the deposited electron-charge and the charge dynamics. Measurement of the time-dependent potential of the metal layers provides information on the amount of charge deposited in the dielectrics and the movement of that charge with time (dynamics).

  9. Impacts of European drought events: insights from an international database of text-based reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Kerstin; Kohn, Irene; Blauhut, Veit; Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; Acácio, Vanda; Dias, Susana; Stagge, James H.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Kampragou, Eleni; Van Loon, Anne F.; Barker, Lucy J.; Melsen, Lieke A.; Bifulco, Carlo; Musolino, Dario; de Carli, Alessandro; Massarutto, Antonio; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis; Van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2016-03-01

    drought impacts, vulnerabilities, and risks across Europe. A key result is the extensive variety of impacts found across Europe and its documentation. This insight can therefore inform drought policy planning at national to international levels.

  10. Global Drought Monitoring and Forecasting based on Satellite Data and Land Surface Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Wood, E. F.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring drought globally is challenging because of the lack of dense in-situ hydrologic data in many regions. In particular, soil moisture measurements are absent in many regions and in real time. This is especially problematic for developing regions such as Africa where water information is arguably most needed, but virtually non-existent on the ground. With the emergence of remote sensing estimates of all components of the water cycle there is now the potential to monitor the full terrestrial water cycle from space to give global coverage and provide the basis for drought monitoring. These estimates include microwave-infrared merged precipitation retrievals, evapotranspiration based on satellite radiation, temperature and vegetation data, gravity recovery measurements of changes in water storage, microwave based retrievals of soil moisture and altimetry based estimates of lake levels and river flows. However, many challenges remain in using these data, especially due to biases in individual satellite retrieved components, their incomplete sampling in time and space, and their failure to provide budget closure in concert. A potential way forward is to use modeling to provide a framework to merge these disparate sources of information to give physically consistent and spatially and temporally continuous estimates of the water cycle and drought. Here we present results from our experimental global water cycle monitor and its African drought monitor counterpart (http://hydrology.princeton.edu/monitor). The system relies heavily on satellite data to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model to provide near real-time estimates of precipitation, evapotranspiraiton, soil moisture, snow pack and streamflow. Drought is defined in terms of anomalies of soil moisture and other hydrologic variables relative to a long-term (1950-2000) climatology. We present some examples of recent droughts and how they are identified by the system, including

  11. International Conference on Biotechnology for Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.; Mahmood, K.

    2005-01-01

    International Conference on Biotechnology for Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Plants was held from 28-29 March, 2005 at Islamabad, Pakistan. Abstracts of this conference have been presented in this proceeding. There were six technical sessions like 1) Stress Physiology/Ion Transport, 2) Stress Sensing and Signaling, 3) Genomis, Metabolomics and Proteomics, 4) Genetic Engineering, 5) Gene Expression, 6) Field Studies and Management. This seminar was quite useful specially drought resistance and salinity in the soil. Researches exchange their views in the seminar. (A.B.)

  12. The need for integration of drought monitoring tools for proactive food security management in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Haile, M.; Senay, G.; Wardlow, B.D.; Knutson, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the impact of drought and famine remains a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa despite ongoing drought relief assistance in recent decades. This is because drought and famine are primarily addressed through a crisis management approach when a disaster occurs, rather than stressing preparedness and risk management. Moreover, drought planning and food security efforts have been hampered by a lack of integrated drought monitoring tools, inadequate early warning systems (EWS), and insufficient information flow within and between levels of government in many sub-Saharan countries. The integration of existing drought monitoring tools for sub-Saharan Africa is essential for improving food security systems to reduce the impacts of drought and famine on society in this region. A proactive approach emphasizing integration requires the collective use of multiple tools, which can be used to detect trends in food availability and provide early indicators at local, national, and regional scales on the likely occurrence of food crises. In addition, improving the ability to monitor and disseminate critical drought-related information using available modern technologies (e.g., satellites, computers, and modern communication techniques) may help trigger timely and appropriate preventive responses and, ultimately, contribute to food security and sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa. ?? 2008 United Nations.

  13. Employee quality, monitoring environment and internal control

    OpenAIRE

    Chunli Liu; Bin Lin; Wei Shu

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of internal control employees (ICEs) on internal control quality. Using special survey data from Chinese listed firms, we find that ICE quality has a significant positive influence on internal control quality. We examine the effect of monitoring on this result and find that the effect is more pronounced for firms with strict monitoring environments, especially when the firms implement the Chinese internal control regulation system (CSOX), have higher institutional ow...

  14. Steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) as a tool to monitor plant heat and drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrero Mateo, M.; Carmo-Silva, A.; Salvucci, M.; Moran, S. M.; Hernandez, M.

    2012-12-01

    Crop yield decreases when photosynthesis is limited by heat or drought conditions. Yet farmers do not monitor crop photosynthesis because it is difficult to measure at the field scale in real time. Steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) can be used at the field level as an indirect measure of photosynthetic activity in both healthy and physiologically-perturbed vegetation. In addition, Fs can be measured by satellite-based sensors on a regular basis over large agricultural regions. In this study, plants of Camelina sativa grown under controlled conditions were subjected to heat and drought stress. Gas exchange and Fs were measured simultaneously with a portable photosynthesis system under light limiting and saturating conditions. Results showed that Fs was directly correlated with net CO2 assimilation (A) and inversely correlated with non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Analysis of the relationship between Fs and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) revealed significant differences between control and stressed plants that could be used to track the status, resilience, and recovery of photochemical processes. In summary, the results provide evidence that Fs measurements, even without normalization, are an easy means to monitor changes in plant photosynthesis, and therefore, provide a rapid assessment of plant stress to guide farmers in resource applications. Figure1. Net CO2 assimilation rate (A) of Camelina sativa plants under control conditions and after heat stress exposure for 1 or 3 days (1d-HS and 3d-HS, respectively) (right) and control, drought and re-watering conditions (left). Conditions for infra-red gas analysis were: reference CO2 = 380 μmol mol-1, PPFD = 500 μmol m-2 s-1 and Tleaf set to 25°C (control, drought and re-water) or 35°C (HS). Different letters denote significant differences at the α=0.05 level. Values are means±SEM (n=10). Figure 2. Stable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) of Camelina sativa plants under control conditions and

  15. Building Better Drought Resilience Through Improved Monitoring and Early Warning: Learning From Stakeholders in Europe, the USA, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, K.; Hannaford, J.; Bachmair, S.; Tijdeman, E.; Collins, K.; Svoboda, M.; Knutson, C. L.; Wall, N.; Smith, K. H.; Bernadt, T.; Crossman, N. D.; Overton, I. C.; Barker, L. J.; Acreman, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    With climate projections suggesting that droughts will intensify in many regions in future, improved drought risk management may reduce potential threats to freshwater security across the globe. One aspect that has been called for in this respect is an improvement of the linkage of drought monitoring and early warning, which currently focuses largely on indicators from meteorology and hydrology, to drought impacts on environment and society. However, a survey of existing monitoring and early warning systems globally, that we report on in this contribution, demonstrates that although impacts are being monitored, there is limited work, and certainly little consensus, on how to best achieve this linkage. The Belmont Forum project DrIVER (Drought impacts: Vulnerability thresholds in monitoring and early-warning research) carried out a number of stakeholder workshops in North America, Europe and Australia to elaborate on options for such improvements. A first round of workshops explored current drought management practices among a very diverse range of stakeholders, and their expectations from monitoring and early warning systems (particularly regarding impact characterization). The workshops revealed some disconnects between the indices used in the public early warning systems and those used by local decision-makers, e.g. to trigger drought measures. Follow-up workshops then explored how the links between information at these different scales can be bridged and applied. Impact information plays a key role in this task. This contribution draws on the lessons learned from the transdisciplinary interactions in DrIVER, to enhance the usability of drought monitoring and early-warning systems and other risk management strategies.

  16. Employee quality, monitoring environment and internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of internal control employees (ICEs on internal control quality. Using special survey data from Chinese listed firms, we find that ICE quality has a significant positive influence on internal control quality. We examine the effect of monitoring on this result and find that the effect is more pronounced for firms with strict monitoring environments, especially when the firms implement the Chinese internal control regulation system (CSOX, have higher institutional ownership or attach greater importance to internal control. Our findings suggest that ICEs play an important role in the design and implementation of internal control systems. Our study should be of interest to both top managers who wish to improve corporate internal control quality and regulators who wish to understand the mechanisms of internal control monitoring.

  17. Space-Derived Phenology, Retrieval and Use for Drought and Food Security Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, M.; Kayitakire, F.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Schucknecht, A.; LEO, O.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring vegetation conditions is a critical activity for assessing food security in Africa. Rural populations relying on rain-fed agriculture and livestock grazing are highly exposed to large seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in water availability. Monitoring the state, evolution, and productivity of vegetation, crops and pastures in particular, is important to conduct food emergency responses and plan for a long-term, resilient, development strategy in this area. The timing of onset, the duration, and the intensity of vegetation growth can be retrieved from space observations and used for food security monitoring to assess seasonal vegetation development and forecast the likely seasonal outcome when the season is ongoing. In this contribution we present a set of phenology-based remote sensing studies in support to food security analysis. Key phenological indicators are retrieved using a model-fit approach applied to SOPT-VEGETATION FAPAR time series. Remote-sensing phenology is first used to estimate i) the impact of the drought in the Horn of Africa, ii) crop yield in Tunisia and, iii) rangeland biomass production in Niger. Then the impact of the start and length of vegetation growing period on the total biomass production is assessed over the Sahel. Finally, a probabilistic approach using phenological information to forecast the occurrence of an end-of-season biomass production deficit is applied over the Sahel to map hot-spots of drought-related risk.

  18. The international remote monitoring project and implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnier, C.S.; Johnson, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The future of remote monitoring in International Safeguards system is analyzed. Problems of an update on the International Remote Monitoring Project are considered. The Project allows to remotely transmit safeguards-relevant data directly to IAEA from nuclear facilities worldwide. Description of integrated monitoring system (IMS) is given. A key element of state-of-art of IMS is modular nodal system which accepts information from sensors and provides information to both a data storage unit and a transmitter. Remote Monitoring Systems of Australia and Sweden are presented. 3 figs

  19. Integrating Enhanced Grace Terrestrial Water Storage Data Into the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housborg, Rasmus; Rodell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations nf the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including ground water. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors are two of the premier drought monitoring products available to decision-makers for assessing and minimizing drought impacts, but they rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has great potential to improve the Drought Monitors hy filling this observational gap. Horizontal, vertical and temporal disaggregation of the coarse-resolution GRACE TWS data has been accomplished by assimilating GRACE TWS anomalies into the Catchment Land Surface Model using ensemble Kalman smoother. The Drought Monitors combine several short-term and long-term drought indices and indicators expressed in percentiles as a reference to their historical frequency of occurrence for the location and time of year in question. To be consistent, we are in the process of generating a climatology of estimated soil moisture and ground water based on m 60-year Catchment model simulation which will subsequently be used to convert seven years of GRACE assimilated fields into soil moisture and groundwater percentiles. for systematic incorporation into the objective blends that constitute Drought Monitor baselines. At this stage we provide a preliminary evaluation of GRACE assimilated Catchment model output against independent datasets including soil moisture observations from Aqua AMSR-E and groundwater level observations from the U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Climate Response Network.

  20. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.

    2009-07-01

    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  1. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  2. The Global Drought Information System - A Decision Support Tool with Global Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, D. S.; Brewer, M.; Heim, R. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is a natural hazard which can cause famine in developing countries and severe economic hardship in developed countries. Given current concerns with the increasing frequency and magnitude of droughts in many regions of the world, especially in the light of expected climate change, drought monitoring and dissemination of early warning information in a timely fashion on a global scale is a critical concern as an important adaptation and mitigation strategy. While a number of nations, and a few continental-scale activities have developed drought information system activities, a global drought early warning system (GDEWS) remains elusive, despite the benefits highlighted by ministers to the Global Earth Observation System of System in 2008. In an effort to begin a process of drought monitoring with international collaboration, the National Integrated Drought Information System's (NIDIS) U.S. Drought Portal, a web-based information system created to address drought services and early warning in the United States, including drought monitoring, forecasting, impacts, mitigation, research, and education, volunteered to develop a prototype Global Drought Monitoring Portal (GDMP). Through integration of data and information at the global level, and with four continental-level partners, the GDMP has proven successful as a tool to monitor drought around the globe. At a past meeting between NIDIS, the World Meteorological Organization, and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems, it was recommended that the GDMP form the basis for a Global Drought Information System (GDIS). Currently, GDIS activities are focused around providing operational global drought monitoring products and assessments, incorporating additional drought monitoring information, especially from those areas without regional or continental-scale input, and incorporating drought-specific climate forecast information from the World Climate Research Programme. Additional GDIS pilot activities are

  3. The Crop Risk Zones Monitoring System for resilience to drought in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaroli, Patrizio; Rocchi, Leandro; De Filippis, Tiziana; Tarchiani, Vieri; Bacci, Maurizio; Toscano, Piero; Pasqui, Massimiliano; Rapisardi, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Food security is still one of the major concerns that Sahelian populations have to face. In the Sahel, agriculture is primarily based on rainfed crops and it is often structurally inadequate to manage the climatic variability. The predominantly rainfed cropping system of Sahel region is dependent on season quality on a year-to-year basis, and susceptible to weather extremes of droughts and extreme temperatures. Low water-storage capacity and high dependence on rainfed agriculture leave the agriculture sector even more vulnerable to climate risks. Crop yields may suffer significantly with either a late onset or early cessation of the rainy season, as well as with a high frequency of damaging dry spells. Early rains at the beginning of the season are frequently followed by dry spells which may last a week or longer. As the amount of water stored in the soil at this time of the year is negligible, early planted crops can suffer water shortage stresses during a prolonged dry spell. Therefore, the choice of the sowing date is of fundamental importance for farmers. The ability to estimate effectively the onset of the season and potentially dangerous dry spells becomes therefore vital for planning rainfed agriculture practices aiming to minimize risks and maximize yields. In this context, advices to farmers are key drivers for prevention allowing a better adaptation of traditional crop calendar to climatic variability. In the Sahel, particularly in CILSS (Permanent Interstates Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel) countries, national Early Warning System (EWS) for food security are underpinned by Multidisciplinary Working Groups (MWGs) lead by National Meteorological Services (NMS). The EWSs are mainly based on tools and models utilizing numeric forecasts and satellite data to outlook and monitor the growing season. This approach is focused on the early identification of risks and on the production of information within the prescribed time period for decision

  4. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Lagos, Octavio

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and for the case of the two long-term products the applicability for agricultural drought were evaluated when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite data. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite products, and nine statistics were used to evaluate their performance to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to analyze

  5. Benchmarking a Soil Moisture Data Assimilation System for Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hun, Eunjin; Crow, Wade T.; Holmes, Thomas; Bolten, John

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in the application of land surface data assimilation systems (LDAS) for agricultural drought applications, relatively little is known about the large-scale performance of such systems and, thus, the optimal methodological approach for implementing them. To address this need, this paper evaluates an LDAS for agricultural drought monitoring by benchmarking individual components of the system (i.e., a satellite soil moisture retrieval algorithm, a soil water balance model and a sequential data assimilation filter) against a series of linear models which perform the same function (i.e., have the same basic inputoutput structure) as the full system component. Benchmarking is based on the calculation of the lagged rank cross-correlation between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil moisture estimates acquired for various components of the system. Lagged soil moistureNDVI correlations obtained using individual LDAS components versus their linear analogs reveal the degree to which non-linearities andor complexities contained within each component actually contribute to the performance of the LDAS system as a whole. Here, a particular system based on surface soil moisture retrievals from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), a two-layer Palmer soil water balance model and an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is benchmarked. Results suggest significant room for improvement in each component of the system.

  6. Semi-Automatic Operational Service for Drought Monitoring and Forecasting in the Tuscany Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Magno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A drought-monitoring and forecasting system developed for the Tuscany region was improved in order to provide a semi-automatic, more detailed, timely and comprehensive operational service for decision making, water authorities, researchers and general stakeholders. Ground-based and satellite data from different sources (regional meteorological stations network, MODIS Terra satellite and CHIRPS/CRU precipitation datasets are integrated through an open-source, interoperable SDI (spatial data infrastructure based on PostgreSQL/PostGIS to produce vegetation and precipitation indices that allow following of the occurrence and evolution of a drought event. The SDI allows the dissemination of comprehensive, up-to-date and customizable information suitable for different end-users through different channels, from a web page and monthly bulletins, to interoperable web services, and a comprehensive climate service. The web services allow geospatial elaborations on the fly, and the geo-database can be increased with new input/output data to respond to specific requests or to increase the spatial resolution.

  7. Indirect monitoring of internal exposure for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro G, C.J.; Barreto F, J.; Todo A, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes No. 2242, Zip code 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The procedure used to the assessment of internal exposure of workers involved with dismantling lightning rods and radioactive smoke detectors is described. Due to the presence of the sources of {sup 241} Am in these devices, a monitoring program to the workers have been implemented. This paper presents an analytical method for the separation and analysis of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) in urine samples using solid-phase extraction chromatography and alpha spectrometry. The mean recovery obtained with this technique is about 80% and the detection limit for 24 h urine sample range between 0.6 mBqL{sup -1} and 1.0 mBqL{sup -1}. The assessment of intakes and internal doses are performed following ICRP Publication 78 recommendations and appropriated biokinetic models (ICRP, 1997). Assumptions have been made for routine monitoring of these workers and it is also discussed the establishment of the internal monitoring program using the results of alpha measurements. (Author)

  8. Indirect monitoring of internal exposure for actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro G, C.J.; Barreto F, J.; Todo A, A.

    2006-01-01

    The procedure used to the assessment of internal exposure of workers involved with dismantling lightning rods and radioactive smoke detectors is described. Due to the presence of the sources of 241 Am in these devices, a monitoring program to the workers have been implemented. This paper presents an analytical method for the separation and analysis of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) in urine samples using solid-phase extraction chromatography and alpha spectrometry. The mean recovery obtained with this technique is about 80% and the detection limit for 24 h urine sample range between 0.6 mBqL -1 and 1.0 mBqL -1 . The assessment of intakes and internal doses are performed following ICRP Publication 78 recommendations and appropriated biokinetic models (ICRP, 1997). Assumptions have been made for routine monitoring of these workers and it is also discussed the establishment of the internal monitoring program using the results of alpha measurements. (Author)

  9. Indonesian drought monitoring from space. A report of SAFE activity: Assessment of drought impact on rice production in Indonesia by satellite remote sensing and dissemination with web-GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shofiyati, Rizatus; Supriatna, Wahyu; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sofan, Parwati; Darmawan, Soni; Awaluddin

    2014-01-01

    Long droughts experienced in Indonesia in the past are identified as one of the main factors in the failure of rice production. In this regard, special attention to monitor the condition is encouraged to reduce the damage. Currently, various satellite data and approaches can withdraw valuable information for monitoring and anticipating drought hazards. Two types of drought, Meteorology and Agriculture, have been assessed. During the last 10 years, daily and monthly rainfall data derived from TRMM and GSMaP. MTSAT and AMSR-E data have been analyzed to identify meteorological drought. Agricultural drought has been studied by observing the character of some indices (EVI, VCI, VHI, LST, and NDVI) of sixteen-day and monthly MODIS data at a period of 5 years (2009 – 2013). Network for data transfer has been built between LAPAN (data provider), ICALRD (implementer), IAARD Cloud Computing, and University of Tokyo (technical supporter). A Web-GIS based Drought Monitoring Information System has been developed to disseminate the information to end users. This paper describes the implementation of remote sensing drought monitoring model and development of Web-GIS and satellite based information system

  10. Monitoring programmes for internal exposure: designing criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.; Gomez Parada, Ines.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer guidance for the decision whether a monitoring programme is required and how it should be designed. It can be also used as a tool for making the standing programmes consistent with the most recent publications on internal dosimetry, such as ISO 20553 'Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material', specific publications of the IAEA and ICRP, and including the conclusions of the OMINEX Project ('Optimisation of Monitoring for Internal Exposures') and IDEAS Project. It is established that the general purpose of the monitoring is verify that each worker is protected adequately against risks from radionuclide intakes and document that the protection complies with legal requirements. The criteria for a particular monitoring programme designing is based on the magnitude of the probable intake and the possibility of detecting a significant event when it occurs. So, the risk assessment for each work process must be evaluated and each worker is classified accordingly. This classification implies the acceptance of reference effective dose values (1 y 6 mSv/y ). (author) [es

  11. 2006–2015 mega-drought in the western USA and its monitoring from space data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2014 and early 2015, scientific and online publications strongly focused on the multi-year drought over the western USA, showing its dramatic consequences for the US economy, environment and society. Considering such an extraordinary drought, many questions related to its beginning, duration, dynamics, intensity, genesis, extent and frequency became unanswered and even became controversial. How different is this current event from the extraordinary US drought of the 1930s and other intensive droughts? Can this drought be classified as a mega-drought? This paper attempts to answer most of these questions, by applying National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA global operational satellite system estimating vegetation health. It has been shown that the latest western US drought began in 2006 and has continued for nine full years. Since vegetation stress still continues in the first few months of 2015 (when this paper is written coming into the 10th year, this drought was classified as a “mega-drought”. In 2006, when the drought began, vegetation was stressed in over 61% of the western USA. During 2012 and 2013 (time of the drought's intensification, this area increased to 71% and 67%, respectively. All 17 states of the western two-thirds of the USA were affected by this drought, especially South Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, Montana and Wyoming with up to 100% of the area affected by severe vegetation stress during 2012–2014. Compared to other catastrophic droughts of the past 100 years, the current drought during the worst year (2012, affected 71.3% of the western USA. This is comparable to the area affected by a catastrophic drought in 1934 (71.6% and much higher than the droughts in 1956 (49% and 1988 (31%. In terms of number of drought years, the other droughts in the western USA (1985–1986, 1988–1992, 1995–1996, and 2001–2003 were shorter and less intensive. Among western states, California was the most

  12. Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Hydrological Modeling Framework for Monitoring and Understanding Floods and Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. L.; Wu, W. Y.; Lin, P.; Maidment, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    system is appropriate for monitoring and studying floods and droughts. Directions for future research will be outlined and discussed.

  13. Improving agricultural drought monitoring in West Africa using root zone soil moisture estimates derived from NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, A.; Funk, C. C.; Yatheendradas, S.; Michaelsen, J.; Cappelarere, B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) relies heavily on remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation data to monitor agricultural drought in Sub-Saharan Africa and other places around the world. Analysts use satellite rainfall to calculate rainy season statistics and force crop water accounting models that show how the magnitude and timing of rainfall might lead to above or below average harvest. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is also an important indicator of growing season progress and is given more weight over regions where, for example, lack of rain gauges increases error in satellite rainfall estimates. Currently, however, near-real time NDVI is not integrated into a modeling framework that informs growing season predictions. To meet this need for our drought monitoring system a land surface model (LSM) is a critical component. We are currently enhancing the FEWS NET monitoring activities by configuring a custom instance of NASA's Land Information System (LIS) called the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System. Using the LIS Noah LSM, in-situ measurements, and remotely sensed data, we focus on the following questions: What is the relationship between NDVI and in-situ soil moisture measurements over the West Africa Sahel? How can we use this relationship to improve modeled water and energy fluxes over the West Africa Sahel? We investigate soil moisture and NDVI cross-correlation in the time and frequency domain to develop a transfer function model to predict soil moisture from NDVI. This work compares sites in southwest Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso, and Mali to test the generality of the transfer function. For several sites with fallow and millet vegetation in the Wankama catchment in southwest Niger we developed a non-parametric frequency response model, using NDVI inputs and soil moisture outputs, that accurately estimates root zone soil moisture (40-70cm). We extend this analysis by developing a low order parametric transfer function

  14. Integrating Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing and In-situ Measurements for Africa Drought Monitoring and Food Security Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X.; Qu, J. J.; Motha, R. P.; Stefanski, R.; Malherbe, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most complicated natural hazards, and causes serious environmental, economic and social consequences. Agricultural production systems, which are highly susceptible to weather and climate extremes, are often the first and most vulnerable sector to be affected by drought events. In Africa, crop yield potential and grazing quality are already nearing their limit of temperature sensitivity, and, rapid population growth and frequent drought episodes pose serious complications for food security. It is critical to promote sustainable agriculture development in Africa under conditions of climate extremes. Soil moisture is one of the most important indicators for agriculture drought, and is a fundamentally critical parameter for decision support in crop management, including planting, water use efficiency and irrigation. While very significant technological advances have been introduced for remote sensing of surface soil moisture from space, in-situ measurements are still critical for calibration and validation of soil moisture estimation algorithms. For operational applications, synergistic collaboration is needed to integrate measurements from different sensors at different spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation, a collaborative effort is demonstrated for drought monitoring in Africa, supported and coordinated by WMO, including surface soil moisture and crop status monitoring. In-situ measurements of soil moisture, precipitation and temperature at selected sites are provided by local partners in Africa. Measurements from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are integrated with in-situ observations to derive surface soil moisture at high spatial resolution. Crop status is estimated through temporal analysis of current and historical MODIS measurements. Integrated analysis of soil moisture data and crop status provides both in-depth understanding of drought conditions and

  15. Persistent drought monitoring using a microfluidic-printed electro-mechanical sensor of stomata in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Volodymyr B; Lew, Tedrick T S; Wong, Min Hao; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Giraldo, Juan P; Strano, Michael S

    2017-11-21

    Stomatal function can be used effectively to monitor plant hydraulics, photosensitivity, and gas exchange. Current approaches to measure single stomatal aperture, such as mold casting or fluorometric techniques, do not allow real time or persistent monitoring of the stomatal function over timescales relevant for long term plant physiological processes, including vegetative growth and abiotic stress. Herein, we utilize a nanoparticle-based conducting ink that preserves stomatal function to print a highly stable, electrical conductometric sensor actuated by the stomata pore itself, repeatedly and reversibly for over 1 week. This stomatal electro-mechanical pore size sensor (SEMPSS) allows for real-time tracking of the latency of single stomatal opening and closing times in planta, which we show vary from 7.0 ± 0.5 to 25.0 ± 0.5 min for the former and from 53.0 ± 0.5 to 45.0 ± 0.5 min for the latter in Spathiphyllum wallisii. These values are shown to correlate with the soil water potential and the onset of the wilting response, in quantitative agreement with a dynamic mathematical model of stomatal function. A single stoma of Spathiphyllum wallisii is shown to distinguish between incident light intensities (up to 12 mW cm -2 ) with temporal latency slow as 7.0 ± 0.5 min. Over a seven day period, the latency in opening and closing times are stable throughout the plant diurnal cycle and increase gradually with the onset of drought. The monitoring of stomatal function over long term timescales at single stoma level will improve our understanding of plant physiological responses to environmental factors.

  16. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Beyer, D.; Doerfel, H.; Erlenbach, H.; Fischbach, G.; Henrichs, K.; Keller, K.D.; Koenig, K.; Riedel, W.; Scheler, R.; Schieferdecker, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [de

  17. A technique for large scale drought monitoring (China National 94.8 Technique Import Project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Lu, G.; Zhou, G.; Roerink, G.J.; Qi, J.; Liu, J.; Wang, L.; Wen, J.; Jia, L.; Zheng, W.; Yue, Z.; Chen, X.

    2003-01-01

    Drought is one of the main natural disasters that man has suffered since the ancient era. In China nation-wide droughts occur year after year, imposing severe threats to the food security and constraining the sustainable development of social economy.The Water Resources Information Centre of the

  18. Monitoring of lipoxygenase-related plant emission for early detection of drought stress in greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takayama, K.; Jansen, R.M.C.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Early detection of plant stress is a key to effective plant management for crop production. Drought stress is a common abiotic stress in crop production and early detection of drought stress allows us to improve water usage effi ciency and crop quality by demandbased irrigation. This study

  19. Evaluation of PERSIANN-CDR for Meteorological Drought Monitoring over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks–Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR is analyzed for the assessment of meteorological drought. The evaluation is conducted over China at 0.5° spatial resolution against a ground-based gridded China monthly Precipitation Analysis Product (CPAP from 1983 to 2014 (32 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI at various time scales (1 month to 12 months is calculated for detecting drought events. The results show that PERSIANN-CDR depicts similar drought behavior as the ground-based CPAP in terms of capturing the spatial and temporal patterns of drought events over eastern China, where the intensity of gauge networks and the frequency of droughts are high. 6-month SPI shows the best agreement with CPAP in identifying drought months. However, large differences between PERSIANN-CDR and CPAP in depicting drought patterns and identifying specific drought events are found over northwestern China, particularly in Xinjiang and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region. Factors behind this may be due to the relatively sparse gauge networks, the complicated terrain and the performance of PERSIANN algorithm.

  20. Evaluation of Satellite Rainfall Estimates for Drought and Flood Monitoring in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tote, C.; Patricio, D.; Boogaard, H.L.; Wijngaart, van der R.; Tarnavsky, E.; Funk, C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and

  1. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported, coupons... internal corrosion. Each coupon or other means of monitoring internal corrosion must be checked two times...

  2. On the utility of land surface models for agricultural drought monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Crow

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The lagged rank cross-correlation between model-derived root-zone soil moisture estimates and remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI is examined between January 2000 and December 2010 to quantify the skill of various soil moisture models for agricultural drought monitoring. Examined modeling strategies range from a simple antecedent precipitation index to the application of modern land surface models (LSMs based on complex water and energy balance formulations. A quasi-global evaluation of lagged VI/soil moisture cross-correlation suggests, when globally averaged across the entire annual cycle, soil moisture estimates obtained from complex LSMs provide little added skill (< 5% in relative terms in anticipating variations in vegetation condition relative to a simplified water accounting procedure based solely on observed precipitation. However, larger amounts of added skill (5–15% in relative terms can be identified when focusing exclusively on the extra-tropical growing season and/or utilizing soil moisture values acquired by averaging across a multi-model ensemble.

  3. Global and Regional Real-time Systems for Flood and Drought Monitoring and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Xue, X.; Flamig, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A Hydrometeorological Extreme Mapping and Prediction System (HyXtreme-MaP), initially built upon the Coupled Routing and Excess STorage (CREST) distributed hydrological model, is driven by real-time quasi-global TRMM/GPM satellites and by the US Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) radar network with dual-polarimetric upgrade to simulate streamflow, actual ET, soil moisture and other hydrologic variables at 1/8th degree resolution quasi-globally (http://eos.ou.edu) and at 250-meter 2.5-mintue resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS: http://flash.ou.edu).­ Multifaceted and collaborative by-design, this end-to-end research framework aims to not only integrate data, models, and applications but also brings people together (i.e., NOAA, NASA, University researchers, and end-users). This presentation will review the progresses, challenges and opportunities of such HyXTREME-MaP System used to monitor global floods and droughts, and also to predict flash floods over the CONUS.

  4. The 2005 and 2012 major drought events in Iberia: monitoring vegetation dynamics and crop yields using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is recurrently affected by drought episodes and therefore by the adverse effects associated that range from severe water shortages to economic losses and related social impacts. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, Iberia was hit by two of the worst drought episodes ever recording in this semi-arid region (Garcia-Herrera at al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). These two drought episodes were extreme in both its magnitude and spatial extent. A tendency towards a drier Mediterranean for the period 1970-2010 in comparison with 1901-70 has been identified (Hoerling et al., 2012), reinforcing the need for a continuous monitoring of vegetation stress and reliable estimates of the drought impacts. The strong effect of water scarcity on vegetation dynamics is well documented in Mediterranean and other semi-arid regions. Despite the usual link established between the decrease of vegetation greenness and the lack of precipitation during a considerably long period, the impact on vegetation activity may be amplified by other climatic anomalies, such as high temperature, high wind, and low relative humidity. The recent availability of consistent satellite imagery covering large regions over long periods of time has progressively reinforced the role of remote sensing in environmental studies, in particular in those related to drought episodes (e.g. Gouveia et al., 2009). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the cumulative impact over time of drought conditions on vegetation over Iberian Peninsula. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2013. The entire 15-yr long period was analysed, but particular attention was devoted to the two extreme drought episodes of 2004-2005 and 2011-2012. During the hydrological years of 2004-2005 and 2011-2012 drought episodes negative anomalies of NDVI were observed over

  5. An approach to integrate spatial and climatological data as support to drought monitoring and agricultural management problems in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetto, Sabrina; Facello, Anna; Camaro, Walther; Isotta Cristofori, Elena; Demarchi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Drought is a natural hazard characterized by an abnormally dry event in the hydrological cycle caused by insufficient precipitation over an extended period of time, which affects more people than any other natural disaster and results in social, economic and environmental costs. In Africa, the economic system is based primarily on natural resources for example farming. For this reason, climate variability and events such as drought are phenomena that can represent significant disturbances and threats in the agricultural systems. In particular, this study concerns the monitoring of environmental changes in the south sector of South Sudan. The climate and environment in the South Sudan have shown localised changes during the course of this century and recurrent wars and droughts in the last years determined a large food-crisis. Actually, the security situation is stabilised with sporadic fighting concentrated in Jonglei, Unity and Upper Nile States. With the stabilisation of the conflict, many refugees have returned to their regions, trying to recover the economic structure based mainly on agriculture. For this reason, it is important to monitoring and analysis the vegetation and drought trend over the last years to support agricultural development and food security, in particular in post-conflict areas. This study focuses on the analysis of the relationship between the temporal variations of state of vegetation and the precipitation patterns. A historical analysis of the vegetation behaviour (NDVI) and the drought during the year is developed. In addition, with the aim to identify the wet and dry seasons, an analysis of precipitation is performed. Based on the vegetation and precipitation trends obtained, it is possible to characterize the best areas to start an agricultural system, giving priority to certain areas in order to plan the land use for agricultural purposes and programming crop (which and where). Consequently, with the aim to identify possible

  6. A global drought monitoring system: insights of an approach integrating remote sensing data and vulnerability to food insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Perez, Francesca; Cámaro, Walther; Demarchi, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are currently underdeveloped compared to those related to other natural hazards. Both forecasting and monitoring of drought events are still posing challenges to the scientific community. In fact, the multifaceted nature of drought (i.e. hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. Similarly, drought impacts are various and complex thus difficult to be univocally measured. In the present study an approach for monitoring drought in near-real time and for estimating its impacts is presented. The EWS developed runs on a global extent and is mainly based on the early detection and monitoring of vegetation stress. On the one hand the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters, whose extraction is based on the analysis of the MODIS-derived NDVI function, allows the fortnightly assessment of the vegetation productivity which could be expected at the end of the growing season. On the other hand, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), calculated adapting TRMM-derived precipitation data in a selected distribution is used, before the growing season start, in order to early detect meteorological conditions which could give rise to vegetation stress events. During the growing season the SPI is used as check information for vegetation conditions. The relationships between rainfall and vegetation dynamics have been statistically analyzed considering different types of vegetation, in order to identify the most suitable rainfall cumulating interval to be used for the proposed monitoring procedures in different areas. A simplified vulnerability model, coupled with the above-mentioned hazard data, returns food security conditions, i.e. the estimated impacts over an investigated area. The model includes a set of agricultural indicators that accounts for the diversity of cultivated crops, the percentage of irrigated area and the suitability of

  7. Assessing Impacts of National Scale Droughts on Cereal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udmale, P. D.; Ichikawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Till date, several drought indices have been developed and used to monitor local to regional scale droughts on various temporal scales. However, there are no generalized criteria to define a threshold to declare a national level drought using drought indices. EM-DAT (a global database on natural and technological disasters) lists disasters (including drought) from 1900 until the present confirming one of the following criteria: 10 or more people dead; 100 or more people affected; the declaration of a state of emergency; or a call for international assistance. This data is gathered from various organizations like United Nations Institutes, Governments, etc. and do not cover all disasters or have political limitations that could affect the numbers. These criteria are neither objective nor quantitative, and accordingly may cause uncertainties when the data is used for further investigation on disaster impacts. Here we present a methodology to define drought at a national scale and its impacts on national level crop production (mainly cereals). We define drought based on the percentage of cropland area affected by drought in a country during its seasonal rainfall. For this purpose meteorological definition of drought in combination with country's cropland area is proposed to prepare a drought inventory for major cereal producing countries (1902-2012). This drought inventory together with FAO's Crop data is used to identify the impacts of drought on a national level cereal production (and yield) using Superposed Epoch Analysis for the period 1961-2012.

  8. Internal dosimetry monitoring equipment: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Lynch, T.P.; Strom, D.J.; Lardy, M.M.

    1993-09-01

    We have attempted to characterize the current and future status of in vivo and in vitro measurement programs coupled with the associated radioanalytical methods and workplace monitoring. Developments in these areas must be carefully integrated by internal dosimetrists, radiochemists and field health physicists. Their goal should be uniform improvement rather than to focus on one specific area (e.g., dose modeling) to the neglect of other areas where the measurement capabilities are substantially less sophisticated and, therefore, the potential source of error is greatest

  9. Evaluation of Satellite Rainfall Estimates for Drought and Flood Monitoring in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Carolien Toté; Domingos Patricio; Hendrik Boogaard; Raymond van der Wijngaart; Elena Tarnavsky; Chris Funk

    2015-01-01

    Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and floods and thus, an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different rainfall products is valuable. Three dekadal (10-day) gridded satellite rainfall products (TAMSAT African Rainfall Cl...

  10. Making the Case for a Water Monitor: A Potential Complement to the U.S. Drought Monitor within a Water Management Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, M. D.; Fuchs, B.; Poulsen, C.; Nothwehr, J.; Swigart, J.

    2017-12-01

    Launched in 1999, the weekly U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) is now approaching its twentieth year of existence. Over that time, it has built up an expert validation community that has grown into a network of nearly 450 persons. From the very beginning, questions from the user community have been centered on how we can do a better job of addressing and depicting short- vs. long-term conditions on a single map such as the U.S. Drought Monitor. Early efforts to fill the water supply/demand/forecast void have simply utilized existing hydrological websites and products from a variety of sources across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The question being asked repeatedly has been "Why not develop two separate maps?" Can such an approach strengthen our capacity to assess both the supply and demand side of the equation when it comes to balancing drought and water supply? This presentation will describe in more detail the evolution of the USDM and how the need for a complementary sister product such as a Water Monitor has emerged. We will explore how such a tool could better capture and collectively assess key hydroclimatic parameters (e.g., in situ, modeled and remotely sensed products), better integrate streamflow forecasts, and reflect surface and groundwater resources and snow water equivalent. In essence, the goal is to develop a more usable decision support tool that has the potential to better facilitate water management and markets in the United States. Ultimately, there are vast differences between the USDM and Water Monitor products that we must address in order to better reflect how drought affects both managed and unmanaged systems.

  11. Survey of environment related monitoring programmes of international organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report is a summary of environment-related monitoring programmes of international governmental organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes. it presents the situation as of November 1986: This survey has been prepared by a consultant for the Secretariat as a background document for the second meeting of the Environment Experts, Economic Summit in Munich, November 1986. It serves information purposes only. No claim for completeness is intended. This report may also prove to be helpful for administrators and the scientific community as regards gaining knowledge on present arrangements, approaches and environmental activities in the framework of international organizations. In this light, the present report could facilitate communication and progress in solving pressing environmental problems on the international level. (orig.)

  12. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring: strategy and datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Martin; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Haeberli, Wilfried; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeff; Nussbaumer, Samuel; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce; Zemp, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Internationally coordinated monitoring of long-term glacier changes provide key indicator data about global climate change and began in the year 1894 as an internationally coordinated effort to establish standardized observations. Today, world-wide monitoring of glaciers and ice caps is embedded within the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as an important Essential Climate Variable (ECV). The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) was established in 1999 with the task of coordinating measurements and to ensure the continuous development and adaptation of the international strategies to the long-term needs of users in science and policy. The basic monitoring principles must be relevant, feasible, comprehensive and understandable to a wider scientific community as well as to policy makers and the general public. Data access has to be free and unrestricted, the quality of the standardized and calibrated data must be high and a combination of detailed process studies at selected field sites with global coverage by satellite remote sensing is envisaged. Recently a GTN-G Steering Committee was established to guide and advise the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. Several online databases containing a wealth of diverse data types having different levels of detail and global coverage provide fast access to continuously updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. For world-wide inventories, data are now available through (a) the World Glacier Inventory containing tabular information of about 130,000 glaciers covering an area of around 240,000 km2, (b) the GLIMS-database containing digital outlines of around 118,000 glaciers with different time stamps and

  13. National and international nuclear material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The status of nuclear materials in both the U.S. and Former Soviet Union is changing based upon the execution of agreements relative to weapons materials production and weapon dismantlement. The result of these activities is that a considerably different emphasis is being placed on how nuclear materials are viewed and utilized. Even though much effort is being expended on the final disposition of these materials, the interim need for storage and security of the material is increasing. Both safety and security requirements exist to govern activities when these materials are placed in storage. These requirements are intended to provide confidence that the material is not being misused and that the storage operations are conducted safely. Both of these goals can be significantly enhanced if technological monitoring of the material is performed. This paper will briefly discuss the traditional manual methods of U.S. and international material monitoring and then present approaches and technology that are available to achieve the same goals under the evolving environment

  14. Monitoring requirements for assessment of internal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    Data obtained by routine personnel monitoring is usually not a sufficient basis for estimation of dose. Collected data must be interpreted carefully and supplemented with appropriate information before reasonably accurate estimates of dose (i.e., accurate enough to indicate whether or nor personnel are exposed in excess of recommended limits) can be developed. When the exposure is of sufficient magnitude that a rather precise estimate of dose is needed, the health physicist will bring to bear on the problem other, more refined, methods of dosimetry. These might include a reconstruction of the incident and, for internal emitters, an extensive series of in vivo measurements or analyses of excreta. Thus, cases of special significance must often be evaluated using techniques and resources beyond those routinely employed. This is not a criticism of most routine monitoring programs. These programs are usually carefully designed in a manner commensurate with the degree of exposure routinely encountered and the requirement of a practical program of radiation protection. 10 refs

  15. Integrated Drought Monitoring and Forecasts for Decision Making in Water and Agricultural Sectors over the Southeastern US under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Mazrooei, A.; Ward, R.

    2017-12-01

    Changing climate arising from structured oscillations such as ENSO and rising temperature poses challenging issues in meeting the increasing water demand (due to population growth) for public supply and agriculture over the Southeast US. This together with infrastructural (e.g., most reservoirs being within-year systems) and operational (e.g., static rule curves) constraints requires an integrated approach that seamlessly monitors and forecasts water and soil moisture conditions to support adaptive decision making in water and agricultural sectors. In this talk, we discuss the utility of an integrated drought management portal that both monitors and forecasts streamflow and soil moisture over the southeast US. The forecasts are continuously developed and updated by forcing monthly-to-seasonal climate forecasts with a land surface model for various target basins. The portal also houses a reservoir allocation model that allows water managers to explore different release policies in meeting the system constraints and target storages conditioned on the forecasts. The talk will also demonstrate how past events (e.g., 2007-2008 drought) could be proactively monitored and managed to improve decision making in water and agricultural sectors over the Southeast US. Challenges in utilizing the portal information from institutional and operational perspectives will also be presented.

  16. Multi-index time series monitoring of drought and fire effects on desert grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Buckley, Steven; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Coe, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    The Western United States is expected to undergo both extended periods of drought and longer wildfire seasons under forecasted global climate change and it is important to understand how these disturbances will interact and affect recovery and composition of plant communities in the future. In this research paper we describe the temporal response of grassland communities to drought and fire in southern Arizona, where land managers are using repeated, prescribed fire as a habitat restoration tool. Using a 25-year atlas of fire locations, we paired sites with multiple fires to unburned control areas and compare satellite and field-based estimates of vegetation cover over time. Two hundred and fifty Landsat TM images, dating from 1985–2011, were used to derive estimates of Total Vegetation Fractional Cover (TVFC) of live and senescent grass using the Soil-Adjusted Total Vegetation Index (SATVI) and post-fire vegetation greenness using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). We also implemented a Greenness to Cover Index that is the difference of time-standardized SATVI-TVFC and NDVI values at a given time and location to identify post-fire shifts in native, non-native, and annual plant cover. The results highlight anomalous greening and browning during drought periods related to amounts of annual and non-native plant cover present. Results suggest that aggressive application of prescribed fire may encourage spread of non-native perennial grasses and annual plants, particularly during droughts.

  17. Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for soil moisture and its application for monitoring drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Fan, Li; Wu, Wei; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2017-09-26

    Soil moisture data can reflect valuable information on soil properties, terrain features, and drought condition. The current study compared and assessed the performance of different interpolation methods for estimating soil moisture in an area with complex topography in southwest China. The approaches were inverse distance weighting, multifarious forms of kriging, regularized spline with tension, and thin plate spline. The 5-day soil moisture observed at 167 stations and daily temperature recorded at 33 stations during the period of 2010-2014 were used in the current work. Model performance was tested with accuracy indicators of determination coefficient (R 2 ), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), root mean square error (RMSE), relative root mean square error (RRMSE), and modeling efficiency (ME). The results indicated that inverse distance weighting had the best performance with R 2 , MAPE, RMSE, RRMSE, and ME of 0.32, 14.37, 13.02%, 0.16, and 0.30, respectively. Based on the best method, a spatial database of soil moisture was developed and used to investigate drought condition over the study area. The results showed that the distribution of drought was characterized by evidently regional difference. Besides, drought mainly occurred in August and September in the 5 years and was prone to happening in the western and central parts rather than in the northeastern and southeastern areas.

  18. Satellite-based drought monitoring in Kenya in an operational setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisch, A.; Atzberger, C.; Luminari, L.

    2015-04-01

    The University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) in Vienna (Austria) in cooperation with the National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) in Nairobi (Kenya) has setup an operational processing chain for mapping drought occurrence and strength for the territory of Kenya using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI at 250 m ground resolution from 2000 onwards. The processing chain employs a modified Whittaker smoother providing consistent NDVI "Mondayimages" in near real-time (NRT) at a 7-daily updating interval. The approach constrains temporally extrapolated NDVI values based on reasonable temporal NDVI paths. Contrary to other competing approaches, the processing chain provides a modelled uncertainty range for each pixel and time step. The uncertainties are calculated by a hindcast analysis of the NRT products against an "optimum" filtering. To detect droughts, the vegetation condition index (VCI) is calculated at pixel level and is spatially aggregated to administrative units. Starting from weekly temporal resolution, the indicator is also aggregated for 1- and 3-monthly intervals considering available uncertainty information. Analysts at NDMA use the spatially/temporally aggregated VCI and basic image products for their monthly bulletins. Based on the provided bio-physical indicators as well as a number of socio-economic indicators, contingency funds are released by NDMA to sustain counties in drought conditions. The paper shows the successful application of the products within NDMA by providing a retrospective analysis applied to droughts in 2006, 2009 and 2011. Some comparisons with alternative products (e.g. FEWS NET, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network) highlight main differences.

  19. Emergency preparedness and internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.

    2000-01-01

    After the radiation accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraina in 1986 and in Goiania, Brasil in 1987, much resource have been spent on improving emergency preparedness. Especially regarding transfer of information using the most recent techniques and establishment of 24 hour emergency service of radiation safety experts the development has been fast. The very first measures in a possible emergency situation have been trained nationally and internationally. Less attention has been paid to measures in a somewhat later phase. To be able to react fast enough in an emergency situation it is essential to have well documented plans, written instructions and suitable measurement equipment ready for use. Equally important is that there is trained staff prepared to do measurements without delay. In the first phase of a nuclear accident radioactive iodine is of primary concern regarding internal contamination. After the Chernobyl accident the number of childhood thyroidea cancer clearly exceeded the expected number. Reliable direct measurements of I-131 in the thyroidea in Ukraina, Russia and Belarussia were done only to a limited number of children. Many uncertainties are involved in the data used for dose estimation. Later the body burdens of radiocesium or other radionuclides might be of most importance. Normal whole-body counting instruments can be used if only small groups need to be measured. For large groups of people in an emergency situation faster methods are needed. Different types of monitors installed at places where radiation workers are controlled for internal contamination as well as gamma cameras at hospitals can be used. Rapid field measurements of the whole-body and especially of the thyroid can been done with less sophisticated instruments. In the acute phase of a nuclear accident such measurements should be done without delay. Instruments and staff trained to use them should be available and plans for which groups of people to measure prepared. The detection level

  20. Using Satellite Data and Land Surface Models to Monitor and Forecast Drought Conditions in Africa and Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, K. R.; Shukla, S.; Getirana, A.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; McNally, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Badr, H. S.; Funk, C. C.; Koster, R. D.; Narapusetty, B.; Jung, H. C.; Roningen, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Drought and water scarcity are among the important issues facing several regions within Africa and the Middle East. In addition, these regions typically have sparse ground-based data networks, where sometimes remotely sensed observations may be the only data available. Long-term satellite records can help with determining historic and current drought conditions. In recent years, several new satellites have come on-line that monitor different hydrological variables, including soil moisture and terrestrial water storage. Though these recent data records may be considered too short for the use in identifying major droughts, they do provide additional information that can better characterize where water deficits may occur. We utilize recent satellite data records of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage (TWS) and the European Space Agency's Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture retrievals. Combining these records with land surface models (LSMs), NASA's Catchment and the Noah Multi-Physics (MP), is aimed at improving the land model states and initialization for seasonal drought forecasts. The LSMs' total runoff is routed through the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) to simulate surface water dynamics, which can provide an additional means of validation against in situ streamflow data. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) software framework drives the LSMs and HyMAP and also supports the capability to assimilate these satellite retrievals, such as soil moisture and TWS. The LSMs are driven for 30+ years with NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2), and the USGS/UCSB Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) rainfall dataset. The seasonal water deficit forecasts are generated using downscaled and bias-corrected versions of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5), and NOAA's Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) forecasts

  1. Building a Framework in Improving Drought Monitoring and Early Warning Systems in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Wall, N.; Haigh, T.; Shiferaw, A. S.; Beyene, S.; Demisse, G. B.; Zaitchik, B.

    2015-12-01

    Decision makers need a basic understanding of the prediction models and products of hydro-climatic extremes and their suitability in time and space for strategic resource and development planning to develop mitigation and adaptation strategies. Advances in our ability to assess and predict climate extremes (e.g., droughts and floods) under evolving climate change suggest opportunity to improve management of climatic/hydrologic risk in agriculture and water resources. In the NASA funded project entitled, "Seasonal Prediction of Hydro-Climatic Extremes in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) under Evolving Climate Conditions to Support Adaptation Strategies," we are attempting to develop a framework that uses dialogue between managers and scientists on how to enhance the use of models' outputs and prediction products in the GHA as well as improve the delivery of this information in ways that can be easily utilized by managers. This process is expected to help our multidisciplinary research team obtain feedback on the models and forecast products. In addition, engaging decision makers is essential in evaluating the use of drought and flood prediction models and products for decision-making processes in drought and flood management. Through this study, we plan to assess information requirements to implement a robust Early Warning Systems (EWS) by engaging decision makers in the process. This participatory process could also help the existing EWSs in Africa and to develop new local and regional EWSs. In this presentation, we report the progress made in the past two years of the NASA project.

  2. Automated Monitoring of Carbon Fluxes in a Northern Rocky Mountain Forest Indicates Above-Average Net Primary Productivity During the 2015 Western U.S. Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, J.; Hudiburg, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    As global temperatures rise in the 21st century, "hotter" droughts will become more intense and persistent, particularly in areas which already experience seasonal drought. Because forests represent a large and persistent terrestrial carbon sink which has previously offset a significant proportion of anthropogenic carbon emissions, forest carbon cycle responses to drought have become a prominent research concern. However, robust mechanistic modeling of carbon balance responses to projected drought effects requires improved observation-driven representations of carbon cycle processes; many such component processes are rarely monitored in complex terrain, are modeled or unrepresented quantities at eddy covariance sites, or are monitored at course temporal scales that are not conducive to elucidating process responses at process time scales. In the present study, we demonstrate the use of newly available and affordable automated dendrometers for the estimation of intra-seasonal Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in a Northern Rocky Mountain conifer forest which is impacted by seasonal drought. Results from our pilot study suggest that NPP was restricted by mid-summer moisture deficit under the extraordinary 2015 Western U.S. drought, with greater than 90% off stand growth occurring prior to August. Examination of growth on an inter-annual scale, however, suggests that the study site experienced above-average NPP during this exceptionally hot year. Taken together, these findings indicate that intensifying mid-summer drought in regional forests has affected the timing but has not diminished the magnitude of this carbon flux. By employing automated instrumentation for the intra-annual assessment of NPP, we reveal that annual NPP in regional forests is largely determined before mid-summer and is therefore surprisingly resilient to intensities of seasonal drought that exceed normal conditions of the 20th century.

  3. Satellite-based hybrid drought monitoring tool for prediction of vegetation condition in Eastern Africa: A case study for Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tsegaye; Demisse, Getachew Berhan; Zaitchik, Ben; Dinku, Tufa

    2014-03-01

    An experimental drought monitoring tool has been developed that predicts the vegetation condition (Vegetation Outlook) using a regression-tree technique at a monthly time step during the growing season in Eastern Africa. This prediction tool (VegOut-Ethiopia) is demonstrated for Ethiopia as a case study. VegOut-Ethiopia predicts the standardized values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at multiple time steps (weeks to months into the future) based on analysis of "historical patterns" of satellite, climate, and oceanic data over historical records. The model underlying VegOut-Ethiopia capitalizes on historical climate-vegetation interactions and ocean-climate teleconnections (such as El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) expressed over the 24 year data record and also considers several environmental characteristics (e.g., land cover and elevation) that influence vegetation's response to weather conditions to produce 8 km maps that depict future general vegetation conditions. VegOut-Ethiopia could provide vegetation monitoring capabilities at local, national, and regional levels that can complement more traditional remote sensing-based approaches that monitor "current" vegetation conditions. The preliminary results of this case study showed that the models were able to predict the vegetation stress (both spatial extent and severity) in drought years 1-3 months ahead during the growing season in Ethiopia. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and satellite-observed vegetation condition range from 0.50 to 0.90. Based on the lessons learned from past research activities and emerging experimental forecast models, future studies are recommended that could help Eastern Africa in advancing knowledge of climate, remote sensing, hydrology, and water resources.

  4. Internal control in the company in order to financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov A.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article explores the definition of financial monitoring, financial analysis and internal control in aspect to their correlation to fight money laundering and terrorism financing. Internal control is analyzed from the point of view of law, economics and management. The author pays much attention in the article to the work of systems of financial monitoring in organizations.

  5. Water shortage and drought monitoring in Bačka region (Vojvodina, North Serbia: Setting-up measurement stations network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mlađen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and drought, as the most important hydro-climatic hazards, cause significant damages in case of most continents including SE Europe. An experimental field established in Bačka region (Vojvodina Autonomous Province, North Serbia for the purpose of droughts/water shortage monitoring and remote sensing under ongoing IPA project 'Water shortage hazard and adaptive water management strategies in the Hungarian-Serbian cross-border region' (WAHASTRAT. The main objective of this project is to determine water shortage con­flicts on a local and regional level, and to reveal the frequency, extent and severity of future hydro-cli­matic hazards. The locations of eight measurement stations selected on the principle of representativeness in term of terrain configuration and soil cover. An area in which measurement stations were placed, covers about 1000 km2 (12% of total area of Bačka and includes geomorphic units which reliable represent the relief of the whole Bačka region. Measurement stations were placed on 4 out of 5 most common soil types in the Bačka and Vojvodina: chernozem, alluvial soils, smonitza and saline and alkali soils. A measurement equipment system was constructed for the requirements of the WAHASTRAT project. The aim was to design a user-friendly and affordable IT solution, which would enable continuous re­mote monitoring of meteorological parameters and soil moisture. Independent solar-powered meas­urement stations are able to automatically measure air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, wind di­rection, precipitation and soil moisture.

  6. Monitoring poverty in the Philippines | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... Measuring quality-of-life ... Through this work, a community-based poverty monitoring system has ... Regular surveys provide data on macro variables, such as the rate of inflation, the exchange rate, and the balance of trade.

  7. Evaluating the Utility of Remotely-Sensed Soil Moisture Retrievals for Operational Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, John D.; Crow, Wade T.; Zhan, Xiwu; Jackson, Thomas J.; Reynolds,Curt

    2010-01-01

    Soil moisture is a fundamental data source used by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) International Production Assessment Division (IPAD) to monitor crop growth stage and condition and subsequently, globally forecast agricultural yields. Currently, the USDA IPAD estimates surface and root-zone soil moisture using a two-layer modified Palmer soil moisture model forced by global precipitation and temperature measurements. However, this approach suffers from well-known errors arising from uncertainty in model forcing data and highly simplified model physics. Here we attempt to correct for these errors by designing and applying an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation system to integrate surface soil moisture retrievals from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) into the USDA modified Palmer soil moisture model. An assessment of soil moisture analysis products produced from this assimilation has been completed for a five-year (2002 to 2007) period over the North American continent between 23degN - 50degN and 128degW - 65degW. In particular, a data denial experimental approach is utilized to isolate the added utility of integrating remotely-sensed soil moisture by comparing EnKF soil moisture results obtained using (relatively) low-quality precipitation products obtained from real-time satellite imagery to baseline Palmer model runs forced with higher quality rainfall. An analysis of root-zone anomalies for each model simulation suggests that the assimilation of AMSR-E surface soil moisture retrievals can add significant value to USDA root-zone predictions derived from real-time satellite precipitation products.

  8. Monitoring drought impact on Mediterranean oak savanna vegetation using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Dugo, Maria P.; Carpintero, Elisabet; Andreu, Ana

    2015-04-01

    A holm oak savanna, known as dehesa in Spain and montado in Portugal, is the largest agroforest ecosystem in Europe, covering about 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Papanastasis et al., 2004). It is considered an example of sustainable land use, supporting a large number of species and diversity of habitats and for its importance in rural development and economy (Plieninger et al., 2001). It is a combination between an agricultural and a naturally vegetated ecosystem, consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus Ilex and Quercus suber) combined with a sub-canopy composed by crops, annual grassland and/or shrubs. It has a Mediterranean climate with severe periodic droughts. In the last decades, this system is being exposed to multiple threats derived from socio-economic changes and intensive agricultural use, which have caused environmental degradation, including tree decline, changes in soil properties and hydrological processes, and an increase of soil erosion (Coelho et al., 2004). Soil water dynamics plays a central role in the current decline and reduction of forested areas that jeopardizes the preservation of the system. In this work, a series of remotely sensed images since 1990 to present was used to evaluate the effect of several drought events occurred in the study area (1995, 2009, 2010/2011) on the tree density and water status. Data from satellites Landsat and field measurements have been combined in a spectral mixture model to assess separately the evolution of tree, dry grass and bare soil ground coverage. Only summer images have been used to avoid the influence of the green herbaceous layer on the analysis. Thermal data from the same sensors and meteorological information are integrated in a two source surface energy balance model to compute the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) and evaluate the vegetation water status. The results have provided insights about the severity of each event and the spatial distribution of

  9. Evaluation of Satellite Rainfall Estimates for Drought and Flood Monitoring in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien Toté

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and floods and thus, an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different rainfall products is valuable. Three dekadal (10-day gridded satellite rainfall products (TAMSAT African Rainfall Climatology And Time-series (TARCAT v2.0, Famine Early Warning System NETwork (FEWS NET Rainfall Estimate (RFE v2.0, and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS are compared to independent gauge data (2001–2012. This is done using pairwise comparison statistics to evaluate the performance in estimating rainfall amounts and categorical statistics to assess rain-detection capabilities. The analysis was performed for different rainfall categories, over the seasonal cycle and for regions dominated by different weather systems. Overall, satellite products overestimate low and underestimate high dekadal rainfall values. The RFE and CHIRPS products perform as good, generally outperforming TARCAT on the majority of statistical measures of skill. TARCAT detects best the relative frequency of rainfall events, while RFE underestimates and CHIRPS overestimates the rainfall events frequency. Differences in products performance disappear with higher rainfall and all products achieve better results during the wet season. During the cyclone season, CHIRPS shows the best results, while RFE outperforms the other products for lower dekadal rainfall. Products blending thermal infrared and passive microwave imagery perform better than infrared only products and particularly when meteorological patterns are more complex, such as over the coastal, central and south regions of Mozambique, where precipitation is influenced by frontal systems.

  10. Evaluation of satellite rainfall estimates for drought and flood monitoring in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tote, Carolien; Patricio, Domingos; Boogaard, Hendrik; van der Wijngaart, Raymond; Tarnavsky, Elena; Funk, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and floods and thus, an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different rainfall products is valuable. Three dekadal (10-day) gridded satellite rainfall products (TAMSAT African Rainfall Climatology And Time-series (TARCAT) v2.0, Famine Early Warning System NETwork (FEWS NET) Rainfall Estimate (RFE) v2.0, and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS)) are compared to independent gauge data (2001–2012). This is done using pairwise comparison statistics to evaluate the performance in estimating rainfall amounts and categorical statistics to assess rain-detection capabilities. The analysis was performed for different rainfall categories, over the seasonal cycle and for regions dominated by different weather systems. Overall, satellite products overestimate low and underestimate high dekadal rainfall values. The RFE and CHIRPS products perform as good, generally outperforming TARCAT on the majority of statistical measures of skill. TARCAT detects best the relative frequency of rainfall events, while RFE underestimates and CHIRPS overestimates the rainfall events frequency. Differences in products performance disappear with higher rainfall and all products achieve better results during the wet season. During the cyclone season, CHIRPS shows the best results, while RFE outperforms the other products for lower dekadal rainfall. Products blending thermal infrared and passive microwave imagery perform better than infrared only products and particularly when meteorological patterns are more complex, such as over the coastal, central and south regions of Mozambique, where precipitation is influenced by frontal systems.

  11. Program Officer, Monitoring and Evaluation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    S/he manages a quality assessment process for evaluation reports and track ... and budget information in order to contribute to an effective internal control of project ... documentary and literature reviews, and statistical and content analyses to ...

  12. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  13. Specification of parameters for development of a spatial database for drought monitoring and famine early warning in the African Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Gilbert L.

    1989-01-01

    Parameters were described for spatial database to facilitate drought monitoring and famine early warning in the African Sahel. The proposed system, referred to as the African Drought and Famine Information System (ADFIS) is ultimately recommended for implementation with the NASA/FEMA Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS), a GIS/Dymanic Modeling software package, currently under development. SAMS is derived from FEMA'S Integration Emergency Management Information System (IEMIS) and the Pacific Northwest Laborotory's/Engineering Topographic Laboratory's Airland Battlefield Environment (ALBE) GIS. SAMS is primarily intended for disaster planning and resource management applications with the developing countries. Sources of data for the system would include the Developing Economics Branch of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, the World Bank, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine's Famine Early Warning Systems (FEWS) Project, the USAID's Foreign Disaster Assistance Section, the World Resources Institute, the World Meterological Institute, the USGS, the UNFAO, UNICEF, and the United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO). Satellite imagery would include decadal AVHRR imagery and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from 1981 to the present for the African continent and selected Landsat scenes for the Sudan pilot study. The system is initially conceived for the MicroVAX 2/GPX, running VMS. To facilitate comparative analysis, a global time-series database (1950 to 1987) is included for a basic set of 125 socio-economic variables per country per year. A more detailed database for the Sahelian countries includes soil type, water resources, agricultural production, agricultural import and export, food aid, and consumption. A pilot dataset for the Sudan with over 2,500 variables from the World Bank's ANDREX system, also includes epidemiological data on incidence of kwashiorkor, marasmus, other nutritional deficiencies, and

  14. Effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of Salmonella in lettuce following wastewater irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J. Brett; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel D.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Eskridge, Kent M.; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Treated wastewater is expected to be increasingly used as an alternative source of irrigation water in areas facing fresh water scarcity. Understanding the behaviors of contaminants from wastewater in soil and plants following irrigation is critical to assess and manage the risks associated with wastewater irrigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of human pathogens into lettuce through root uptake following wastewater irrigation. Lettuce grown in three soils with variability in soil texture (loam, sandy loam, and sand) and under different levels of water stress (no drought control, mild drought, and severe drought) were irrigated with synthetic wastewater containing three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin and oxytetracycline) and one Salmonella strain a single time prior to harvest. Antibiotic uptake in lettuce was compound-specific and generally low. Only sulfamethoxazole was detected in lettuce with increasing uptake corresponding to increasing sand content in soil. Increased drought stress resulted in increased uptake of lincomycin and decreased uptake of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The internalization of Salmonella was highly dependent on the concentration of the pathogen in irrigation water. Irrigation water containing 5 Log CFU/mL Salmonella resulted in limited incidence of internalization. When irrigation water contained 8 Log CFU/mL Salmonella, the internalization frequency was significantly higher in lettuce grown in sand than in loam (p = 0.009), and was significantly higher in lettuce exposed to severe drought than in unstressed lettuce (p = 0.049). This work demonstrated how environmental factors affected the risk of contaminant uptake by food crops following wastewater irrigation. - Highlights: • Higher sand content in soil caused higher internalization of sulfamethoxazole and Salmonella in lettuce. • Drought

  15. Effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of Salmonella in lettuce following wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J Brett; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Eskridge, Kent M; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Treated wastewater is expected to be increasingly used as an alternative source of irrigation water in areas facing fresh water scarcity. Understanding the behaviors of contaminants from wastewater in soil and plants following irrigation is critical to assess and manage the risks associated with wastewater irrigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of human pathogens into lettuce through root uptake following wastewater irrigation. Lettuce grown in three soils with variability in soil texture (loam, sandy loam, and sand) and under different levels of water stress (no drought control, mild drought, and severe drought) were irrigated with synthetic wastewater containing three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin and oxytetracycline) and one Salmonella strain a single time prior to harvest. Antibiotic uptake in lettuce was compound-specific and generally low. Only sulfamethoxazole was detected in lettuce with increasing uptake corresponding to increasing sand content in soil. Increased drought stress resulted in increased uptake of lincomycin and decreased uptake of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The internalization of Salmonella was highly dependent on the concentration of the pathogen in irrigation water. Irrigation water containing 5 Log CFU/mL Salmonella resulted in limited incidence of internalization. When irrigation water contained 8 Log CFU/mL Salmonella, the internalization frequency was significantly higher in lettuce grown in sand than in loam (p = 0.009), and was significantly higher in lettuce exposed to severe drought than in unstressed lettuce (p = 0.049). This work demonstrated how environmental factors affected the risk of contaminant uptake by food crops following wastewater irrigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Future opportunities and challenges in remote sensing of drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlow, Brian D.; Anderson, Martha C.; Sheffield, Justin; Doorn, Brad; Zhan, Xiwu; Rodell, Matt; Wardlow, Brian D.; Anderson, Martha C.; Verdin, James P.

    2012-01-01

    The value of satellite remote sensing for drought monitoring was first realized more than two decades ago with the application of Normalized Difference Index (NDVI) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for assessing the effect of drought on vegetation. Other indices such as the Vegetation Health Index (VHI) were also developed during this time period, and applied to AVHRR NDVI and brightness temperature data for routine global monitoring of drought conditions. These early efforts demonstrated the unique perspective that global imagers such as AVHRR could provide for operational drought monitoring through their near-daily, global observations of Earth's land surface. However, the advancement of satellite remote sensing of drought was limited by the relatively few spectral bands of operational global sensors such as AVHRR, along with a relatively short period of observational record. Remote sensing advancements are of paramount importance given the increasing demand for tools that can provide accurate, timely, and integrated information on drought conditions to facilitate proactive decision making (NIDIS, 2007). Satellite-based approaches are key to addressing significant gaps in the spatial and temporal coverage of current surface station instrument networks providing key moisture observations (e.g., rainfall, snow, soil moisture, ground water, and ET) over the United States and globally (NIDIS, 2007). Improved monitoring capabilities will be particularly important given increases in spatial extent, intensity, and duration of drought events observed in some regions of the world, as reported in the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report (IPCC, 2007). The risk of drought is anticipated to further increase in some regions in response to climatic changes in the hydrologic cycle related to evaporation, precipitation, air temperature, and snow cover (Burke et al., 2006; IPCC, 2007; USGCRP, 2009). Numerous national, regional, and

  17. OMINEX: Development of Guidance on Monitoring for Internal Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etherington, G.; Ansoborlo, E.; Berard, P.; Cossonnet, C.; Frank, D.; Genicot, A.; Hodgson, A.; Hurtgen, C.; Jourdain, J. R.; Le Gueen, B.; Rahola, T.; Sovijarvi, J.; Stradling, G. N.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the OMINEX project was to provide advice and guidance on the design and implementation of internal dose monitoring programmes in the workplace in such a way that best use is made of available resources, while minimising costs. Topics addressed include choice of monitoring method(s), (eg excretion monitoring vs. in vivo monitoring), choice of measurement technique (eg alpha spectrometry vs. mass spectrometry), monitoring intervals, measurement frequency, required measurement sensitivity and accuracy, measurement parameters needed to achieve this performance, the resulting uncertainty in assessed intakes and doses, and minimum detectable doses. The underlying approach to optimisation was to consider costs versus benefits, the latter being quantified primarily by assessing the sensitivity or accuracy with which intakes and doses are determined from the results of particular monitoring methods. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the results of the project. Some of the main results of surveys of current internal dose monitoring practice and the costs of monitoring programmes are presented. Recommendations on the optimisation of bioassay and in vivo measurement parameters are discussed. A novel method for the assessment of uncertainty in assessed intakes and doses is described, and the use of information on uncertainties in designing a monitoring programme is discussed using the example of tritium-in-urine monitoring. Recommendations are described for the monitoring of exposures to compounds of uranium, plutonium, thorium and caesium encountered in the nuclear industries. (Author) 15 refs

  18. Drought occurence

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Why Is Drought Important? Drought is an important forest disturbance that occurs regularly in the Western United States and irregularly in the Eastern United States (Dale and others 2001). Moderate drought stress tends to slow plant growth while severedrought stress can also reduce photosynthesis (Kareiva and others 1993). Drought can also interact with...

  19. Verbal monitoring in Parkinson’s disease: A comparison between internal and external monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jolien; Mariën, Peter; Santens, Patrick; Pickut, Barbara A.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) display a variety of impairments in motor and non-motor language processes; speech is decreased on motor aspects such as amplitude, prosody and speed and on linguistic aspects including grammar and fluency. Here we investigated whether verbal monitoring is impaired and what the relative contributions of the internal and external monitoring route are on verbal monitoring in patients with PD relative to controls. Furthermore, the data were used to investigate whether internal monitoring performance could be predicted by internal speech perception tasks, as perception based monitoring theories assume. Performance of 18 patients with Parkinson’s disease was measured on two cognitive performance tasks and a battery of 11 linguistic tasks, including tasks that measured performance on internal and external monitoring. Results were compared with those of 16 age-matched healthy controls. PD patients and controls generally performed similarly on the linguistic and monitoring measures. However, we observed qualitative differences in the effects of noise masking on monitoring and disfluencies and in the extent to which the linguistic tasks predicted monitoring behavior. We suggest that the patients differ from healthy subjects in their recruitment of monitoring channels. PMID:28832595

  20. Considerations of selection suggested for internal contamination monitoring in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz S, R.; Lopez B, G.; Placeres V, C.; Arado L, J.; Jova S, L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for calculating effective risk of radionuclide intake and hypothetical annual dose that will receive a person who works with unsealed sources is proposed. Calculated committed dose equivalent and metabolic characteristic of radionuclides permit to select the type of monitoring 'in vivo' and/or 'in vitro'. The method was applied to 396 workers from 28 institutions, where 20 radionuclides in 124 different products for 266 applications are used. From this study 62% of the workers had to be monitored for internal contamination, meanly by 'in vitro' monitoring. In practices of Nuclear Medicine and other medical uses 75% of the workers had to be monitored. These results permitted to corroborate the criteria for internal contamination monitoring program carried out by Center for Hygiene and Radiation Protection and permitted to identify needs for control of radionuclides intakes. (authors).5 refs., 3 figs

  1. Assessment of tree response to drought: validation of a methodology to identify and test proxies for monitoring past environmental changes in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tene, A; Tobin, B; Dyckmans, J; Ray, D; Black, K; Nieuwenhuis, M

    2011-03-01

    A thinning experiment stand at Avoca, Ballinvalley, on the east coast of the Republic of Ireland was used to test a developed methodology aimed at monitoring drought stress, based on the analysis of growth rings obtained by coring. The stand incorporated six plots representing three thinning regimes (light, moderate and heavy) and was planted in the spring of 1943 on a brown earth soil. Radial growth (early- and latewood) was measured for the purpose of this study. A multidisciplinary approach was used to assess historic tree response to climate: specifically, the application of statistical tools such as principal component and canonical correlation analysis to dendrochronology, stable isotopes, ring density proxy, blue reflectance and forest biometrics. Results showed that radial growth was a good proxy for monitoring changes to moisture deficit, while maximum density and blue reflectance were appropriate for assessing changes in accumulated temperature for the growing season. Rainfall also influenced radial growth changes but not significantly, and was a major factor in stable carbon and oxygen discrimination, mostly in the latewood formation phase. Stable oxygen isotope analysis was more accurate than radial growth analysis in drought detection, as it helped detect drought signals in both early- and latewood while radial growth analysis only detected the drought signal in earlywood. Many studies have shown that tree rings provide vital information for marking past climatic events. This work provides a methodology to better identify and understand how commonly measured tree proxies relate to environmental parameters, and can best be used to characterize and pinpoint drought events (variously described using parameters such as like moisture deficit, accumulated temperature, rainfall and potential evaporation).

  2. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; J Cheng, June; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-07-17

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health.

  3. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; Cheng, June J.; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health. PMID:26193300

  4. Drought Risk Identification: Early Warning System of Seasonal Agrometeorological Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecios, Nicolas; Spyropoulos, Nicos V.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    By considering drought as a hazard, drought types are classified into three categories, namely meteorological or climatological, agrometeorological or agricultural and hydrological drought and as a fourth class the socioeconomic impacts can be considered. This paper addresses agrometeorological drought affecting agriculture within the risk management framework. Risk management consists of risk assessment, as well as a feedback on the adopted risk reduction measures. And risk assessment comprises three distinct steps, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. This paper deals with the quantification and monitoring of agrometeorological drought, which constitute part of risk identification. For the quantitative assessment of agrometeorological or agricultural drought, as well as the computation of spatiotemporal features, one of the most reliable and widely used indices is applied, namely the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). The computation of VHI is based on satellite data of temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The spatiotemporal features of drought, which are extracted from VHI are: areal extent, onset and end time, duration and severity. In this paper, a 20-year (1981-2001) time series of NOAA/AVHRR satellite data is used, where monthly images of VHI are extracted. Application is implemented in Thessaly, which is the major agricultural region of Greece characterized by vulnerable and drought-prone agriculture. The results show that every year there is a seasonal agrometeorological drought with a gradual increase in the areal extent and severity with peaks appearing usually during the summer. Drought monitoring is conducted by monthly remotely sensed VHI images. Drought early warning is developed using empirical relationships of severity and areal extent. In particular, two second-order polynomials are fitted, one for low and the other for high severity drought, respectively. The two fitted curves offer a seasonal

  5. Monitoring Agricultural Drought Using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing on the Primary Corn and Soybean Belt in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shomrany, Adel

    The study aims to evaluate various remote sensing drought indices to assess those most fitting for monitoring agricultural drought. The objectives are (1) to assess and study the impact of drought effect on (corn and soybean) crop production by crop mapping information and GIS technology; (2) to use Geographical Weighted Regression (GWR) as a technical approach to evaluate the spatial relationships between precipitation vs. irrigated and non-irrigated corn and soybean yield, using a Nebraska county-level case study; (3) to assess agricultural drought indices derived from remote sensing (NDVI, NMDI, NDWI, and NDII6); (4) to develop an optimal approach for agricultural drought detection based on remote sensing measurements to determine the relationship between US county-level yields versus relatively common variables collected. Extreme drought creates low corn and soybean production where irrigation systems are not implemented. This results in a lack of moisture in soil leading to dry land and stale crop yields. When precipitation and moisture is found across all states, corn and soybean production flourishes. For Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, irrigation management methods assist in strong crop yields throughout SPI monthly averages. The data gathered on irrigation consisted of using drought indices gathered by the national agricultural statistics service website. For the SPI levels ranging between one-month and nine-months, Kansas and Nebraska performed the best out of all 12-states contained in the Midwestern primary Corn and Soybean Belt. The reasoning behind Kansas and Nebraska's results was due to a more efficient and sustainable irrigation system, where upon South Dakota lacked. South Dakota was leveled by strong correlations throughout all SPI periods for corn only. Kansas showed its strongest correlations for the two-month and three-month averages, for both corn and soybean. Precipitation regression with irrigated and non-irrigated maize (corn) and

  6. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage into a Land Surface Model: Evaluation 1 and Potential Value for Drought Monitoring in Western and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; van Dam, Tonie M.

    2012-01-01

    A land surface model s ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in model physics. In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother. GRACE data assimilation led to improved runoff correlations with gauge data in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the effective resolution of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture were less conclusive, partly due to the shortness of the in situ data record. In addition to improving temporal correlations, GRACE data assimilation also reduced increasing trends in simulated monthly TWS and runoff associated with increasing rates of precipitation. GRACE assimilated root zone soil moisture and TWS fields exhibited significant changes in their dryness rankings relative to those without data assimilation, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Signals of drought in GRACE TWS correlated well with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data in most areas. Although they detected the same droughts during warm seasons, drought signatures in GRACE derived TWS exhibited greater persistence than those in NDVI throughout all seasons, in part due to limitations associated with the seasonality of vegetation.

  7. Hydrologic monitoring using open-source Arduino logging platforms in a socio-hydrological system of the drought-prone tropics, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, S. V.; Johnson, M. S.; Steyn, D. G.; Keddie, T.; Morillas, L.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply is highly disputed in the tropics of northwestern Costa Rica where rainfall exhibits high seasonal variability and long annual dry seasons. Water shortages are common during the dry season, and water conflicts emerge between domestic water users, intensively irrigated agriculture, the tourism industry, and ecological flows. Climate change may further increase the variability of precipitation and the risk for droughts, and pose challenges for small rural agricultural communities experiencing water stress. To adapt to seasonal droughts and improve resilience of communities to future changes, it is essential to increase understanding of interactions between components of the coupled hydrological-social system. Yet, hydrological monitoring and data on water use within developing countries of the humid tropics is limited. To address these challenges and contribute to extended monitoring networks, low-cost and open-source monitoring platforms were developed based off Arduino microelectronic boards and software and combined with hydrological sensors to monitor river stage and groundwater levels in two watersheds of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Hydrologic monitoring stations are located in remote locations and powered by solar panels. Monitoring efforts were made possible through collaboration with local rural communities, and complemented with a mix of digitized water extraction data and community water use narratives to increase understanding of water use and challenges. We will present the development of the Arduino logging system, results of water supply in relation to water use for both the wet and dry season, and discuss these results within a socio-hydrological system context.

  8. Satellite passive microwaves for monitoring deforestation and drought-induced carbon losses in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, M.; Wigneron, J. P.; Chave, J.; Tagesson, T.; Penuelas, J.; Ciais, P.; Rasmussen, K.; Tian, F.; Mbow, C.; Al-Yaari, A.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N.; Zhang, W.; Kerr, Y. H.; Tucker, C. J.; Mialon, A.; Verger, A.; Fensholt, R.

    2017-12-01

    -VOD to monitor the dynamics of carbon loss and gain due to climate variations and deforestation, and second, the importance of the highly dynamic and drought prone carbon pool of dryland savannahs for the global carbon balance, despite the relatively low carbon stock per unit area.

  9. Global Drought Services: Collaborations Toward an Information System for Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M. J.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Svoboda, M.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is a hazard that lends itself well to diligent, sustained monitoring and early warning. However, unlike most hazards, the fact that droughts typically evolve slowly, can last for months or years and cover vast areas spanning multiple political boundaries/jurisdictions and economic sectors can make it a daunting task to monitor, develop plans for, and identify appropriate, proactive mitigation strategies. The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) and National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) have been working together to reduce societal vulnerability to drought by helping decision makers at all levels to: 1) implement drought early warning/forecasting and decision support systems; 2) support and advocate for better collection of, and understanding of drought impacts; and 3) increase long-term resilience to drought through proactive planning. The NDMC and NIDIS risk management approach has been the basis from which many partners around the world are developing a collaboration and coordination nexus with an ultimate goal of building comprehensive global drought early warning information systems (GDEWIS). The core emphasis of this model is on developing and applying useful and usable information that can be integrated and transferred freely to other regions around the globe. The High-Level Ministerial Declaration on Drought, the Integrated Drought Management Programme (IDMP) co-led by the WMO and the Global Water Partnership (GWP), and the Global Framework for Climate Services are drawing extensively from the integrated NDMC-NIDIS risk management framework. This presentation will describe, in detail, the various drought resources, tools, services, and collaborations already being provided and undertaken at the national and regional scales by the NDMC, NIDIS, and their partners. The presentation will be forward-looking, identifying improvements in existing and proposed mechanisms to help strengthen national and international drought early

  10. Brazilian participation in the International Monitoring System for Nuclear Explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Jose Alberto Vivas

    1995-01-01

    On January 1, 1995, Brazil was integrated to the world-wide seismic system, through the Seismological Observatory of the University of Brasilia, dedicated to detect and identify underground nuclear explosions. This is an unprecedented global effort program to conduct a seismic test of rapid data collection, distribution and processing evolving the most advanced sensors, global communications and data processing technologies. By the end of February, 49 countries were incorporated and the present test represents a first training step towards the final definition of an International Monitoring System to monitoring a Comprehensive test Band Treaty. Besides accomplishing its main goal, the global monitoring program will be able to supply rapidly, through the International Data Center, important information to the seismological community. (author). 2 figs

  11. Readout ASIC of pair-monitor for international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yutaro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ito, Kazutoshi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Nagamine, Tadashi; Sasaki, Rei; Takubo, Yosuke; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The pair-monitor is a beam profile monitor at the interaction point of the international linear collider. A prototype of the readout ASIC for the pair-monitor has been designed and tested. Since the pair-monitor uses the hit distribution of electrons and positrons generated by the beam-crossing to measure the beam profile, the readout ASIC is designed to count the number of hits. In a prototype ASIC, 36 readout cells were implemented by TSMC 0.25-μm CMOS process. Each readout cell is equipped with an amplifier, comparator, 8-bit counter and 16 count-registers. By the operation test, all the ASIC component were confirmed to work correctly. As the next step, we develop the prototype ASIC with the silicon on insulator technology. It is produced with OKI 0.2-μm FD-SOI CMOS process.

  12. Atomics International environmental monitoring and facility effluent annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at Atomics International (AI) is performend by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Unit of the Health, Safety, and Radiation Services Department. Soil, vegetation, and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from AI sites. Continuous ambient air sampling and thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed on site for monitoring airborne radioactivity and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from AI facilities is continuously sampled and monitored to ensure that levels released to unrestricted areas are within appropriate limits, and to identify processes which may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity levels in such effluents. In addition, selected nonradioactive constituents in surface water discharged to unrestricted areas are determined. This report summarizes and discusses monitoring results for 1976. The results of a special soil plutonium survey performed during the year are also summarized

  13. International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsen, Gunnar

    1976-01-01

    This book includes all papers presented at the International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control held at Berchtesgaden, Federal Republic of Germany, March 8-12, 1976. The Symposium was sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Brussels, and the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn. We believe the book constitutes an important and timely status report on monitoring behavior and supervisory control by human operators of complex man-machine systems in which the computer is sharing key functions with the man. These systems include aircraft and other vehicles, nuclear and more conventional power plants, and processes for the manu­ facture of chemicals, petroleum, and discrete parts. By "monitoring" we mean the systematic observation by a human operator of mul tiple sources of information, e. g. , ranging from integrated display consoles to disparate "live situations". The monitor's purpose is to determine whether operations are norm...

  14. Monitoring Drought along the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean Using the Coastal Salinity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, P. A.; Rouen, L.; Lackstrom, K.; McCloskey, B.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal droughts have a different dynamic than upland droughts, which are typically characterized by agricultural, hydrologic, meteorological, and (or) socio-economic impacts. Drought uniquely affects coastal ecosystems due to changes in salinity conditions of estuarine creeks and rivers. The location of the freshwater-saltwater interface in surface-water bodies is an important factor in the ecological and socio-economic dynamics of coastal communities. The location of the interface determines the freshwater and saltwater aquatic communities, fisheries spawning habitat, and the freshwater availability for municipal and industrial water intakes. The severity of coastal drought may explain changes in Vibrio bacteria impacts on shellfish harvesting and occurrence of wound infection, fish kills, harmful algal blooms, hypoxia, and beach closures. To address the data and information gap for characterizing coastal drought, a coastal salinity index (CSI) was developed using salinity data. The CSI uses a computational approach similar to the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The CSI is computed for unique time intervals (for example 1-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month) that can characterize the onset and recovery of short- and long-term drought. Evaluation of the CSI indicates that the index can be used for different estuary types (for example: brackish, oligohaline, or mesohaline), for regional comparison between estuaries, and as an index of wet conditions (high freshwater inflow) in addition to drought (saline) conditions. In 2017, three activities in 2017 will be presented that enhance the use and application of the CSI. One, a software package was developed for the consistent computation of the CSI that includes preprocessing of salinity data, filling missing data, computing the CSI, post-processing, and generating the supporting metadata. Two, the CSI has been computed at sites along the Gulf of Mexico (Texas to Florida) and the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean (Florida to

  15. Development of Web based system for individual internal monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Vanessa Rogeria de

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of the internal monitoring, in general, are to verify and document that each worker is protected adequately against risks from radionuclide intakes and the protection complies with legal requirements. Therefore, an overall radiation protection programme, starts with an assessment to identify work situations in which there is a risk of internal contamination of workers and to quantify the likely intake of radioactive material and the resulting committed effective dose. As a part of a continuous improvement of the monitoring programme for occupationally exposed workers at IPEN, it is being developed a Web based system to access the internal dosimetry database. The system was implemented using Hypertext Preprocessor, PHP, and a PostgreSQL database. This system will introduce a new paradigm in the routine of the internal dosimetry service, providing a fast access to the information among the measurement laboratories staff, dose evaluation group and the radiation protection supervisor. The database maintains information about worker identification, physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide, type of monitoring, measurement data and the dose. Moreover, this information will be readily available to provide support for regulatory compliance and quality control requirements. (author)

  16. GSETT-3: testing the experimental international seismic monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringdal, Frode

    1995-01-01

    Global seismic monitoring system has been developed by the Conference on Disarmaments (CDs) ad hoc group of scientific experts to consider international cooperative measures to detect and identify seismic events (the GSE), based in Geneva. In the course of its work, the GSE has conducted two large-scale global technical tests, Global Seismic Events Technical Test-1 (GSETT-1) in 1984 and GSETT-2 in 1991. The GSE has now embarked upon its third and most ambitious technical test, GSETT-3, which will encompass the development, testing and evaluation of a working prototype of the eventual Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) seismic monitoring system

  17. Comparative Analysis of Drought Indices for Drought Zone Scheme of Northern Khorasan Province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan EYSHI REZAEI; Azade MOHAMMADIAN; Mansoreh KOOHI; Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-01-01

    Drought is one of the natural disasters which deeply influenced agricultural production. Drought monitoring programs could help to forecast and mitigate the impacts of drought. In this study occurrence, severity, and duration of drought were evaluated by monthly rainfall data (1986-2005) that were recorded at all meteorological stations in north Khorasan province of Iran. Drought indices include Standard Rainfall Index (SPI), Decades Index (DI) and Percent of Normal (PNI) calculated and compa...

  18. International conference on individual monitoring of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, Filip

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the journal Radiation Protection Dosimetry is dedicated to the Proceedings of the International Conference on Individual Monitoring of Ionising Radiation (IM2015), which is the fifth of a series of conferences dealing with individual monitoring. This conference series is initiated by EURADOS, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, and is organised every 5 years. In 2015, the conference was jointly organised by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), AV Controlatom, and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. It brought together scientists from regulatory authorities, individual monitoring services (IMS), research bodies, European networks and companies, for the purpose of facilitating the dissemination of knowledge, exchanging experiences and promoting new ideas in the field of individual monitoring. After the conference, 124 papers were submitted for publication in these peer-reviewed proceedings. From these, 103 were finally accepted for publication. The help of the numerous referees and the guest editors is very much appreciated. These proceedings provide a full image of the IM2015 conference. The high-level publications will be useful to improve the state of individual monitoring all over the world and aim to inspire many scientists to continue their work on a better monitoring of radiologically exposed workers

  19. The CTBT : New Zealand's involvement in the international monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), to which most countries are now signatories, is seen as a major step towards the curtailment of nuclear weapons production and eventual disarmament. The Treaty can only be effectively implemented, however, if there is a monitoring system in place to verify that weapons testing is not taking place and, if it does occur, to identify the violator. The diesign of the International Monitoring System (IMS) has therefore been a significant part of the Treaty negotiations. This article focuses o New Zealand's involvement in the IMS, in atmospheric radioactivity and infrasound monitoring. Because of its history of involvement in environmental monitoring, National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) has been providing expert input into Treaty negotiations concerning the radionucled component of the IMS. The Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (IGNS) monitors seismic activity at a number of locations in New Zealand and the South Pacific, and has also provided expert input to the design of the global seismic component of the IMS. The New Zealand government has offered the monitoring facilities of NRL and IGNS for inclusion in the global IMS. (author)

  20. Internal quality control program for individual monitoring service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Moura Junior, Jose; Patrao, Karla C.S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br; moura@ird.gov.br; karla@ird.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    With a focus on continuous improvement, since 2002, a special internal procedure for following and checking the performance of our individual monitoring services has been implemented. A fictitious installation, named 'Fantasma' has been created, initially, with 4 film badges and 7 thermoluminescent dosimetric ring users. Since 2005, this quality control program includes also the albedo neutron individual monitoring service. Monthly, the 'Fantasma' test monitors are irradiated by traceable Cs-137 and Am-Be sources. The calibration quantities are: the photon dose equivalent (H{sub x}) for the photographic individual monitor, the maximum dose equivalent (MADE) for the albedo neutron individual monitor and the personal dose equivalent at 0.07 mm depth (H{sub p}(0.07)) for ring monitor. Up to now, all results show compliance with the specific trumpet curves acceptance limits. Once, a small sub-evaluation tendency has been noted and this information was used to improve the film system. For the photographic film system, the evaluated value to reference dose ratios range from 0.71 to 1.12, with a mean value of 0.91 {+-} 0.12. For the ring system, the ratio ranges from 0.69 to 1.40, with a mean value of 1.02 {+-} 0.07. For the neutron system, which presents intrinsic larger uncertainties, the ratio ranged from 0.67 to 1.88, with mean value of 1.16 {+-} 0.27. (author)

  1. Prospective evaluation of the need for internal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, T.P.; Bowers, R.R.; Volza, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that under the revision of 10 CFR 20, workers must be monitored for internal dose only if a prospective evaluation shows that they are likely to exceed 10 percent of an ALI in a year. Past positive whole body counts were reviewed at the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, and the largest uptake was found to be 1.3 percent of an ALI. Past RWPs which had the potential for significant airborne exposure were identified and reviewed. The highest possible uptake was calculated to be 2.5 percent of an ALI, not taking credit for respiratory protection. Committed dose from alpha and pure beta emitters which would not be identified by gamma-sensitive bioassay was found to be negligible. Based on this prospective evaluation, monitoring personnel for internal dose is not required at this facility

  2. Radiation Internal Monitoring by In Vivo Scanning in Operation Tomodachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    detected at the International Monitoring Station (IMS), Takasaki (Gunma Prefecture, about 210 km (130 miles) WSW of FDNPS) during the period March...determine a dose from both inhalation and ingestion. Based on additional information on food and water sources for DOD-affiliated individuals it was...kBq Tritium 0.06 pg 23 Bq Polonium 0.2 pg 37 Bq * Source is Eckerman and Sjoreen (2003). As discussed in Section 2.2.4 and calculated with the

  3. Optimisation of internal contamination monitoring programme by integration of uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davesne, E.; Casanova, P.; Chojnacki, E.; Paquet, F.; Blanchardon, E.

    2011-01-01

    Potential internal contamination of workers is monitored by periodic bioassay measurements interpreted in terms of intake and committed effective dose by the use of biokinetic and dosimetric models. After a prospective evaluation of exposure at a workplace, a suitable monitoring programme can be defined by choosing adequate measurement techniques and frequency. In this study, the sensitivity of a programme is evaluated by the minimum intake and dose, which may be detected with a given level of confidence by taking into account uncertainties on exposure conditions and measurements. This is made for programme optimisation, which is performed by comparing the sensitivities of different alternative programmes. These methods were applied at the AREVA NC reprocessing plant and support the current monitoring programme as the best compromise between the cost of the measurements and the sensitivity of the programme. (authors)

  4. Development of web based system for internal monitoring programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Vanessa R. de; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Todo, Alberto S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: vrlima@ipen.br; rodrijr@ipen.br; astodo@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The purposes of monitoring in general are to verify and to document that each worker is protected adequately against risks from radionuclide intakes and the protection complies with legal requirements. Therefore, it forms part of the overall radiation protection programme, which starts with an assessment to identify work situations in which there is a risk of internal contamination of workers and to quantify the likely intake of radioactive material and the resulting committed effective dose. As a part of a continuous improvement of the monitoring programme for occupationally exposed workers at IPEN, it is being developed a Web based system to access the internal dosimetry database. The system was implemented using Hypertext Preprocessor, PHP, and a PostgreSQL database. This system will introduce a new paradigm in the routine of the internal dosimetry service, providing a fast access to the information among the measurement laboratories staff, dose evaluation group and the radiation protection supervisor. The database maintains information about worker identification, physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide, type of monitoring, measurement data and the dose. Moreover, this information will be readily available to provide support for regulatory compliance and quality control requirements. (author)

  5. Land-atmosphere interaction and disaster-causing process of drought in northern China: observation and experiment (DroughtPEX_China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaohui

    2017-04-01

    aims to establish a complete observation &experiment system for droughts particularly over the arid and semi-arid regions in northern China. Relying on the existing meteorological observation network and experimental bases, the DroughtPEX_China implemented interdisciplinary, comprehensive and systemic drought-scientific experiment including the routine observation, intensive and special observation, and the artificially field control test for the drought forming and reducing. Such large observation &experiment will promote a large step or theoretical breakthrough on the knowledge of the complex dynamic process for the formation and development of drought disasters, the mechanism of the water-energy cycle in the atmosphere-soil-vegetation on multi-scales, and the interrelationship in the atmosphere, agriculture and hydrological droughts. The ultimate purpose of DroughtPEX_China is to make great progress on the technology of accurate drought monitoring, risk assessment and early warning. This paper will introduce the Drought PEX_China with the scientific goal, experiment design and layout, preliminary results, information sharing, and its promoting role on international cooperation of drought scientific research. Key words: Disaster-causing process of drought; Observation & experiment; Northern China

  6. Monitoring and understanding changes in heat waves, cold waves, floods, and droughts in the United States: State of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Thomas C.; Heim, Richard R.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Kaiser, Dale P.; Brooks, Harold; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Dole, Randall M.; Giovannettone, Jason P.; Guirguis, Kristen; Karl, Thomas R.; Katz, Richard W.; Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Ryberg, Karen R.; K Wolter, BS Silva; Schubert, Siegfried; Silva, Viviane B. S.; Stewart, Brooke C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Villarini, Gabriele; Vose, Russell S.; Walsh, John; Wehner, Michael; Wolock, David; Wolter, Klaus; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Weather and climate extremes have been varying and changing on many different time scales. In recent decades, heat waves have generally become more frequent across the United States, while cold waves have been decreasing. While this is in keeping with expectations in a warming climate, it turns out that decadal variations in the number of U.S. heat and cold waves do not correlate well with the observed U.S. warming during the last century. Annual peak flow data reveal that river flooding trends on the century scale do not show uniform changes across the country. While flood magnitudes in the Southwest have been decreasing, flood magnitudes in the Northeast and north-central United States have been increasing. Confounding the analysis of trends in river flooding is multiyear and even multidecadal variability likely caused by both large-scale atmospheric circulation changes and basin-scale “memory” in the form of soil moisture. Droughts also have long-term trends as well as multiyear and decadal variability. Instrumental data indicate that the Dust Bowl of the 1930s and the drought in the 1950s were the most significant twentieth-century droughts in the United States, while tree ring data indicate that the megadroughts over the twelfth century exceeded anything in the twentieth century in both spatial extent and duration. The state of knowledge of the factors that cause heat waves, cold waves, floods, and drought to change is fairly good with heat waves being the best understood.

  7. International Remote Monitoring Project Embalse Nuclear Power Station, Argentina Embalse Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Sigfried L.; Glidewell, Donnie D.; Bonino, Anibal; Bosler, Gene; Mercer, David; Maxey, Curt; Vones, Jaromir; Martelle, Guy; Busse, James; Kadner, Steve; White, Mike; Rovere, Luis

    1999-01-01

    The Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina (ARN), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ABACC, the US Department of Energy, and the US Support Program POTAS, cooperated in the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This system was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station last year to evaluate the feasibility of using radiation sensors in monitoring the transfer of spent fuel from the spent fuel pond to dry storage. The key element in this process is to maintain continuity of knowledge throughout the entire transfer process. This project evaluated the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguard efficiency. New technology has been developed to enhance the design of the system to include storage capability on board sensor platforms. This evaluation has led to design enhancements that will assure that no data loss will occur during loss of RF transmission of the sensors

  8. Guidance on internal dose assessments from monitoring data (Project IDEAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.; Andrasi, A.; Bailey, M.; Berkovski, V.; Castellani, M.; Hurtgen, C.; Jourdain, R.; Le Guen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Several international intercomparison exercises on intake and internal dose assessments from monitoring data led to the conclusion that the results calculated by different participants varied significantly mainly to the broad variety of methods and assumptions applied in the assessment procedure. Based on these experiences the need of harmonisation of the procedures has been formulated as an EU research project under the 5th Framework Programme, with the aim of developing general guidelines for standardising assessments of intakes and internal doses. In the IDEAS project, eight institutions from seven European countries are participating, also using inputs from internal dosimetry professionals from across Europe to ensure broad consensus in the outcome of the project. To ensure that the guidelines are applicable to a wide range of practical situations, the first step will be to compile a database on well documented cases of internal contamination. In parallel, an improved version of existing software will be developed and distributed to the partners for further use. Many cases from the database will be evaluated independently by more partners using the same software and the results will be discussed and the draft guidelines prepared. The guidelines will then be revised and refined on the basis of the experiences and discussions of two workshops, and an inter-comparison exercise organised in the frame of the project which will be open to all internal dosimetry professionals. (author)

  9. Impact of the internal contamination monitoring for national and international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaburo, J.C.; Sordi, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of the internal radiation dose received by workers between 1984 and 1994 was performed, after a brief description of IPEN facility. The National and International Recommendation aims to reduce the workers' doses below 1/10 of the annual limits. The routine monitoring should be eliminated, if the individual annual dose is below 3/10 of the annual limits. In this case, only the operational monitoring should be maintained. In principle, the concept of restricted area should be reviewed, because, according to Publication 26 of ICRP, 1977, it should be a supervised area instead. The new concept of restricted area recommended by the Publication 60, ICRP 1991, should be adjusted accordingly. Thus, the classification used by the Commission-controlled areas and supervised areas will be with the foreseeable dose and not with the actual dose. When the individual annual dose is kept below 1/10 of the annual limits, the routine monitoring is not necessary, and only operational monitoring is needed. Finally, the future possible activities of the Individual Internal Dosimetry Laboratory at IPEN are discussed, after the elimination of individual monitoring. (authors). 8 refs

  10. Application of Dynamic naïve Bayesian classifier to comprehensive drought assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Lee, J. H.; KIm, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Drought monitoring has already been extensively studied due to the widespread impacts and complex causes of drought. The most important component of drought monitoring is to estimate the characteristics and extent of drought by quantitatively measuring the characteristics of drought. Drought assessment considering different aspects of the complicated drought condition and uncertainty of drought index is great significance in accurate drought monitoring. This study used the dynamic Naïve Bayesian Classifier (DNBC) which is an extension of the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), to model and classify drought by using various drought indices for integrated drought assessment. To provide a stable model for combined use of multiple drought indices, this study employed the DNBC to perform multi-index drought assessment by aggregating the effect of different type of drought and considering the inherent uncertainty. Drought classification was performed by the DNBC using several drought indices: Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Streamflow Drought Index (SDI), and Normalized Vegetation Supply Water Index (NVSWI)) that reflect meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural drought characteristics. Overall results showed that in comparison unidirectional (SPI, SDI, and NVSWI) or multivariate (Composite Drought Index, CDI) drought assessment, the proposed DNBC was able to synthetically classify of drought considering uncertainty. Model provided method for comprehensive drought assessment with combined use of different drought indices.

  11. 5 CFR 575.212 - Internal monitoring requirements and revocation or suspension of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal monitoring requirements and... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Relocation Incentives § 575.212 Internal monitoring...

  12. 5 CFR 575.312 - Internal monitoring requirements and revocation or suspension of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal monitoring requirements and... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.312 Internal monitoring...

  13. The Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, J.; Andres, B.; Brown, S.; Donaldson, G.; Harrington, B.; Johnston, V.; Jones, S.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Skagen, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). PRISM is being implemented by a Canada-United States Shorebird Monitoring and Assessment Committee formed in 2001 by the Canadian Shorebird Working Group and the U.S. Shorebird Council. PRISM provides a single blueprint for implementing the shorebird conservation plans recently completed in Canada and the United States. The goals of PRISM are to (1) estimate the size of breeding population of 74 shorebird taxa in North America; (2) describe the distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships for each of these taxa; (3) monitor trends in shorebird population size; (4) monitor shorebird numbers at stopover locations, and; (5) assist local managers in meeting their shorebird conservation goals. PRISM has four main components: arctic and boreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding surveys, temperate non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys. Progress on, and action items for, each major component are described. The more important major tasks for immediate action are carrying out the northern surveys, conducting regional analyses to design the program of migration counts, and evaluating aerial photographic surveys for migration and winter counts.

  14. Improved drought monitoring in the Greater Horn of Africa by combining meteorological and remote sensing based indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Kurnik, Blaz; Barbosa, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    , and therefore to better trigger timely and appropriate actions on the field. In this study, meteorological and remote sensing based drought indicators were compared over the Greater Horn of Africa in order to better understand: (i) how they depict historical drought events ; (ii) if they could be combined...... distribution. Two remote sensing based indicators were tested: the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) derived from SPOT-VEGETATION and the Global Vegetation Index (VGI) derived form MERIS. The first index is sensitive to change in leaf water content of vegetation canopies while the second is a proxy...... of the amount and vigour of vegetation. For both indexes, anomalies were estimated using available satellite archives. Cross-correlations between remote sensing based anomalies and SPI were analysed for five land covers (forest, shrubland, grassland, sparse grassland, cropland and bare soil) over different...

  15. Reactor internals vibration monitoring by neutron noise methods in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, I.; Por, G.; Lux, I.

    1983-01-01

    Certain elements of PWR cores such as control/fuel rods or cassettes, or other parts of reactor internals, often represent a vibration problem. Early analyses at operating PWR plant revealed that these vibrations can be detected by in-core neutron detectors, opening up the possibility of vibration monitoring and diagnostics by noise methods. Theoretical methods of calculating vibration induced neutron noise and its application to vibration diagnostics are summarized. Experiments to check theoretical conclusions are under way at the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest. (author)

  16. International remote monitoring project Argentina Nuclear Power Station Spent Fuel Transfer Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; Lucero, R.; Glidewell, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Autoridad Regulataria Nuclear (ARN) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. A Remote Monitoring System for spent fuel transfer will be installed at the Argentina Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing gamma and neutron sensors. This project will test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions. The Remote Monitoring System consists of gamma and neutron radiation sensors, RF systems, and video systems integrated into a coherent functioning whole. All sensor data communicate over an Echelon LonWorks Network to a single data logger. The Neumann DCM 14 video module is integrated into the Remote Monitoring System. All sensor and image data are stored on a Data Acquisition System (DAS) and archived and reviewed on a Data and Image Review Station (DIRS). Conventional phone lines are used as the telecommunications link to transmit on-site collected data and images to remote locations. The data and images are authenticated before transmission. Data review stations will be installed at ARN in Buenos Aires, Argentina, ABACC in Rio De Janeiro, IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 2 refs., 2 figs

  17. ENHANCING ASSETS' PROTECTION THROUGH AN ADEQUATE MONITORING OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM BY INTERNAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Eugen Cosmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The assets are established into a company as very important and strategic resources that are contributing at the creation of the needed premises to conduct the daily-basis activity and also to reach present and future planned objectives. Recent studies like COSO's Fraudulent Financial Reporting 1998-2007 have highlighted an increasing fraudulent activity against assets therefore the efforts of fighting against fraud must be supplemented in order to preserve the existence and value of those resources. Internal controls are processes implemented in order to give a reasonable assurance that the company will not become a fraud victim. Even so, a lot of internal controls are paying a heavy tribute to their lack of efficiency and update. Thus, for a correct functioning, internal controls must be monitored and assessed permanently in order to preserve their strength and ability to fulfill their mission. This approach will deliver more added value because rather than being corrected after they have already occurred, the frauds related with the assets will be prevented, detected and reported at a timely moment, thereby the incidence and value of those criminal activities will decrease significantly. Furthermore, because not only the process of monitoring is important but even the entity conducting this activity we believe that internal audit is the most appropriate to undertake this responsibility. Thus, through this material we opened a discussion about how important permanent monitored and updated internal controls are in order to assure a proper assets protection and why internal audit, rather than the management, should be the most eligible to undertake this responsibility. Also we provided some suggestions regarding the main activities that must be taken into consideration by an internal audit professional when is being involved in a monitoring process of internal control system. We do believe that this paper will be the starting point for new

  18. What is New in Internal Dosimetry and Monitoring?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrichs, K. [Siemens AG, Corporate Radiation Safety and Dangerous Goods Transport, Munich (Germany); Nosske, D. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This file is divided in two parts:the first one concerns the progress in internal dosimetry. This part gives an overview on new model developments by ICRP, the series of age dependent doses for members of the public was continued by biokinetic and dosimetric models for the embryo and foetus due to activity intake by the mother (ICRP,2001) and for the infant via consumption of mother's milk after activity intake by the mother (ICRP, 2004). In both publications dose coefficients for the embryo and foetus as well the infant were given for various intake scenarios by mother. The present model development work of ICRP is a revision of Publications 30, 54, 68, and 78 based on the new human Alimentary tract model (H.A.T.M.) of ICRP (ICRP, 2006), a revision of absorption parameters for the human respiratory tract model (ICRP, 1994a), new systemic models as well as new dosimetric parameters derived with new Voxel models for the reference male and female adult. The second part concerns the progress in workers monitoring for radionuclide intake. The initiatives to improve the situation are the guidelines published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (2004), giving guidance for the assessment of occupational exposures due to intakes of radionuclides, research project funded by the European Commission: the objective of O.M.I.N.E.X. was the improvement of monitoring programmes, taking into account the uncertainties of biokinetic models and data, the programme I.D.E.A. tried to improve measuring techniques and I.D.E.A.S derives rules for the evaluation of measured activity values in terms of exposure. Standardization projects by the International Standardization Organization I.S.O.: I.S.O. (2001) published a standard defining the requirements for bioassay laboratories, which will soon followed by a second part giving the rationale behind these rules., presently the final version (I.S.O. 2005) of a standard is circulating among the I.S.O. member states which guidance on

  19. What is New in Internal Dosimetry and Monitoring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrichs, K.; Nosske, D.

    2006-01-01

    This file is divided in two parts:the first one concerns the progress in internal dosimetry. This part gives an overview on new model developments by ICRP, the series of age dependent doses for members of the public was continued by biokinetic and dosimetric models for the embryo and foetus due to activity intake by the mother (ICRP,2001) and for the infant via consumption of mother's milk after activity intake by the mother (ICRP, 2004). In both publications dose coefficients for the embryo and foetus as well the infant were given for various intake scenarios by mother. The present model development work of ICRP is a revision of Publications 30, 54, 68, and 78 based on the new human Alimentary tract model (H.A.T.M.) of ICRP (ICRP, 2006), a revision of absorption parameters for the human respiratory tract model (ICRP, 1994a), new systemic models as well as new dosimetric parameters derived with new Voxel models for the reference male and female adult. The second part concerns the progress in workers monitoring for radionuclide intake. The initiatives to improve the situation are the guidelines published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (2004), giving guidance for the assessment of occupational exposures due to intakes of radionuclides, research project funded by the European Commission: the objective of O.M.I.N.E.X. was the improvement of monitoring programmes, taking into account the uncertainties of biokinetic models and data, the programme I.D.E.A. tried to improve measuring techniques and I.D.E.A.S derives rules for the evaluation of measured activity values in terms of exposure. Standardization projects by the International Standardization Organization I.S.O.: I.S.O. (2001) published a standard defining the requirements for bioassay laboratories, which will soon followed by a second part giving the rationale behind these rules., presently the final version (I.S.O. 2005) of a standard is circulating among the I.S.O. member states which guidance on the

  20. Support and Maintenance of the International Monitoring System network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jose; Bazarragchaa, Sergelen; Kilgour, Owen; Pretorius, Jacques; Werzi, Robert; Beziat, Guillaume; Hamani, Wacel; Mohammad, Walid; Brely, Natalie

    2014-05-01

    The Monitoring Facilities Support Section of the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) has as its main task to ensure optimal support and maintenance of an array of 321 monitoring stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories distributed worldwide. Raw seismic, infrasonic, hydroacoustic and radionuclide data from these facilities constitutes the basic product delivered by the International Monitoring System (IMS). In the process of maintaining such a wide array of stations of different technologies, the Support Section contributes to ensuring station mission capability. Mission capable data availability according to the IMS requirements should be at least 98% annually (no more than 7 days down time per year per waveform stations - 14 continuous for radionuclide stations) for continuous data sending stations. In this presentation, we will present our case regarding our intervention at stations to address equipment supportability and maintainability, as these are particularly large activities requiring the removal of a substantial part of the station equipment and installation of new equipment. The objective is always to plan these activities while minimizing downtime and continuing to meet all IMS requirements, including those of data availability mentioned above. We postulate that these objectives are better achieved by planning and making use of preventive maintenance, as opposed to "run-to-failure" with associated corrective maintenance. We use two recently upgraded Infrasound Stations (IS39 Palau and IS52 BIOT) as a case study and establish a comparison between these results and several other stations where corrective maintenance was performed, to demonstrate our hypothesis.

  1. The International Monitoring System's Noble Gas Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is a unique global network for surveillance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A major component of the IMS is the radionuclide monitoring network since, among all IMS technologies, it can provide the most unequivocal evidence for a nuclear explosion. The radionuclide monitoring component is unprecedented in its combination of global coverage, sensitivity, network density and temporal resolution. In particular for the detection of underground or underwater nuclear tests, forty of the eighty radionuclide stations will eventually be equipped with sensors to measure the Xenon isotopes Xe-131m (τ 1/2 = 11:8 d), Xe-133 (τ 1/2 = 5:25 d), Xe-133m (τ 1/2 = 2:2 d) and Xe-135 (τ 1/2 = 9:14 h). These are among the isotopes with the highest yields in fission of uranium or plutonium with half-lives long enough to be detected at large distances from the point of emission. As of today, 31 noble gas systems have been installed and are sending data to the International Data Centre. The noble gas systems installed at the stations are automated and sample Xenon continuously from atmospheric air for 12 or 24 hours at an air flow of 0.5 to several m 3 /h by absorption of Xenon on activated charcoal. Detection of the Xenon isotopes is either by high resolution gamma spectrometry or by beta-gamma coincidence spectrometry. With the currently available equipment, detection limits of 0.2 mBq/m 3 can be achieved. An overview on the existing technology and future developments as well as on the interpretation of measurement results is given. (author)

  2. Developing drought impact functions for drought risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bachmair

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought management frameworks are dependent on methods for monitoring and prediction, but quantifying the hazard alone is arguably not sufficient; the negative consequences that may arise from a lack of precipitation must also be predicted if droughts are to be better managed. However, the link between drought intensity, expressed by some hydrometeorological indicator, and the occurrence of drought impacts has only recently begun to be addressed. One challenge is the paucity of information on ecological and socioeconomic consequences of drought. This study tests the potential for developing empirical drought impact functions based on drought indicators (Standardized Precipitation and Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index as predictors and text-based reports on drought impacts as a surrogate variable for drought damage. While there have been studies exploiting textual evidence of drought impacts, a systematic assessment of the effect of impact quantification method and different functional relationships for modeling drought impacts is missing. Using Southeast England as a case study we tested the potential of three different data-driven models for predicting drought impacts quantified from text-based reports: logistic regression, zero-altered negative binomial regression (hurdle model, and an ensemble regression tree approach (random forest. The logistic regression model can only be applied to a binary impact/no impact time series, whereas the other two models can additionally predict the full counts of impact occurrence at each time point. While modeling binary data results in the lowest prediction uncertainty, modeling the full counts has the advantage of also providing a measure of impact severity, and the counts were found to be reasonably predictable. However, there were noticeable differences in skill between modeling methodologies. For binary data the logistic regression and the random forest model performed similarly well based on

  3. Use of Land Surface Temperature Observations in a Two-Source Energy Balance Model Towards Improved Monitoring of Evapotranspiration and Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Otkin, J.; Semmens, K. A.; Zhan, X.; Fang, L.; Li, Z.

    2014-12-01

    As the world's water resources come under increasing tension due to the dual stressors of climate change and population growth, accurate knowledge of water consumption through evapotranspiration (ET) over a range in spatial scales will be critical in developing adaptation strategies. However, direct validation of ET models is challenging due to lack of available observations that are sufficiently representative at the model grid scale (10-100 km). Prognostic land-surface models require accurate information about observed precipitation, soil moisture storage, groundwater, and artificial controls on water supply (e.g., irrigation, dams, etc.) to reliably link rainfall to evaporative fluxes. In contrast, diagnostic estimates of ET can be generated, with no prior knowledge of the surface moisture state, by energy balance models using thermal-infrared remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) as a boundary condition. One such method, the Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model provides estimates of surface energy fluxes through the use of mid-morning change in LST and radiation inputs. The LST inputs carry valuable proxy information regarding soil moisture and its effect on soil evaporation and canopy transpiration. Additionally, the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) representing anomalies in the ratio of actual-to-potential ET has shown to be a reliable indicator of drought. ESI maps over the continental US show good correspondence with standard drought metrics and with patterns of precipitation, but can be generated at significantly higher spatial resolution due to a limited reliance on ground observations. Furthermore, ESI is a measure of actual stress rather than potential for stress, and has physical relevance to projected crop development. Because precipitation is not used in construction of the ESI, it provides an independent assessment of drought conditions and has particular utility for real-time monitoring in regions with sparse rainfall data or

  4. Survey of special nuclear material vehicle monitors for domestic and international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Atwater, H.F.; Caldwell, J.T.; Shunk, E.R.

    1979-01-01

    Special nuclear materials vehicle monitors, including gateside vehicle monitors, hand-held personnel-vehicle monitors, and a new tunnel monitor concept for very large vehicles, are discussed. The results of a comparison of effectiveness of monitors for domestic application are presented. The results of calculations and small scale prototype measurements are given for a tunnel-like neutron monitor for monitoring at the perimeter of an enrichment plant subjected to International Safeguards

  5. Use of Landsat Land Surface Temperature and Vegetation Indices for Monitoring Drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI, vegetation condition index (VCI, and temperature vegetation index (TVX were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2 values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2∘C in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984–2011. Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5–2∘C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin.

  6. Drought as a natural disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maybank, J. [Agvironics Consulting, SK (Canada); Bonsal, B. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Jones, K. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada). Canadian Climate Centre; Lawford, R. [Canadian Climate Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). National Hydrology Research Centre; O`Brien, E.G. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Analysis and Policy Div.; Ripley, E.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science; Wheaton, E. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A discussion of droughts as a major natural disaster in dry areas such as the Canadian Prairies where precipitation patterns are seasonal, was presented. Environmental damages include soil degradation and erosion, vegetation damage, slough and lake deterioration and wildlife loss. The development and application of specific soil moisture and drought indices based on cumulative precipitation deficits have enhanced drought monitoring programs. The identification of precursor conditions raises the possibility that the likelihood of a drought occurring in a particular year or growing season might be predictable. The ability to forecast seasonal temperature and precipitation anomalies is potentially feasible using a suitable merging of precursor parameters and modelling methodologies. Research activity to identify and evaluate new mitigative measure should be increased to keep pace with the prospects of drought predictability. 90 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  7. On the use of Standardized Drought Indices under decadal climate variability: Critical assessment and drought policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, J.; Rivera, D.; Oyarzún, R.; Arumí, J. L.

    2014-09-01

    Since the recent High Level Meeting on National Drought Policy held in Geneva in 2013, a greater concern about the creation and adaptation of national drought monitoring systems is expected. Consequently, backed by international recommendations, the use of Standardized Drought Indices (SDI), such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), as an operational basis of drought monitoring systems has been increasing in many parts of the world. Recommendations for the use of the SPI, and consequently, those indices that share its properties, do not take into account the limitations that this type of index can exhibit under the influence of multidecadal climate variability. These limitations are fundamentally related to the lack of consistency among the operational definition expressed by this type of index, the conceptual definition with which it is associated and the political definition it supports. Furthermore, the limitations found are not overcome by the recommendations for their application. This conclusion is supported by the long-term study of the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI) in the arid north-central region of Chile, under the influence of multidecadal climate variability. The implications of the findings of the study are discussed with regard to their link to aspects of drought policy in the cases of Australia, the United States and Chile.

  8. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Katrina N; Varga, Zoltán M; Kent, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding the health of our in-house fish colony. Here, we describe the biosecurity and health-monitoring program implemented at ZIRC. This strategy was designed to prevent introduction of new zebrafish pathogens, minimize pathogens already present in the facility, and ensure a healthy zebrafish colony for in-house uses and shipment to customers.

  9. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units; Anforderungen an Inkorporationsmessstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, E. [GSF, Inst. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Beyer, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Abt. ASS (Germany); Doerfel, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Erlenbach, H. [Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fischbach, G. [Siemens Brennelementewerk, Hanau (Germany); Henrichs, K. [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, K.D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany); Koenig, K. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, ISH, Neuherberg (Germany); Riedel, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin, Klinikum Steglitz (Germany); Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, FB Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Schieferdecker, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ermittlung der Koerperdosen nach Paragraph 63 StrlSchV sind fuer die gemaess Abs. 6 von der zustaendigen Behoerde zu bestimmenden Messstellen in einer Richtlinie einheitliche Anforderungen festzulegen. Diese beziehen sich auf deren Ausstattung, die Durchfuehrung der Messungen, Auswertungen und Qualitaetskontrollen sowie die Aufzeichnung und Uebermittlung der Ergebnisse. Die Aufgaben der Messstellen umfassen die Messungen der Radioaktivitaet im Koerper bzw. in Koerperausscheidungen, die Ermittlung der Zufuhr an Radionukliden sowie der daraus resultierenden Koerperdosis und die Weiterleitung der Ergebnisse an den Auftraggeber, an das zentrale Dosisregister und in bestimmten Faellen an die Behoerde. Zu den von einer Messstelle zu erfuellenden Anforderungen gehoeren eine ausreichende Messeffektivitaet, die Durchfuehrung von Eigenkontrollen

  10. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the

  11. National Drought Policy: Shifting the Paradigm from Crisis to Risk-based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, D. A.; Sivakumar, M. K.; Stefanski, R.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a normal part of climate for virtually all of the world's climatic regimes. To better address the risks associated with this hazard and societal vulnerability, there must be a dramatic paradigm shift in our approach to drought management in the coming decade in the light of the increasing frequency of droughts and projections of increased severity and duration of these events in the future for many regions, especially in the developing world. Addressing this challenge will require an improved awareness of drought as a natural hazard, the establishment of integrated drought monitoring and early warning systems, a higher level of preparedness that fully incorporates risk-based management, and the adoption of national drought policies that are directed at increasing the coping capacity and resilience of populations to future drought episodes. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), in partnership with other United Nations' agencies, the National Drought Mitigation Center at the University of Nebraska, NOAA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and other partners, is currently launching a program to organize a High Level Meeting on National Drought Policy (HMNDP) in March 2013 to encourage the development of national drought policies through the development of a compendium of key policy elements. The key objectives of a national drought policy are to: (1) encourage vulnerable economic sectors and population groups to adopt self-reliant measures that promote risk management; (2) promote sustainable use of the agricultural and natural resource base; and (3) facilitate early recovery from drought through actions consistent with national drought policy objectives. The key elements of a drought policy framework are policy and governance, including political will; addressing risk and improving early warnings, including vulnerability analysis, impact assessment, and communication; mitigation and preparedness, including the application of effective and

  12. Examining the extreme 2017 spring drought event in South Korea using a suite of drought indices (SPI, SC-PDSI, SPEI, EDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, W. H.; Hayes, M. J.; Svoboda, M. D.; Fuchs, B.; Tadesse, T.; Wilhite, D. A.; Hong, E. M.; Kim, T.

    2017-12-01

    South Korea has experienced extreme droughts in 1994-1995, 2000-2001, 2012, 2015, and 2016-2017. The 2017 spring drought (with especially low winter precipitation recorded in winter 2016) affected a large portion of central and western South Korea, and was one of the most severe droughts in the region since the 2000-2001 drought. The spring drought of 2017 was characterized by exceptionally low precipitation with total precipitation from January to June being 50% lower than the mean normal precipitation record (1981-2010) over most of western South Korea. It was the climatologically driest spring over the 1961-2016 record period. Effective drought monitoring and management depends on which drought indices are selected because each drought index has different drought criteria or levels of drought severity, associated with drought responses. In this study, for the quantitative analysis of the spring 2017 drought event in South Korea, four widely-used drought indices, including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), the Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (SC-PDSI), and the Effective Drought Index (EDI) are compared with observed drought damaged areas in the context of agricultural drought impacts. The South Korean government (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) and Korea Rural Community Corporation (KRC)) has been operating a government-level drought monitoring system since 2016. Results from this study can be used to improve the drought monitoring applications, as well as drought planning and preparedness in South Korea.

  13. Divertor impurity monitor for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugie, T.; Ogawa, H.; Nishitani, T.; Kasai, S.; Katsunuma, J.; Maruo, M.; Ebisawa, K.; Ando, T.; Kita, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The divertor impurity monitoring system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor has been designed. The main functions of this system are to identify impurity species and to measure the two-dimensional distributions of the particle influxes in the divertor plasmas. The wavelength range is 200-1000 nm. The viewing fans are realized by molybdenum mirrors located in the divertor cassette. With additional viewing fans seeing through the gap between the divertor cassettes, the region approximately from the divertor leg to the x point will be observed. The light from the divertor region passes through the quartz windows on the divertor port plug and the cryostat, and goes through the dog-leg optics in the biological shield. Three different type of spectrometers: (i) survey spectrometers for impurity species monitoring, (ii) filter spectrometers for the particle influx measurement with the spatial resolution of 10 mm and the time resolution of 1 ms, and (iii) high dispersion spectrometers for high resolution wavelength measurements are designed. These spectrometers are installed just behind the biological shield (for λthe transmission loss in fiber and in the diagnostic room (for λ⩾450 nm) from the point of view of accessibility and flexibility. The optics have been optimized by a ray trace analysis. As a result, 10-15 mm spatial resolution will be achieved in all regions of the divertor.

  14. The Tree Drought Emission MONitor (Tree DEMON, an innovative system for assessing biogenic volatile organic compounds emission from plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Lüpke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC emitted by plants play an important role for ecological and physiological processes, for example as response to stressors. These emitted compounds are involved in chemical processes within the atmosphere and contribute to the formation of aerosols and ozone. Direct measurement of BVOC emissions requires a specialized sample system in order to obtain repeatable and comparable results. These systems need to be constructed carefully since BVOC measurements may be disturbed by several side effects, e.g., due to wrong material selection and lacking system stability. Results In order to assess BVOC emission rates, a four plant chamber system was constructed, implemented and throughout evaluated by synthetic tests and in two case studies on 3-year-old sweet chestnut seedlings. Synthetic system test showed a stable sampling with good repeatability and low memory effects. The first case study demonstrated the capability of the system to screen multiple trees within a few days and revealed three different emission patterns of sweet chestnut trees. The second case study comprised an application of drought stress on two seedlings compared to two in parallel assessed seedlings of a control. Here, a clear reduction of BVOC emissions during drought stress was observed. Conclusion The developed system allows assessing BVOC as well as CO2 and water vapor gas exchange of four tree specimens automatically and in parallel with repeatable results. A canopy volume of 30 l can be investigated, which constitutes in case of tree seedlings the whole canopy. Longer lasting experiments of e.g., 1–3 weeks can be performed easily without any significant plant interference.

  15. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring - a timeline since 1894

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Samuel U.; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Hoelzle, Martin; Machguth, Horst; Mölg, Nico; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce H.; Zemp, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Changes in glaciers and ice caps provide some of the clearest evidence of climate change, with impacts on sea-level variations, regional hydrological cycles, and natural hazard situations. Therefore, glaciers have been recognized as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV). Internationally coordinated collection and distribution of standardized information about the state and change of glaciers and ice caps was initiated in 1894 and is today organized within the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G). GTN-G ensures the continuous development and adaptation of the international strategies to the long-term needs of users in science and policy. A GTN-G Steering Committee coordinates, supports and advices the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. In this presentation, we trace the development of the internationally coordinated glacier monitoring since its beginning in the 19th century. Today, several online databases containing a wealth of diverse data types with different levels of detail and global coverage provide fast access to continuously updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. All glacier datasets are made freely available through the respective operational bodies within GTN-G, and can be accessed through the GTN-G Global Glacier Browser (http://www.gtn-g.org/data_browser.html). Glacier inventory data (e.g., digital outlines) are available for about 180,000 glaciers (GLIMS database, RGI - Randolph Glacier Inventory, WGI - World Glacier Inventory). Glacier front variations with about 45,000 entries since the 17th century and about 6,200 glaciological and geodetic mass (volume) change observations dating back to the 19th century are available in the Fluctuations of Glaciers (FoG) database. These datasets reveal clear evidence that

  16. Harmonisation (legal, dosimetric, quality aspects) of individual monitoring, and integration of monitoring for external and internal exposures (EURADOS working group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.A.; Currivan, L.; Falk, R.; Olko, P.; Wernli, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Dijk, J.W.E. van

    2003-01-01

    The EURADOS Working Group II on 'Harmonisation of individual monitoring' consists of experts from almost all EU Member States and Newly Associated States (NAS), involved in tasks related to the assessment of doses for internal and external radiation. The final objective is to achieve harmonisation in individual monitoring for occupational exposures. Sub-group 2 activities are focused on investigating how the results from personal dosemeters for external radiation and workplace monitoring and from monitoring for internal exposure can be combined into a complete and consistent system of individual monitoring. Three questionnaires were prepared, covering Individual monitoring of external radiation (Questionnaire 1), 'Internal exposure' (Questionnaire 2) and 'Natural sources of radiation at workplace' (Questionnaire 3). With the agreement of a 'contact-person' selected in each country, the distribution of the three EURADOS 2002 questionnaires was carried out by e-mail among the dosimetry facilities of 28 European countries. The preliminary results of these actions are presented here. (author)

  17. Life Support and Environmental Monitoring International System Maturation Team Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of technologies

  18. ITRAP - an international pilot study on border monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Duftschmid, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the design and preliminary results of an extended pilot study of commercially available monitoring systems for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials at borders. The study consists of a laboratory test phase and field tests at the Austrian/Hungarian border and the Vienna airport, each for a duration of one year. The results will be used to derive realistic performance requirements for border control systems in view of optimized technical and economic conditions as well as to propose an 'investigation level'. The ITRAP study consists of three phases. In the first phase equipment currently available on the market is subjected to laboratory testing at the Austrian Research Centres Seibersdorf. The instrument categories include hand-held, portable, and fixed-installed equipment. The test criteria defined as minimum requirements have been established together with the manufacturers. The laboratory tests started in May 1998 and will last until end of this year. During the second phase, the field study, equipment passing the laboratory tests will be installed at a major Austrian-Hungarian border crossing (Nickelsdorf) for monitoring of cars, trucks and trains, as well as at the Vienna airport for pedestrians, luggage and cargo. In this phase the results gained from the lab tests about the 'fitness for use' will be verified in practice, in close co-operation with the law enforcement officers at the borders. Also training issues and questions of maintenance and support shall be evaluated. In the third phase, realistic specifications and performance requirements shall be derived with the help of international experts and selected specialists from the users and manufacturers. The results of the field study will focus not only on the technical aspects of monitoring equipment (e.g. detection threshold and rate of false alarms) but also on the operational (e.g. ease of use, reliability, training requirements, field support) and economic

  19. The Global Communication Infrastructure of the International Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastowka, L.; Gray, A.; Anichenko, A.

    2007-05-01

    The Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI) employs 6 satellites in various frequency bands distributed around the globe. Communications with the PTS (Provisional Technical Secretariat) in Vienna, Austria are achieved through VSAT technologies, international leased data circuits and Virtual Private Network (VPN) connections over the Internet. To date, 210 independent VSAT circuits have been connected to Vienna as well as special circuits connecting to the Antarctic and to independent sub-networks. Data volumes from all technologies currently reach 8 Gigabytes per day. The first level of support and a 24/7 help desk remains with the GCI contractor, but performance is monitored actively by the PTS/GCI operations team. GCI operations are being progressively introduced into the PTS operations centre. An Operations centre fully integrated with the GCI segment of the IMS network will ensure a more focused response to incidents and will maximize the availability of the IMS network. Existing trouble tickets systems are being merged to ensure the commission manages GCI incidents in the context of the IMS as a whole. A focus on a single source of data for GCI network performance has enabled reporting systems to be developed which allow for improved and automated reports. The contracted availability for each individual virtual circuit is 99.5% and this performance is regularly reviewed on a monthly basis

  20. Internal monitoring of GBTx emulator using IPbus for CBM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Swagata; Zabolotny, Wojciech; Sau, Suman; Chkrabarti, Amlan; Saini, Jogender; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Pal, Sushanta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is a part of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt at GSI. In CBM experiment a precisely time synchronized fault tolerant self-triggered electronics is required for Data Acquisition (DAQ) system in CBM experiments which can support high data rate (up to several TB/s). As a part of the implementation of the DAQ system of Muon Chamber (MUCH) which is one of the important detectors in CBM experiment, a FPGA based Gigabit Transceiver (GBTx) emulator is implemented. Readout chain for MUCH consists of XYTER chips (Front end electronics) which will be directly connected to detector, GBTx emulator, Data Processing Board (DPB) and First level event selector board (FLIB) with backend software interface. GBTx emulator will be connected with the XYTER emulator through LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signalling) line in the front end and in the back end it is connected with DPB through 4.8 Gbps optical link. IPBus over Ethernet is used for internal monitoring of the registers within the GBTx. In IPbus implementation User Datagram Protocol (UDP) stack is used in transport layer of OSI model so that GBTx can be controlled remotely. A Python script is used at computer side to drive IPbus controller.

  1. Airborne anthropogenic radioactivity measurements from an international radionuclide monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, J.D.; Williams, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Anthropogenic radioactivity is being measured in near-real time by an international monitoring system designed to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Airborne radioactivity measurements are conducted in-situ by stations that are linked to a central data processing and analysis facility. Aerosols are separated by high-volume air sampling with high-efficiency particulate filters. Radio-xenon is separated from other gases through cryogenic methods. Gamma-spectrometry is performed by high purity germanium detectors and the raw spectral data is immediately transmitted to the central facility via Internet, satellite, or modem. These highly sensitive sensors, combined with the automated data processing at the central facility, result in a system capable of measuring environmental radioactivity on the microbecquerel scale where the data is available to scientists within minutes of the field measurement. During the past year, anthropogenic radioactivity has been measured at approximately half of the stations in the current network. Sources of these measured radionuclides include nuclear power plant emissions, Chernobyl resuspension, and isotope production facilities. The ability to thoroughly characterize site-specific radionuclides, which contribute to the radioactivity of the ambient environment, will be necessary to reduce the number of false positive events. This is especially true of anthropogenic radionuclides that could lead to ambiguous analysis. (author)

  2. An assessment of global meteorological droughts based on HAPPI experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Sun, Fubao; Lim, Wee Ho; Zhang, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Droughts caused water shortages could lead to serious consequences on the socioeconomic and environmental well-being. In the context of changing climate, droughts monitoring, attributions and impact assessments have been performed using observations (e.g., Sun et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2016) and climate model projections (e.g., Liu et al., 2016, 2017); with expectation that such scientific knowledge would feed into long-term adaptation and mitigation plans to tackle potentially unfavorable future drought impacts in a warming world. Inspired by the 2015 Paris Agreement, the HAPPI (Half a degree Additional warming, Projections, Prognosis and Impacts) experiments were set up to better inform international policymakers about the socioeconomic and environmental impacts under less severe global warming conditions. This study aims to understand the potential shift in meteorological droughts from the past into the future on a global scale. Based on the HAPPI data, we evaluate the change in drought related indices (i.e., PET/P, PDSI) from the past to the future scenarios (1.5 and 2 degrees Celsius warming). Here we present some early results (MIROC5 as demonstration) on identified hotspots and discuss the differences in severity of droughts between these warming worlds and associated consequences. References: Liu W, and Sun F, 2017. Projecting and attributing future changes of evaporative demand over China in CMIP5 climate models, Journal of Hydrometeorology, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0204.1 Liu W, and Sun F, 2016. Assessing estimates of evaporative demand in climate models using observed pan evaporation over China. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere 121, 8329-8349 Zhang J, Sun F, Xu J, Chen Y, Sang Y, -F, and Liu C, 2016. Dependence of trends in and sensitivity of drought over China (1961-2013) on potential evaporation model. Geophysical Research Letters 43, 206-213 Sun F, Roderick M, Farquhar G, 2012. Changes in the variability of global land precipitation

  3. The Temporospatial Variations and Propagation of Drought in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, F.; Ye, A.; Luo, L.; Duan, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Drought monitoring and forecasting system is a crucial component of drought preparedness. However, under the changing environment, the hydro-climate presents non-stationarity due to climate change and anthropogenic activities, which brings great challenges for drought forecasts. This study investigates the temporospatial characteristics and propagation of different types of droughts from 1961 to 2016 in China. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSMI) and Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI) are used to characterize meteorological, agricultural and hydrological droughts, respectively. The soil moisture and streamflow datasets are obtained from simulations by the distributed time-variant gain model (DTVGM) hydrological model, which has been calibrated and validated in China. The spatial patterns of drought frequency and severity, and temporal characteristics of drought coverage, drought duration and drought intensity are investigated. The cross wavelet analysis is used to examine the correlations between meteorological, agricultural and hydrological droughts. The study also explores how different types of droughts are linked and how one drought morphs into another through time. The findings on temporospatial variations and propagation of drought will provide better understanding on drought development to be helpful for improvement of drought monitoring and forecasting.

  4. Flooding During Drought: Learning from Stakeholder Engagement & Partner Coordination in the California-Nevada Drought Early Warning System (DEWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    After more than 5 years of drought, extreme precipitation brought drought relief in California and Nevada and presents an opportunity to reflect upon lessons learned while planning for the future. NOAA's National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) California-Nevada Drought Early Warning System (DEWS) in June 2017 convened a regional coordination workshop to provide a forum to discuss and build upon past drought efforts in the region and increase coordination, collaboration and information sharing across the region as a whole. Participants included federal, tribal, state, academic, and local partners who provided a post-mortem on the recent drought and impacts as well as recent innovations in drought monitoring, forecasts, and decision support tools in response to the historic drought. This presentation will highlight lessons learned from stakeholder outreach and engagement around flooding during drought, and pathways for moving forward coordination and collaboration in the region. Additional focus will be on the potential opportunities from examining California decision making calendars from this drought. Identified gaps and challenges will also be shared, such as the need to connect observations with social impacts, capacity building around available tools and resources, and future drought monitoring needs. Drought will continue to impact California and Nevada, and the CA-NV DEWS works to make climate and drought science readily available, easily understandable and usable for decision makers; and to improve the capacity of stakeholders to better monitor, forecast, plan for and cope with the impacts of drought.

  5. Necessity of Internal Monitoring for Nuclear Medicine Staff in a Large Specialized Chinese Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Zhao; Zhang, Zhen; Hou, Chang-Song; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Hui; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-04-12

    This work intends to quantify the risk of internal contaminations in the nuclear medicine staff of one hospital in Henan province, China. For this purpose, the criteria proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to determine whether it is necessary to conduct internal individual monitoring was applied to all of the 18 nuclear medicine staff members who handled radionuclides. The activity of different radionuclides used during a whole calendar year and the protection measures adopted were collected for each staff member, and the decision as to whether nuclear medicine staff in the hospital should be subjected to internal monitoring was made on the basis of the criteria proposed by IAEA. It is concluded that for all 18 members of the nuclear medicine staff in the hospital, internal monitoring is required. Internal exposure received by nuclear medicine staff should not be ignored, and it is necessary to implement internal monitoring for nuclear medicine staff routinely.

  6. Evaluation of corn genotypes for drought and heat stress tolerance using physiological measurements and a microcontroller-based monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture deficit accompanied by high temperature are major abiotic stress factors that affect corn production in the southern United States, particularly during the reproductive stage of the plant. In evaluating plants for environmental stress tolerance, it is important to monitor changes in their ...

  7. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR...

  8. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida

    2014-01-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of 131 I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees 131 I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted

  9. Comparative Analysis of Drought Indices for Drought Zone Scheme of Northern Khorasan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan EYSHI REZAEI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the natural disasters which deeply influenced agricultural production. Drought monitoring programs could help to forecast and mitigate the impacts of drought. In this study occurrence, severity, and duration of drought were evaluated by monthly rainfall data (1986-2005 that were recorded at all meteorological stations in north Khorasan province of Iran. Drought indices include Standard Rainfall Index (SPI, Decades Index (DI and Percent of Normal (PNI calculated and compared to determine drought severity, duration and drought occurrence for all stations. In addition, drought maps were prepared by Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW method, for each study zone. Based on these indices, the most extensive drought occurred in 1989, 1990, 1995, 1996, 2000, and 2001 years. The longest duration of drought based on SPI happened in 1994 and 1997 years. Furthermore, the extreme drought occurred in 1990 and 2001 in all stations. In conclusion, Central part of this province was more exposed to extreme drought during study period than other parts of this region.

  10. Application impact of internal monitoring criteria in radiological protection programs of nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernardo M.; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Juliao, Ligia Q.C.; Lourenco, Maria Cristina; Melo, Dunstana R.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the simulation of the internal monitoring criteria application for the most used radionuclides by the area of nuclear medicine, taking into consideration the usual conditions of usual source handling and the activity bands authorized by the CNEN. It is concluded that the handling of Iodine 131 for therapeutical purposes is the practice which presents the most risk of internal exposure for the works, requiring the adoption of a program for internal monitoring by the nuclear medicine services

  11. Cycle 24 COS FUV Internal/External Wavelength Scale Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, William J.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the monitoring of the COS FUV wavelength scale zero-points during Cycle 24 in program 14855. Select cenwaves were monitored for all FUV gratings at Lifetime Position 3. The target and cenwaves have remained the same since Cycle 21, with a change only to the target acquisition sequence. All measured offsets are within the error goals, although the G140L cenwaves show offsets at the short-wavelength end of segment A that are approaching the tolerance. This behavior will be closely monitored in subsequent iterations of the program.

  12. Community Monitoring for REDD+: International Promises and Field Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Danielsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Will community monitoring assist in delivering just and equitable REDD+? We assessed whether local communities can effectively estimate carbon stocks in some of the world's most carbon rich forests, using simple field protocols, and we reviewed whether community monitoring exists in current REDD+ pilots. We obtained similar results for forest carbon when measured by communities and professional foresters in 289 vegetation plots in Southeast Asia. Most REDD+ monitoring schemes, however, contain no community involvement. To close the gulf between United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change texts on involving communities and field implementation realities, we propose greater embedding of community monitoring within national REDD+ pilot schemes, which we argue will lead to a more just REDD+.

  13. Toward Seasonal Forecasting of Global Droughts: Evaluation over USA and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Yuan, Xing; Roundy, Joshua; Sheffield, Justin; Pan, Ming

    2013-04-01

    Extreme hydrologic events in the form of droughts are significant sources of social and economic damage. In the United States according to the National Climatic Data Center, the losses from drought exceed US210 billion during 1980-2011, and account for about 24% of all losses from major weather disasters. Internationally, especially for the developing world, drought has had devastating impacts on local populations through food insecurity and famine. Providing reliable drought forecasts with sufficient early warning will help the governments to move from the management of drought crises to the management of drought risk. After working on drought monitoring and forecasting over the USA for over 10 years, the Princeton land surface hydrology group is now developing a global drought monitoring and forecasting system using a dynamical seasonal climate-hydrologic LSM-model (CHM) approach. Currently there is an active debate on the merits of the CHM-based seasonal hydrologic forecasts as compared to Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP). We use NCEP's operational forecast system, the Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) and its previous version CFSv1, to investigate the value of seasonal climate model forecasts by conducting a set of 27-year seasonal hydrologic hindcasts over the USA. Through Bayesian downscaling, climate models have higher squared correlation (R2) and smaller error than ESP for monthly precipitation averaged over major river basins across the USA, and the forecasts conditional on ENSO show further improvements (out to four months) over river basins in the southern USA. All three approaches have plausible predictions of soil moisture drought frequency over central USA out to six months because of strong soil moisture memory, and seasonal climate models provide better results over central and eastern USA. The R2 of drought extent is higher for arid basins and for the forecasts initiated during dry seasons, but significant improvements from CFSv2 occur

  14. Development of a Global Evaporative Stress Index Based on Thermal and Microwave LST towards Improved Monitoring of Agricultural Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Otkin, J.; Holmes, T. R.; Gao, F.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe the development of a global agricultural monitoring tool, with a focus on providing early warning of developing vegetation stress for agricultural decision-makers and stakeholders at relatively high spatial resolution (5-km). The tool is based on remotely sensed estimates of evapotranspiration, retrieved via energy balance principals using observations of land surface temperature. The Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) represents anomalies in the ratio of actual-to-potential ET generated with the ALEXI surface energy balance model. The LST inputs to ESI have been shown to provide early warning information about the development of vegetation stress with stress-elevated canopy temperatures observed well before a decrease in greenness is detected in remotely sensed vegetation indices. As a diagnostic indicator of actual ET, the ESI requires no information regarding antecedent precipitation or soil moisture storage capacity - the current available moisture to vegetation is deduced directly from the remotely sensed LST signal. This signal also inherently accounts for both precipitation and non-precipitation related inputs/sinks to the plant-available soil moisture pool (e.g., irrigation) which can modify crop response to rainfall anomalies. Independence from precipitation data is a benefit for global agricultural monitoring applications due to sparseness in existing ground-based precipitation networks, and time delays in public reporting. Several enhancements to the current ESI framework will be addressed as requested from project stakeholders: (a) integration of "all-sky" MW Ka-band LST retrievals to augment "clear-sky" thermal-only ESI in persistently cloudy regions; (b) operational production of ESI Rapid Change Indices which provide important early warning information related to onset of actual vegetation stress; and (c) assessment of ESI as a predictor of global yield anomalies; initial studies have shown the ability of intra

  15. Monitoring of patients treated with lithium for bipolar disorder: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederlof, M; Heerdink, E R; Egberts, A C G; Wilting, I; Stoker, L J; Hoekstra, R; Kupka, R W

    2018-04-14

    Adequate monitoring of patients using lithium is needed for optimal dosing and for early identification of patients with (potential) ADEs. The objective was to internationally assess how health care professionals monitor patients treated with lithium for bipolar disorder. Using networks of various professional organizations, an anonymous online survey was conducted among health care professionals prescribing lithium. Target lithium serum levels and frequency of monitoring was assessed together with monitoring of physical and laboratory parameters. Reasons to and not to monitor and use of guidelines and institutional protocols, and local monitoring systems were investigated. The survey was completed by 117 health care professionals incorporating responses from twenty-four countries. All prescribers reported to monitor lithium serum levels on a regular basis, with varying target ranges. Almost all (> 97%) monitored thyroid and renal function before start and during maintenance treatment. Reported monitoring of other laboratory and physical parameters was variable. The majority of respondents (74%) used guidelines or institutional protocols for monitoring. In general, the prescriber was responsible for monitoring, had to request every monitoring parameter separately and only a minority of patients was automatically invited. Lithium serum levels, renal and thyroid function were monitored by (almost) all physicians. However, there was considerable variation in other monitoring parameters. Our results help to understand why prescribers of lithium monitor patients and what their main reasons are not to monitor patients using lithium.

  16. Monitoring the eye lens: how do the international organisations react?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.

    2015-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended to lower the limit of the dose to the eye lens for occupationally exposed persons to a mean value of 20 mSv y -1 (averaged over 5 y, with a maximum of 50 mSv y -1 ); already in the autumn of 2011, both the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) took over this reduction in their respective draft basic safety standards. Even prior to this (and since then, increasingly so), several international activities were started (among other things, the following ones): (1) the ICRP adopted a stylised model of the eye to calculate dose conversion coefficients for its report ICRP 116; (2) the European Commission has funded the ORAMED project dealing with radiation protection in medicine; (3) in its standard IEC 62387 on passive dosimetry systems, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has laid down requirements for Hp(3) eye dosemeters; (4) the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the IAEA provide a range of practical advice in the standard ISO 15382 (still a draft) and in a technical document IAEA TecDoc on both radiation protection and on dosimetry; (5) for most cases, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends both phantoms (the slab and the cylinder). In short: most national procedures can orientate themselves on international ones; some questions, however, remain open. (authors)

  17. Drought Persistence Errors in Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2018-04-01

    The persistence of drought events largely determines the severity of socioeconomic and ecological impacts, but the capability of current global climate models (GCMs) to simulate such events is subject to large uncertainties. In this study, the representation of drought persistence in GCMs is assessed by comparing state-of-the-art GCM model simulations to observation-based data sets. For doing so, we consider dry-to-dry transition probabilities at monthly and annual scales as estimates for drought persistence, where a dry status is defined as negative precipitation anomaly. Though there is a substantial spread in the drought persistence bias, most of the simulations show systematic underestimation of drought persistence at global scale. Subsequently, we analyzed to which degree (i) inaccurate observations, (ii) differences among models, (iii) internal climate variability, and (iv) uncertainty of the employed statistical methods contribute to the spread in drought persistence errors using an analysis of variance approach. The results show that at monthly scale, model uncertainty and observational uncertainty dominate, while the contribution from internal variability is small in most cases. At annual scale, the spread of the drought persistence error is dominated by the statistical estimation error of drought persistence, indicating that the partitioning of the error is impaired by the limited number of considered time steps. These findings reveal systematic errors in the representation of drought persistence in current GCMs and suggest directions for further model improvement.

  18. The potential of SMAP soil moisture data for analyzing droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, E.; Das, N. N.; Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Identification of the onset and the end of droughts are important for socioeconomic planning. Different datasets and tools are either available or being generated for drought analysis to recognize the status of drought. The aim of this study is to understand the potential of the SMAP soil moisture (SM) data for identification of onset, persistence and withdrawal of droughts over the Contiguous United States. We are using the SMAP-passive level 3 soil moisture observations and the United States Drought Monitor (http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu) data for understanding the relation between change in SM and drought severity. The daily observed SM data are temporally averaged to match the weekly drought monitor data and subsequently the weekly, monthly, 3 monthly and 6 monthly change in SM and drought severity were estimated. The analyses suggested that the change in SM and drought severity are correlated especially over the mid-west and west coast of USA at monthly and longer time scales. The spatial pattern of the SM change maps clearly indicated the regions that are moving between different levels of drought severity. Further, the time series of effective saturation [Se =(θ-θr)/(θs-θr)] indicated the temporal dynamics of drought conditions over California which is recovering from a long-term drought. Additional analyses are being carried out to develop statistics between drought severity and soil moisture level.

  19. Peru and Guatemala Internal Midline Monitoring Assessment of Reading

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Save the Children is implementing Leer Juntos, a USAID-funded three-year project targeting rural, indigenous communities in Guatemala and Peru with the objective of...

  20. High-resolution monitoring of catchment nutrient response to the end of the 2011-2012 drought in England, captured by the demonstration test catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, F. N.; Lloyd, C.; Jonczyk, J.; Benskin, C. McW. H.; Grant, F.; Dorling, S. R.; Steele, C. J.; Collins, A. L.; Freer, J.; Haygarth, P. M.; Hiscock, K. M.; Johnes, P. J.; Lovett, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Demonstration Test Catchments (DTC) project is a UK Government funded initiative to test the effectiveness of on-farm mitigation measures designed to reduce agricultural pollution without compromising farm productivity. Three distinct catchments in England have been chosen to test the efficacy of mitigation measures on working farms in small tributary sub-catchments equipped with continuous water quality monitoring stations. The Hampshire Avon in the south is a mixed livestock and arable farming catchment, the River Wensum in the east is a lowland catchment with predominantly arable farming and land use in the River Eden catchment in the north-west is predominantly livestock farming. One of the many strengths of the DTC as a national research platform is that it provides the ability to investigate catchment hydrology and biogeochemical response across different landscapes and geoclimatic characteristics, with a range of differing flow behaviours, geochemistries and nutrient chemistries. Although numerous authors present studies of individual catchment responses to storms, no studies exist of multiple catchment responses to the same rainfall event captured with in situ high-resolution nutrient monitoring at a national scale. This paper brings together findings from all three DTC research groups to compare the response of the catchments to a major storm event in April 2012. This was one of the first weather fronts to track across the country following a prolonged drought period affecting much of the UK through 2011-2012, marking an unusual meteorological transition when a rapid shift from drought to flood risk occurred. The effects of the weather front on discharge and water chemistry parameters, including nitrogen species (NO3-N and NH4-N) and phosphorus fractions (total P (TP) and total reactive P (TRP)), measured at a half-hourly time step are examined. When considered in the context of one hydrological year, flow and concentration duration curves reveal that

  1. Preliminry results of the 1975 international personnel monitoring survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1975-11-01

    About 70 detailed questions have been answered in mid-1975 by 83 personnel monitoring services in 33 countries, representing almost half a million, or approximately 28 percent, of the world's total radiation workers, as well as by 11 customers of U. S. commercial services. Extensive data are given on many questions regarding the current system in use, future plans, and experiences, for example on the type(s) of TLD, film and readout instrumentation; monitoring period; applications for extremity and environmental monitoring; advantages and disadvantages of various systems; R and D projects; experience with beta and neutron dosimetry; intentional fake exposures; lower and upper dose limits; recordkeeping; and reporting of the results. The larger services in the advanced countries lead in the transition from film to TLD. More than half of the radiation workers already wear TLDs, or will do so within about two years. Important unsolved problems are fast neutron monitoring and the low information content and high initial cost of TLD. The trend is towards large, centralized, automatic services and recordkeeping, with extensive computer use for evaluation and data handling. There is a need for better performance standards and testing, and more information exchange and cooperation between services. (auth)

  2. The potential use of domestic safeguards interior monitors in International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.; Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    An important future element of International Safeguards instrumentation is expected to be the merging of containment/surveillance and nondestructive assay equipment with domestic physical protection equipment into integrated systems, coupled with remote monitoring. Instrumentation would include interior monitoring and assessment and entry/exit monitoring. Of particular importance is the application of interior monitors in spaces of declared inactivity; for example, in nuclear material storage locations that are entered infrequently. The use of modern interior monitors in International Safeguards offers potential for improving effectiveness and efficiency. Within the context of increased cooperation, one can readily envision increased interaction between International Safeguards and Domestic Safeguards, including increased joint use of State System of Accounting and Control data

  3. Monitoring on internal temperature of composite insulator with embedding fiber Bragg grating for early diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Tang, Ming

    2017-04-01

    The abnormal temperature rise is the precursor of the defective composite insulator in power transmission line. However no consolidated techniques or methodologies can on line monitor its internal temperature now. Thus a new method using embedding fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rod is adopted to monitor its internal temperature. To correctly demodulate the internal temperature of FRP rod from the Bragg wavelength shift of FBG, the conversion coefficient between them is deduced theoretically based on comprehensive investigation on the thermal stresses of the metal-composite joint, as well as its material and structural properties. Theoretical model shows that the conversion coefficients of FBG embedded in different positions will be different because of non-uniform thermal stress distribution, which is verified by an experiment. This work lays the theoretical foundation of monitoring the internal temperature of composite insulator with embedding FBG, which is of great importance to its health structural monitoring, especially early diagnosis.

  4. Individual monitoring for internal exposure of workers - regulation and practice in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerekes, A.; Kocsy, G.; Pellet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Decree of Ministry of Health for the enforcement of the Act on Atomic Energy has put special emphasis on the regulation of monitoring for internal exposure in Hungary. The necessarily general prescription of the Decree 'In case of the possibility or suspicion of incorporating open radioactive substances the affected employee shall be subjected to internal contamination monitoring. The obligation of the internal monitoring shall be determined by the Radiation Hygiene Centre of the National Public Health and Medical Officer's Service' called for a guidance to assist the work of the competent authority. The guide was elaborated on the basis of the IAEA Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.2. According to the Safety Guide the decision factor shall first be determined for the potential radionuclides and practice applied. For routine monitoring the required frequency, method and MDA values, moreover for special monitoring the method and MDA values were derived for over 40 radionuclides considering the following two basic assumptions: the activity remaining in or excreted from the body could be determined by the given measurement method, the possible underestimation of intake shall be less than a factor of three within the monitoring interval. The following prescription of the Decree 'The laboratory performing the monitoring of internal exposure shall be accredited' has raised a conflict in practice. To solve the problem the Guide suggests a two-step monitoring process: a screening measurement for the possible internal contamination performed by the Radiation Protection Service of the workplace by any equipment used in daily practice for investigation of patients, radiation protection purposes, etc., if the result of screening indicates an internal contamination the radiation worker shall be monitored by an accredited laboratory. As an ISO Standard in process has several assumptions differing from the IAEA Safety Guide, e.g. the limitation of 'maximum potential

  5. Successful global assessments and monitoring: The roles of the international community and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Successful global assessments and monitoring of natural resources requires teamwork between participating nations and the international communities charged with the responsibility for collecting and disseminating information. In an attempt to identify emerging information needs and to promote coordination, the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO) and other national and international groups held a major conference and workshop in Venice, Italy, on global monitoring last September. The results of the meeting and subsequent events in Montreal indicated a need for more aggressive leadership at the international level and more cooperation at the national level. This paper reports on the outcome of the Venice conference and list some things that the international community and the United States must do to make global assessments and monitoring a reality

  6. International systems for harmonization and quality control by in vivo monitoring and quality control by in vivo monitoring of internal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, I [National Radiation Protection Inst., Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    After the Chernobyl accident, whole body counting for the monitoring of internal contamination of the population was widely used. In many cases, great discrepancy occurred between in vivo measured values and predicted ones from model calculations. This situation was very similar to the situation in environmental monitoring, however, by sample measurement, quality assurance and quality control of the measurement procedure is much easier than by whole body counting. In addition to it, unlike in environmental monitoring, use of semiconductor detectors by whole counting was rather limited in this time so there were few laboratories which were able to distinguish up to 20 radionuclides by which people from the vicinity of Chernobyl were internally contaminated. Therefore, effort was undertaken by many international organization to summarize current status of whole body counting and to estimate uncertainty and sensitivity of different devices. In this paper efforts to harmonize an interpretation of measured results is given. Whole body counting laboratory of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague participates in the above mentioned intercomparisons with good results and scientists from NRPI have participated in the preparation of 3 international recommendations concerning measurement of internal contamination (author).

  7. International consensus on use of continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danne, Thomas; Nimri, Revital; Battelino, Tadej

    2017-01-01

    , have yet to be established. In February 2017, the Advanced Technologies & Treatments for Diabetes (ATTD) Congress convened an international panel of physicians, researchers, and individuals with diabetes who are expert in CGM technologies to address these issues. This article summarizes the ATTD...

  8. The pre-operational monitoring - how useful are recommendations of international organizations and various national programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailovic, M.

    1980-01-01

    National legislation and the preoperational monitoring program around Nuclear Power Plant Krsko are described. The usefulness of international recommendations and various national preoperational monitoring programs is examined. Modifications are described which were introduced with the aim of identifying the site specific critical exposure pathways. The role of qualified and experienced experts is discussed. (H.K.)

  9. Proceedings of the international workshop on monitoring forest degradation in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif A. Mortenson; James J. Halperin; Patricia N. Manley; Rich L. Turner

    2013-01-01

    The international workshop on monitoring forest degradation in Southeast Asia provided a forum for discussion of the technical, social and political challenges and successes that have occurred during recent work in sub-national forest degradation monitoring. The 2012 workshop, held in Bangkok, Thailand, followed recent US Forest Service/LEAF (USAID's Lowering...

  10. Update on Monitoring Technologies for International Safeguards and Fissile Material Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croessmann, C. Dennis; Glidewell, Don D.; Mangan, Dennis L.; Smathers, Douglas C.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring technologies are playing an increasingly important part in international safeguards and fissile material verification. The developments reduce the time an inspector must spend at a site while assuring continuity of knowledge. Monitoring technologies' continued development has produced new seal systems and integrated video surveillance advances under consideration for Trilateral Initiative use. This paper will present recent developments for monitoring systems at Embalse, Argentina, VNHEF, Sarov, Russian, and Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

  11. An approach to routine individual internal dose monitoring at the object 'Shelter' personnel considering uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nichuk, D.V.; Bondarenko, O.O.; Medvedjev, S.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    An approach to organisation of routine individual internal dose monitoring of the personnel of the Object 'Shelter' is presented in the work, that considers individualised uncertainties. In this aspect two methods of effective dose assessment based on bioassay are considered in the work: (1) traditional indirect method at which application results of workplace monitoring are not taken into account, and (2) a combined method in which both results of bioassay measurements and workplace monitoring are considered

  12. The Use Of Standardized Indicators (SPI And SPEI In Predicting Droughts Over The Republic Of Moldova Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedealcov M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The drought events frequent manifestation over the Republic of Moldova territory, in the context of climate change requires a scientific monitoring adjusted to international researchers. In recent years, internationally, the estimation of this phenomenon occurs through standardized indexes. The most used of these, being the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. Since there is no a unified definition of drought, the World Meteorological Organization proposes to calculate the indexes, through developed calculation software. Thus, based on multi-annual data (1980-2014 a regional spatio-temporal estimation concerning drought in the Republic of Moldova was performed, thereby realizing the regional investigations framing in the international ones.

  13. Global Drought Hazard Frequency and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid based upon the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction's (IRI) Weighted Anomaly...

  14. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Katrina N.; Varga, Zolt?n M.; Kent, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding ...

  15. Study of thorium internal monitoring program by radiotoxicological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaburo, J.; Sordi, G.-M.A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this work is the establishment of a bioassay routine monitoring program for thorium occupationally exposed personnel. A simple and economic method for the analytical determination of the concentration of Th-232 in excreta samples was adopted, using Th-229 as a tracer. The mean yield of the method was 80%. Thorium concentration in excreta samples of non occupationally exposed Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo inhabitants was compared with data provenient from Nuclemon workers, with a exposition history to the nuclide of more than ten years and from IPEN workers only recently occupationally exposed to the nuclide. (Author) [pt

  16. [Monitoring medication errors in an internal medicine service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ann-Loren M; Ruiz, Inés A; Jirón, Marcela A

    2014-01-01

    Patients admitted to internal medicine services receive multiple drugs and thus are at risk of medication errors. To determine the frequency of medication errors (ME) among patients admitted to an internal medicine service of a high complexity hospital. A prospective observational study conducted in 225 patients admitted to an internal medicine service. Each stage of drug utilization system (prescription, transcription, dispensing, preparation and administration) was directly observed by trained pharmacists not related to hospital staff during three months. ME were described and categorized according to the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. In each stage of medication use, the frequency of ME and their characteristics were determined. A total of 454 drugs were prescribed to the studied patients. In 138 (30,4%) indications, at least one ME occurred, involving 67 (29,8%) patients. Twenty four percent of detected ME occurred during administration, mainly due to wrong time schedules. Anticoagulants were the therapeutic group with the highest occurrence of ME. At least one ME occurred in approximately one third of patients studied, especially during the administration stage. These errors could affect the medication safety and avoid achieving therapeutic goals. Strategies to improve the quality and safe use of medications can be implemented using this information.

  17. A comparison of internal versus external risk-adjustment for monitoring clinical outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Antonie; de Keizer, Nicolette; Peek, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Internal and external prognostic models can be used to calculate severity of illness adjusted mortality risks. However, it is unclear what the consequences are of using an external model instead of an internal model when monitoring an institution's clinical performance. Theoretically, using an

  18. International research to monitor sustainable forest spatial patterns: proceedings of the 2005 IUFRO World Congress symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; Christine Estreguil

    2007-01-01

    Presentations from the symposium "International Research to Monitor Sustainable Forest Spatial Patterns," which was organized as part of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) World Congress in August 2005, are summarized in this report. The overall theme of the World Congress was "Forests in the Balance: Linking Tradition and...

  19. On-line internal corrosion monitoring and data management for remote pipelines: a technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wold, Kjell; Stoen, Roar; Jenssen, Hallgeir [Roxar Flow Measurement AS, Stavanger (Norway); Carvalho, Anna Maria [Roxar do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Internal corrosion monitoring of remote pipelines can be costly and demanding on resources. Online and non-intrusive monitoring directly on the pipe wall can improve the quality of measurements, make installation more convenient and allow more efficient communication of data. The purpose of this paper is to describe a non-intrusive technology, and show examples on field installations of the system. Furthermore, the non-intrusive technology data can be stored, interpreted and combined with conventional (intrusive) system information, in order to get a full picture of internal corrosion profile, corrosion rate and trends regarding the pipeline being monitored. (author)

  20. Radiation protection - Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the course of employment, individuals might work with radioactive materials that, under certain circumstances, could be taken into the body. Protecting workers against risks of incorporated radionuclides requires the monitoring of potential intakes and/or the quantification of actual intakes and exposures. The selection of measures and programmes for this purpose requires decisions concerning methods, techniques, frequencies etc. for measurements and dose assessment. The criteria permitting the evaluation of the necessity of such a monitoring programme or for the selection of methods and frequencies of monitoring usually depend upon the legislation, the purpose of the radiation protection programme, the probabilities of potential radionuclide intakes, and the characteristics of the materials handled. This International Standard offers guidance for the decision whether a monitoring programme is required and how it should be designed. Its intention is to optimise the efforts for such a monitoring programme consistent with legal requirements and with the purpose of the radiation protection programme. Recommendations of international expert bodies and international experience with the practical application of these recommendations in radiation protection programmes have been considered in the development of this International Standard. Its application facilitates the exchanges of information between authorities, supervisory institutions and employers. The International Standard is not a substitute for legal requirements. In the International Standard, the word 'shall' is used to denote a requirement and no deviation is allowed. The word 'should' is used to denote a recommendation from which justified deviations are allowed. The word 'may' is used to denote permission

  1. ROTI monitoring with reference to the International LOFAR Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotulak, Kacper; Froń, Adam; Krankowski, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    Interferometric networks operating on relatively long baselines, such as LOFAR (approx. baseline of 1500km) are one of the important scientific users of ionosphere monitoring products. Simultaneous observations of the radiosource from the different interferometric stations with such distance between can be distracted by the ionospheric medium in different ways, as signal would cross ionospheric regions with different ionization level. The main objective of presented work is to introduce ionospheric fluctuation product (ROT and ROTI maps), which will complement the main ILT dedicated product - high spatial and temporal resolution ionospheric maps (ILTG). Presented ROT/ROTI product is prepared basing on the real-time EUREF Permanent Network GNSS observations and generated with similar assumptions as ILTG products - one degree by one degree in spatial and one hour in temporal resolution. Presented product will be a part of the ILT ionospheric service planned for the nearest future. The presentation briefly presents the ROT and ROTI obtaining methodology as well as first results.

  2. Influence of mathematical and physical background of drought indices on their complementarity and drought recognition ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Anna; Armenski, Tanja; Gocic, Milan; Popov, Srdjan; Popovic, Ljiljana; Trajkovic, Slavisa

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to test how effective and physically correct are the mathematical approaches of operational indices used by relevant National Agencies across the globe. To do so, the following indices were analysed Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) -1, 3, 6, 12 and 24, Standardized Precipitation - Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) - 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24, Effective Drought Index (EDI) and Index of Drying Efficiency of Air (IDEA). To make regions more comparable to each other and follow the spatial development of drought SPI index was advised by World Meteorological Organisation to be used widely by official meteorological services. The SPI and SPEI are used for Drought Early Warning in the USA, National Drought Mitigation Center and NASA, and in the EU by the European Drought Centre (EDC) and in the Balkan Region by National Meteorological Agencies. The EDI Index has wide application in Asia. In this paper four different issues were investigated: 1) how the mathematical method used in a drought indicator's computation influence drought indices' (DI) comparative analyses; 2) the sensitivity of the DIs on any change of the length of observational period; 3) similarities between the DIs time series; 4) and how accurate DIs are when compared to historical drought records. Results suggest that it is necessary to apply a few crucial changes in the Drought Monitoring and Early Warning Systems: 1) reconsider use of SPI and SPEI family indices as a measure of quality of other indices; and for Drought Early Recognition Programs 2) switch to DIs with a solid physical background, such as EDI; 3) Adopt solid physics for modelling drought processes and define the physical measure of drought, e.g. EDI and IDEA indices; 4) investigate further the IDEA index, which, supported by our study as well, is valuable for simulation of a drought process.

  3. Noble gas atmospheric monitoring for international safeguards at reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhleh, C.W.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    The use of environmental sampling is a major component of the improvements of International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards being carried out under Program 93+2. Nonradioactive noble gas isotopic measurements in the effluent stream of large reprocessing facilities may provide useful confirmatory information on the burnup and reactor type of the spent fuel undergoing reprocessing. The authors have taken and analyzed stack samples at an operating facility. The data show clear fission signals. The authors are currently applying a maximum-likelihood estimation procedure to determine the fuel burnup from these data. They anticipate that the general features involved in the table noble gas problem--selection of appropriate signals, measurement of those signals under realistic conditions, and inverse calculation of parameters of interest from the environmental data--will be present in all environmental sampling problems. These methods should therefore be widely applicable

  4. Marketing Management: Monitoring the International Environment Factors Using Global Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of the global marketing environment in line with the factors determining its external conditions. The aim is to specify the marketing-environment indicators in the international context and interpret the use of geographical maps illustratively documenting the differences of particular parameters in various parts of the global market. The research-results help update the theoretical framework of global environment factors. These data are also important for practice. Many enterprises consider the question of optimising their sources and directing their goals towards the opportunities available thanks to global markets. The global environment mapping is thereby an important basis for the marketing activities whose implementation across national boundaries is going to be mainly influenced by peculiarities of the environment involving foreign markets and their changes.

  5. International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

    2014-02-17

    To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors' and investigators' experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 interviews, five focus groups and observations of monitoring practice were conducted. Fieldwork occurred in the places where the monitoring models are coordinated and applied in Thailand, Cambodia, Uganda and Kenya. Participants included those coordinating the monitoring schemes, monitors, senior investigators and research staff. Transcribed textual data from field notes, interviews and focus groups was imported into a qualitative data software program (NVIVO V. 10) and analysed inductively and thematically by a qualitative researcher. The initial coding framework was reviewed internally and two main categories emerged from the subsequent interrogation of the data. The categories that were identified related to the conceptual framing and nature of monitoring, and the practice of monitoring, including relational factors. Particular emphasis was given to the value of a scientific and cooperative style of monitoring as a means of enhancing data quality, trust and transparency. In terms of practice the primary purpose of monitoring was defined as improving the conduct of health research and increasing the capacity of researchers and trial sites. The models studied utilise internal and network wide expertise to improve the ethics and quality of clinical research. They demonstrate how monitoring can be a scientific and constructive exercise rather than a threatening process. The value of cooperative relations needs to be given more emphasis in monitoring activities, which seek to ensure that research protects

  6. Assessment of Meteorological Drought Indices in Korea Using RCP 8.5 Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Jang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diverse drought indices have been developed and used across the globe to assess and monitor droughts. Among them, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI are drought indices that have been recently developed and are being used in the world’s leading countries. This study took place in Korea’s major observatories for drought prediction until 2100, using the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 8.5 scenario. On the basis of the drought index measured by SPI, future climates were forecast to be humid, as the index would rise over time. In contrast, the RDI, which takes evapotranspiration into account, anticipated dry climates, with the drought index gradually falling over time. From the analysis of the drought index through the RCP 8.5 scenario, extreme drought intensity will be more likely to occur due to rising temperatures. To obtain the diversity of drought prediction, the evapotranspiration was deemed necessary for calculating meteorological droughts.

  7. Space-time trends in U.S. meteorological droughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulomi Ganguli

    2016-12-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The paper finds spatial coverage of extreme meteorological drought in the recent years (post-2010 exceeds that of the iconic droughts of the 1930s (the Dust Bowl era, and the 1950s. These results are in contrast with trends in spatial variance that does not exhibit any statistically significant trend. In addition, we find drought persistence remains relatively stationary over the last half century. The findings can inform drought monitoring and planning, and improve future drought resilience.

  8. Bacterial mediated amelioration of drought stress in drought tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial mediated amelioration of drought stress in drought tolerant and susceptible cultivars of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) ... and IR-64 (drought sensitive) cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different level of drought stress. ... from 32 Countries:.

  9. A Look into the National Drought Mitigation Center: Providing 15 Years of Drought Services (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, M. D.; Hayes, M. J.; Knutson, C. L.; Wardlow, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) was formed in 1995 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Over the past 15 years, the NDMC has made it a priority to work with various local, state, tribal and federal entities to provide a suite of drought/climate services, with a goal of bringing research to fruition through applications and operations. Through our research and outreach projects, the NDMC has worked to reduce risk to drought by developing several mitigation strategies, monitoring and decision making tools and other services aimed at enhancing our nation’s capacity to cope with drought. Two of the earliest NDMC activities were the creation of a website and assessing drought conditions around the United States. An electronic drought clearinghouse was built in 1995 at drought.unl.edu. The site was designed, and still concentrates, on the concepts of drought monitoring, planning, and mitigation and also serves as a repository of information from around the world. The NDMC’s electronic quarterly newsletter, DroughtScape, disseminates information about all things drought to people across the country. In addition, the NDMC has developed and is home to websites for the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), Drought Impact Reporter (DIR), and the Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI). In an effort to inform decision makers, the NDMC continually pursues ways to raise the awareness and visibility of drought as one of the most costly hazards we face. This began in the mid-1990s with the creation of a state-based drought impact assessment map that would help lead to the formation of the USDM in 1999 and the DIR in 2005. The NDMC plays a key role in producing the weekly USDM and the monthly North American Drought Monitor (NADM). The USDM was created out of collaborations between the NDMC, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and has quickly become one of the most widely used products in assessing

  10. Individual monitoring program for internal contamination by inhaled uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, C.; Chapel, M.L.; Saenz Gancedo, R.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolic behaviour of inhaled uranium is studied. Using a particular analytical method applied to the models and dose assessment methods recommended by ICRP, the organ committed equivalent dose and effective equivalent dose are calculated. The exact ALI and DAC are derived from there. In the paper, the influence that various parameters have on those results are considered for the specific case of a particular nuclear element fabrication factory. Different AMAD and solubility type of inhaled material are specially analyzed. The results show the paramount importance of some of these parameters on the secondary and derived dose limits. Relationships between the real intake, as a fraction of ALI, and the lung retention or urine excretion are shown for different cases and intake forms hypothesis. Minimum detectable intakes with the available experimental techniques are then established. The results shown in the papel are a useful tool to help on the decision on the type and frequency of the individual monitoring techniques to be established in different circumstances. (Author)

  11. EVALUATION OF POSTGRADUATES STRICTO SENSU: MONITORING POLICY FOR INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    Search for references in relationship to international alumni on the website of the postgraduate programs of all postgraduate courses at Ribeirão Preto Medical School - FMRP. Verify with more attention to the ones with 5, 6 and 7 notes, and also the same search on the website of courses with notes 5, 6 and 7 of CAPES - Medicine III. Of the 22 programs of FMRP only three had any information on the site about the destiny of the postgraduates; they were: Surgical Clinics, Genetics, and Basic and Applied Immunology. Programs in the area of ​​Medicine III, notes 5, 6 and 7, only Ophthalmology and Visual Programs and Translational Sciences Surgery, both of UNIFESP, presented such information. It is urgent: to create project and funding evaluation mechanisms that are approved by different sources; to stimulate more efficient controls in relation to teachers and their students who participate in these projects; and to stimulate the interaction of teachers and students with the institution and the program. Verificar a existência de referências aos egressos internacionais nos sites dos programas de pós-graduação de todos os cursos de pós-graduação da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - FMRP. Verificar com mais atenção aos cursos notas 5, 6 e 7, e também a mesma busca nos sites dos cursos com notas 5, 6 e 7 da Medicina III da CAPES. Dos 22 programas da FMRP apenas três tinham no site alguma informação sobre o destino dos egressos, foram eles: Clínica Cirúrgica, Genética e Imunologia Básica e Aplicada. Dos programas da área de Medicina III, notas 5, 6 e 7 apenas os programas de Oftalmologia e Ciências Visuais e Cirurgia Translacional, ambos da UNIFESP, apresentavam informações sobre o destino dos seus egressos. É urgente criar mecanismos de avaliação para os projetos de incentivo e fomento à pesquisa dos diferentes órgãos; estimular controles mais eficientes e atualizados em relação aos docentes e seus respectivos discentes que

  12. Exploring the link between meteorological drought and streamflow to inform water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Amy; Macdonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Drought indicators are an under-used metric in UK drought management. Standardised drought indicators offer a potential monitoring and management tool for operational water resource management. However, the use of these metrics needs further investigation. This work uses statistical analysis of the climatological drought signal based on meteorological drought indicators and observed streamflow data to explore the link between meteorological drought and hydrological drought to inform water resource management for a single water resource region. The region, covering 21,000 km2 of the English Midlands and central Wales, includes a variety of landscapes and climatological conditions. Analysis of the links between meteorological drought and hydrological drought performed using streamflow data from 'natural' catchments indicates a close positive relationship between meteorological drought indicators and streamflow, enhancing confidence in the application of drought indicators for monitoring and management. However, many of the catchments in the region are subject to modification through impoundments, abstractions and discharge. Therefore, it is beneficial to explore how climatological drought signal propagates into managed hydrological systems. Using a longitudinal study of catchments and sub-catchments that include natural and modified river reaches the relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought is explored. Initial statistical analysis of meteorological drought indicators and streamflow data from modified catchments shows a significantly weakened statistical relationship and reveals how anthropogenic activities may alter hydrological drought characteristics in modified catchments. Exploring how meteorological drought indicators link to streamflow across the water supply region helps build an understanding of their utility for operational water resource management.

  13. Using Spatial Information Technologies as Monitoring Devices in International Watershed Conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A. Twumasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies—Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing—in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region’s entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing

  14. Using spatial information technologies as monitoring devices in international watershed conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merem, Edmund C; Twumasi, Yaw A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies-Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing-in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region's entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing techniques by generating spatially referenced data to supplement

  15. Standardization of radioactive gaseous waste radiation monitoring equipment from the International Electrotechnical Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1983-01-01

    After having introduced the works performed by the International Electrotechnical Commission, the authors report on the results of the studies carried out to achieve the standardization of the radiation monitoring equipment concerning the control of the gaseous waste from nuclear installations. The authors present the most interesting aspects of the regulations and recommendations, which include not only a description of the minimum permissible levels of sensitivity for the monitors, but also a description of the set of assays to be established in order to verify the level of performance of the monitors

  16. The European Union Building Peace Near and Afar: Monitoring the Implementation of International Peace Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máire Braniff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU support and contribution to international peace and security continues to develop with involvement in the Balkans, South Caucasus, Africa, Middle East and South Asia (Council of the European Union 2005. Within the broad range of civilian and military interventions under the Common Security and Defence policy (CSDP there have been two monitoring missions that have emerged from peace agreements, in Aceh (2005-2006 and in Georgia (2008 to date. This article maps the evolution EU’s role in international peace building by focusing on how this role is increasingly constructed by the scope of monitoring missions which it has embarked upon outside of its borders. A thematic analysis of literature is used to explore how the EU’s monitoring role has evolved regarding the different degrees of intervention, time-frame and size of the monitoring mission which have resulted in a multi-level impact regarding societal transition. The article finds that political will, shadows of past and future missions and intergovernmental concerns dominates how the EU’s monitoring missions unfurl, affecting the practice of monitors and other EU actors in local conflict settings and contemplates scenarios for future monitoring missions.

  17. Web system for dosimetric data management of internal monitoring programme at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Vanesa R. de; Rodriguez Junior, Orlando; Todo, Alberto S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The internal monitoring programme are carried out for the occupationally exposed workers that develop activities in the radioisotope production plant, fuel cycle facilities, waste management installations, cyclotron and the reactor facility at Institute of Nuclear Energy and Research (IPEN). According to the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Regulation NN-3.01, the dose of each worker should be maintained at least for a period of 30 years. With this purpose, an online system, called 'IntDosWeb', was developed with the objective of the management for data dosimetric of internal monitoring programme. The system IntDosWeb, based on free software, was developed in programming language PHP and environment database PostgreSQL. This system is to be available at the local net, Intranet. The database maintains information about identification of the worker that handles non-sealed radioactive sources, physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides, monitoring types, measurement data and the dose. This system is able to generate annual reports of the individuals and the historical dose. Several simulation cases have been put into effect to check the on-line software functional capabilities. The users can access the dosimetric information according to following database field: monitoring period, monitoring type, intake pattern, radionuclide type and monitoring data from a specific installation or from each worker. The system was tested in the routinely service of internal dosimetry at IPEN. The rastreability of the information made in the internal monitoring programme was a success and also guaranteeing the reliability and integrity of the stored information. The IntDosWeb was shown as a helpful tool for analysis of the committed effective dose in the radiation protection programme, besides obeying the legal demands of the Brazilian Regulatory Commission. (author)

  18. Global drought outlook by means of seasonal forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziese, Markus; Fröhlich, Kristina; Rustemeier, Elke; Becker, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Droughts are naturally occurring phenomena which are caused by a shortage of available water due to lower than normal precipitation and/or above normal evaporation. Depending on the length of the droughts, several sectors are affected starting with agriculture, then river and ground water levels and finally socio-economic losses at the long end of the spectrum of drought persistence. Droughts are extreme events that affect much larger areas and last much longer than floods, but are less geared towards media than floods being more short-scale in persistence and impacts. Finally the slow onset of droughts make the detection and early warning of their beginning difficult and time is lost for preparatory measures. Drought indices are developed to detect and classify droughts based on (meteorological) observations and possible additional information tailored to specific user needs, e.g. in agriculture, hydrology and other sectors. Not all drought indices can be utilized for global applications as not all input parameters are available at this scale. Therefore the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) developed a drought index as combination of the Standardized Drought Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), the GPCC-DI. The GPCC-DI is applied to drought monitoring and retrospective analyses on a global scale. As the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) operates a seasonal forecast system in cooperation with Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology Hamburg and University of Hamburg, these data are also used for an outlook of drought conditions by means of the GPCC-DI. The reliability of seasonal precipitation forecasts is limited, so the drought outlook is available only for forecast months two to four. Based on the GPCC-DI, DWD provides a retrospective analysis, near-real-time monitoring and outlook of drought conditions on a global scale and regular basis.

  19. Monitoring and radiation dose estimation for internal contamination of occupational workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kol, R; Laichter, Y [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    The assessment of interval radiation doses due to intake of radionuclides differs totally from external dosimetry. External dosimetry is relatively straight forward: Workers are equipped with appropriate dosimeters that give the dose upon direct reading. Internal dosimetry is actually an assessment of the dose based on results of personnel and environmental monitoring (authors).

  20. The European Drought Observatory (EDO): Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Jürgen; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Magni, Diego; Valentini, Luana; Singleton, Andrew; Micale, Fabio; Barbosa, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    Europe has repeatedly been affected by droughts, resulting in considerable ecological and economic damage and climate change studies indicate a trend towards increasing climate variability most likely resulting in more frequent drought occurrences also in Europe. Against this background, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing methods and tools for assessing, monitoring and forecasting droughts in Europe and develops a European Drought Observatory (EDO) to complement and integrate national activities with a European view. At the core of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) is a portal, including a map server, a metadata catalogue, a media-monitor and analysis tools. The map server presents Europe-wide up-to-date information on the occurrence and severity of droughts, which is complemented by more detailed information provided by regional, national and local observatories through OGC compliant web mapping and web coverage services. In addition, time series of historical maps as well as graphs of the temporal evolution of drought indices for individual grid cells and administrative regions in Europe can be retrieved and analysed. Current work is focusing on validating the available products, developing combined indicators, improving the functionalities, extending the linkage to additional national and regional drought information systems and testing options for medium-range probabilistic drought forecasting across Europe. Longer-term goals include the development of long-range drought forecasting products, the analysis of drought hazard and risk, the monitoring of drought impact and the integration of EDO in a global drought information system. The talk will provide an overview on the development and state of EDO, the different products, and the ways to include a wide range of stakeholders (i.e. European, national river basin, and local authorities) in the development of the system as well as an outlook on the future developments.

  1. Lateralization of the posterior parietal cortex for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kenji; Inui, Toshio

    2007-11-01

    Internal monitoring or state estimation of movements is essential for human motor control to compensate for inherent delays and noise in sensorimotor loops. Two types of internal estimation of movements exist: self-generated movements, and externally generated movements. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate differences in brain activity for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements during visual occlusion. Participants tracked a sinusoidally moving target with a mouse cursor. On some trials, vision of either target (externally generated) or cursor (self-generated) movement was transiently occluded, during which subjects continued tracking by estimating current position of either the invisible target or cursor on screen. Analysis revealed that both occlusion conditions were associated with increased activity in the presupplementary motor area and decreased activity in the right lateral occipital cortex compared to a control condition with no occlusion. Moreover, the right and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) showed greater activation during occlusion of target and cursor movements, respectively. This study suggests lateralization of the PPC for internal monitoring of internally versus externally generated movements, fully consistent with previously reported clinical findings.

  2. Performance Management and Monitoring of Internal Audit for the Public Sector in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Doina Dascălu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance management is an on-going process, which has an essential component part, performance measurement, which involves the identification, supervision and communication of performance results, through the relation to a set of performance indicators. Based on the assessment results, corrective measures are established to ensure attainment of targeted results, offering a feedback, essential for the decision grounding enhancement, at all levels: strategic, operational or individual. As concerns performance management in public institutions in Romania, The Code on managerial internal control provides a hierarchy type model, in the framework of which, the head of the public entity, which is on the first level, needs to provide for performance monitoring for each objective and activity, through the intermediary of relevant quantitative and qualitative indicators, including referring to economy, efficiency, and effectiveness. Given the importance of the internal audit in the process of performance management, identifying solutions for continuous improvement of the public internal audit was subject to a study that was based on questioning public sector auditors on how to monitor the performance of public internal audit activity. Considering issues arising, the article proposes a series of directions for improving the monitoring of the performance of public internal audit activity in the public sector.

  3. The problems of individual monitoring for internal exposure of monazite storage facility workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekidin, A.; Kirdin, I.; Yarmoshenko, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    traditionally two situations of internal inhalation exposure by alpha emitting nuclides are considered in radiological protection: occupational exposure due to inhalation of plutonium aerosols; inhalation exposure by 222 Rn daughters in working places and in home. for these situations the problems of radioactive aerosols intake, nuclide dynamics in human body, internal dosimetry, nuclide excretion, monitoring of internal exposure have been investigated in details especially for plutonium inhalation exposure. The results of these studies are presented in details in ICRP Publications and UNSCEAR reports. However there is very specific case in which the special analysis of internal inhalation exposure is need. it is the working places with anomalous, extremely high concentration of thoron ( 220 Rn) daughters. The problems of internal radiation exposure of workers in such working place are the main topic of this publication. (authors)

  4. Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures; Projet de norme C.E.I. pour la surveillance des structures internes des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenty, A.

    1994-06-01

    EDF has proposed to the International Electrotechnical Commission a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. This paper presents the main features of the draft standard: -principles of measurement: correlation between movements of internals and ex core neutron noise on the one hand, forced vibrations of the vessel on the other hand; -sampling and conditioning of the signals; -monitoring equipment and in particular spectral analysis device; -functions of the monitoring software used for spectral analysis, peak detection and calculation of structure displacement; -studies preliminary to setting up the monitoring (calculation of internal vibratory modes, defect simulation on mockup, qualification on reactor during hot test...); -monitoring procedures (periodicity of analysis and what to do in case of anomaly); -documentation necessary to the monitoring. A diagnostic procedure is given as an example. The draft standard, written in 1994, will be presented in Frankfurt (Germany) in February 1995. (author). 1 annexe.

  5. Monitoring of international normalized ratios: comparison of community nurses with family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Max A; Shao, Wei; Klein, Douglas

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether community-based, nurse-led monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients requiring long-term warfarin therapy was comparable to traditional physician monitoring. A retrospective cohort analysis of patients taking long-term warfarin therapy. The study used data gathered from 3 family medicine clinics in a primary care network in Edmonton, Alta. Medical records of patients currently taking warfarin were examined. Implementation of nurse-led monitoring in a primary care network in place of standard family physician INR monitoring. The degree of INR control before and after the implementation of nurse-run INR monitoring was assessed. The average proportion of time spent outside of therapeutic INR ranges, as well as the average number of days between successive INR readings, was calculated and compared. The degree of control placed patients into either a good-control group (out of range ≤ 25% of the time) or a moderate-control group (out of range > 25% of the time) and these groups were compared. Before nurse monitoring, INR values were out of range 20.4% of the time; after nurse monitoring they were out of range 19.2% of the time (P = .115); the time between sequential INR readings also did not differ before and after implementation of nurse monitoring (23.9 vs 21.6 days, P = .789). Nurse-led monitoring of INR is as effective as traditional physician monitoring. Advantages of nurse-led monitoring might include freeing family physicians to see more patients or to spend less time at work. It might also represent potential cost savings.

  6. ASSESSING URBAN DROUGHTS IN A SMART CITY FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Obringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to integrate environmental data for drought monitoring to reduce uncertainty in urban drought characterization as part of the smart city framework. Currently, drought monitoring in urban areas is a challenge. This is due, in part, to a lack of knowledge on the subject of urban droughts and urban drought vulnerability. A critical part to assessing urban drought and implementing the necessary policies is determining drought conditions. Often the timing and severity of the drought can leave cities to enforce water restrictions, so accuracy of this determination has socioeconomic implications. To determine drought conditions, we need to know the water balance over the urban landscape, of which evapotranspiration (ET is a key variable. However, ET data and models have high uncertainty when compared to other hydrological variables (i.e., precipitation. This is largely due to ill-defined empirical models for characterizing the urban surface resistance parameter (rs that is used in ET calculations. We propose a method to estimate rs values using a combination of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC method that calculates regional evapotranspiration data and an inverted version of the Penman-Monteith equation. We use this approach across the region surrounding Indianapolis, IN (USA from 2010-2014. We discuss the potential for this method to be integrated in to smart city framework to improve urban drought assessment.

  7. Vibration monitoring of the mechanical behavior of the internal structures of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assedo, R.; Carre, J.C.; Sol, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The internal structures of pressurized water reactors are the seat of vibrations induced by fluctuations in primary fluid flow. A knowledge of these phenomena is indispensable in order to ensure that the structures are in proper mechanical order. It can also be used for operational monitoring. This paper describes all the methods developed and the results already achieved in this domain. The first part deals with tests on mockup associated with the calculation models which afforded a good knowledge of the vibrational characteristics of the internal structures, as well as the measurements made during hot tests of certain reactors which made it possible to qualify these models on real structures. The second part describes the means of detection (neutron noise, external accelerometers) as well as the processing methods used in the follow-up. A few typical results obtained on site are then presented. Finally, the general principles of operational monitoring of the mechanical behavior of the internal structures are described [fr

  8. A Global Drought Observatory for Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Jürgen; de Jager, Alfred; Carrão, Hugo; Magni, Diego; Mazzeschi, Marco; Barbosa, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Droughts are occurring on all continents and across all climates. While in developed countries they cause significant economic and environmental damages, in less developed countries they may cause major humanitarian catastrophes. The magnitude of the problem and the expected increase in drought frequency, extent and severity in many, often highly vulnerable regions of the world demand a change from the current reactive, crisis-management approach towards a more pro-active, risk management approach. Such approach needs adequate and timely information from global to local scales as well as adequate drought management plans. Drought information systems are important for continuous monitoring and forecasting of the situation in order to provide timely information on developing drought events and their potential impacts. Against this background, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing a Global Drought Observatory (GDO) for the European Commission's humanitarian services, providing up-to-date information on droughts world-wide and their potential impacts. Drought monitoring is achieved by a combination of meteorological and biophysical indicators, while the societal vulnerability to droughts is assessed through the targeted analysis of a series of social, economic and infrastructural indicators. The combination of the information on the occurrence and severity of a drought, on the assets at risk and on the societal vulnerability in the drought affected areas results in a likelihood of impact, which is expressed by a Likelihood of Drought Impact (LDI) indicator. The location, extent and magnitude of the LDI is then further analyzed against the number of people and land use/land cover types affected in order to provide the decision bodies with information on the potential humanitarian and economic bearings in the affected countries or regions. All information is presented through web-mapping interfaces based on OGC standards and customized reports can be drawn by the

  9. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Laurence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Jisnmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Joe [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

  10. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Laurence; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jisnmin; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Wall, Joe

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor - a sensor that can continuously monitor a material's damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks

  11. Towards Improved Understanding of Drought and Drought Impacts from Long Term Earth Observation Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C.; Wang, S.; Liu, J.; Hadwen, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is a complex natural disaster, which often emerges slowly, but can occur at various time scales and have impacts that are not well understood. Long term observations of drought intensity and frequency are often quantified from precipitation and temperature based indices or modelled estimates of soil water storage. The maturity of satellite based observations has created the potential to enhance the understanding of drought and drought impacts, particularly in regions where traditional data sets are limited by remoteness or inaccessibility, and where drought processes are not well-quantified by models. Long term global satellite data records now provide observations of key hydrological variables, including evaporation modelled from thermal sensors, soil moisture from microwave sensors, ground water from gravity sensors and vegetation condition that can be modelled from optical sensors. This study examined trends in drought frequency, intensity and duration over diverse ecoregions in Canada, including agricultural, grassland, forested and wetland areas. Trends in drought were obtained from the Canadian Drought Monitor as well as meteorological based indices from weather stations, and evaluated against satellite derived information on evaporative stress (Anderson et al. 2011), soil moisture (Champagne et al. 2015), terrestrial water storage (Wang and Li 2016) and vegetation condition (Davidson et al. 2009). Data sets were evaluated to determine differences in how different sensors characterize the hydrology and impacts of drought events from 2003 to 2016. Preliminary results show how different hydrological observations can provide unique information that can tie causes of drought (water shortages resulting from precipitation, lack of moisture storage or evaporative stress) to impacts (vegetation condition) that hold the potential to improve the understanding and classification of drought events.

  12. 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and technological trends in the field of condition monitoring of machinery working under a broad range of operating conditions. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on an original piece of work presented and discussed at the 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-stationary Operations, CMMNO 2014, held on December 15-16, 2014, in Lyon, France. The contributions have been grouped into three different sections according to the main subfield (signal processing, data mining, or condition monitoring techniques) they are related to. The book includes both theoretical developments as well as a number of industrial case studies, in different areas including, but not limited to: noise and vibration; vibro-acoustic diagnosis; signal processing techniques; diagnostic data analysis; instantaneous speed identification; monitoring and diagnostic systems; and dynamic and fault modeling. This book no...

  13. A vantage from space can detect earlier drought onset: an approach using relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-02-25

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.

  14. Forages and Pastures Symposium: assessing drought vulnerability of agricultural production systems in context of the 2012 drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, O; Niyogi, D

    2014-07-01

    Weather and climate events and agronomic enterprise are coupled via crop phenology and yield, which is temperature and precipitation dependent. Additional coupling between weather and climate and agronomic enterprise occurs through agricultural practices such as tillage, irrigation, erosion, livestock management, and forage. Thus, the relationship between precipitation, temperature, and yield is coupled to the relationship between temperature, precipitation, and drought. Unraveling the different meteorological and climatological patterns by comparing different growing seasons provides insight into how drought conditions develop and what agricultural producers can do to mitigate and adapt to drought conditions. The 2012 drought in the United States greatly impacted the agricultural sector of the economy. With comparable severity and spatial extent of the droughts of the 1930s, 1950s, and 1980s, the 2012 drought impacted much of the U.S. crop and livestock producers via decreased forage and feed. This brief summary of drought impacts to agricultural production systems includes 1) the basics of drought; 2) the meteorology and climatology involved in forecasting, predicting, and monitoring drought with attribution of the 2012 drought explored in detail; and 3) comparative analysis completed between the 2011 and 2012 growing season. This synthesis highlights the complex nature of drought in agriculture production systems as producers prepare for future climate variability.

  15. Monitoring external and internal loads of brazilian soccer referees during official matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eduardo C; Vieira, Caio M A; Moreira, Alexandre; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Castagna, Carlo; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the external and internal loads of Brazilian soccer referees during official matches. A total of 11 field referees (aged 36.2 ± 7.5 years) were monitored during 35 matches. The external (distance covered, mean and maximal speed) and internal load parameters (session ratings of perceived exertion [RPE] training load [TL], Edwards' TL, and time spent in different heart rate [HR] zones) were assessed in 3-4 matches per referee. External load parameters were measured using a wrist Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. No differences in distance covered (5.219 ± 205 vs. 5.230 ± 237 m) and maximal speed (19.3 ± 1.0 vs. 19.4 ± 1.4 km·h(-1)) were observed between the halves of the matches (p > 0.05). However, the mean speed was higher in the first half of the matches (6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 6.4 ± 0.3 km·h(-1)) (p external and internal load demands during official matches. The portable GPS/HR monitors and session RPE method can provide relevant information regarding the magnitude of the physiological strain during official matches. Key PointsHigh external and internal loads were imposed on Brazilian soccer referees during official matches.There was a high positive correlation between a subjective marker of internal load (session RPE) and parameters of external load (distance covered between 90-100% of HRmax and maximal speed).There was a high positive correlation between session RPE method and Edwards' method.Session RPE seems to be a reliable marker of internal load.The portable GPS/HR monitors and the session RPE method can provide relevant information regarding the magnitude of external and internal loads of soccer referees during official matches.

  16. Internal exposure monitoring of personnel of a nuclear power plant with pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.; Poulheim, K.F.; Rueger, G.; Schreiter, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    In the GDR a programme for monitoring the internal radiation exposure of personnel has been established in the Bruno Leuschner Nuclear Power Plant, Greifswald, which allows one to estimate the effective dose equivalent in the way recommended by the ICRP. The measuring equipment used, and the methods of calibration and of evaluation of results are described. At present about 400 persons are monthly monitored with a thorax monitor in the nuclear power plant. If an investigation level - corresponding to an effective dose equivalent of 0.3mSv/month - is exceeded, a more exact measurement is made in the whole-body counter at the National Board for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR. In addition, a selected group of 50 persons is measured twice yearly in the whole-body counter. The measurements show the high effectiveness of the protective measures against radionuclide intake by workers in the nuclear power plant, resulting in a contribution of less than 1% to the collective dose of the personnel. A correlation has been found between external and internal exposure indicating that, in general, there will be a higher intake only under conditions resulting also in higher external exposures. The highest individual values of internal exposure found are below 0.5mSv/month and thus within the range of the lower detection limit of dosimeter films used for monitoring the external exposure. (author)

  17. Individual internal monitoring of workers of Fabrica de Combustivel Nuclear - FCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Marcelo X.

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, workers are exposed to different compounds of enriched uranium. Due to the high cost of the individual monitoring programme for internal dose assessment in the routine monitoring programmes, usually only one type of measurement is assigned. In complex situations like the one described in this paper, where several parameters can compromise the accuracy of the bioassay interpretation it is need to have a combination of techniques to evaluate the internal dose. According to ICRP 78 (1997), the general order of preference in terms of accuracy of interpretation is: body activity measurement, excreta analysis and personal air sampling. A group of fifteen workers from controlled area of the fuel fabrication facility was selected to evaluate the internal dose using all different available techniques during a certain period. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the daily urinary excretion, faecal excretion, chest counting and personal air sampling (PAS). The results have shown that at least two types of sensitivity techniques must be used, since there are some sources of uncertainties on the bioassay interpretation, like mixture of uranium compounds intake and different routes of intake. The combination of urine and faeces analysis has shown be the more appropriate methodology for assessing internal dose in this situation. (author)

  18. Ground truth data collection on mining industrial explosions registered by the International Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehl'tekov, A.Yu.; Gordon, V.P.; Firsov, V.A.; Chervyakov, V.B.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation is dedicated to organizational and technical issues connected with the task of Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty Organization timely notification on large chemical explosions including data on explosion location and time, on applied explosive substance quantity and type, and also on configuration and assumed purpose of explosion. Explosions registered by International Monitoring System are of special interest. Their data could be used for calibration of the monitoring system. Ground truth data collection and some explosions location results on Russia's mining enterprises were given. Ground truth data collection peculiarities according to mining industrial explosions were considered. (author)

  19. Recent La Plata basin drought conditions observed by satellite gravimetry

    OpenAIRE

    L. Chen , J.; R. Wilson , C.; D. Tapley , B.; Longuevergne , L.; L. Yang , Z.; R. Scanlon , B.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provides quantitative measures of terrestrial water storage (TWS) change. GRACE data show a significant decrease in TWS in the lower (southern) La Plata river basin of South America over the period 2002-2009, consistent with recognized drought conditions in the region. GRACE data reveal a detailed picture of temporal and spatial evolution of this severe drought event, which suggests that the drought began in lower La ...

  20. Resilient Leaf Physiological Response of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. to Summer Drought and Drought Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E. Pflug

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major environmental constraint to trees, causing severe stress and thus adversely affecting their functional integrity. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is a key species in mesic forests that is commonly expected to suffer in a future climate with more intense and frequent droughts. Here, we assessed the seasonal response of leaf physiological characteristics of beech saplings to drought and drought release to investigate their potential to recover from the imposed stress and overcome previous limitations. Saplings were transplanted to model ecosystems and exposed to a simulated summer drought. Pre-dawn water potentials (ψpd, stomatal conductance (gS, intercellular CO2 concentration (ci, net-photosynthesis (AN, PSII chlorophyll fluorescence (PItot, non-structural carbohydrate concentrations (NSC; soluble sugars, starch and carbon isotope signatures were measured in leaves throughout the growing season. Pre-dawn water potentials (ψpd, gS, ci, AN, and PItot decreased as drought progressed, and the concentration of soluble sugars increased at the expense of starch. Carbon isotopes in soluble sugars (δ13CS showed a distinct increase under drought, suggesting, together with decreased ci, stomatal limitation of AN. Drought effects on ψpd, ci, and NSC disappeared shortly after re-watering, while full recovery of gS, AN, and PItot was delayed by 1 week. The fast recovery of NSC was reflected by a rapid decay of the drought signal in δ13C values, indicating a rapid turnover of assimilates and a reactivation of carbon metabolism. After recovery, the previously drought-exposed saplings showed a stimulation of AN and a trend toward elevated starch concentrations, which counteracted the previous drought limitations. Overall, our results suggest that the internal water relations of beech saplings and the physiological activity of leaves are restored rapidly after drought release. In the case of AN, stimulation after drought may partially

  1. Assessment of necessary regularity of internal irradiation monitoring on the basis of direct and indirect methods of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malykhin, V.M.; Ivanova, N.I.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that when assessing the necessary periodicity of internal irradiation monitoring, it is required to take account of the nature (rhythm) of radionuclide intake to the organism during the monitoring period, the effective period of radionuclide biological half-life, its activity in the organism, sensitivity of the technique applied and the labour-consumig character of the monitoring method [ru

  2. Risk identification of agricultural drought for sustainable Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalezios, N. R.; Blanta, A.; Spyropoulos, N. V.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Drought is considered as one of the major natural hazards with a significant impact on agriculture, environment, society and economy. Droughts affect sustainability of agriculture and may result in environmental degradation of a region, which is one of the factors contributing to the vulnerability of agriculture. This paper addresses agrometeorological or agricultural drought within the risk management framework. Risk management consists of risk assessment, as well as a feedback on the adopted risk reduction measures. And risk assessment comprises three distinct steps, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. This paper deals with risk identification of agricultural drought, which involves drought quantification and monitoring, as well as statistical inference. For the quantitative assessment of agricultural drought, as well as the computation of spatiotemporal features, one of the most reliable and widely used indices is applied, namely the vegetation health index (VHI). The computation of VHI is based on satellite data of temperature and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The spatiotemporal features of drought, which are extracted from VHI, are areal extent, onset and end time, duration and severity. In this paper, a 20-year (1981-2001) time series of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/advanced very high resolution radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) satellite data is used, where monthly images of VHI are extracted. Application is implemented in Thessaly, which is the major agricultural drought-prone region of Greece, characterized by vulnerable agriculture. The results show that agricultural drought appears every year during the warm season in the region. The severity of drought is increasing from mild to extreme throughout the warm season, with peaks appearing in the summer. Similarly, the areal extent of drought is also increasing during the warm season, whereas the number of extreme drought pixels is much less than

  3. Drought and groundwater management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Jensen, Frank

    This paper considers the problem of a water management authority faced with the threat of a drought that hits at an uncertain date. Three management policies are investigated: i) a laissez-faire (open-access) policy of automatic adjustment through a zero marginal private net benefit condition, ii......-drought steady-state equilibrium stock size of water under policy iii) is smaller than under policy ii) and, hence, a precautionary stock size should not be built up prior to the drought....

  4. Drought assessment by evapotranspiration mapping in Twente

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, U.; Timmermans, J.; van der Velde, R.; Su, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is a reoccurring worldwide problem with impacts ranging from food production to infrastructure. Droughts are different from other natural hazards (floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes) because the effects can only be witnessed slowly and with a time delay. Effects of droughts are diverse, like famine and migration of people. Droughts are caused by natural causes but also by interaction between the natural events and water demand. Not only typical dry regions, like the Horn of Africa, are affected, but even semi-humid environments, like Europe. Temperature rise and precipitation deficit in the summers of 2003 and 2006 caused substantial crop losses in the agricultural sector in the Netherlands. In addition increased river water temperatures and low water levels caused cooling problems for power plants. Heat waves and prolonged absence of precipitation is expected to increase due to climate change. Therefore assessing and monitoring drought in the Netherlands is thus very important. Various drought indices are available to assess the severity, duration and spatial extend of the drought. Some of the commonly indices used are Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). However each of these indices do not take into account the actual state of the land surface in respect to the dryness. By analysing drought through actual evapotranspiration (ET) estimations from remote sensing this can be circumvented. The severity of the droughts was quantified by ET-mapping from 2003-2010. The assessment was based on the spatial and temporal distribution of ET using the Evapotranspiration Deficit Index (ETDI) drought index. Surface energy fluxes, like ET, were estimated using WACMOS methodology. The input data consisted of remote sensing products like land surface temperature, LAI, and albedo from MODIS; and meteorological data like air-temperature, humidity and wind speed from the European Centre for Medium weather forecast (ECMWF

  5. Rapid monitoring of large groups of internally contaminated people following a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In the management of an emergency, it is necessary to assess the radiation exposures of people in the affected areas. An essential component in the programme is the monitoring of internal contamination. Existing fixed installations for the assessment of incorporated radionuclides may be of limited value in these circumstances because they may be inconveniently sited, oversensitive for the purpose, or inadequately equipped and staffed to cope with the large numbers referred to them. The IAEA considered it important to produce guidance on rapid monitoring of large groups of internally contaminated people. The purpose of this document is to provide Member States with an overview on techniques that can be applied during abnormal or accidental situations. Refs and figs

  6. Drought in Africa 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalby, D; Harrison-Church, R J; Berzaz, F [eds.

    1977-01-01

    The second edition of Drought in Africa is reviewed. The book, which has been greatly expanded, looks at the Sahelian and Ethiopian droughts from a long-term perspective. Among the subjects included are: a description of the meteorological aspects of the drought; changes in animal and human populations; overpopulation of areas of nomadic pastoralism and of crop-producing areas; and mechanisms by which people survived. Cash crops, taxes, the market economy and over-centralized planning receive much of the blame for the effects of the drought.

  7. Levels-of-processing effect on internal source monitoring in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, J Daniel; McCarthy, Erin; Bilker, Warren B; Brensinger, Colleen M; Valdez, Jeffrey; Kohler, Christian; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2006-05-01

    Recognition can be normalized in schizophrenia by providing patients with semantic organizational strategies through a levels-of-processing (LOP) framework. However, patients may rely primarily on familiarity effects, making recognition less sensitive than source monitoring to the strength of the episodic memory trace. The current study investigates whether providing semantic organizational strategies can also normalize patients' internal source-monitoring performance. Sixteen clinically stable medicated patients with schizophrenia and 15 demographically matched healthy controls were asked to identify the source of remembered words following an LOP-encoding paradigm in which they alternated between processing words on a 'shallow' perceptual versus a 'deep' semantic level. A multinomial analysis provided orthogonal measures of item recognition and source discrimination, and bootstrapping generated variance to allow for parametric analyses. LOP and group effects were tested by contrasting recognition and source-monitoring parameters for words that had been encoded during deep versus shallow processing conditions. As in a previous study there were no group differences in LOP effects on recognition performance, with patients and controls benefiting equally from deep versus shallow processing. Although there were no group differences in internal source monitoring, only controls had significantly better performance for words processed during the deep encoding condition. Patient performance did not correlate with clinical symptoms or medication dose. Providing a deep processing semantic encoding strategy significantly improved patients' recognition performance only. The lack of a significant LOP effect on internal source monitoring in patients may reflect subtle problems in the relational binding of semantic information that are independent of strategic memory processes.

  8. Ultrasound monitoring in cannulation of the internal jugular vein: anatomic and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, B; So, C B; Saliken, J C; Gray, R R

    1996-06-01

    To examine the effect of variations in anatomic features and operator experience on the success and complication rates of sonographically monitored cannulation of the internal jugular vein. The authors prospectively collected data for ultrasound-monitored cannulation of the internal jugular vein in 150 patients. In all cases the radiologist recorded the side of puncture, the number of passes needed, the number of vein punctures (one or two), whether the walls were opposed during puncture and any complications. For the last 80 patients the following information was also recorded: the distance from the skin to the internal jugular vein, the diameter of the vein with the Valsalva manoeuvre and the location of the vein relative to the carotid artery. All but three of the cannulations were performed by one of three radiologists, all of whom had at least 5 years of experience. Cannulation was successful in all of the patients, and the first pass was successful in 133 (88.7%). These results are better than those of blind placement techniques reported in the literature. The only complications were hematoma and carotid puncture, which both occurred in the same two patients (1.3%). There was no significant difference among the radiologists in the number of passes needed (one-way analysis of variance, p > 0.05). The number of passes was independent of anatomic factors, including depth from skin, vein diameter or relative location. However, significantly more passes were needed for left-side punctures than for right-side punctures (Student t-test, p < 0.05). Real-time ultrasound monitoring is superior to blind techniques in cannulation of the internal jugular vein because of its ease, accuracy and safety. Sonographic real-time monitoring minimizes the impact of anatomic factors on success and complication rates. It is a safe and efficacious approach that should be preferred in the placement of central lines.

  9. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  10. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  11. Direct internal dosimetry. A new way for routine incorporation monitoring of γ-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.

    1996-01-01

    The INDOS detector system offers the following advantages with respect to routine incorporation monitoring: The measurement is performed automatically and there is no need for trained staff. The measuring time is short and thus a relative large number of persons may be monitored with a relative high measuring frequency. First estimates of the individual effective dose equivalent rate are available immediately after the measurement. 1) The direct determination of the dose equivalent in principle is more precise than the conventional procedures for internal dosimetry, because (i) the retention of radionuclides in the body may be measured explicitly and (ii) the dependence of the dose equivalent on the body proportions is corrected implicitly. 2) The measuring procedure is comparable to the external dosimetry with respect to accuracy and lower limit of detection. Thus, the results of internal and external dosimetry can be summed up in an easy and reasonable manner. 3) The detector system can be installed in any building; it also can be installed as a mobile unit in a car or a container for long distance transportation by aircraft or train. 4) Last but not least, the cost for monitoring with INDOS is much lower than for the conventional monitoring procedures using whole body counters. (author)

  12. A Comparison of Satellite Data-Based Drought Indicators in Detecting the 2012 Drought in the Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagci, Ali Levent; Santanello, Joseph A.; Rodell, Matthew; Deng, Meixia; Di, Liping

    2018-01-01

    The drought of 2012 in the North America devastated agricultural crops and pastures, further damaging agriculture and livestock industries and leading to great losses in the economy. The drought maps of the United States Drought Monitor (USDM) and various drought monitoring techniques based on the data collected by the satellites orbiting in space such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are inter-compared during the 2012 drought conditions in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that spatial extent of drought reported by USDM were in general agreement with those reported by the MODIS-based drought maps. GRACE-based drought maps suggested that the southeastern US experienced widespread decline in surface and root-zone soil moisture and groundwater resources. Disagreements among all drought indicators were observed over irrigated areas, especially in Lower Mississippi region where agriculture is mainly irrigated. Besides, we demonstrated that time lag of vegetation response to changes in soil moisture and groundwater partly contributed to these disagreements, as well.

  13. 13th Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station - Final Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station (WRMISS) has been held annually since 1996. The major purpose of WRMISS is to provide a forum for discussion of technical issues concerning radiation dosimetry aboard the International Space Station. This includes discussion of new results, improved instrumentation, detector calibration, and radiation environment and transport models. The goal of WRMISS is to enhance international efforts to provide the best information on the space radiation environment in low-Earth orbit and on the exposure of astronauts and cosmonauts in order to optimize the radiation safety of the ISS crew. During the 13 th Annual WRMISS, held in the Institute of Nuclear Physics (Krakow, Poland) on 8-10 September 2008, participants presented 47 lectures

  14. Present state of the monitoring for internal contamination at Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, J.; Fukuda, H.; Mizushita, S.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of internal contamination surveys carried out since 1969 at Tokai Research Establishment. Routine monitoring sometimes revealed significant internal contamination for tritium workers, but almost never for others. The number of subjects for special monitoring varied according to the activities. In 1965, the number of subjects for special monitoring was nearly 300, due to a reactor repair that year. In recent years, the number or special monitoring has been several tens or so. With regard to special monitoring, the workers with significant internal contamination were less than 50%. The internal dose (50 years) estimated for the majority of subjects was of mrem order. During the past 15 years, only several cases of exposure of rem order were found. The highest dose experienced was about 4 rems ( 131 I thyroid) (U.K.)

  15. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  16. Advancing internal erosion monitoring using seismic methods in field and laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Minal L.

    This dissertation presents research involving laboratory and field investigation of passive and active methods for monitoring and assessing earthen embankment infrastructure such as dams and levees. Internal erosion occurs as soil particles in an earthen structure migrate to an exit point under seepage forces. This process is a primary failure mode for dams and levees. Current dam and levee monitoring practices are not able to identify early stages of internal erosion, and often the result is loss of structure utility and costly repairs. This research contributes to innovations for detection and monitoring by studying internal erosion and monitoring through field experiments, laboratory experiments, and social and political framing. The field research in this dissertation included two studies (2009 and 2012) of a full-scale earthen embankment at the IJkdijk in the Netherlands. In both of these tests, internal erosion occurred as evidenced by seepage followed by sand traces and boils, and in 2009, eventual failure. With the benefit of arrays of closely spaced piezometers, pore pressure trends indicated internal erosion near the initiation time. Temporally and spatially dense pore water pressure measurements detected two pore water pressure transitions characteristic to the development of internal erosion, even in piezometers located away from the backward erosion activity. At the first transition, the backward erosion caused anomalous pressure decrease in piezometers, even under constant or increasing upstream water level. At the second transition, measurements stabilized as backward erosion extended further upstream of the piezometers, as shown in the 2009 test. The transitions provide an indication of the temporal development and the spatial extent of backward erosion. The 2012 IJkdijk test also included passive acoustic emissions (AE) monitoring. This study analyzed AE activity over the course of the 7-day test using a grid of geophones installed on the

  17. Tree responses to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    With global climate change, drought may become more common in the future (IPCC 2007). Several factors will promote more frequent droughts: earlier snowmelt, higher temperatures and higher variability in precipitation. For ecosystems where the water cycle is dominated by snowmelt, warmer temperatures bring earlier melt (Stewart et al. 2005) and longer, drier snow-free...

  18. USGS integrated drought science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Andrea C.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Lambert, Patrick M.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Carter, Shawn L.; Stoker, Jason M.; Focazio, Michael J.

    2017-06-05

    Project Need and OverviewDrought poses a serious threat to the resilience of human communities and ecosystems in the United States (Easterling and others, 2000). Over the past several years, many regions have experienced extreme drought conditions, fueled by prolonged periods of reduced precipitation and exceptionally warm temperatures. Extreme drought has far-reaching impacts on water supplies, ecosystems, agricultural production, critical infrastructure, energy costs, human health, and local economies (Milly and others, 2005; Wihlite, 2005; Vörösmarty and others, 2010; Choat and others, 2012; Ledger and others, 2013). As global temperatures continue to increase, the frequency, severity, extent, and duration of droughts are expected to increase across North America, affecting both humans and natural ecosystems (Parry and others, 2007).The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long, proven history of delivering science and tools to help decision-makers manage and mitigate effects of drought. That said, there is substantial capacity for improved integration and coordination in the ways that the USGS provides drought science. A USGS Drought Team was formed in August 2016 to work across USGS Mission Areas to identify current USGS drought-related research and core capabilities. This information has been used to initiate the development of an integrated science effort that will bring the full USGS capacity to bear on this national crisis.

  19. Drought impacts and resilience on crops via evapotranspiration estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Joris; Asadollahi Dolatabad, Saeid

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the global needs for food and water is at a critical level. It has been estimated that 12.5 % of the global population suffers from malnutrition and 768 million people still do not have access to clean drinking water. This need is increasing because of population growth but also by climate change. Changes in precipitation patterns will result either in flooding or droughts. Consequently availability, usability and affordability of water is becoming challenge and efficient use of water and water management is becoming more important, particularly during severe drought events. Drought monitoring for agricultural purposes is very hard. While meteorological drought can accurately be monitored using precipitation only, estimating agricultural drought is more difficult. This is because agricultural drought is dependent on the meteorological drought, the impacts on the vegetation, and the resilience of the crops. As such not only precipitation estimates are required but also evapotranspiration at plant/plot scale. Evapotranspiration (ET) describes the amount of water evaporated from soil and vegetation. As 65% of precipitation is lost by ET, drought severity is highly linked with this variable. In drought research, the precise quantification of ET and its spatio-temporal variability is therefore essential. In this view, remote sensing based models to estimate ET, such as SEBAL and SEBS, are of high value. However the resolution of current evapotranspiration products are not good enough for monitoring the impact of the droughts on the specific crops. This limitation originates because plot scales are in general smaller than the resolution of the available satellite ET products. As such remote sensing estimates of evapotranspiration are always a combination of different land surface types and cannot be used for plant health and drought resilience studies. The goal of this research is therefore to enable adequate resolutions of daily evapotranspiration estimates

  20. MONITORING OF INTERNATIONAL DONOR ASSISTANCE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMALGAMATED TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Boichenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted within the framework of the joint project of the F. Ebert Foundation (Germany and the Institute of Economic and Legal Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine “The Experience of the Association of Territorial Communities in Eastern Ukraine: Economic and Legal Aspects”. The subject of the study is the theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of monitoring international donor assistance in the context of the development of amalgamated territorial communities (ATC based on the example of Bilokurakyne and Novopskov ATC. Methodology. The system approach (in substantiating the directions of monitoring and established procedures for monitoring each component of the life of amalgamated territorial communities, logical generalization (in determining the state of development of amalgamated territorial communities, method of absolute, relative, and mean values, analysis of the dynamics series and structural shifts (in determining the dominant trends in the formation and development of ATC, method of economic analysis and synthesis (in determining the content of the monitoring, method of comparison (when the violations in the process of ATC, graphical method (the construction algorithm combined operation and development of local communities imaging method (for presenting the results of the total amount of international aid to ATC are used in the work. The purpose of the research is to develop theoretical, methodological, and practical approaches to the monitoring of international donor assistance in the context of the development of amalgamated territorial communities. The article suggests using monitoring as the most effective tool for controlling economic and social phenomena and processes. The authorial scheme for constructing a procedure for the monitoring of functioning and development of amalgamated territorial communities is developed. The monitoring of international donor support of the

  1. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B,; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    There are a variety of both portable and fixed gas monitors onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Devices range from rack-mounted mass spectrometers to hand-held electrochemical sensors. An optical Multi-Gas Monitor has been developed as an ISS Technology Demonstration to evaluate long-term continuous measurement of 4 gases. Based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy, this technology offers unprecedented selectivity, concentration range, precision, and calibration stability. The monitor utilizes the combination of high performance laser absorption spectroscopy with a rugged optical path length enhancement cell that is nearly impossible to misalign. The enhancement cell serves simultaneously as the measurement sampling cell for multiple laser channels operating within a common measurement volume. Four laser diode based detection channels allow quantitative determination of ISS cabin concentrations of water vapor (humidity), carbon dioxide, ammonia and oxygen. Each channel utilizes a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) at a different wavelength. In addition to measuring major air constituents in their relevant ranges, the multiple gas monitor provides real time quantitative gaseous ammonia measurements between 5 and 20,000 parts-per-million (ppm). A small ventilation fan draws air with no pumps or valves into the enclosure in which analysis occurs. Power draw is only about 3 W from USB sources when installed in Nanoracks or when connected to 28V source from any EXPRESS rack interface. Internal battery power can run the sensor for over 20 hours during portable operation. The sensor is controlled digitally with an FPGA/microcontroller architecture that stores data internally while displaying running average measurements on an LCD screen and interfacing with the rack or laptop via USB. Design, construction and certification of the Multi-Gas Monitor were a joint effort between Vista Photonics, Nanoracks and NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC

  2. Optimization of internal contamination monitoring programmes by studying uncertainties linked to dosimetric assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davesne, Estelle

    2010-01-01

    To optimise the protection of workers against ionizing radiations, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends the use of dose constraint and limits. To verify the compliance of the means of protection with these values when a risk of internal contamination exists, monitoring programmes formed of periodic bioassay measurements are performed. However, uncertainty in the dose evaluation arises from the variability of the activity measurement and from the incomplete knowledge of the exposure conditions. This uncertainty was taken into account by means of classical, Bayesian and possibilist statistics. The developed methodology was applied to the evaluation of the potential exposure during nuclear fuel preparation or mining; and to the analysis of the monitoring programme of workers purifying plutonium in AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant. From the measurement decision threshold, the minimum dose detectable (MDD) by the programme with a given confidence level can be calculated through the software OPSCI. It is shown to be a useful support in the optimisation of monitoring programmes when seeking a compromise between their sensitivity and their costs. (author)

  3. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, S. [CSD, British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT) (United Kingdom); Mba, D. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.mba@cranfield.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise.

  4. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, S.; Mba, D.

    2009-01-01

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise

  5. General guidelines for the assessment of internal dose from monitoring data: Progress of the IDEAS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.; Andrasi, A.; Bailey, M.; Blanchardon, E.; Cruz-Suarez, R.; Berkovski, V.; Castellani, C. M.; Hurtgenv, C.; Leguen, B.; Malatova, I.; Marsh, J.; Stather, J.; Zeger, J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent major international intercomparison exercises on intake and internal dose assessments from monitoring data, the results calculated by different participants varied significantly. Based on this experience the need for harmonisation of the procedures has been formulated within an EU 5. Framework Programme research project. The aim of the project, IDEAS, is to develop general guidelines for standardising assessments of intakes and internal doses. The IDEAS project started in October 2001 and ended in June 2005. The project is closely related to some goals of the work of Committee 2 of the ICRP and since 2003 there has been close cooperation between the two groups. To ensure that the guidelines are applicable to a wide range of practical situations, the first step was to compile a database of well-documented cases of internal contamination. In parallel, an improved version of an existing software package was developed and distributed to the partners for further use. A large number of cases from the database was evaluated independently by the partners and the results reviewed. Based on these evaluations, guidelines were drafted and discussed with dosimetry professionals from around the world by means of a virtual workshop on the Internet early in 2004. The guidelines have been revised and refined on the basis of the experiences and discussions in this virtual workshop. The general philosophy of the Guidelines is presented here, focusing on the principles of harmonisation, optimisation and proportionality. Finally, the proposed Levels of Task to structure the approach of internal dose evaluation are reported. (authors)

  6. Monitoring Impacts of Long-Term Drought on Surface Water Quantity and Quality in Middle Rio Grande Basin Reservoirs Using Multispectral Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Hargrove, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Elephant Butte and Caballo dams form the largest surface water reservoirs in the Middle Rio Grande basin. The basin supports more than 2 million people, including the major urban centers of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, El Paso, Texas, and Las Cruces, New Mexico, plus more than 70,000 ha of land with water rights for irrigated agriculture. However, this region has experienced severe droughts and growing water demand over the past few decades. This study applied GIS and remote sensing techniques to (1) quantify the shrinking and expansion of the reservoirs for the 44-year period 1973-2017; (2) demonstrate the use of multispectral satellite imagery for qualitative assessment of reservoir water turbidity; and (3) investigate and compare annual and seasonal variability of reservoir temperature. Our preliminary results show apparent shrinkage and recovery cycles of both reservoirs, depending on annual inflow and diversion cycles. For example, the period 1981 to 1993 was unusually `wet' on average, in contrast to the period around September 2002 when the Elephant Butte reservoir shrinked to less than 11 percent of its capacity due to drought. Water in the reservoirs appears more turbid in the fall compared to the summer season, and satellite images showed distinctive zones of deep and shallow water, with evident sedimentation near the in-flow of each reservoir. Examination of image digital numbers revealed the following three distinct temperature zones: scrub environment around the reservoirs, very shallow water around reservoir edges, and deeper reservoir water. The zones were represented by a higher range of digital numbers in the summer in comparison to the fall season, indicating greater surface temperature variability in the summer season. The distinction between high summer temperatures and low fall temperatures was especially prominent along the shallow edges of each reservoir. The fluctuating thermal patterns can be explained by variations in depth

  7. Perceptions of growth monitoring and promotion among an international panel of district medical officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, Dominique; Lefèvre, Pierre; Hoerée, Tom; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    The growth chart has been proposed as an educational tool to make the child's growth visible to both health workers and caregivers and to enhance communication between them. In the case of growth faltering, this would trigger timely corrective measures. Although the relevance of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has often been questioned in the literature, opinions of District Medical Officers responsible for local implementation of GMP are unknown. The aim of this qualitative research was to explore the perceptions and difficulties of an international panel of District Medical Officers regarding GMP. As an exploratory study, in-depth interviews of an international panel of District Medical Officers (n=19) were conducted. Data were coded using the QSR Nudist 5.0 software. A discrepancy between intended purposes and practice of GMP was detected at two levels. First, lack of participation of care-givers was reported. Second, the District Medical Officers expressed a restrictive interpretation of the concept of growth monitoring. The communication with parents was never reported as a means or a result of GMP, neither as an evaluation criterion of programme efficiency. The growth chart was mainly considered a tool intended to be used by health services for the purpose of diagnosis. This two-fold discrepancy between the intention of international policy-planners and practice of local programme implementers could be a crucial factor affecting the performance of GMP. More emphasis should be put on social communication and involvement of caregivers.

  8. Vibro-acoustic condition monitoring of Internal Combustion Engines: A critical review of existing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, S.; Bonfiglio, P.; Pompoli, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the state-of-the-art strategies and techniques based on vibro-acoustic signals that can monitor and diagnose malfunctions in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) under both test bench and vehicle operating conditions. Over recent years, several authors have summarized what is known in critical reviews mainly focused on reciprocating machines in general or on specific signal processing techniques: no attempts to deal with IC engine condition monitoring have been made. This paper first gives a brief summary of the generation of sound and vibration in ICEs in order to place further discussion on fault vibro-acoustic diagnosis in context. An overview of the monitoring and diagnostic techniques described in literature using both vibration and acoustic signals is also provided. Different faulty conditions are described which affect combustion, mechanics and the aerodynamics of ICEs. The importance of measuring acoustic signals, as opposed to vibration signals, is due since the former seem to be more suitable for implementation on on-board monitoring systems in view of their non-intrusive behaviour, capability in simultaneously capturing signatures from several mechanical components and because of the possibility of detecting faults affecting airborne transmission paths. In view of the recent needs of the industry to (-) optimize component structural durability adopting long-life cycles, (-) verify the engine final status at the end of the assembly line and (-) reduce the maintenance costs monitoring the ICE life during vehicle operations, monitoring and diagnosing system requests are continuously growing up. The present review can be considered a useful guideline for test engineers in understanding which types of fault can be diagnosed by using vibro-acoustic signals in sufficient time in both test bench and operating conditions and which transducer and signal processing technique (of which the essential background theory is here reported) could be

  9. Evaluation of the Performance of Multiple Drought Indices for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Jedd, T.; Svoboda, M.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The recent and frequent drought events in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) create an urgent need for scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers to improve the understanding of drought in order to mitigate its effects. It is well documented that drought is not caused by meteorological or hydrological conditions alone; social, economic, and political governance factors play a large part in whether the components in a water supply system are balanced. In the MENA region, for example, agricultural production can place a significant burden on water supply systems. Understanding the connection between drought and agricultural production is an important first step in developing a sound drought monitoring and mitigation system that links physical indicators with on-the-ground impacts. Drought affect crop yield, livestock health, and water resources availability, among others. A clear depiction of drought onset, duration and severity is essential to provide valuable information to adapt and mitigate drought impact. Therefore, it is important that to be able to connect and evaluate scientific drought data and informational products with societal impact data to more effectively initiate mitigation actions. This approach will further the development of drought maps that are tailored and responsive to immediate and specific societal needs for a region or country. Within the context of developing and evaluating drought impacts maps for the MENA region, this analysis investigates the use of different drought indices and indicators including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, land surface temperature (LST), and Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) for their ability to characterize historic drought events in Tunisia. Evaluation of a "drought map" product is conducted using data at the county level including crop yield, precipitation, in-country interviews with drought monitoring experts and agricultural

  10. Assessment of the 1998–2001 drought impact on forest health in southeastern forests: an analysis of drought severity using FHM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Klos; G. G. Wang; W. L. Bauerle

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of forest health indicators monitored through the Forest Health and Monitoring (FHM) program suggested that weather was the most important cause of tree mortality. Drought is of particular importance among weather variables because several global climate change scenarios predicted more frequent and/or intense drought in the Southeastern United States. During...

  11. 3rd International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rubini, Riccardo; D'Elia, Gianluca; Cocconcelli, Marco; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the processings of the third edition of the Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations (CMMNO13) which was held in Ferrara, Italy. This yearly event merges an international community of researchers who met – in 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland) and in 2012 in Hammamet (Tunisia) – to discuss issues of diagnostics of rotating machines operating in complex motion and/or load conditions. The growing interest of the industrial world on the topics covered by the CMMNO13 involves the fields of packaging, automotive, agricultural, mining, processing and wind machines in addition to that of the systems for data acquisition.The participation of speakers and visitors from industry makes the event an opportunity for immediate assessment of the potential applications of advanced methodologies for the signal analysis. Signals acquired from machines often contain contributions from several different components as well as noise. Therefore, the major challenge of condition monitoring is to po...

  12. The remote monitoring systems LOVER and RECOVER for international safeguards technical, economic and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauppe, W.D.; Stein, G.; Rezniczek, A.; Stienen, U.

    1983-12-01

    The electronic remote monitoring systems RECOVER and LOVER were developed to comply with the IAEA's tasks concerning international nuclear materials safeguards with the aim of reducing the inspection expenditure and enhancing control effectiveness. The present study on the technical, economic and legal aspects of an application of these systems is intended to show possible implications and provide argumentation aids for discussions on the application of these systems. RECOVER and LOVER offer the possibility of establishing a direct communication path between containment and surveillance system (c/s), instruments at the site of application and a central monitoring station. The demonstration versions of both systems have shown that remote interrogation of data under safeguards-specific boundary conditions (e.g. requirement of tamper safety) will be technically feasible. (orig./HP)

  13. A Prospective Cohort Study of Gated Stereotactic Liver Radiation Therapy Using Continuous Internal Electromagnetic Motion Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Esben S; Høyer, Morten; Hansen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intrafraction motion can compromise the treatment accuracy in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Respiratory gating can improve treatment delivery; however, gating based on external motion surrogates is inaccurate. The present study reports the use of Calypso-based internal...... electromagnetic motion monitoring for gated liver SBRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen patients were included in a study of 3-fraction respiratory gated liver SBRT guided by 3 implanted electromagnetic transponders. The planning target volume was created by a 5-mm axial and 7-mm (n = 12) or 10-mm (n = 3...

  14. Monitoring stress among internal medicine residents: an experience-driven, practical and short measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszkowski, Nils; Villoing, Barbara; Zenasni, Franck; Jaury, Philippe; Boujut, Emilie

    2017-07-01

    Residents experience severely high levels of stress, depression and burnout, leading to perceived medical errors, as well as to symptoms of impairment, such as chronic anger, cognitive impairment, suicidal behavior and substance abuse. Because research has not yet provided a psychometrically robust population-specific tool to measure the level of stress of medicine residents, we aimed at building and validating such a measure. Using an inductive scale development approach, a short, pragmatic measure was built, based on the interviews of 17 medicine residents. The Internal Medicine Residency Stress Scale (IMRSS) was then administered in a sample of 259 internal medicine residents (199 females, 60 males, M Age  = 25.6) along with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Satisfaction With Life Scale and Ways of Coping Checklist. The IMRSS showed satisfactory internal reliability (Cronbach's α = .86), adequate structural validity - studied through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (χ 2 /df = 2.51, CFI = .94; SRMR = .037, RMSEA = .076) - and good criterion validity - the IMRSS was notably strongly correlated with emotional exhaustion (r = .64; p is recommended to quickly and frequently assess and monitor stress among internal medicine residents.

  15. General guidelines for the Assessment of Internal Dose from Monitoring Data (Project IDEAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.; Andrasi, A.; Bailey, M.; Blanchardon, E.; Berkovski, V.; Castellani, C. M.; Hurtgen, C.; Jourdain, J. R.; LeGuen, B.; Puncher, M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent major international intercomparison exercises on intake and internal dose assessments from monitoring data the results calculated by different participants varied significantly. This was mainly due to the broad variety of methods and assumptions applied in the assessment procedure. Based on these experiences the need for harmonisation of the procedures has been formulated within an EU research project under the 5th Framework Programme. The aim of the project, IDEAS, is to develop general guidelines for standardising assessments of intakes and internal doses. The IDEAS project started in October 2001 and will end in March 2005. Eight institutions from seven European countries are participating. Inputs from internal dosimetry professionals from across Europe are also being used to ensure a broad consensus in the outcome of the project. The IDEAS project is closely related to some goals of the work of Committee 2 of the ICRP and since 2003 there has been close cooperation between the two groups. To ensure that the guidelines are applicable to a wide range of practical situations, the first step has been to compile a database of well-documented cases of internal contamination. In parallel, an improved version of an existing software package has been developed and distributed to the partners for further use. A large number of cases from the database have been evaluated independently by partners in the project using the same software and the results have been reviewed. Based on these evaluations guidelines are being drafted and will be discussed with dosimetry professionals from around the world by means of a virtual workshop on the Internet early in 2004. The guidelines will be revised and refined on the basis of the experiences and discussions of this virtual workshop and the outcome of an intercomparison exercise organised as part of the project. This will be open to all internal dosimetry professionals. (Author) 10 refs

  16. Climate and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Alan L.

    Drought is a complex phenomenon that can be defined from several perspectives [Wilhite and Glantz, 1987]. The common characteristic and central idea of these perspectives is the straightforward notion of a water deficit. Complexity arises because of the need to specify the part of the hydrologic cycle experiencing the deficit and the associated time period. For example, a long-term deficit in deep groundwater storage can occur simultaneously with a short-term surplus of root zone soil water.Figure 1 [Changnon, 1987] illustrates how the definitions of drought are related to specific components of the hydrologic cycle. The dashed lines indicate the delayed translation of two hypothetical precipitation deficits with respect to runoff, soil moisture, streamflow and groundwater. From this perspective, precipitation can be considered as the carrier of the drought signal, and hydrological processes are among the final indicators that reveal the presence of drought [Hare, 1987; Klemes, 1987].

  17. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  18. Data Analysis of Seismic Sequence in Central Italy in 2016 using CTBTO- International Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumladze, Tea; Wang, Haijun; Graham, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    The seismic network that forms the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-test-ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) will ultimately consist of 170 seismic stations (50 primary and 120 auxiliary) in 76 countries around the world. The Network is still under the development, but currently more than 80% of the network is in operation. The objective of seismic monitoring is to detect and locate underground nuclear explosions. However, the data from the IMS also can be widely used for scientific and civil purposes. In this study we present the results of data analysis of the seismic sequence in 2016 in Central Italy. Several hundred earthquakes were recorded for this sequence by the seismic stations of the IMS. All events were accurately located the analysts of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBTO. In this study we will present the epicentral and magnitude distribution, station recordings and teleseismic phases as obtained from the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB). We will also present a comparison of the database of the IDC with the databases of the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Present work shows that IMS data can be used for earthquake sequence analyses and can play an important role in seismological research.

  19. Software requirements elicitation to support internal monitoring of quality assurance system for higher education in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, A.; Gunawan, D.; Hardi, S. M.; Rachmawati, D.

    2018-02-01

    The Internal Quality Assurance System (in Indonesian: SPMI (Sistem Penjaminan Mutu Internal) is a systemic activity of quality assurance of higher education in Indonesia. SPMI should be done by all higher education or universities in Indonesia based on the Regulation of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia Number 62 of 2016. Implementation of SPMI must refer to the principle of SPMI that is independent, standardize, accurate, well planned and sustainable, documented and systematic. To assist the SPMI cycle properly, universities need a supporting software to monitor all the activities of SPMI. But in reality, many universities are not optimal in building this SPMI monitoring system. One of the obstacles is the determination of system requirements in support of SPMI principles is difficult to achieve. In this paper, we observe the initial phase of the engineering requirements elicitation. Unlike other methods that collect system requirements from users and stakeholders, we find the system requirements of the SPMI principles from SPMI guideline book. The result of this paper can be used as a choice in determining SPMI software requirements. This paper can also be used by developers and users to understand the scenario of SPMI so that could overcome the problems of understanding between this two parties.

  20. Drought early warning system in I.R. of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadi, Sina; Jamali, Javad B.; Javanmard, Soheila

    2004-01-01

    Drought is a normal, recurring feature of climate; it occurs in virtually all climatic regimes. It occurs in high as well as low rainfall areas. Drought is the consequence of a natural reduction in the amount of precipitation received over an extended period of time, usually a season or more in length, although other climatic factors (such as high temperatures, high winds, and low relative humidity) are often associated with it in many regions of the world and can significantly aggravate the severity of the event. Most parts of the 1. R. of Iran have a high degree of aridity and pronounced rainfall variability in large parts of their territories and are therefore highly vulnerable to drought. Therefore, drought is one of greatest natural disasters in our country. Among all natural disasters, droughts occur the most frequently, have the longest duration, cover the largest area, and cause the greatest losses in agricultural production. The quantification of impacts and the provision of disaster relief are far more difficult tasks for drought than they are for other natural hazards. Since, the drought is a normal part of climate, it is difficult to determine its onset, development, and end. This fact emphasizes the importance of developing comprehensive monitoring or early warning systems. Drought prediction (monthly, seasonal, or yearly trends) is particularly useful for the drought planning and mitigation. Drought Early Warning System is applied as a pilot study during the last two years. The NDEWSI is based on the monitoring drought indices, such as SPI, Palmer and NDVI, and preparedness, where will be discussed in this paper. In this paper, we have presented a brief drought analysis using the SPI and demonstrated its potential use for drought analysis with minimal data requirements. It is our view that development of a drought monitoring system, based largely on meteorological and climatic information, can be a great help for early assessment of drought impacts in

  1. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

    1997-07-01

    The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led

  2. AUTOMATED PROCESS MONITORING: APPLYING PROVEN AUTOMATION TECHNIQUES TO INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS NEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, Matthew J.; Durst, Philip C.; Grate, Jay W.; Devol, Timothy A.; Egorov, Oleg; Clements, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Identification and quantification of specific alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in complex liquid matrices is highly challenging, and is typically accomplished through laborious wet chemical sample preparation and separations followed by analysis using a variety of detection methodologies (e.g., liquid scintillation, gas proportional counting, alpha energy analysis, mass spectrometry). Analytical results may take days or weeks to report. Chains of custody and sample security measures may also complicate or slow the analytical process. When an industrial process-scale plant requires the monitoring of specific radionuclides as an indication of the composition of its feed stream or of plant performance, radiochemical measurements must be fast, accurate, and reliable. Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have assembled a fully automated prototype Process Monitor instrument capable of a variety of tasks: automated sampling directly from a feed stream, sample digestion/analyte redox adjustment, chemical separations, radiochemical detection and data analysis/reporting. The system is compact, its components are fluidically inter-linked, and analytical results could be immediately transmitted to on- or off-site locations. The development of a rapid radiochemical Process Monitor for 99Tc in Hanford tank waste processing streams, capable of performing several measurements per hour, will be discussed in detail. More recently, the automated platform was modified to perform measurements of 90Sr in Hanford tank waste stimulant. The system exemplifies how automation could be integrated into reprocessing facilities to support international nuclear safeguards needs

  3. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  4. Management of bank risks in the system of internal financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk is an integral part of banking activities. That is why there are many researches on definition, measurement and monitoring of banking risks. Nowadays it is important to improve the risk management process of legalization (laundering of proceeds from crime or terrorist financing, especially in the present conditions of socio-economic development. This will improve the quality of financial monitoring in the country as a whole and will reduce the risk of attracting banks to laundering money from crime. The article reviews and examines modern management techniques and risk assessment of laundering proceeds from crime. The authors make suggestions to strengthen the tracking and detection of illegal schemes and appropriate approaches to «launder» criminal money. They also offer an appropriate model to manage the risks which accompany the process of laundering the proceeds from crime. According to the study carried out the authors provide their conclusions and recommendations to improve risk management in the system of internal financial monitoring of banks.

  5. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  6. Program of individual monitoring of the internal contamination and their implementation in the Republic the Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Bejerano, Gladys M.; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Acosta Rodriguez, Nancy; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Cruz Suarez, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In different Cuban institutions linked fundamentally to the medical practice of nuclear medicine and the investigations, it is worked with sources open of ionizing radiations, that which makes indispensable the existence of a system of radiological surveillance that includes the control radiological individual of the received doses as a result of the occupational, such exhibition that is guaranteed that the exhibition of the Hard-working Exposed Occupationally, stay inside the recommended limits, in the International Basic Norms of Protection against the Ionizing radiations and safe-deposit of the Sources of Radiation (NBIS) and in turn adopted in the Norma Cuban. From the year 1986 in the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations is carried out in way centralized this control; but with the inconvenience of not being able to carry out the same one to workers from the domestic interior when not being feasible the transfer of these toward its headquarters, reason why the doses were ignored received in an important number of these. In and of itself the Laboratory of Internal Contamination of this institution in these years has developed managed works to define firstly, for each institution, the program of monitoring of the internal contamination of its workers using for it the methodology recommended by the OIEA where the potential doses are evaluated that for incorporation these they receive and whose results suggested the introduction of a program of individual monitoring as behavior to continue in most of the institutions. In correspondence with it was designed and established a program that included the study of feasibility of the existent equipment in the institutions to carry out the monitoring of the internal contamination using technical of measuring in vivo and in vitro, as it corresponds, their calibration, the establishment of procedures that respond to the requirements of a System of Quality for the Norma ISO/IEC 17025 and

  7. a Probability Model for Drought Prediction Using Fusion of Markov Chain and SAX Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouybari-Moghaddam, Y.; Saradjian, M. R.; Forati, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Drought is one of the most powerful natural disasters which are affected on different aspects of the environment. Most of the time this phenomenon is immense in the arid and semi-arid area. Monitoring and prediction the severity of the drought can be useful in the management of the natural disaster caused by drought. Many indices were used in predicting droughts such as SPI, VCI, and TVX. In this paper, based on three data sets (rainfall, NDVI, and land surface temperature) which are acquired from MODIS satellite imagery, time series of SPI, VCI, and TVX in time limited between winters 2000 to summer 2015 for the east region of Isfahan province were created. Using these indices and fusion of symbolic aggregation approximation and hidden Markov chain drought was predicted for fall 2015. For this purpose, at first, each time series was transformed into the set of quality data based on the state of drought (5 group) by using SAX algorithm then the probability matrix for the future state was created by using Markov hidden chain. The fall drought severity was predicted by fusion the probability matrix and state of drought severity in summer 2015. The prediction based on the likelihood for each state of drought includes severe drought, middle drought, normal drought, severe wet and middle wet. The analysis and experimental result from proposed algorithm show that the product of this algorithm is acceptable and the proposed algorithm is appropriate and efficient for predicting drought using remote sensor data.

  8. The Hamburg polonium-210 case. Monitoring of internal contaminations in a malevolent act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalheimer, A.; Koenig, K.; Nosske, D.; Schaefer, I.

    2009-01-01

    The dead of Alexander Litvinenko in London in the late 2006 was linked with the visit of Dimitri Kovtun. So an investigation was started by the Hamburg Police. As the presence of polonium-210 was uncertain, the action was supported by the Federal Defense against Nuclear Hazards (NGA) of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). Radiation measurements in some flats in Hamburg confirmed the suspicion of polonium-210 contaminations. As incorporations by ingestion or inhalation could not generally be excluded, the Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring of the BfS (Leitstelle Inkorporationsueberwachung des BfS) was requested to clarify this issue. The BfS office then coordinated the required bioassay analyses of urine samples carried out at four officially appointed in-vitro laboratories for incorporation monitoring. The group of people to be examined included the members of the family involved living in the contaminated flats, the emergency forces, as well as potentially exposed members of the public. The calculation of the internal dose was based on standard assumptions and also conducted by the BfS. The internal radiation doses proved to be within the range of radiation doses due to natural exposures. Retrospectively it should be stressed that the collaboration and cooperation of all institutions involved in the operation in Hamburg was extremely good despite their differing organisational structures. As a result of the incident in Hamburg various middle and long-term measures have been taken since then by the BfS Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring. (orig.)

  9. Scanning personnel for internal deposition of radioactive material with personnel contamination whole body friskers and portal monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobdell, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The potential for using personnel contamination devices such as whole body friskers and portal monitors for internal contamination monitoring was evaluated. Internally deposited radioactive material is typically determined with whole body counting systems. Whole body counts have traditionally been performed on personnel when they report for work, on a periodic basis (i.e., annually), when an uptake is suspected, and on termination. These counts incur significant expense. The monitored personnel pass through whole body friskers and portal monitors daily. This investigation was performed to determine if the external contamination monitors could provide an alternative to the more Costly whole body counting. The ability to detect 1% of a DAC for critical radioisotopes was applied as a detection criteria for this investigation. The results of whole body counts were used to identify the typical internal contamination radionuclides. From this list, the radioisotopes that would be the most difficult to measure were identified. From this review, 60 Co and 131 I were determined to be the critical radionuclides. One percent of a DAC for each isotope was placed, one at a time, in a humanoid phantom. The phantom was placed in the whole body frisker and open-quotes countedclose quotes. The phantom was carried through the portal monitor at a speed equivalent to a person walking through the monitor. Frequency of detection was derived for both systems. Practical aspects of integrating this screening system with traditional internal dosimetry programs are discussed

  10. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    Spain in both considered drought events, however slightly less severe for 2012 than for 2005. In conclusion, and from an operational point of view, our results reveal the ability of the developed methodology to monitor droughts' impacts on crops productions and yields in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012) Garcia-Herrera R., Paredes D., Trigo R. M., Trigo I. F., Hernandez E., Barriopedro D. and Mendes M. A., 2007: The Outstanding 2004/05 Drought in the Iberian Peninsula: Associated Atmospheric Circulation, J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 483-498. Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno, 2010: A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. J. Climate, 23, 1696-1718. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45.

  11. International experience feedback on fatigue monitoring systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.

    1997-01-01

    From the very beginning of electro-nuclear programmes the need has become internationally obvious to develop systems aiming at automation and improvement of monitoring of the transients stressing the main mechanical components of nuclear units, by checking the conservativeness of the design no longer from a comparison of causes (temperature and pressure variations) but by directly assessing the results (stresses and linked damage). Prototypes of such systems have appeared since the middle of the 1980's mainly in France, the USA and Germany, and manufacturing them has since continued. Several years of development and on site testing of prototypes of fatigue measuring devices designed by the R and D Direction have enabled contacts with the developers of similar systems to be established and, in some cases, comparisons to be made. The experience accumulated in the use of such systems, both in France and abroad from now on makes a first experience feedback possible. The fatigue measuring device concept is based on a succession of elementary modules which enable the information received from the unit to be processed, first in the form of transient counting (transient meters), then in the form of mechanical diagnosis (fatigue monitoring systems). Among the systems in operation some provide actually only the transient meter part while others link transient meters and fatigue meters (EDF, EPRI and MITSUBISHI systems and some versions of the SIEMENS system). Moreover, numerous systems require, in addition to unit operation instrumentation, specific instrumentation located in monitored areas. The number of devices in operation has not stopped growing since the middle of the 80's to reach 53 systems working in 1996. The biggest developers are EPRI and its consultant Structural Integrity Associates (FatiguePro system), SIEMENS (FAMOS system) and EDF whose gradual implementation of SYSFAC from '96 is going to make its share particularly increase. Technical experience feedback

  12. International Workshop on Best Practices in Material Hold-Up Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Chris A; Coates, Cameron W.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2006, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) hosted an INMM-sponsored International Workshop on Best Practices in Material Hold-Up Monitoring. This workshop represented the first time in over 20 years that the international community had gathered to discuss pertinent hold-up topics and needs. More than one hundred people attended the workshop. Their expertise in the field ranged from novice to expert, and they shared their experiences and expertise throughout the week of the workshop. Presenters discussed techniques that have been used worldwide to detect and characterize nuclear materials held up in processes and equipment and the policies used to report quantities detected. The primary goal of the workshop was to compile information on the best practices and lessons learned and to make this information available for sharing throughout the international community. This paper discusses the information that was produced from four separate working groups (each composed of workshop attendees). Each group was tasked to determine what it felt to be the best practices in the field today and what issues needed to be addressed to move the field forward in the 21st century

  13. A near real-time satellite-based global drought climate data record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid

    2012-01-01

    Reliable drought monitoring requires long-term and continuous precipitation data. High resolution satellite measurements provide valuable precipitation information on a quasi-global scale. However, their short lengths of records limit their applications in drought monitoring. In addition to this limitation, long-term low resolution satellite-based gauge-adjusted data sets such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) one are not available in near real-time form for timely drought monitoring. This study bridges the gap between low resolution long-term satellite gauge-adjusted data and the emerging high resolution satellite precipitation data sets to create a long-term climate data record of droughts. To accomplish this, a Bayesian correction algorithm is used to combine GPCP data with real-time satellite precipitation data sets for drought monitoring and analysis. The results showed that the combined data sets after the Bayesian correction were a significant improvement compared to the uncorrected data. Furthermore, several recent major droughts such as the 2011 Texas, 2010 Amazon and 2010 Horn of Africa droughts were detected in the combined real-time and long-term satellite observations. This highlights the potential application of satellite precipitation data for regional to global drought monitoring. The final product is a real-time data-driven satellite-based standardized precipitation index that can be used for drought monitoring especially over remote and/or ungauged regions. (letter)

  14. Monitoring drought affected crop yields based on ERS-scatterometer data : exploration of possibilities to integrate ERS-scatterometer derived soil moisture into the CGMS crop model for a Russian-Ukrainian study area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.L.; Diepen, van C.A.; Savin, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this study the possibilities of integrating ERS scatterometer-derived soil moisture into CGMS are explored. This remote sensed soil moisture is used to calculate drought stress in grains of barley for a Russian-Ukrainian study area. The results arecompared with drought stress based on the

  15. Global patterns of drought recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Biondi, Franco; Koch, George; Litvak, Marcy; Ogle, Kiona; Shaw, John D.; Wolf, Adam; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schaefer, Kevin; Cook, Robert; Wei, Yaxing; Fang, Yuanyuan; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Jain, Atul; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-09

    Drought is a recurring multi-factor phenomenon with major impacts on natural and human systems1-3. Drought is especially important for land carbon sink variability, influencing climate regulation of the terrestrial biosphere4. While 20th Century trends in drought regime are ambiguous, “more extreme extremes” as well as more frequent and severe droughts3,7 are expected in the 21st Century. Recovery time, the length of time an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state, is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the spatiotemporal patterning and controls of drought recovery are largely unknown. Here we use three distinct global datasets of gross primary productivity to show that across diverse terrestrial ecosystems drought recovery times are driven by biological productivity and biodiversity, with drought length and severity of secondary importance. Recovery time, especially for extreme droughts, and the areal extent of ecosystems in recovery from drought generally increase over the 20th Century, supporting an increase globally in drought impact8. Our results indicate that if future Anthropocene droughts become more widespread as expected, that droughts will become more frequent relative to recovery time. This increases the risk of entering a new regime where vegetation never recovers to its original state and widespread degradation of the land carbon sink ensues.

  16. Individual monitoring of internal exposure of 131I of workers from the nuclear medicine service FUESMEN, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, G.; Acosta, N.; Venier, V.; Bedoya Toboo, C.

    2013-01-01

    It is presented the FUESMEN experience in routine monitoring of thyroid internal doses due to inhalation of 131 I in workers of the Nuclear Medicine Service in normal operation or accidental exposure. It is used a surface contamination monitor, type Geiger Mueller, calibrated with a acrylic phantom based on specifications of the simulator of thyroid of ICRU 48 with 131 I reference activity. Through the obtained measurements is achieved to validate the use of Portable Monitor to carry out preliminary exploration on the monitoring scenarios of incidental situations

  17. A framework for the monitoring and evaluation of international surgical initiatives in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, George M; Cadotte, David W; Bernstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    An estimated two billion people worldwide lack adequate access to surgical care. To address this humanitarian emergency, an increasing number of international surgical partnerships are emerging between developed and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). At present, there are no clear indicators that may be used to assess the effectiveness of such initiatives. We conducted an international qualitative study of 31 surgeons from developed and LMICs involved in international partnerships across a variety of subspecialties. Thematic analysis and grounded theory were applied in order to develop a practical framework that may be applied to monitor and evaluate global surgical initiatives. Several themes emerged from the study: (i) there is a large unmet need to establish and maintain prospective databases in LMICs to inform the monitoring and evaluation of international surgical partnerships; (ii) assessment of initiatives must occur longitudinally over the span of several years; (ii) the domains of assessment are contextual and encompass cultural, institutional and regional factors; and (iv) evaluation strategies should explore broader impact within the community and country. Based on thematic analysis within the domains of inputs, outputs and outcomes, a framework for the monitoring and evaluation of international surgical initiatives, the Framework for the Assessment of InteRNational Surgical Success (FAIRNeSS) is proposed. In response to the increasing number of surgical partnerships between developed and LMICs, we propose a framework to monitor and evaluate international surgical initiatives.

  18. Drought and the risk of hospital admissions and mortality in older adults in western USA from 2000 to 2013: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jesse D; Ebisu, Keita; Peng, Roger D; Dominici, Francesca; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-04-01

    Occurrence, severity and geographic extent of droughts are anticipated to increase under climate change, but the health consequences of drought conditions are unknown. We estimate risks of cardiovascular and respiratory-related hospitalization and mortality associated with drought conditions for the western U.S. elderly population. For counties in the western U.S. (N=618) and for the period 2000 to 2013, we use data from the U.S. Drought Monitor to identify: 1) full drought periods; 2) non-drought periods; and 3) worsening drought periods stratified by low- and high-severity. We use Medicare claims to calculate daily rates of cardiovascular admissions, respiratory admissions, and deaths among adults 65 years or older. Using a two-stage hierarchical model, we estimated the percentage change in health risks when comparing drought to non-drought period days controlling for daily weather and seasonal trends. On average there were 2·1 million days and 0·6 million days classified as non-drought periods and drought periods, respectively. Compared to non-drought periods, respiratory admissions significantly decreased by -1·99% (95% posterior interval (PI): -3·56, -0·38) during the full drought period, but not during worsening drought conditions. Mortality risk significantly increased by 1·55% (95% PI: 0·17, 2·95) during the high-severity worsening drought period, but not the full drought period. Cardiovascular admissions did not differ significantly during either drought or worsening drought periods. In counties where drought occurred less frequently, we found risks for cardiovascular disease and mortality to increase during worsening drought conditions. Drought conditions increased risk of mortality during high-severity worsening drought, but decreased the risk of respiratory admissions during full drought periods among older adults. Counties that experience fewer drought events show larger risk for mortality and cardiovascular disease. This research describes an

  19. Development and Characterization of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter for Radiation Monitoring in International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk-Won Nam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC can measure the Linear Energy Transfer (LET spectrum and calculate the equivalent dose for the complicated radiation field in space. In this paper, we developed and characterized a TEPC for radiation monitoring in International Space Station (ISS. The prototype TEPC which can simulate a 2 μm of the site diameter for micro-dosimetry has been tested with a standard alpha source (241Am, 5.5 MeV. Also, the calibration of the TEPC was performed by the 252Cf neutron standard source in Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS. The determined calibration factor was kf = 3.59×10-7 mSv/R.

  20. Individual monitoring of internal exposure to uranium oxides in two fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdeix, F.; Achiary, J.; Berard, P.

    1989-01-01

    Individual monitoring of personal exposure to inhalation of uranium oxides throughout the manufacture of fuel for pressurized water reactor (PWR) includes lung gamma-spectrometry, fecal analysis and urine analysis. Examination of the results shows the following: internal exposure is the consequence of repeated intake incidents as revealed by early peaks of urinary and particularly fecal elimination; a shift is often observed with the results of aerosol concentration measured through air collectors; the measured variations of uranium lung incorporations are relatively fast (apparent mean period 165 d). Correct evaluation of the effective dose equivalent from inhalation requires further information concerning the aerosol size distribution at work stations, the physico-chemical characteristics of the product leading to an estimate of its actual biological solubility, and the measurement of the fraction of aerosol liable to intake with an individual portable collector [fr

  1. Implementation of internal monitoring programs for workers occupationally exposed by 131I in nuclear medicine services in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    In nuclear medicine services (NMS), workers routinely handle radionuclides for diagnostic and therapy. This practice represents a risk of incorporation by these radionuclides. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the implementation of an internal monitoring program on workers exposed to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv, as for example, those who handle 131 I for therapy in NMS. Currently, in Brazil, there are not enough available laboratories qualified to provide internal monitoring services to attend all possible demand of internal monitoring if it such regulation were applied by the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Board (CNEN). The objective of this work is to disseminate simple and inexpensive methods for in vivo routine thyroid monitoring of 131 I using equipment available in the NMS. Devices available in two public hospitals located in the city of Rio de Janeiro were calibrated for use in occupational internal monitoring. The equipment evaluated in this work presented enough sensitivity for such application, being suitable to access intakes of 131 I in the thyroid and able to estimate doses below 1 mSv. (author)

  2. Implementation of internal monitoring programs for workers occupationally exposed by {sup 131}I in nuclear medicine services in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: salomao.marques@ymail.com [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2017-07-01

    In nuclear medicine services (NMS), workers routinely handle radionuclides for diagnostic and therapy. This practice represents a risk of incorporation by these radionuclides. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the implementation of an internal monitoring program on workers exposed to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv, as for example, those who handle {sup 131}I for therapy in NMS. Currently, in Brazil, there are not enough available laboratories qualified to provide internal monitoring services to attend all possible demand of internal monitoring if it such regulation were applied by the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Board (CNEN). The objective of this work is to disseminate simple and inexpensive methods for in vivo routine thyroid monitoring of {sup 131}I using equipment available in the NMS. Devices available in two public hospitals located in the city of Rio de Janeiro were calibrated for use in occupational internal monitoring. The equipment evaluated in this work presented enough sensitivity for such application, being suitable to access intakes of {sup 131}I in the thyroid and able to estimate doses below 1 mSv. (author)

  3. Monitoring internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines; Monitoracao da corrosao interna em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Ana C.V.; Silva, Djalma R.; Pimenta, Gutemberg S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, Andrea F.F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    For susceptibilities to the corrosion of the pipelines and equipment made in carbon steel and used by the natural gas, it makes be necessary to identify the acting corrosive agents and monitoring them along time, controlling failures for internal corrosion. Also, of that process it origins the black powder (solid particles) that can not commit the structural integrity of the equipment, but it can also bring the company other implications very serious, like quality of the sold product, as well as stops due to blockages and wastes for erosion of the equipment. The monitoring methodology and control of the corrosion in field consisted of the use of corrosion test equipment, chemical characterization of samples of black powder and liquids and analysis of the operational data of processes and plants. Like this, it was identified for the gas pipeline in analysis the most responsible parameters for the corrosive action of the fluid, establishing a controlling methodology and operational actions to maintain the corrosion rates at safe levels and structural warranty of the same. (author)

  4. Selective pelvic autonomic nerve stimulation with simultaneous intraoperative monitoring of internal anal sphincter and bladder innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, W; Kauff, D W; Koch, K P; Schmidtmann, I; Heimann, A; Hoffmann, K P; Lang, H

    2011-01-01

    Pelvic autonomic nerve preservation avoids postoperative functional disturbances. The aim of this feasibility study was to develop a neuromonitoring system with simultaneous intraoperative verification of internal anal sphincter (IAS) activity and intravesical pressure. 14 pigs underwent low anterior rectal resection. During intermittent bipolar electric stimulation of the inferior hypogastric plexus (IHP) and the pelvic splanchnic nerves (PSN), electromyographic signals of the IAS and manometry of the urinary bladder were observed simultaneously. Stimulation of IHP and PSN as well as simultaneous intraoperative monitoring could be realized with an adapted neuromonitoring device. Neurostimulation resulted in either bladder or IAS activation or concerted activation of both. Intravesical pressure increase as well as amplitude increase of the IAS neuromonitoring signal did not differ significantly between stimulation of IHP and PSN [6.0 cm H(2)O (interquartile range [IQR] 3.5-9.0) vs. 6.0 cm H(2)O (IQR 3.0-10.0) and 12.1 μV (IQR 3.0-36.7) vs. 40.1 μV (IQR 9.0-64.3)] (p > 0.05). Pelvic autonomic nerve stimulation with simultaneous intraoperative monitoring of IAS and bladder innervation is feasible. The method may enable neuromonitoring with increasing selectivity for pelvic autonomic nerve preservation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Individual monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, S.; Stritt, N.; Bochud, F. O.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers requires frequent measurements due to the short physical half lives of most radionuclides used in this field. The aim of this study was to develop screening measurements performed at the workplace by local staff using standard laboratory instrumentation, to detect whether potential intake has occurred. Such measurements do not enable to determine the committed effective dose, but are adequate to verify that a given threshold is not exceeded. For radioiodine, i.e. 123 I, 124 I, 125 I and 131 I, a calibrated surface contamination monitor is placed in front of the thyroid to detect whether the activity threshold has been exceeded. For radionuclides with very short physical half-lives (≤6 h), such as 99m Tc) and those used in positron emission tomography imaging, i.e. 11 C, 15 O, 18 F and 68 Ga, screening procedures consist in performing daily measurements of the ambient dose rate in front of the abdomen. Other gamma emitters used for imaging, i.e. 67 Ga, 111 In and 201 Tl, are measured with a scintillation detector located in front of the thorax. For pure beta emitters, i.e. 90 Y and 169 Er, as well as beta emitters with low-intensity gamma rays, i.e. 153 Sm, 177 Lu, 186 Re and 188 Re, the procedure consists in measuring hand contamination immediately after use. In Switzerland, screening procedures have been adopted by most nuclear medicine services since such measurements enable an acceptable monitoring while taking into account practical and economic considerations. (authors)

  6. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  7. Scientific and technological monitoring: international overview on R. and D. related to Pra's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Stioui, A.

    1993-03-01

    In 1989, the R and D Division of Electricite de France launched a programme for a Technological and Scientific Overview (TSO) covering a certain number of topics considered to be important for the future of EDF. Probabilistic approaches to studies related to safety were considered to be strategically important to EDF, and therefore this area was selected for further study. A TSO is a process which can only start on the basis of a structured state-of-the-art organized as a basis of knowledge, together with the highlighting of a certain number of scientific and strategic ''set of references . The state-of-the-art of R and D related to Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) was carried out in collaboration between the EDF R and D Division (SR branch) and SRI International. The approach chosen included: segmentation of the wide field of PSAs into subject areas, topics and sensitive points to be monitored; conception of a grid for the interviews; approximately thirty in-depth interviews of organizations and experts representative of the domain; analysis leading to identify certain problems areas or particularly important features. Emerging themes for research and further consideration in relation to PSAs, their application and their limits were also identified. Based on this state-of-the-art, various themes of monitoring were defined (living PSAs, limits of PSAs,...) and an organizational structure for monitoring was set up in the branch. The state of the art is not static, it is the reason why an in-depth extension of the study was undertaken on issues of special interest for EDF. (authors). 2 figs., 2 refs

  8. PREFACE: 25th International Congress on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering (COMADEM 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Andrew; Mishra, Rakesh; Gu, Fengshou; Rao, Raj B. K. N.

    2012-05-01

    The proactive multidisciplinary conceptual philosophy of Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management (COMADEM) was conceived and has been nurtured, developed and sustained since 1988. Since then, it is gratifying to note that the condition monitoring, diagnostic and prognostic community worldwide (representing industrialists, academics, research and development organizations, professional/private establishments and many hardware/software vending organizations) has warmly welcomed and supported this venture. As is evidenced, many have reaped (and are reaping) the benefits of COMADEM interdiscipline through continuous knowledge discovery, generation and dissemination. We are now proud to celebrate the 25th Annual Event (Silver Jubilee) in Huddersfield, the most beautiful part of the United Kingdom. The theme of this Congress is 'Sustained Prosperity through Proactive Monitoring, Diagnosis, Prognosis and Management'. This proceedings is enriched by contributions from many keynote experts representing many industry and academic establishments worldwide. Authors from more than 30 different countries have pooled their rich multidisciplinary up-to-date knowledge, in order to share their invaluable experience with the COMADEM community. In this proceedings, the readers will find more than 120 refereed papers encompassing a number of topical areas of interest relating to the theme of the congress. The proceedings of COMADEM 2012 will appear in the Open Access Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), which is part of the IOP Conference Series. All papers published in the IOP Conference Series are fully citable and upon publication will be free to download. We would like to express our deep gratitude to all the keynote speakers, authors, referees, exhibitors, Technical Co-Sponsoring Organizations, Gold Sponsors, IOP Publishers, COMADEM 2012 organizing committee members, delegates and many others on whom the success of this prestigious event depends

  9. Short-term droughts forecast using Markov chain model in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, Siti Nazahiyah; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuiyan, Muhammed A.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive risk management strategy for dealing with drought should include both short-term and long-term planning. The objective of this paper is to present an early warning method to forecast drought using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and a non-homogeneous Markov chain model. A model such as this is useful for short-term planning. The developed method has been used to forecast droughts at a number of meteorological monitoring stations that have been regionalised into six (6) homogenous clusters with similar drought characteristics based on SPI. The non-homogeneous Markov chain model was used to estimate drought probabilities and drought predictions up to 3 months ahead. The drought severity classes defined using the SPI were computed at a 12-month time scale. The drought probabilities and the predictions were computed for six clusters that depict similar drought characteristics in Victoria, Australia. Overall, the drought severity class predicted was quite similar for all the clusters, with the non-drought class probabilities ranging from 49 to 57 %. For all clusters, the near normal class had a probability of occurrence varying from 27 to 38 %. For the more moderate and severe classes, the probabilities ranged from 2 to 13 % and 3 to 1 %, respectively. The developed model predicted drought situations 1 month ahead reasonably well. However, 2 and 3 months ahead predictions should be used with caution until the models are developed further.

  10. Application of a pedestrian portal monitor at Madrid International Airport in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, Ll., E-mail: luis.pujol@cedex.e [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Univ Politecn Madrid (UPM), Dept Civil Engn Hydraul and Energet, ETSI Caminos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A.; Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Univ Politecn Madrid (UPM), Dept Civil Engn Hydraul and Energet, ETSI Caminos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Three pedestrian portal monitor systems, designed to detect illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement of radioactive materials carried by passengers at airports, have been evaluated. The systems were supplied by three manufacturers: Bicron, Exploranium and Thermo-Eberline. In an initial evaluation, conducted at the Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering of the School of Civil Engineering, it was observed that the FHT-1372 system manufactured by Thermo-Eberline gave a more sensitive response and allowed the measurement of total photon dose rate and artificial photon dose rate. Therefore, this system was installed at Barajas International Airport in Madrid in 2002 for a period of 108 days in order to select an appropriate investigation level (defined as the radiation level that is selected as the trigger for further investigation). During this period 1,339,931 passengers were screened and a total of 39 alarms were triggered, 5 of which with a value 10 times the mean value of the natural background from photon radiation (which was 85 nSv/h), and no alarms exceeded 100 {mu}Sv/h at 1 m distance, which is the level of response for legal transport of radioactive materials set by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). An investigation level of approximately 1.3 times the natural background was finally selected. This value coincides with the results obtained in the ITRAP (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program) carried out by the IAEA.

  11. Internal and External Temperature Monitoring of a Li-Ion Battery with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Novais

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors in lithium-ion cells for in-situ and in-operando temperature monitoring is presented herein. The measuring of internal and external temperature variations was performed through four FBG sensors during galvanostatic cycling at C-rates ranging from 1C to 8C. The FBG sensors were placed both outside and inside the cell, located in the center of the electrochemically active area and at the tab-electrode connection. The internal sensors recorded temperature variations of 4.0 ± 0.1 °C at 5C and 4.7 ± 0.1 °C at 8C at the center of the active area, and 3.9 ± 0.1 °C at 5C and 4.0 ± 0.1 °C at 8C at the tab-electrode connection, respectively. This study is intended to contribute to detection of a temperature gradient in real time inside a cell, which can determine possible damage in the battery performance when it operates under normal and abnormal operating conditions, as well as to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integration of in-operando microsensors inside Li-ion cells.

  12. International Collaboration in the field of GNSS-Meteorology and Climate Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.; Guerova, G.; Dousa, J.; Bock, O.; Elgered, G.; Vedel, H.; Pottiaux, E.; de Haan, S.; Pacione, R.; Dick, G.; Wang, J.; Gutman, S. I.; Wickert, J.; Rannat, K.; Liu, G.; Braun, J. J.; Shoji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    International collaboration in the field of GNSS-meteorology and climate monitoring is essential, as severe weather and climate change have no respect for national boundaries. The use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for meteorological purposes is an established atmospheric observing technique, which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60-70% of atmospheric warming. Severe weather forecasting is challenging, in part due to the high temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric water vapour. Water vapour is currently under-sampled and obtaining and exploiting more high-quality humidity observations is essential to severe weather forecasting and climate monitoring. A proposed EU COST Action (http://www.cost.eu) will address new and improved capabilities from concurrent developments in both GNSS and atmospheric communities to improve (short-range) weather forecasts and climate projections. For the first time, the synergy of the three GNSS systems, GPS, GLONASS and Galileo, will be used to develop new, advanced tropospheric products, stimulating the full potential exploitation of multi-GNSS water vapour estimates on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from real-time severe weather monitoring and forecasting to climate research. The Action will work in close collaboration with the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN), GNSS Precipitable Water Task Team (TT). GRUAN is a global reference observing network, designed to meet climate requirements and to fill a major void in the current global observing system. GRUAN observations will provide long-term, high-quality data to determine climatic trends and to constrain and validate data from space-based remote sensors. Ground-based GNSS PW was identified as a Priority 1 measurement for GRUAN, and the GNSS-PW TT's goal is to develop explicit guidance on hardware, software and data management practices to obtain GNSS PW

  13. Modeling rain-fed maize vulnerability to droughts using the standardized precipitation index from satellite estimated rainfall—Southern Malawi case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Verdin, James; Adams Chavula,; Gregory J. Husak,; Harikishan Jayanthi,; Tamuka Magadzire,

    2013-01-01

    During 1990s, disaster risk reduction emerged as a novel, proactive approach to managing risks from natural hazards. The World Bank, USAID, and other international donor agencies began making efforts to mainstream disaster risk reduction in countries whose population and economies were heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture. This approach has more significance in light of the increasing climatic hazard patterns and the climate scenarios projected for different hazard prone countries in the world. The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) has been monitoring the food security issues in the sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and in Haiti. FEWS NET monitors the rainfall and moisture availability conditions with the help of NOAA RFE2 data for deriving food security status in Africa. This paper highlights the efforts in using satellite estimated rainfall inputs to develop drought vulnerability models in the drought prone areas in Malawi. The satellite RFE2 based SPI corresponding to the critical tasseling and silking phases (in the months of January, February, and March) were statistically regressed with drought-induced yield losses at the district level. The analysis has shown that the drought conditions in February and early March lead to most damage to maize yields in this region. The district-wise vulnerabilities to drought were upscaled to obtain a regional maize vulnerability model for southern Malawi. The results would help in establishing an early monitoring mechanism for drought impact assessment, give the decision makers additional time to assess seasonal outcomes, and identify potential food-related hazards in Malawi.

  14. Coping With Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaporozec, Alexander

    This book is a collection of selected papers from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Droughts entitled “Drought Impact Control Technology,” held at the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 1980. The editors of the book have chosen a nontraditional but successful approach to presenting the papers. Instead of including a verbatim proceedings of the institute, they assembled 21 papers presented by 14 of the institute's lecturers, reshaped and synthesized them, and supplemented them by five new papers that cover obvious gaps in topics. The result is enlightening reading and a more or less complete presentation of the subject. The edited material in the book was arranged around three central themes related to efforts needed to cope with or manage the droughts. In the process, the identity of individual contributors has been preserved.

  15. Drought in the Emerald City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses a drought preparedness study being conducted for the Cedar River and Green River basins in western Washington state. The study is one of four regional case studies being managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as part of the National Study of Water Management During Drought. The overriding objective of the drought preparedness study is to leave the region better prepared for drought, through demonstration and test of drought preparedness tools and strategies. The study has served as a vehicle to promote a greater regional focus on drought related water supply problem solving. The 1992 drought in the Seattle/Tacoma metropolitan area provided a unique opportunity for the study team to demonstrate approaches to drought management being researched and tested as part of the study

  16. InfoDROUGHT: Technical reliability assessment using crop yield data at the Spanish-national level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Sergio; Garcia-León, David; Hunink, Johannes E.

    2017-04-01

    Drought monitoring (DM) is a key component of risk-centered drought preparedness plans and drought policies. InfoDROUGHT (www.infosequia.es) is a a site- and user-tailored and fully-integrated DM system which combines functionalities for: a) the operational satellite-based weekly-1km tracking of severity and spatial extent of drought impacts, b) the interactive and faster query and delivery of drought information through a web-mapping service. InfoDROUGHT has a flexible and modular structure. The calibration (threshold definitions) and validation of the system is performed by combining expert knowledge and auxiliary impact assessments and datasets. Different technical solutions (basic or advanced versions) or deployment options (open-standard or restricted-authenticated) can be purchased by end-users and customers according to their needs. In this analysis, the technical reliability of InfoDROUGHT and its performance for detecting drought impacts on agriculture has been evaluated in the 2003-2014 period by exploring and quantifying the relationships among the drought severity indices reported by InfoDROUGHT and the annual yield anomalies observed for different rainfed crops (maize, wheat, barley) at Spain. We hypothesize a positive relationship between the crop anomalies and the drought severity level detected by InfoDROUGHT. Annual yield anomalies were computed at the province administrative level as the difference between the annual yield reported by the Spanish Annual Survey of Crop Acreages and Yields (ESYRCE database) and the mean annual yield estimated during the study period. Yield anomalies were finally compared against drought greenness-based and thermal-based drought indices (VCI and TCI, respectively) to check the coherence of the outputs and the hypothesis stated. InfoDROUGHT has been partly funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competiveness through a Torres-Quevedo grant, and by the H2020-EU project "Bridging the Gap for Innovations in

  17. Present state of the monitoring for internal contamination at Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, J.; Fukuda, H.; Mizushita, S.

    1980-01-01

    At Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, over one thousand people work in hot areas such as reactors, accelerators, chemical laboratories and waste treatment plants. The monitoring for internal contamination of this personnel is presented. Routine and special monitoring are carried out. The object of the former is to check for the presence of significant contamination, and that of the latter is to estimate body burden and committed dose equivalent, if necessary. Heavy shield and shadow shield whole body counters, a low energy lung counter and a wound monitor are used to detect the internal contamination due to γ or chi ray emitters, and bioassay technique is used for α or β emitters and uranium. The results of the monitoring until now are presented. (H.K.)

  18. Developing Drought Outlook Forums in Support of a Regional Drought Early Warning Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnutt, C. A.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Darby, L. S.; Verdin, J. P.; Webb, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-430) charged NIDIS with developing the leadership and partnerships necessary to implement an integrated national drought monitoring and forecasting system that creates a drought "early warning system". The drought early warning information system should be capable of providing accurate, timely and integrated information on drought conditions at the relevant spatial scale to facilitate proactive decisions aimed at minimizing the economic, social and ecosystem losses associated with drought. As part of this effort, NIDIS has held Regional Drought Outlook Forums in several regions of the U.S. The purpose of the Forums is to inform practices that reduce vulnerability to drought through an interactive and collaborative process that includes the users of the information. The Forums have focused on providing detailed assessments of present conditions and impacts, comparisons with past drought events, and seasonal predictions including discussion of the state and expected evolution of the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena. Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) that include close interaction between information providers and users are not a new concept, however. RCOFs started in Africa in the 1990s in response to the 1997-98 El Niño and have since expanded to South America, Asia, the Pacific islands, and the Caribbean. As a result of feedback from the RCOFs a large body of research has gone into improving seasonal forecasts and the capacity of the users to apply the information in a way that improves their decision-making. Over time, it has become clear that more is involved than just improving the interaction between the climate forecasters and decision-makers. NIDIS is using the RCOF approach as one component in a larger effort to develop Regional Drought Early Warning Information Systems (RDEWS) around the U.S. Using what has been learned over the past decade in the RCOF process

  19. Proceedings of International monitoring conference 'Development of rehabilitation methodology of environment of the Semipalatinsk region polluted by nuclear tests'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the monitoring conference is draw an attention of government, national and international agencies, scientific societies, and local administrations to the ecological problems of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, to combine the efforts of scientists to solve problems of soil disinfection, purification of surface and ground water from radioactive and heavy metals. It is expected that the knowledge, experience and methodology accumulated on the monitoring conference might be successfully transferred to solve analogous environmental problems of Kazakhstan

  20. Development of an expert system for the taking into account of uncertainties in the monitoring of internal contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davesne, E.; Blanchardon, E.; Casanova, P.; Chojnacki, E.; Paquet, F.

    2010-01-01

    Internal contaminations may result from professional exposure and they can be monitored by anthropo-radiometric and radio-toxicological measurements which are interpreted in terms of embedded activity and effective dose by means of biokinetic and dosimetric models. In spite of standards, some uncertainties in the dosimetric interpretation of radio-toxicological measurements may remain. The authors report the development of a software (OPSCI code) which takes into account uncertainties related to the worker internal dosimetry, the calculation of the minimum detectable dose related to an exposure, and the development of a data monitoring programme

  1. Introduction 'Governance for Drought Resilience'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This book is about governance for drought resilience. But that simple sentence alone might rouse several questions. Because what do we mean with drought, and how does that relate to water scarcity? And what do we mean with resilience, and why is resilience needed for tackling drought? And how does

  2. The complex influence of ENSO on droughts in Ecuador

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, S. M.

    2016-03-26

    In this study, we analyzed the influence of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the spatio-temporal variability of droughts in Ecuador for a 48-year period (1965–2012). Droughts were quantified from 22 high-quality and homogenized time series of precipitation and air temperature by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. In addition, the propagation of two different ENSO indices (El Niño 3.4 and El Niño 1 + 2 indices) and other atmospheric circulation processes (e.g., vertical velocity) on different time-scales of drought severity were investigated. The results showed a very complex influence of ENSO on drought behavior across Ecuador, with two regional patterns in the evolution of droughts: (1) the Andean chain with no changes in drought severity, and (2) the Western plains with less severe and frequent droughts. We also detected that drought variability in the Andes mountains is explained by the El Niño 3.4 index [sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central Pacific], whereas the Western plains are much more driven by El Niño 1 + 2 index (SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific). Moreover, it was also observed that El Niño and La Niña phases enhance droughts in the Andes and Western plains regions, respectively. The results of this work could be crucial for predicting and monitoring drought variability and intensity in Ecuador. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  3. Drought Risk Assessment based on Natural and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Huimin; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    In many parts of the world, drought hazard is becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change and human activities. It is crucial to monitor and assess drought conditions, especially for decision making support in agriculture sector. The vegetation index (VI) decreases, and the land surface temperature (LST) increases when the vegetation is under drought stress. Therefore both of these remotely sensed indices are widely used in drought monitoring and assessment. Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) is obtained by establishing the feature space of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST, which reflects agriculture dry situation by inverting soil moisture. However, these indices only concern the natural hazard-causing factors. Our society is a complex large-scale system with various natural and social elements. The drought risk is the joint consequence of hazard-causing factors and hazard-affected bodies. For example, as the population increases, the exposure of the hazard-affected bodies also tends to increase. The high GDP enhances the response ability of government, and the irrigation and water conservancy reduces the vulnerability. Such characteristics of hazard-affected bodies should be coupled with natural factors. In this study, the 16-day moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI and LST data are combined to establish NDVI-Ts space according to different land use types in Yunnan Province, China. And then, TVDIs are calculated through dry and wet edges modeled as a linear fit to data for each land cover type. Next, the efforts are turned to establish an integrated drought assessment index of social factors and TVDI through ascertaining attribute weight based on rough sets theory. Thus, the new CDI (comprehensive drought index) recorded during spring of 2010 and the spatial variations in drought are analyzed and compared with TVDI dataset. Moreover, actual drought risk situation in the study area is given to

  4. Groundwater quality surrounding Lake Texoma during short-term drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampbell, Donald H.; An, Youn-Joo; Jewell, Ken P.; Masoner, Jason R.

    2003-01-01

    Stressors such as nitrates and total salts in ground water could potentially become a health or environmental problem during drought conditions. - Water quality data from 55 monitoring wells during drought conditions surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, was compared to assess the influence of drought on groundwater quality. During the drought month of October, water table levels were three feet (0.9 m) lower compared with several months earlier under predrought climate conditions. Detection frequencies of nitrate (> 0.1 mg/l), orthophosphates (> 0.1 mg/l), chlorides (> MCL), and sulfates (> MCL) all increased during drought. Orthophosphate level was higher during drought. Largest increases in concentration were nitrate under both agriculture lands and in septic tank areas. An increase in ammonium-nitrogen was only detected in the septic tank area. The study showed that stressors such as nitrate and total salts could potentially become a health or environmental problem during drought

  5. On the visualization of water-related big data: extracting insights from drought proxies' datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Vitali; Corzo, Gerald; van Lanen, Henny A. J.; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2017-04-01

    Big data is a growing area of science where hydroinformatics can benefit largely. There have been a number of important developments in the area of data science aimed at analysis of large datasets. Such datasets related to water include measurements, simulations, reanalysis, scenario analyses and proxies. By convention, information contained in these databases is referred to a specific time and a space (i.e., longitude/latitude). This work is motivated by the need to extract insights from large water-related datasets, i.e., transforming large amounts of data into useful information that helps to better understand of water-related phenomena, particularly about drought. In this context, data visualization, part of data science, involves techniques to create and to communicate data by encoding it as visual graphical objects. They may help to better understand data and detect trends. Base on existing methods of data analysis and visualization, this work aims to develop tools for visualizing water-related large datasets. These tools were developed taking advantage of existing libraries for data visualization into a group of graphs which include both polar area diagrams (PADs) and radar charts (RDs). In both graphs, time steps are represented by the polar angles and the percentages of area in drought by the radios. For illustration, three large datasets of drought proxies are chosen to identify trends, prone areas and spatio-temporal variability of drought in a set of case studies. The datasets are (1) SPI-TS2p1 (1901-2002, 11.7 GB), (2) SPI-PRECL0p5 (1948-2016, 7.91 GB) and (3) SPEI-baseV2.3 (1901-2013, 15.3 GB). All of them are on a monthly basis and with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. First two were retrieved from the repository of the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI). They are included into the Analyses Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) project (iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.IRI/.Analyses/.SPI/). The third dataset was

  6. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin; Stagge, James Howard; Tallaksen, Lena M.; De Stefano, Lucia; Vogt, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, meant as the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work tests the capability of commonly applied drought indices and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and combines information on past drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This hybrid approach bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact prediction in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro-region-specific sensitivities of drought indices, with the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for a 12-month accumulation period as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictors, with information about land use and water resources being the best vulnerability-based predictors. The application of the hybrid approach revealed strong regional and sector-specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of the best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer accumulation periods, and a combination of information on land use and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information with drought risk prediction

  7. Identification of Hydrological Drought in Eastern China Using a Time-Dependent Drought Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long records (1960–2013 of monthly streamflow observations from 8 hydrological stations in the East Asian monsoon region are modeled using a nonstationarity framework by means of the Generalized Additive Models in Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS. Modeling analyses are used to characterize nonstationarity of monthly streamflow series in different geographic regions and to select optimal distribution among five two-parameter distributions (Gamma, Lognormal, Gumbel, Weibull and Logistic. Based on the optimal nonstationarity distribution, a time-dependent Standardized Streamflow Index (denoted SSIvar that takes account of the possible nonstationarity in streamflow series is constructed and then employed to identify drought characteristics at different time scales (at a 3-month scale and a 12-month scale in the eight selected catchments during 1960–2013 for comparison. Results of GAMLSS models indicate that they are able to represent the magnitude and spread in the monthly streamflow series with distribution parameters that are a linear function of time. For 8 hydrological stations in different geographic regions, a noticeable difference is observed between the historical drought assessment of Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI and SSIvar, indicating that the nonstationarity could not be ignored in the hydrological drought analyses, especially for stations with change point and significant change trends. The constructed SSIvar is, to some extent, found to be more reliable and suitable for regional drought monitoring than traditional SSI in a changing environment, thereby providing a feasible alternative for drought forecasting and water resource management at different time scales.

  8. Impact of the application of criteria of internal monitoring in radiological protection programmes in nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Juliao, L.Q.C.; Lourenco, M.C.; Melo, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The manipulation of open sources in Nuclear Medicine services involves risks of external exposure and internal contamination. The radiological protection plan of facilities licensed by CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - must include the evaluation of such risks and propose a programme of individual monitoring to control exposure and ensure the maintenance of conditions of radiation safety. The IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency - recommendations presented in the Safety Guide RS-G-1.2 suggest that an internal worker monitoring program be implemented where there is a possibility of internal contamination lead to effective dose committed annual values equal to or greater than 1 mSv. This paper presents the application of such criteria to the radionuclides most frequently used in the field of Nuclear Medicine, taking into account the normal conditions of handling and the ranges of activity authorized by CNEN. It is concluded that iodine 131 manipulation for therapeutic purposes is the practice that presented the greatest risk of internal exposure of workers, requiring the adoption of a programme of internal monitoring of Nuclear Medicine services

  9. Monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health: an international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Neeru

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the undoubted importance of human resources to the functions of health systems, there is little consistency between countries in how human resource strategies are monitored and evaluated. This paper presents an integrated approach for developing an evidence base on human resources for health (HRH to support decision-making, drawing on a framework for health systems performance assessment. Methods Conceptual and methodological issues for selecting indicators for HRH monitoring and evaluation are discussed, and a range of primary and secondary data sources that might be used to generate indicators are reviewed. Descriptive analyses are conducted drawing primarily on one type of source, namely routinely reported data on the numbers of health personnel and medical schools as covered by national reporting systems and compiled by the World Health Organization. Regression techniques are used to triangulate a given HRH indicator calculated from different data sources across multiple countries. Results Major variations in the supply of health personnel and training opportunities are found to occur by region. However, certain discrepancies are also observed in measuring the same indicator from different sources, possibly related to the occupational classification or to the sources' representation. Conclusion Evidence-based information is needed to better understand trends in HRH. Although a range of sources exist that can potentially be used for HRH assessment, the information that can be derived from many of these individual sources precludes refined analysis. A variety of data sources and analytical approaches, each with its own strengths and limitations, is required to reflect the complexity of HRH issues. In order to enhance cross-national comparability, data collection efforts should be processed through the use of internationally standardized classifications (in particular, for occupation, industry and education at the

  10. Web-based continuous internal corrosion monitoring of a sweet natural gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauchi, Sam; Vorozcovs, Andrew [Fiber Optic Systems Technology Inc. (FOX-TEK), Bedford, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Inspection of pipelines susceptible to internal corrosion is a key ingredient in maintaining their reliable throughput. While conventional inspection consisting of in line inspection, radiography and ultrasound remain the mainstay of most integrity programs, challenging circumstances in some cases make the availability of such data inadequate, cost prohibitive, and at times entirely unavailable. These scenarios include aggressive internal corrosion, expensive excavation conditions, low or stagnant flow, and non-piggable pipeline segments. While some gas pipelines in these circumstances are considered relatively low risk and low consequence, due to the significant reclamation costs and cleanup time associated with liquid pipelines, those areas identified as being high-risk are often high-consequence and thus require a specialized inspection solution. For areas deemed to be at high-risk, or areas of low-risk with high consequence, Electrical Field Mapping (EFM) has provided a practical solution to safe operation without introducing expensive and potentially dangerous dig programs. Historically, however, this inspection approach has required manual data acquisition as part of a scheduled EFM site visit schedule. Due to the tedious nature of this data acquisition approach, the remoteness of some pipeline inspection sites and the complexity of data analysis, it has been difficult to closely monitor the most critical assets on a continuous basis. The manual component of this approach also often eliminates EFM as a practical solution due to lack of properly trained personnel. In this paper, we will discuss a new approach to data acquisition where data is acquired, transmitted, analyzed, and displayed completely automatically and remotely with virtually no human overhead or recurring operating costs. An overview of the PinPoint monitoring setup covering 180 degrees of pipe circumference is described. This advanced EFM system allows operators to observe, essentially in real

  11. Respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic motion monitoring during stereotactic liver radiation therapy: First results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Worm, Esben Schjødt; Hansen, Rune; Larsen, Lars Peter; Grau, Cai; Høyer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction motion may compromise the target dose in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of tumors in the liver. Respiratory gating can improve the treatment delivery, but gating based on an external surrogate signal may be inaccurate. This is the first paper reporting on respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic monitoring during liver SBRT. Two patients with solitary liver metastases were treated with respiratory-gated SBRT guided by three implanted electromagnetic transponders. The treatment was delivered in end-exhale with beam-on when the centroid of the three transponders deviated less than 3 mm [left-right (LR) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions] and 4mm [cranio-caudal (CC)] from the planned position. For each treatment fraction, log files were used to determine the transponder motion during beam-on in the actual gated treatments and in simulated treatments without gating. The motion was used to reconstruct the dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) with and without gating. The reduction in D95 (minimum dose to 95% of the CTV) relative to the plan was calculated for both treatment courses. With gating the maximum course mean (standard deviation) geometrical error in any direction was 1.2 mm (1.8 mm). Without gating the course mean error would mainly increase for Patient 1 [to -2.8 mm (1.6 mm) (LR), 7.1 mm (5.8 mm) (CC), -2.6 mm (2.8mm) (AP)] due to a large systematic cranial baseline drift at each fraction. The errors without gating increased only slightly for Patient 2. The reduction in CTV D95 was 0.5% (gating) and 12.1% (non-gating) for Patient 1 and 0.3% (gating) and 1.7% (non-gating) for Patient 2. The mean duty cycle was 55%. Respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic motion monitoring was performed for two liver SBRT patients. The gating added robustness to the dose delivery and ensured a high CTV dose even in the presence of large intrafraction motion.

  12. Maintenance and Logistics Support for the International Monitoring System Network of the CTBTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, F.; Brely, N.; Akrawy, M.

    2007-05-01

    The global network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), once completed, will consist of 321 monitoring facilities of four different technologies: hydroacoustic, seismic, infrasonic, and radionuclide. As of today, about 65% of the installations are completed and contribute data to the products issued by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBTO. In order to accomplish the task to reliably collect evidence for any potential nuclear test explosion anywhere on the planet, all stations are required to perform to very high data availability requirements (at least 98% data availability over a 12-month period). To enable reaching this requirement, a three-layer concept has been developed to allow efficient support of the IMS stations: Operations, Maintenance and Logistics, and Engineering. Within this concept Maintenance and Logistics provide second level support of the stations, whereby problems arising at the station are assigned through the IMS ticket system to Maintenance if they cannot be resolved on the Operations level. Maintenance will then activate the required resources to appropriately address and ultimately resolve the problem. These resources may be equipment support contracts, other third party contracts, or the dispatch of a maintenance team. Engineering Support will be activated if the problem requires redesign of the station or after catastrophic failures when a total rebuild of a station may be necessary. In this model, Logistics Support is responsible for parts replenishment and support contract management. Logistics Support also collects and analyzes relevant failure mode and effect information, develops supportability models, and has the responsibility for document management, obsolescence, risk & quality, and configuration management, which are key elements for efficient station support. Maintenance Support in addition is responsible for maintenance strategies, for

  13. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: Representativeness of the Monitoring Results in Fukushima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Nomura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Following Japan’s 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, voluntary participation, rather than mandatory, was adopted as the default scenario for individual radiation monitoring. We evaluated the representativeness of the internal monitoring results from voluntary participants in Minamisoma City, which is located 10–40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant. Of approximately 70,000 individuals who were residing in Minamisoma City before the incident, a total of 19,263 residents (aged ≥21 years participated in the monitoring from 1 October 2011 to 31 March 2015. Based on regression projection techniques with the available data obtained from the voluntary participants, the modeled probabilities of radiocesium (Cs detection in October 2011 for Cs-137 and Cs-134 were 66.9% and 52.9%, respectively, which declined dramatically within a year following the incident. The rate of decline had stagnated since mid-2012, and the probability was close to zero after mid-2014. Sufficient agreement between the modeled probabilities of Cs detection (for the whole population versus the measured Cs levels (for voluntary participants was observed, except for Cs-134 in October 2011, indicating that the voluntary monitoring participant group was a good representative sample. Our findings affirmed the clinical importance of voluntary-based monitoring as a screening and dose-assessment tool in a post-nuclear incident. Our study informs societal decision-making regarding the long-term maintenance of the monitoring program under the current low exposure levels.

  14. PA.NET International Quality Certification Protocol for blood pressure monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omboni, Stefano; Costantini, Carlo; Pini, Claudio; Bulegato, Roberto; Manfellotto, Dario; Rizzoni, Damiano; Palatini, Paolo; O'brien, Eoin; Parati, Gianfranco

    2008-10-01

    Although standard validation protocols provide assurance of the accuracy of blood pressure monitors (BPMs), there is no guidance for the consumer as to the overall quality of a device. The PA.NET International Quality Certification Protocol, developed by the Association for Research and Development of Biomedical Technologies and for Continuing Medical Education (ARSMED), a nonprofit organization, with the support of the Italian Society of Hypertension-Italian Hypertension League, and the dabl Educational Trust denotes additional criteria of quality for BPMs that fulfilled basic validation criteria, published in full in peer-reviewed medical journals. The certification is characterized by three phases: (i) to determine that the device fulfilled standard validation criteria; (ii) to determine the technical and functional characteristics of the device (e.g. operativity, display dimension, accessory functions, memory availability, etc.) and (iii) to determine the commercial characteristics (e.g. price-quality ratio, after-sale service, guarantee, etc.). At the end of the certification process, ARSMED attributes a quality index to the device, based on a scale ranging from 1 to 100, and a quality seal with four different grades (bronze, silver, gold and diamond) according to the achieved score. The seal is identified by a unique alphanumeric code. The quality seal may be used on the packaging of the appliance or in advertising. A quality certification is released to the manufacturer and published on www.pressionearteriosa.net and www.dableducational.org. The PA.NET International Quality Certification Protocol represents the first attempt to provide health care personnel and consumers with an independent and objective assessment of BPMs based on their quality.

  15. Multilevel and multiscale drought reanalysis over France with the Safran-Isba-Modcou hydrometeorological suite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Vidal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Physically-based droughts can be defined as a water deficit in at least one component of the land surface hydrological cycle. The reliance of different activity domains (water supply, irrigation, hydropower, etc. on specific components of this cycle requires drought monitoring to be based on indices related to meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological droughts. This paper describes a high-resolution retrospective analysis of such droughts in France over the last fifty years, based on the Safran-Isba-Modcou (SIM hydrometeorological suite. The high-resolution 1958–2008 Safran atmospheric reanalysis was used to force the Isba land surface scheme and the hydrogeological model Modcou. Meteorological droughts are characterized with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI at time scales varying from 1 to 24 months. Similar standardizing methods were applied to soil moisture and streamflow for identifying multiscale agricultural droughts – through the Standardized Soil Wetness Index (SSWI – and multiscale hydrological droughts, through the Standardized Flow Index (SFI. Based on a common threshold level for all indices, drought event statistics over the 50-yr period – number of events, duration, severity and magnitude – have been derived locally in order to highlight regional differences at multiple time scales and at multiple levels of the hydrological cycle (precipitation, soil moisture, streamflow. Results show a substantial variety of temporal drought patterns over the country that are highly dependent on both the variable and time scale considered. Independent spatio-temporal drought events have then been identified and described by combining local characteristics with the evolution of area under drought. Summary statistics have finally been used to compare past severe drought events, from multi-year precipitation deficits (1989–1990 to short hot and dry periods (2003. Results show that the ranking of drought events depends highly

  16. Strength monitoring of bridge constructions and features of its application. Part 1. International and domestic experience of monitoring application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikov Igor Georgievich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development trend of building systems can be characterized in the following words: sophistication of design and simplification of operation. And the main task of the engineering structure operation is to ensure stability of the functioning structures with respect to the external aggressive impacts. The article considers the strength monitoring of bridge structures proposed by Ovchinnikov I.G. in 1994. The strength monitoring is an element of the engineering structure operation system. Algorithm of structure monitoring is based on the following main tasks — establishing nature of the external impacts on the structure and evaluating capacity of structure to resist these impacts in the concrete environment of operation. The article considers the different approaches to solving problem of transport structure operation around the world. It is proposed to include the following subsystems in the system of structure operation: 1 a subsystem of the strength monitoring of structures; 2 a subsystem of the scientific research and development organization; 3 a subsystem of work automation on the structure status management; 4 a subsystem of personnel training for work in the system of structure operation, including monitoring, research, automation of works, emergency response and quality management; 5 a subsystem of actions in the case of emergencies; 6 a subsystem of the quality management of structure operation and 7 a subsystem of ecological structure monitoring. It is noted that at the stage of structure operation the active monitoring includes the solution of the following main tasks: 1 evaluation of the stress — strain state of construction components and the whole structure, as well as the kinetics of its change taking into account the existing defects and damages of local and distributed type; 2 analysis and evaluation of degree of conformity for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of structure to the external impacts during the moment under

  17. Limb defects associated with major congenital anomalies : Clinical and epidemiological study from the international clearinghouse for birth defects monitoring systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosano, A; Botto, LD; Olney, RS; Khoury, MJ; Ritvanen, A; Goujard, J; Stoll, C; Cocchi, G; Merlob, P; Mutchinick, O; Cornel, MC; Castilla, EE; Martinez-Frias, ML; Zampino, G; Erickson, JD; Mastroiacovo, P

    2000-01-01

    Although limb defects associated with other congenital anomalies are rarely studied, they may provide insights into limb development that may be useful for etiologic studies and public health monitoring, me pooled data from II birth defect registries that are part of the International Clearinghouse

  18. Assessment and monitoring of air pollution effects. Possibilities and constraints of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, K.F.; Hassan, I.A.; Vellisariou, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Under the geneva convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, an international cooperative programme on 'Assessment and monitoring of Air effects' had been set-up in 1985. of the 34 signatory states of the convention, 28 participate in the implementation of the programme. The objective is to assess effects of air pollution on forests in europe, using a common survey method in order to assure comparability of survey results. In 1987, 20 countries conducted harmonized forest health surveys based on the assessment of two visible symptoms, loss and/or discoloration of foliage. harmonization of the surveys was quickly achieved because of the simplicity of the methodical approach. The price of rapidly obtaining large-area information on defoliation of forests is, that no distinction can be made in the assessment process between defoliation caused by air pollution and defoliation caused by natural, biotic or a biotic causes. Further improvements of the interpretability of survey results can be expected if additional visible symptoms can be defined for the major species in the different european regions. Possibilities and constraints of incorporating differentiating symptoms into the annual health surveys are discussed. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Automated detection and cataloging of global explosive volcanism using the International Monitoring System infrasound network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Green, David N.; Le Pichon, Alexis; Shearer, Peter M.; Fee, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-04-01

    We experiment with a new method to search systematically through multiyear data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network to identify explosive volcanic eruption signals originating anywhere on Earth. Detecting, quantifying, and cataloging the global occurrence of explosive volcanism helps toward several goals in Earth sciences and has direct applications in volcanic hazard mitigation. We combine infrasound signal association across multiple stations with source location using a brute-force, grid-search, cross-bearings approach. The algorithm corrects for a background prior rate of coherent unwanted infrasound signals (clutter) in a global grid, without needing to screen array processing detection lists from individual stations prior to association. We develop the algorithm using case studies of explosive eruptions: 2008 Kasatochi, Alaska; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kurile Islands; and 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. We apply the method to global IMS infrasound data from 2005-2010 to construct a preliminary acoustic catalog that emphasizes sustained explosive volcanic activity (long-duration signals or sequences of impulsive transients lasting hours to days). This work represents a step toward the goal of integrating IMS infrasound data products into global volcanic eruption early warning and notification systems. Additionally, a better understanding of volcanic signal detection and location with the IMS helps improve operational event detection, discrimination, and association capabilities.

  20. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  1. Analysis of Agricultural Drought in East Java Using Vegetation Health Index

    OpenAIRE

    Amalo, Luisa Febrina; Hidayat, Rahmat; Sulma, Sayidah

    2018-01-01

    Drought is a natural hazard indicated by the decreasing of rainfall and water storage and impacting agricultural sector. Agricultural drought assessment has been used to monitor agricultural sustainability, particularly in East Java as national agricultural production center. Identification of drought characteristics –correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and agricultural impact on paddy fields and rice production using VHI (Vegetation Health Index) were conducted. VHI is produced by ...

  2. Tagging genes for drought resistance by DNA markers in wheat (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.A.; Rahman, S.; Zafar, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Wheat families (F/sub 3) raised from the seed of drought resistant and susceptible F/sub 2/ plants developed from the cross of drought resistant and susceptible parents were grown under greenhouse conditions in polyethylene tubes filled with soil and sand mixture. Drought stress was imposed and monitored at the seedling stage. The relative water content and net photosynthesis was recorded with increasing drought stress until a significant part of the seedling population had zero or negative net photosynthesis. The seedling with zero or negative net photosynthesis were named as drought susceptible and the seedlings at the same drought stress showing net photosynthesis were named as drought resistance. Twenty each of the most susceptible and resistant seedlings were selected for DNA extraction. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique using bulked segregant analysis was used to identify DNA markers linked to drought resistance. The primers OPJ-05, OPJ-14, OPI-20 and OPA-19 produced polymorphic DNA fragments between the contrasting bulks. The polymorphic DNA fragment of 1.55kb produced by the primer OPA-19 was found linked to drought resistance. This DNA marker can be used in markers-assisted selection for drought resistance or to clone drought resistance gene. (author)

  3. Modelling crop yield in Iberia under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Páscoa, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia

    2017-04-01

    The improved assessment of the cereal yield and crop loss under drought conditions are essential to meet the increasing economy demands. The growing frequency and severity of the extreme drought conditions in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) has been likely responsible for negative impacts on agriculture, namely on crop yield losses. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of vegetation activity and a reliable estimation of drought impacts is crucial to contribute for the agricultural drought management and development of suitable information tools. This works aims to assess the influence of drought conditions in agricultural yields over the IP, considering cereal yields from mainly rainfed agriculture for the provinces with higher productivity. The main target is to develop a strategy to model drought risk on agriculture for wheat yield at a province level. In order to achieve this goal a combined assessment was made using a drought indicator (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI) to evaluate drought conditions together with a widely used vegetation index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) to monitor vegetation activity. A correlation analysis between detrended wheat yield and SPEI was performed in order to assess the vegetation response to each time scale of drought occurrence and also identify the moment of the vegetative cycle when the crop yields are more vulnerable to drought conditions. The time scales and months of SPEI, together with the months of NDVI, better related with wheat yield were chosen to perform a multivariate regression analysis to simulate crop yield. Model results are satisfactory and highlighted the usefulness of such analysis in the framework of developing a drought risk model for crop yields. In terms of an operational point of view, the results aim to contribute to an improved understanding of crop yield management under dry conditions, particularly adding substantial information on the advantages of combining

  4. The Invitational Drought Tournament: What is it and why is it a useful tool for drought preparedness and adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Hill

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proactive drought preparedness is a challenge for a variety of physical, institutional, and social reasons. Significant progress has been made in monitoring and forecasting water deficits, both temporally and spatially. However, less progress has been made in translating this information into proactive decision-making frameworks to support drought preparedness. The Invitational Drought Tournament (IDT, a simulation adaptation framework developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, is a recent innovation that supports drought preparedness efforts. The IDT provides a mechanism for presenting physical science information to decision makers across a variety of educational levels and professional backgrounds, in a way that allows for peer-to-peer education and synthesis. Second, the game simulation environment allows players to integrate this information into economic, policy and institutional frameworks in a non-threatening manner. Third, it maintains realism by constraining players׳ risk management options via a budget, the physical realities of the drought presented, and the technical expertise of the ‘referees’. Post-game follow-up allows players to explore lessons learned and to identify topics that warrant further in-depth exploration of policy options and subsequent implementation. The game provides an interim step between recognition of the risk posed by drought hazards and the actual implementation of vulnerability-reduction actions. This allows for a broad discussion within a sports-themed process that provides room for reflection and a richer understanding of the issues that must be addressed to ensure drought preparedness actions are effective.

  5. Impact of drought on wildfires in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia M.; DaCamara, Carlos; Sousa, Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    months in August. In the Eastern and Northwestern regions the correlation was most significant for the SPI for 3 and 6 months. Thus, the relation between wildfires and drought is better explained in the Northern and Southwestern regions by the temperature influence and on the Northwestern and Eastern by the precipitation influence. Gouveia C.M., Bastos A., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C. (2012) "Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12, 3123-3137, 2012. Vicente-Serrano S.M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno (2010) "A Multi-scalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index - SPEI". Journal of Climate 23: 1696-1718. Trigo R.M., Sousa P., Pereira M., Rasilla D., Gouveia C.M. (2013) "Modelling wildfire activity in Iberia with different Atmospheric Circulation Weather Types". International Journal of Climatology, DOI: 10.1002/joc.3749 Sousa PM, Trigo RM, Pereira MG, Bedia J, Gutiérrez JM, 2014. Different approaches to model future burnt area in the Iberian Peninsula. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 202, 11-25. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.11.018 Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  6. Use of climate information for drought risk management in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, C.; Magaña Rueda, V.

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of meteorological droughts in Mexico has brought to light the large vulnerability of the central-northern part of the country to water shortages. This region is facing current and future water shortages due to the increased demand of water from urban growth in addition to droughts. Assessing droughts requires considering long-term losses and side effects. However, governments generally invest little resources in the creation of drought risk reduction programs, even in regions where droughts have been documented in historical records, such as in the northern region of Mexico. It is not clear until now, what is our capacity to predict droughts on seasonal time scale, and even the Drought Monitor for North America not always reflect the severity of the condition at the regional level. An analysis of strategies that focus on droughts show that one of the principal limits in the management of drought risks and preventive decision making is the use of inadequate definitions of drought predictability. In addition, the means to communicate confidence in seasonal climate forecasts has inhibited the use of climate information in the planning of various socioeconomic activities. Although some sectors such as agriculture have programs to reduce the impacts of drought, their efforts have focused in providing subsidies to get along with dry conditions. In other words, there are no actions to reduce the potential impacts of drought. The characterization of the vulnerability of water user groups, particularly in Sonora as case of study, has been useful to identifying what type of climate information decision makers needed. This information will be included in a proposal of a drought early warming for Mexico. A key element in a drought early warming for Mexico is the development of reliable climate information and the use of indicators to determine of the onset, maximum intensity and duration of the event. The occurrence and severity of drought may be estimated using

  7. Assessing changes in drought characteristics with standardized indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Najac, Julien; Martin, Eric; Franchistéguy, Laurent; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    Standardized drought indices like the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are more and more frequently adopted for drought reconstruction, monitoring and forecasting, and the SPI has been recently recommended by the World Meteorological Organization to characterize meteorological droughts. Such indices are based on the statistical distribution of a hydrometeorological variable (e.g., precipitation) in a given reference climate, and a drought event is defined as a period with continuously negative index values. Because of the way these indices are constructed, some issues may arise when using them in a non-stationnary climate. This work thus aims at highlighting such issues and demonstrating the different ways these indices may - or may not - be applied and interpreted in the context of an anthropogenic climate change. Three major points are detailed through examples taken from both a high-resolution gridded reanalysis dataset over France and transient projections from the ARPEGE general circulation model downscaled over France. The first point deals with the choice of the reference climate, and more specifically its type (from observations/reanalysis or from present-day modelled climate) and its record period. Second, the interpretation of actual changes are closely linked with the type of the selected drought feature over a future period: mean index value, under-threshold frequency, or drought event characteristics (number, mean duration and magnitude, seasonality, etc.). Finally, applicable approaches as well as related uncertainties depend on the availability of data from a future climate, whether in the form of a fully transient time series from present-day or only a future time slice. The projected evolution of drought characteristics under climate change must inform present decisions on long-term water resources planning. An assessment of changes in drought characteristics should therefore provide water managers with appropriate information that can help

  8. The Lifecycles of Drought: Informing Responses Across Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Schubert, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is a slow-onset hazard that is a normal part of climate. Drought onset and demise are difficult to determine. Impacts are mostly nonstructural, spread over large geographical areas, and can persist long after precipitation deficits end. These factors hinder development of accurate, timely estimates of drought severity and resultant responses. Drivers of drought range from SST anomalies and global scale atmospheric response, through regional forcing and local land-surface feedbacks. Key climatological questions related to drought risk assessment, perception and management include, "Does a drought end by a return to normal precipitation; how much moisture is required and over what period; can the end of a drought be defined by the diminishing impacts e.g. soil moisture, reservoir volumes; will precipitation patterns on which management systems rely, change in the future?" Effective early warning systems inform strategic responses that anticipate crises and crisis evolution across climate timescales. While such "early information" is critical for defining event onset, it is even more critical for identifying the potential for increases in severity. Many social and economic systems have buffers in place to respond to onset (storage, transfers and purchase of grain) but lack response capabilities as drought intensifies, as buffers are depleted. Throughout the drought lifecycle (and between events), monitoring, research and risk assessments are required to: Map decision-making processes and resource capabilities including degradation of water and ecosystems Place multiple climate and land surface indicators within a consistent triggering framework (e.g. climate and vegetation mapping) before critical thresholds are reached Identify policies and practices that impede or enable the flow of information, through policy gaming and other exercises The presentation will outline the capabilities and framework needed to ensure improved scientific inputs to preparedness

  9. INAA analysis of rocks: A routine method using Fe as an internal flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, R.W.; Kay, S. Mahlburg

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade at Cornell, trace elements in over 2500 rocks have been analyzed by INAA. The samples, mainly volcanic rocks, have known concentrations of major elements (e.g. Si, Ti, Al, Mg, Ca, K, Fe, Na) and the last two of these (Fe and Na) are also determined by activation, using rock standards (e.g. USGS standards BCRl, BHVO, etc.). Differences between Fe determined by INAA and that determined as a part of the major element analysis are mainly attributed to volatile (H 2 O, CO 2 ) loss (especially when major element analyses were done by electron microprobe on fused powders, whereas the INAA analyses were done on the powders), and to flux variability during irradiation. Instead of reporting two values for Fe we use Fe as an internal flux monitor, with Na and the trace elements being reported relative to the given Fe value. The ratio Na/Fe is used as a sensitive check on the identity of the sample and as a monitor of alkali loss affecting the major element analysis. Other than this modification (Kay et aL 1987, also reported in Chappell and Hergt, 1989) we use an INAA method similar to mat practiced by many labs. Powdered samples (about 0.5 g) are sealed in high-purity silica tubes and irradiated in the Cornell Triga reactor. Samples are counted for a minimum of 2 hours (up to 10 hours) 7 and 40 days after irradiation. Data are reduced using a program written at Cornell, with peak and background regions that have been checked for interferences. Corrections are routinely applied for Ce (Fe), Nd (Br), Tb (Th), Eu (Ba), Lu (U), and Yb (Th) (interference is from element in parentheses). A U fission yield correction is applied to La, Ce, Nd, and Ba. A correction for Ta introduced by grinding in WC containers can be made using known Ta/W ratios in the grinding containers. The correction amounted to 10-20% of the Ta gross peak. Recently, samples have been prepared in a ceramic grinding containers; for these, no Ta correction is needed. Trace elements determined

  10. Spatiotemporal Drought Analysis and Drought Indices Comparison in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Droughts and floods are an ever-occurring phenomenon that has been wreaking havoc on humans since the start of time. As droughts are on a very large scale, studying them within a regional context can minimize confounding factors such as climate change. Droughts and floods are extremely erratic and very difficult to predict and therefore necessitate modeling through advanced statistics. The SPI (Standard Precipitation Index) and the SPEI (Standard Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) are two ways to temporally model drought and flood patterns across each metrological sub basin in India over a variety of different time scales. SPI only accounts for precipitation values, while the SPEI accounts for both precipitation and temperature and is commonly regarded as a more reliable drought index. Using monthly rainfall and temperature data from 1871-2016, these two indices were calculated. The results depict the drought and flood severity index, length of drought, and average SPI or SPEI value for each meteorological sub region in India. A Wilcox Ranksum test was then conducted to determine whether these two indices differed over the long term for drought analysis. The drought return periods were analyzed to determine if the population mean differed between the SPI and SPEI values. Our analysis found no statistical difference between SPI and SPEI with regards to long-term drought analysis. This indicates that temperature is not needed when modeling drought on a long-term time scale and that SPI is just as effective as SPEI, which has the potential to save a lot of time and resources on calculating drought indices.

  11. Internal Dosimetry Monitoring- Detection Limits for a Selected Set of Radionuclides and Their Translation Into Committed Effective Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Steger, F.

    2004-01-01

    To harmonize the practice of internal dosimetry monitoring across the country, the Austrian Standards Institute is currently drafting a new set of standards which are concerned with occupational incorporation monitoring of individuals handling non-sealed radioactive material. This set of standards is expected to consist of three parts discussing the general necessity and frequency, the requirements for monitoring institutions, and the determination and rigorous calculation of committed effective dose after incorporation of radioactive material, respectively. Considerations of the requirements for routine monitoring laboratories have led to an evaluation of the detection limits for routine monitoring equipment. For a selected set of radionuclides, these detection limits are investigated in detail. The main emphasis is placed on the decay chains of naturally occurring radionuclides showing some significant potential for being out of equilibrium due to chemical processes in certain mining industries. The radionuclides considered in this paper are 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 234U, 235U, and 238U. Given the routine monitoring intervals of the Austrian Standard, these detection limits are translated into information on committed effective dose. This paper investigates whether routine monitoring equipment is sufficient to ensure compliance with EC directive 96/29/Euratom for this selected set of radionuclides. (Author) 9 refs

  12. Perspectives of Cross-Correlation in Seismic Monitoring at the International Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan; Zerbo, Lassina

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that several techniques based on waveform cross-correlation are able to significantly reduce the detection threshold of seismic sources worldwide and to improve the reliability of arrivals by a more accurate estimation of their defining parameters. A master event and the events it can find using waveform cross-correlation at array stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) have to be close. For the purposes of the International Data Centre (IDC), one can use the spatial closeness of the master and slave events in order to construct a new automatic processing pipeline: all qualified arrivals detected using cross-correlation are associated with events matching the current IDC event definition criteria (EDC) in a local association procedure. Considering the repeating character of global seismicity, more than 90 % of events in the reviewed event bulletin (REB) can be built in this automatic processing. Due to the reduced detection threshold, waveform cross-correlation may increase the number of valid REB events by a factor of 1.5-2.0. Therefore, the new pipeline may produce a more comprehensive bulletin than the current pipeline—the goal of seismic monitoring. The analysts' experience with the cross correlation event list (XSEL) shows that the workload of interactive processing might be reduced by a factor of two or even more. Since cross-correlation produces a comprehensive list of detections for a given master event, no additional arrivals from primary stations are expected to be associated with the XSEL events. The number of false alarms, relative to the number of events rejected from the standard event list 3 (SEL3) in the current interactive processing—can also be reduced by the use of several powerful filters. The principal filter is the difference between the arrival times of the master and newly built events at three or more primary stations, which should lie in a narrow range of a few seconds. In this study, one event at a

  13. Exploring the linkage between drought, high temperatures, and hydrologic sensitivities: A case study of the 2012 Great Plains drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, B.; Hoerling, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of drought is associated with agricultural loss, water supply shortfalls, and other economic impacts. Here we explore the physical relationships between precipitation deficits, high temperatures, and hydrologic responses as a pathway to better anticipate drought impacts. Current methodologies to predict hydrologic scarcity include local monitoring of river flows, remote sensing of land-surface wetness, drought indices, expert judgment, climate indices (e.g. SST-relationships) and the application of hydrologic models. At longer lead times, predictions of drought have most frequently been made on the basis of GCM ensembles, with subsequent downscaling of those to scales over which hydrologic predictions can be made. This study focuses on two important aspects of drought. First, we explore the causal hydro-climatic timeline of a drought event, namely (a) the lack of precipitation, which serves to reduce soil moisture and produce (b) a skewed Bowen ratio, i.e. comparatively more sensible heating (warming) with less ET, resulting in (c) anomalously warm conditions. We seek to assess the extent to which the lack of precipitation contributes to warming temperatures, and the further effects of that warming on hydrology and the severity of drought impacts. An ensemble of GCM simulations will be used to explore the evolution of the land surface energy budget during a recent Great Plains drought event, which will subsequently be used to drive a hydrologic model. Second, we examine the impacts of the critical assumptions relating climatic variables with water demand, specifically the relationship between potential evapotranspiration (PET) and temperature. The common oversimplification in relating PET to temperature is explored against a more physically consistent energy balance estimate of PET, using the Penman-Monteith approach and the hydrologic impacts are presented. Results from this work are anticipated to have broad relevance for future water management

  14. Drought resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings conferred by plastic root architecture rather than ectomycorrhizal colonisation

    OpenAIRE

    Moser , Barbara; Kipfer , Tabea; Richter , Sarah; Egli , Simon; Wohlgemuth , Thomas

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Abstract ContextIncreased summer drought is considered as a threat to the regeneration of Pinus sylvestris in the Central Alps. To a certain degree, seedlings are able to mitigate negative effects of drought by altering root/shoot ratios. But, seedlings may also enhance access to water and nutrients by cooperation with ectomycorrhizal fungi. AimsWe tested the importance of both mechanisms for drought resistance of P. sylvestris seedlings during early establishment and ...

  15. SLICEIT and TAHMO Partnerships: Students Local and International Collaboration for Climate and Environmental Monitoring, Technology Development, Education, Adaptation and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishlin, P. S.; Selker, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change understanding and impacts vary by community, yet the global nature of climate change requires international collaboration to address education, monitoring, adaptation and mitigation needs. We propose that effective climate change monitoring and education can be accomplished via student-led local and international community partnerships. By empowering students as community leaders in climate-environmental monitoring and education, as well as exploration of adaptation/mitigation needs, well-informed communities and young leadership are developed to support climate change science moving forward. Piloted 2013-2015, the SLICEIT1 program partnered with TAHMO2 to connect student leaders in North America, Europe and Africa. At the international level, schools in the U.S.A and Netherlands were partnered with schools in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda for science and cultural exchange. Each school was equipped with a climate or other environmental sensing system, real-time data publication and curricula for both formal and informal science, technology, engineering and math education and skill development. African counterparts in TAHMO's School-2-School program collect critically important data for enhanced on-the-ground monitoring of weather conditions in data-scarce regions of Africa. In Idaho, student designed, constructed and installed weather stations provide real time data for classroom and community use. Student-designed formal educational activities are disseminated to project partners, increasing hands-on technology education and peer-based learning. At the local level, schools are partnered with a local agency, research institute, nonprofit organization, industry and/or community partner that supplies a climate science expert mentor to SLICEIT program leaders and teachers. Mentor engagement is facilitated and secured by program components that directly benefit the mentor's organization and local community via climate/environment monitoring, student workforce

  16. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from 131I in the 'nuclear medicine services'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez; Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide 131 I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to 131 I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of 131 I and 133 Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for 131 I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of 131 I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of 131 I

  17. Validation of the SCIAN LD-735 wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Qi; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor SCIAN LD-735 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured sequentially in 33 adult Chinese participants (10 women, mean age 44.8 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the SCIAN LD-735 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The SCIAN LD-735 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 86/99, 97/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 85/99, 98/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. In total, 30 and 33 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). No participant had all of the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg for systolic or diastolic blood pressure. The SCIAN wrist blood pressure monitor LD-735 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  18. Validation of the AVITA BPM64 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Qi; Liu, Chang-Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper arm blood pressure (BP) monitor AVITA BPM64 for home BP monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured sequentially in 33 adult Chinese (14 women, mean age 47.0 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the AVITA BPM64 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The AVITA BPM64 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 91/99, 98/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic BP and 92/99, 99/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic BP. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Thirty-two participants for both systolic and diastolic BP had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). Only one participant for systolic BP had all three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. The AVITA upper arm BP monitor BPM64 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  19. Validation of the AVITA BPM17 wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Qi; Liu, Chang-Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor AVITA BPM17 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (19 men, 45.7 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the AVITA BPM17 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The AVITA BPM17 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 94/99, 98/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 92/99, 99/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Overall, 32 participants for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observerss differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). None had all the three device-observers comparisons greater than 5 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The AVITA wrist blood pressure monitor BPM17 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  20. Validation of the SEJOY BP-1307 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Yi; Chen, Qi; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor SEJOY BP-1307 (also called JOYTECH DBP-1307) for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese individuals (13 women, 45.1 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the SEJOY BP-1307 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The average±SD of the device-observer differences was 0.2±4.1 and -1.7±4.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. The SEJOY BP-1307 device achieved the criteria in both part 1 and part 2 of the validation study. The SEJOY upper-arm blood pressure monitor BP-1307 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  1. Validation of the AVITA BPM15S wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Zhang, Lu; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor AVITA BPM15S for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol revision 2010 of the European Society of Hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 Chinese adults (15 women, mean age 51 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the AVITA BPM15S device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The AVITA BPM15S device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between the device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg were 85/99, 94/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and 82/99, 96/99, and 98/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also achieved the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Thirty-two and 28 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥ 24). No participant had all of the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg for systolic or diastolic blood pressure. The AVITA wrist blood pressure monitor BPM15S fulfilled the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010 and hence can be recommended for home use in an adult population.

  2. ITRAP - International laboratory and field test site exercise for radiation detection instruments and monitoring systems at border crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Schmitzer, C.; Duftschmid, K.E.; Arlt, R.

    2001-01-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials has become more and more a problem, due to the circulation of a high number of radioactive sources and the big amount of nuclear material. The IAEA database counts at present more than 300 verified cases. The endangering cased thereby ranges from possible health defect for the publication to terrorists activities and production of nuclear weapons. In addition to the primary criminal reasons the illegal disposal of radioactive sources as salvage, scrap and others show a further problem, which has lead to severe accidents and lethal effects in the past (e.g. Goiana, Mexico). Some countries have already under taken countermeasures (e.g. Monitoring at the Finnish-Russian and German- Polish border, border monitoring in Italy). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reacted on this actual problem by setting up a new program to fight against nuclear criminality and has suggested a pilot study for the practical test of border monitoring systems. Co-ordinated by the Federal Ministry of Economy and Labour the Austrian Government financed the pilot study ITRAP (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program) carried out by the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf (ARCS). Aim of the study was to work out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at border crossings. The results of the study will be offered by the IAEA to the member states as international recommendations for border monitoring systems

  3. INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): summary and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, S

    2013-10-01

    This supplement presents the foundational elements for INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support). As explained in the overview article by Swinburn and colleagues, INFORMAS has a compelling rationale and has set forth clear objectives, outcomes, principles and frameworks for monitoring and benchmarking key aspects of food environments and the policies and actions that influence the healthiness of food environments. This summary highlights the proposed monitoring approaches for the 10 interrelated INFORMAS modules: public and private sector policies and actions; key aspects of food environments (food composition, labelling, promotion, provision, retail, prices, and trade and investment) and population outcomes (diet quality). This ambitious effort should be feasible when approached in a step-wise manner, taking into account existing monitoring efforts, data sources, country contexts and capacity, and when adequately resourced. After protocol development and pilot testing of the modules, INFORMAS aims to be a sustainable, low-cost monitoring framework. Future directions relate to institutionalization, implementation and, ultimately, to leveraging INFORMAS data in ways that will bring key drivers of food environments into alignment with public health goals. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Investigation of Spatiotemporal Pattern of Drought in North Korea Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Lee, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Drought, as one of the severest disasters in the world, have attracted the attention of researchers and general public. Sometimes even short, intense droughts can cause significant damages to the natural environment as well as the economy. In recent years, North Korea (NK) has been suffering severe droughts. Yet, the thorough field investigation of drought disaster conditions in NK is impossible now. Thus, it is necessary to get more information of drought conditions to restore the damaged environment in NK after unification. RS data can be used to monitor vegetation, bare soil conditions, especially in inaccessible regions. This information can be used to derive spatial variation of drought conditions. Thus, the spatiotemporal pattern of drought conditions in NK using multi-sensor RS data and available meteorological data were investigated in this study. The RS data---MODIS NDVI (MOD13A3) and LST (Land Surface Temperature) (MOD11A2) from 2000 to 2014 which obtain the vegetation health conditions were used to derive two operationally used agricultural drought indices: Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI). The in-situ precipitation data from 27 weather stations from 1981 to 2014 were used for identifying the relative dry/wet years and acquiring meteorological drought index Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The correlations between the agricultural drought indices and metrological drought index were derived. These data were stored in GIS and used for spatial analysis to figure out the spatiotemporal pattern of drought in NK. The spatiotemporal information of NK drought in this study can provide the basic information for restoring the drought damaged field after the unification of Korea.

  5. Relationship between crown dieback and drought in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger; Xingang. Fan

    2012-01-01

    Forest Health and Monitoring (FHM) and Palmer's Drought Severity Index (PDSI) data were obtained for 11 states in the southeastern United States to assess the relationship between drought and crown dieback. Correlation analyses were performed at the species group and ecoregion levels within the study area. The results indicate a negative correlation between...

  6. Listening to Yourself Is like Listening to Others: External, but Not Internal, Verbal Self-Monitoring Is Based on Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettig, Falk; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Theories of verbal self-monitoring generally assume an internal (pre-articulatory) monitoring channel, but there is debate about whether this channel relies on speech perception or on production-internal mechanisms. Perception-based theories predict that listening to one's own inner speech has similar behavioural consequences as listening to…

  7. SU-F-I-61: Assessment and Characterization of the Built-in Internal Photometer of Primary Diagnostic Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruuge, A; Erdi, Y; Mahmood, U [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The conformance of Primary Diagnostic Monitors (PDMs) to the DICOM GSDF is increasingly required by several state and city regulators. Our purpose was to quantitatively characterize the luminance performance of the internal, built in photometer of BARCO monitors against an externally calibrated luminance meter. Methods: Thirty one PDMs (BARCO) were included in our analysis. An externally calibrated photometer (RaySafe Solo Light) was used to measure the luminance and illuminance values. Measured monitors were located at various hospital sites, radiology physicians’ offices and radiology reading rooms. All measured PDMs were equipped with the manufacturer’s built-in photometers and connected to Barco MediCal QA web service for manual and automatic quality control measurements. PDM combinations included 1, 2 and 4 monitors depending on the location. TG-18 and SMPTE test patterns were used to evaluate monitor performance. Results: All the PDMs exceeded the luminance ratio of 250:1, as required by NYC PDM guidelines. One PDM failed the NYC requirement for the minimal luminance level of 350 cd/m2. As compared to the external photometer, the difference in measurement of the maximum luminance with the built-in photometer was found to exceed 5% on 6 of the PDM measured, with a maximum deviation of 10%. The age of the monitors that failed was on average 5 years. All monitors passed the luminance uniformity test, which was 30% from the center of the monitor to the 4 corner locations. Four PDMs failed the Gray Scale Display Function (GSDF) calibration. Conclusion: For the consistent display of medical images and continued conformance with the DICOM GSDF standard, it is essential to compare the performance of the built-in photometer with an externally calibrated photometer for monitors that are older than 5 years.

  8. The international project of radiation and hydrochemical investigation and monitoring of general Caspian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, H.D.; Barber, D.S.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K; Solodukhin, V.P.; Chernykh, E.E.; Arutyunyan, R.V.; Valyaev, A.N.; Kadik, A.A.; Stepanetts, O.V; Vernadsky, V.I.; Alizade, A.A.; Gutiev, I.S.; Mamedov, R.F.; Nadareishvili, K.S.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chubaryan, E. V; Gevorgyan, R.G.; Puskyulyan, K.I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The scientific community of six countries (USA, Kazakhstan, Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) has developed the ecological project 'Joint International Researches and Creation of the General System of Radiation and Hydro-chemical Monitoring of Rivers of the Caspian Sea Basin.' The purpose of this project is to investigate and characterized contamination by radionuclides and toxic and chemically hazardous elements and create a valid system of radiation and hydro-chemical monitoring of the main river basins of the Caspian region: the Volga, Ural, Emba and Kura. The basins of these rivers cover large parts of Europe and Asia, including parts of Russia, West Kazakhstan and the South Caucasus and including territories of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The total area of the basins of these rivers exceeds combined area of such large European states as France, Spain and Germany, and comprises 1631 sq. km. All these rivers are the main life-supporting water arteries for the region's inhabitants, a population that comprises tens of millions of people Also, the outlets of these rivers determine the condition of the aquatic environment of the Caspian Sea. The ecological condition of the aquatic environment of all the rivers of the Caspian Sea is to a great extent due to contamination, the main components of which are anthropogenic radioactive elements, heavy metals and oil products. At present, information about contamination levels of these rivers is not known and is occasionally contradictory. In this connection there is an obvious need of qualified investigation of contamination levels and its character in the basins of these rivers and in creating a common monitoring system to assess the quality of the aquatic environment. The present project is devoted to this matter. 1. The project provides for the following main tasks: 1. Wide-ranging investigation of the level and character of contamination by radionuclides and toxic elements of the river basins

  9. International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies world report: Assisted Reproductive Technology 2008, 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, S; Chambers, G M; de Mouzon, J; Nygren, K G; Zegers-Hochschild, F; Mansour, R; Ishihara, O; Banker, M; Adamson, G D

    2016-07-01

    What were utilization, outcomes and practices in assisted reproductive technology (ART) globally in 2008, 2009 and 2010? Global utilization and effectiveness remained relatively constant despite marked variations among countries, while the rate of single and frozen embryo transfers (FETs) increased with a concomitant slight reduction in multiple birth rates. ART is widely practised in all regions of the world. Monitoring utilization, an approximation of availability and access, as well as effectiveness and safety is an important component of universal access to reproductive health. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional survey on utilization, effectiveness and safety of ART procedures performed globally from 2008 to 2010. Between 58 and 61 countries submitted data from a total of nearly 2500 ART clinics each year. Aggregate country data were processed and analyzed based on forms and methods developed by the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART). Results are presented at country, regional and global level. For the years 2008, 2009 and 2010, >4 461 309 ART cycles were initiated, resulting in an estimated 1 144 858 babies born. The number of aspirations increased by 6.4% between 2008 and 2010, while FET cycles increased by 27.6%. Globally, ART utilization remained relatively constant at 436 cycles/million in 2008 and 474 cycles/million population in 2010, but with a wide country range of 8-4775 cycles/million population. ICSI remained constant at around 66% of non-donor aspiration cycles. The IVF/ICSI combined delivery rate (DR) per fresh aspiration was 19.8% in 2008; 19.7% in 2009 and 20.0% in 2010, with corresponding DRs for FET of 18.8, 19.7 and 20.7%. In fresh non-donor cycles, single embryo transfer increased from 25.7% in 2008 to 30.0% in 2010, while the average number of embryos transferred fell from 2.1 to 1.9, again with wide regional variation. The rates of twin deliveries following fresh non-donor transfers

  10. Matrix effect correction with internal flux monitor in radiation waste characterization with the Differential Die-away Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, Rodolphe; Passard, Christian; Loridon, Joel; Perot, Bertrand; Batifol, Marc; Tarnec, Stephane-le; Guillaumin, Francois; Grassi, Gabriele; Strock, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant are measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT). The purpose is to assay fissile material quantities present in radioactive waste packages. In the future, old hulls and nozzles containing Ion-Exchange Resin (IER) will be measured. IERs provide moderating properties to the matrix, not encountered during the current measurement. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of the CEA Cadarache has been asked by AREVA NC to explore the possibility of implementing a matrix effect correction method, based on internal monitor ( 3 He proportional counter) signal correlated to the matrix effect. In order to validate this method, a benchmark was performed with PROMETHEE 6 R and D measurement cell at the NML, with a similar cavity configuration to that of the industrial station. An experience design on two main factors regarding the matrix effect (absorbing and moderating ratios) has been studied. Considering the variation range of both factors for old waste measurement, 5 test matrices have been defined. They have been measured in PROMETHEE 6 and simulated using the particle transport code MCNP. Tests have been carried out experimentally using 235 U platelets. Results show that the experimental internal monitor is sensitive to the matrix but not to the fissile material presence and location. In addition, differences between experiment and model are satisfactory (<10%), in terms of prompt calibration coefficient (useful signal of fissile materials) and internal monitor signal, considering the complexity of the measurement method and numerical model, and the large range of moderator and absorption ratios. The relationship between the prompt calibration coefficient and the internal monitor signal observed in PROMETHEE 6, both for experience and model, can be fitted with a

  11. Matrix effect correction with internal flux monitor in radiation waste characterization with the differential die-away technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Loridon, J.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Tarnec, S. le; Guillaumin, F.; Grassi, G.; Strock, P.

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant are measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT). The purpose is to assay fissile material quantities present in radioactive waste packages. In the future, old hulls and nozzles containing Ion-Exchange Resin (IER) will be measured. IERs provide moderating properties to the matrix, not encountered during the current measurement. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of the CEA Cadarache has been asked by AREVA NC to explore the possibility of implementing a matrix effect correction method, based on internal monitor ( 3 He proportional counter) signal correlated to the matrix effect. In order to validate this method, a benchmark was performed with PROMETHEE 6 R and D measurement cell at the NML, with a similar cavity configuration to that of the industrial station. An experimental design on two main factors regarding the matrix effect (absorbing and moderating ratios) has been studied. Considering the variation range of both factors for old waste measurement, 5 test matrices have been defined. They have been measured in PROMETHEE 6 and simulated using the particle transport code MCNP. Tests have been carried out experimentally using platelets. Results show that the experimental internal monitor is sensitive to the matrix but not to the fissile material presence and location. In addition, differences between experiment and model are satisfactory (≤10%), in terms of prompt calibration coefficient (useful signal of fissile materials) and internal monitor signal, considering the complexity of the measurement method and numerical model, and the large range of moderator and absorption ratios. The relationship between the prompt calibration coefficient and the internal monitor signal observed in PROMETHEE 6, both for experience and model, can be fitted with a similar

  12. Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the ×56° latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit

  13. Expanding the Operational Limits of the Single-Point Impedance Diagnostic for Internal Temperature Monitoring of Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinner, Neil S.; Love, Corey T.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Tuttle, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-point impedance diagnostic technique demonstrated for lithium-ion batteries • Correlation between imaginary impedance and internal temperature determined • Instantaneous monitoring of commercial lithium-ion battery internal temperature • Expanded temperature range from −10°C up to 95°C • Non-invasive method useful for practical temperature monitoring of commercial cells - Abstract: Instantaneous internal temperature monitoring of a commercial 18650 LiCoO 2 lithium-ion battery was performed using a single-point EIS measurement. A correlation between the imaginary impedance, –Z imag , and internal temperature at 300 Hz was developed that was independent of the battery’s state of charge. An Arrhenius-type dependence was applied, and the activation energy for SEI ionic conductivity was found to be 0.13 eV. Two separate temperature-time experiments were conducted with different sequences of temperature, and single-point impedance tests at 300 Hz were performed to validate the correlation. Limitations were observed with the upper temperature range (68°C < T < 95°C), and consequently a secondary, empirical fit was applied for this upper range to improve accuracy. Average differences between actual and fit temperatures decreased around 3-7°C for the upper range with the secondary correlation. The impedance response at this frequency corresponded to the anode/SEI layer, and the SEI is reported to be thermally stable up to around 100°C, at which point decomposition may occur leading to battery deactivation and/or total failure. It is therefore of great importance to be able to track internal battery temperatures up to this critical point of 100°C, and this work demonstrates an expansion of the single-point EIS diagnostic to these elevated temperatures

  14. RISA progress in the development of drought indicators to support decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, S.; Simpson, C.

    2015-12-01

    Communities around the country are increasingly recognizing the need to plan for water shortages and long-term drought. To build preparedness and help communities manage risk, researchers funded by NOAA's National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Coping with Drought initiative through the Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program are working to better understand these impacts across the country and work with communities and resource managers to develop adaptation strategies that meet their needs. The Coping with Drought initiative supports research involving the use of climate predictions and forecast information in decision-making across a range of sectors including agriculture, natural and water resources management, and public health. As a component of this initiative, the RISA program supported research and engagement to develop indicators of drought designed to be of most use to managers and planners grappling with severe and in some cases ongoing drought in their regions. Indicators are being developed for coastal ecosystems in the Carolinas, water management in California, and native communities in Arizona. For instance, the California Nevada Applications Program (CNAP) RISA developed a percentile-based indicator system for analyzing historic droughts and characterizing the ongoing California drought. And in the Southwest, the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS) RISA has been working with the Hopi community on drought monitoring and planning to develop the first-ever Hopi Quarterly Drought Status Report which integrates scientific and local knowledge about drought. This presentation will discuss RISA's role in developing drought indicators based on engagement with decision makers and how this work fits into the larger role that RISAs are playing in the development of the NIDIS Regional Drought Early Warning Systems across the U.S.

  15. Reconstruction of droughts in India using multiple land-surface models (1951-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vimal; Shah, Reepal; Azhar, Syed; Shah, Harsh; Modi, Parth; Kumar, Rohini

    2018-04-01

    India has witnessed some of the most severe historical droughts in the current decade, and severity, frequency, and areal extent of droughts have been increasing. As a large part of the population of India is dependent on agriculture, soil moisture drought affecting agricultural activities (crop yields) has significant impacts on socio-economic conditions. Due to limited observations, soil moisture is generally simulated using land-surface hydrological models (LSMs); however, these LSM outputs have uncertainty due to many factors, including errors in forcing data and model parameterization. Here we reconstruct agricultural drought events over India during the period of 1951-2015 based on simulated soil moisture from three LSMs, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), the Noah, and the Community Land Model (CLM). Based on simulations from the three LSMs, we find that major drought events occurred in 1987, 2002, and 2015 during the monsoon season (June through September). During the Rabi season (November through February), major soil moisture droughts occurred in 1966, 1973, 2001, and 2003. Soil moisture droughts estimated from the three LSMs are comparable in terms of their spatial coverage; however, differences are found in drought severity. Moreover, we find a higher uncertainty in simulated drought characteristics over a large part of India during the major crop-growing season (Rabi season, November to February: NDJF) compared to those of the monsoon season (June to September: JJAS). Furthermore, uncertainty in drought estimates is higher for severe and localized droughts. Higher uncertainty in the soil moisture droughts is largely due to the difference in model parameterizations (especially soil depth), resulting in different persistence of soil moisture simulated by the three LSMs. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for the LSMs' uncertainty and consideration of the multi-model ensemble system for the real-time monitoring and prediction of

  16. Drought, nutrition and food security

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Drought associated with climate change may lead to food and water shortage. Drought associated with climate change may lead to food and water shortage. Greater vulnerability to infectious diseases. Population displacements and mass migrations with all ...

  17. Drought and ecosystem carbon cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, M.K. van der; Dolman, A.J.; Ciais, P.; Eglin, T.; Gobron, N.; Law, B.E.; Meir, P.; Peters, P.; Philips, O.L.; Reichstein, M.; Chen, T.; Dekker, S.C.; Doubkova, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Jung, M.; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Jeu, R.A.M. de; Kruijt, B.; Ohta, T.; Rebel, K.T.; Plummer, S.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Sitch, S.; Teuling, A.J.; Werf, G.R. van der; Wang, G.

    2011-01-01

    Drought as an intermittent disturbance of the water cycle interacts with the carbon cycle differently than the ‘gradual’ climate change. During drought plants respond physiologically and structurally to prevent excessive water loss according to species-specific water use strategies. This has

  18. A European Drought Reference Database: Design and Online Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stagge, J.H.; Tallaksen, L.M.; Kohn, I.; Stahl, K.; Loon, van A.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the structure and status of the online European Drought Reference (EDR) database. This website provides detailed historical information regarding major historical European drought events. Each drought event is summarized using climatological drought indices, hydrological drought

  19. A Catalyst for Change: Drought and Food Security in the Near East Region (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    In the Near East, drought at the turn of the 21st century was reported to be the worst in 50 years, affecting millions of people across the region. The drought caused a wide range of effects, including widespread crop failures and livestock losses, increased drinking water shortages and disease stress, additional debt, and forced mass migrations to urban areas and other countries, all of which affected food security. As devastating as the drought was for people and the environment, the event created a “policy window” - a time during which the public’s and policy makers’ attention was directed toward a particular issue, creating an advantageous political environment for addressing the problem. In this case, the drought revealed the need for enhanced mitigation and drought relief coordination. It has served as the impetus for several countries and international organizations to work together to foster new policies and training activities to reduce drought risk and enhance food security in the region.

  20. Designing basin-customized combined drought indices via feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniolo, Marta; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The socio-economic costs of drought are progressively increasing worldwide due to the undergoing alteration of hydro-meteorological regimes induced by climate change. Although drought management is largely studied in the literature, most of the traditional drought indexes fail in detecting critical events in highly regulated systems, which generally rely on ad-hoc formulations and cannot be generalized to different context. In this study, we contribute a novel framework for the design of a basin-customized drought index. This index represents a surrogate of the state of the basin and is computed by combining the available information about the water available in the system to reproduce a representative target variable for the drought condition of the basin (e.g., water deficit). To select the relevant variables and how to combine them, we use an advanced feature extraction algorithm called Wrapper for Quasi Equally Informative Subset Selection (W-QEISS). The W-QEISS algorithm relies on a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to find Pareto-efficient subsets of variables by maximizing the wrapper accuracy, minimizing the number of selected variables (cardinality) and optimizing relevance and redundancy of the subset. The accuracy objective is evaluated trough the calibration of a pre-defined model (i.e., an extreme learning machine) of the water deficit for each candidate subset of variables, with the index selected from the resulting solutions identifying a suitable compromise between accuracy, cardinality, relevance, and redundancy. The proposed methodology is tested in the case study of Lake Como in northern Italy, a regulated lake mainly operated for irrigation supply to four downstream agricultural districts. In the absence of an institutional drought monitoring system, we constructed the combined index using all the hydrological variables from the existing monitoring system as well as the most common drought indicators at multiple time aggregations. The soil

  1. Validation of the HONSUN LD-578 blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jie; Huang, Qi-Fang; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper arm blood pressure monitor LD-578 (HONSUN Group, Shanghai, China) for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the LD-578 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 15 participants in phase 1 and a further 18 participants in phase 2 of the validation study. Data analysis was performed using the ESHIP Analyzer. The LD-578 device successfully passed phase 1 of the validation study with a number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for at least 32 of 45, 41 of 45, and 45 of 45 measurements (required 25, 35, and 40), respectively. The device also achieved the targets for phase 2.1, with 67 of 99, 90 of 99, and 98 of 99 differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and with 69 of 99, 95 of 99, and 98 of 99 within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. In phase 2.2, 24 participants had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required >or=22) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The HONSUN upper arm blood pressure monitor LD-578 can be recommended for home use in adults.

  2. Validation of the BPUMP BF1112 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure (BP) monitor BPUMP BF1112 for home BP monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010 (ESH-IP2010). Systolic and diastolic BPs were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (13 women, mean age 46.7 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the BF1112 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The BPUMP BF1112 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 85/99, 96/99, and 97/99, respectively, for systolic BP, and 83/99, 97/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic BP. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. A total of 31 and 30 participants for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required≥24mmHg). No participant for systolic or diastolic BP had all the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. The BPUMP BP monitor BF1112 has passed the requirements of the ESH-IP2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  3. FEMO, A FLOW AND ENRICHMENT MONITOR FOR VERIFYING COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS REQUIREMENTS AT A GAS CENTRIFUGE ENRICHMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, John E.; Laughter, Mark D.; March-Leuba, Jose A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have received construction licenses or are contemplating the construction of large-capacity gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The capability to independently verify nuclear material flows is a key component of international safeguards approaches, and the IAEA does not currently have an approved method to continuously monitor the mass flow of 235U in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas streams. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating the development of a flow and enrichment monitor, or FEMO, based on an existing blend-down monitoring system (BDMS). The BDMS was designed to continuously monitor both 235U mass flow and enrichment of UF6 streams at the low pressures similar to those which exists at GCEPs. BDMSs have been installed at three sites-the first unit has operated successfully in an unattended environment for approximately 10 years. To be acceptable to GCEP operators, it is essential that the instrument be installed and maintained without interrupting operations. A means to continuously verify flow as is proposed by FEMO will likely be needed to monitor safeguards at large-capacity plants. This will enable the safeguards effectiveness that currently exists at smaller plants to be maintained at the larger facilities and also has the potential to reduce labor costs associated with inspections at current and future plants. This paper describes the FEMO design requirements, operating capabilities, and development work required before field demonstration.

  4. 15. Internal symposium on recent progress of nondestructive inspection and monitoring technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    At the symposium, lectures were given on the recent development of the nondestructive inspection technology for nuclear power plants, the trend regarding the nondestructive inspection in foreign countries (Japan-Germany atomic energy seminar), the present state and subjects of the monitoring technology in BWR plants, the present state and subjects of the monitoring technology in PWR plants, and the present state and the subjects for hereafter of the defect evaluation method in the equipment of light water reactors. The data on the ultrasonic flaw detection in aluminum alloy welded joints were obtained. The German inspection technology is similar to that in Japan and other countries. The research on the plant synthetic monitoring and diagnosis system is reported. The monitoring systems for abnormal state in operation, troubles and the secular change of equipment are reported. The evaluation of the flaws in nuclear piping is reported. The summaries of the lectures are collected in this book. (K.I.)

  5. Validation of the Kingyield BP210 wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension-International Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Fang; Huang, Qi-Fang; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2012-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor BP210 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese participants (21 women, 51 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the BP210 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 15 participants in phase 1 and a further 18 participants in phase 2 of the validation study. Data analysis was conducted using the ESHIP analyzer. The BP210 device successfully passed phase 1 of the validation study with a number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for at least 33/45, 44/45, and 44/45 measurements, respectively. The device also achieved the targets for phase 2.1, with 77/99, 95/99, and 97/99 differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively for systolic blood pressure, and with 78/99, 97/99, and 99/99 within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively for diastolic blood pressure. In phase 2.2, 29 and 25 participants had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required≥22) for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. The Kingyield wrist blood pressure monitor BP210 has passed the International Protocol requirements, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  6. Validation of the Rossmax CF175 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Rossmax CF175 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (17 women, mean age 46 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the Rossmax CF175 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. All the blood pressure requirements were fulfilled. The Rossmax CF175 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between the device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 78/99, 94/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and 81/99, 96/99, and 97/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also achieved the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Twenty-nine participants, for both of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). Only one participant for diastolic blood pressure had all three device-observers comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. The Rossmax automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor CF175 fulfilled the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for blood pressure measurement in adults.

  7. Validation of the AVITA BPM63S upper arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Liu, Ming; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the AVITA BPM63S upper arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (14 women, mean age of 47 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the AVITA BPM63S device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. All the blood pressure requirements were fulfilled. The AVITA BPM63S device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 68/99, 89/99, and 96/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and 75/99, 95/99, and 97/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also achieved the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Twenty-four and 25 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). One and two participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had all three device-observers differences greater than 5 mmHg. The AVITA BPM63S automated oscillometric upper arm blood pressure monitor has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for blood pressure measurement at home in adults.

  8. International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research

    OpenAIRE

    Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors’ and investigators’ experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. Research design A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 inte...

  9. Suitability of monitoring methods for the optimisation of Radiological Protection in the case of internal exposure through inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Gibert, B.; Basire, D.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological protection system recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) for justified practices relied pn the limitation and optimisation principles. The monitoring of internal exposure is most often based on the periodic assessment of individual exposure in order to essentially insure the simple compliance with the annual dose limits. Optimisation of protection implies a realistic, sensitive and analytical assessment of individual and collective exposures in order to allow the indentification of the main sources of exposure (main sources of contamination, most exposed operators, work activities contributing the most to the exposure) and the selection of the optimal protection options. Therefore the monitoring methods must allow the realistic assessment of individual dose levels far lower than annual limits together with measurements as frequent as possible. The aim of this presentation is to discuss the ability of various monitoring methods (collective and individual air sampling, in vivo and in vitro bioassays) to fulfil those needs. This discussion is illustrated by the particular case of the internal exposure to natural uranium compounds through inhalation. Firstly, the sensitivity and the degree to which each monitoring method is realistic are quantified and discussed on the basis of the application of the new ICRP dosimetric model, and their analytical capability for the optimisation of radiological protection is then indicated. Secondly, a case study is presented which shows the capability of individual air sampling techniques to analyse the exposure of the workers and the inadequacy of static air sampling to accurately estimate the exposures when contamination varies significantly over time and space in the workstations. As far as exposure to natural uranium compounds through inhalation is concerned, the study for assessing the sensitivity, analytic ability and accuracy of the different measuring systems shows that

  10. Screening cotton genotypes for seedling drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penna Julio C. Viglioni

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to adapt a screening method previously used to assess seedling drought tolerance in cereals for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and to identify tolerant accessions among a wide range of genotypes. Ninety genotypes were screened in seven growth chamber experiments. Fifteen-day-old seedlings were subjected to four 4-day drought cycles, and plant survival was evaluated after each cycle. Three cycles are probably the minimum required in cotton work. Significant differences (at the 0.05 level or lower among entries were obtained in four of the seven experiments. A "confirmation test" with entries previously evaluated as "tolerant" (high survival and "susceptible" (low survival was run. A number of entries duplicated their earlier performance, but others did not, which indicates the need to reevaluate selections. Germplasms considered tolerant included: `IAC-13-1', `IAC-RM4-SM5', `Minas Sertaneja', `Acala 1517E-1' and `4521'. In general, the technique is simple, though time-consuming, with practical value for screening a large number of genotypes. Results from the screening tests generally agreed with field information. The screening procedure is suitable to select tolerant accessions from among a large number of entries in germplasm collections as a preliminary step in breeding for drought tolerance. This research also demonstrated the need to characterize the internal lack of uniformity in growth chambers to allow for adequate designs of experiments.

  11. Improvements in routine internal monitoring - An overview of the IDEA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Fischer, H.; Andrasi, A.; Bouvier, C.; Carlan, L.; Franck, D.; Hollriegl, V.; Li, W. B.; Oeh, U.; Ritt, J.; Roth, P.; Wahl, W.; Zombori, P.

    2007-01-01

    The IDEA project aimed to improve the assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of advanced in vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. Many of these findings are not new in the sense that they are being already employed in advanced laboratories or for specialised applications. The primary goal was to categorise those new developments regarding their potential and eligibility for the routine monitoring community. Attention has been given to in vivo monitoring techniques with respect to detector characteristics and measurement geometry to improve measurement efficiency with special attention to low energy gamma emitters. Calibration - specifically supported by or through methods of numerical simulation - have been carefully analysed to reduce overall measurement uncertainties and explore ways to accommodate the individual variability based on characteristic features of a given person. For bioassay measurements at low detection limits, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy offers significant advantages both in accuracy, speed, and sample preparation. Specifically, the determination of U and Th in urine and the associated models have been investigated. Finally, the scientific achievements have been analysed regarding their potential to offer benefits for routine monitoring. These findings will be presented in greater detail in other papers at this conference, whereas this paper intends to give an overview and put both the scientific achievements as well as the derived benefits into perspective. (authors)

  12. Improvements in routine internal monitoring - an overview of the IDEA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Fischer, H.; Schlagbauer, M.; Bouvier, C.; Carlan, L.; Franck, D.; Ritt, J.; Hoellriegl, V.; Li, W.B.; Oeh, U.; Roth, P.; Wahl, W.; Andrasi, A.; Zombori, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The IDEA project aimed to improve the assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of advanced in-vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. Many of those findings are not new in the sense that they are being already employed in advanced laboratories or for specialized applications. The primary goal was to categorize those new developments regarding their potential and eligibility for the routine monitoring community. Attention has been given to in-vivo monitoring techniques with respect to detector characteristics and measurement geometry to improve measurement efficiency with special attention to low energy gamma emitters. Calibration - specifically supported by or through methods of numerical simulation - have been carefully analyzed to reduce overall measurement uncertainties and explore ways to accommodate the individual variability based on characteristic features of a given person. For bioassay measurements at low detection limits, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy offers significant advantages both in accuracy, speed, and sample preparation. Specifically, the determination of U and Th in urine and the associated models have been investigated. Finally, the scientific achievements have been analyzed regarding their potential to offer benefits for routine monitoring. These findings will be presented in greater detail in other papers at this conference, whereas this paper intends to give an overview and put both the scientific achievements as well as the derived benefits into perspective. (author)

  13. Use of dual-head gamma camera in radionuclide internal contamination monitoring on radiation workers from a nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Brandan, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    As a part of an internal dosimetry program that is performed at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology - Nuclear Medicine Department, in the present work we suggest a procedure for the routinely monitoring of internal contamination on radiation workers and nuclear medicine staff. The procedure is based on the identification and quantification of contaminating radionuclides in human body by using a dual-head whole-body gamma camera. The results have shown that the procedures described in this study can be used to implement a method to quantify minimal accumulated activity in the main human organs to evaluate internal contamination with radionuclides. The high sensitivity of the uncollimated gamma camera is advantageous for the routinely detection and identification of small activities of internal contamination. But, the null spatial resolution makes impossible the definition of contaminated region of interest. Then, the use of collimators is necessary to the quantification of incorporated radionuclides activities in the main human organs and for the internal doses assessment. (author)

  14. CTBTO international monitoring system: Status of work in Cameroon and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyobe, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    The presentation outlines Cameroon's participation in CTBTO programme and its seismic activities. Areas of inter-regional and international cooperation are described. Suggestions are made on ways in which Cameroon can contribute to the work of the commission

  15. International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacuta, Norm [Petroleum Technology Research Centre Incorporated, Saskatchewan (Canada); Young, Aleana [Petroleum Technology Research Centre Incorporated, Saskatchewan (Canada); Worth, Kyle [Petroleum Technology Research Centre Incorporated, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2015-12-22

    The IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project (WMP) began in 2000 with the first four years of research that confirmed the suitability of the containment complex of the Weyburn oil field in southeastern Saskatchewan as a storage location for CO₂ injected as part of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. The first half of this report covers research conducted from 2010 to 2012, under the funding of the United States Department of Energy (contract DEFE0002697), the Government of Canada, and various other governmental and industry sponsors. The work includes more in-depth analysis of various components of a measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) program through investigation of data on site characterization and geological integrity, wellbore integrity, storage monitoring (geophysical and geochemical), and performance/risk assessment. These results then led to the development of a Best Practices Manual (BPM) providing oilfield and project operators with guidance on CO₂ storage and CO₂-EOR. In 2013, the USDOE and Government of Saskatchewan exercised an optional phase of the same project to further develop and deploy applied research tools, technologies, and methodologies to the data and research at Weyburn with the aim of assisting regulators and operators in transitioning CO₂-EOR operations into permanent storage. This work, detailed in the second half of this report, involves seven targeted research projects – evaluating the minimum dataset for confirming secure storage; additional overburden monitoring; passive seismic monitoring; history-matched modelling; developing proper wellbore design; casing corrosion evaluation; and assessment of post CO₂-injected core samples. The results from the final and optional phases of the Weyburn-Midale Project confirm the suitability of CO₂-EOR fields for the injection of CO₂, and further, highlight the necessary MMV and follow-up monitoring required for these operations to be considered

  16. Analysis And Comments On The Consultative Document: International Framework For Liquidity Risk Measurement, Standards And Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Prefontaine; Jean Desrochers; Lise Godbout

    2010-01-01

    The market turmoil that began in mid-2007 re-emphasized the importance of liquidity to the functioning of financial markets and the banking sector. In December 2009, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) released a consultative document entitled: “International Framework for Liquidity Risk Measurement, Standards and Monitoring”. Interested parties were invited to provide written comments by April 16th 2010. Given our interest in prom...

  17. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  18. Anatomy of an interrupted irrigation season: Micro-drought at the Wind River Indian Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. McNeeley

    Full Text Available Drought is a complex phenomenon manifested through interactions between biophysical and social factors. At the Wind River Indian Reservation (WRIR in west-central Wyoming, water shortages have become increasingly common since the turn of the 21st century. Here we discuss the 2015 water year as an exemplar year, which was characterized by wetter-than-normal conditions across the reservation and, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor, remained drought-free throughout the year. Yet parts of the reservation experienced harmful water shortages, or “micro-drought” conditions, during the growing season in 2015. In this assessment of the 2015 water year at the WRIR we: (1 describe the hydroclimatic and social processes under way that contributed to the 2015 water year micro-drought in the Little Wind Basin; (2 compare water availability conditions within and between other basins at the WRIR to illustrate how micro-droughts can result from social and environmental features unique to local systems; and (3 describe how a collaborative project is supporting drought preparedness at the WRIR. We combine a social science assessment with an analysis of the hydroclimate to deconstruct how shortages manifest at the WRIR. We provide insights from this study to help guide drought assessments at local scales. Keywords: Drought, Climate vulnerability, Drought preparedness, Indigenous adaptation, Co-production

  19. A new deflection solution and application of a fiber Bragg grating-based inclinometer for monitoring internal displacements in slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Huang, Da; Shi, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Landslide monitoring is critical for predicting the stability of slopes to ensure the safety of life and property. Considering the potential advantages of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to hostile environments, light weight, and high measurement precision and real time response, a self-designed, FBG-based in situ inclinometer combining a traditional inclinometer and FBG technology was designed to monitor the inner deformation of a slope. In practical landslide monitoring, the inclinometer can be regarded as a cantilever beam with one end fixed. Based on the deflection curve equation of a normal beam and the composite Simpson integral equation, a theoretical deflection equation of the FBG-based inclinometer versus longitudinal strain was established. A FBG-based inclinometer was fabricated and calibrated in the laboratory and a calibration strain sensitivity coefficient was obtained. The results of calibration tests show that the displacements measured by dial indicator