WorldWideScience

Sample records for international community agreed

  1. The AGREE Enterprise: a decade of advancing clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarski, Julie; Brouwers, Melissa C

    2014-08-15

    The original AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation) Instrument was published in 2003, and its revision, the AGREE II, in 2009. Together, they filled an important gap in the guideline and quality of care fields. Ten years later, the AGREE Enterprise reflects on a trajectory of projects and international collaboration that have contributed to advancing the science and quality of practice guidelines and the uptake of AGREE/AGREE II. The AGREE Enterprise has undertaken activities to improve the tool and to develop resources to support its use. Since 2003, the uptake and adoption of AGREE by the international community has been swift and broad. A total of 33 language translations of the original AGREE Instrument and the current AGREE II are available and were initiated by the international community. A recent scan of the published literature identified over 600 articles that referenced the AGREE tools. The AGREE tools have been widely received and applied, with several organizations having incorporated the AGREE as part of their formal practice guideline programs. Since its redevelopment in 2010, the AGREE Enterprise website (www.agreetrust.org) continues to experience steady increases in visitors per month and currently has over 10,000 registered users. The AGREE Enterprise has contributed to the advancements of guidelines through research activities and international participation by scientific and user communities. As we enter a new decade, we look forward to ongoing collaborations and contributing to further advancements to improve quality of care and health care systems.

  2. The scientific motivation of the internationally agreed ‘well below 2 °C’ climate protection target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, Rik; Vellinga, Pier

    2017-01-01

    The UNFCCC parties in their last 2015-meeting in Paris agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. However, how this target came about is rarely substantiated in the scientific literature. We review and document the history of this

  3. Development and validation of an international appraisal instrument for assessing the quality of clinical practice guidelines: the AGREE project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cluzeau, F.A.; Burgers, J.S.; Brouwers, M.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; et al.,

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International interest in clinical practice guidelines has never been greater but many published guidelines do not meet the basic quality requirements. There have been renewed calls for validated criteria to assess the quality of guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an

  4. The Kenyan national response to internationally agreed sexual and reproductive health and rights goals: a case study of three policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronje, Rose N

    2013-11-01

    While priorities for, and decision-making processes on, sexual and reproductive health and rights have been determined and led mainly at the international level, conflicting power dynamics and responses at the national level in some countries have continued to pose challenges for operationalising international agreements. This paper demonstrates how these conflicts have played out in Kenya through an analysis of three policy-making processes, which led to the Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development Policy (2003), the Sexual Offences Act (2006), and the National Reproductive Health Policy (2007). The paper is based on data from a broader study on the drivers and inhibitors of sexual and reproductive health policy reform in Kenya, using a qualitative, case study design. Information was gathered through 54 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with governmental and civil society policy actors and an extensive review of policy documents and media reports. The paper shows that the transformative human rights framing of access to sexual and reproductive health, supported by both a strong global women's rights movement and progressive governmental and inter-governmental actors to defeat opposition to sexual and reproductive health and rights at the international level, has not been as influential or successful at the national level in Kenya, and has made comprehensive national reforms difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and validation of an international appraisal instrument for assessing the quality of clinical practice guidelines: the AGREE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    International interest in clinical practice guidelines has never been greater but many published guidelines do not meet the basic quality requirements. There have been renewed calls for validated criteria to assess the quality of guidelines. To develop and validate an international instrument for assessing the quality of the process and reporting of clinical practice guideline development. The instrument was developed through a multi-staged process of item generation, selection and scaling, field testing, and refinement procedures. 100 guidelines selected from 11 participating countries were evaluated independently by 194 appraisers with the instrument. Following refinement the instrument was further field tested on three guidelines per country by a new set of 70 appraisers. The final version of the instrument contained 23 items grouped into six quality domains with a 4 point Likert scale to score each item (scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigour of development, clarity and presentation, applicability, editorial independence). 95% of appraisers found the instrument useful for assessing guidelines. Reliability was acceptable for most domains (Cronbach's alpha 0.64-0.88). Guidelines produced as part of an established guideline programme had significantly higher scores on editorial independence and, after the publication of a national policy, had significantly higher quality scores on rigour of development (pinternationally. The instrument is sensitive to differences in important aspects of guidelines and can be used consistently and easily by a wide range of professionals from different backgrounds. The adoption of common standards should improve the consistency and quality of the reporting of guideline development worldwide and provide a framework to encourage international comparison of clinical practice guidelines.

  6. Critical Appraisal of International Clinical Practice Guidelines in Kidney Transplantation Using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Education (AGREE) II Tool: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼDonoghue, Katriona Jane Marie; Reed, Rhiannon D; Knight, Simon R; O'Callaghan, John M; Ayaz-Shah, Anam A; Hassan, Sevda; Weissenbacher, Annemarie; Morris, Peter J; Pengel, Liset H M

    2018-05-22

    Whilst Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) are used for the development of local protocols in kidney transplantation (Ktx), the quality of their methodology is variable. This systematic review aimed to critically appraise international CPGs in all aspects of Ktx using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II tool. CPGs in Ktx and donation published between 2010 and 2017 were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, National Guideline Clearinghouse, NHS and NICE Evidence Searches, and the websites of transplant societies. Using AGREE II, 3 appraisers assessed the quality of CPGs. Interrater reliability was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Searches identified 3,168 records and 115 CPGs were included. The highest scoring AGREE II domain was 'Scope and Purpose' (80%; Range 30-100%), followed by 'Clarity of Presentation' (77%; Range 43-98%), 'Editorial independence' (52%; Range 0-94%), 'Rigour of Development' (47%; Range 6-97%) and 'Stakeholder Involvement' (41%; Range 11-85%). The poorest scoring domain was 'Applicability' (31%; Range 3-74%). Most CPGs were recommended for future use either with (63%) or without modifications (18%). A small number were not recommended for future use (14%) or reviewers did not agree on recommending the CPG (5%). The overall mean CPG quality score was 4 out of 7 (Range 2-7). The mean ICC of 0.74 indicated substantial agreement between reviewers. The quality of international CPGs in Ktx was variable, and most CPGs lacked key aspects of methodological robustness and transparency. Improvements in methodology, patient involvement and strategies for implementation are required.

  7. 'Nothing is agreed until everything is agreed'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    In terms of conflict resolution, we may think of Northern Ireland as a case of (deferring conflict by) institutionalising radical disagreement, in particular through the Agreement from 1998. The violence has largely if not completely stopped, but the key constitutional question of whether Northern...... Ireland should be British or Irish, is only settled for now. In the language of dialogue, the parties have “agreed to disagree” with an understanding that these matters can be reopened at some future date if there is a majority wish to do so. In the meantime, a system of designated power-sharing has been...

  8. Agreeing on expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Bentsen, Martin Juul

    Commitment and trust are often mentioned as important aspects of creating a perception of reliability between counterparts. In the context of university-industry collaborations (UICs), agreeing on ambitions and expectations are adamant to achieving outcomes that are equally valuable to all parties...... involved. Despite this, our initial probing indicated that such covenants rarely exist. As such, this paper draws on project management theory and proposes the possibility of structuring assessments of potential partners before university-industry collaborations are brought to life. Our analysis suggests...

  9. A Typology of International Student Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, David; Raciti, Maria; Lawley, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study undertaken to develop a typology of international student community engagement activities that incorporates the perceptions of three key stakeholder groups--the international students, the community and the university. Framed by the notion of value co-creation, our exploratory study was undertaken at a…

  10. International Journal of Community Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : 2384 - 6828] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. IJCR publishes research articles, review articles, short reports and commentaries that are community-based or inter and intra-cultural based. IJCR also accepts ...

  11. International learning communities for global and localcitizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Cervinkova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I describe our ongoing international project in engaged educationalethnography and participatory action research with young adults and consider itsrelevance for a discussion on the community-building role of adult education in aglobalized context. I use the example of our case study to suggest that adult educatorscan generate viable communities by creating learning spaces that nurture criticalconsciousness, a sense of agency, participation and social solidarity amonginternationally and culturally diverse young adult learners. Furthermore, I argue thatparticipation in international learning communities formed through this educationalprocess can potentially help young adults become locally and globally engaged citizens.International learning communities for global citizenship thus present a proposition forconceptualizing the vital role of adult community education in supporting democraticglobal and local citizenship in a world defined in terms of cross-cultural and longdistanceencounters in the formation of culture.

  12. Community Resources for International Trade Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Virgil H.; Channing, Rose M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes Middlesex Community College's involvement in education and training programs aimed at encouraging local business involvement in international trade and the activities of its National Resource for International Trade Education (e.g., information dissemination; consulting services; seminars and workshops; a speakers bank; research; staff…

  13. Constitutionalism and Democracy in Contemporary International Community

    OpenAIRE

    Padjen, Ivan

    1992-01-01

    Starting from the insight that jurisprudence of legal theory should be concerned primarily with,on the one hand, international law, and, on the other, constitutional developments, the paper; analyzes some prominent conceptions of constitutionalism and democracy in international community and municipal legal orders; formulates a new set of criteria for the analysis of constitutionalism and democracy in international law; and argues that Laswell and McDougal's policy oriented jurisprudence offe...

  14. International Education at American Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danxia

    2008-01-01

    Higher education has an incalculable impact on society and the development of its citizens. In today's globalizing world, the responsibility of community colleges for producing high quality graduates with global competence cannot be ignored. The study reported here researches international education and provides insights of importance to community…

  15. Soil conservation according the international community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocera, Rachele

    2015-01-01

    The land is a finite resource. Desertification, climate change, pollution, human settlements and human activities, threaten the integrity of the soil and its ability to 'nourishing the planet'. In a growing awareness, the international community is by multiplying the action to promote overall defence and soil conservation measures, starting with the fight against desertification, with the aim of arriving at a Land Degradation Neutrality to 2050. [it

  16. International Journal of Web Based Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ......Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ...

  17. European Community in new international petroleum order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the chances that the European Community (EC) has of enhancing its position in the international petroleum order. Its identity should become stronger than it is in the current feeble state of Europe as a world presence for four reasons: greater convergence in the ideas and interests of the Member Countries; the bolstering of Community institutions; thanks to new treaties, more balanced petro-political relations; and the geographical advantage of being within reach of Russia's enormous hydrocarbon resources. In its producer-consumer relations, the EC has a certain amount of upfront legitimacy over the actions of the individual member countries, insofar as multilateral actions in this field are more efficient than are bilateral relations. The EC is acquiring a certain autonomy of action from the AIH. It is already helping to build up new relations through informal dialogue and free-trade agreements with the producing countries, and is helping Russia to emerge as a major competitor for the Gulf countries

  18. New German abortion law agreed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit.

  19. Russian nuclear submarine elimination 2001 - 2011 by the international community - 59041

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washer, Michael; Heyes, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Following the 911 attack on the USA in 2001 the international community under Canada's G8 leadership established a $20 billion Global Partnership initiative to collaboratively address threats to global security posed by the proliferation and potential terrorist use of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (WMMD) and related materials and knowledge. As an integral component of this initiative the international community agreed to assist Russia in advancing the elimination of its Cold War legacy of nearly 200 nuclear powered submarines left over from the collapse of the Soviet Union. This presentation presents an overview of the 10 years work that has now entirely eliminated that submarine legacy. The scale and complexity of the challenge along with each country's contribution and approach is discussed along with key success factors and unique solutions adopted. (authors)

  20. Optimizing the Internal Medicine Clinic at Evans Army Community Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonilla, Jose

    2003-01-01

    ...) 2002, the Internal Medicine (IM) clinic at Evans Army Community Hospital, Fort Carson, Colorado, failed to meet access to care standards for routine appointments, and was only marginally successful in meeting standards for urgent appointments...

  1. The Others: Equitable Access, International Students, and the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Tiffany; López Damián, Ariadna I.; Morales Vázquez, Evelyn; Levin, John S.

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explains the ways in which community college decision makers justify the inclusion of international students at three community colleges in the United States. We identify and explain the ways in which decision makers rationalize institutional policy--particularly recruitment strategies and motivations--related to…

  2. The "old internationals": Canadian nurses in an international nursing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeyre, Jaime; Nelson, Sioban

    2010-12-01

    The vast devastation caused by both the First World War and the influenza pandemic of 1918 led to an increased worldwide demand for public health nurses. In response to this demand, a number of new public health training programs for nurses were started at both national and international levels. At the international level, one of two influential programs in this area included a year-long public health nursing course offered by the League of Red Cross Societies, in conjunction with Bedford College in London, England. In total, 341 nurses from 49 different countries have been documented as participants in this initiative throughout the interwar period, including 20 Canadians. Using archival material from the Canadian Nurses Association and the Royal College of Nursing, as well as articles from the journals Canadian Nurse, American Journal of Nursing and British Journal of Nursing, this paper examines these nurses' commitment to internationalism throughout their careers and explores the effect of this commitment on the development of nursing education and professionalization at the national level.

  3. Evaluating the Struggles with International Students and Local Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusek, Weronika A.

    2015-01-01

    International students are not only important for universities, but even more so to the host communities, towns and regions where higher education institutions are located. This pilot study looked at a public university located in a small college town in Ohio. The study explored the relationship between international students and the local…

  4. Effect of a Community-Based Service Learning Experience in Geriatrics on Internal Medicine Residents and Community Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel K; Michener, Jennifer; Yang, Phyllis; Goldstein, Karen; Groce-Martin, Jennine; True, Gala; Johnson, Jerry

    2017-09-01

    Community-based service learning (CBSL) provides an opportunity to teach internal medicine residents the social context of aging and clinical concepts. The objectives of the current study were to demonstrate the feasibility of a CBSL program targeting internal medicine residents and to assess its effect on medical residents and community participants. internal medicine residents participated in a CBSL experience for half a day during ambulatory blocks from 2011 to 2014. Residents attended a senior housing unit or center, delivered a presentation about a geriatric health topic, toured the facility, and received information about local older adult resources. Residents evaluated the experience. Postgraduate Year 3 internal medicine residents (n = 71) delivered 64 sessions. Residents felt that the experience increased their ability to communicate effectively with older adults (mean 3.91 ± 0.73 on a Likert scale with 5 = strongly agree), increased their knowledge of resources (4.09 ± 1.01), expanded their knowledge of a health topic pertinent to aging (3.48 ± 1.09), and contributed to their capacity to evaluate and care for older adults (3.84 ± 0.67). Free-text responses demonstrated that residents thought that this program would change their practice. Of 815 older adults surveyed from 36 discrete teaching sessions, 461 (56%) thought that the medical residents delivered health information clearly (4.55 ± 0.88) and that the health topics were relevant (4.26 ± 0.92). Free-text responses showed that the program helped them understand their health concerns. This CBSL program is a feasible and effective tool for teaching internal medicine residents and older adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Views of the Scottish general public on community pharmacy weight management services: international implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; Cunningham, Scott; Gray, Gwen; Hansford, Denise; Bermano, Giovanna; Stewart, Derek

    2012-04-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels, with more than 1.5 billion adults being affected worldwide. In Scotland two-thirds of men and more than half of women are either overweight or obese, placing Scotland overall third behind the United States of America and Mexico. All community pharmacies in Scotland are contracted to provide public health services such as smoking cessation and there is increasing interest in their contribution to weight management. Researching this area in Scotland may provide valuable information to facilitate the development of community pharmacy services in other parts of the UK and internationally. To describe the views of the Scottish general public on the provision of weight management services via community pharmacies. General public in Scotland. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire survey of 6,000 randomly selected members of the Scottish general public aged 18 years and over. Views on community pharmacy led weight management services. Questionnaires were returned by 20.6% (n = 1,236). Over half 60.1% (n = 751) agreed or strongly agreed that they had easy access to pharmacy services in general and around one-third agreed (35%; n = 438) that it was more convenient to obtain weight management advice from a pharmacist than it is to make an appointment with a GP. Most respondents however lacked awareness of the types of health services available through community pharmacy (13.2%; n = 162) and would not feel comfortable speaking to a pharmacist or medicines counter assistant about weight related issues (25%; n = 320). Concerns over privacy (47.3%; n = 592) and perceived lack of pharmacists' specialist knowledge (open comments) were identified as potential barriers to service uptake by the general public. Overall, respondents appear to be receptive to the idea of accessing weight management services through community pharmacy but a perceived lack of privacy, poor knowledge of pharmacists' skill level and of public health services available to

  6. Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  7. Chernobyl accident. The crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  8. States agree on stronger physical protection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Delegates from 89 countries agreed on 8 July to fundamental changes that will substantially strengthen the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM). IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the agreement in saying 'This new and stronger treaty is an important step towards greater nuclear security by combating, preventing, and ultimately punishing those who would engage in nuclear theft, sabotage or even terrorism. It demonstrates that there is indeed a global commitment to remedy weaknesses in our nuclear security regime.' The amended CPPNM makes it legally binding for States Parties to protect nuclear facilities and material in peaceful domestic use, storage as well as transport. It will also provide for expanded cooperation between and among States regarding rapid measures to locate and recover stolen or smuggled nuclear material, mitigate any radiological consequences of sabotage, and prevent and combat related offences. The original CPPNM applied only to nuclear material in international transport. Conference President Dr. Alec Baer said 'All 89 delegations demonstrated real unity of purpose. They put aside some very genuine national concerns in favour of the global interest and the result is a much improved convention that is better suited to addressing the nuclear security challenges we currently face.' The new rules will come into effect once they have been ratified by two-thirds of the 112 States Parties of the Convention, expected to take several years. 'But concrete actions are already taking place around the world. For more than 3 years, the IAEA has been implementing a systematic Nuclear Security plan, including physical protection activities designed to prevent, detect and respond to malicious acts,' said Anita Nillson, Director of the IAEA's Office of Nuclear Security. The Agency's Nuclear Security Fund, set up after the events of 9/11, has delivered $19.5 million in practical assistance to 121 countries

  9. Best practices in community-oriented health professions education: international exemplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R W

    2001-01-01

    During 1998-2000, an international team of five researchers described nine innovative health professions education programmes as selected by The Network: Community Partnerships for Health through Innovative Education, Service, and Research. Each researcher visited one or two schools. Criteria for selection of these nine schools included commitment to multidisciplinary and community-based education, longitudinal community placements, formal linkages with government entities and a structured approach to community participation. The purpose of these descriptions was to identify key issues in designing and implementing community-based education. Programmes in Chile, Cuba, Egypt, India, the Philippines, South Africa, Sudan, Sweden and the United States were visited. Before site visits were conducted, the researchers as a group agreed upon the elements to be described. Elements included overall institutional characteristics, curriculum, admissions practices, evaluation systems, research, service, community involvement, faculty development, postgraduate programmes and the school's relationship with government entities. Here I describe the common features of each of the nine programmes, their shared dilemmas and how each went about balancing the teaching of clinical competence and population perspectives. Based upon an analysis of the cases, I present seven "lessons learned" as well as a discussion of programme development, institutionalization of reform and long-term implications for health professions education. The seven lessons are: (1) PBL and CBE are not seen as independent curricular reforms; (2) student activities are determined based upon sensitivity to locale; (3) health professionals need to work collaboratively; (4) there is a connection between personal health and population health issues; (5) population health interventions and treatment strategies need to be appropriate to local conditions; (6) graduates need to advocate for patients and the community in the

  10. International Journal of Community Research http://www.arpjournals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-31

    Oct 31, 2014 ... International Journal of Community Research ... Analysis was by narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. Results showed that five ..... and Therapy) was carried out electronically on the journals' websites. Study Selection and Eligibility: Potentially relevant titles, citations and abstracts were screened following.

  11. Capitalist Globalisation and the Role of the International Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal thesis of this paper is that under contemporary capitalist globalisation, the so-called international community constitutes more of the problem than the solution in the continent's resource and allied conflicts. We argue that the geo-strategic and geo-political interests of. major western and other powers and the ...

  12. General Principles of the WTO and European Community Laws in Building International Competition Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Mo Chung

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Organization (WTO established a Working Group on the interaction between trade and competition policy in 1996. By the Doha Ministerial Declaration, it recognized the case for international competition policy framework and agreed that the relevant negotiations take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The Working Group is meant to focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness among others in the period until the Fifth Session. This article attempts to clarify the implications of the core (WTO principles to the would-be international competition laws and practices. It further tries to get lessons from competition law and practices of the European Community. Protection of fundamental rights, proportionality, non-discrimination, transparency, supremacy, subsidiarity and direct effect are the general principles of the European Community law to be discussed in relation to the competition law and policy. It concludes that the general principles of the WTO and EC laws provide guiding principles for the future international competition norms, and makes some preliminary assessment of the present Korean competition law and policy in the light of those principles.

  13. Relationship of community traffic rights and international conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has established the Union as a legal personality. It opens for mixed agreements on foreign policy and community topics. In areas where the Union legislates, the EU can sign various kinds of agreements on behalf of the member states, who are consequently not allowed to negotiate international agreements on their own (autonomously in these areas. The European Union's accession to the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail (COTIF represents a historic step for the railway community. This relationship is now clear: a disconnection clause in the accession agreement in principle allows EU law precedence for traffic internal to the EU. The relationship between EU law and COTIF law is there more about coordination than disconnection.

  14. China, Argentina agree to further strategic ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Xinhua,China and Argentina have agreed to further enhance mutual trust and their strategic partnership as the two emerging economies are playing an increasingly important role in the world arena.“China will work with Argentina to strengthen strategic mutual trust,expand cooperation and coordination within multilateral frameworks in order to promote bilateral ties and benefit the two peoples,” Vice President Xi Jinping told Argentine Foreign Minister Hector Timerman on September 9.

  15. Problematising internal security: Crime, community and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Bruun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problematisation of crime, crime prevention and security in contemporary security policy programmes using three Finnish internal security programmes and theory-based content analysis. The study is based on the theory (the perspective of an analytics of government. The findings highlight the central meaning of social exclusion and community as security practices wherein social exclusion is seen as a threat to security and a risk for crime. Indeed, community-based crime prevention plays a central role in the programmes along with the worry about serious crimes and the high level of homicides. A fluid governing policy without crime and accidents is the implicit goal of these programmes.

  16. 1st International Conference on Communities and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Etienne; Wulf, Volker

    2003-01-01

    The book contains 24 research articles related to the emerging research field of Communities and Technologies (C&T). The papers treat subjects such as online communities, communities of practice, Community support systems, Digital Cities, regional communities and the internet, knowledge sharing and communities, civil communities, communities and education and social capital. As a result of a very quality-oriented review process, the work reflects the best of current research and practice in the field of C&T.

  17. Local Food Systems Supported by Communities Nationally and Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Mária Bakos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the concerns about the long-term sustainability of globalized retail trade as well as the more and more determining health-conscious food-consuming attitude the systems of government respectively the groups of conscious consumers all over the world put emphasis on the popularization and development of local food chains and small-scale supply chains simultaneously they connect the retailers producing highquality, local foods with the direct markets. In my study, I would like to present an overview of the development and current state of community supported agricultural systems on the international and Hungarian level and on the basis of the results of my questionnaire survey. I will indicate whether there are any demand for local food in Hungary and about how much the population of the six investigated settlements are familiar with it. Within this type of alternative local food systems, farmers and their buyers form a community based on social capital (co-operation, mutual trust and mutual responsibility, a direct sales channel, in such a way that cooperation is also beneficial to the producer and the consumer. The producer is in an advantageous position as he can form a direct and long-term relationship with his consumers selling his high-quality products locally consequently he can work in a cost-effective and optimal way. However, the advantage of the consumer is that he can obtain healthy foods from reliable sources contributing to the maintenance of his health respectively to the development of local economy.

  18. When community ties lead to violent crimes | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-20

    Oct 20, 2017 ... Communities instead have developed their own norms and rules to deal ... seen in the trust people place in family, faith groups, and neighbours. .... as the Community Work Programme increased residents' sense of security by ...

  19. 24 CFR 242.26 - Agreed interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 242.26... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.26 Agreed interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate or rates agreed upon by the mortgagee and the mortgagor. (b) The amount...

  20. 24 CFR 241.1070 - Agreed interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.1070...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1070 Agreed interest rate. The equity or acquisition loan shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the borrower and the lender. ...

  1. 24 CFR 203.20 - Agreed interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 203.20... § 203.20 Agreed interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the mortgagee and the mortgagor. (b) Interest shall be payable in monthly installments on the principal amount...

  2. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560... § 241.560 Agreed interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the lender and the borrower. (b) Interest shall be payable in monthly installments on the principal amount of...

  3. Island of Mayotte on its way to the international community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Victorovich Nezhentsev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article devoted to the analysis of change of status of Mayotte with signing of the Treaty on the possession of Mayotte to France in 1841 continuing until Mayotte’s departmentalization in 2011. Relations between France and Mayotte are essentially different from traditional cooperation “Metropolitan-colony”, due the fact that Mayotte was an important strategic territory of France in the Indian Ocean since 19th century. The article contains the detail analysis of specifics features of French colonial administration. The legislative changes of territorial status of Mayotte traced on the basis of researched decrees, laws, resolutions. The status of Mayotte had changed with the expansion of the colonial Empire: from autonomy up until 1912, to the dependent and controlled up until 1946. In the next 20 years Mayotte crosses swords for the expansion of autonomy from France. Besides it, in this chapter of the article considers the processes of formation of various people's movements, such as “Mouvement du peuple mahorais”, which purposed to get from metropolitan France the status of the French Overseas territory. After the fall of the colonial system, France tried to prevent the final breakdown of the Empire, for that French Republic takes root intro their colonies in a structure of France by legislation. In 1975 Comoros gained independence, and entered immediately into a confrontation with France with regard to Mayotte. The international community headed by the UN required return the island to the Comoros, despite it France referred to a popular referendum during which the residents of Mayotte had expressed a desire to be a part of France. Hurriedly, France granted to Mayotte the status of the Overseas community of France. Despite the new status, Mayotte continued to be a backward region of France up until 1990s. In the 21st century starts a new period of changes. There is an active development of the island in such spheres as

  4. Astrobiology: guidelines and future missions plan for the international community

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, L.; Miller, D.

    The search for extra-terrestrial life has been going on ever since humans realized there was more to the Universe than just the Earth. These quests have taken many forms including, but not limited to: the quest for understanding the biological origins of life on Earth; the deployment of robotic probes to other planets to look for microbial life; the analysis of meteorites for chemical and fossil remnants of extra - terrestrial life; and the search of the radio spectrum for signs of extra-solar intelligence. These searches so far have yielded hints, but no unambiguous proof of life with origins from off Earth. The emerging field of astrobiology studies the origin, distribution, and future of life in the Universe. Technical advances and new, though not conclusive, evidence of extinct microbial life on Mars have created a new enthusiasm for astrobiology in many nations. However, the next steps to take are not clear, and should a positive result be returned, the follow-on missions are yet to be defined. This paper reports on the results of an eight-week study by the students of the International Space University during the summer of 2002. The study created a source book that can be used by mission designers and policy makers to chart the next steps in astrobiology. In particular, the study addresses the following questions:1.What is the full set of dimensions along which we can search forextra-terrestrial life?2.What activities are currently underway by the internationalcommunity along each of these dimensions?3.What are the most effective next steps that can be taken by theinternational space community in order to further this search (from a policy,sociological and mission point of view)?4.What are the proper steps for eliminating possible contaminationof the Earth's biosphere?5.What are the issues with planetary quarantine with regards tounwanted contamination of other biospheres with terrestrial organisms? Integrating all the considerations affecting the search for

  5. Community Monitoring for REDD+: International Promises and Field Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Danielsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Will community monitoring assist in delivering just and equitable REDD+? We assessed whether local communities can effectively estimate carbon stocks in some of the world's most carbon rich forests, using simple field protocols, and we reviewed whether community monitoring exists in current REDD+ pilots. We obtained similar results for forest carbon when measured by communities and professional foresters in 289 vegetation plots in Southeast Asia. Most REDD+ monitoring schemes, however, contain no community involvement. To close the gulf between United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change texts on involving communities and field implementation realities, we propose greater embedding of community monitoring within national REDD+ pilot schemes, which we argue will lead to a more just REDD+.

  6. Regional Community and International Relations: the Volgograd Region Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danakari Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the complex and controversial problems of the new regional communities’ formation and the impact of the interethnic relations sphere on them. The author notes that the processes of interaction between representatives of different cultures and civilizations, ethnic groups and religions have become increasingly controversial and tense in the context of continuous social dynamics. Similarly to the Russian society as a whole, regional communities are in a state of transitivity. They get transformed, they acquire new qualities such as multicasting and heterogeneity, multi-ethnicity and multi-confessionalism, fragmentarity and multiculturality. This fact increases the risks and uncertainties, problematizes future prospects. National non-governmental organizations are increasingly positioning themselves as civil society institutions at the present stage of social development at the regional level. They perform a difficult dual task: on the one hand, they ensure the preservation and development of history, native language, culture, ethnic traditions, and on the other hand, they work on the integration, on the common identity and the Russian nation formation. On the territory of the Volgograd region, largely due to the active cooperation of regional authorities and local authorities with national public associations, international and inter-confessional relations are stable. The basis of such activity is respect for history, native language, culture, tradition, religion, national dignity of all people in the region, regardless of their belonging to a certain ethnic group or religion. Over two decades of accumulated considerable experience of joint inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation, provided tolerance and peace, harmony and mutual understanding between people of different ethnicities and religions in the country.

  7. AGREED-UPON PROCEDURES, PROCEDURES FOR AUDITING EUROPEAN GRANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Petru VARTEIU

    2016-12-01

    The audit of EU-funded projects is an audit based on agreed-upon procedures, which are established by the Managing Authority or the Intermediate Body. Agreed-upon procedures can be defined as engagements made in accordance with ISRS 4400, applicable to agreed-upon procedures, where the auditor undertakes to carry out the agreed-upon procedures and issue a report on factual findings. The report provided by the auditor does not express any assurance. It allows users to form their own opinions about the conformity of the expenses with the project budget as well as the eligibility of the expenses.

  8. When community ties lead to violent crimes | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-20

    Oct 20, 2017 ... Exploring social cohesion and mistrust of the state as drivers of urban ... Evidence suggests that these ties help communities to self-organize and .... acts while weakening social interactions and bonds between neighbours.

  9. Forest gene conservation from the perspective of the international community

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Hosny El-Lakany

    2017-01-01

    conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR). After presenting internationally adopted definitions of some terms related to FGR, the characteristics of the current state of FGR conservation from a global perspective are summarized. Many international and regional organizations and institutions are engaged in the conservation of FGR at degrees ranging from...

  10. Internal Guidelines for interactions with communities and local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    These Guidelines provide principles for interactions with local populations. Interaction with communities and local govenments are the responsibility of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Wastes Management program's implementing offices. The Guidelines provide policy direction to these implementing offices, while preserving their ability to tailor local interactions to fit a given situation, taking into account the social and political context and the history of local involvement in the program. Project Offices conduct community and local interactions within overall program resources which must be husbanded prudently. Careful planning by implementing offices should ensure that adequate resources are available to foster effective interactions with local representatives

  11. Teaching "Community Engagement" in Engineering Education for International Development: Integration of an Interdisciplinary Social Work Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Dorie J.; Held, Mary Lehman; Ellzey, Janet L.; Bailey, William T.; Young, Laurie B.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on challenges faced by engineering faculty in educating their students on community-engaged, sustainable technical solutions in developing countries. We review a number of approaches to increasing teaching modules on social and community components of international development education, from adding capstone…

  12. International Community-Based Service Learning: Two Comparative Case Studies of Benefits and Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhurst, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The drives to internationalise the UK curriculum and psychology students' desires to work in communities are brought together in this paper. International community-based learning (ICBL) links with many psychology students' motivations to make contributions to others; with the potential to enhance students' learning and cultural sensitivities. The…

  13. Connecting Higher Education Research in Japan with the International Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the historical, current, and future challenges of higher education research in Japan within a global context. Japanese higher education research has been strongly influenced by the international academic community. At the same time, higher education researchers in Japan have participated in international projects, and Japan has…

  14. Women's Center Volunteer Intern Program: Building Community While Advancing Social and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Margaret A.; Vlasnik, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    This program description explores the purpose, structure, activities, and outcomes of the volunteer intern program at the Wright State University Women's Center. Designed to create meaningful, hands-on learning experiences for students and to advance the center's mission, the volunteer intern program builds community while advancing social and…

  15. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  16. Using International Videoconferencing to Extend the Global Reach of Community Health Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Rosemary; Sarkar, Norma J; Pickus, Becca; Dallwig, Amber; Wan, Jiayi Angela; Alcindor, Hilda

    2016-07-01

    Travel abroad provides college students with a unique learning experience. When plans to take undergraduate community health nursing students from the United States to Haiti were cancelled due to health and safety concerns, faculty piloted international videoconferencing with a nursing program in Haiti as an alternative. During this semester-long course, students in both countries assessed a local community using the Community as Partner framework and compared findings during videoconferences with their international peers. Despite communication challenges such as language barriers and limited internet access in Haiti, evaluative data suggests that all students valued learning with their nursing student peers in another country. For future international videoconferencing endeavors, especially with under-resourced communities, we provide recommendations in the following categories: 1) Building relationships with a partner school, 2) Technology, 3) Pedagogy, and 4) Facilitating interactions between students. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Pras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When musicians improvise freely together—not following any sort of script, predetermined harmonic structure, or “referent”—to what extent do they understand what they are doing in the same way as each other? And to what extent is their understanding privileged relative to outside listeners with similar levels of performing experience in free improvisation? In this exploratory case study, a saxophonist and a pianist of international renown who knew each other's work but who had never performed together before were recorded while improvising freely for 40 min. Immediately afterwards the performers were interviewed separately about the just-completed improvisation, first from memory and then while listening to two 5 min excerpts of the recording in order to prompt specific and detailed commentary. Two commenting listeners from the same performance community (a saxophonist and drummer listened to, and were interviewed about, these excerpts. Some months later, all four participants rated the extent to which they endorsed 302 statements that had been extracted from the four interviews and anonymized. The findings demonstrate that these free jazz improvisers characterized the improvisation quite differently, selecting different moments to comment about and with little overlap in the content of their characterizations. The performers were not more likely to endorse statements by their performing partner than by a commenting listener from the same performance community, and their patterns of agreement with each other (endorsing or dissenting with statements across multiple ratings—their interrater reliability as measured with Cohen's kappa—was only moderate, and not consistently higher than their agreement with the commenting listeners. These performers were more likely to endorse statements about performers' thoughts and actions than statements about the music itself, and more likely to endorse evaluatively positive than negative statements

  18. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pras, Amandine; Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2017-01-01

    When musicians improvise freely together-not following any sort of script, predetermined harmonic structure, or "referent"-to what extent do they understand what they are doing in the same way as each other? And to what extent is their understanding privileged relative to outside listeners with similar levels of performing experience in free improvisation? In this exploratory case study, a saxophonist and a pianist of international renown who knew each other's work but who had never performed together before were recorded while improvising freely for 40 min. Immediately afterwards the performers were interviewed separately about the just-completed improvisation, first from memory and then while listening to two 5 min excerpts of the recording in order to prompt specific and detailed commentary. Two commenting listeners from the same performance community (a saxophonist and drummer) listened to, and were interviewed about, these excerpts. Some months later, all four participants rated the extent to which they endorsed 302 statements that had been extracted from the four interviews and anonymized. The findings demonstrate that these free jazz improvisers characterized the improvisation quite differently, selecting different moments to comment about and with little overlap in the content of their characterizations. The performers were not more likely to endorse statements by their performing partner than by a commenting listener from the same performance community, and their patterns of agreement with each other (endorsing or dissenting with statements) across multiple ratings-their interrater reliability as measured with Cohen's kappa-was only moderate, and not consistently higher than their agreement with the commenting listeners. These performers were more likely to endorse statements about performers' thoughts and actions than statements about the music itself, and more likely to endorse evaluatively positive than negative statements. But these kinds of statements

  19. A new international environmental order? An assessment of the impact of the global warming epistemic community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.A.

    1993-12-01

    Global warming is a problem which ignores national boundaries, making international cooperation essential. The role of epistemic communities, or those composed of professionals who share a commitment to a common causal model and a set of political values, in affecting the international response to the global warming problem is examined. It is claimed that the epistemic global warming community can affect the policy process, both domestically and internationally, and facilitate cooperation in an era of ecological interdependence. This claim is explored and eventually supported through the examination of two case studies: the responses of Canada and Britain to the issue of global warming between 1988 and November 1990. The case studies are supplemented with a more general discussion of the issues surrounding the international politics of global warming through the same period. Through these studies, it is found that a global warming community can be identified and that its efforts have played a significant role in framing the global warming issue. 121 refs

  20. The experience of being a member of the Student International Community of Practice: a collaborative reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighide M. Lynch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010 a community of practice was set up for and by doctoral students engaged in person-centred and practitioner research. After three years, this community became part of a larger international community of practice. Aims and objectives: Captured under the stanzas of a poem and supported by the literature, this paper uses member narratives and creative expressions in a critical reflection on the experience of being a member of the Student International Community of Practice. Conclusions: Membership in the community of practice was experienced as beneficial, providing both support and challenge to enrich the doctoral students’ development as person-centred researchers. Retaining connectivity across an international landscape and finding effective ways to integrate new members into the community presented the greatest challenges. Implications for practice development: • The theoretical foundation and experiential knowledge could assist others considering support structures for the development of person-centred practices • Shared learning and co-creation of knowledge add value to the experience of being a doctoral researcher • Membership fluctuations present challenges to continuity of learning and the maintenance of a safe space with communities of practice. Such fluctuations, however, create chances for community members to experience diverse roles within the group and encourage explicit attention to person-centredness

  1. Recent initiative in information exchange throughout the international nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Two key systems essential to the gathering and dissemination of operating experience, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and NUCLEAR NOTEPAD are described. The NPRDS is a collection of detailed engineering data on systems and components important to nuclear plant safety and productivity. NUCLEAR NOTEPAD is an international telecommunications network which provides a mechanism for the rapid, widespread dissemination of information pertinent to the design, licensing, safe and reliable operation of nuclear plants. Both systems have been managed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations since 1982 and are used extensively by 84 organizations in 14 countries. (U.K.)

  2. Verification and Validation of Heat Transfer Model of AGREE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, N. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seker, V.; Drzewiecki, T. J.; Downar, T. J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, Michigan (United States); Kelly, J. M. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington (United States)

    2013-05-15

    The AGREE code was originally developed as a multi physics simulation code to perform design and safety analysis of Pebble Bed Reactors (PBR). Currently, additional capability for the analysis of Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) core is in progress. Newly implemented fluid model for a PMR core is based on a subchannel approach which has been widely used in the analyses of light water reactor (LWR) cores. A hexagonal fuel (or graphite block) is discretized into triangular prism nodes having effective conductivities. Then, a meso-scale heat transfer model is applied to the unit cell geometry of a prismatic fuel block. Both unit cell geometries of multi-hole and pin-in-hole types of prismatic fuel blocks are considered in AGREE. The main objective of this work is to verify and validate the heat transfer model newly implemented for a PMR core in the AGREE code. The measured data in the HENDEL experiment were used for the validation of the heat transfer model for a pin-in-hole fuel block. However, the HENDEL tests were limited to only steady-state conditions of pin-in-hole fuel blocks. There exist no available experimental data regarding a heat transfer in multi-hole fuel blocks. Therefore, numerical benchmarks using conceptual problems are considered to verify the heat transfer model of AGREE for multi-hole fuel blocks as well as transient conditions. The CORONA and GAMMA+ codes were used to compare the numerical results. In this work, the verification and validation study were performed for the heat transfer model of the AGREE code using the HENDEL experiment and the numerical benchmarks of selected conceptual problems. The results of the present work show that the heat transfer model of AGREE is accurate and reliable for prismatic fuel blocks. Further validation of AGREE is in progress for a whole reactor problem using the HTTR safety test data such as control rod withdrawal tests and loss-of-forced convection tests.

  3. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes `IAEA Handbook`, which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author).

  4. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes 'IAEA Handbook', which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author)

  5. Successful global assessments and monitoring: The roles of the international community and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Successful global assessments and monitoring of natural resources requires teamwork between participating nations and the international communities charged with the responsibility for collecting and disseminating information. In an attempt to identify emerging information needs and to promote coordination, the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO) and other national and international groups held a major conference and workshop in Venice, Italy, on global monitoring last September. The results of the meeting and subsequent events in Montreal indicated a need for more aggressive leadership at the international level and more cooperation at the national level. This paper reports on the outcome of the Venice conference and list some things that the international community and the United States must do to make global assessments and monitoring a reality

  6. Relationship proximity to victims of witnessed community violence: associations with adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sharon F; Boyd, Rhonda C; Cammack, Nicole L; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2012-01-01

    Witnessing community violence has been linked with several adverse outcomes for adolescents, including emotional and behavioral problems. Among youth who have witnessed community violence, proximity to the victim of community violence is one factor that may determine, in part, the nature of adolescents' responses to community violence exposure. The present study examines whether relationship proximity to the victim of community violence is associated with internalizing and externalizing behaviors among a sample of urban and predominantly African American adolescents (N = 501) who have witnessed community violence. In 10th grade, participants reported whether they had witnessed 10 community violence events during the past year, and, if so, whether the victim of the violence was a family member, close friend, acquaintance, or stranger. Witnessed community violence against a family member or close friend was associated with depressive symptoms, and witnessed community violence against known individuals was associated with anxiety symptoms. Witnessing community violence against familiar persons and strangers was linked with aggressive behavior. Gender differences in these associations and implications for assessment and intervention with community violence-exposed youth are discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  7. The rise of China in the International Trade Network: a community core detection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Theory of complex networks proved successful in the description of a variety of complex systems ranging from biology to computer science and to economics and finance. Here we use network models to describe the evolution of a particular economic system, namely the International Trade Network (ITN). Previous studies often assume that globalization and regionalization in international trade are contradictory to each other. We re-examine the relationship between globalization and regionalization by viewing the international trade system as an interdependent complex network. We use the modularity optimization method to detect communities and community cores in the ITN during the years 1995-2011. We find rich dynamics over time both inter- and intra-communities. In particular, the Asia-Oceania community disappeared and reemerged over time along with a switch in leadership from Japan to China. We provide a multilevel description of the evolution of the network where the global dynamics (i.e., communities disappear or reemerge) and the regional dynamics (i.e., community core changes between community members) are related. Moreover, simulation results show that the global dynamics can be generated by a simple dynamic-edge-weight mechanism.

  8. Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community, International Atomic Energy Agency, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed legislative instruments, Adopted legislative instruments, Non-legislative instruments, Other activities (meetings). International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: The Russian Federation to join the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; Participation by the regulatory authorities of India and the United Arab Emirates in the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP); NEA International Workshop on Crisis Communication, 9-10 May 2012; International School of Nuclear Law: 2013; Next NEA International Nuclear Law Essentials Course

  9. IAEA and EU Review Progress on Cooperation, Agree on Next Steps at Annual Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Union (EU) reviewed progress achieved in working together on a range of nuclear activities and agreed to further enhance cooperation during their sixth annual Senior Officials Meeting in Vienna. The talks on 8 February at the IAEA’s headquarters provided a forum for exchanging views on strengthening collaboration on nuclear safety, security, safeguards, sustainable development, nuclear energy research and increasing innovation. The two organizations welcomed the fruitful cooperation and progress achieved over the past years. They agreed to deepen cooperation in several areas, particularly in the promotion of nuclear applications for sustainable development.

  10. Community participation in international health: practical recommendations for donor and recipient organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akukwe Chinua

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the need for donor agencies and recipient organizations to involve target communities in the conceptualization, development, monitoring, and implementation of health services and programs in international health. This paper assumes that most donor organizations are based in industrialized countries. Given that resources are finite in both developing and developed countries, the article briefly reviews the current trend of declining public funds for health systems and an increasing role for privately funded health services worldwide. The article calls for community-based international health services that reflect the priorities of target populations, and it also discusses practi cal steps to involve local populations in community-based health planning and management in international health.

  11. Teaching `community engagement' in engineering education for international development: Integration of an interdisciplinary social work curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Dorie J.; Lehman Held, Mary; Ellzey, Janet L.; Bailey, William T.; Young, Laurie B.

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews the literature on challenges faced by engineering faculty in educating their students on community-engaged, sustainable technical solutions in developing countries. We review a number of approaches to increasing teaching modules on social and community components of international development education, from adding capstone courses and educational track seminars to integrating content from other disciplines, particularly the social sciences. After summarising recent pedagogical strategies to increase content on community-focused development, we present a case study of how one engineering programme incorporates social work students and faculty to infuse strategies for community engagement in designing and implementing student-led global engineering development projects. We outline how this interdisciplinary pedagogical approach teaches students from the two disciplines to work together in addressing power balances, economic and social issues and overall sustainability of international development projects.

  12. From Internationalism to Internationalisation: The Illusion of a Global Community in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pike

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Both global education and international education are movements designedto promote the concepts of internationalism and global community innational education systems, but with different histories. While the former, agrassroots K-12 movement, has struggled to make headway against theforces of neoliberalism, the latter has thrived in a market-driven era inwhich revenue from international student mobility has offset decliningpublic funding of higher education in many developed countries. Currenttrends in the internationalisation of higher education have resulted inincreasing commercialisation and intensive competition for internationalstudents, fuelled by world rankings of elite universities. Tensions existbetween these trends and the more altruistic goals of internationaleducation proclaimed in institutional mission statements and governmentpolicies. An analytical matrix is offered as a tool with which highereducation institutions can map their internationalisation activities andassess the extent to which they match their stated policies and missions.While the rhetoric of international education purports to promote theconcept of a global community, the article suggests this claim may beillusory.

  13. Reviewing the National Courts in Creating Orderly International Law and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanis Leatemia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orderly international community and international law are determined by a national court. Essentially, the national court must be competent to maintain the balance between the national interest which based on the national sovereignty as well as the provisions of international law within the framework of peaceful coexistence. This article reviews the role of national courts in creating and developing the customary international law. As it turns out in practice, however, it has certain weaknesses, particularly in view of the accountability and legitimacy aspects of its establishment. This purpose could be achieved if national courts were able to maintain a balance between the national interest based on the sovereignty of State on the one hand and the provisions of international law on the other. The function of the national court was to maintain a balance between international law and national law.

  14. The definition of commonly agreed stylized human intrusion scenarios for use in the long term safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboneras, P.

    2002-01-01

    Recent international advice on the treatment of human intrusion in relation to the safety of radioactive waste repositories is reviewed. The outstanding issues which need to be resolved in order to establish an agreed international approach to assessing the consequences and judging the impact of human intrusion are summarized. Finally, a way forward towards an internationally agreed assessment approach is proposed. (author)

  15. Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America to bring International Obligation Exchanges under the Coverage of the Agreement concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, and Agreed Minute, of 5 July 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Exchange of Notes, which entered into force on 16 December 1991, refers to the safeguards obligations of both Contracting Parties under their Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and the Exchange of Notes of 2 August 1985 concerning the duration of safeguards. Both Parties agree that the Agreement will apply to the quantity of materials to which either Party, at the request of the other Party, has consented that it should apply as part of the arrangement to exchange safeguards obligations, or that it should no longer apply. (NEA)

  16. Investigating the Association between Autistic-Like and Internalizing Traits in a Community-Based Twin Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Victoria; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The phenotypic and etiologic relation between internalizing and autistic-like traits is studied using a community-based twin sample. Internalizing and autistic-like traits showed moderate phenotypic overlap but have specific genetic influences.

  17. Four African Nations Agree to Water Management Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Seeking to improve their management of water resources, four northeast African nations today agreed at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to establish a long-term framework for utlizing a key underground water system. Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan signed a Strategic Action Programme (SAP) that aims to optimize the equitable use of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, a huge water resource that lies beneath the four nations. The SAP also commits the countries to strengthen and build upon a previously existing regional coordination mechanism, in part by establishing a new Joint Authority for the Nubian Aquifer System. The Programme lays the groundwork for improving cooperation among the four arid nations and for strengthening their capacity to monitor and manage the aquifer effectively. With growing populations and decreasing water availability from other sources in the region, the aquifer is under mounting pressure. Removing water without a clear understanding of transboundary and other implications threatens water quality and has the potential to harm biodiversity and accelerate land degradation. The agreement resulted from a joint Technical Cooperation project of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the IAEA. ''I congratulate all involved on this significant achievement,'' said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. ''Water is a key resource, and effective management and use of such water resources is essential for the future. The agreement of the Strategic Action Programme is the result of real cooperation between the four States, the Agency and UNDP-GEF. I am confident that this Programme will be a success and will benefit the people of the region. This positive project experience benefits strengthened and expanded cooperation between the IAEA and the UNDP-GEF.'' ''UNDP would like to congratulate the

  18. Intercultural Communication Competence: Advising International Students in a Texas Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Academic advising has long been considered a critical factor to student success. With a qualitative, phenomenological research design, this study was undertaken to better understand the lived experiences of academic advisors in communicating with international students in a community college context. Intercultural communication competence was used…

  19. Professional Learning Communities Assessment: Adaptation, Internal Validity, and Multidimensional Model Testing in Turkish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Selçuk; Tatik, R. Samil; Yurtseven, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to adapt and validate the Professional Learning Communities Assessment Revised (PLCA-R) by Olivier, Hipp, and Huffman within the context of Turkish schools. The instrument was translated and adapted to administer to teachers in Turkey. Internal structure of the Turkish version of PLCA-R was investigated by using…

  20. Creating International Community Service Learning Experiences in a Capstone Marketing-Projects Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Lynn E.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a project-based capstone marketing course, specifically designed to provide marketing students with an international community service learning experience. It differs significantly from previous studies, which focus on integrating service learning into existing marketing courses and on helping local…

  1. The International Space of the Danish Testing Community in the Interwar Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is to draw attention to the presence and importance of travelling ideas, knowledge, and practices in Danish history of educational testing. The article introduces and employs a spatial methodological approach in relation to the connections between the international testing community and the emerging Danish practice of…

  2. IDEAS international contamination database: a compilation of published internal contamination cases. A tool for the internal dosimetry community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the IDEAS project was to develop General Guidelines for the Assessment of Internal Dose from Monitoring Data. The project was divided into 5 Work Packages for the major tasks. Work Package 1 entitled Collection of incorporation cases was devoted to the collection of data by means of bibliographic research (survey of the open literature), contacting and collecting data from specific organisations and using information from existing databases on incorporation cases. To ensure that the guidelines would be applicable to a wide range of practical situations, a database of cases of internal contamination including monitoring data suitable for dose assessment was compiled. The IDEAS Bibliography database and the IDEAS Internal Contamination database were prepared and some reference cases were selected for use in Work Package 3. The other Work packages of the IDEAS Project (WP-2 Preparation of evaluation software, WP-3 Evaluation of incorporation cases, WP-4 Development of the general guidelines and WP-5 Practical testing of general guidelines) have been described in detail elsewhere and can be found on the IDEAS website. A search for reference from the open literature, which contained information on cases of internal contamination from which intake and committed doses could be assessed, has been compiled into a database. The IDEAS Bibliography Database includes references to papers which might (but were not certain to) contain such information, or which included references to papers which contained such information. This database contains the usual bibliographical information: authors' name(s), year of publication, title of publication and the journal or report number. Up to now, a comprehensive Bibliography Database containing 563 references has been compiled. Not surprisingly more than half of the references are from Health Physics and Radiation Protection Dosimetry Journals.The next step was for the partners of the IDEAS project to obtain the references

  3. Present Situation of the Internal Quantitative Efficiency of Sanhan Community College – the Republic of Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zain Saleh AL Sadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to explore the present situation of the internal quantitative efficiency of Sanhan community college, and to identify the annual cost per student and material waste resulting from failure and dropout. The study depended primarily on the method of restructuring the study life in order to measure the internal efficiency of quantitative indicators for the college.  This was done by building the chart structure of student flow, which allows calculating success rate, failure rate, and the dropout rate for each batch. This enabled the researchers to calculate the indicators of internal quantity efficiency and its level. The study results revealed that the educational system in Sanhan Community college has not reached the required standard, which impacted  the internal quantitative efficiency. In addition, the proportion of quantitative loss resulting from students’ failure and dropout was (50%. Some recommendations were also proposed in order to raise the efficiency and effectiveness level so as to reach the desired standard. Keywords: Internal quantity efficiency, Sanhan Community College, Yemen.

  4. Producing 'internal suspect bodies': divisive effects of UK counter-terrorism measures on Muslim communities in Leeds and Bradford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Madeline-Sophie

    2018-04-06

    Research on UK government counter-terrorism measures has claimed that Muslims are treated as a 'suspect community'. However, there is limited research exploring the divisive effects that membership of a 'suspect community' has on relations within Muslim communities. Drawing from interviews with British Muslims living in Leeds or Bradford, I address this gap by explicating how co-option of Muslim community members to counter extremism fractures relations within Muslim communities. I reveal how community members internalize fears of state targeting which precipitates internal disciplinary measures. I contribute the category of 'internal suspect body' which is materialized through two intersecting conditions within preventative counter-terrorism: the suspected extremist for Muslims to look out for and suspected informer who might report fellow Muslims. I argue that the suspect community operates through a network of relations by which terrors of counter-terrorism are reproduced within Muslim communities with divisive effects. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  5. International Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Freeman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El término "genocidio" alude al peor de los crímenes. Aunque este concepto implica complejos procesos sociales que tienen un gran impacto sobre los individuos y las sociedades, ha sido descuidado por los científicos sociales. Esto es debido en parte al hecho de que la definición internacional de "genocidio" es confusa e insatisfactoria, y también en parte a problemas metodológicos en la comparación de grandes sucesos. El artículo propone una solución metodológica a esos problemas —utilizando los tipos ideales de Weber— y ofrece una revisión crítica de las principales teorías explicativas del genocidio. El artículo concluye con la idea de que esas teorías ofrecen una considerable comprensión de las causas del genocidio, aunque ninguna resulta totalmente convincente. Se realiza un breve análisis de la crisis en Darfur con la intención de clarificar algunos de los problemas remanentes en este campo.

  6. Teaching & Learning for International Students in a 'Learning Community': Creating, Sharing and Building Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linzi Kemp, PhD

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the culture of learning communities for effective teaching. A learning community is defined here as an environment where learners are brought together to share information, to learn from each other, and to create new knowledge. The individual student develops her/his own learning by building on learning from others. In a learning community approach to teaching, educators can ensure that students gain workplace skills such as collaboration, creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving. In this case study, it is shown how an active learning community, introduced into a blended teaching environment (face-to-face and virtual, effectively supported international undergraduates in the building of knowledge and workplace skills.

  7. A Study on College EFL Learning Community Based on QQ International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An EFL Learning Community has been set up online via a free messaging tool QQ International to consolidate and apply the knowledge learnt in class. One sub-community aims at developing multicultural awareness while the other focuses on expertise training in English for the undergraduates in several universities. Our innovative approach is that the trainees interact with other participants with virtual icons, virtual roles and specific achievement goals according to curriculum-related scenarios. The project team utilized surveys and observations to analyze the advantages and disadvantages from different perspectives and gain further insight into the nature of member participation, knowledge application and learning interests. Results revealed that EFL Learning Community promoted learning interests and training efficiency, contributed to interprofessional collaboration and interpersonal cooperation, with the implication that levels of moderate anonymity are the most optimal for role-plays in a learning community both online and in real life.

  8. Using AGREE II to Evaluate the Quality of Traditional Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Li, Le; Wang, Zixia; Chang, Xiaonan; Li, Rui; Fang, Ziye; Wei, Dang; Yao, Liang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Qi; An, Guanghui

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate/assess the quality of the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) of traditional medicine in China. We systematically searched the literature databases WanFang Data, VIP, CNKI and CBM for studies published between 1978 and 2012 to identify and select CPGs of traditional medicine. We used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument to evaluate these guidelines. A total of 75 guidelines were included, of which 46 guidelines (62%) were on Traditional Chinese Medicine, 19 (25%) on Chinese Integrated Medicine, and 10 (13%) on Uyghur Medicine. Most traditional medicine CPGs published in domestic journals scored medicine. In each domain of AGREE II, traditional Medicine CPGs performed clearly better than international CPGs. The same trend was seen in guidelines of Modern Medicine. An increasing amount of CPGs are being published, but their quality is low. Referring to the key points of international guidelines development, supervision through AGREE II, cooperating with international groups and exploring the strategy of guideline development could improve the quality of CPGs on traditional medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Addressing Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education through International Service Learning and Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemin Kassam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.

  10. Identifying the community structure of the food-trade international multi-network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, S.; Mangioni, G.; Puma, M. J.; Fagiolo, G.

    2018-05-01

    Achieving international food security requires improved understanding of how international trade networks connect countries around the world through the import-export flows of food commodities. The properties of international food trade networks are still poorly documented, especially from a multi-network perspective. In particular, nothing is known about the multi-network’s community structure. Here we find that the individual crop-specific layers of the multi-network have densely connected trading groups, a consistent characteristic over the period 2001–2011. Further, the multi-network is characterized by low variability over this period but with substantial heterogeneity across layers in each year. In particular, the layers are mostly assortative: more-intensively connected countries tend to import from and export to countries that are themselves more connected. We also fit econometric models to identify social, economic and geographic factors explaining the probability that any two countries are co-present in the same community. Our estimates indicate that the probability of country pairs belonging to the same food trade community depends more on geopolitical and economic factors—such as geographical proximity and trade-agreement co-membership—than on country economic size and/or income. These community-structure findings of the multi-network are especially valuable for efforts to understand past and emerging dynamics in the global food system, especially those that examine potential ‘shocks’ to global food trade.

  11. 28 JURISDICTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    legal responses by concerned governments or the international community to international crimes. As a result of hard negotiations, it was agreed that the Rome Statute prohibits the ... the ICC may exercise its jurisdiction when the crime is committed on the ..... Human Rights Committee indicates that non bis in idem has only.

  12. Collective Memory of International Women’s Day in Part of the Feminist Community in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Petras

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the collective memory of International Women’s Day in part of the feminist community in Croatia. Having in mind the importance of social context and mnemonic communities for the (reconstruction of memory, the development of women’s movements in Yugoslavia and Croatia is presented. Relying on Zerubavel’s concept of collective memory and qualitative analysis of interviews, this paper discusses the origins of International Women’s Day, its historical horizon, the memory of commemorations in socialist and post-socialist periods, and the mnemonic battles arising around them. Data necessary to describe these elements of collective memory of International Women’s Day was collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with several members of the feminist community in Croatia. Even though today’s feminist community in Croatia, to a certain point, consolidates the legacies of both bourgeois feminism and proletarian feminism, collective memory of International Women’s Day, at least on the part of the feminist mnemonic community, serves as a reminder of its socialist or communist origins. An important form of commemoration in both the socialist and the post-socialist period is public commemoration, whether as protest walks or petition signings. On the other hand, commemorative pluralism and overall decline in the importance or symbolic value of IWD in Croatian society in the post-socialist period, is the most significant difference from the period of socialism. Elements of IWD which appear in both the socialist and post-socialist period and are the focal points of mnemonic battles that are fought over the meaning of IWD and its forms of commemoration are: Mother’s Day and Valentine’s Day symbolism, the conflict between politicized commemoration and depoliticized celebration, and cooptation or patronization by the politics. The most important factor for the appearance of mnemonic battles is found in the

  13. What are fair study benefits in international health research? Consulting community members in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Njue

    Full Text Available Planning study benefits and payments for participants in international health research in low- income settings can be a difficult and controversial process, with particular challenges in balancing risks of undue inducement and exploitation and understanding how researchers should take account of background inequities. At an international health research programme in Kenya, this study aimed to map local residents' informed and reasoned views on the effects of different levels of study benefits and payments to inform local policy and wider debates in international research.Using a relatively novel two-stage process community consultation approach, five participatory workshops involving 90 local residents from diverse constituencies were followed by 15 small group discussions, with components of information-sharing, deliberation and reflection to situate normative reasoning within debates. Framework Analysis drew inductively and deductively on voice-recorded discussions and field notes supported by Nvivo 10 software, and the international research ethics literature. Community members' views on study benefits and payments were diverse, with complex contextual influences and interplay between risks of giving 'too many' and 'too few' benefits, including the role of cash. While recognising important risks for free choice, research relationships and community values in giving 'too many', the greatest concerns were risks of unfairness in giving 'too few' benefits, given difficulties in assessing indirect costs of participation and the serious consequences for families of underestimation, related to perceptions of researchers' responsibilities.Providing benefits and payments to participants in international research in low-income settings is an essential means by which researchers meet individual-level and structural forms of ethical responsibilities, but understanding how this can be achieved requires a careful account of social realities and local

  14. ARCO and Sun agree to settle Iranian claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that ARCO and Sun Co. Inc. have agreed to separate settlements totaling almost $261 million that resolve their claims over oil field assets expropriated by Iran in 1978--80. The agreements are subject to approval by the Iran-U.S. claims tribunal at The Hague. The tribunal was set up in 1981 to resolve foreign claims to assets nationalized by the government of Ayatollah Khomeini following the fall of the Shah of Iran as a result of the 1978-79 Iranian revolution. The settlements are seen as the latest steps Iran has taken to normalize relations with the U.S., notably through petroleum related deals

  15. Army agrees to new study of biowarfare laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R Jeffrey

    1985-02-08

    As a result of a lawsuit initiated by Washington activist Jeremy Rifkin and joined by the attorney general for the state of Utah, the U.S. Army has agreed to defer construction, pending a study of potential environmental hazards, of a new laboratory that was authorized by a small number of Congressmen under an unusual procedure in December 1984. The laboratory, intended for tests of highly infectious and lethal biological aerosols, has aroused controversy because of fears that the data gathered there might be used to develop offensive biological weapons.

  16. Preparation of International Business Contracts in Facing the ASEAN Economic Community Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlan Sahlan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the preparation for composing and formulating the international business contracts in facing the ASEAN Economic Community era. The study used the normative approach by collecting the materials related to the international business contracts. The outcomes of the research indicate that constitutionally, the Indonesian government must provide protection and equitable legal certainty for Indonesian citizens who intend to conduct business transactions within the framework of AEC. Format and writing techniques of international business contracts is compulsory known by the business people and their legal consultants that they do not suffer losses due to errors in the preparing of contract that violates the rules and provisions of international business contract.

  17. MONITORING OF INTERNATIONAL DONOR ASSISTANCE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMALGAMATED TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Boichenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted within the framework of the joint project of the F. Ebert Foundation (Germany and the Institute of Economic and Legal Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine “The Experience of the Association of Territorial Communities in Eastern Ukraine: Economic and Legal Aspects”. The subject of the study is the theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of monitoring international donor assistance in the context of the development of amalgamated territorial communities (ATC based on the example of Bilokurakyne and Novopskov ATC. Methodology. The system approach (in substantiating the directions of monitoring and established procedures for monitoring each component of the life of amalgamated territorial communities, logical generalization (in determining the state of development of amalgamated territorial communities, method of absolute, relative, and mean values, analysis of the dynamics series and structural shifts (in determining the dominant trends in the formation and development of ATC, method of economic analysis and synthesis (in determining the content of the monitoring, method of comparison (when the violations in the process of ATC, graphical method (the construction algorithm combined operation and development of local communities imaging method (for presenting the results of the total amount of international aid to ATC are used in the work. The purpose of the research is to develop theoretical, methodological, and practical approaches to the monitoring of international donor assistance in the context of the development of amalgamated territorial communities. The article suggests using monitoring as the most effective tool for controlling economic and social phenomena and processes. The authorial scheme for constructing a procedure for the monitoring of functioning and development of amalgamated territorial communities is developed. The monitoring of international donor support of the

  18. On being examined: do students and faculty agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Andrew; Koenig, Joshua; Kwon, Henry; Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P K

    2015-12-01

    Students measure out their lives, not with coffee spoons, but with grades on examinations. But what exams mean and whether or not they are a bane or a boon is moot. Senior undergraduates (A. Perrella, J. Koenig, and H. Kwon) designed and administered a 15-item survey that explored the contrasting perceptions of both students (n = 526) and faculty members (n = 33) in a 4-yr undergraduate health sciences program. A series of statements gauged the level of agreement on a 10-point scale. Students and faculty members agreed on the value of assessing student learning with a variety of methods, finding new information to solve problems, assessing conceptual understanding and logical reasoning, having assessments with no single correct answer, and having comments on exams. Clear differences emerged between students and faculty members on specific matters: rubrics, student choice of exam format, assessing creativity, and transfer of learning to novel situations. A followup questionnaire allowed participants to clarify their interpretation of select statements, with responses from 71 students and 17 faculty members. All parties strongly agreed that exams should provide a good learning experience that would help them prepare for the future (students: 8.64 ± 1.71 and faculty members: 8.03 ± 2.34). Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  19. Implementing the Kyoto protocol in Europe: Interactions between international and Community controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-07-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book which discusses the coexistence of the Kyoto protocol and of a regional regime within the European Union for the actual application of rules requiring mechanisms of control. The international regime implements a continuous monitoring which combines conventional techniques and more intrusive procedures. The European Community introduced a non-contentious mechanism with a large and strong law basis and sanction ability. The author assesses the ability of the monitoring system as a whole to ensure the very credibility of the Protocol. She also assesses the reliability of international and community economic tools which aim at reducing greenhouse gas emissions at a minimum cost. She also discusses the desirable evolutions of the regime of struggle against climate changes

  20. Amnesty, Reconciliation and Reintegration: The International Community and the Rwandan Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    N., Harvey M. Weinstein , and Timothy Longman. "Trauma and PTSD Symptoms in Rwanda: Implications for Attitudes Toward Justice and Reconciliation...repairing the social fabric of the nation had to take place. The case shows how Rwanda overcame the negative impacts of the international community and...reintegration policies. Throughout the case there are four issues that prove integral to the AR2 process; the anthropology of Rwanda, its colonial

  1. Building international collaborative capacity: contributions of community psychologists to a European network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramírez, Manuel; Paloma, Virginia; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Balcazar, Fabricio

    2009-09-01

    Europe is in the process of building a more participative, just, and inclusive European Union. The European Social Fund, which is an initiative developed to actively promote multinational partnerships that address pressing social issues, is a good example of the European transformation. This article describes the steps taken to develop and evaluate the activities of an international network promoting collaborative capacity among regional partners involved in the prevention of labor discrimination toward immigrants in three European countries-Spain, Belgium, and Italy. An international team of community psychologists proposed an empowering approach to assess the collaborative capacity of the network. This approach consisted of three steps: (1) establishing a collaborative relationship among partners, (2) building collaborative capacity, and (3) evaluating the collaborative capacity of the network. We conclude with lessons learned from the process and provide recommendations for addressing the challenges inherent in international collaboration processes.

  2. Solving the AOA-Mystery and Does the Taxman Agree?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Irene; Hoyos Jimenez, Catalina; Garcia Novoa, Cesar; Fernandez C., Julio

    This contribution shows why the Authorized OECD Approach to profit allocation to permanent establishment is the approach that is most in line with the principle of neutrality underlying the international tax system

  3. Stakeholder views of rural community-based medical education: a narrative review of the international literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somporn, Praphun; Ash, Julie; Walters, Lucie

    2018-03-30

    Rural community-based medical education (RCBME), in which medical student learning activities take place within a rural community, requires students, clinical teachers, patients, community members and representatives of health and government sectors to actively contribute to the educational process. Therefore, academics seeking to develop RCBME need to understand the rural context, and the views and needs of local stakeholders. The aim of this review is to examine stakeholder experiences of RCBME programmes internationally. This narrative literature review of original research articles published after 1970 utilises Worley's symbiosis model of medical education as an analysis framework. This model proposes that students experience RCBME through their intersection with multiple clinical, social and institutional relationships. This model seeks to provide a framework for considering the intersecting relationships in which RCBME programmes are situated. Thirty RCBME programmes are described in 52 articles, representing a wide range of rural clinical placements. One-year longitudinal integrated clerkships for penultimate-year students in Anglosphere countries were most common. Such RCBME enables students to engage in work-integrated learning in a feasible manner that is acceptable to many rural clinicians and patients. Academic results are not compromised, and a few papers demonstrate quality improvement for rural health services engaged in RCBME. These programmes have delivered some rural medical workforce outcomes to communities and governments. Medical students also provide social capital to rural communities. However, these programmes have significant financial cost and risk student social and educational isolation. Rural community-based medical education programmes are seen as academically acceptable and can facilitate symbiotic relationships among students, rural clinicians, patients and community stakeholders. These relationships can influence students' clinical

  4. Global Learning Communities: A Comparison of Online Domestic and International Science Class Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Steven C.; Carlsen, William S.; Kelly, Gregory J.; Goehring, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    The conception of Global Learning Communities (GLCs) was researched to discover potential benefits of the use of online technologies that facilitated communication and scientific data sharing outside of the normal classroom setting. 1,419 students in 635 student groups began the instructional unit. Students represented the classrooms of 33 teachers from the USA, 6 from Thailand, 7 from Australia, and 4 from Germany. Data from an international environmental education project were analyzed to describe grades 7-9 student scientific writing in domestic US versus international-US classroom online partnerships. The development of an argument analytic and a research model of exploratory data analysis followed by statistical testing were used to discover and highlight different ways students used evidence to support their scientific claims about temperature variation at school sites and deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Findings show modest gains in the use of some evidentiary discourse components by US students in international online class partnerships compared to their US counterparts in domestic US partnerships. The analytic, research model, and online collaborative learning tools may be used in other large-scale studies and learning communities. Results provide insights about the benefits of using online technologies and promote the establishment of GLCs.

  5. Evidence-based practice guidelines in OHS: are they agree-able?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Carel; Hoenen, John

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptance, validity, reliability and feasibility of the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines and REsearch and Evaluation) instrument to assess the quality of evidence-based practice guidelines for occupational physicians. In total, 6 practice guidelines of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine (NVAB) were appraised by 20 occupational health professionals and experts in guideline development or implementation. Although appraisers often disagreed on individual item scores, the internal consistency and interrater reliability for most domains was sufficient. The AGREE criteria were in general considered relevant and no major suggestions for additional items for use in the context of occupational health were brought up. The domain scores for the individual guidelines show a wide variety: 'applicability' had on average the lowest mean score (53%) while 'scope and purpose' had the highest one (87%). Low scores indicate where improvements are possible and necessary, e.g. by providing more information about the development. Key experts in occupational health report that AGREE is a relevant and easy to use instrument to evaluate quality aspects and the included criteria provide a good framework to develop or update evidence-based practice guidelines in the field of occupational health.

  6. Conflict Resolution in Africa: Challenges for the International Community, The Organization of African Unity and the Sub- Regional Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wamala, Edward

    2000-01-01

    .... It will discuss in detail the common causes of the conflicts, highlight the roles of external players, the challenges and roles of the international community, the Organization of African Unity (OAU...

  7. Factors that contribute to social media influence within an Internal Medicine Twitter learning community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Patwardhan, Manish; Coore, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Medical societies, faculty, and trainees use Twitter to learn from and educate other social media users. These social media communities bring together individuals with various levels of experience. It is not known if experienced individuals are also the most influential members. We hypothesize that participants with the greatest experience would be the most influential members of a Twitter community. We analyzed the 2013 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Twitter community. We measured the number of tweets authored by each participant and the number of amplified tweets (re-tweets). We developed a multivariate linear regression model to identify any relationship to social media influence, measured by the PageRank. Faculty (from academic institutions) comprised 19% of the 132 participants in the learning community (p influence amongst all participants (mean 1.99, p influence (β = 0.068, p = 0.6). The only factors that predicted influence (higher PageRank) were the number of tweets authored (p influence. Any participant who was able to author the greatest number of tweets or have more of his/her tweets amplified could wield a greater influence on the participants, regardless of his/her authority.

  8. International Institutions and Domestic Reform: Equal Pay and British Membership in the European Economic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frader, Laura Levine

    2018-03-01

    Despite having been overlooked in the standard histories of the UK and the European Community, gender politics and gender policies played a significant role in Britain's applications for membership in the EEC in the 1960s. Joining the European Community required that Britain comply with Article 119 on equal pay for equal work. A combination of domestic feminist and labour movement activism, the commitment of unions and parties, and the internationalization of formal commitments to women's rights constituted internal and external pressures for the passage of an Equal Pay Act in 1970. The article argues that the formal legislative commitment to gender pay equality, changing public attitudes towards women's employment, and European membership impacted further domestic social policy reform and slowly began to shift government attitudes towards gender equality.

  9. Community governance in primary health care: towards an international Ideal Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, Geoffrey; Russell, Grant; Lees, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Against a global background of increased resource management responsibilities for primary health care agencies, general medical practices, in particular, are increasingly being required to demonstrate the legitimacy of their decision making in market oriented environments. In this context a scoping review explores the potential utility for health managers in primary health care of community governance as a policy concept. The review of recent research suggests that applied learning from international health systems with enhanced approaches to public and patient involvement may contribute to meeting this requirement. Such approaches often characterise local health systems in Latin America and North West Europe where innovative models are beginning to respond effectively to the growing demands on general practice. The study design draws on documentary and secondary data analyses to identify common components of community governance from the countries in these regions, supplemented by other relevant international studies and sources where appropriate. Within a comprehensive framework of collaborative governance the components are aggregated in an Ideal Type format to provide a point of reference for possible adaptation and transferable learning across market oriented health systems. Each component is illustrated with international exemplars from recent organisational practices in primary health care. The application of community governance is considered for the particular contexts of GP led Clinical Commissioning Groups in England and Primary Health Networks in Australia. Some components of the Ideal Type possess potentially powerful negative as well as positive motivational effects, with PPI at practice levels sometimes hindering the development of effective local governance. This highlights the importance of careful and competent management of the growing resources attributed to primary health care agencies, which possess an increasingly diverse range of non

  10. [Community pharmacy and general internal medicine are at the same crossroads: some opportunities should be seized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnon, O; Buchmann, M

    2012-11-28

    The medicines give some symptoms relief and save lives every day. However, the responsible use of medicines is not definitively attained for the modern health systems. The shortcomings in this area are the cause of major negative clinical outcomes for the patients and the cause of additional cost for the health financing system. The two centenarians, as the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) and the "Policlinique Médicale Universitaire (PMU)" in Lausanne, preview the solutions from now on for reversing this trend, such as the interdisciplinary collaborative approaches, the introduction of adequate financial incentives and the strengthening of education and research in community medicine, pharmacy and health.

  11. Critical Reflection on the Reception of Vygotsky’s Theory in the International Academic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafermos M.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyze various types of the reception of Vygotsky’s theory in the international academic communities. The paper develops a critical analysis of three widespread theoretical frameworks of interpretation of Vygotsky’s theory: cognitivism, culturalism, cultural-historical activity theory. It is argues that fragmented readings of particular ideas of Vygotsky, without enough understanding of the theoretical programme in which these ideas have been included dominates in North-Atlantic research. The paper proposes the reconstruction of the theoretical programme of cultural-historical psychology in the social and scientific context of its formation.

  12. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence on Internalizing Symptoms: Does Desensitization to Violence Occur in African American Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Zelencik, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the linear and curvilinear associations of exposure to community violence to internalizing symptoms in 251 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.86, SD = 1.28). Participants reported on exposure to community violence, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses were used to…

  13. Re-Thinking Internationalization as Social Curriculum for Generative Supervision: Letters from the International Community of Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstén, Meeri; Ucker Perotto, Lilian

    2018-01-01

    This paper concerns research issues on curriculum, pedagogy and the creative use of method in international higher education. It is motivated by the witnessing of a recent shifting in consensus within the global research communities on international education, towards curriculum renewal of shared knowledge within the field. The article enters into…

  14. Degrees of Co-Creation: An Exploratory Study of Perceptions of International Students' Role in Community Engagement Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, David; Raciti, Maria; Lawley, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Increased competition for the international student market has motivated universities to modernize their marketing strategies. Community engagement is an important component of students' international university experience and represents a potential point of competitive advantage. Developing marketing strategies around university-student-community…

  15. Internal tides affect benthic community structure in an energetic submarine canyon off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Guan-Ming; Chiou, Ming-Da; Jan, Sen; Wei, Chih-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Submarine canyons are major conduits of terrestrial and shelf organic matter, potentially benefiting the seafloor communities in the food-deprived deep sea; however, strong bottom currents driven by internal tides and the potentially frequent turbidity currents triggered by storm surges, river flooding, and earthquakes may negatively impact the benthos. In this study, we investigated the upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC), a high-sediment-yield canyon connected to a small mountain river (SMR) off southwest (SW) Taiwan. By contrasting the benthic meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities within and outside the GPSC, we examined how food supplies and disturbance influenced the benthic community assemblages. The benthic communities in the upper GPSC were mainly a nested subset of the adjacent slope assemblages. Several meiofaunal (e.g. ostracods) and macrofaunal taxa (e.g. peracarid crustaceans and mollusks) that typically occurred on the slope were lost from the canyon. The polychaete families switched from diverse feeding guilds on the slope to motile subsurface deposit feeders dominant in the canyon. The diminishing of epibenthic peracarids and proliferation of deep burrowing polychaetes in the GPSC resulted in macrofauna occurring largely within deeper sediment horizons in the canyon than on the slope. The densities and numbers of taxa were depressed with distinct and more variable composition in the canyon than on the adjacent slope. Both the densities and numbers of taxa were negatively influenced by internal tide flushing and positively influenced by food availability; however, the internal tides also negatively influenced the food supplies. While the meiofauna and macrofauna densities were both depressed by the extreme physical conditions in the GPSC, only the macrofaunal densities increased with depth in the canyon, presumably related to increased frequency and intensity of disturbance toward the canyon head. The population densities of meiofauna, on the

  16. East Meets West: The Adaptation of Vietnamese International Students to California Community Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Huu Do

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores seven adaptation aspects that include language and communication, cultural awareness, loneliness and isolation, new educational settings, financial concerns, gender-based differences, and the political impact of the anti-communist Vietnamese American community. Based on Person/Environment Interactionism theory, case studies of eight students from Vietnam at two Southern California community colleges are considered utilizing data derived from weekly diaries, individual interviews, a final group meeting, and academic records. The students’ prior assumptions and expectations are identified and their coping strategies to various adaptation issues are documented and analyzed. The ethnic diversity of Orange County generally facilitated the students’ adaptation efforts in the aspects of language and communications, cultural awareness, and loneliness and isolation. The students seemed to readily adapt to the new educational settings and excel academically despite some different educational practices. There were no apparent gender-based differences in the students’ adaptation. However, unwelcoming attitudes from the anti-communist members of the Vietnamese American community adversely impacted the international students’ socialization with Vietnamese Americans, but did not impact their academic performance.

  17. Topical points of community policy concerning nuclear safety relevant to the Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.

    1991-01-01

    Starting with the Internal Market concept, the lecture describes general and specific expectations directed to the nuclear community from a point of view of nuclear safety, and analyzes those aspects of nuclear safety, EC policy focuses on. There are the following chapters: 1. Selection of sites for nuclear installations, 2. installation and reactor safety, 3. radioactive waste management, 4. decommissioning of nuclear installations, 5. radioactive waste storage, 6. coping with nuclear accidents and other radiological emergency situations. Sophistication of public health and environmental protection within the framework of the EURATOM Treaty is seen in connection with interim and final storage as well as reprocessing of radioactive waste, and with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities on the basis of section 30 ff., and installation and reactor safety on the basis of section 203 EURATOM Treaty. Improving the protection of public health in particular is possible and necessary in order to make the EURATOM community into a proper nuclear community of law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. "NOTHING IS AGREED UNTIL EVERYTHING IS AGREED": INSTITUTIONALIZING RADICAL DISAGREEMENT AND DEALING WITH THE PAST IN NORTHERN IRELAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    2018-01-01

    constitutional futures. It demonstrates that in the absence of an overarching framework for dealing with the past in Northern Ireland, the model is coming into view as accumulated, piecemeal, pluralistic, complex and often contradictory efforts, emerging in the tensions between radical disagreement and attempts...... at reconciliation, between community initiatives and policy discourses, in what may be called a protracted peace process. The chapter argues that navigating this paradox of fixity and fluidity has crucially involved somewhat futile attempts at separating distinct lines of truth and justice in coming to terms...

  19. International comparison of cost of falls in older adults living in the community: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J C; Robertson, M C; Ashe, M C; Liu-Ambrose, T; Khan, K M; Marra, C A

    2010-08-01

    Our objective was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. Our systematic review emphasized the need for a consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies to enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries. The purpose of this study was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. This is a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles reporting estimates for the cost of falls in people aged > or =60 years living in the community. We searched for papers published between 1945 and December 2008 in MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration, and NHS EED databases that identified cost of falls in older adults. We extracted the cost of falls in the reported currency and converted them to US dollars at 2008 prices, cost items measured, perspective, time horizon, and sensitivity analysis. We assessed the quality of the studies using a selection of questions from Drummond's checklist. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria. Studies varied with respect to viewpoint of the analysis, definition of falls, identification of important and relevant cost items, and time horizon. Only two studies reported a sensitivity analysis and only four studies identified the viewpoint of their economic analysis. In the USA, non-fatal and fatal falls cost US $23.3 billion (2008 prices) annually and US $1.6 billion in the UK. The economic cost of falls is likely greater than policy makers appreciate. The mean cost of falls was dependent on the denominator used and ranged from US $3,476 per faller to US $10,749 per injurious fall and US $26,483 per fall requiring hospitalization. A consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies would enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries.

  20. BFS, a Legacy to the International Reactor Physics, Criticality Safety, and Nuclear Data Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J. Blair; Tsibulya, Anatoly; Rozhikhin, Yevgeniy

    2012-01-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. Data provided by these two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades The Russian Federation has been a major contributor to both projects with the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) as the major contributor from the Russian Federation. Included in the benchmark specifications from the BFS facilities are 34 critical configurations from BFS-49, 61, 62, 73, 79, 81, 97, 99, and 101; spectral characteristics measurements from BFS-31, 42, 57, 59, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101; reactivity effects measurements from BFS-62-3A; reactivity coefficients and kinetics measurements from BFS-73; and reaction rate measurements from BFS-42, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101.

  1. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D; Piek, Jan P

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  2. “I’ll Be Home for Christmas”: The Role of International Maasai Migrants in Rural Sustainable Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Archambault

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While the Maasai have to be among sub-Saharan Africa’s most mobile population due to their traditional transhumant pastoral livelihood strategy, compared with other neighboring ethnic groups they have been relatively late to migrate in substantial numbers for wage labour opportunities. In the community of Elangata Wuas in Southern Kenya, international migration for employment abroad has been very rare but promises to increase in significant numbers with the dramatic rise in education participation and diversification of livelihoods. Drawing on long-term ethnographic research and the specific experiences of the few international migrant pioneers in Elangata Wuas, this paper explores how community members assess the impacts of international migration on community sustainable development. It appears that international migration facilitates, and even exacerbates, inequality, which is locally celebrated, under an ethic of inter-dependence, as sustainable development. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of social control employed by community members to socially maintain their migrants as part of the community so that these migrants feel continued pressure and commitment to invest and develop their communities. Such mechanisms are importantly derived from the adaptability and accommodation of culture and the re-invention of tradition.

  3. The role of a family for internal dose formation in rural community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasova, N.V.; Rozhko, A.V.; Stavrov, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Despite correct evaluation of agricultural land contamination of a settlement and the activity of foodstuffs, it is impossible to explain dose formation in rural community. And without this knowledge it is impossible to estimate correctly decision-making. The dose formation research was provided earlier in rural community based on the concept describing that the individual with his personal characteristics, social and economic statuses during his practical activity interacting with the contaminated environment, actively contributes to dose formation. Such approach only partly allows revealing dose formation mechanisms though there are some unclear issues: for example, high doses at some children. At the same time children, as well as all residents are the members of families. Direct consumption of food stuffs is provided within a family. It is preceded with the formation of psycho-emotional perception of radiation danger factor. There have been used the data of internal doses of the inhabitants obtained by the results of WBC-measurements. Simultaneously with performing of WBC measurements by interviewing of adult members of a family there was revealed the frequency of visits to forest and consumption rate of its 'gifts'. The method of a family analysis of internal dose formation is the classification of families by set of the informative attributes describing dose formation in a family such as an average internal dose at a member of a family; family total dose; the description of a family 'contact' with a forest; the number of family members; the number of children in a family; average age and the educational level of adult members of a family; gender and occupation of the head of a family; age and education of the head of a family. As a result of multivariate classification of families in the settlement there was obtained 10 different classes providing complete imagination about a variety of families' types. The average doses in classes essentially

  4. Simulation Model of Microsphere Distribution for Selective Internal Radiation Therapy Agrees With Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Högberg, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.hogberg@radfys.gu.se [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Rizell, Magnus [Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hultborn, Ragnar; Svensson, Johanna [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Henrikson, Olof [Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Mölne, Johan [Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gjertsson, Peter [Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bernhardt, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of microsphere distribution in biopsy material from a patient treated with {sup 90}Y-labeled resin spheres and characterize microsphere distribution in the hepatic artery tree, and to construct a novel dichotomous bifurcation model for microsphere deposits and evaluate its accuracy in simulating the observed microsphere deposits. Methods and Materials: Our virtual model consisted of arteries that successively branched into 2 new generations of arteries at 20 nodes. The artery diameter exponentially decreased from the lowest generation to the highest generation. Three variable parameters were optimized to obtain concordance between simulations and measure microsphere distributions: an artery coefficient of variation (ACV) for the diameter of all artery generations and the microsphere flow distribution at the nodes; a hepatic tree distribution volume (HDV) for the artery tree; and an artery diameter reduction (ADR) parameter. The model was tested against previously measured activity concentrations in 84 biopsies from the liver of 1 patient. In 16 of 84 biopsies, the microsphere distribution regarding cluster size and localization in the artery tree was determined via light microscopy of 30-μm sections (mean concentration, 14 microspheres/mg; distributions divided into 3 groups with mean microsphere concentrations of 4.6, 14, and 28 microspheres/mg). Results: Single spheres and small clusters were observed in terminal arterioles, whereas large clusters, up to 450 microspheres, were observed in larger arterioles. For 14 microspheres/mg, the optimized parameter values were ACV=0.35, HDV = 50 cm{sup 3}, and ADR=6 μm. For 4.6 microspheres/mg, ACV and ADR decreased to 0.26 and 0 μm, respectively, whereas HDV increased to 130 cm{sup 3}. The opposite trend was observed for 28 microspheres/mg: ACV = 0.49, HDV = 20 cm{sup 3}, and ADR = 8 μm. Conclusion: Simulations and measurements reveal that microsphere clusters are larger and more common in volumes with high microsphere concentrations and indicate that the spatial distribution of the artery tree must be considered in estimates of microsphere distributions.

  5. Education in the Commonwealth: Towards and beyond the Internationally Agreed Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menefee, Trey; Bray, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This report was produced for the 2012 Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers meeting in Mauritius. Its main purpose is to track the historical progress and likelihood of attainment of Education For All and education-specific Millennium Development Goals while also critically reviewing the methods used to track this progress. The analyses…

  6. The consequences of increasing assertiveness of trans-national religious communities for international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najamudin Najamudin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transnational communities, or in other terms, the migrant communities whowent to the US and the UK, or to any other European states had strong belief intheir religion in which they might not be contaminated by the secular ideology inthe Western countries. In this respect, the phenomenology of religion in internationalrelations is a relatively new and surprising. Accordingly, this paper aims atinvestigating the implications of the emergence of trans-national religious groupsfor international relations. The paper will argue that the rise of trans-nationalreligious groups has produced a profound impact on international relations. Thefactors that influenced this transformation in international relations is the contemporaryprocesses of globalization which scholars argue, are pivotal to bringingreligion to the centre stage of international relations. In order to deepen theunderstanding of this process, two case scenarios will be analyzed, namely, theSikh Diasporas and the imagined Islamic community, the umma. In this paper, ithas been argued that the rise of trans-national religious actors may affect statesovereignty in one way or another. Under secular ideology, the role of religion ismarginalized from the public sphere, in particular, the domain of politics and religion is being obviously separated. This separation, according to both groups,is problematic. It is therefore, the emergence of Islamic and Sikh communities isconsidered by some liberal democratic countries like India as a peril to its statesovereignty. In Islamic doctrines, the Muslims hold a principle in din wa dawla,the unity of state and religion, while in Sikhism, the Sikhs have to trust miri andpiri, the unification of religious and political institution.Masyarakat transnasional atau dalam terma lain disebut juga sebagai masyarakatmigran yang menetap di Amerika dan Inggris, atau ke negara-negara Eropalainnya memiliki keyakinan yang kuat terhadap agama mereka dan

  7. Community-based Men's Sheds: promoting male health, wellbeing and social inclusion in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Wilson, Nathan J

    2014-09-01

    Males experience greater mortality and morbidity than females in most Western countries. The Australian and Irish National Male Health Policies aim to develop a framework to address this gendered health disparity. Men's Sheds have a distinct community development philosophy and are thus identified in both policies as an ideal location to address social isolation and positively impact the health and wellbeing of males who attend. The aim of this international cross-sectional survey was to gather information about Men's Sheds, the people who attend Men's Sheds, the activities at Men's Sheds, and the social and health dimensions of Men's Sheds. Results demonstrate that Men's Sheds are contributing a dual health and social role for a range of male subgroups. In particular, Men's Sheds have an outward social focus, supporting the social and mental health needs of men; health promotion and health literacy are key features of Men's Sheds. Men's Sheds have an important role to play in addressing the gendered health disparity that males face. They serve as an exemplar to health promotion professionals of a community development context where the aims of male health policy can be actualized as one part of a wider suite of global initiatives to reduce the gendered health disparity. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Are gay communities dying or just in transition? Results from an international consultation examining possible structural change in gay communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon Rosser, B R; West, William; Weinmeyer, Richard

    2008-05-01

    This study sought to identify how urban gay communities are undergoing structural change, reasons for that change, and implications for HIV prevention planning. Key informants (N=29) at the AIDS Impact Conference from 17 cities in 14 countries completed surveys and participated in a facilitated structured dialog about if gay communities are changing, and if so, how they are changing. In all cities, the virtual gay community was identified as currently larger than the offline physical community. Most cities identified that while the gay population in their cities appeared stable or growing, the gay community appeared in decline. Measures included greater integration of heterosexuals into historically gay-identified neighborhoods and movement of gay persons into suburbs, decreased number of gay bars/clubs, less attendance at gay events, less volunteerism in gay or HIV/AIDS organizations, and the overall declining visibility of gay communities. Participants attributed structural change to multiple factors including gay neighborhood gentrification, achievement of civil rights, less discrimination, a vibrant virtual community, and changes in drug use. Consistent with social assimilation, gay infrastructure, visibility, and community identification appears to be decreasing across cities. HIV prevention planning, interventions, treatment services, and policies need to be re-conceptualized for MSM in the future. Four recommendations for future HIV prevention and research are detailed.

  9. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  10. Community Attitudes and Practices of Urban Residents Regarding Predation by Pet Cats on Wildlife: An International Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Hall

    Full Text Available International differences in practices and attitudes regarding pet cats' interactions with wildlife were assessed by surveying citizens from at least two cities in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the USA, China and Japan. Predictions tested were: (i cat owners would agree less than non-cat owners that cats might threaten wildlife, (ii cat owners value wildlife less than non-cat owners, (iii cat owners are less accepting of cat legislation/restrictions than non-owners, and (iv respondents from regions with high endemic biodiversity (Australia, New Zealand, China and the USA state of Hawaii would be most concerned about pet cats threatening wildlife. Everywhere non-owners were more likely than owners to agree that pet cats killing wildlife were a problem in cities, towns and rural areas. Agreement amongst non-owners was highest in Australia (95% and New Zealand (78% and lowest in the UK (38%. Irrespective of ownership, over 85% of respondents from all countries except China (65% valued wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas. Non-owners advocated cat legislation more strongly than owners except in Japan. Australian non-owners were the most supportive (88%, followed by Chinese non-owners (80% and Japanese owners (79.5%. The UK was least supportive (non-owners 43%, owners 25%. Many Australian (62%, New Zealand (51% and Chinese owners (42% agreed that pet cats killing wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas was a problem, while Hawaiian owners were similar to the mainland USA (20%. Thus high endemic biodiversity might contribute to attitudes in some, but not all, countries. Husbandry practices varied internationally, with predation highest where fewer cats were confined. Although the risk of wildlife population declines caused by pet cats justifies precautionary action, campaigns based on wildlife protection are unlikely to succeed outside Australia or New Zealand. Restrictions on roaming protect wildlife and benefit cat welfare, so welfare is a

  11. Community Attitudes and Practices of Urban Residents Regarding Predation by Pet Cats on Wildlife: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nigel A.; Bradley, J. Stuart; Bryant, Kate A.; Davis, Alisa A.; Fujita, Tsumugi; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    International differences in practices and attitudes regarding pet cats' interactions with wildlife were assessed by surveying citizens from at least two cities in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the USA, China and Japan. Predictions tested were: (i) cat owners would agree less than non-cat owners that cats might threaten wildlife, (ii) cat owners value wildlife less than non-cat owners, (iii) cat owners are less accepting of cat legislation/restrictions than non-owners, and (iv) respondents from regions with high endemic biodiversity (Australia, New Zealand, China and the USA state of Hawaii) would be most concerned about pet cats threatening wildlife. Everywhere non-owners were more likely than owners to agree that pet cats killing wildlife were a problem in cities, towns and rural areas. Agreement amongst non-owners was highest in Australia (95%) and New Zealand (78%) and lowest in the UK (38%). Irrespective of ownership, over 85% of respondents from all countries except China (65%) valued wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas. Non-owners advocated cat legislation more strongly than owners except in Japan. Australian non-owners were the most supportive (88%), followed by Chinese non-owners (80%) and Japanese owners (79.5%). The UK was least supportive (non-owners 43%, owners 25%). Many Australian (62%), New Zealand (51%) and Chinese owners (42%) agreed that pet cats killing wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas was a problem, while Hawaiian owners were similar to the mainland USA (20%). Thus high endemic biodiversity might contribute to attitudes in some, but not all, countries. Husbandry practices varied internationally, with predation highest where fewer cats were confined. Although the risk of wildlife population declines caused by pet cats justifies precautionary action, campaigns based on wildlife protection are unlikely to succeed outside Australia or New Zealand. Restrictions on roaming protect wildlife and benefit cat welfare, so welfare is a

  12. Community Report and Recommendations from International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established in April 1995 at a meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon. It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and exploration information about the Moon. We refer to COSPAR and ILEWG ICEUM and lunar conferences and declarations [1-18], present the GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration and give a report on ongoing relevant ILEWG community activities. ILEWG supported community forums, ILEWG EuroMoonMars field campaigns and technology validation activities, as well as Young Lunar Explorers events, and activities with broad stakeholders. We discuss how lunar missions SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1&2, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL, LADEE, Chang'E3 and upcoming missions contribute to lunar exploration objectives & roadmap towards the Moon Village. GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration: "467 International Lunar Explorers, registered delegates from 26 countries, assembled at GLUC Global Lunar Conference including the 11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM11) in Beijing. The conference engaged scientists, engineers, enthusiast explorers, agencies and organisations in the discussion of recent results and activities and the review of plans for exploration. Space agencies representatives gave the latest reports on their current lunar activities and programmes. GLUC-ICEUM11 was a truly historical meeting that demonstrated the world-wide interest in lunar exploration, discovery, and science. More than 400 abstracts were accepted for oral and poster presentations in the technical sessions, organised in 32 sessions within 4 symposia: Science and Exploration; Technology

  13. Response of Submerged Macrophyte Communities to External and Internal Restoration Measures in North Temperate Shallow Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Sabine; Alirangues Nuñez, Marta M.; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Blindow, Irmgard; Davidson, Thomas A.; Gillefalk, Mikael; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Janse, Jan H.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; Jeppesen, Erik; Kabus, Timm; Kelly, Andrea; Köhler, Jan; Lauridsen, Torben L.; Mooij, Wolf M.; Noordhuis, Ruurd; Phillips, Geoff; Rücker, Jacqueline; Schuster, Hans-Heinrich; Søndergaard, Martin; Teurlincx, Sven; van de Weyer, Klaus; van Donk, Ellen; Waterstraat, Arno; Willby, Nigel; Sayer, Carl D.

    2018-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes play a key role in north temperate shallow lakes by stabilizing clear-water conditions. Eutrophication has resulted in macrophyte loss and shifts to turbid conditions in many lakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to shallow lake restoration in many countries, but long-term success depends on a stable recovery of submerged macrophytes. However, recovery patterns vary widely and remain to be fully understood. We hypothesize that reduced external nutrient loading leads to an intermediate recovery state with clear spring and turbid summer conditions similar to the pattern described for eutrophication. In contrast, lake internal restoration measures can result in transient clear-water conditions both in spring and summer and reversals to turbid conditions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these contrasting restoration measures result in different macrophyte species composition, with added implications for seasonal dynamics due to differences in plant traits. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed data on water quality and submerged macrophytes from 49 north temperate shallow lakes that were in a turbid state and subjected to restoration measures. To study the dynamics of macrophytes during nutrient load reduction, we adapted the ecosystem model PCLake. Our survey and model simulations revealed the existence of an intermediate recovery state upon reduced external nutrient loading, characterized by spring clear-water phases and turbid summers, whereas internal lake restoration measures often resulted in clear-water conditions in spring and summer with returns to turbid conditions after some years. External and internal lake restoration measures resulted in different macrophyte communities. The intermediate recovery state following reduced nutrient loading is characterized by a few macrophyte species (mainly pondweeds) that can resist wave action allowing survival in shallow areas, germinate early in spring, have energy-rich vegetative

  14. Response of Submerged Macrophyte Communities to External and Internal Restoration Measures in North Temperate Shallow Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Sabine; Alirangues Nuñez, Marta M; Bakker, Elisabeth S; Blindow, Irmgard; Davidson, Thomas A; Gillefalk, Mikael; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Janse, Jan H; Janssen, Annette B G; Jeppesen, Erik; Kabus, Timm; Kelly, Andrea; Köhler, Jan; Lauridsen, Torben L; Mooij, Wolf M; Noordhuis, Ruurd; Phillips, Geoff; Rücker, Jacqueline; Schuster, Hans-Heinrich; Søndergaard, Martin; Teurlincx, Sven; van de Weyer, Klaus; van Donk, Ellen; Waterstraat, Arno; Willby, Nigel; Sayer, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes play a key role in north temperate shallow lakes by stabilizing clear-water conditions. Eutrophication has resulted in macrophyte loss and shifts to turbid conditions in many lakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to shallow lake restoration in many countries, but long-term success depends on a stable recovery of submerged macrophytes. However, recovery patterns vary widely and remain to be fully understood. We hypothesize that reduced external nutrient loading leads to an intermediate recovery state with clear spring and turbid summer conditions similar to the pattern described for eutrophication. In contrast, lake internal restoration measures can result in transient clear-water conditions both in spring and summer and reversals to turbid conditions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these contrasting restoration measures result in different macrophyte species composition, with added implications for seasonal dynamics due to differences in plant traits. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed data on water quality and submerged macrophytes from 49 north temperate shallow lakes that were in a turbid state and subjected to restoration measures. To study the dynamics of macrophytes during nutrient load reduction, we adapted the ecosystem model PCLake. Our survey and model simulations revealed the existence of an intermediate recovery state upon reduced external nutrient loading, characterized by spring clear-water phases and turbid summers, whereas internal lake restoration measures often resulted in clear-water conditions in spring and summer with returns to turbid conditions after some years. External and internal lake restoration measures resulted in different macrophyte communities. The intermediate recovery state following reduced nutrient loading is characterized by a few macrophyte species (mainly pondweeds) that can resist wave action allowing survival in shallow areas, germinate early in spring, have energy-rich vegetative

  15. Guideline appraisal with AGREE II: online survey of the potential influence of AGREE II items on overall assessment of guideline quality and recommendation for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Eßer, Wiebke; Siering, Ulrich; Neugebauer, Edmund A M; Brockhaus, Anne Catharina; McGauran, Natalie; Eikermann, Michaela

    2018-02-27

    The AGREE II instrument is the most commonly used guideline appraisal tool. It includes 23 appraisal criteria (items) organized within six domains. AGREE II also includes two overall assessments (overall guideline quality, recommendation for use). Our aim was to investigate how strongly the 23 AGREE II items influence the two overall assessments. An online survey of authors of publications on guideline appraisals with AGREE II and guideline users from a German scientific network was conducted between 10th February 2015 and 30th March 2015. Participants were asked to rate the influence of the AGREE II items on a Likert scale (0 = no influence to 5 = very strong influence). The frequencies of responses and their dispersion were presented descriptively. Fifty-eight of the 376 persons contacted (15.4%) participated in the survey and the data of the 51 respondents with prior knowledge of AGREE II were analysed. Items 7-12 of Domain 3 (rigour of development) and both items of Domain 6 (editorial independence) had the strongest influence on the two overall assessments. In addition, Items 15-17 (clarity of presentation) had a strong influence on the recommendation for use. Great variations were shown for the other items. The main limitation of the survey is the low response rate. In guideline appraisals using AGREE II, items representing rigour of guideline development and editorial independence seem to have the strongest influence on the two overall assessments. In order to ensure a transparent approach to reaching the overall assessments, we suggest the inclusion of a recommendation in the AGREE II user manual on how to consider item and domain scores. For instance, the manual could include an a-priori weighting of those items and domains that should have the strongest influence on the two overall assessments. The relevance of these assessments within AGREE II could thereby be further specified.

  16. Linking Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Climate and Food Security: an Initiative of International Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Humans face climatic and hydro-meteorological hazards on different scales in time and space. In particular natural hazards can have disastrous impact in the short term (flood) and in the long term (drought) as they affect human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. They represent a pending danger for vulnerable lifelines, infrastructure and the agricultural systems that depend on the water supply, reservoirs, pipelines, and power plants. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Extreme natural events such as extreme floods or prolonged drought can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. The beginning of the XX1st century has been marked by a significant number of natural disasters, such as floods, severe storms, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Extreme natural events cause devastation resulting in loss of human life, large environmental damage, and partial or total loss of infrastructure that, in the longer time, will affect the potential for agricultural recovery. Recent catastrophic events of the early 21st century (e.g. floods in Pakistan and Thailand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami) remind us once again that there is a strong coupling between complex solid Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric processes and that even developed countries such as Japan are subject to agricultural declines as a result of disastrous hydro-meteorological events. Scientific community recognizes that communication between the groups of experts of various international organizations dealing with natural hazards and their activity in disaster risk reduction and food security needs to be strengthened. Several international scientific unions and intergovernmental institutions set up a consortium of experts to promote studies of weather, climate and their interaction with agriculture, food and their socio

  17. Geothermal pilot study final report: creating an international geothermal energy community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresee, J.C.; Yen, W.W.S.; Metzler, J.E. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    The Geothermal Pilot Study under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was established in 1973 to apply an action-oriented approach to international geothermal research and development, taking advantage of the established channels of governmental communication provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Pilot Study was composed of five substudies. They included: computer-based information systems; direct application of geothermal energy; reservoir assessment; small geothermal power plants; and hot dry rock concepts. The most significant overall result of the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study, which is now complete, is the establishment of an identifiable community of geothermal experts in a dozen or more countries active in development programs. Specific accomplishments include the creation of an international computer file of technical information on geothermal wells and fields, the development of studies and reports on direct applications, geothermal fluid injection and small power plants, and the operation of the visiting scientist program. In the United States, the computer file has aready proven useful in the development of reservoir models and of chemical geothermometers. The state-of-the-art report on direct uses of geothermal energy is proving to be a valuable resource document for laypersons and experts in an area of increasing interest to many countries. Geothermal fluid injection studies in El Salvador, New Zealand, and the United States have been assisted by the Reservoir Assessment Substudy and have led to long-range reservoir engineering studies in Mexico. At least seven small geothermal power plants are in use or have been planned for construction around the world since the Small Power Plant Substudy was instituted--at least partial credit for this increased application can be assigned to the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study. (JGB)

  18. Strategies to Mitigate the Negative and Accentuate the Positive Impacts of International Service-Learning on Host Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Galiardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available International service-learning can have a transformative effect on student participants, but little research has been done on the impact of these experiences on host communities. The authors make the case that an emphasis on intentional personal, cultural, and group preparation is imperative to have the best possible impact on both the student and host community. Overarching strategies include: 1 preparing students for their experience prior to departure from both an individual and group development perspective; 2 designing reflection activities and discussions that include members of the host community; 3 facilitating open conversations about equitable relationships, international perspectives of Americans, and potential negative effects the group could have on the host community; 4 providing opportunities for post-travel dialogue and personal action plans for re-engaging with the local community upon return. The authors draw from both theoretical frameworks and many years of experience traveling abroad with students to underpin the strategies outlined in this article. KEYWORDSservice-learning; group development; international

  19. The disarmament agenda of the international community in 1994 and beyond. Statements of the Secretary-General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutros Ghali, B.

    1994-04-01

    The document comprises two statements of the Secretary-General delivered in January 1994, conveys present thinking on possible approaches to be taken in the light of the events of the past year and views on a number of specific tasks that the international community must now carry out with a sense of urgency.

  20. Testing the influence of external and internal cues on smoking motivation using a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Erika B; Brandon, Thomas H

    2010-02-01

    Exposing smokers to either external cues (e.g., pictures of cigarettes) or internal cues (e.g., negative affect induction) can induce urge to smoke and other behavioral and physiological responses. However, little is known about whether the two types of cues interact when presented in close proximity, as is likely the case in the real word. Additionally, potential moderators of cue reactivity have rarely been examined. Finally, few cue-reactivity studies have used representative samples of smokers. In a randomized 2 x 2 crossed factorial between-subjects design, the current study tested the effects of a negative affect cue intended to produce anxiety (speech preparation task) and an external smoking cue on urge and behavioral reactivity in a community sample of adult smokers (N = 175), and whether trait impulsivity moderated the effects. Both types of cues produced main effects on urges to smoke, despite the speech task failing to increase anxiety significantly. The speech task increased smoking urge related to anticipation of negative affect relief, whereas the external smoking cues increased urges related to anticipation of pleasure; however, the cues did not interact. Impulsivity measures predicted urge and other smoking-related variables, but did not moderate cue-reactivity. Results suggest independent rather than synergistic effects of these contributors to smoking motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. [Prognostic factors in community acquired pneumonia. Prospective multicenter study in internal medical departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinario Hidalgo, R; Suárez Cabrera, M; Geijo Martínez, M P; Bernabéu-Wittel, M; Falguera Sacrest, M; Limiñana Cañal, J M

    2007-10-01

    the aims of the present study were to evaluate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients suffering from community-acquired pneumonia attended in the Internal Medical Departments of several Spanish institutions and to analyze those prognostic factors predicting thirty-day mortality in such patients. Past medical history, symptoms and signs, radiological pattern and blood parameters including albumin and C Reactive Protein, were recorded for each patient. Time from admission to starting antibiotics (in hours) and follow-up (in days) were also recorded. Patients were stratified by the Pneumonia Severity Index in five risk classes. 389 patients were included in the study, most of them in Fine categories III to V. Mortality rate for all patients was 12.1% (48 patients), increasing up to 40% in Fine Class V. Neither age, sex nor time from admission to the start of antibiotic treatment predicted survival rates. Plasmatic levels of PCR or microbiologic diagnosis were not related to clinical outcome. In the Cox regression analysis, oriented patients (OR 0.138, IC95% 0.055-0.324), and those with normal albuminemia (OR 0.207, IC95% 0.103-0.417) showed better survival rates. On the contrary, those with active carcinoma (OR 3.2, IC95% 1.181-8.947) significantly showed a reduced life expectancy. Besides the fully accepted Fine scale criteria, albumin measurements should be included in routine evaluation in order to improve patient s prognostic classification.

  2. A critical appraisal of chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorders clinical practice guidelines using the AGREE II instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekercioglu, Nigar; Al-Khalifah, Reem; Ewusie, Joycelyne Efua; Elias, Rosilene M; Thabane, Lehana; Busse, Jason W; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Iorio, Alfonso; Isayama, Tetsuya; Martínez, Juan Pablo Díaz; Florez, Ivan D; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2017-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) suffer high rates of morbidity and mortality, in particular related to bone and cardiovascular outcomes. The management of CKD-MBD remains challenging. The objective of this systematic survey is to critically appraise clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) addressing CKD-MBD. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guideline International Network and Turning Research into Practice up to May 2016. Teams of two reviewers, independently and in duplicate, screened titles and abstracts and potentially eligible full text reports to determine eligibility and subsequently appraised the guidelines using the Advancing Guideline Development, Reporting and Evaluation in Health Care instrument II (AGREE). Sixteen CPGs published from 2003 to 2015 addressing the diagnosis and management of CKD-MBD in adult patients (11 English, two Spanish, one Italian, one Portuguese and one Slovak) proved eligible. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline performed best with respect to AGREE II criteria; only three other CPGs warranted high scores on all domains. All other guidelines received scores of under 60% on one or more domains. Major discrepancies in recommendations were not, however, present, and we found no association between quality of CPGs which was not associated with resulting recommendations. Most guidelines assessing CKD-MBD suffer from serious shortcomings using AGREE criteria although limitations with respect to AGREE criteria do not necessarily lead to inappropriate recommendations.

  3. Monitoring of international normalized ratios: comparison of community nurses with family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Max A; Shao, Wei; Klein, Douglas

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether community-based, nurse-led monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients requiring long-term warfarin therapy was comparable to traditional physician monitoring. A retrospective cohort analysis of patients taking long-term warfarin therapy. The study used data gathered from 3 family medicine clinics in a primary care network in Edmonton, Alta. Medical records of patients currently taking warfarin were examined. Implementation of nurse-led monitoring in a primary care network in place of standard family physician INR monitoring. The degree of INR control before and after the implementation of nurse-run INR monitoring was assessed. The average proportion of time spent outside of therapeutic INR ranges, as well as the average number of days between successive INR readings, was calculated and compared. The degree of control placed patients into either a good-control group (out of range ≤ 25% of the time) or a moderate-control group (out of range > 25% of the time) and these groups were compared. Before nurse monitoring, INR values were out of range 20.4% of the time; after nurse monitoring they were out of range 19.2% of the time (P = .115); the time between sequential INR readings also did not differ before and after implementation of nurse monitoring (23.9 vs 21.6 days, P = .789). Nurse-led monitoring of INR is as effective as traditional physician monitoring. Advantages of nurse-led monitoring might include freeing family physicians to see more patients or to spend less time at work. It might also represent potential cost savings.

  4. Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  5. [Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Schizophrenia: Evaluation Using AGREE II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Ávila, Mauricio J; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; García Valencia, Jenny; Arenas Borrero, Álvaro Enrique; Vélez Traslaviña, Ángela; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Colombia is developing multiple national practice guidelines from a range of diseases. Clinical practice guidelines represent a very useful tool to be able to take decision over a patient care that is widely available for the clinician. In psychiatry there are a good number of international clinical guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia nevertheless there is no article that evaluate them scientifically In the settings of developing a Colombian schizophrenia practice guideline, a systematic search was performed in multiple databases and the results were then evaluated by two trained persons. We present the results globally and by domains. We found 164 matches for possible guidelines. After screening 7 guidelines were evaluated with the AGREE II instrument. Globally and by the different domains, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) was the guideline that got the best score. From the guidelines that were reviewed, 4 were from Europe and only 2 were from Latin America. None of the guidelines used GRADE methodology for the recommendations. The diversity of the schizophrenia treatment guidelines does not allow an easy adoption of the recommendation by a psychiatrist in Colombia. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Building a Community of Practice for Researchers: The International Network for Simulation-Based Pediatric Innovation, Research and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Auerbach, Marc; Calhoun, Aaron; Mackinnon, Ralph; Chang, Todd P; Nadkarni, Vinay; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Duval-Arnould, Jordan; Peiris, Nicola; Kessler, David

    2018-06-01

    The scope and breadth of simulation-based research is growing rapidly; however, few mechanisms exist for conducting multicenter, collaborative research. Failure to foster collaborative research efforts is a critical gap that lies in the path of advancing healthcare simulation. The 2017 Research Summit hosted by the Society for Simulation in Healthcare highlighted how simulation-based research networks can produce studies that positively impact the delivery of healthcare. In 2011, the International Network for Simulation-based Pediatric Innovation, Research and Education (INSPIRE) was formed to facilitate multicenter, collaborative simulation-based research with the aim of developing a community of practice for simulation researchers. Since its formation, the network has successfully completed and published numerous collaborative research projects. In this article, we describe INSPIRE's history, structure, and internal processes with the goal of highlighting the community of practice model for other groups seeking to form a simulation-based research network.

  7. TAXATION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION - EVIDENCE FROM THE SWISS CENSUS USING COMMUNITY-LEVEL VARIATION IN INCOME TAX RATES

    OpenAIRE

    Liebig, Thomas; Puhani, Patrick A.; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between income tax rate variation and internal migration for the unique case of Switzerland, whose system of determining tax rates primarily at the community level results in enough variation to permit analysis of their influence on migration. Specifically, using Swiss census data, we analyze migratory responses to tax rate variations for various groups defined by age, education, and nationality/residence permit. The results suggest that young Swiss college gra...

  8. THE DEAL WITH IRAN IS THE BEST-CASE SCENARIO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY COULD ACHIEVE IN THE CURRENT GEOPOLITICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    nonproliferation regime. However, the international community retains all options to achieve the objective of preventing Iran from producing a nuclear weapon...of U.S. Iran policy since 1979 but the imposition of U.N. Security Council and worldwide sanctions escalated after 2006 and increased dramatically...Diplomacy 2011), 333. 15 Celia L/ Reynolds and Wilfred T. Wan, "Empirical trends in sanctions and possitive inducements in nonproliferation ", in

  9. Sustainable Products and the PPMs Dilemma: How the international community can help in resolving developing countries' concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borregaard, Nicola [RIDES (Chile); Dufey, Annie

    2004-07-01

    Sustainable Products have been identified as having significant potential for win-win-win outcomes from trade for developing countries. However, several barriers are preventing developing countries from exploiting these opportunities. While the international community could play a key role in resolving some constraints, national governments need also to take a more proactive and coherent approach to promote sustainable products if they want to keep abreast with a highly dynamic and rapidly evolving market.

  10. Policy communities and allocation of internalized cost : negotiation of the Ontario acid rain program, 1982-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    The process of allocating the internalized cost of environmental protection amongst industrial concerns and governments was studied. The issue was addressed by reviewing the literature on the treatment of externalities by economists, and the literature describing the approach to policy analysis by the the policy communities. An examination of a case study in which the cost of sulphur dioxide emission reductions was allocated amongst the major Ontario sources during the development of the 1985 national and Ontario acid rain programs was presented. The study provided an insight into issues regarding Canadian environmental policy and policy communities theory and practice. The Ontario allocation was negotiated by Ontario alone, even though it was part of a national program. The environmental movement also had no role in this Ontario policy decisions. The power to influence the Ontario cabinet belonged to MOE, Inco, and Ontario Hydro through negotiations and compromise, which conforms to the basic premise of the policy communities approach.

  11. Developing a Conceptual Framework for Student Learning during International Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Matthew A.; Taouk, Youssef; Guinea, Stephen; Bunch, Katie; Flowers, Karen; Nightingale, Karen

    2016-01-01

    University-community engagement often involves students engaging with people who experience multiple forms of disadvantage or marginalization. This is particularly true when universities work with communities in developing nations. Participation in these projects can be challenging for students. Assumptions about themselves, their professional…

  12. Social Marginalization and Internal Exclusion: Gay Men's Understandings and Experiences of Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick; Bryan, Alyssa; Hendriks, Andrew; Horvath, Cynthia; Bouchard, Christiane; Etches, Vera

    2014-03-01

    A total of 27 gay and bisexual men were interviewed about how they perceived the criminal prosecution of persons living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status. The stories that emerged from the interviews raise questions about the nature of the gay community. The findings centre on the participants' descriptions of (1) the heterosexual meta-culture, (2) the locales of gay life, and (3) unsupportive elements in the gay community. Analysis of the interview data situates the gay community as a place of both inclusion and exclusion and as a heterogeneous environment. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.

  13. Banking on coal: perspectives on a Cape Breton community within an international context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.F.

    1997-12-31

    The development of the coal mining industry in Inverness, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia is described from the discovery of coal in the 17th century to the closing of the last mine in 1953, with its aftermath within the single industry community. The impact of the mines and unions on the community, public perception of coal miners, the miners self-perception, social and religious aspects, and politics are considered. Studies of three other coal mining communities (in Great Britain, the United States, and Australia) are examined, as a comparison. 140 refs., 283 notes, 11 photos.

  14. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  15. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call "variation level." We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research.

  16. Humans and deep networks largely agree on which kinds of variation make object recognition harder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Reza Kheradpisheh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g. 3D rotations. Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN, which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth as well as their magnitude, which we call variation level. We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier. This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research.

  17. Assessing Acculturative Stress of International Students at a U.S. Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Hardaye R.; Shneyderman, Yuliya; McNamara, Gloria S.; Grace, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that international college students experience high levels of acculturative stress, which can adversely impact their health and college success. The levels of immersion in one's native culture and the culture of the U.S. may impact levels of acculturative stress in international students. This cross-sectional study examined…

  18. Disentangling the Associations between Autistic-Like and Internalizing Traits: A Community Based Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Victoria; Ronald, Angelica; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Happe, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Internalizing difficulties are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the underlying cause of this comorbidity. It is also unclear which types of autistic-like and internalizing difficulties are most strongly associated. The current study investigated the phenotypic and etiological associations…

  19. Activities of nuclear training centre in Ljubljana for nuclear community in Slovenia and internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, Andrej

    1998-01-01

    It is the vision of the Nuclear Training Centre to be a respected source of knowledge about nuclear technologies in the country and internationally. Our main mission is training of NPP Krsko personnel. For that purpose the training centre was established ten years ago. In addition we are spreading our activities also to other users. We are organizing international training courses, mainly under the sponsorship of the International Atomic Energy Agency. We are also authorized to train professionals, dealing with ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and science. Growing importance is given to our public information activity in our information centre. (author)

  20. Active Rehabilitation-a community peer-based approach for persons with spinal cord injury: international utilisation of key elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divanoglou, A; Tasiemski, T; Augutis, M; Trok, K

    2017-06-01

    Active Rehabilitation (AR) is a community peer-based approach that started in Sweden in 1976. As a key component of the approach, AR training camps provide intensive, goal-oriented, intentional, group-based, customised training and peer-support opportunities in a community environment for individuals with spinal cord injury. Prospective cross-sectional study. To describe the profile of the organisations that use components of the AR approach, and to explore the characteristics and the international variations of the approach. Twenty-two organisations from 21 countries from Europe, Asia and Africa reported using components of the AR approach during the past 10 years. An electronic survey was developed and distributed through a personalised email. Sampling involved a prospective identification of organisations that met the inclusion criteria and snowball strategies. While there were many collaborating links between the organisations, RG Active Rehabilitation from Sweden and Motivation Charitable Trust from the United Kingdom were identified as key supporting organisations. The 10 key elements of the AR approach were found to be used uniformly across the participating organisations. Small variations were associated with variations in country income and key supporting organisation. This is the first study to describe the key elements and international variations of the AR approach. This will provide the basis for further studies exploring the effectiveness of the approach, it will likely facilitate international collaboration on research and operational aspects and it could potentially support higher integration in the health-care system and long-term funding of these programmes.

  1. Report: Agreed-Upon Procedures on EPA’s Fiscal Year 2009 First Quarter Financial Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #09-2-0161, June 8, 2009. We compared the statements with EPA’s crosswalk, recomputed them for mathematical accuracy, and compared them with balances separately generated by us. Except for immaterial rounding differences, the amounts agreed.

  2. Vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation? Andean communities and international fibre markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna fiber is produced by extremely low-income communities that inhabit the harsh environment of the Andes in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia. At the other end of the social scale, affluent consumers are willing to pay high prices for vicuna-made accessories and clothes. Vicuna management projects follow the logic of community-based wildlife management. The rationale for seeking to conserve vicuñas through sustainable use is that commercial utilization of the fiber (obtained from live-shorn animals will generate sufficient economic benefits to outweigh the costs of conservation, and contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. However, although conservation efforts have been extremely successful with vicuñas having recovered from the brink of extinction, the socio-economic achievements have thus far proved modest. This paper explores multiple-objective projects that address vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation in Andean countries. In doing so it analyses the tensions that exist between these objectives, as well as the factors that limit a more equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders. Examples are drawn from vicuna management under common-property in Peru and Bolivia, and vicuna captive management under private property in Argentina. These case studies enable us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the importance of community enterprises and supportive government policy in managing a common pool resource.

  3. Healing the victim, the young offender, and the community via restorative justice: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, S

    2001-03-01

    The 1990s saw the enactment of much "get tough with young offenders" legislation in the United States. At the same, problems with our present punishment and treatment model, in which many youngsters cycle repeatedly through the justice and mental health systems, raised interest in restorative justice, a community-based alternative model emphasizing a balanced, negotiated approach to the needs of victims, offenders, and the community. After summarizing the philosophical bases underlying both models, this article describes the practice of restorative justice in New Zealand, where it was pioneered. Restorative justice has special relevance for Maori community in New Zealand and minority communities in the United States, where youth are consistently overrepresented in the courts, detention centers, and jails, and in which the juvenile justice system is seen as hostile and biased. Outcome data from New Zealand and early outcome research from the United States suggest that the restorative model, in which offenses are understood as a breakdown in social bonds, offers a hopeful alternative for offending youngsters, their families, and their communities.

  4. Linking International Development Actors to Geophysical Infrastructure: Exploring an IRIS Community Role in Bridging a Communications Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner-Lam, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Fisher, K.; Meltzer, A.; Nyblade, A.; Sandvol, E.; Willemann, R.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past quarter century, national investments in high-fidelity digital seismograph networks have resulted in a global infrastructure for real-time in situ earthquake monitoring. Many network operators adhere to community-developed standards, with the result that there are few technical impediments to data sharing and real-time information exchange. Two unanswered questions, however, are whether the existing models of international collaboration will ensure the stability and sustainability of global earthquake monitoring, and whether the participating institutions can work with international development agencies and non- governmental organizations in meeting linked development and natural hazard risk reduction goals. Since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, many of these actors are enlarging their commitments to natural hazard risk reduction and building national technical capacities, among broader programs in poverty alleviation and adaptation to environmental stress. Despite this renewed commitment, international development organizations, with notable exceptions, have been relatively passive in discussions of how the existing earthquake monitoring infrastructure could be leveraged to support risk-reduction programs and meet sustainable development goals. At the same time, the international seismological community - comprising universities and government seismological surveys - has built research and education initiatives such as EarthScope, AfricaArray, and similar programs in China, Europe and South America, that use innovative instrumentation technologies and deployment strategies to enable new science and applications, and promote education and training in critical sectors. Can these developments be combined? Recognizing this communication or knowledge gap, the IRIS International Working Group (IWG) explores the link between the activities of IRIS Members using IRIS facilities and the missions of international development agencies, such as US AID, the World

  5. Canada's stature in international research community enhanced with awarding of nine major projects by CFI

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Foundation for Innovation has announced it will fund nine major projects aimed at increasing Canadian research infrastructure and providing access for Canadian researchers to international facilities (1 page).

  6. The Community Trademark and the Office for Harmonization on the Internal Market (OHIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Grigorut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The registration of products and services through the Community trade mark give them anextended protection, acceptable throughout the European Union (EU. By means of a single registration,protection is obtained in all the 27 Member States and the previously recorded Community trademarks orthose presented for registration automatically extend their effects in the countries that will join the EuropeanUnion. The advantage of registering a Community trade mark is highlighted by minimal registration costs,extended protection across the EU and a minimal time to become legal, for the benefit of exporters and ofthose providing services, in order to avoid divergence (payment of damages and conflicts with thecompanies and businesses in this area.

  7. The effectiveness of international development assistance from American organizations to deaf communities in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy T

    American organizations bringing assistance to deaf people in developing countries unintentionally create relationships of dependency or oppression rather than relationships of support. Using qualitative methods, the author examined the effectiveness of development assistance provided to the Jamaican Deaf community by two American churches, one American nongovernmental organization, and one U.S. federal agency. Documents were reviewed and observations were made. Interviews were conducted with more than 60 deaf and hearing people involved with the American organizations, the Jamaican organizations, and deaf Jamaican beneficiaries. The author concludes that the Jamaican Deaf community was often excluded in planning, designing, or evaluating programs, and was unsatisfied with the American assistance it received. Results also indicate that the American organizations were poorly prepared to work with the Deaf community. Suggestions for American organizations wishing to strengthen and empower deaf people through development assistance in developing countries are proposed.

  8. The regime for nuclear materials and the competence of the Communities to conclude international agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puissochet, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    This is a commentary of a Decision handed down on 14 November 1978 by the Court of Justice of the European Communities. The Court was invited to decide whether it was necessary for the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) to take part in the negociations on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials, Installations and Transport. In its Decision, the Court considered that the negotiations covered certain aspects within the sole competence of Euratom (in particular concerning supply). Euratom should therefore participate in the Convention on this basis. The author analyses the relevant provisions of the Euratom Treaty and expresses reservations on certain conclusions reached by the Court. (NEA) [fr

  9. UNO contribution to attract energy investments in transition economy countries in cooperation with international organizations, banks, and the business community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, L.

    1996-01-01

    Limited financial resources hamper the ability of transition economy countries to take advantage of recent technological progress in energy production, distribution, and consumption. Increased cooperation within and outside the UN system imposed new approaches and action programs to identify financing channels in view of implementing the economic development projects. Since the CNE'94 round table discussions on the role of the UN Economic Commission for Europe in energy cooperation for sustainable development and assistance for transition economy countries, new actions initiated by UN are supported by international organizations, banks, and the business community. The paper is based on recent UN documents, data, and information after six years of reforms. (author). 14 refs

  10. An International Call for Democratizing the Academic Journal Culture from a Community of Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Pryor, Caroline R.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Harris, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    In our reflective essay from our multiple perspectives as journal editors, peer reviewers, and published authors, we present ideas about editorial support, democracy, and innovation in the publishing process. As four tenured professors who work in universities in the states of Illinois, Virginia, Texas, and Kentucky, we are a community of editors…

  11. Virtual Communities in a Secondary School--Discovering the Internal Grammar of Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Laura; García-Pernía, María Ruth; Cortés, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to show how the creation of an innovative scenario, introducing video games and online communities as educational resources in the classroom, facilitates the development of new literacies in the context of participatory culture. The experience described was carried out during the 2010-2011 academic year in a secondary school…

  12. Virtual communities in a secondary school – Discovering the internal grammar of video games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to show how the creation of an innovative scenario, introducing video games and online communities as educational resources in the classroom, facilitates the development of new literacies in the context of participatory culture. The experience described was carried out during the 2010-2011 academic year in a secondary school located in Madrid. The workshop was organized using a social simulation video game, The Sims 3, and the online community Play and Learn, created specifically for this project. From an ethnographic perspective, the article focuses mainly on analyzing what happened outside the game sessions, when the students became involved in the online community after interacting with the game in the classroom. The fact that they participated in a virtual conversational space (through a forum serves to support the game and encourage reflection from all participants. The results show that social relationships were developed within the online community, where individual contributions proved especially important for group discussion. Participation made it possible for students to become aware of the speech and rules of the game and to improve the acquisition process of new literacies.

  13. International co-operation in safety matters within the framework of the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Balz, W.; Essler, W.; Tolley, B.; Gabolde, J.

    1981-01-01

    European Community (EC) countries realize that their energy demand cannot be met without a nuclear component, which is almost a necessity owing to its major economic advantages. Two typical areas where the Commission has stimulated intense international co-operation are as follows: The first broad area deals with efforts towards a gradual harmonization of regulatory health and safety practices and requirements for reactors of an industrially developed type, more specifically (light) water-cooled reactors. The second area concerns joint research programmes and co-ordination activities in research on nuclear safety (LWRs and LMFBRs). These two broad areas are closely interconnected. Information is also given on the existing network of bilateral and multilateral arrangements for the exchange of information of interest to the EC. In conclusion, some problems are highlighted where improvements could be made or where it seems crucial that increased international co-operation and especially agreement should come about. (author)

  14. An International Dialogue on Community Colleges in a Changing World. [Symposium Report of] New Orleans Jam Session (New Orleans, Louisiana, January 8-9, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Stuart; Liston, Cynthia

    This document details a symposium that brought together U.S., Canadian, and European experts, college leaders, and policy makers for an "International Dialogue on Community Colleges in a Changing World." Discussion centered on the following four topics: (1) Community colleges are the largest source of postsecondary education for…

  15. PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AGAINST THE ADVERSE IMPACT OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND OTHER BUSINESS ENTERPRISES: DILEMMAS OF INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machoňová-Schellongová Ivana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about an impact of corporate and business operations on human rights, both positive and negative. Growing influence of corporations, power shift between business and states, as well as the complex nature of corporate governance and transnational operations require international regulations. International community undertook numerous initiatives, the most significant and recent being the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights [2011], embraced by States, corporations and civil society as a “milestone“ in business and human rights agenda. While being a  useful comprehensive set of guidelines, Principles are lacking the legally binding force and any monitoring or complaints mechanism. Therefore, there are growing calls for a legally binding treaty to stipulate clearly human rights obligations of States/businesses vis-à-vis human rights and fill the protection gap for victims of corporate abuses. A newly established working group by the Human Rights Council has started to negotiate terms of reference of such a treaty in June 2015. However, meaningful negotiations are threatened by many factors, including the negative approach of US, EU and other developed States along with the corporate sector advocating for stronger implementation of Principles instead. This article aims to describe efforts of international community to prevent and eliminate a  negative impact of corporate activities on human rights. It shows different approaches and highlights some challenges and dilemmas. It concludes that parallel efforts should be undertaken - to implement the Principles and to negotiate an international treaty – in order to improve protection against an adverse impact of corporate operations on human rights. As for the Czech Republic, it is suggested to embark on the elaboration of the National Action Plan, thus providing for an opportunity to discuss implementation of the Principles among all the

  16. The Role of Romanian Communities in the Diaspora to Promote Romanian International Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Neacsu; Monica Neacsu

    2012-01-01

    Due to its natural and antropic tourist resources–cultural, historical, religious, technical, economic and socio–demographic – Romania can answer a large scale of travel motivations and accordingly, it may attract more and more tourist circulation. An important resource to increase tourist circulation to Romania is the Romanian community all over the world, in the way in which the national authorities, the travel agents, the professional associations etc will be able to influence the leadersh...

  17. Curricular Choices of Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Communities: Translating International Human Rights Law into Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs the provisions of international human rights law in order to analyse whether and how liberal states should regulate Haredi educational practices, which sanctify the exclusive focus on religious studies in schools for boys. It conceptualises the conflict between the right to acceptable education and the right to adaptable…

  18. Working on educational research methods with masters students in an international online learning community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, B; Owen, D; van Veen, K

    In this paper we discuss the background to this study in the development of the international MSc e-Learning Multimedia and Consultancy. The aims of the study focus on the conditions for achieving communication, interaction and collaboration in open and flexible e-learning environments. We present

  19. The international space of the Danish testing community in the interwar years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is to draw attention to the presence and importance of travelling ideas, knowledge, and practices in Danish history of educational test- ing. The article introduces and employs a spatial methodological approach in relation to the connections between the international...

  20. Community Colleges in South Africa? Assessment of Potential from Comparative International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    While South African higher education has, in many respects, achieved remarkable achievements since 1994, a series of serious problems continue to beset the system, and a low internal (high attrition rate) and external (alignment with the employment market) efficiency. There also exist the problems of large scale youth unemployment and the policy…

  1. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database: An International Community-Curated Resource for Paleoecological and Paleoenvironmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. W.; Grimm, E. C.; Ashworth, A. C.; Blois, J.; Charles, D. F.; Crawford, S.; Davis, E.; Goring, S. J.; Graham, R. W.; Miller, D. A.; Smith, A. J.; Stryker, M.; Uhen, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Neotoma Paleoecology Database supports global change research at the intersection of geology and ecology by providing a high-quality, community-curated data repository for paleoecological data. These data are widely used to study biological responses and feedbacks to past environmental change at local to global scales. The Neotoma data model is flexible and can store multiple kinds of fossil, biogeochemical, or physical variables measured from sedimentary archives. Data additions to Neotoma are growing and include >3.5 million observations, >16,000 datasets, and >8,500 sites. Dataset types include fossil pollen, vertebrates, diatoms, ostracodes, macroinvertebrates, plant macrofossils, insects, testate amoebae, geochronological data, and the recently added organic biomarkers, stable isotopes, and specimen-level data. Neotoma data can be found and retrieved in multiple ways, including the Explorer map-based interface, a RESTful Application Programming Interface, the neotoma R package, and digital object identifiers. Neotoma has partnered with the Paleobiology Database to produce a common data portal for paleobiological data, called the Earth Life Consortium. A new embargo management is designed to allow investigators to put their data into Neotoma and then make use of Neotoma's value-added services. Neotoma's distributed scientific governance model is flexible and scalable, with many open pathways for welcoming new members, data contributors, stewards, and research communities. As the volume and variety of scientific data grow, community-curated data resources such as Neotoma have become foundational infrastructure for big data science.

  2. Motivation, Self-Regulated Learning Efficacy, and Academic Achievement among International and Domestic Students at an Urban Community College: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita; Edlin, Margot

    2012-01-01

    This study is designed to examine how intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning efficacy influence academic achievement of international and domestic community college students. Results show that for both international and domestic students, motivation did not directly affect academic achievement. Self-regulated…

  3. Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

  4. International students in United States’ medical schools: does the medical community know they exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashodeep Datta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods: While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results: These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools – both public and private – to support international students’ education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME. However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. Conclusion: By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to

  5. Islamic Education in China: Rebuilding Communities and Expanding Local and International Networks

    OpenAIRE

    armijo, jackie

    2015-01-01

    Over the last twenty years a wide range of Islamic educational opportunities have been developed to meet the needs of China’s 20 million plus Muslim population. In addition to mosque schools, government Islamic colleges, and independent Islamic colleges, a growing number of students have gone overseas to continue their studies at international Islamic universities in Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iran, and Malaysia. 

  6. Integrating topics of sex and gender into medical curricula-lessons from the international community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Kararigas, Georgios; Seeland, Ute; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Kublickiene, Karolina; Einstein, Gillian; Casanova, Robert; Legato, Marianne J

    2016-01-01

    In the era of individualized medicine, training future scientists and health-care providers in the principles of sex- and gender-based differences in health and disease is critical in order to optimize patient care. International successes to incorporate these concepts into medical curricula can provide a template for others to follow. Methodologies and resources are provided that can be adopted and adapted to specific needs of other institutions and learning situations.

  7. The IAEA Nuclear Data Center its role in the International Scientific Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1976-07-01

    The role of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section as an international data information and analysis center for the co-ordination of the world-wide collection, exchange and dissemination of nuclear data is described. Emphasis is put on the recent activities of the center in the assessment of nuclear data needs in various branches of science and technology, and on its projected development as a global referral center for nuclear data. (author)

  8. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT IN COFFEE PRODUCTION IN TWO COMMUNITIES IN THE CENTRAL AREA OF VERACRUZ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Veracruz comes third in terms of national coffee production; however this sector is facing a crisis because of the fall in prices in the international market which has resulted amongst other things in increased emigration to the United States. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between migration and the level of technology employed in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz State: Capulapa and Zapoapan. Information was obtained through observation and by interviewing the members of 46 family production units (FPU. In Zapoapan, the FPUs which presented the highest level of technological management in their coffee plantations were those with greatest access to capital, as they are more extensive, produce other crops than coffee, have more family members in the United States and receive greater remittances; investing 14% more in agriculture. In the case of the FPUs in Capulapa, no relationship was observed between the number of international emigrants, the amount of remittances received and the level of technological management. This may be because 83% of the FPUs cultivate solely coffee and are beholden to the ups and downs of the international market, thus their socio-economic situation is more precarious and 86% of remittances are directed towards family sustenance; with only 7% directed towards agricultural investment.

  9. Between international donors and local faith communities: Intermediaries in humanitarian assistance to Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kathryn; Smith, Jonathan D

    2018-06-12

    This paper explores the crucial part that faith-based organisations (FBOs) play in acting as intermediaries between international donors and local faith communities (LFCs) implementing humanitarian relief projects for Syrian refugees. Humanitarian responses to the mounting Syrian refugee crisis have coincided with greater collaboration between international donors and LFCs. This cooperation often is facilitated by a complex web of non-state intermediaries at the international, national, and local level. This study probes the breadth of roles of these intermediaries, drawing on primary data from case studies of two Christian intermediaries supporting Christian LFCs as they deliver aid primarily to Muslim Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon. The results of the study are connected to the wider literature on LFCs in humanitarian response, revealing how intermediaries address issues of accountability, capacity-building, impartiality, neutrality, and professionalism. The paper concludes by offering suggestions for further research on intermediaries as key actors in the localisation of humanitarian assistance. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  10. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The content of the first International African Vaccinology Conference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussions being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and advocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012. The theme of the conference was "Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases". There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conference workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral and poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the global launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has been significant progress in introducing new and under-utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries

  11. The International Space of the Danish Testing Community in the Post-war Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    International forums and organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations, have played a considerable role in societal developments since the end of World War II. Many changes in post-war Danish public schools like standardized educational testing were formed in dialogue with or initiated......, and up to the end of the Cold War. Exploring the transnational angle is a highly relevant and interesting research topic because it contributes to a deeper understanding of the origin, development and design of Danish school policy and school practice, and the influence from transnational spaces....

  12. 32 CFR 1900.33 - Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... time. 1900.33 Section 1900.33 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL... Administrative Matters § 1900.33 Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time. (a) In general. Agency... the component, (2) The business demands imposed on the component by the Director of Central...

  13. System for Delivering Student Aid Is Flawed, Many Agree, But What's the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Public officials and student aid experts agree that the federal program delivery system is outdated, inefficient, and vulnerable to fraud, but they disagree on how bad the situation is and whether the Education Department has the structure necessary to fix it. A 1995 project to integrate all federal grant and loan programs into one system has not…

  14. Context, Complexity and Contestation: Birmingham's Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education since the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen G.; Freathy, Rob J. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present article offers an historical perspective on the 1975, 1995 and 2007 Birmingham Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education. It draws upon historical evidence uncovered as part of "The hidden history of curriculum change in religious education in English schools, 1969-1979" project, and curriculum history theories, especially…

  15. Resourcing the National Goals for Schooling: An Agreed Framework of Principles for Funding Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Funding for school education in Australia should be on the basis of clear and agreed policy principles for achieving effectiveness, efficiency, equity and a socially and culturally cohesive society. On the basis of these principles a national framework for funding schools will be supported by complementary State and Commonwealth models for funding…

  16. Quality measurers of therapeutic communities for substance dependence: an international collaborative study survey in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Maldonado, Patricia; Rodríguez, Nelcy; Ruiz-Gaviria, Rafael; Escalante, Miguel Ángel; Gómez, Raúl Ángel; de Araujo, Marcelo Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Schmidt; Rivera, Joel Salvador Chávez; García, Jorge Alberto Godínez; Ferrand, Marina Piazza; Blitchtein-Winicki, Dora

    2017-12-20

    In Latin America, substance related disorders are highly prevalent and one of the treatment strategies is the Therapeutic Communities (TCs), however, in Latin America there is scarce data about this treatment strategies, their quality, drop-out rates and patient satisfaction. Based on a previous study in 5 Latin American countries, the TCs who had a score equal or higher than 9 according to the De Leon criteria which are some fundamental items that the TCs should meet, were selected to carry out a descriptive and retrospective study of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the TCs. Data from 58 TCs in 5 countries were included, with a sample of 1414 patients interviewed, of which most were single men, with no hospitalization history in a therapeutic community. Marijuana was the most commonly substance used in the 30 days prior to hospitalization, with 78% of interviewees referring alcohol consumption in the last 6 months and an average onset of psychoactive substances at 16 years of age. A 79% of the patients interviewed perceived some improvement during their stay in the TCs. The less fulfilled Quality Indicators by the TCs were "Requesting a professional qualification to former addicts that belonged to the program" and "Work as part of the therapeutic program". Among the reasons for discharge found in the database, 44% were due to therapeutic discharge with fulfillment of the treatment plan and 44% withdraws. The user satisfaction with TCs, in terms of infrastructure and quality are quite high, as the fulfillment of essential quality items, however, the follow up information to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment is poor or in some cases unknown.

  17. The Roles of Family and Teacher Support in Moderating and Mediating Externalized and Internalized Outcomes of Exposure to Community Violence Among Arab and Jewish Adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Leshem, Becky; Guterman, Neil B

    2018-02-01

    The study examined family and teacher support as factors that can protect adolescents from internalized and externalized problems after exposure to community violence (ECV). Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by a sample of 1,832 Arab and Jewish Israeli high school students. The Arab adolescents reported significantly higher levels of community violence victimization, internalized problems, externalized problems, family support, and teacher support than the Jewish adolescents. The girls reported higher levels of internalized problems, and the boys reported higher levels of externalized problems. ECV predicted high levels of internalized and externalized problems, family support predicted low levels of internalized and externalized problems, and teacher support had no predictive role. Path analysis confirmed the significance of the relationships between ECV effects, support variables, and gender. The limitations of the study and implications of the findings for future research and for the development of family care and family intervention programs are discussed.

  18. Impact of community-based maternal health workers on coverage of essential maternal health interventions among internally displaced communities in eastern Burma: the MOM project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to essential maternal and reproductive health care is poor throughout Burma, but is particularly lacking among internally displaced communities in the eastern border regions. In such settings, innovative strategies for accessing vulnerable populations and delivering basic public health interventions are urgently needed. METHODS: Four ethnic health organizations from the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions collaborated on a pilot project between 2005 and 2008 to examine the feasibility of an innovative three-tiered network of community-based providers for delivery of maternal health interventions in the complex emergency setting of eastern Burma. Two-stage cluster-sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y conducted before and after program implementation enabled evaluation of changes in coverage of essential antenatal care interventions, attendance at birth by those trained to manage complications, postnatal care, and family planning services. RESULTS: Among 2,889 and 2,442 women of reproductive age in 2006 and 2008, respectively, population characteristics (age, marital status, ethnic distribution, literacy were similar. Compared to baseline, women whose most recent pregnancy occurred during the implementation period were substantially more likely to receive antenatal care (71.8% versus 39.3%, prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-2.04] and specific interventions such as urine testing (42.4% versus 15.7%, PRR = 2.69 [95% CI 2.69-3.54], malaria screening (55.9% versus 21.9%, PRR = 2.88 [95% CI 2.15-3.85], and deworming (58.2% versus 4.1%, PRR = 14.18 [95% CI 10.76-18.71]. Postnatal care visits within 7 d doubled. Use of modern methods to avoid pregnancy increased from 23.9% to 45.0% (PRR = 1.88 [95% CI 1.63-2.17], and unmet need for contraception was reduced from 61.7% to 40.5%, a relative reduction of 35% (95% CI 28%-40%. Attendance at birth by those trained to

  19. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  20. Do Countries Consistently Engage in Misinforming the International Community about Their Efforts to Combat Money Laundering? Evidence Using Benford's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleanu, Ioana Sorina

    2017-01-01

    Indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, collected by EUROSTAT, are plagued with shortcomings. In this paper, I have carried out a forensic analysis on a 2003-2010 dataset of indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, that European Union member states self-reported to EUROSTAT, and on the basis of which, their efforts were evaluated. I used Benford's law to detect any anomalous statistical patterns and found that statistical anomalies were also consistent with strategic manipulation. According to Benford's law, if we pick a random sample of numbers representing natural processes, and look at the distribution of the first digits of these numbers, we see that, contrary to popular belief, digit 1 occurs most often, then digit 2, and so on, with digit 9 occurring in less than 5% of the sample. Without prior knowledge of Benford's law, since people are not intuitively good at creating truly random numbers, deviations thereof can capture strategic alterations. In order to eliminate other sources of deviation, I have compared deviations in situations where incentives and opportunities for manipulation existed and in situations where they did not. While my results are not a conclusive proof of strategic manipulation, they signal that countries that faced incentives and opportunities to misinform the international community about their efforts to combat money laundering may have manipulated these indicators. Finally, my analysis points to the high potential for disruption that the manipulation of national statistics has, and calls for the acknowledgment that strategic manipulation can be an unintended consequence of the international community's pressure on countries to put combatting money laundering on the top of their national agenda.

  1. Do Countries Consistently Engage in Misinforming the International Community about Their Efforts to Combat Money Laundering? Evidence Using Benford's Law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sorina Deleanu

    Full Text Available Indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, collected by EUROSTAT, are plagued with shortcomings. In this paper, I have carried out a forensic analysis on a 2003-2010 dataset of indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, that European Union member states self-reported to EUROSTAT, and on the basis of which, their efforts were evaluated. I used Benford's law to detect any anomalous statistical patterns and found that statistical anomalies were also consistent with strategic manipulation. According to Benford's law, if we pick a random sample of numbers representing natural processes, and look at the distribution of the first digits of these numbers, we see that, contrary to popular belief, digit 1 occurs most often, then digit 2, and so on, with digit 9 occurring in less than 5% of the sample. Without prior knowledge of Benford's law, since people are not intuitively good at creating truly random numbers, deviations thereof can capture strategic alterations. In order to eliminate other sources of deviation, I have compared deviations in situations where incentives and opportunities for manipulation existed and in situations where they did not. While my results are not a conclusive proof of strategic manipulation, they signal that countries that faced incentives and opportunities to misinform the international community about their efforts to combat money laundering may have manipulated these indicators. Finally, my analysis points to the high potential for disruption that the manipulation of national statistics has, and calls for the acknowledgment that strategic manipulation can be an unintended consequence of the international community's pressure on countries to put combatting money laundering on the top of their national agenda.

  2. Epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candidemia among Internal Medicine Wards of community hospitals of Udine province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Silvestri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Candidemia is an emerging problem among patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine Wards (IMW. We performed a retrospective study to assess the epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candidaemia recorded over a 3-year period (2010-2012 among IMW of community hospitals of Udine province in Italy: forty-eight patients were identified, with an overall incidence of 1.44 cases/1000 hospital admissions/year. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, followed by Candida parapsilosis that accounted for 42.9% of Tolmezzo cases. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin and caspofungin, while 11.4% of strains were not-susceptible to voriconazole and 14.3% to fluconazole. Crude mortality was 41.7%. In conclusion, in community hospitals overall incidence of candidemia is similar to tertiary care hospitals, but 80% of cases are detected in IMW. Candida species distribution is overlapping, but differences in local epidemiology were found and should be taken into consideration. No resistance to amphotericin and caspofungin was found while resistance to azoles was observed. Knowledge of this data might be useful when planning the best therapeutic strategy.

  3. Building community in international politics: A study of political press conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Bhatia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s increasingly globalised yet disconnected world, especially in the contemporary context of a turbulent political landscape, there has been an increasing effort made by socio-political leaders at solidifying alliances and drawing support from different corners of the world in order to neutralize policies. Drawing on a multidimensional framework, in particular, critical discourse analysis and membership categorization analysis, this paper explores the various strategies employed by political leaders, attempting to reconcile disparate perspectives in the face of increasing socio-economic inter-connection and political dependence. More often than not, it was discovered, political leaders drew upon the somewhat “illusory” notion of “international community”, turning it into a tool of persuasion and membership category. In doing so, this paper aims to illustrate how the creation of illusive categories and perceptions are intended as a means of drawing support from diverse political leaders and projecting a united front before scrutinizing press and public.

  4. [How to assess clinical practice guidelines with AGREE II: The example of neonatal jaundice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renesme, L; Bedu, A; Tourneux, P; Truffert, P

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a very frequent condition that occurs in approximately 50-70% of term or near-term (>35 GA) babies in the 1st week of life. In some cases, a high bilirubin blood level can lead to kernicterus. There is no consensus for the management of neonatal jaundice and few countries have published national clinical practice guidelines for the management of neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of these guidelines. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for national clinical practice guidelines for the management of neonatal jaundice in term or near-term babies. Four independent reviewers assessed the quality of each guideline using the AGREE II evaluation. For each of the clinical practice guidelines, the management modalities were analyzed (screening, treatment, follow-up, etc.). Seven national clinical practice guidelines were found (South Africa, USA AAP, UK NICE, Canada, Norway, Switzerland, and Israel). The AGREE II score showed widespread variation regarding the quality of these national guidelines. There was no major difference between the guidelines concerning the clinical management of these babies. The NICE guideline is the most valuable guideline regarding the AGREE II score. NICE showed that, despite a strong and rigorous methodology, there is no evidenced-based recommended code of practice (RCP). Comparing RCPs, we found no major differences. The NICE guideline showed the best quality. The AGREE II instrument should be used as a framework when developing clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of the future guideline. In France, a national guideline is needed for a more standardized management of neonatal jaundice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the quality of guidelines for myasthenia gravis with the AGREE II instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchang Zhang

    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs are systematically developed statements to assist practitioners in making decisions about appropriate healthcare in specific clinical circumstances. The methodological quality of CPGs for myasthenia gravis (MG are unclear.To critically evaluate the methodological quality of CPGs for MG using AGREE II instrument.A systematical search strategy on PubMed, EMBASE, DynaMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC and the Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM was performed on September 20th 2013. All guidelines related to MG were evaluated with AGREE II. The software used for analysis was SPSS 17.0.A total of 15 CPGs for MG met the inclusion criteria (12 CPGs in English, 3 CPGs in Chinese. The overall agreement among reviews was moderate or high (ICC >0.70. The mean scores (mean ± SD for al six domains were presented as follows: scope and purpose (60.93% ± 16.62%, stakeholder involvement (40.93% ± 20.04%, rigor of development (37.22% ± 30.46%, clarity of presentation (64.26% ± 16.36%, applicability (28.19% ± 20.56% and editorial independence (27.78% ± 28.28%. Compared with non-evidence-based CPGs, evidence-based CPGs had statistically significant higher quality scores for all AGREE II domains (P0.05. The quality scores of CPGs developed by NGC/AAN were higher than the quality scores of CPGs developed by other organizations for all domains. The difference was statistically significant for all domains with the exception of clarity of presentation (P = 0.07.The qualities of CPGs on MG were generally acceptable with several flaws. The AGREE II instrument should be adopted by guideline developers, particularly in China.

  6. Spray-on-skin cells in burns: a common practice with no agreed protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouni, Ammar; Papini, Remo; Lewis, Darren

    2013-11-01

    Cultured epithelial autograft (CEA) has been used for skin coverage after burn wound excision since 1981. It is used in burn units and centres throughout the U.K.; however, there appears to be no agreed standards of practice. We aimed to investigate the experience and current practice with its usage in the management of acute burn injury. An online survey was sent to twenty-five burns consultants in the U.K., who are members of the British Burn Association. We received 14 responses. Rarely have the responders agreed to the same practice in most of the questions. Different choices were given by responders with regards the indications for cell culture, techniques used, primary and secondary dressings used, first wound review timing, and measures used to evaluate outcomes. In the current economic environment, the NHS needs to rationalize services on the basis of cost effectiveness. CEA is an expensive procedure that requires an adequately sterile laboratory, special equipments and highly experienced dedicated staff. When dealing with expensive management options, it is important to have an agreed protocol that can form the standard that can be referred to when auditing practices and results to improve burn management and patients' care. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protocol Additional to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in France is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998. Pursuant to Article 16 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 30 April 2004, the date on which the Agency received written notification that the European Atomic Energy Community and France had met their respective internal requirements for entry into force

  8. International classification of function, disability and health framework for fall risk stratification in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls is an important cause for mortality and morbidity in older adults. The fall risk assessment is an integral component of fall prevention in older adults. The international classification of function, disability and health (ICF can be an ideal comprehensive model for fall risk assessment. There is lack of information relating ICF and fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults. In this study we tried to assess the fall risk using different domains of ICF using various clinical tools. A total of 255 subjects were recruited through convenient sampling method from geriatric clinic (OPD of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The study was single session cross-section design. The body mass index (BMI, grip strength, depression score (Geriatric depression scale:short form; GDS-S and co morbidities were used to assess body function and structure domain, timed up and go (TUG, Berg balance scale (BBS and elderly fall screening test (EFST scores were used for activity domain, selfreported cause of fall, medications and uses of assistive device for environmental factors. Then the association of body function and structure, activity and environmental factors were determined with falls. There was an association of fall in analysis in subjects with no fall and one or more falls for, BMI, grip strength (kg, GDS-S score, no. of co morbidities, chronic pain, TUG, BBS, TUG (s, BBS, EFST, slip/trip, walking cane, hypoglycemic and antihypertensives medications (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio.The diabetes, and hyper tension showed association for adjusted odds ratio only. In subjects with one fall and more than one fall, TUG, BBS, EFST, GDS-S score, NSAIDS and antidepressants use showed a significant association with fall (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio. The ICF may be used in routine for fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults.

  9. Europe Agrees on Common Strategy to Initiate Study of LSA/MMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Council Specifies ESO's Role in Planning In an extraordinary meeting at the ESO Headquarters, the ESO Council today endorsed ESO's involvement in the planning of a major new astronomical facility in the southern hemisphere. Some years from now, the Large Southern Array/Millimetre Array (LSA/MMA) may become the world's prime sub-mm/mm radio observatory [1] at a pristine site at 5000 m altitude in the Chilean Andes, not very far from the VLT Paranal Observatory. Background One of the highest-priority items in astronomy today is a large millimetre-wavelength array. This would be a millimetre counterpart to the ESO VLT and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with similar scientific objectives and comparable high angular resolution and sensitivity. An antenna array with about 10,000 m 2 area would provide very high sensitivity and angular resolution, compatible with that of the VLT and HST. Such a large collecting area implies an array with many antennas and baselines, which give the added advantage of fast, high-quality images. The site must be high, dry, large, and flat - a high plateau in the Atacama desert is ideal, and has the great advantage of being in the southern hemisphere, important for compatibility with the VLT. Thus, discussions in Europe have focussed on a "Large Southern Array" (LSA) . The scientific case for such a telescope is overwhelming. It would be able to study the origins of galaxies and stars: the epoch of first galaxy formation and the evolution of galaxies at later stages, including the dust-obscured star-forming galaxies that the HST and VLT cannot see, and all phases of star formation hidden away in dusty molecular clouds. But the LSA will go far beyond these main science drivers - it will have a major impact on virtually all areas of astronomy, and make millimetre astronomy accessible to all astronomers. It may well have as big a user community as the VLT itself. European involvement in millimetre astronomy Europe already has a

  10. Decisions to Perform Emergency Caesarean Sections at a University Hospital; Do obstetricians agree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Vaidyanathan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to assess the degree of agreement amongst obstetricians regarding decisions to perform emergency Caesarean section (CS procedures at a university hospital. Methods: This retrospective clinical audit was carried out on 50 consecutive emergency CS procedures performed between November 2012 and March 2013 on women with singleton pregnancies at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman. Data on each procedure were collected from electronic patient records and independently reviewed by six senior obstetricians to determine agreement with the decision. Results: Of the 50 women who underwent CS procedures, the mean age was 28.9 ± 5.1 years and 48% were primigravidae. A total of 65% of the CS procedures were category I. The most common indications for a CS was a non-reassuring fetal heart trace (40% and dystocia (32%. There was complete agreement on the decision to perform 62% of the CS procedures. Five and four obstetricians agreed on 80% and 95% of the procedures, respectively. The range of disagreement was 4–20%. Disagreement occurred primarily with category II and III procedures compared to category I. Additionally, disagreement occurred in cases where the fetal heart trace pattern was interpreted as an indication for a category II CS. Conclusion: The majority of obstetricians agreed on the decisions to perform 94% of the emergency CS procedures. Obstetric decision-making could be improved with the implementation of fetal scalp pH testing facilities, fetal heart trace interpretation training and cardiotocography review meetings.

  11. Science organisations and Coca-Cola's 'war' with the public health community: insights from an internal industry document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; Serôdio, Paulo; Ruskin, Gary; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2018-03-14

    Critics have long accused food and beverage companies of trying to exonerate their products from blame for obesity by funding organisations that highlight alternative causes. Yet, conclusions about the intentions of food and beverage companies in funding scientific organisations have been prevented by limited access to industry's internal documents. Here we allow the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN). The documents reveal that Coca-Cola funded and supported the GEBN because it would serve as a 'weapon' to 'change the conversation' about obesity amidst a 'growing war between the public health community and private industry'. Despite its close links to the Coca-Cola company, the GEBN was to be portrayed as an 'honest broker' in this 'war'. The GEBN's message was to be promoted via an extensive advocacy campaign linking researchers, policy-makers, health professionals, journalists and the general public. Ultimately, these activities were intended to advance Coca-Cola's corporate interests: as they note, their purpose was to 'promote practices that are effective in terms of both policy and profit'. Coca-Cola's proposal for establishing the GEBN corroborates concerns about food and beverage corporations' involvement in scientific organisations and their similarities with Big Tobacco. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The long-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) implemented as a community-wide parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Clucas, Claudine; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-01-02

    Short-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) for parents in the general population has been studied. The aim of this paper was to investigate the longer term impact of the ICDP programme on parents looking for sustained changes 6-12 months after the programme. For this, a non-clinical caregiver group attending the ICDP programme ( N  = 79) and a non-attending comparison group ( N  = 62) completed questionnaires on parenting, psychosocial functioning, and child difficulties before, on completion and 6-12 months after the ICDP programme. Analyses compare changes in scores over time. The results revealed that the ICDP group showed significantly improved scores on parenting measures, less loneliness, and trends towards improved self-efficacy compared to the comparison group 6-12 months after programme completion. The ICDP group also reported that their children spent significantly less time on television and computer games and a trend towards fewer child difficulties. Key positive effects sustained over time but at a somewhat lower level, supporting community-wide implementation of ICDP as a general parenting programme. It is concluded that more intensive training with follow-up sessions should be considered to sustain and boost initial gains.

  13. Milk and social media: online communities and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Sheryl W

    2012-08-01

    The advent of social networking sites and other online communities presents new opportunities and challenges for the promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding. This study examines the presence of infant formula marketing on popular US social media sites, using the World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) as a framework. We examined to what extent each of 11 infant formula brands that are widely available in the US had established a social media presence in popular social media venues likely to be visited by expectant parents and families with young children. We then examined current marketing practices, using the Code as a basis for ethical marketing. Infant formula manufacturers have established a social media presence primarily through Facebook pages, interactive features on their own Web sites, mobile apps for new and expecting parents, YouTube videos, sponsored reviews on parenting blogs, and other financial relationships with parenting blogs. Violations of the Code as well as promotional practices unforeseen by the Code were identified. These practices included enabling user-generated content that promotes the use of infant formula, financial relationships between manufacturers and bloggers, and creation of mobile apps for use by parents. An additional concern identified for Code enforcement is lack of transparency in social media-based marketing. The use of social media for formula marketing may demand new strategies for monitoring and enforcing the Code in light of emerging challenges, including suggested content for upcoming consideration for World Health Assembly resolutions.

  14. Global Science Share: Connecting young scientists from developing countries with science writing mentors to strengthen and widen the international science community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkopf, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Collaborative science in which scientists are able to form research questions based on the current body of scientific knowledge and get feedback from colleagues on their ideas and work is essential for pushing science forward. However, not all scientists are able to fully participate in the international science community. Scientists from developing countries can face barriers to communicating with the international community due to, among other issues: fewer scientists in their home country, difficulty in getting language-specific science writing training, fewer established pre-existing international collaborations and networks, and sometimes geographic isolation. These barriers not only result in keeping individual scientists from contributing their ideas, but they also slow down the progress of the scientific enterprise for everyone. Global Science Share (http://globalscienceshare.org/) is a new project, entering its pilot phase in Fall 2012, which will work to reduce this disparity by connecting young scientists and engineers from developing countries seeking to improve their technical writing with other scientists and engineers around the world via online collaborations. Scientist-volunteers act as mentors and are paired up with mentees according to their academic field and writing needs. The mentors give feedback and constructive technical and editorial criticisms on mentees' submitted pieces of writing through a four-step email discussion. Mentees gain technical writing skills, as well as make international connections with other scientists and engineers in fields related to their own. Mentors also benefit by gaining new international scientific colleagues and honing their own writing skills through their critiques. The Global Science Share project will begin its pilot phase by first inviting Mongolian science students to apply as mentees this fall. This abstract will introduce the Global Science Share program, present a progress report from its first

  15. Verifying the agreed framework between the United States and North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Under the 1994 Agreed Framework (AF) between the United States and the Democratic People Republic of Korea (DPRK), the US and its allies will provide two nuclear-power reactors and other benefits to the DPRK in exchange for an agreement by the DPRK to declare how much nuclear-weapon material it has produced; to identify, freeze, and eventually dismantle specified facilities for producing this material; and to remain a party to the nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and allow the implementation of its safeguards agreement. This study assesses the verifiability of these provisions. The study concludes verification can be accomplished, given cooperation and openness from the DPRK. Special effort will be needed from the IAEA, as well as support from the US and the Republic of Korea. (author)

  16. Proposals for future activities agreed upon at the seminar on wastewater treatment in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The programme of the seminar was divided into three different sections: - Sewerage systems, - Discharge of industrial wastewater to municipal sewerage systems, - Reduction of nitrogen. For each subject the participants of the seminar agreed upon the following proposal for future activities: Sewerage systems: a) Combined sewer overflows (CSO). Brief state-of-the-art reports should be compiled by the Contracting Parties. The reports should provide information on: - extent of combined sewers (in % of sewered area), - design practices including flow equalization, - rates of inflow/infiltration, - pollution due to CSO, - current research, - trends. A compilation of these reports may hopefully lead to the derivation of suitable effluent standards, which may be expressed as frequencies, total volumes or total amount of pollution load. The effluent standards may be expressed as monthly to yearly values

  17. Spatial Dynamics of the Communities and the Role of Major Countries in the International Rare Earths Trade: A Complex Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xibo; Ge, Jianping; Wei, Wendong; Li, Hanshi; Wu, Chen; Zhu, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths (RE) are critical materials in many high-technology products. Due to the uneven distribution and important functions for industrial development, most countries import RE from a handful of suppliers that are rich in RE, such as China. However, because of the rapid growth of RE exploitation and pollution of the mining and production process, some of the main suppliers have gradually tended to reduce the RE production and exports. Especially in the last decade, international RE trade has been changing in the trade community and trade volume. Based on complex network theory, we built an unweighted and weighted network to explore the evolution of the communities and identify the role of the major countries in the RE trade. The results show that an international RE trade network was dispersed and unstable because of the existence of five to nine trade communities in the unweighted network and four to eight trade communities in the weighted network in the past 13 years. Moreover, trade groups formed due to the great influence of geopolitical relations. China was often associated with the South America and African countries in the same trade group. In addition, Japan, China, the United States, and Germany had the largest impacts on international RE trade from 2002 to 2014. Last, some policy suggestions were highlighted according to the results.

  18. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) in Portuguese community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Daniela; Santos, Sónia

    The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a highly reliable instrument to assess fear of falling among older population. This study aimed to develop a European Portuguese version of the FES-I (FES-I (P) ) and analyse its psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data collection integrated a socio-demographic questionnaire which included falls history and presence/absence of fear of falling, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. A total of 100 Portuguese community-dwelling older people (74.27±8.7years old) have participated in the study. From these, 82 have participated in the reliability study. The FES-I (P) had excellent internal consistency (α=0,978) and test-retest reliability (ICC 2,1 =0,999). A significant negative correlation was found between the FES-I (P) and the ABC (r s =-0.85; pPortuguese community-living older people. Future studies should explore the FES-I (P) responsiveness to change over time and analyse its psychometric properties in samples of both non-community-dwelling and community-dwelling older adults with different health conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial Dynamics of the Communities and the Role of Major Countries in the International Rare Earths Trade: A Complex Network Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibo Wang

    Full Text Available Rare earths (RE are critical materials in many high-technology products. Due to the uneven distribution and important functions for industrial development, most countries import RE from a handful of suppliers that are rich in RE, such as China. However, because of the rapid growth of RE exploitation and pollution of the mining and production process, some of the main suppliers have gradually tended to reduce the RE production and exports. Especially in the last decade, international RE trade has been changing in the trade community and trade volume. Based on complex network theory, we built an unweighted and weighted network to explore the evolution of the communities and identify the role of the major countries in the RE trade. The results show that an international RE trade network was dispersed and unstable because of the existence of five to nine trade communities in the unweighted network and four to eight trade communities in the weighted network in the past 13 years. Moreover, trade groups formed due to the great influence of geopolitical relations. China was often associated with the South America and African countries in the same trade group. In addition, Japan, China, the United States, and Germany had the largest impacts on international RE trade from 2002 to 2014. Last, some policy suggestions were highlighted according to the results.

  20. Mapping the rehabilitation interventions of a community stroke team to the extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melissa; Hocking, Clare; Kersten, Paula

    2017-12-01

    This study aim was to evaluate whether the Extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke captured the interventions of a community stroke rehabilitation team situated in a large city in New Zealand. It was proposed that the results would identify the contribution of each discipline, and the gaps and differences in service provision to Māori and non-Māori. Applying the Extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke in this way would also inform whether this core set should be adopted in New Zealand. Interventions were retrospectively extracted from 18 medical records and linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke. The frequencies of linked interventions and the health discipline providing the intervention were calculated. Analysis revealed that 98.8% of interventions provided by the rehabilitation team could be linked to the Extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke, with more interventions for body function and structure than for activities and participation; no interventions for emotional concerns; and limited interventions for community, social and civic life. Results support previous recommendations for additions to the EICSS. The results support the use of the Extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke in New Zealand and demonstrates its use as a quality assurance tool that can evaluate the scope and practice of a rehabilitation service. Implications for Rehabilitation The Extended International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke appears to represent the stroke interventions of a community stroke rehabilitation team in New Zealand. As a result, researchers and clinicians may have

  1. Best practices and better protocols : guidance for a comprehensive community emissions inventory system from a high level review of international best practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, A.

    2007-11-01

    A community greenhouse gas emission and energy inventory is an important tool to help local governments plan, implement and monitor climate change mitigation strategies and sustainable energy systems. Inventories can also facilitate a number of other local priorities such as air quality management; integrated land-use and transportation planning; infrastructure optimization and planning; and community economic development planning. The British Columbia government's community energy and emissions inventory initiative (CEEI) intends to collect and centralize high-quality geocoded data to generate high-value community inventories for the province's 185 local governments. This report presented strategic guidance for a comprehensive community emissions inventory system based on a high level review of international best practices. The report described the project objective and scope; guiding principles; research methodology; and inventory limitations. The report provided observations, findings and recommendations according to the following four areas: protocols and standards recommendations; data management systems recommendations; community inventory parameters recommendations; and reporting formats and capacity building recommendations. It was recommended that as CEEI progresses, consideration should be given to developing provincial level reports and online reporting of local government activity in order to strengthen awareness, recognize leadership and build support.17 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs., 2 appendices

  2. International Chernobyl project - input from the Commission of the European Communities to the evaluation of the relocation policy adopted by the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In October 1989, the Government of the USSR formally requested the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out: '...an international experts' assessment of the concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in those areas to safeguard the health of the population'. The response to this request was a proposal for a multinational team to undertake an assessment of the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics - the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (UKrSSR), the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR) and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). The International Chernobyl Project was established for this purpose with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Office (ILO), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). An International Advisory Committee, comprising scientists from 10 countries and seven international organizations, was established to direct the Project and be responsible for its findings. The results of the Project have been published in two reports - an overview and a technical report -prepared by the International Advisory Committee

  3. How to get residents/owners in housing cooperatives to agree on sustainable renovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappegard Hauge, A. [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, P.O. Box 124, Blindern, 0314 Oslo (Norway); Thomsen, J. [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Loefstroem, E. [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2013-05-15

    What factors increase the chance that residents/owners in housing cooperatives agree on sustainable energy efficient renovation? Based on 30 qualitative interviews with professional advisors in cooperative housing associations and chairman/board and residents in three chosen case studies, an analysis of opportunities and barriers for making a common decision on renovation is performed. Success criteria and barriers are found on the societal level as well as on the organizational/individual level. The barriers and success criteria identified on the societal level are: knowledge level on energy-efficient renovation among relevant actors, owner structure of the housing cooperative, and existing regulations and incentives. On the organizational and individual level, the following categories influencing renovation processes were identified: the time frame and organization of the process, understanding the residents' needs, economy, the information given, and the existence of available exemplary projects and role models. Based on the results of the study, ten guidelines that contribute to more successful decision making processes and increase the chances of sustainable energy efficient renovation in housing cooperatives are presented.

  4. Clinical practice guidelines for treatment of acne vulgaris: a critical appraisal using the AGREE II instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanclemente, Gloria; Acosta, Jorge-Luis; Tamayo, Maria-Eulalia; Bonfill, Xavier; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    A significant number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) about the treatment of acne vulgaris in adolescents and adults have been published worldwide. However, little is known about the quality of CPGs in this field. The aim of this study was to appraise the methodological quality of published acne vulgaris CPGs. We performed a systematic review of published CPGs on acne vulgaris therapy from July 2002 to July 2012. Three reviewers independently assessed each CPG using the AGREE II instrument. A standardized score was calculated for each of the six domains. Our search strategy identified 103 citations but just six met our inclusion criteria. Agreement among reviewers was very good: 0.981. The domains that scored better were: "scope and purpose" and "clarity and presentation". Those that scored worse were "stakeholder involvement", "rigor of development", and "applicability". The European and the Malaysian CPGs were the only recommended with no further modifications. In addition, the Mexican, Colombian and the United States guidelines were recommended with provisos, with lower scores regarding stakeholder involvement, rigor of development and applicability. Only two guidelines clearly reported outcome measures for evaluating efficacy or included quality of life outcomes. CPGs varied regarding the consideration of light/laser therapy or consideration of complementary/alternative medicines. None of them included cost considerations of drugs such as systemic isotretinoin. In conclusion, published acne vulgaris CPGs for acne therapy vary in quality with a clear need to improve their methodological rigor. This could be achieved with the adherence to current CPGs development standards.

  5. Test-Retest Reliability, Convergent Validity, and Internal Consistency of the Persian Version of Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale in Iranian Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Azar Sabet; Akram Azad; Ghorban Taghizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate convergent validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Persian translation of the Fullerton advanced balance (FAB) for use in Iranian community- dwelling older adults and improve the quality of their functional balance assessment. Methods & Materials: The original scale was translated with forward-backward protocol. In the next step, using convenience sampling and inclusion criteria, 88 functionally indep...

  6. Internalized Homophobia and Drug Use in a National Cohort of Gay and Bisexual Men: Examining Depression, Sexual Anxiety, and Gay Community Attachment as Mediating Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Raymond L; Starks, Tyrel J; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2018-05-01

    The minority stress process of internalized homophobia (IH) has been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes among gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, evidence is mixed regarding the effect of IH on drug use, suggesting the potential role of multiple mediated pathways. Researchers have linked depression, sexual anxiety, and gay community attachment with IH. Depression, sexual anxiety, and gay community attachment have also been linked with drug use and drug-related problems suggesting potential mediating roles. A U.S. national sample of 1071 HIV-negative GBM completed at-home surveys, including measures of sociodemographic characteristics, IH, depression, sexual anxiety, gay community attachment, and drug use and associated problems. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, depression mediated the association between IH and recent drug use. IH was positively associated with depression, and depression was positively associated with recent drug use. Gay community attachment partially mediated drug-related problems. IH had a positive direct association with drug-related problems and a negative direct association with gay community attachment. Gay community attachment had a positive association with drug-related problems. IH was positively associated with sexual anxiety, but sexual anxiety was not associated with either drug outcome. Efforts to reduce IH among HIV-negative GBM are likely to have a positive impact on mental health problems, as well as reduce risk for drug use and drug-related problems. Gay communities could provide the social support necessary for reducing IH; however, emphasis on community level interventions that address factors that increase risk for drug-related problems remains important.

  7. A mixed-methods approach to conducting Internal Revenue Service-compliant community health needs assessments: a case example for nonprofit hospital leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oglesby WH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Willie H Oglesby, Ken Slenkovich Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA Background: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act created new requirements for nonprofit hospitals to conduct a Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA at least once every 3 years, with a significant tax penalty for noncompliance. While some resources exist to help nonprofit hospital leaders conduct various aspects of a CHNA, few reflect the new Internal Revenue Service requirements. Methods: Many different models of CHNAs have emerged over the years. Although each has its unique features, the essential elements of a CHNA include engaging stakeholders, defining the community, gathering sufficient representative data, prioritizing information, and reporting results. In this paper, we expand upon this basic approach by offering a practical step-by-step guide to conducting CHNAs that meets new Internal Revenue Service regulations. Results: We developed and tested this methodology in partnership with several nonprofit hospital systems in Northeast Ohio, USA. In this paper, we discuss our use of the methodology and identify recommendations for other nonprofit hospital leaders. Conclusion: The methodology presented in this paper is a cost-effective approach to satisfying new CHNA requirements and nonprofit hospital leaders should consider using it or modifying it to fit their unique needs. Keywords: Affordable Care Act, CHNA, community benefit, community hospital

  8. Assessing the impacts of international volunteer tourism in host communities: A new approach to organizing and prioritizing indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Anthony Lupoli; Wayde C. Morse; Conner Bailey; John Schelhas

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the use of indicators to evaluate the impacts of volunteer tourism in host communities, based on an online questionnaire sent to 183 volunteer tourism organizations. Little research exists demonstrating how volunteer tourism programs impact host communities or how impacts can be assessed, but the literature suggests the use of indicators to do so....

  9. International Perspectives: Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using an Information Technology Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    This study compares Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges using an information technology conceptual framework. The research concentrated upon programs in information technology delivered by one Polish school Cracow School of Information Technology and two Canadian community colleges Durham (Oshawa,…

  10. Cross-Cultural Findings on Community Violence Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology: Comparing Adolescents in the United States, Russia, and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab-Stone, M.; Koposov, R.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate cross-cultural differences in the relation between community violence and psychopathology. A self-report survey was conducted in a representative sample of 3,309 14-17 year old adolescents from urban communities in the US (N = 1,343), Belgium (N = 946) and Russia (N =

  11. Communication settings for the empowerment of communities: international comparison between networks of solidarity economy in Brazil and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Guarascio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a qualitative comparison between two communities in Brazil and Italy, which host a solidarity organization. These communities promote sustainable and local development, empowering their residents, building an alternative way of producing, in a form of plural economy. Financial sustainability comes from public and private aid, and this can affect the durability of communities by making them dependent on funds. This condition weakens the possibility of local development. To develop this research we used the qualitative approach, and data were collected through structured and unstructured interviews, in addition to the participatory observation. The results demonstrate that the method of communication between solidarity economy networks and investors is relevant, because sometimes those who offer funds can contribute to building development conditions that are not truly empowering for the community. It is concluded that an adequate method of communicating the information necessary for community development can contribute to local empowerment, including possible problems of financial sustainability.

  12. Three counting methods agree on cell and neuron number in chimpanzee primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel James Miller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the cellular composition of specific brain regions is crucial to our understanding of the function of neurobiological systems. It is therefore useful to identify the extent to which different methods agree when estimating the same properties of brain circuitry. In this study, we estimated the number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the primary visual cortex (area 17 or V1 of both hemispheres from a single chimpanzee. Specifically, we processed samples distributed across V1 of the right hemisphere after cortex was flattened into a sheet using two variations of the isotropic fractionator cell and neuron counting method. We processed the left hemisphere as serial brain slices for stereological investigation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the agreement between these methods in the most direct manner possible by comparing estimates of cell density across one brain region of interest in a single individual. In our hands, these methods produced similar estimates of the total cellular population (approximately 1 billion as well as the number of neurons (approximately 675 million in chimpanzee V1, providing evidence that both techniques estimate the same parameters of interest. In addition, our results indicate the strengths of each distinct tissue preparation procedure, highlighting the importance of attention to anatomical detail. In summary, we found that the isotropic fractionator and the stereological optical fractionator produced concordant estimates of the cellular composition of V1, and that this result supports the conclusion that chimpanzees conform to the primate pattern of exceptionally high packing density in V1. Ultimately, our data suggest that investigators can optimize their experimental approach by using any of these counting methods to obtain reliable cell and neuron counts.

  13. How Does Stigma Affect People Living with HIV? The Mediating Roles of Internalized and Anticipated HIV Stigma in the Effects of Perceived Community Stigma on Health and Psychosocial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent; Budhwani, Henna; Fazeli, Pariya L; Browning, Wesley R; Raper, James L; Mugavero, Michael J; Turan, Janet M

    2017-01-01

    Few researchers have attempted to examine the mechanisms through which HIV-related stigma in the community is processed and experienced at an individual level by people living with HIV. We examined how the effects of perceived HIV stigma in the community on health outcomes for people living with HIV are mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma. Participants (N = 203) from an HIV clinic completed self-report measures and their clinical data were obtained from medical records. Results suggested that the association between perceived community stigma and affective, cognitive, and mental health outcomes (self-esteem, depressive symptoms, avoidance coping, self-blame) are mediated by internalized stigma. Furthermore, a serial mediation model suggested that perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated community stigma, which in turn leads to lower medication adherence. The associations between perceived community stigma and interpersonal outcomes (social support, trust in physicians) were mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma, again in a serial fashion (perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated stigma, which in turn leads to interpersonal outcomes). These results suggest that perceived HIV-related stigma in the community may cause people living with HIV to internalize stigma and anticipate stigmatizing experiences, resulting in adverse health and psychosocial outcomes-information that can be used to shape interventions.

  14. How Does Stigma Affect People Living with HIV? The Mediating Roles of Internalized and Anticipated HIV Stigma in the Effects of Perceived Community Stigma on Health and Psychosocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Browning, Wesley R.; Raper, James L.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Turan, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Few researchers have attempted to examine the mechanisms through which HIV-related stigma in the community is processed and experienced at an individual level by people living with HIV. We examined how the effects of perceived HIV stigma in the community on health outcomes for people living with HIV are mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma. Participants (N = 203) from an HIV clinic completed self-report measures and their clinical data were obtained from medical records. Results suggested that the association between perceived community stigma and affective, cognitive, and mental health outcomes (self-esteem, depressive symptoms, avoidance coping, self-blame) are mediated by internalized stigma. Furthermore, a serial mediation model suggested that perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated community stigma, which in turn leads to lower medication adherence. The associations between perceived community stigma and interpersonal outcomes (social support, trust in physicians) were mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma, again in a serial fashion (perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated stigma, which in turn leads to interpersonal outcomes). These results suggest that perceived HIV-related stigma in the community may cause people living with HIV to internalize stigma and anticipate stigmatizing experiences, resulting in adverse health and psychosocial outcomes—information that can be used to shape interventions. PMID:27272742

  15. DNA commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P; Brenner, C H; Buckleton, J S

    2006-01-01

    The DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) was convened at the 21st congress of the International Society for Forensic Genetics held between 13 and 17 September in the Azores, Portugal. The purpose of the group was to agree on guidelines to encourage best practice...... a consensus from experts but to be practical we do not claim to have conveyed a clear vision in every respect in this difficult subject. For this reason, we propose to allow a period of time for feedback and reflection by the scientific community. Then the DNA commission will meet again to consider further...

  16. E-learning interventions are comparable to user's manual in a randomized trial of training strategies for the AGREE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durocher Lisa D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice guidelines (PGs are systematically developed statements intended to assist in patient and practitioner decisions. The AGREE II is the revised tool for PG development, reporting, and evaluation, comprised of 23 items, two global rating scores, and a new User's Manual. In this study, we sought to develop, execute, and evaluate the impact of two internet interventions designed to accelerate the capacity of stakeholders to use the AGREE II. Methods Participants were randomized to one of three training conditions. 'Tutorial'--participants proceeded through the online tutorial with a virtual coach and reviewed a PDF copy of the AGREE II. 'Tutorial + Practice Exercise'--in addition to the Tutorial, participants also appraised a 'practice' PG. For the practice PG appraisal, participants received feedback on how their scores compared to expert norms and formative feedback if scores fell outside the predefined range. 'AGREE II User's Manual PDF (control condition'--participants reviewed a PDF copy of the AGREE II only. All participants evaluated a test PG using the AGREE II. Outcomes of interest were learners' performance, satisfaction, self-efficacy, mental effort, time-on-task, and perceptions of AGREE II. Results No differences emerged between training conditions on any of the outcome measures. Conclusions We believe these results can be explained by better than anticipated performance of the AGREE II PDF materials (control condition or the participants' level of health methodology and PG experience rather than the failure of the online training interventions. Some data suggest the online tools may be useful for trainees new to this field; however, this requires further study.

  17. Korean Confucianism's Mindful Learning Model of Moral Internalization as Manifested in the Cheonghak-Dong Hermit Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Si Ha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand an unknown educational approach in Korean Confucianism's ethical education characterized as moral internalization, based on the study participants. A prevailed understanding of moral internalization of Confucianism is a strong imposed learning process, which is a well known Asian learning…

  18. The CSNI International Standard Problem Programme: Overall Presentation on Objectives; Rationale and Lessons Learnt: a Joint Venture of the Thermalhydraulic International Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reocreux, M.

    2008-01-01

    The CSNI International Standard Problems have been one of the key activities of the CSNI thermal hydraulics groups during the last 25 years. After recalling the way the international standard problems were initiated in the late 1970 years -they were called at that time CSNI LOCA Standard Problem- the process which has led to make from the ISPs a full CSNI activity, is described. Rules have been defined which formalized the way experimental results were provided and the way the comparison exercise were performed. The long series of ISPs from 1975 up to nowadays is described, explaining the different trends in the ISPs choices. The findings which have been obtained are reviewed on both technical and programmatic aspects.

  19. Start of the international tokamak physics activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.

    2001-01-01

    This newsletter comprises a summary on the start of the International Tokamak Physics activity (ITPA) by Dr. D. Campbell, Chair of the ITPA Co-ordinating Committee. As the ITER EDA drew to a close, it became clear that it was desirable to establish a new mechanism in order to promote the continued development of the physics basis for burning plasma experiments and to preserve the invaluable collaborations between the major international fusion communities which had been established through the ITER physics expert groups. As a result of the discussions of the representatives of the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States the agreed principles for conducting the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) were elaborated and ITPA topical physics groups were organized

  20. Stigma towards PLWHA: The Role of Internalized Homosexual Stigma in Latino Gay/Bisexual Male and Transgender Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection. PMID:23631713

  1. Stigma towards PLWHA: the role of internalized homosexual stigma in Latino gay/bisexual male and transgender communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica

    2013-06-01

    Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection.

  2. Improving maternity care in the Dominican Republic: a pilot study of a community-based participatory research action plan by an international healthcare team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Gossett, Sarah; Burgos, Rosa; Cáceres, Ramona; Tejada, Carmen; Dominguez García, Luis; Ambrosio Rosario, Angel; Almonte, Asela; Perez, Lydia J

    2015-05-01

    This article is a report of the process and results of a feasibility pilot study to improve the quality of maternity care in a sample of 31 women and their newborns delivering in a public, tertiary hospital in the Dominican Republic. The pilot study was the first "action step" taken as a result of a formative, community-based participatory research (CBPR) study conducted between 2008 and 2010 by an interdisciplinary, international partnership of U.S. academic researchers, Dominican medical/nursing personnel, and Dominican community health workers. Health personnel and community health workers separately identified indicators most important to measure quality of antepartum maternity care: laboratory and diagnostic studies and respectful, interpersonal communication. At the midpoint and the completion of data collection, the CBPR team evaluated the change in quality indicators to assess improvement in care. The pilot study supports the idea that joint engagement of community health workers, health personnel, and academic researchers with data creation and patient monitoring is motivating for all to continue to improve services in the cultural context of the Dominican Republic. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  4. A Model International Partnership for Community-based Research on Vaccine-preventable Diseases: the Kamphaeng Phet-AFRIMS Virology Research Unit (KAVRU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    4500 Table 3 Acknowledgment of contributions. Participant Role Albert Sabin Led effort to make JEV Vaccine during WWII Richard Mason Member of...R A v R R K D S a b c d e f g h i j a A R R A A K V S J H D I C T P p ( C t 0 h Vaccine 31 (2013) 4487– 4500 Contents lists available at...ScienceDirect Vaccine jou rn al hom ep age: www.elsev ier .com/ locat e/vacc ine eview model international partnership for community-based research on

  5. Increasing Effectiveness of the Community College Financial Model: A Global Perspective for the Global Economy. International and Development Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Stewart E., Ed.; Derrico, Daniel, Ed.; Raby, Rosalind Latiner, Ed.; Valeau, Edward J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book seeks to explore thematic and pragmatic applications of financing the community college to help facilitate educational reform, to assist efforts related to internationalization, and to create systemic support systems to maintain the mission. It includes chapters on a wide variety of finance related topics, and specific case studies of…

  6. Child Care and the Family-Work Balance: An International Perspective on Needs and Responses in Aboriginal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Judith A.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that aboriginal child-care needs relate to educational, social, and cultural requirements, as well as parental workforce participation. Contends that research is needed to test the validity of findings from mainstream societies when applied to indigenous communities. Presents examples of child-care problems and solutions to needs from…

  7. Young Adult Perceptions of the British American Tobacco New Zealand Agree/Disagree Plain Packaging Counter-Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Wong-Cornall, Cecilia; Freeman, Becky

    2017-10-01

    In 2012, British American Tobacco New Zealand (BATNZ) launched a mass media campaign branded "Agree/ Disagree" as a response to the New Zealand government's plans to introduce plain packaging. We examined young adult's views about the campaign to assist tobacco control policymakers in planning future interventions. Interviews with young adults living in the Auckland area were conducted. Interviews covered existing knowledge about plain packaging of tobacco, knowledge about the tobacco industry, and perceptions of specific advertisements included in the campaign. Interview data were analyzed to determine the dominant views about the campaign. Perspectives from 12 interviews reflect the dominant discourse in New Zealand on the benefits of serving economic progress and international trade. Pervasive views about the campaigns reflected perceptions of the risk to the New Zealand image, trade, and economy. Similarly, participants expressed concern about the potential for plain packaging to creep toward other products, such as alcohol. Perceptions of the tobacco industry were mixed but reflect a tolerant view of the ethics of business if viewed to be beneficial to the economy. Participants were broadly accepting of the campaign messages. We identified a tendency toward quasi-libertarian leanings when discussing economics and trade, commercial versus personal responsibility, and the value of freedom (commercial and social). These perspectives were often held simultaneously with conflicting socially responsive values and references to the hegemonic position of "big business." This study affirms the importance of closely monitoring public opinion about tobacco control and of broadening denormalization strategies to reflect the critical role the tobacco industry plays in prolonging the tobacco epidemic. To date there is little evidence on the perceptions young adults hold toward to the tobacco industry and their arguments regarding the introduction of plain packaged

  8. International non-governmental organizations' provision of community-based tuberculosis care for hard-to-reach populations in Myanmar, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Kyaw Thu; Saw, Saw; van Griensven, Johan; Zhou, Shuisen; Win, Le; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Shah, Safieh; Mon, Myo Myo; Aung, Si Thu

    2017-03-24

    National tuberculosis (TB) programs increasingly engage with international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), especially to provide TB care in complex settings where community involvement might be required. In Myanmar, however, there is limited data on how such INGO community-based programs are organized and how effective they are. In this study, we describe four INGO strategies for providing community-based TB care to hard-to-reach populations in Myanmar, and assess their contribution to TB case detection. We conducted a descriptive study using program data from four INGOs and the National TB Program (NTP) in 2013-2014. For each INGO, we extracted information on its approach and key activities, the number of presumptive TB cases referred and undergoing TB testing, and the number of patients diagnosed with TB and their treatment outcomes. The contribution of INGOs to TB diagnosis in their selected townships was calculated as the proportion of INGO-diagnosed new TB cases out of the total NTP-diagnosed new TB cases in the same townships. All four INGOs implemented community-based TB care in challenging contexts, targeting migrants, post-conflict areas, the urban poor, and other vulnerable populations. Two recruited community volunteers via existing community health volunteers or health structures, one via existing community leaderships, and one directly involved TB infected/affected individuals. Two INGOs compensated volunteers via performance-based financing, and two provided financial and in-kind initiatives. All relied on NTP laboratories for diagnosis and TB drugs, but provided direct observation treatment support and treatment follow-up. A total of 21 995 presumptive TB cases were referred for TB diagnosis, with 7 383 (34%) new TB cases diagnosed and almost all (98%) successfully treated. The four INGOs contributed to the detection of, on average, 36% (7 383/20 663) of the total new TB cases in their respective townships (range: 15-52%). Community-based TB

  9. A community needs responsive management training model: Re-envisioning management training for pastors of the International Assemblies of God Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malesela J. Masenya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organisations (NGO�s play an important role in helping satisfy society�s many needs. Churches, for example, are called upon to address critical challenges facing the South African society such as discrepancies in life chances, unemployment and corruption. It largely depends on the management skills of leaders of such organisations to succeed in their endeavour to meet community needs. In order to improve these skills, this study sought to redefine the initial training of student pastors, including their management training, at the colleges of the International Assemblies of God Church (IAG. A qualitative research approach was followed. Two focus group interviews and seven individual interviews were conducted. Interviews included members of the national and provincial executive committees of the IAG, serving pastors, directors of training colleges, pastor trainees in their final year of study, and a newly graduated student. The findings of the study support the importance of formal management training for pastors before being employed in the service of the IAG. This Church has moved away from accepting ministers for service based on their faith and profession of a call to ministry only. The investigation revealed shortcomings in the initial training programmes of pastors; for example, the emphasis on theological courses at the expense of courses that are responsive to community needs and management training issues. Leaders with the competency to respond to community needs are required. The implementation of a transformational management framework, which includes community responsive courses, is recommended as a way to effectively train church leaders.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Although this article is written within the framework of Educational Management, it touches on other fields like Practical Theology and Curriculum Development. It reflects on the perceived need to include management training in

  10. Measuring dental fear using the CFSS-DS. Do children and parents agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, Janneke B; van Wijk, Arjen J; ten Cate, Jacob M; Veerkamp, Jaap S J

    2013-03-01

    In most studies, the parental version of the CFSS-DS is used; however, no information is available concerning the extent to which parents are able to report dental fear on behalf of their children. This study aims to assess whether parents are accurate reporters of their child's dental fear. The CFSS-DS was filled out by 326 children in a classroom setting and by 167 parents (mostly mothers) at home on behalf of their child. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used as a measure of agreement between both CFSS-DS versions, and reasons for nonagreement were assessed. Mean CFSS-DS for children was 21.15 (SD = 6.4) and for parents 23.26 (SD = 6.7). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.57. After selection of the 73.1% most accurate reporting parents, the ICC was 0.90. In general, parents estimate the dental fear of their children higher than their children do (P ≤ 0.001), whereas parents of high anxious children (HAC) estimate this fear lower, and parents of low anxious children (LAC) estimate this fear higher. Anxious parents (AP) estimate the dental fear of their children significantly higher than nonanxious parents (NAP) (P ≤ 0.001), but the children of AP do not estimate their own dental fear higher than children of NAP. In general, parents tend to estimate the dental fear of their children slightly higher than their children. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Developing a national and international research community in tree breeding through a web-based information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hohls, DR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available CSIR research group has developed a web-based information system on tree breeding, which will link national and international partners, which data dating back more than 80 years. Tree breeding relies heavily on managing and exploiting data. While...

  12. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P Fernandez [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  13. Effects of short-term active video game play on community adults: under International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Che; Hsieh, Ru-Lan

    2013-06-01

    The effects of active video game play on healthy individuals remain uncertain. A person's functional health status constitutes a dynamic interaction between components identified in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of active video game play on community adults using the ICF. Sixty community adults with an average age of 59.3 years and without physical disabilities were recruited. Over 2 weeks, each adult participated in six sessions of active video game play lasting 20 minutes each. Participants were assessed before and after the intervention. Variables were collected using sources related to the ICF components, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Biodex Stability System, chair- rising time, Frenchay Activity Index, Rivermead Mobility Index, Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Version. Compared to baseline data, significantly reduced risk of a fall measured by Biodex Stability System and improvements in disability scores measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire were noted. There was no significant change in the other variables measured. Short-term, active video game play reduces fall risks and ameliorates disabilities in community adults.

  14. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P. Fernandez (ed.) [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  15. 40 CFR 80.131 - Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline... gasoline used to produce gasoline, and butane blenders. (a) Attest procedures for GTAB. The following are... conventional gasoline and of RFG produced. Agree the volumes from the tank activity records to the batch volume...

  16. Do patients and physicians agree on diabetes management? A study conducted in Public Healthcare Centres in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Figueiredo, R.C.; Snoek, F.J.; Barreto, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore to what extent patients with diabetes agree with their physicians on diabetes management and whether the agreement varies according to patients' socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with diabetes and their Family

  17. Agreed framework of 21 October 1994 between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The attached text of the Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, signed in Geneva on 21 October 1994, is being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Resident Representative of the United States of America

  18. Remediation of internal phosphorus loads with modified clays, influence of fluvial suspended particulate matter and response of the benthic macroinvertebrate community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongbin; Douglas, Grant B; Cai, Yongjiu; Liu, Cheng; Copetti, Diego

    2018-01-01

    Clay-based phosphorus (P) sorbents have been increasingly used as geoengineering materials for the management sediment-derived internal P loading in eutrophic lakes. However, the long-term behavior of these sorbents has remained elusive along with their response to burial under suspended particulate matter (SPM), and their effect on macroinvertebrate communities occupying dynamic regions at the sediment-water interface of shallow and turbid lakes. In this study, field mesocosm experiments were undertaken in Lake Chaohu, China, to study the effects of the application of lanthanum-modified bentonite (LMB) and thermally-modified calcium-rich attapulgite (TCAP) on sediment internal P loading and to assess their influence on macroinvertebrate community structure. A complementary laboratory core incubation study was also undertaken to investigate the effects of SPM deposition on LMB and TCAP performance. In the field, both LMB and TCAP effectively intercepted P released from sediment for up to five months. A P fractionation analysis indicated that LMB and TCAP application results in a substantial increase in inert P fractions in sediment. Laboratory studies indicated that deposition of SPM may increase in mobile P both in the upper sediment and across the new post-SPM deposition sediment-water interface. Importantly, a comparison of sediment chemical extractions and estimated P fluxes suggests that chemically-defined forms of P in the sediment may be used as a proxy to estimate the net sediment P flux. Significantly, the surficial application of either LMB or TCAP did not cause negative effects on macroinvertebrate communities. This study indicates that to sustain a low P flux across the sediment-water interface in shallow, turbid lakes, repeat dosing of geoengineering materials, temporally aligned to the deposition of fluvial SPM, may be required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Proceedings of the CISDEN meeting on present problems in Community and international law in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    These proceedings of the meeting of the Italian Nuclear Law Study Centre reproduce in full the three papers presented, together with the ensuing discussions. The papers respectively deal with the recent Constitutional Court Decision opposing a referendum on nuclear power plant site selection; international contracts -private autonomy and State law- and the incidence of recent trends on nuclear contracts; problems in relation to the entry into force of the 1980 Euratom radiation protection directive and the revision of relevant Italian regulations. (NEA) [fr

  20. Factors that contribute to social media influence within an Internal Medicine Twitter learning community [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3jd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Desai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical societies, faculty, and trainees use Twitter to learn from and educate other social media users. These social media communities bring together individuals with various levels of experience. It is not known if experienced individuals are also the most influential members. We hypothesize that participants with the greatest experience would be the most influential members of a Twitter community. We analyzed the 2013 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Twitter community. We measured the number of tweets authored by each participant and the number of amplified tweets (re-tweets. We developed a multivariate linear regression model to identify any relationship to social media influence, measured by the PageRank. Faculty (from academic institutions comprised 19% of the 132 participants in the learning community (p < 0.0001. Faculty authored 49% of all 867 tweets (p < 0.0001. Their tweets were the most likely to be amplified (52%, p < 0.01. Faculty had the greatest influence amongst all participants (mean 1.99, p < 0.0001. Being a faculty member had no predictive effect on influence (β = 0.068, p = 0.6. The only factors that predicted influence (higher PageRank were the number of tweets authored (p < 0.0001 and number of tweets amplified (p < 0.0001 The status of “faculty member” did not confer a greater influence. Any participant who was able to author the greatest number of tweets or have more of his/her tweets amplified could wield a greater influence on the participants, regardless of his/her authority.

  1. Educational and Community Outreach Efforts by the United States Polar Rock Repository during the International Polar Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.; Codispoti, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The US Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) houses more than 19,000 rock samples from polar regions and these samples are made available to the scientific, educational and museum community. The USPRR has been active in promoting polar earth science to educational and community groups. During the past year, outreach efforts reached over 12,000 people. The USPRR outreach involve tours of the facility, school presentations, online laboratory exercises, working with the Columbus Metro Parks, teaching at summer camps, teaching special geology field assignments at the middle school level, as well as offering an ‘Antarctic Rock Box’ that contains representative samples of the three types of rocks, minerals, fossils, and books and activities about geology and Antarctica. The rock box activities have been designed and reviewed by educators and scientists to use as an educational supplement to the Earth Science course of study. The activities have been designed around the Academic Content Standards: k-12 Science manual published by the Ohio Department of Education to ensure that the activities and topics are focused on those mandated by the state of Ohio. The USPRR website has a Virtual Web Antarctic Expedition with many activities for Middle to High School age students. The students learn about how to plan a field season, safety techniques, how to make a remote field camp, identify what equipment is needed, learn about the different transportation choices, weather issues, understanding GPS, etc. Educational and community networks have been built in part, by directly contacting individuals at an institution and partnering with them on educational outreach. The institutions have been very interested in doing this because it brings scientists to the classroom and to the public. This type of outreach has also served as an opening for children to consider possible career choices in science that they may not have considered before. In many of the presentations, a female geologist

  2. The minimum agreed upon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Corinne van Gaalen; Arjan Soede; Albert Luten; Cok Vrooman; Sanne Lamers

    2010-01-01

    What does the concept of poverty mean? What kind of shelter, diet, clothing, participation and recreation does one need in order not to be poor? And what monthly budget is currently required to afford these necessities in the Netherlands? Four focus groups met several times to discuss such

  3. Agreeing in Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many ICT services require that users explicitly consent to conditions of use and policies for the protection of personal information. This consent may become 'routinised'. We define the concept of routinisation and investigate to what extent routinisation occurs as well as the factors influencing...... routinisation in a survey study of internet use. We show that routinisation is common and that it is influenced by factors including gender, age, educational level and average daily internet use. We further explore the reasons users provide for not reading conditions and policies and show that they can...

  4. osni.info-Using free/libre/open source software to build a virtual international community for open source nursing informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyri, Karl; Murray, Peter J

    2005-12-01

    Many health informatics organizations seem to be slow to take up the advantages of dynamic, web-based technologies for providing services to, and interaction with, their members; these are often the very technologies they promote for use within healthcare environments. This paper aims to introduce some of the many free/libre/open source (FLOSS) applications that are now available to develop interactive websites and dynamic online communities as part of the structure of health informatics organizations, and to show how the Open Source Nursing Informatics Working Group (OSNI) of the special interest group in nursing informatics of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA-NI) is using some of these tools to develop an online community of nurse informaticians through their website, at . Some background introduction to FLOSS applications is used for the benefit of those less familiar with such tools, and examples of some of the FLOSS content management systems (CMS) being used by OSNI are described. The experiences of the OSNI will facilitate a knowledgeable nursing contribution to the wider discussions on the applications of FLOSS within health and healthcare, and provides a model that many other groups could adopt.

  5. Home Features and Assistive Technology for the Home-Bound Elderly in a Thai Suburban Community by Applying the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Putthinoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ageing population is having an impact worldwide and has created a serious challenge in Thailand’s healthcare systems, whereby healthcare practitioners play a major role in promoting independent interaction of their client’s abilities, as well as environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to survey features of the home and assistive technology (AT for the home-bound elderly in the community of Chiang Mai, Thailand. Home evaluation included features inside and outside the home, and AT was based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF concept. Methods included observation and an interview that were used by the researcher for evaluation. The study found that every home had at least one hazardous home feature such as inappropriate width of the door, high door threshold, tall stair steps, no bedside rail, and inappropriate height of the toilet pan. AT was found in houses as general products and technology for personal use in daily living and for personal indoor and outdoor mobility as well as transportation. Therefore, home features and AT can afford the home-bound elderly independent living within the community. Perspective AT according to the ICF concept could provide a common language for ageing in place benefits.

  6. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  7. Factors influencing successful physician recruitment in pediatrics and internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kelvin; Camfield, Peter; Breau, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study was to survey recently hired physicians to Canadian Academic Departments of Pediatric and Internal Medicine to understand the factors that underlay successful recruitment. Recruits and Chairs agreed on the 10 most important values. Chairs overvalued the 10 least important Recruit values. Statistical analysis revealed five core themes - in order of importance they are: family lifestyle and opportunities, compensation methodology, children/community (housing, schools, recreational), professional working conditions (technology, staffing, facilities), and academic opportunities. Core themes varied by demographics and academic profile.

  8. International Ballroom Dancing Against Neurodegeneration: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Greek Community-Dwelling Elders With Mild Cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, Ioulietta; Parastatidis, Themis; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Gkioka, Mara; Karakostas, Anastasios; Douka, Stella; Tsolaki, Magda

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have highlighted the positive effects of dance in people with neurodegenerative diseases. To explore the effects of International Ballroom Dancing on cognitive function in elders with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). One-hundred twenty-nine elderly patients with aMCI diagnosis (mean age 66.8 ± 10.1 years) were randomly assigned into 2 groups: intervention group (IG, n = 66) and control group (CG, n = 63). The IG exercised systematically for 10 months, and both groups were submitted to extensive neuropsychological assessment prior and after the 10-month period. According to the independent sample t test at the follow-up, significant differences between groups were found in benefit of the IG while the CG showed worse performance in the majority of neuropsychological tests. According to the Student t test, better performance is detected in IG in contrast with CG, which had worse performance almost in all scales. Dance may be an important nonpharmacological approach that can benefit cognitive functions.

  9. How Does Stigma Affect People Living with HIV? The Mediating Roles of Internalized and Anticipated HIV Stigma in the Effects of Perceived Community Stigma on Health and Psychosocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Bulent; Budhwani, Henna; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Browning, Wesley R.; Raper, James L.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Turan, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Few researchers have attempted to examine the mechanisms through which HIV-related stigma in the community is processed and experienced at an individual level by people living with HIV. We examined how the effects of perceived HIV stigma in the community on health outcomes for people living with HIV are mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma. Participants (N = 203) from an HIV clinic completed self-report measures and their clinical data were obtained from medical records. Res...

  10. COULD MUSHROOMS ACT AS CONCENTRATION PATHWAYS TO INTERNAL CONTAMINA-TION OF SOME MARGINALIZED COMMUNITIES BY 137CS IN SLOVAKIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Miššík

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain some preliminary data necessary for the assessment of the possible existence of small-area local sources of contaminated mushrooms in forested areas with comparatively low inventory of man-made 137Cs. On the study plot near Čierne-Svrčinovec (North-western Slovakia 31 samples were collected during periodic sampling in the years 2012-2013 and analysed by gamma-spectrometry. Activities 137Cs in mushrooms from entire sampling plot followed the lognormal distribution with extremely high variation and high positive skew, with projected three-sigma (99.75% range from 0.49 Bq.kg-1 to 1537 Bq.kg-1 (dry weight, d.w. and with geometrical average of 27.4 Bq.kg-1 (d.w.. Another 11 samples were collected or bought from roadside vendors living in Roma slums near villages Richnava and Kluknava (Spiš region, eastern Slovakia. Obtained edible wild mushrooms were in a good shape despite prolonged drought indicating existence of well hidden forested sites in slum surroundings. Highest activity of 137Cs in this set was recorded in Boletus edulis (263.3 ± 20.3 Bq.kg-1 (d.w.. Both geometric mean (49.0 Bq.kg-1 and expectation value (91.2 Bq.kg-1 d.w. of lognormal distribution were higher than that of the study plot on NW Slovakia. No sample exceeded the legal radiohygienic limit for radiocesium contamination. The limited extent of presented study only slightly indicates the possibility of slow changes in spatial redistribution of bioavailable 137Cs in forest ecosystem. However, available data on this subject from different sources suggest that there is no reason for massive occurrence of highly contaminated fruiting bodies in small areas surrounding settlements, where some critical groups of individuals, who are used to consume large amounts of mushrooms from limited geographical area could in such case develop significant internal contamination.

  11. Patients and physicians agree only partially in symptoms and clinical findings before and after treatment for varicose veins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitfod, Lotte; Sillesen, Henrik; Jensen, Leif Panduro

    2018-01-01

    findings. Methods In the period January-March 2011, 379 legs in 287 patients treated for varicose veins were registered in the Danish Clinical Vein Database and compared to the Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire. Results Patients and physicians agreed in reduction of symptoms after intervention with one...... or more complaints still present in 128 (93%) patients according to Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire compared to the Danish Clinical Vein Database with only 64 (47%) patients. Patients reported cosmetic complaints and teleangiectasies both before and after treatment (p 

  12. Effect of Health Literacy on Help-seeking Behavior in Morbidly Obese Patients Agreeing to Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayci, Haci Murat; Erdogdu, Umut Eren; Demirci, Hakan; Ardic, Aykut; Topak, Nevruz Yildirim; Taymur, İbrahim

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of health literacy on agreement for bariatric surgery among morbidly obese patients. The data of 242 morbidly obese patients (body mass index-BMI ≥ 40 kg/m 2 ) were evaluated in a cross-sectional case-control pattern. The patients were classified into two groups as those who were attending the clinic for the purpose of receiving bariatric surgery (n = 138) and those who did not (n = 104). The Turkish version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47), consisting of 47 questions, was used for the health literacy evaluation. It was seen that patients who accepted bariatric surgery were younger and had higher weight and BMI values (p bariatric surgery and 26.04 (8.33:46.88) in the group who did not agree to bariatric surgery, and a statistically significant difference was determined between the two groups (p bariatric surgery and 45.2% of the group who did not (p  25-33) (respectively, 36.2%, 37.5%, p = 0.840). A sufficient level (> 33-42) and a perfect level were higher in the group who agreed to bariatric surgery (respectively, 42.8%, 18.1%, p bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients. The higher the health literacy level, the more the agreement to bariatric surgery increased.

  13. International nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, P.H.W.

    1978-01-01

    The background to the development of internationally agreed safety principles and practices is discussed. The activities of the IAEA and the scope, structure, and organisation of its programme of Reactor Safety Codes and Guides are described. Attention is drawn to certain areas needing further considerations. (UK)

  14. Communication on urban resilience to extreme weather: challenges and achievements in the dialogue between the international scientific community and local stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Rosa; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    uncertainty and its open issues as a virtuous process, aligning diverging objectives and approaches in a common vision, making an innovative technology visible to the public and managing rumours on security issues, bridging the gap between scientific discourses from an international academic community and operational discourses from local communities.

  15. Escavando a "comunidade internacional": por uma arqueologia do conhecimento metafórico Excavating "international community": toward a metaphorical archeology of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Onuf

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, argumento que metáfora e conceito são nomes para o mesmo tipo de coisa. E, se isso é assim, metáfora é uma metáfora para conceito; conceito é uma metáfora para metáfora. Se assim o é, então o conhecimento é, em geral, metafórico. Uma arqueologia do conhecimento metafórico é uma expressão metafórica para um conjunto de reivindicações e procedimentos concebidos para expor os pressupostos e as associações enterrados, constituindo (e, por meio da constituição, regulando o que pensamos que sabemos. As ressonâncias afetivas e normativas das metáforas relacionadas a "comunidade" se remetem a um profundo anseio em um mundo onde as comunidades não mais se assemelham ao que um dia foram. "Comunidade internacional" é um sítio arqueológico situado na superfície da terra, tão proeminente quanto inexplorado. Sua escavação pode nos conduzir a algum distante passado, somente para nos trazer de volta ao próprio mundo que vivemos.In this paper, I claim that metaphor and concept are names for the same kind of thing. And if this is so, metaphor is a metaphor for concept; concept is a metaphor for metaphor. An archeology of metaphorical knowledge is a metaphorical expression for a set of claims and procedures designed to expose the buried assumptions and associations constituting (and by constituting, regulating what we think we know. The affective and normative resonances of metaphors related to "community" speak to a deep yearning in a world where communities no longer resemble what they once did. "International community" is an above-ground archeological site, as prominent as it is unexplored. Its excavation may take us to some distant past only to bring us back to the very world we live in.

  16. Community-based comprehensive intervention for people with schizophrenia in Guangzhou, China: Effects on clinical symptoms, social functioning, internalized stigma and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Huang, Yuan-Guang; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Fan, Yu; Chen, Wen; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

    2018-04-01

    Comprehensive interventions including components of stigma and discrimination reduction in schizophrenia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lacking. We developed a community-based comprehensive intervention to evaluate its effects on clinical symptoms, social functioning, internalized stigma and discrimination among patients with schizophrenia. A randomized controlled trial including an intervention group (n = 169) and a control group (n = 158) was performed. The intervention group received comprehensive intervention (strategies against stigma and discrimination, psycho-education, social skills training and cognitive behavioral therapy) and the control group received face to face interview. Both lasted for nine months. Participants were measured at baseline, 6 months and 9 months using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale (ISMI), Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and PANSS negative scale (PANSS-N). Insight and medication compliance were evaluated by senior psychiatrists. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Linear Mixed Models were used to show intervention effectiveness on scales. General Linear Mixed Models with multinomial logistic link function were used to assess the effectiveness on medication compliance and insight. We found a significant reduction on anticipated discrimination, BPRS and PANSS-N total scores, and an elevation on overcoming stigma and GAF in the intervention group after 9 months. These suggested the intervention may be effective in reducing anticipated discrimination, increasing skills overcoming stigma as well as improving clinical symptoms and social functioning in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Do Countries Consistently Engage in Misinforming the International Community about Their Efforts to Combat Money Laundering? Evidence Using Benford’s Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, collected by EUROSTAT, are plagued with shortcomings. In this paper, I have carried out a forensic analysis on a 2003–2010 dataset of indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, that European Union member states self-reported to EUROSTAT, and on the basis of which, their efforts were evaluated. I used Benford’s law to detect any anomalous statistical patterns and found that statistical anomalies were also consistent with strategic manipulation. According to Benford’s law, if we pick a random sample of numbers representing natural processes, and look at the distribution of the first digits of these numbers, we see that, contrary to popular belief, digit 1 occurs most often, then digit 2, and so on, with digit 9 occurring in less than 5% of the sample. Without prior knowledge of Benford’s law, since people are not intuitively good at creating truly random numbers, deviations thereof can capture strategic alterations. In order to eliminate other sources of deviation, I have compared deviations in situations where incentives and opportunities for manipulation existed and in situations where they did not. While my results are not a conclusive proof of strategic manipulation, they signal that countries that faced incentives and opportunities to misinform the international community about their efforts to combat money laundering may have manipulated these indicators. Finally, my analysis points to the high potential for disruption that the manipulation of national statistics has, and calls for the acknowledgment that strategic manipulation can be an unintended consequence of the international community’s pressure on countries to put combatting money laundering on the top of their national agenda. PMID:28122058

  18. International aspects of non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aucoin, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    There are currently two areas on the national scene and one on the international scene that require immediate attention. The first is relief under contracts for enrichment services, an area in which the US can still demonstrate its desire to become a stable and continuous source of supply. The second national area is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1977. The United States must proceed very cautiously, however, for if discretion and very careful judgment are not used, the Act will immediately be branded as a blatant effort on the part of the US to control the energy options of other sovereign states. The international area is that of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation program. This medium exists for wise and deliberate growth of a commercial nuclear power program which can serve the global community. The next three years probably allow one remaining chance for successful containment of weapons proliferation. If we do not recognize the rights of every sovereign state to voluntarily participate and agree, we, as members of the global community, will have failed

  19. Revistas internacionales de enfermería: comunidad científica hispanoportuguesa (año 2002 International journals nursing: Spanish-Portuguese scientific community (year 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gálvez Toro

    2005-11-01

    Portuguese linguistic area. In order to research the international nature of the publications, a double criterion was used simultaneously: the international contribution, that is, the publication of articles from foreign authors; and the CUIDEN® Immediate Repercussion (Rci for the year of study, understood as an indicator of the present and visible consumption that an international community does of a scientific magazine. Results: The index of international contribution was 6%, with a group of 14 magazines without contribution and a nucleus of seven magazines with an equal value or over 15%. Three magazines achieved the double criterion to consider its international nature: Index de Enfermería, Desarrollo Científico de Enfermería y Gerokomos, although it is possible to define a nucleus with a greater scope. Conclusions: None of the 33 magazines has a universal scope in the Latin American area, neither from a consumption point of view, nor its quotation or the international contribution. A small nucleus of magazines can be defined for the year 2002 with international nature for the area of study: Index de Enfermería (Esp, Investigación y Educación en Enfermería (Col, Gerokomos (Esp, Desarrollo Científico de Enfermería (Méx, Revista de Enfermería del IMSS (Méx. Ii is obvious, nevertheless, the immaturity of the Latin American area from the international contribution point of view.

  20. Do primary care professionals agree about progress with implementation of primary care teams: results from a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, E; O'Sullivan, M; Hickey, L; Hannigan, A; May, C; Cullen, W; Kennedy, N; Kineen, L; MacFarlane, A

    2016-11-22

    Primary care is the cornerstone of healthcare reform with policies across jurisdictions promoting interdisciplinary team working. The effective implementation of such health policies requires understanding the perspectives of all actors. However, there is a lack of research about health professionals' views of this process. This study compares Primary Healthcare Professionals' perceptions of the effectiveness of the Primary Care Strategy and Primary Care Team (PCT) implementation in Ireland. Design and Setting: e-survey of (1) General Practitioners (GPs) associated with a Graduate Medical School (N = 100) and (2) Primary Care Professionals in 3 of 4 Health Service Executive (HSE) regions (N = 2309). After piloting, snowball sampling was used to administer the survey. Descriptive analysis was carried out using SPSS. Ratings across groups were compared using non-parametric tests. There were 569 responses. Response rates varied across disciplines (71 % for GPs, 22 % for other Primary Healthcare Professionals (PCPs). Respondents across all disciplines viewed interdisciplinary working as important. Respondents agreed on lack of progress of implementation of formal PCTs (median rating of 2, where 1 is no progress at all and 5 is complete implementation). GPs were more negative about the effectiveness of the Strategy to promote different disciplines to work together (median rating of 2 compared to 3 for clinical therapists and 3.5 for nurses, P = 0.001). Respondents identified resources and GP participation as most important for effective team working. Protected time for meetings and capacity to manage workload for meetings were rated as very important factors for effective team working by GPs, clinical therapists and nurses. A building for co-location of teams was rated as an important factor by nurses and clinical therapists though GPs rated it as less important. Payment to attend meetings and contractual arrangements were considered important factors by

  1. Proton magnetic spectroscopy agreed better with magnetic resonance image to lateralization of epileptogenic zone than with surface electroencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andre Amorim Leite

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the agreement rate of proton magnetic spectroscopy with magnetic resonance image (MRI and surface electroence-phalography (EEG in extratemporal neocortical epilepsies. Methods A cross-sectional study, type series of cases included 33 patients, age range 13–59 years old, of both gender, presenting structural alteration identified by MRI (75.8% or by neurophysiologic techniques (72.7%. The variables were alterations of N-acetyl-aspartate/choline, N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine, choline/creatine, and N-acetyl-aspartate/cho-line+creatine coefficient of asymmetry. Results Agreement rates of lateralization by coefficient of asymmetry of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Co/Cr, and NAA/Cho+Cr with MRI, independent of alteration of surface EEG, were equal to 93.3, 57.9, 15.4, and 93.3%, respectively, modifying to 100, 33.3, 0, and 100%, in 16 patients, with lateralization agreement of MRI and surface EEG. Conclusion Proton magnetic spectroscopy agreed better with MRI to lateralization of epileptogenic zone than with surface EEG.

  2. Scaled MP3 non-covalent interaction energies agree closely with accurate CCSD(T) benchmark data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitonák, Michal; Neogrády, Pavel; Cerný, Jirí; Grimme, Stefan; Hobza, Pavel

    2009-01-12

    Scaled MP3 interaction energies calculated as a sum of MP2/CBS (complete basis set limit) interaction energies and scaled third-order energy contributions obtained in small or medium size basis sets agree very closely with the estimated CCSD(T)/CBS interaction energies for the 22 H-bonded, dispersion-controlled and mixed non-covalent complexes from the S22 data set. Performance of this so-called MP2.5 (third-order scaling factor of 0.5) method has also been tested for 33 nucleic acid base pairs and two stacked conformers of porphine dimer. In all the test cases, performance of the MP2.5 method was shown to be superior to the scaled spin-component MP2 based methods, e.g. SCS-MP2, SCSN-MP2 and SCS(MI)-MP2. In particular, a very balanced treatment of hydrogen-bonded compared to stacked complexes is achieved with MP2.5. The main advantage of the approach is that it employs only a single empirical parameter and is thus biased by two rigorously defined, asymptotically correct ab-initio methods, MP2 and MP3. The method is proposed as an accurate but computationally feasible alternative to CCSD(T) for the computation of the properties of various kinds of non-covalently bound systems.

  3. Do you agree with the doctor's decision to continue treatment?: A scenario-based study of hospital nurses in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ingravallo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A lack of social consensus on the duty to comply with a patient's request to forgo treatment was reported in Italy, but little is known about the nurses' attitudes regarding this issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Questionnaire including two clinical scenarios regarding doctor's decision to not comply with a competent patient's request to forgo treatment was administered to all nurses (n = 487 of an Italian medium-sized hospital. RESULTS: Eighty-five percent of nurses completed the study. Although 83% of participants supported a general right to self-determination, around 40% of them agreed with the doctor's decision in both scenarios. The multivariate analyses adjusted for gender, age, length of professional experience, and care setting showed that the agreement with the doctor's decision was significantly associated with nurses' personal background beliefs about self-determination and quality of life. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Many nurses have difficulty in accepting a patient's request to forgo treatment. Increasing ethical reflection and discussion at both educational and professional level, and introducing ethical consultation services would be essential to develop a consistent approach to end-of-life decisions in Italian hospitals.

  4. The Need for Clinical Practice Guidelines in Assessing and Managing Perioperative Neurologic Deficit: Results from a Survey of the AOSpine International Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Anick; Murray, Jean-Christophe; Martin, Allan R; Nouri, Aria; Tetreault, Lindsay; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    There is no standardized approach to assess and manage perioperative neurologic deficit (PND) in patients undergoing spinal surgery. This survey aimed to evaluate the awareness and usage of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) as well as investigate how surgeons performing spine surgeries feel about and manage PND and how they perceive the value of developing CPGs for the management of PND. An invitation to participate was sent to the AOSpine International community. Questions were related to the awareness, usage of CPGs, and demographics. Results from the entire sample and subgroups were analyzed. Of 770 respondents, 659 (85.6%) reported being aware of the existence of guideline(s), and among those, 578 (87.7%) acknowledged using guideline(s). Overall, 58.8% of surgeons reported not feeling comfortable managing a patient who wakes up quadriplegic after an uneventful multilevel posterior cervical decompression with instrumented fusion. Although 22.9% would consider an immediate return to the operating room, the other 77.1% favored conducting some kind of investigation/medical intervention first, such as performing magnetic resonance imaging (85.9%), administrating high-dose corticosteroids (50.2%), or increasing the mean arterial pressure (44.7%). Overall, 90.6% of surgeons believed that CPGs for the management of PND would be useful and 94.4% would be either likely or extremely likely to use these CPGs in their clinical practice. Most respondents are aware and routinely use CPGs in their practice. Most surgeons performing spine surgeries reported not feeling comfortable managing PND. However, they highly value the creation and are likely to use CPGs in its management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Different challenges, different approaches and related expenditures of community-based tuberculosis activities by international non-governmental organizations in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wai Wai; Saw, Saw; Isaakidis, Petros; Khogali, Mohammed; Reid, Anthony; Hoa, Nguyen; Zaw, Ko Ko; Aung, Si Thu

    2017-03-24

    International non-governmental organizations (INGOs) have been implementing community-based tuberculosis (TB) care (CBTBC) in Myanmar since 2011. Although the National TB Programme (NTP) ultimately plans to take over CBTBC, there have been no evaluations of the models of care or of the costs of providing CBTBC in Myanmar by INGOs. This was a descriptive study using routinely-collected programmatic and financial data from four INGOs during 2013 and 2014, adjusted for inflation. Data analysis was performed from the provider perspective. Costs for sputum examination were not included as it was provided free of charge by NTP. We calculated the average cost per year of each programme and cost per patient completing treatment. Four INGOs assisted the NTP by providing CBTBC in areas where access to TB services was challenging. Each INGO faced different issues in their contexts and responded with a diversity of strategies. The total costs ranged from US$ 140 754 to US$ 550 221 during the study period. The cost per patient completing treatment ranged from US$ 215 to US$ 1 076 for new cases and US$ 354 to US$ 1 215 for retreatment cases, depending on the targeted area and the package of services offered. One INGO appeared less costly, more sustainable and patient oriented than others. This study revealed a wide variety of models of care and associated costs for implementing CBTBC in diverse and challenging populations and contexts in Myanmar. Consequently, we recommend a more comprehensive evaluation, including development of a cost model, to estimate the costs of scaling up CBTBC country-wide, and cost-effectiveness studies, to best inform the NTP as it prepares to takeover CBTBC activities from INGOs. While awaiting evidence from these studies, model of CBTBC that have higher sustainability potential and allocate more resources to patient-centered care should be given priority support.

  6. Search Results | Page 43 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 421 - 430 of 8492 ... ... Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (186) Apply ... Do researchers and marketing companies agree on what is needed? IDRC awardees. Investigating the pros and cons of digital technologies.

  7. Centralization of politrauma. Study of Ferrara’s reality and simulation of an agreed-upon protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Melcarne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In a time in which everybody’s asked a big effort to use hospitals, resources and emergency departments in a rational way, the Centralization – that is sending the right patient to the right hospital at the right time – allows an optimization of the resources and a better management of medical patients. In this study we examined the actual state of Centralization in the city of Ferrara where an experimental protocol of “centralization” has been introduced. This study has the purpose of simulating reality if the protocol had been introduced in the years 2008/2009. The results confirm not only that an important number of patients that were meant to be sent to the CTZ of Ferrara where instead sent to the PST but also that, on the contrary, patients from the suburbs that didn’t require advanced treatments were sent to the Sant’Anna hospital of Ferrara. So if medical literature already points out the advantages of a correct Centralization for patients with polytraumas; the study, based on the reality in Ferrara , shows how the creation of an agreed protocol with the goal to guide health workers at sending polytrauma patients to the right destination , instead of creating an excessive flow th the main hub, can improve the overall organization of health services, with an equal distribution between hub and spoke. When considering First Aid not always speed and rapidity guarantee survival; this is so much more real in the case of patients with polytrauma, where quality of cures assumes more importance than time.

  8. Guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children: systematic review of the literature and quality appraisal with AGREE II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Elena; Bortone, Barbara; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio

    2017-07-31

    Several societies have produced and disseminated clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the symptomatic management of fever in children. However, to date, the quality of such guidelines has not been appraised. To identify and evaluate guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children. The research was conducted using PubMed, guideline websites, and Google (January 2010 to July 2016). The quality of the CPGs was independently assessed by two assessors using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument, and specific recommendations in guidelines were summarised and evaluated. Domain scores were considered of sufficient quality when >60% and of good quality when >80%. Seven guidelines were retrieved. The median score for the scope and purpose domain was 85.3% (range 66.6-100%). The median score for the stakeholder involvement domain was 57.5% (range 33.3-83.3%) and four guidelines scored >60%. The median score for the rigour of development domain was 52.0% (range 14.6-98.9%), and only three guidelines scored >60%. The median score for the clarity of presentation domain was 80.9% (range 50.0-94.4%). The median score for the applicability domain was 39.3% (8.3-100%). Only one guideline scored >60%. The median score for the editorial independence domain was 48.84% (0-91.6%); only three guidelines scored >60%. Most guidelines were recommended for use even if with modification, especially in the methodology, the applicability and the editorial independence domains. Our results could help improve reporting of future guidelines, and affect the selection and use of guidelines in clinical practice. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Ethnic Minorities and Migrant Communities. Report on the Round Table and Satellite Meetings. International Congress on AIDS (9th, Berlin, Germany, June 6-11, 1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz Foundation, London (England).

    The Naz Foundation sponsors a project on HIV and AIDS education, prevention, and support among South Asian, Turkish, Irani, and Arab communities in Europe. As immigrants, ethnic minorities, and refugees, these people are not isolated from the societies in which they live, and are just as vulnerable as any other community to AIDS. A conference on…

  10. A critical appraisal of 2007 American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) Practice Guidelines for Interventional Pain Management: an independent review utilizing AGREE, AMA, IOM, and other criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Helm, Standiford; Trescot, Andrea M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2008-01-01

    Today, with the growing interest of the medical community and others in practice guidelines, there is greater emphasis on formal procedures and methods for arriving at a widely scrutinized and endorsed consensus than ever before. Conflicts in terminology and technique are notable for the confusion that guidelines create and for what they reflect about differences in values, experiences, and interests among different parties. While public and private development activities continue to multiply, the means for coordinating these efforts to resolve inconsistencies, fill in gaps, track applications and results, and assess the soundness of particular guidelines continue to be limited. In this era of widespread guideline development by private organizations, the American College of Occupational and Environment Medicine (ACOEM) has developed guidelines that evaluate areas of clinical practice well beyond the scope of occupational medicine and yet fail to properly involve physicians expert in these, especially those in the field of interventional pain management. As the field of guidelines suffers from imperfect and incomplete scientific knowledge as well as imperfect and uneven means of applying that knowledge without a single or correct way to develop guidelines, ACOEM guidelines have been alleged to hinder patient care, reduce access to interventional pain management procedures, and transfer patients into a system of disability, Medicare, and Medicaid. To critically appraise occupational medicine practice guidelines for interventional pain management by an independent review utilizing the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE), American Medical Association (AMA), Institute of Medicine (IOM), and other commonly utilized criteria. Revised chapters of ACOEM guidelines, low back pain and chronic pain, developed in 2007 and 2008 are evaluated, utilizing AGREE, AMA, IOM instruments, and Shaneyfelt et al's criteria, were independently reviewed by 4

  11. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  12. A quantitative study of attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability: Do stakeholders agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Olick, Robert S

    2017-12-13

    Attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability inform research policy and practice, impact interest in and support for research participation, and promote or discourage the generation of new knowledge to promote health among adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about these beliefs among the public and the scientific community. We quantitatively studied attitudes among adults with intellectual disability, family and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members. We predicted that adults with intellectual disability, and researchers would espouse views most consistent with disability rights, whereas IRB members, and to a lesser degree family, friends, and service providers, would espouse more protective views. We surveyed five hundred and twelve members of the five participant stakeholder groups on their attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found broad support for research about people with intellectual disability, though slightly more tempered support for their direct participation therein. In general, IRB members and to some extent adults with intellectual disability endorsed direct participation less than others. We also found that adults with intellectual disability strongly believed in their consent capacity. Resources should be directed toward health-related research with adults with intellectual disability, and interventions should be pursued to address ethical challenges and promote beliefs consistent with human rights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocols thereto) between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 21 March 2000 by the representative of the Government of the French Republic and the Director General of the IAEA, and on 26 September 2000 by the representative of the European Atomic Energy Community. Pursuant to Article 23 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 26 October 2007, one month after the Agency has received notification from both France and the European Atomic Energy Community that their respective internal requirements for entry into force have been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocols, the Protocols entered into force on the same date

  14. Community Opinion and Satisfaction with the Leadership at an Urban Community Educational Learning Center during an Organizational Transformation Process: A Frontline Perspective from Community Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joseph Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study examined selected community stakeholders' perception of the current leadership at their local community educational learning center during an organizational transformation and cultural change process. The transition from a community college to an educational learning center, mandated in 2006 by the Accredition Commission and agreed on…

  15. Community Characteristics and Trajectories of Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: The Cumulative Advantage/Disadvantage and Subjective Appraisals of Social Support as Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining neighborhood effects on adolescent outcomes have indicated that adolescents growing up in low-income neighborhoods are at higher risk of developing internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, knowledge of the long-term effects of neighborhood disadvantages on internalizing and externalizing behaviors and the involved mechanisms across adolescence is limited. Using family life course theory and the cumulative advantage/disadvantage perspective, this study examined how...

  16. Effects of the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work hour rules on surgical interns: a prospective study in a community teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Tovy Haber; Barron, Rebecca J; Lesicka, Agnieszka; Galbraith, John D; Millham, Frederick H; Larson, Janet

    2013-02-01

    On July 1, 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) eliminated 30-hour call in an attempt to improve resident wakefulness. We surveyed interns on the Newton Wellesley Hospital (NWH) surgery service before and after the transition from Q4 overnight call to a night float schedule. For 15 weeks, interns completed weekly surveys including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The service changed to a night float schedule after 3 weeks (ie, first to 3-4 and then to 6 nights in a row). The average ESS score rose from 9.8 ± 5.2 to 14.9 ± 3.1 and 14.4 ± 4.5 (P = .042) on the 3/4 and 6/1 schedules, respectively. Interns were more likely to be abnormally tired on either night float schedule (relative risk = 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-6.97, P = .029). The new ACGME work hours increased the ESS scores among interns at NWH and caused interns to be more tired than interns on the Q4 schedule. This is likely caused by the multiple nights of poor sleep without a post-call day to make up sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop on Sustainable Initial Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. J.; Cooke, Doug; Hopkins, Joshua; Perino, Maria A.; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget assumptions and with sustained international participation. In response to this idea, a distinguished group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December, 2013. Participants reviewed and discussed scenarios for affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station over the coming decade as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and a usable definition of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop.

  18. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  19. Communication received from the Member States of the European Community regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The document reproduces the text of the note verbale received by the Director General on 30 November 1992 from the Permanent Missions to the Agency of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, relating to the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfer of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material. The note verbale dated 23 November 1992, received by the Director General from the Commission of the European Communities and relating to the same subject, is reproduced as well

  20. Gait speed at usual pace as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people an International Academy on Nutrition and Aging (IANA) Task Force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abellan van Kan, G.; Rolland, Y.; Andrieu, S.; Bauer, J.; Beauchet, O.; Bonnefoy, M.; Cesari, M.; Donini, L.M.; Gillette Guyonnet, S.; Inzitari, M.; Nourhashemi, F.; Onder, G.; Ritz, P; Salva, A.; Visser, M.; Vellas, B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The use of a simple, safe, and easy to perform assessment tool, like gait speed, to evaluate vulnerability to adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people is appealing, but its predictive capacity is still questioned. The present manuscript summarises the conclusions of an

  1. The Impact of Enabling School Structures on the Degree of Internal School Change as Measured by the Implementation of Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylus, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    This non-experimental, correlational study looked at the relationship between bureaucratic structures in middle and high schools in bringing about change in individual teacher classroom instructional practices through the centralized directive of membership in a professional learning community. Using a continuum of bureaucratic structure, from…

  2. Office of Inspector General report on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1, independent accountant`s report on applying agreed-upon procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    On October 6, 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced it had agreed to sell all of the Government`s interest in Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1) to Occidental Petroleum Corporation for $3.65 billion. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` agreed-upon procedures work on the Preliminary Settlement Statement of the Purchase and Sale Agreement between DOE and Occidental. To fulfill their responsibilities, the Office of Inspector General contracted with the independent public accounting firm of KPMG Peat Marwick LLP to conduct the work for them, subject to their review. The work was done in accordance with the Statements on Standards for Attestation Engagements issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. As such, the independent certified public accountants performed only work that was agreed upon by DOE and Occidental. This report is intended solely for the use of DOE and Occidental and should not be used by those who have not agreed to the procedures and taken responsibility for the sufficiency of the procedures for their purposes. However, this report is a matter of public record, and its distribution is not limited. The independent certified public accountants identified over 20 adjustments to the Preliminary Settlement Statement that would result in a $10.8 million increase in the sale price.

  3. 31 CFR 19.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Department of the Treasury agrees to a voluntary exclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do other Federal agencies know if the Department of the Treasury agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 19.645 Section 19.645 Money and Finance: Treasury... Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 19.645 Do other Federal agencies know if the...

  4. Bayesian community detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N

    2012-01-01

    Many networks of scientific interest naturally decompose into clusters or communities with comparatively fewer external than internal links; however, current Bayesian models of network communities do not exert this intuitive notion of communities. We formulate a nonparametric Bayesian model...... for community detection consistent with an intuitive definition of communities and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure for inferring the community structure. A Matlab toolbox with the proposed inference procedure is available for download. On synthetic and real networks, our model detects communities...... consistent with ground truth, and on real networks, it outperforms existing approaches in predicting missing links. This suggests that community structure is an important structural property of networks that should be explicitly modeled....

  5. Community Schools as an Effective Strategy for Reform. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Julia; Snyder, Jon David

    2016-01-01

    Research literature finds that community school models offering various agreed-upon features provide an excellent social return on investment and significant promise for providing opportunities for learning and promoting well-being in students and communities. Community schools show significant promise for addressing barriers to learning and…

  6. Supervision of nuclear material in the Federal Republic of Germany by the Commission of the European Communities (Euratom) and the International Atomic Energy Organisation (IAEO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, C.

    1979-01-01

    Since the fifties Euratom has controlled nuclear material in the Federal Republic of Germany. When the verification agreement came into force in the treaty on the non-proliferation of atomic weapons in February 1977, the International Atomic Energy Organisation (IAEO) has commenced the supervision of nuclear material in German nuclear energy installations. The author describes the basic principle of the supervision and the possible effects on the installations. In addition, he also deals with the discussions which have flared up about the international supervision of nuclear material, and indicates possible future developments. (orig.) [de

  7. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras'kin, Stanislav; Glenn, Travis; Higley, Kathy; Ishida, Ken; Kapustka, Lawrence; Kautsky, Ulrik; Kuhne, Wendy; Lynch, Michael; Mappes, Tapio; Mihok, Steve; Møller, Anders P; Mothersill, Carmel; Mousseau, Timothy A; Otaki, Joji M; Pryakhin, Evgeny; Rhodes, Olin E; Salbu, Brit; Strand, Per; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C.; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras’kin, Stanislav; Glenn, Travis; Higley, Kathy; Ishida, Ken; Kapustka, Lawrence; Kautsky, Ulrik; Kuhne, Wendy; Lynch, Michael; Mappes, Tapio; Mihok, Steve; Møller, Anders P.; Mothersill, Carmel; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Otaki, Joji M.; Pryakhin, Evgeny; Rhodes, Olin E.; Salbu, Brit; Strand, Per; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters’ accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. PMID:27058410

  9. International cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti: the role of community radios in strengthening social mobilization in the public health context in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Renata Machado Dos Santos; Oliveira, Valdir de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The present article investigates the role of Haitian community radios in strengthening social mobilization, with the aim of supporting the actions undertaken in the field of public health in Haiti, based on the development of the Workshop for community radios, as part of the Tripartite Cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti. The qualitative methodology is justified because of the study content, an analysis of documents and direct observation, through a case study presented at the Workshop held in the department of Hinches, in Haiti. This meeting was held in the context of the Working Group on Tripartite Communication, under the responsibility of the Health Channel/Fiocruz, in partnership with the Department for Health Promotion and Environmental Prevention of the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti (DPSPE/MSPP/Haiti), with a proposal to better structure a network of multipliers in health promotion.

  10. The International Academy for Bilingual Education and Bicultural Studies, Community School District 2, Manhattan. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OER Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joanne

    This report presents an evaluation of the International Academy for Bilingual Education and Bicultural Studies, an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its third year of operation in 1992-93. The program provided instructional and support services to 74 Chinese- and English-speaking students in 1 pre-kindergarten, 1…

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BENCHMARKING GUIDELINES ON COMMUNITY PHARMACIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNIFER TAN SEE HUI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP adopted a set of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP guidelines in 1993 and recommended that the regulatory bodies of individual countries should adapt the guidelines in accordance with their resources. The Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society (MPS introduced its benchmarking guidelines (BMG in 2003 as a means to raise the professional standards of the community pharmacy practice in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the extent to which community pharmacies have adopted the BMG. A cross-sectional study was conducted using mail questionnaires, which were posted to all community pharmacies in Malaysia. A total of 371 questionnaires (29.2% were returned. Only 51.0% of the respondents were aware of the BMG. The extent of compliance with the guidelines was 62.6+21.1% (mean + standard deviation, with a median of 65%. The type and ownership of the community pharmacies were significantly associated with compliance with certain aspects of the guidelines. The main problem in complying with the BMG was financial constraint, and this problem was more likely to occur with independent than with chain pharmacies. However, the respondents generally agreed that most aspects of the BMG could be achieved in less than five years. Since the level of awareness among community pharmacists regarding the BMG is low, the MPS should promote or publicise the BMG further. The BMG should be reviewed before being used as part of the criteria for the accreditation of community pharmacies, as proposed by the MPS to further improve the quality and standards of community pharmacies in Malaysia.

  12. Epilepsy-associated stigma in Bolivia: a community-based study among the Guarani population: an International League Against Epilepsy/International Bureau for Epilepsy/World Health Organization Global Campaign Against Epilepsy Regional Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Sofia, Vito; Rafael, Florentina; Magnelli, Donata; Padilla, Sandra; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Bartalesi, Filippo; Segundo, Higinio; Zappia, Mario; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2012-09-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden of social stigma that appears to be influenced by psychosocial and cultural factors. Stigma has a negative effect on the management of people with epilepsy (PWE), representing one of the major factors that contribute to the burden of epilepsy. To assess stigma perception among the Guarani population, one hundred thirty-two people living in Guaraní communities in Bolivia were invited to complete the Stigma Scale of Epilepsy questionnaire. The main determinants of stigma identified were: the fear linked to loss of control, the feelings of sadness and pity toward PWE, the difficulties faced by PWE in the professional and relationship fields, the level of education and type of seizure. Our study pointed out that, in this population, PWE face difficulties in everyday life because of epilepsy-associated stigma and the results attest to the importance of promoting community-based educational programs aimed at reducing the stigmatization process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fusion research in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Centering around the European joint project Joint European Torus (JET), in the framework of which hot fusion plasmas are already brought close to thermonuclear ignition, the individual research centres in Europe have taken over different special tasks. In Germany research concentrates above all on the development of super-conductive magnets, the stage of plasma-physical fundamentals or the investigation of the interaction between the plasma boundary layer and the material of the vessel wall. On this basis the development stage following JET, the Next European Torus (NET), is planned, with its main aim being the production and maintenance of a thermonuclear burning plasma, i.e. a plasma which maintains its active state from the gain of energy of its own fusion reactions. In the framework of a contractually agreed cooperation between the European Community, Japan, the USSR and the USA, the establishment of an international study group (with seat in Garching) was decided upon, which is to develop the concept of an 'International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)' jointly supported by these countries. The results of the studies presented show that the differences in the design data of ITER and NET are negligible. (orig./DG) [de

  14. A Global Social Support System: What the International Community Could Learn From the United States’ National Basketball Association’s Scheme for Redistribution of New Talent

    OpenAIRE

    Gorik Ooms; David Stuckler; Sanjay Basu; Martin McKee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: If global trade were fair, it is argued, then international aid would be unnecessary and inequalities inherent to the economic system would be justifiable. Here, we argue that while global trade is unfair, in part because richer countries set the rules, we believe that additional interventions must go beyond trade regulation and short-term aid to redress inequalities among countries that will persist and possibly worsen in spite of such measures. Drawing on an example of measures ta...

  15. Communicating about the Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak to the international community and in-country foreigners, Republic of Korea, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Minwon Lee; Jooyoung Sohn; Kidong Park

    2016-01-01

    During the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in 2015, the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) of the Republic of Korea provided outbreak information targeting international visitors and foreign residents through multiple channels. The MOHW created a MERS portal website in Korean and English on 10 June 2015; in addition, the existing MOHW website provided English-language press releases beginning 28 May. A toll-free telephone hotline also started service in English on 12 June;...

  16. Baseline results of the first healthy schools evaluation among a community of young, Irish, urban disadvantaged children and a comparison of outcomes with international norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, Catherine M; O'Sullivan, Karin; Quirke, Mary B; Wynne, Ciara; Hollywood, Eleanor; MGillloway, Sinead

    2012-11-01

    In 2008, the Irish Government initiated a pilot Healthy Schools Programme based on the World Health Organization Health Promoting Schools Model among children attending schools officially designated as urban and disadvantaged. We present here the first results on physical and emotional health and the relationship between childhood depression and demographic and socioeconomic factors. The Healthy Schools Programme evaluation was a 3-year longitudinal outcome study among urban disadvantaged children aged 4 to 12 years. Physical and psychological health outcomes were measured using validated, international instruments at baseline. Outcomes at baseline were compared with international norms and where differences were found, results were statistically modeled to determine factors predicting poor outcomes. A total of 552 children responded at baseline, representing over 50% of all eligible children available to participate from 7 schools. Findings at baseline revealed that in general, children did not differ significantly from international norms. However, detailed analysis of the childhood depression scores revealed that in order of importance, psychological well-being, the school environment, social support, and peer relations and age were statistically significant predictors of increased childhood depression in children under 12 years of age. Future health and well-being studies in schools among urban disadvantaged children need to broaden their scope to include measures of depression in children under 12 years of age and be cognisant of the impact of the school environment on the mental and emotional health of the very young. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  17. Quality assessment of recent evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults using the AGREE II instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Muhammad A; Al-Fahed, Ousama B; Arif, Samir I; Amer, Yasser S; Titi, Maher A; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O

    2018-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide and national public health problem that has a great impact on the population in Saudi Arabia. High-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are cornerstones in improving the health care provided for patients with diabetes. This study evaluated the methodological rigour, transparency, and applicability of recently published CPGs. Our group conducted a systematic search for recently published CPGs for T2DM. The searching and screening for Source CPGs were guided by tools from the ADAPTE methods with specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five reviewers using the second version of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) Instrument independently assessed the quality of the retrieved Source CPGs. Domains of Scope and purpose and Clarity of presentation received the highest scores in all CPGs. Most of the assessed CPGs (86%) were considered with high overall quality and were recommended for use. Rigour of development and applicability domains were together highest in 3 CPGs (43%). The overall high quality of DM CPGs published in the last 3 years demonstrated the continuous development and improvement in CPG methodologies and standards. Health care professionals should consider the quality of any CPG for T2DM before deciding to use it in their daily clinical practice. Three CPGs have been identified, using the AGREE criteria, as high-quality and trustworthy. Ideally, the resources provided by the AGREE trust including the AGREE II Instrument should be used by a clinician to scan through the large number of published T2DM CPGs to identify the CPGs with high methodological quality and applicability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. An evidence synthesis of the international knowledge base for new care models to inform and mobilise knowledge for multispecialty community providers (MCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alison; Mulla, Abeda; Booth, Andrew; Aldridge, Shiona; Stevens, Sharon; Battye, Fraser; Spilsbury, Peter

    2016-10-01

    NHS England's Five Year Forward View (NHS England, Five Year Forward View, 2014) formally introduced a strategy for new models of care driven by simultaneous pressures to contain costs, improve care and deliver services closer to home through integrated models. This synthesis focuses on a multispecialty community provider (MCP) model. This new model of care seeks to overcome the limitations in current models of care, often based around single condition-focused pathways, in contrast to patient-focused delivery (Royal College of General Practitioners, The 2022 GP: compendium of evidence, 2012) which offers greater continuity of care in recognition of complex needs and multimorbidity. The synthesis, an innovative combination of best fit framework synthesis and realist synthesis, will develop a "blueprint" which articulates how and why MCP models work, to inform design of future iterations of the MCP model. A systematic search will be conducted to identify research and practice-derived evidence to achieve a balance that captures the historical legacy of MCP models but focuses on contemporary evidence. Sources will include bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, HMIC and Cochrane Library; and grey literature sources. The Best Fit synthesis methodology will be combined with a synthesis following realist principles which are particularly suited to exploring what works, when, for whom and in what circumstances. The aim of this synthesis is to provide decision makers in health and social care with a practical evidence base relating to the multispecialty community provider (MCP) model of care. PROSPERO CRD42016039552 .

  19. Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2016-01-01

    In linear classifiers, such as the Support Vector Machine (SVM), a score is associated with each feature and objects are assigned to classes based on the linear combination of the scores and the values of the features. Inspired by discrete psychometric scales, which measure the extent to which a ...

  20. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C.; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras'kin, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. - Highlights: • IUR built better scientific consensus on the ecological effects of radiation. • Laboratory versus field approaches have been addressed. • Organism versus

  1. Space - A new community of opportunity; Proceedings of the Thirty-fourth Annual AAS International Conference, Houston, TX, Nov. 3-5, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straight, W.G.; Bowes, H.N.

    1989-01-01

    Papers on recent advances in astronautical sciences are presented, covering topics such as governing and policy issues, international space applications, ELV research, astrodynamics and planetary missions, and rocket propulsion for the Space Shuttle and the National Aerospace Plane. Other topics include astronomy, astrophysics, solar system exploration, physiological effects of space flight, bioregenerative life support, medical care in space, tracking and data systems, VLBI, electrophoresis experiment command and data handling, Space Station communications, and telerobotics. Additional subjects include structures and composite materials, automation and robotics for the Space Station, EVA construction, the Space Station and large structures, and automation and robotics for the moon, Mars, and interplanetary missions

  2. International Convergence on Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    interoperability across scientific domains, 4) support the promulgation and institutionalization of agreed-upon standards, protocols, and practice, and 5) enhance knowledge transfer not only across the community, but into the domain sciences, 6) lower existing entry barriers for users and data producers, 7) build on the existing disciplinary infrastructures leveraging their service buses. . All of these objectives are required for establishing a permanent and sustainable cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. The rationale for this approach is well articulated in the AuScope mission statement: "Many of these problems can only be solved on a national, if not global scale. No single researcher, research institution, discipline or jurisdiction can provide the solutions. We increasingly need to embrace e-Research techniques and use the internet not only to access nationally distributed datasets, instruments and compute infrastructure, but also to build online, 'virtual' communities of globally dispersed researchers." Multidisciplinary interoperability can be successfully pursued by adopting a "system of systems" or a "Network of Networks" philosophy. This approach aims to: (a) supplement but not supplant systems mandates and governance arrangements; (b) keep the existing capacities as autonomous as possible; (c) lower entry barriers; (d) Build incrementally on existing infrastructures (information systems); (e) incorporate heterogeneous resources by introducing distribution and mediation functionalities. This approach has been adopted by the European INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community) initiative and by the international GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) programme.

  3. Do we need community geriatrics?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hanlon, S

    2012-01-30

    Community geriatrics has evolved as a specific aspect of geriatric medicine in the UK. In Ireland there is uncertainty as to how it should be planned. This is the first national survey of consultants, specialist registrars and general practitioners to seek their opinions. Most consultants and GPs reported already having a community aspect to their current practice, e.g. nursing home visits or community hospital visits, whereas most SpRs did not. Forty three of 62 respondents (69%) agreed that there is a need for community geriatricians and that there should be integration with hospital medicine. Fifty seven of 62 respondents (92%) felt that there would be a beneficial effect on GP services, though some expressed concern about work overlap. Thirteen of the 25 SpRs (52%) in training hoped to begin practice in community geriatrics in the future.

  4. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of an M3 Community Health Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Barbra; Wolff, Marie; Bates, Tovah; Beverdorf, Sarah; Young, Staci; Ahmed, Syed

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of an M3 community health curriculum that responds to recent changes within the health care finance and delivery system. The new curriculum was developed based on AAMC recommendations, LCME requirements, a national review of undergraduate community health curricula, and an internal review of the integration of community health concepts in M3 clerkships. The M3 curriculum teaches: 1) the importance of being a community responsive physician; 2) SES factors that influence health; 3) cultural competency; and 4) the role of physicians as health educators. Student evaluations for the first twelve months of implementation indicate that students are most satisfied with presentations and less satisfied with required readings and a patient interview project. Most students agree that at the completion of the course they understand what it means to be a community-responsive physician, and they have developed skills to help them become more community responsive. Evaluation tools need to be developed to assess if students' behavior has changed due to course participation.

  5. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of an M3 Community Health Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staci Young, MS

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of an M3 community health curriculum that responds to recent changes within the health care finance and delivery system. Methods: The new curriculum was developed based on AAMC recommendations, LCME requirements, a national review of undergraduate community health curricula, and an internal review of the integration of community health concepts in M3 clerkships. Results: The M3 curriculum teaches: 1 the importance of being a community responsive physician; 2 SES factors that influence health; 3 cultural competency; and 4 the role of physicians as health educators. Student evaluations for the first twelve months of implementation indicate that students are most satisfied with presentations and less satisfied with required readings and a patient interview project. Discussion: Most students agree that at the completion of the course they understand what it means to be a community-responsive physician, and they have developed skills to help them become more community responsive. Evaluation tools need to be developed to assess if students’ behavior has changed due to course participation.

  6. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  7. The relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in monitoring and evaluating Community-based Rehabilitation (CBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Rosamond H; Dune, Tinashe; Lukersmith, Sue; Hartley, Sally; Kuipers, Pim; Gargett, Alexandra; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to CBR monitoring and evaluation by investigating the relationship between the ICF and information in published CBR monitoring and evaluation reports. A three-stage literature search and analysis method was employed. Studies were identified via online database searches for peer-reviewed journal articles, and hand-searching of CBR network resources, NGO websites and specific journals. From each study "information items" were extracted; extraction consistency among authors was established. Finally, the resulting information items were coded to ICF domains and categories, with consensus on coding being achieved. Thirty-six articles relating to monitoring and evaluating CBR were selected for analysis. Approximately one third of the 2495 information items identified in these articles (788 or 32%) related to concepts of functioning, disability and environment, and could be coded to the ICF. These information items were spread across the entire ICF classification with a concentration on Activities and Participation (49% of the 788 information items) and Environmental Factors (42%). The ICF is a relevant and potentially useful framework and classification, providing building blocks for the systematic recording of information pertaining to functioning and disability, for CBR monitoring and evaluation. Implications for Rehabilitation The application of the ICF, as one of the building blocks for CBR monitoring and evaluation, is a constructive step towards an evidence-base on the efficacy and outcomes of CBR programs. The ICF can be used to provide the infrastructure for functioning and disability information to inform service practitioners and enable national and international comparisons.

  8. Report on survey for environment harmonizing type energy community project for Chubu International Airport. District heat supply facilities using large-scale cogeneration systems; Chubu kokusai kuko kankyo chowagata energy community jigyo chosa hokokusho. Daikibo cogeneration chiiki netsu kyokyu shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The Chubu International Airport is positioned as a hub airport scheduled to start its use in the early part of the 21st century, to which introduction of large-scale cogeneration systems was discussed. Structuring an energy supply system conscious of the 21st century is intended, that is friendly to the environment, is attached with importance on the economy, and has high reliability and safety. The systems have cogeneration capacity from 4,500 to 6,000 kW, and utilize high-pressure waste heat from the cogeneration system as the heat source. The system uses the high pressure waste heat, stored heat, and gas at the same time to achieve high economic performance brought about by heat storage and the best energy source mix, while attempting cascade utilization of the heat. Considerations were given to suppress the environmental and energy load on the district as low as possible for the coexistence with the district, and to build framework and coordination to return the merits to the district. Subsidy introduction also has a great effect to assure the economic performance. The optimal specific construction of the system was found in combining the utilization of energy generated from temperature difference in sea water as a heat source system, the topping system utilizing the high pressure waste heat available in the system, high-efficiency heat pumps, and the heat storing system utilizing electric power available at late night. (NEDO)

  9. International Planning for Subglacial Lake Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennicutt, M.; Priscu, J.

    2003-04-01

    As one of the last unexplored frontiers on our planet, subglacial lakes offer a unique and exciting venue for exploration and research. Over the past several years, subglacial lakes have captured the imagination of the scientific community and public, evoking images of potential exotic life forms surviving under some of the most extreme conditions on earth. Various planning activities have recognized that due to the remote and harsh conditions, that a successful subglacial lake exploration program will entail a concerted effort for a number of years. It will also require an international commitment of major financial and human resources. To begin a detailed planning process, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) convened the Subglacial Antarctic Lake Exploration Group of Specialists (SALEGOS) in Tokyo in 2000. The group was asked to build on previous workshops and meetings to develop a plan to explore subglacial lake environments. Its mandate adopted the guiding principles as agreed in Cambridge in 1999 that the program would be interdisciplinary in scope, be designed for minimum contamination and disturbance of the subglacial lake environment, have as a goal lake entry and sample retrieval, and that the ultimate target of the program should be Lake Vostok exploration. Since its formation SALEGOS has met three times and addressed some of the more intractable issues related to subglacial lake exploration. Topics under discussion include current state-of-the-knowledge of subglacial environments, technological needs, international management and organizational strategies, a portfolio of scientific projects, "clean" requirements, and logistical considerations. In this presentation the actvities of SALEGOS will be summarized and recommendations for an international subglacial lake exploration program discussed.

  10. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    In this last part is reviewed international regulatory activities and bilateral agreements including two parts: concerning European atomic energy community with European commission proposal for a council directive setting up a community framework for nuclear safety, update of the nuclear illustrative programme in the context of the second strategic energy review, european commission recommendation on criteria for the export of radioactive waste and spent fuel to third countries and a communication on nuclear non-proliferation and the second part in relation with international atomic energy agency with a joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on safety of radioactive waste management (third review meeting). (N.C.)

  11. A Global Social Support System: What the International Community Could Learn From the United States’ National Basketball Association’s Scheme for Redistribution of New Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    If global trade were fair, it is argued, then international aid would be unnecessary and inequalities inherent to the economic system would be justifiable. Here, we argue that while global trade is unfair, in part because richer countries set the rules, we believe that additional interventions must go beyond trade regulation and short-term aid to redress inequalities among countries that will persist and possibly worsen in spite of such measures. Drawing on an example of measures taken to redress the characteristics of a system that inherently increases inequality, the ability of dominant teams in the National Basketball Association (NBA) to recruit the most talented players, we argue that market-based competition even in the context of fair rules will create and amplify economic inequalities. We argue that, just as the NBA created a draft to reduce the emergence of severe inequalities among teams, systems of social support within richer countries should be paralleled by a global system to counterbalance persisting inequalities among countries that are produced by market forces. We explain how such a mechanism might operate among integrated market economies, and identify the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) as an example of such an emerging form of global social support. PMID:26673331

  12. A Global Social Support System: What the International Community Could Learn From the United States' National Basketball Association's Scheme for Redistribution of New Talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2015-07-09

    If global trade were fair, it is argued, then international aid would be unnecessary and inequalities inherent to the economic system would be justifiable. Here, we argue that while global trade is unfair, in part because richer countries set the rules, we believe that additional interventions must go beyond trade regulation and short-term aid to redress inequalities among countries that will persist and possibly worsen in spite of such measures. Drawing on an example of measures taken to redress the characteristics of a system that inherently increases inequality, the ability of dominant teams in the National Basketball Association (NBA) to recruit the most talented players, we argue that market-based competition even in the context of fair rules will create and amplify economic inequalities. We argue that, just as the NBA created a draft to reduce the emergence of severe inequalities among teams, systems of social support within richer countries should be paralleled by a global system to counterbalance persisting inequalities among countries that are produced by market forces. We explain how such a mechanism might operate among integrated market economies, and identify the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) as an example of such an emerging form of global social support. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  13. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  14. A Global Social Support System: What the International Community Could Learn From the United States’ National Basketball Association’s Scheme for Redistribution of New Talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorik Ooms

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available If global trade were fair, it is argued, then international aid would be unnecessary and inequalities inherent to the economic system would be justifiable. Here, we argue that while global trade is unfair, in part because richer countries set the rules, we believe that additional interventions must go beyond trade regulation and short-term aid to redress inequalities among countries that will persist and possibly worsen in spite of such measures. Drawing on an example of measures taken to redress the characteristics of a system that inherently increases inequality, the ability of dominant teams in the National Basketball Association (NBA to recruit the most talented players, we argue that market-based competition even in the context of fair rules will create and amplify economic inequalities. We argue that, just as the NBA created a draft to reduce the emergence of severe inequalities among teams, systems of social support within richer countries should be paralleled by a global system to counterbalance persisting inequalities among countries that are produced by market forces. We explain how such a mechanism might operate among integrated market economies, and identify the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund as an example of such an emerging form of global social support.

  15. Needs analysis for educating community pharmacists to interface with prehospital stroke chain of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denetclaw, Tina Harrach; Cefalu, Patricia; Manila, Louis L; Panagotacos, John J

    2014-02-01

    Awareness of the American Heart Association's Stroke Chain of Survival, and willingness to learn and share this information with the public, was assessed for community pharmacists practicing near a primary stroke center. Twenty-three community pharmacies local to a primary stroke center were identified and surveyed. The surveyor showed each pharmacist a flier with a mnemonic for assessing stroke symptoms, briefly explained steps in the Stroke Chain of Survival, and noted if the pharmacist was available, listened to the entire presentation, read the information on the flier, agreed to post the flier, and if the pharmacist made any comments. The surveyor also assessed whether the Stroke Chain of Survival was new information to each pharmacist. All subjects read the information on the flier. Twenty-two (95.7%) listened to the entire presentation, and 23 (100%) were willing to post the flier. Two (11%) indicated that the parent company does not allow public posting of noncorporate information but agreed to post the flier internally. Twenty-one (91%) expressed appreciation for receiving the information. Seventeen (74%) indicated that the Stroke Chain of Survival was new information to them, 14 (61%) spontaneously remarked on the importance of the information, and 4 (17%) asked for additional information. Community pharmacists surveyed were willing to interface with the prehospital phase of the Stroke Chain of Survival; nearly 75% of them required education to do so. Community pharmacies are potentially a venue for educating the public on the Stroke Chain of Survival. It may be necessary to approach community pharmacy corporate leadership to partner with such efforts. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Research on Community Structure in Bus Transport Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuhua; Wang Bo; Sun Youxian

    2009-01-01

    We abstract the bus transport networks (BTNs) to two kinds of complex networks with space L and space P methods respectively. Using improved community detecting algorithm (PKM agglomerative algorithm), we analyze the community property of two kinds of BTNs graphs. The results show that the BTNs graph described with space L method have obvious community property, but the other kind of BTNs graph described with space P method have not. The reason is that the BTNs graph described with space P method have the intense overlapping community property and general community division algorithms can not identify this kind of community structure. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel community structure called N-depth community and present a corresponding community detecting algorithm, which can detect overlapping community. Applying the novel community structure and detecting algorithm to a BTN evolution model described with space P, whose network property agrees well with real BTNs', we get obvious community property. (general)

  17. Comparison of community managed projects and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ejiro O. Taghwo

    This study aimed to compare Community Managed Projects (CMP) approach with the ... Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution ... attention to repair and upgrade failed systems in ... In addition to low success in improving coverage, non-.

  18. RETHINKING POVERTY: THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J MUGUMBATE

    KEY TERMS: Chaos Theory, inequalities, poverty reduction, international organizations, Social Choice Theory, grassroots development a Assistant .... in isolated communities to identify intangible community capital such as, valuable skills that ...

  19. International Society for Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... renowned stem cell and regenerative medicine community. More stem cell research Take a closer look Recent Blogs View ... story independent nonprofit organization & the voice of the stem cell research community The International Society for Stem Cell ...

  20. Modelling of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service: A stepwise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hazlin; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Jais, Mohammad; Ridzuan, Arifi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain the most significant model of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service by using a stepwise approach. Currently, Malaysians, young and old are showing more interests in involving themselves in community service projects, either locally or internationally. This positive movement of serving the needy is somehow being halted by the lack of human and financial resources. Therefore, the trend today sees organizers of such projects depend heavily on voluntary supports as they enable project managers to add and to expand the quantity and diversity of services offered without exhausting the minimal budget available. Volunteers are considered a valuable commodity as the available pool of volunteers may be declining due to various reasons which include the volunteer satisfaction. In tandem with the existing situation, a selected sample of 215 diploma students from one of the public universities in Malaysia, who have been involved in at least one community service project, agreed that everybody should have a volunteering intention in helping others. The findings revealed that the most significant model obtained contains two factors that contributed towards intention to remain in community service; work assignment and organizational support, with work assignment becoming the most significant factor. Further research on the differences of intention to remain in community service between students' stream and gender would be conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge.

  1. International survey among orthopaedic trauma surgeons: Lack of a definition of fracture-related infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, M; Moriarty, T F; Kuehl, R; Richards, R G; McNally, M A; Verhofstad, M H J; Borens, O; Zalavras, C; Raschke, M; Kates, S L; Metsemakers, W J

    2018-03-01

    Fracture-related infection (FRI) is one of the most challenging musculoskeletal complications in orthopaedic-trauma surgery. Although the orthopaedic community has developed and adopted a consensus definition of prosthetic joint infections (PJI), it still remains unclear how the trauma surgery community defines FRI in daily clinical practice or in performing clinical research studies. The central aim of this study was to survey the opinions of a global network of trauma surgeons on the definitions and criteria they routinely use, and their opinion on the need for a unified definition of FRI. The secondary aims were to survey their opinion on the utility of currently used definitions that may be at least partially applicable for FRI, and finally their opinion on the important clinical parameters that should be considered as diagnostic criteria for FRI. An 11-item questionnaire was developed to cover the above-mentioned aims. The questionnaire was administered by SurveyMonkey and was sent via blast email to all registered users of AO Trauma (Davos, Switzerland). Out of the 26'563 recipients who opened the email, 2'327 (8.8%) completed the questionnaire. Nearly 90% of respondents agreed that a consensus-derived definition for FRI is required and 66% of the surgeons also agreed that PJI and FRI are not equal with respect to diagnosis, treatment and outcome. Furthermore, "positive cultures from microbiology testing", "elevation of CRP", "purulent drainage" and "local clinical signs of infection" were voted the most important diagnostic parameters for FRI. This international survey infers the need for a consensus definition of FRI and provides insight into the clinical parameters seen by an international community of trauma surgeons as being critical for defining FRI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using LinkedIn for Continuing Community of Practice Among Hand Surgeons Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chaoyan; Cheema, Mubashir; Samarasekera, Dujeepa; Rajaratnam, Vaikunthan

    2015-01-01

    Hand surgeons need continuing professional development due to rapid advancement in the field. Traditional approaches have proven to be challenging due to the nature of surgical practice and other demands. Social media sites have shown the potential to build an online community of practice. One of the authors (VR) started Hand Surgery International on LinkedIn in February 2011. The number of members increased from 38 in the beginning to 4106 members by August 13, 2015, with members from all over the world. Half of them are from plastic surgery, with 16.8% hand and 17.8% orthopedic surgery; 63.8% of them are consultants. There were 151 discussion topics, which generated 1238 comments at an average of 8.2 comments per discussion thread. The topics focused on management of difficult patients, seeking consensus, and searching information. The features participants found most useful included case-based discussion, polls/surveys, and network opportunity. Members perceived the LinkedIn community as user-friendly and easy to use. It does not require significant technical knowledge. For the question "How would you rate the overall ease of using this platform?" 42% answered "strongly agree" and 37% "agree". The LinkedIn group serves as an effective means for continuing professional development for hand surgeons. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  3. International safeguards and international nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, P.

    1991-01-01

    A particular feature of nuclear trade is the need to ensure a good equilibrium between technology transfer and the requirements linked to non proliferation of nuclear weapons. The recent dramatic changes that occurred on the international scene have particularly underlined the difficulty to reach this equilibrium, reminding us the fragility of the existing order and the responsibility of the nuclear community in the field of non-proliferation. Consequently, there is a need for an international thorough review of the actual non proliferation tools developed until now. This review could lead to reconsider some of the dogmas upon which the present safeguard system is based

  4. Building global learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averill Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning communities around a community of practice of learning researchers and practitioners. The results include the development of a framework for utilising mobile social media to support collaborative curriculum development across international boundaries. We conclude that this framework is potentially transferrable to a range of educational contexts where the focus is upon student-generated mobile social media projects.

  5. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on Education in Biomedical and Health Informatics. First Revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantas, John; Ammenwerth, Elske; Demiris, George; Hasman, Arie; Haux, Reinhold; Hersh, William; Hovenga, Evelyn; Lun, K. C.; Marin, Heimar; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Wright, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on revising the existing international recommendations in health informatics/medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop

  6. International Organizations and Environmental Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik; Kaiser, Wolfram

    . This volume is the first to comprehensively explore the environmental activities of professional communities, NGOs, regional bodies, the United Nations, and other international organizations during the twentieth century. It follows their efforts to shape debates about environmental degradation, develop...

  7. Developing Agreed and Accepted Understandings of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Concepts among Members of an Innovative Spirituality Interest Group in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Timmins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Spirituality Interest Group (SIG was set up in in the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Republic of Ireland (ROI, in March 2013. This paper reports on some of the journey and requirements involved in developing the group. It highlights the essential work of establishing agreed understandings in an objective way in order for the group to move forward with action. These agreed understandings have contributed to the group’s success. Outlining the group’s journey in arriving at agreements may be of use to others considering creating similar groups. One key action taken to determine the suitability of the group’s aims and terms of reference was the distribution of a Survey Monkey to group members (n = 28 in 2014. One early meeting of the group discussed future goals and direction using the responses of this anonymous survey. This paper reports on the results of the survey regarding the establishment of the SIG and the development of a shared understanding of spiritual care among the members. There is consensus in the group that the spiritual care required by clients receiving healthcare ought to be an integrated effort across the healthcare team. However, there is an acceptance that spirituality and spiritual care are not always clearly understood concepts in practice. By developing shared or at least accepted understandings of spirituality and spiritual care, SIG hopes to be able to underpin both research and practice with solid foundational conceptual understanding, and in the process also to meet essential prerequisites for achieving the group’s aims.

  8. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  9. Assessing the effects of mining subsidence on an internationally important wetland site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, R.N.; Wessemann, H.; Benyon, P.R.; Peace, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Lower Derwent Valley (LDV) is a flood plain of international importance for its wintering birds and is designated a Special Protection Area for Birds (SPA) under the 1979 European Communities Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds. And is also a candidate to be a Special Area for Conservation (SAC) under the 1992 EC Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and Wild Fauna and Flora on account of the extent of a particular type of flood meadow vegetation. The working of coal by the UK's largest mine (RJB's Selby Complex), around and under the LDV, has been taking place since the 1980's with further mining proposed into the next century. A detailed review of the potential impact of past and future mining on the biological interest of the potentially affected part of the LDV began in 1994, this included extensive and detailed site studies of wintering and breeding birds, grassland communities, invertebrates, soils, and hydrology. The key factor identified was the potential change in the incidence and nature of flooding caused by drainage from the flood plain being impeded by high river levels. The potential for change, using the field data, has been modeled. Due to the small degree of mining subsidence predicted and the larger background variation in existing site conditions, the potential effect on both the notified wintering birds and flood meadow vegetation features has been assessed to be undetectable. However, due to the importance of the site both long-term monitoring provisions and mitigation measures have been agreed with English nature, the agency charged with advising the UK Government. This has enabled mining to proceed within an agreed area. The offered paper will describe the studies and modeling undertaken, and the monitoring and mitigation agreed

  10. International perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The workshop dealt with two distinct cases: - In Port Hope - an existing situation impacting a set of communities affected by the nuclear fuel industry since the 1930's. This situation concerns the remediation of soil 'tainted' by a low level of radioactivity resulting from the processing of uranium. The facility that produced those wastes is still in town but it has changed ownership and it no longer stores or disposes of the waste in the area. - The issuance and upcoming implementation of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NWF Act) charting a path towards the identification of a national, long-term management solution for nuclear fuel (high level) waste in Canada. The NWF Act restarts a process that was interrupted a few years ago, after the Seaborn Environmental Assessment Panel concluded that the solution proposed by proponent Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. had not been demonstrated to have broad public support. From an international perspective, numerous observations can be made and lessons can be drawn both from the individual and the combined cases. Some of the most prominent observations, in the view of the NEA Secretariat, are presented hereafter. (author)

  11. Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to describe patient-reported disability: a comparison of Guillain Barré syndrome with multiple sclerosis in a community cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker; Ng, Louisa

    2010-09-01

    To use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe and compare patient-reported disability in Guillain-Barré syndrome survivors and persons with multiple sclerosis, and to identify relevant environmental factors. Cross-sectional survey of 77 survivors of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the community. Their Guillain-Barré syndrome-related problems were linked with ICF categories (second level) using an open-ended questionnaire, consensus between health professionals and the "linking rules", and compared with similar data collected previously for 101 persons with multiple sclerosis. Guillain-Barré syndrome survivors were male (59%) and older than persons with multiple sclerosis (mean age 55 vs 49 years). Of 170 ICF categories, 113 were relevant for Guillain-Barré syndrome survivors (mean number 30 vs 18 for persons with multiple sclerosis). The linked categories for Guillain-Barré syndrome included: body function 27 (56%) compared with 48 (42%) for persons with multiple sclerosis; body structure 11 (68%) vs 16 (34%); activities and participation 48 (70%) and 68 (58%); and for environmental factors 27 (71%) compared with 38 (51%) for persons with multiple sclerosis. The main areas linked in the activities and participation domain were mobility, major life areas and interpersonal relationships; and environmental factors included support and relationships, attitudes and products and technology. This is the first study to use ICF in Guillain-Barré syndrome survivors and towards development of the ICF Core Set for Guillain-Barré syndrome from a broader international perspective.

  12. Protectionism in the Current International Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botescu Ion

    2017-01-01

    The attempt to impose a set of international trade rules to be respected by world statesrepresents progress in this area. Further issues are related to how the agreed rules apply so thatthe benefits of international trade are placed in an equitable area. The global financial crisis, theBrexit, Trump's attitude as candidate and especially as US President are disturbing factors in thetrade relationships between states.

  13. 28th February 2011 - Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs A. Davutoğlu signing the guest book with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; meeting the CERN Turkish Community at Point 1; visiting the ATLAS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    28th February 2011 - Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs A. Davutoğlu signing the guest book with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; meeting the CERN Turkish Community at Point 1; visiting the ATLAS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

  14. Gaining trust from the scientific climate change community and increasing the visibility of their data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeil, B.; Diepenbroek, M.

    2017-12-01

    Climate science has a major impact not just within the field, but also has immediate significant societal and economic implications. Scientists are well aware that their research results may be discussed by policy-makers and the media, sometimes with hostile intent from climate science deniers. Sustainable and scrutinized data management is the backbone for future scientific research and vital to maintain the integrity and reputation of the climate science community. In 2009 a lack of openness regarding data acquisition data treatment was one of the main factors in Climategate that severely damaged the community's image - and efficient data sharing and management can prevent this in the future. Data repositories can only operate effectively if they have the trust of their users: this includes both the data providers and data users. Both groups have to be assured that data treatment and quality control follows internationally agreed SOPs (standard operating procedures), is transparent, documented and traceable. Users want easy access to data and have to be assured that data is citable, allows reproducibility and can be used with confidence, which requires that both the data and accompanying metadata are of the highest possible quality. Building up trust from both communities takes time and requires collaboration, getting feedback from the community and addressing their needs. This presentation will show the basic needs and challenges for data repositories, and will illustrate how the marine carbon climate change community has successfully addressed these through the SOCAT (Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas) project. The project actively involves both data providers and users throughout the design and implementation of their infrastructures. Scientists are directly involved in quality control of the data and metadata, increasing trust in the data and encouraging international collaboration, which in turn increases the visibility of both the community and its data.

  15. Agreement on Access and Benefit-sharing for Academic Research: A toolbox for drafting Mutually Agreed Terms for access to Genetic Resources and to Associated Traditional Knowledge and Benefit-sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Biber-Klemm, Susette; Martinez, Sylvia I.; Jacob, Anne; Jevtic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This manual contains a set of model clauses that enables users and providers of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge to set up a legal contract that is adapted to the individual academic research situation. If mutually negotiated and agreed upon by the involved partners this agreement can yield a “Mutually Agreed Terms” ABS contract.

  16. The ICC, International Criminal Justice and International Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Criminal Court (ICC) came into being as a result of a desire by the international community to establish a permanent body to deliver criminal justice instead of the formula of ad hoc tribunals that had become the norm. The coming into force of the Rome Statute in 2002 was greeted with euphoria as it ...

  17. Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Philip; Rempel, Philip

    In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and female), all ages and all levels. Within Canada, this ruling has generated controversy in the boxing community, yet there has been no overall measure of opinion. To address this, we instituted a voluntary, anonymous, online open-access poll to allow members of the boxing community to express their stance on headgear use in competition. In total, 636 responses were received. A total of 71.5 % of Canadian respondents believed headgear should be mandatory at all levels. Only 5.8 % agreed that headgear should be prohibited, as planned for 2018. Estimating results on a representative breakdown of boxing membership in Canada, a similar pattern emerged, whereby 68.2 % concurred with mandatory headgear while only 4.95 % supported its prohibition. Parents of boxers were almost unanimously against banning headgear, stating they would change sports as a result. Similarly, only 1.7 % of women believed headgear should be prohibited. The consensus of the Canadian boxing community largely opposes the rule changes that the AIBA has implemented. The results highlight risks posed to the long-term viability of the sport, if significant grassroots safety concerns are disregarded.

  18. For Community Sake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines whether religious education plays a role in the promotion of harmonious international relations, arguing that a broad religious education with a dialogical approach goes to the heart of what it means to be a citizen in a global community. Christian theologian Hans Kung argues in his book "Judaism: Between Yesterday and…

  19. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  20. The quantity and quality of complementary and alternative medicine clinical practice guidelines on herbal medicines, acupuncture and spinal manipulation: systematic review and assessment using AGREE II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jeremy Y; Liang, Laurel; Gagliardi, Anna R

    2016-10-29

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is often not disclosed by patients, and can be unfamiliar to health care professionals. This may lead to underuse of beneficial CAM therapies, and overuse of other CAM therapies with little proven benefit or known contraindications. No prior research has thoroughly evaluated the credibility of knowledge-based resources. The purpose of this research was to assess the quantity and quality of CAM guidelines. A systematic review was conducted to identify CAM guidelines. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched in January 2016 from 2003 to 2015. The National Guideline Clearinghouse, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health web site, and two CAM journals were also searched. Eligible guidelines published in English language by non-profit agencies on herbal medicine, acupuncture, or spinal manipulation for adults with any condition were assessed with the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument. From 3,126 unique search results, 17 guidelines (two herbal medicine, three acupuncture, four spinal manipulation, eight mixed CAM therapies) published in 2003 or later and relevant to several clinical conditions were eligible. Scaled domain percentages from highest to lowest were clarity of presentation (85.3 %), scope and purpose (83.3 %), rigour of development (61.2 %), editorial independence (60.1 %), stakeholder involvement (52.0 %) and applicability (20.7 %). Quality varied within and across guidelines. None of the 17 guidelines were recommended by both appraisers; 14 were recommended as Yes or Yes with modifications. Guidelines that scored well could be used by patients and health care professionals as the basis for discussion about the use of these CAM therapies. In future updates, guidelines that achieved variable or lower scores could be improved according to specifications in the AGREE II instrument, and with insight from a large number of resources that are available

  1. Disposal of radioactive waste: the forming of a new approach in Germany. Summary and international perspective. FSC Community Visit and National Workshop, Hitzacker, Hamburg, 5-8 October 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The fifth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the authorities responsible for implementing and regulating radioactive waste management in Germany, respectively. The central theme of the event was 'the forming of a new approach to radioactive waste management in Germany'. The three-day event started with a community visit in Hitzacker, which included a one-day meeting with community representatives and other stakeholders. This was followed by a tour to radioactive waste management facilities in Gorleben, and then the national workshop, which took place in Hamburg. Sixty-five registered participants, from 13 countries, attended the event. About 60% were German stakeholders, the remainder came from FSC member countries and international organisations. The German stakeholders included local actors, academics, and representatives of state and federal governments, NGOs, waste producers and other companies. The international audience consisted of FSC, typically affiliated with national regulatory bodies, government, or implementing organisations, plus other delegates and academics. The event was structured as follows: The introductory session (Day 1 morning and early afternoon) took place in Hitzaker and explored the historical context and the current situation of radioactive waste management in Germany. It entailed plenary presentations by key actors of policy making processes and discussions focusing on stakeholder concerns about trust and confidence. Three sessions took place in Hamburg and addressed the topics 'The new proposed approach to site selection, with emphasis on basic premises' (Day 1 late afternoon), 'The new proposed approach to site selection, with emphasis on stakeholder involvement' (Day 2 afternoon), and 'The new approach to

  2. Caring for the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Roxane

    2004-01-01

    Nurses can play a unique role in caring for their communities. The first and most obvious role is the direct care of patients, the underlying raison d'etre of nursing, and second is the indirect care of the patients' families and friends. The hands-on healing image of nurses is held by many people and personified through the years by such real-life examples as Clara Barton. It is also the image that attracts many to nursing and is fueled by desire--the desire to help, to make a positive difference, and to serve people. It is often a powerful one-on-one connection between caregiver and receiver, nurse and patient, that defines the role of nursing. Yet, nurses can--and should--play broader roles in caring for their communities. This includes the internal community within one's own organization, the environment in which nurses work, and the larger external community--or communities--in which one lives. By reaching out and caring for the broader communities, nurses have the opportunity to grow while the communities benefit from their participatory caring. In addition, the image of nursing is enhanced externally. The nurse as community caregiver melds the heart and soul of nursing for a new 21st century model of caring.

  3. Conceptualising Terrorism: International Offence or Domestic Governance Tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that terrorism does not belong within the realm of international criminal law. On the surface, it is the lack of internationally agreed definition of terrorism and its domestic law origins that set it apart from the notions of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide...

  4. International Association for Ecology and Health—Cultivating ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dr Peter Daszak and Dr Margot Parkes agree that the International Association for Ecology and Health (EcoHealth) stands to gain tremendously through partnering with other organizations. Moreover, it has an important role to play in fostering relationships among members. The International Ecohealth Forum (IEF 2008) ...

  5. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  6. Field reliability of competence to stand trial opinions: How often do evaluators agree, and what do judges decide when evaluators disagree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowensmith, W Neil; Murrie, Daniel C; Boccaccini, Marcus T

    2012-04-01

    Despite many studies that examine the reliability of competence to stand trial (CST) evaluations, few shed light on "field reliability," or agreement among forensic evaluators in routine practice. We reviewed 216 cases from Hawaii, which requires three separate evaluations from independent clinicians for each felony defendant referred for CST evaluation. Results revealed moderate agreement. In 71% of initial CST evaluations, all evaluators agreed about a defendant's competence or incompetence (kappa = .65). Agreement was somewhat lower (61%, kappa = .57) in re-evaluations of defendants who were originally found incompetent and sent for restoration services. We also examined the decisions judges made about a defendant's CST. When evaluators disagreed, judges tended to make decisions consistent with the majority opinion. But when judges disagreed with the majority opinion, they more often did so to find a defendant incompetent than competent, suggesting a generally conservative approach. Overall, results reveal moderate agreement among independent evaluators in routine practice. But we discuss the potential for standardized training and methodology to further improve the field reliability of CST evaluations.

  7. International Journal of Community Research: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sources of Support. Article publication charges, Sale of hard copies and subscriptions. * All accepted articles for publication in IJCR attracts an article processing fee of $85 or its Naira equivalent. Hard Copies Produced at the end of the Publication Year shall be sent at no cost to the principal authors. However, extra copies ...

  8. Never Again! Genocide and the International Community

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Freeman

    2007-01-01

    El término "genocidio" alude al peor de los crímenes. Aunque este concepto implica complejos procesos sociales que tienen un gran impacto sobre los individuos y las sociedades, ha sido descuidado por los científicos sociales. Esto es debido en parte al hecho de que la definición internacional de "genocidio" es confusa e insatisfactoria, y también en parte a problemas metodológicos en la comparación de grandes sucesos. El artículo propone una solución metodológica a ...

  9. Community Solutions for Indonesia's Waste | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-19

    Oct 19, 2010 ... Contaminated water transmits water-borne diseases such as diarrhea and other ... scavengers face risks of bacterial contamination or exposure to hazardous products. .... A multipronged approach to ensuring food security.

  10. Education, Individuality and Community; International Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Edmund

    1980-01-01

    The author states that nearly all nationally stated aims in education profess to cherish individual qualities. He suggests, however, that this ideal is a generalization which cannot be discussed in any universalistic way through all time in all countries, culture-contexts, and ideologies. (KC)

  11. International Journal of Community Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  12. International community rallies for disaster relief

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Jaapanis toimunud ÜRO konverentsi teemadeks olid kliima soojenemine ja katastroofide ennetamine. Konverentsil Leedu delegatsiooni juhtinud siseministeeriumi ametniku sõnul asub riik suhteliselt väiksema riskiga looduskatastroofide riski piirkonnas, samas puudub Leedul vajalik tehnoloogia loodusõnnetuste prognoosimiseks

  13. Enhancing international radiation/nuclear detection training opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bersell, Bridget M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Booker, Paul M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Gerald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leitch, Rosalyn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meagher, John B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Siefken, Rob R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spracklen, James L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-23

    The United States has worked domestically to develop and provide radiological and nuclear detection training and education initiatives aimed at interior law enforcement, but the international community has predominantly focused efforts at border and customs officials. The interior law enforcement officials of a State play a critical role in maintaining an effective national-level nuclear detection architecture. To meet this vital need, DNDO was funded by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to create and deliver a 1-week course at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Budapest, Hungary to inform interior law enforcement personnel of the overall mission, and to provide an understanding of how the participants can combat the threats of radiological and nuclear terrorism through detection efforts. Two courses, with approximately 20 students in each course, were delivered in fiscal year (FY) 2013, two were delivered in FY 2014 and FY 2015, and as of this report’s writing more are planned in FY 2016. However, while the ILEA courses produced measurable success, DNDO requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research potential avenues to further increase the course impact.In a multi-phased approach, PNNL researched and analyzed several possible global training locations and venues, and other possible ways to increase the impact of the course using an agreed-to data-gathering format.

  14. Dyad conversations about self-stigma in two Scottish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Rob; Bradstreet, Simon; McArthur, Andy; Dunion, Linda

    2015-06-01

    This study explored self-stigma in 2 Scottish communities and strategies for challenging stigma and discrimination. A mixed-methods approach was used encompassing a survey including the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Inventory (ISMI) and facilitated dyad conversations with people with lived experience of mental illness. Self-reported experience of self-stigma across 2 communities was most closely associated with the ISMI Alienation cluster, accompanied by a high level of agreement with the Stigma Resistance cluster. Some 44% agreed that stereotypes about people with mental health problems applied to them, and almost 2/3 felt that having a mental health problem had spoiled their lives. Many participants reported reduced confidence, loss of hope, a sense of failure, and protecting oneself through social withdrawal. The findings also offer hope through narratives from people who have "pushed back" and are striving to reduce their own self-stigma by engaging with others and managing their own recovery journey. The journey through self-stigma and beyond has to be informed by what we know works with recovery from a mental health problem. At a policy and practice level, we recommend emphasis on 4 priorities: (a) refocusing antistigma and discrimination efforts more on the experiences of people who report stigma, (b) rights-based approaches, (c) identity-based work, and (d) information sharing and educational strategies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Coordinating International Response to Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    count on them to bring to the field what they pledged to bring. Today's responses are too large in scope for any one entity to 'go it alone' and so on. It is just not possible to be successful if you stand alone in a disaster; we must share in the burden of response. Sometimes that means overcoming natural inclinations: governments must reach to the business community for help, non-governmental organizations must give up some of their autonomy to be successful on the ground, and governments must set aside differences in the face of overwhelming human need. Use of Incident Command: In all disasters there must be someone in charge and others must follow that command. Implementing a modified humanitarian incident command model is possible and would allow for the coordination and execution necessary to overcome obstacles in the field and disaster area of operation. Communication and IT Coordination: It is impossible to be successful in responding to a disaster if international radio frequencies and cell and line communications are not agreed to beforehand. Electronic data transfer and IT communication are equally important and must be agreed to before responders hit the ground. Modeling: understanding the maximum credible event scenario: Planning, characterizing the event in your country, determine the consequences based on the numbers of people potentially affected, loss of critical functionality, duration of this loss, replacement, economic impact, environmental impact and psychological (loss of confidence) impact. Exercises/Table Tops: And finally, of the utmost importance to success, cities, states, nations, NGOs, private businesses and so on. All who wish to help, must participate in exercises of their capabilities, of their plans to respond. Field exercises are best, but sitting around a table discussing roles and responsibilities is a first step which must be taken and taken today.(author)

  16. Assessing Community Leadership: Understanding Community Capacity for Health Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kelly Pryor, Brandy N; Ingram, Monique

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a quantitative instrument to measure aspects of community leadership within an assessment framework. The instrument includes 14 Likert-type questions asking residents how they perceive leaders within 5 sectors: Louisville Metro Council/Mayor's Office, the faith community, education, business, and the civic sector. Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky, has a population of about 743 000 residents. Respondents were asked to examine leadership within West Louisville, an economically deprived area of the city made up of 9 contiguous neighborhoods. This area is predominantly African American (78% compared with 22% in Louisville Metro), with an overall poverty rate of 43% (compared with 18% in Louisville Metro), and unemployment rate of 23% (compared with 8% in Louisville Metro). Residents of West Louisville are looking to leadership to address many of the inequities. Twenty-seven participants representing 7 community sectors completed the survey, of whom 90% work in West Louisville. The instrument measured local perceptions of leadership strength, effectiveness, trust, communication, community building, and leadership development. The majority of respondents agree that strong leadership exists across the 5 sectors, with variation regarding perceptions of the quality of that leadership. City leadership within the Mayor's Office and Metro Council is largely viewed positively, while the growing tensions within the education sector were reflected in the survey results. The perception of community leadership is important to understanding local community capacity to improve health and also inclusivity of community voice in the assessment and community improvement processes. Results from such assessments can offer useful information for strengthening community capacity and sustaining relationships needed to enact progressive and equitable solutions to address local issues. Leaders in a variety of settings can utilize this instrument to

  17. International nuclear fuel cycle evaluation (INFCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlupp, C.

    1986-07-01

    The study describes and analyzes the structures, the procedures and decision making processes of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). INFCE was agreed by the Organizing Conference to be a technical and analytical study and not a negotiation. The results were to be transmitted to governments for their consideration in developing their nuclear energy policies and in international discussions concerning nuclear energy cooperation and related controls and safeguards. Thus INFCE provided a unique example for decision making by consensus in the nuclear world. It was carried through under mutual respect for each country's choices and decisions, without jeopardizing their respective fuel cycle policies or international co-operation agreements and contracts for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, provided that agreed safeguards are applied. (orig.)

  18. Prototype international quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadway, J.A.; Chambless, D.A.; Sapozhnikov, Yu.A.; Kalmykov, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    The international community presently lacks the ability to determine the quality and credibility of environmental measurements that is required to make sound decisions in matters related to international security, public health, and investment-related considerations. The ultimate goal of the work described in this article is to develop a credible information base including measurement capability for determination of environmental contamination and the potential for proliferation of material components of chemical or nuclear weapons. This study compared the accuracy obtained by six Russian and six U.S. laboratories for samples representative of classes of trace metals, dioxing-furans, and radioactive substances. The results obtained in this work indicate that current estimates for laboratory accuracy are likely overly optimistic. The weaknesses discovered by this prototype U.S. - Russia study also exist within the broader international community of laboratories. Further work is proposed to address the urgent need for the international community to improve performance evaluations for analytical measurements. (author)

  19. Do African and European energy stakeholders agree on key energy drivers in Africa? Using Q methodology to understand perceptions on energy access debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinga, Margaret N.; Pinedo-Pascua, Irene; Vervaeke, Jonathan; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Szabó, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Q methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on how best to address energy issues in Africa. We sampled a group of stakeholders involved in various energy sub-sectors to uncover perspectives on how to achieve and promote access to modern energy, energy efficiency and renewable energy in Africa, whether the perceptions could be correlated to educational or geographical background and implications such patterns could have on policies and current dialogues. We found that all stakeholders agree on the need to prioritise sustainability but had different views on how to achieve sustainable energy for all in Africa, depending on the relevance given to each energy driver. Stakeholders could be categorised into four groups: (I) preference of large-scale high-impact projects; (II) supporters of targeted sectoral solutions with preference for small-scale technology and microfinance; (III) supporters of centralised solutions with preference for grid extension, and (IV) supporters of local entrepreneurship with scepticism about centralised solutions. The results show that differences in stakeholders’ perceptions can be associated with respondents’ educational but not geographical background. This implies that dialogues on energy in Africa should focus on inter-disciplinary understanding while further examining the trans-continent consensus that appears to have been established. - Highlights: • We use Q-methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on energy issues in Africa. • We assess whether background results in different perceptions among stakeholders. • We identify four main factor groups and only one group supports grid extension. • Results challenge assumptions that African and European viewpoints differ. • More interdisciplinary dialogue is needed while supporting geographic consensus

  20. Perceptions of health, health care and community-oriented health interventions in poor urban communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maketa, Vivi; Vuna, Mimy; Baloji, Sylvain; Lubanza, Symphorien; Hendrickx, David; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andrea; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city's major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health services and

  1. Perceptions of health, health care and community-oriented health interventions in poor urban communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Maketa

    Full Text Available In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city's major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health

  2. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fractures (Part II) Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Severed or Constricted Limbs or Digits Soft-Tissue ...

  3. The Chernobyl case: its repercussions on the International System on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Guadarrama, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    With the discovery of the Nuclear Energy the world has been development her life the present investigation is based in the accident of the one of the most important Nuclear Power Plant in the world, situated in the Union of Socialist Sovietic Republics. The Nuclear Power Plant of Chernobyl. Us found in the investigation what not exist one legislation agree with the needs of development of the actual world in matter of the liability civil in case of the nuclear accidents. Found only the Convention of the Vienna. the Convention of the Brussels the which only cover the transportation the Nuclear substances in ships and others transportation medios. The complementary a the convention of the Paris and actually The Communication in case of the nuclear accidents and radiological accidents. In the present work think what the Community International haven the needs of created one legislation with character international what can help a the many countries what have Nuclear Power Plants, on all for protection of the her habitants. The International Atomic Energy Agency together with the International Justice Court and the United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) aplicated the law in matter of the nuclear accidents derivates of the liability responsibility in the use of the Nuclear Plants for elaboration the Electrical Energy or for Investigation in matter the nuclear energy both with identical responsibility civil in case the nuclear accident. (Author)

  4. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C.; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras'kin, Stanislav; Glenn, Travis; Higley, Kathy; Ishida, Ken; Kapustka, Lawrence; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters? accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research c...

  5. International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McGlinchey, S.

    2017-01-01

    A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...

  6. Enforcement Alert: U.S. EPA Encourages Iron and Steel Minimills to Self Audits to Address Noncompliance with Environmental Requirements; Nucor Corp. agrees to Control Practices; Provides Model for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the enforcement alert for U.S. EPA Encourages Iron and Steel Minimills to Self Audits to Address Noncompliance with Environmental Requirements; Nucor Corp. agrees to Control Practices; Provides Model for Industry

  7. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Concerning International regulatory activities, we find for the european atomic energy community an entry into force of the lisbon treaty (2009), it amends the treaty on European union and replaces the treaty establishing the European Community by the new treaty on the functioning of the European Union; more, an amendment to council regulation on the conditions governing imports of agricultural products originating in third countries following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station (2009). About International atomic energy agency is reported an open-ended meeting of technical and legal experts for sharing of information on states implementation of the code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources and its supplementary guidance on the import and export of radioactive sources (2010). (N.C.)

  8. Genetic discrimination: international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlowski, M; Taylor, S; Bombard, Y

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination (GD) is a complex, multifaceted ethical, psychosocial, and legal phenomenon. It is defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. This article presents an overview of GD within the contemporary international context. It describes the concept of GD and its contextual features, reviews research evidence regarding people's experiences of GD and the impact of GD within a range of domains, and provides an overview of legal and policy responses to GD that have emerged globally. We argue that GD is a significant and internationally established phenomenon that requires multilevel responses to ensure social justice and equitable outcomes for all citizens. Future research should monitor GD and its impacts within the community as well as institutions and should evaluate the effectiveness of legislative, policy, community education, and systemic responses.

  9. The effect of updated pledges and business-as-usual projections, and new agreed rules on expected global greenhouse gas emissions in 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, Andries F.; Elzen, Michel G.J. den; Roelfsema, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This study compares 2020 emission levels from pledges to those consistent with 2 °C. • For a likely chance of 2 °C, we find an emission gap of 8.7–12.6 GtCO 2 equiv. by 2020. • The pledges could achieve 24–54% of the mitigation effort consistent with 2 °C. • The effect of accounting rules is lower than in the UNEP (2012) emission gap report. • An emission gap does not imply that the 2 °C target is definitely out of reach. -- Abstract: The Copenhagen Accord of 2009 refers to a 2 °C target and encouraged countries to submit emission reduction proposals and actions (pledges) for the year 2020, which many did. Several studies determined the effect of these pledges on the global emission level in 2020, and analysed the gap between this emission level and the level consistent with least-cost emission pathways for achieving the 2 °C target. These studies were summarised in the UNEP emission gap reports. Since the UNFCCC climate negotiations in Cancún, 2010, business-as-usual emission projections have been updated and some countries submitted new pledges or clarified existing pledges. Furthermore, new accounting rules for land use and the use of surplus units were agreed in Durban (2011) and Doha (2012). This paper shows that together, these developments have led to an increase in the emission level resulting from the pledges of about 4 GtCO 2 equiv. compared to our assessment before Cancún, mainly due to increased business-as-usual projections. According to our projections, the pledges lead to an emission level of 52.7–56.5 GtCO 2 equiv. by 2020, which implies an emission gap of 8.7–12.6 GtCO 2 equiv. for a likely chance (greater than 66% likelihood) and from 6.7 to 10.6 GtCO 2 equiv. for a medium chance (50–66% likelihood) of achieving 2 °C. This does not imply that achieving 2 °C is out of reach with the current pledges, but it will require higher reduction rates beyond 2020 and will depend more heavily on future technological

  10. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  11. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy in internal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faggioli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Capillaroscopy is an actual inexpensive imaging technique, used to examine, non-invasively and safely, the morphology of nailfold dermal papillary capillaries. Many studies agree in the statement that the capillaroscopy is one of the gold standard methods for non-invasive examination of the microcirculation and it plays an important role in screening in Raynaud’s phenomenon and in monitoring of systemic sclerosis and other rheumatologic diseases. There are also many reports on the possible use of nailfold capillaroscopy in the diagnosis and monitoring of many other diseases in internal medicine.

  12. INDC International Nuclear Data Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, A. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); McCutchan, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dimitriou, P. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2017-12-11

    The 22nd meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators was convened at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA, from 22 to 26 May 2017 under the auspices of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. This meeting was attended by 38 scientists from 12 Member States and the IAEA, all of whom are concerned primarily with the measurement, evaluation and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. A summary of the meeting, data centre reports, various proposals considered, technical discussions, actions agreed by the participants, and the resulting recommendations/conclusions are presented within this document.

  13. Annexe A. Principes généraux des contrats du commerce international. Unidroit - 1994

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS [1994] PREAMBLE (Purpose of the Principles) These Principles set forth general rules for international commercial contracts. They shall be applied when the parties have agreed that their contract be governed by them. They may be applied when the parties have agreed that their contract be governed by general principles of law, the lex mercatoria or the like. They may provide a solution to an issue raised when it proves impossible to establish th...

  14. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 30 April 2004, the date on which the Agency received written notification that the European Atomic Energy Community and the United Kingdom had met their respective internal requirements for entry into force

  15. Community energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo Melchor, N.; Redondo Quintela, F.

    1994-01-01

    The twelve Member states of the European Union will attempt to make their national energy policies converge. Nevertheless the basis of the so called ''Community Energy Policy'' is not this convergence but rather the achievement of a new internal market, the Energy Market, where sources and forms of energy may circulate freely between countries. This aim derives from a change of orientation, dating back some years, when market integration was attempted instead of continuing with the mere unification of national policies. In this paper we summarize the most relevant aspects of the liberalization process and give some of its internal and external repercussions on the European Union. (Author)

  16. Report realized on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This document presents the analyse of the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the Atomic Energy European Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France. It deals with the nuclear proliferation fight in France and the the program of enhancement of guaranties in the framework of the IAEA. (A.L.B.)

  17. Community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the oil and gas companies with the Northern communities regarding drilling activities was an important aspect of oil and gas operations conducted in the Beaufort Sea. During the 1960s the industry and aboriginal people basically ignored each other. Later, the industry put more emphasis on community consultation until finally two-way communication was established. Respect for the land and the environment were very important to aboriginal people who depended on the land and its resources for their traditional way of life. Community relations policies by the various companies involved in the area, and the impact they have had on their respective communities were recounted. Not all efforts were successful, however, the companies and the communities learned from their experiences, and by the time operations ceased, the communities seemed to be more appreciative of the ways they were being treated by the oil companies. 22 figs

  18. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    As its point of departure this working paper takes the multitude of different uses and meanings of the concept of community in local politics in Cape Town. Instead of attempting to define it in substantive terms, the paper takes a social constructivist approach to the study of community...... is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...... lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...

  19. Transferring knowledge and know-how from the nuclear power community to the research reactor community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijtsma, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Question What is the best way of transferring knowledge and know-how from the nuclear power community to the research reactor community, e.g. in the fields of quality assurance, safety culture, etc.? To answer the question on how to transfer knowledge and know-how from the nuclear power community to the research reactor community, one should first try to establish what are the differences and similarities between these types of nuclear facilities. Despite the big difference between the primary objectives of these two kinds of facilities, i.e. electricity production versus providing irradiation services, the underlying safety culture should be comparable. For historical reasons, nuclear power plant management took the lead in establishing fully accepted safety standards. However, research reactors can avail themselves of the wide body of nuclear safety experience accumulated at nuclear power plants. This should be applicable to all nuclear facilities. Nonetheless, in transferring their know-how, safety specialists should take into account the huge differences between critical assemblies, university reactors, small research reactors and multi-purpose high power research reactors. The goal to which a specific facility is dedicated bears heavily upon the outlook of its management Question: How can well run research reactors help problem research reactors? To answer this, a basic question should in turn be posed: Should one help a research reactor with operational difficulties? And, if so, to what extent? Who will benefit? Within the framework of this meeting, one should concentrate on nuclear safety, which is determined by: Safety culture (including quality assurance); The level of training of all staff; Ageing (installation, staff and documentation); The front/back end of the fuel cycle; A strong programme versus extended shutdown; Regulatory (nuclear regulatory) inspectorates; National (international) co-operation; The financial situation prevailing at the

  20. Malaria vaccine offers hope. International / Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-13

    Colombian professor Manuel Patarroyo developed a new malaria vaccine (SPF66). In February 1995, WHO and the Colombian government agreed to establish a manufacturing plant in Colombia for mass production of SPF66. This vaccine is likely to be available to persons in Africa, where 90% of all annual global cases live. In fact, Africa witnesses one million of 1.5 million annual malaria cases. Many children die from malaria. An extensive clinical trial of the SPF66 vaccine in Colombia achieved a 22-77% protection rate. The young and the very old had the high protection rates. A series of human clinical trials in the Gambia and Tanzania indicate that SPF66 produces a strong immune response against malaria without any harmful side effects. The results of field tests in the Gambia and Thailand and of trials in Colombia are expected in 1995. If the vaccine could reduce the incidence of malaria by just 50%, the lives of as many as 500,000 African children could be saved. SPF66 contains a combination of synthetic peptides (=or 2 amino acids). Mass production would make it affordable (estimated $5/injection). At least five other malaria vaccines hold promise and are ready for human testing in endemic countries. SPF66 is approximately three years ahead of all other promising malaria vaccines. 20 more vaccines are in the development stage. The large scale production of SPF66 in Colombia could begin within three years. Professor Patarroyo has financed his 12-year-old research himself because he wants to protect the lives of persons in developing countries. In 1992, the Congo's president petitioned the international community at the WHO summit in Amsterdam to join the fight against malaria since it is now in a position to defeat malaria since it finished the cold war.

  1. Biclique communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...

  2. The International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  3. internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Anu; Omanga, Josphat

    2014-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  4. Internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Ramesh; Dhakal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  5. Medication adherence beliefs of U.S community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing attention on the role of community pharmacists in improving medication adherence. There is a need to better understand pharmacist attitudes and experiences related to this role. To assess community pharmacist perceptions of patient reasons for non-adherence, characterize the adherence beliefs of community pharmacists, and test if there are demographic predictors of pharmacists' self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and role beliefs related to intervening on medication non-adherence. A cross-sectional survey was mailed using a 4-contact approach to 1000 pharmacists practicing in 5 Midwestern U.S. States. The survey included seven domains to address the study objectives. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic items, coefficient alphas tested the internal consistency of scales, and multiple regression was used to test the relationship between demographics and scale means. There were 261 usable responses giving a 29% response rate. Pharmacists perceived forgetting and instructions changing without a new prescription to be the most common reasons for late refills. A minority of pharmacists agreed that non-adherence involves a deliberate decision or that negative medication beliefs were common reasons for late refills. Pharmacists were confident, had positive outcome expectations, and positive role beliefs related to interacting with patients who have adherence issues. Barriers to adherence intervention included difficulties with follow-up and documentation. Also, over half of the pharmacists reported that discussing adherence makes patients defensive. Pharmacists had positive attitudes toward intervening on medication non-adherence although barriers to intervention are present. Pharmacists perceived non-intentional reasons for late refills to be more prevalent than intentional reasons. Pharmacists may benefit from additional non-adherence communication training and support targeted at identifying a broader range of non

  6. Lexington and the World: Teaching Connections for International Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frankie, Ed.; Drake, Michele, Ed.

    Students in the community schools of Lexington, Kentucky must realize the international connections that exist between Lexington and the world, and be aware of the impact of world events on their own community. These international connections can be revealed through learning activities utilizing local history, international restaurants, street…

  7. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  8. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several negative

  9. Formative study conducted in five countries to adapt the community popular opinion leader intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    To obtain information about the social and cultural factors related to health behaviors influencing HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission in study communities in China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe so that the assessment and intervention of the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial could be adapted appropriately. Field observations, focus groups, in-depth interviews with key informants, and an observation of community social dynamics were conducted as part of a rapid ethnographic assessment. All five sites reported a power dynamic tilted towards men, which rendered women particularly vulnerable to HIV and other STDs. Women's relative lack of power was exemplified by a double standard for extramarital sex, women's limited ability to negotiate sex or condom use, and sexual and physical violence against women. In all sites except Russia, extramarital sex is tolerated for men but proscribed for women. In Peru, power dynamics between men who have sex with men were tilted towards men who self-identified as heterosexual. Condom use (reported to be low across all sites) was often linked to having sex with only those perceived as high-risk partners. Regardless of site or study population, participants agreed on the following characteristics of an ideal community popular opinion leader (C-POL): respectable, credible, experienced (life and sexual), trustworthy, empathetic, well-spoken, and self-confident. The ethnographic studies provided critical information that enabled the study teams to adapt elements of the Trial in culturally appropriate ways in diverse international settings.

  10. Community understandings of and responses to gender equality and empowerment in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinax, Margo; Higgins, Jenny; Wagman, Jennifer; Nakyanjo, Neema; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ronald; Nalugoda, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Women's rights and gender empowerment programmes are now part of the international agenda for improving global public health, the benefits of which are well documented. However, the public health community has, yet, to address how people define and understand gender equality and how they enact the process of empowerment in their lives. This study uses safe homes and respect for everyone (SHARE), an anti-violence intervention in rural Rakai, Uganda, as a case study to investigate perceptions of gender equality. Investigators analysed 12 focus groups of adult women and men to explore how macro-level concepts of gender equality are being processed on an interpersonal level and the effects on health outcomes. Respondents generally agreed that women lack basic rights. However, they also expressed widespread disagreement about the meanings of gender equality, and reported difficulties integrating the concepts of gender equality into their interpersonal relationships. Community members reported that equality, with the resulting shift in gender norms, could expose women to adverse consequences such as violence, infidelity and abandonment with increased sexual health risks, and potential adverse effects on education. Efforts to increase women's rights must occur in conjunction with community-based work on understandings of gender equality.

  11. Community noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  12. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  13. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  14. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  15. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  16. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  17. International Illiquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkhozov, Aytek; Mueller, Philippe; Vedolin, Andrea

    -predicted effect of funding conditions on asset prices internationally. Global illiquidity lowers the slope and increases the intercept of the international security market line. Local illiquidity helps explain the variation in alphas, Sharpe ratios, and the performance of betting-against-beta (BAB) strategies...

  18. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  19. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-15

    {center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  20. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-01

    · Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  1. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-8 - Community income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community income. 1.1402(a)-8 Section 1.1402(a)-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-8 Community income. (a) In case of an...

  2. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  3. Chernobyl. Principles of international law in the context of transfrontier environmental pollution as a consequence of a technical-industrial disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehetner, F.

    1986-01-01

    The fact that the radioactive cloud released after the MCA in the Chernobyl reactor drifted over 1.300 kilometers in the atmosphere and contaminated the air over Europe, first shown by the alarm in Sweden's nuclear power plant, turned the national Russian disaster into an international case of emergency, a ''matter of international concern'', that creates manifold problems on the level of international law. The author discusses an important aspect, the obligation to inform the other members of the international community about possible transfrontier environmental pollution. The topical case now has shown that the problem of timely, complete, and mutual information in the event of nuclear reactor accidents needs to be systematically regularized by multilateral treaties. The difficulties the Soviet authorities had to master the disaster and its consequences point to problem of whether and to what extent international organisations or states are obliged to, or entitled to, a) offer assistance unasked; b) provide assistance upon request; c) engage in remedial activities against the will of the state concerned. The Chernobyl accident has led to considerations as to extend the concept of 'ultra-hazardous activities' and related legal provisions to also include an obligation to agree upon international information and assistance for disaster control beforehand, on the grounds that such activities may involve inassessible hazards and damage. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Application of DNA barcoding in biodiversity studies of shallow-water octocorals: molecular proxies agree with morphological estimates of species richness in Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, C. S.; Brown, A. S.; Brayton, C.; Hunt, C. B.; van Ofwegen, L. P.

    2014-06-01

    currently exist for any octocoral community.

  5. Department of Transportation vs self-reported data on motor vehicle collisions and driving convictions for stroke survivors: do they agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestone, Hillel M; Guo, Meiqi; O'Hara, Paddi; Greene-Finestone, Linda; Marshall, Shawn C; Hunt, Lynn; Jessup, Anita; Biggs, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    Research on stroke survivors' driving safety has typically used either self-reports or government records, but the extent to which the 2 may differ is not known. We compared government records and self-reports of motor vehicle collisions and driving convictions in a sample of stroke survivors. The 56 participants were originally recruited for a prospective study on driving and community re-integration post-stroke; the study population consisted of moderately impaired stroke survivors without severe communication disorders who had been referred for a driving assessment. The driving records of the 56 participants for the 5 years before study entry and the 1-year study period were acquired with written consent from the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO), Canada. Self-reports of collisions and convictions were acquired via a semistructured interview and then compared with the MTO records. Forty-three participants completed the study. For 7 (13.5%) the MTO records did not match the self-reports regarding collision involvement, and for 9 (17.3%) the MTO records did not match self-reports regarding driving convictions. The kappa coefficient for the correlation between MTO records and self-reports was 0.52 for collisions and 0.47 for convictions (both in the moderate range of agreement). When both sources of data were consulted, up to 56 percent more accidents and up to 46 percent more convictions were identified in the study population in the 5 years before study entry compared to when either source was used alone. In our population of stroke survivors, self-reports of motor vehicle collisions and driving convictions differed from government records. In future studies, the use of both government and self-reported data would ensure a more accurate picture of driving safety post-stroke.

  6. Development of Taiwan's strategies for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals harmonized with international considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiun-Wen; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Hsiau-Wen; Tzou, Mei-Chyun; Wang, Ying-Jan; Tsai, Jui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers potential in pharmaceuticals and biomedical developments for improving drug delivery systems, medical imaging, diagnosis, cancer therapy, and regenerative medicine. Although there is no international regulation or legislation specifically for nanomedicine, it is agreed worldwide that considerably more attention should be paid to the quality, safety, and efficacy of nanotechnology-based drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have provided several draft regulatory guidance and reflection papers to assist the development of nanomedicines. To cope with the impact of nanotechnology and to foster its pharmaceutical applications and development in Taiwan, this article reviews the trends of regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in the international community and proposes strategies for Taiwan's regulation harmonized with international considerations. The draft regulatory measures include a chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review checklist and guidance for CMC review of liposomal products. These have been submitted for discussion among an expert committee, with membership comprised of multidisciplinary academia, research institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulators, and are currently approaching final consensus. Once a consensus is reached, these mechanisms will be recommended to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for jurisdiction and may be initiated as the starting point for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in Taiwan.

  7. Exchange of notes constituting an implementing arrangement, concerning international obligation exchanges, to the agreement between the Government of Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) concerning transfers of nuclear material of 21 September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The implementing arrangement which entered into force on 8 September 1993, concerns the safeguard obligations attaching to nuclear material transferred or re transferred pursuant to the Agreement on Nuclear Transfers between Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community

  8. International law and United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Matej

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with centuries-lasting open military pretensions of world superpowers, modern diplomacy has developed, as beginning a war, as well as coming to peace demanded political activity which resulted, first in signing, and then coming into effect of international documents, on the basis of which, a foundation for the modern international order has been cast. Further on, by the formation of international organizations, codification has been allowed, as well as a progressive development of international law. Additionally, in the sense of preserving international peace and security, first the League of Nations was formed, and following the ending of World War II, the UN. Generally, the functioning of the United Nation's organs, has been regulated by legal rules, however political goals, tendencies, and mechanisms which the member states are using determine greatly the activity above all of the Security Council, but furthermore of the General Assembly, as a plenary organ. Nevertheless, the achieved results of the Commission for International Law in the meaning of creation of international conventions, as well as state adhering to the same, present unassailable achievements in the sense of development of international law. On the other hand, tendencies of motion of international relationships are aimed at establishing a multi-polar system in the international community. Today, the political scene is assuming a new appearance, by which the nearly built international system is already awaiting further progressive development.

  9. Joint Ventures: An Experiment in Community/Professional Co-Framing in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Agenda, 2014

    2014-01-01

    What happens when local school leaders sit down to talk with teachers, parents, and other members of the community about the ends and means of local education? Can people bringing different perspectives and experiences to the issue agree on top goals for their communities? Can they settle on needed changes and decide what signifies genuine…

  10. Community-Based Ecotourism: The Transformation of Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookhao Nantira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based ecotourism (CBET is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encounters both positive and negative impacts of transformation. However, unintended impacts of the CBET operation lay embedded in the transformation of relationships among the community members. The study identifies that close relationships among the villagers has been initially transformed to loose relationships due to forgotten communal goals; CBET has transformed from being a conservation tool to being a business-oriented goal which causes conflicts of interest among local people and alters traditional social structure. The study also agrees with the notion of social exchange theory for villagers to enhance environmental sustainability, and proposes that slight inequalities of benefits received from CBET causes social transformation at the local level.

  11. International consensus on safety principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been regularly requested by its Member States to provide evidence that radioactive waste can be managed safely and to help demonstrate a harmonization of approach at the international level by providing safety documents. In response, IAEA established a special series of safety documents devoted to radioactive waste management. These documents will be elaborated within the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme [1,2] which covers all aspects of radioactive waste management. The RADWASS programme develops a series of international consensus documents on all parts of the safe management of radioactive waste, including disposal. The purpose of the RADWASS programme is to (i) document existing international consensus in the approaches and methodologies for safe radioactive waste management, (ii) create a mechanism to establish consensus where it does not exist and (iii) provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed upon documents to complement national standards and criteria. This paper describes the RADWASS programme, and covers the structure, implementation plans and status of documents under preparation

  12. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs there is a g......This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...

  13. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards Community - Reflections on Community Psychiatry, Culture and Alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The constant transformation of  communities  and  its relationship  with mental illness has been studied and debated for the past decades, although it is still not clear how it has been incorporated in clinical practice.Aims: The authors propose to review the relevance to Psychiatry, especially Community Psychiatry, of understanding  communities as well as the methodologies and conceptual frameworks that allow that approach.Methods: Selected and critical review of the literature about Community Psychiatry and Culture, Communities, and Social Inequity and Mental Health.Results: The authors start by reviewing the meaning  of  Community and the  defining principles of Community Psychiatry in their relationships with  cultural  sensitivity.  This aspect is illustrated with two examples of the impact of culture and alterity in the understanding of Mental Health and Service Organization, one at the level of International and Global Mental Health, and the other at the local communities’ level. In this context, participatory action research is highlighted.Conclusions: Psychiatry,  in  particular Community  Psychiatry,  by acknowledging a  wide  range  of  methodologies  and  being open  to transdisciplinary  models, is in a privileged position of electing communities as a field of investigation and integrate it in its praxis.

  15. A History of Learning Communities within American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, John E.; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the historical development of learning communities within American higher education. We examine the forces both internal and external to higher education that contributed to and stalled the emergence of learning communities in their contemporary form.

  16. Securing Failed Inner-City Communities: The Military's Role

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Oral

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the threat to internal security posed by violent gangs. This threat was found to be particularly acute in inner-city communities that have over time devolved to a status that the author classified as failed communities...

  17. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  18. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  19. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  20. COMMUNITY OPHTHALMOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... The Role of Research in Social Marketing: The Community Eye. Outreach Clinic .... Serious thought was given to the possibility of establishing static eye care .... Information obtained included vital statistics, work history, job.

  1. Regulating Internalities

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Allcott, Hunt

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for regulating internalities. Using a simple economic model, we provide four principles for designing and evaluating behaviorally-motivated policy. We then outline rules for determining which contexts reliably reflect true preferences and discuss empirical strategies for measuring internalities. As a case study, we focus on energy efficiency policy, including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and appliance and lighting energy efficiency standards.

  2. Empowering Local People through Community-based Resource Monitoring: a Comparison of Brazil and Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Araujo Lima. Constantino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological resource monitoring systems are implemented in many countries and often depend on the participation of local people. It has been suggested that these systems empower local participants while promoting conservation. We reviewed three wildlife monitoring systems in indigenous lands and sustainable development reserves in Brazilian Amazonia and one in Namibian Caprivi conservancies, analyzing the strategies adopted and conditions that facilitated local empowerment, as well as potential impacts on conservation. This provided insights into potential avenues to strengthen empowerment outcomes of monitoring systems in Latin America and Africa. We assessed four dimensions of empowerment at individual and community scales: psychological, social, economic, and political. The conditions that facilitated local empowerment included the value of natural resources, rights to trade and manage resources, political organization of communities, and collaboration by stakeholders. The wide range of strategies to empower local people included intensifying local participation, linking them to local education, feeding information back to communities, purposefully selecting participants, paying for monitoring services, marketing monitored resources, and inserting local people into broader politics. Although communities were socially and politically empowered, the monitoring systems more often promoted individual empowerment. Marketing of natural resources promoted higher economic empowerment in conservancies in Namibia, whereas information dissemination was better in Brazil because of integrated education programs. We suggest that practitioners take advantage of local facilitating conditions to enhance the empowerment of communities, bearing in mind that increasing autonomy to make management decisions may not agree with international conservation goals. Our comparative analysis of cases in Latin America and Africa allows for a greater understanding of the

  3. Cultural Diversity among Heads of International Schools: Potential Implications for International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough-Kuss, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the influence that regional associations of international schools have on individual school members. The role of heads of international schools is explored in terms of their collective regional community influence on the fundamental school level. A revision of Thompson's model of international education is proposed…

  4. Community concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  5. Community expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, L.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between the nuclear generator and the local community has been one of stability and co-operation. However in more recent times (2000-2003) the nuclear landscape has had several major issues that directly effect the local nuclear host communities. - The associations mandate is to be supportive of the nuclear industry through ongoing dialogue, mutual cooperation and education, - To strengthen community representation with the nuclear industry and politically through networking with other nuclear host communities. As a result of these issues, the Mayors of a number of communities started having informal meetings to discuss the issues at hand and how they effect their constituents. These meetings led to the official formation of the CANHC with representation from: In Canada it is almost impossible to discuss decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear Facilities without also discussing Nuclear Waste disposal for reasons that I will soon make clear. Also I would like to briefly touch on how and why expectation of communities may differ by geography and circumstance. (author)

  6. Search Results | Page 714 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICT) used locally strengthens both individuals and their communities. ... prior to the global conferences of the International Competition Network, ... growth of collaborative spaces (Web 2.0) and social networking sites.

  7. Search Results | Page 27 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-29

    Aug 29, 2017 ... In Africa, agricultural extension services have the potential to grow markets and ... Food security AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH Gender ... The International Community-University Research Alliance program (ICURA) is a joint ...

  8. Kosovo: The Quest for Lasting Internal Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    .... Given the legacy of violence in the region, it is not surprising that the situation in Kosovo is still far from settled and will most likely require long-term engagement from the international community...

  9. Search Results | Page 159 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Quantifying the direct and indirect effects of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) on ... quantitative open economy models to study international trade transmission, the ... cost, user-friendly risk mapping system that can be used in any community.

  10. Search Results | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 31 - 40 of 1119 ... Canadian International Food Security Research Fund - Phase II. In 2009 ... These communities are undergoing rapid social and economic changes. ... FARM TO FORK NUTRITION DIET Food security SCHOOL MEALS ...

  11. Publications | Page 334 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 3331 - 3340 of 6389 ... Women in Arab countries are making human rights history as they ... access to information and actively involving them in decision-making. ... the international community into giving more and more attention to the ...

  12. INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

  13. Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miko, Francis T

    2006-01-01

    Trafficking in people for prostitution and forced labor is one of the most prolific areas of international criminal activity and is of significant concern to the United States and the international community...

  14. Nazi interne propaganda in die tweede wêreldoorlog | Kotze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolf Hitler considered propaganda as a tactical weapon which should be used in warfare. The Second World War proved that it was no super weapon, and that it could not be used in isolation, but it is generally agreed that Nazi internal propaganda played a prominent part in upholding solidarity of morale in Germany ...

  15. International human rights and cultural diversity: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly agreed that international human rights law and cultural diversity have a mutually interdependent and beneficial relationship. Many human rights, such as the rights to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life

  16. Planning Curriculum in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durtka, Sharon; Dye, Alex; Freund, Judy; Harris, Jay; Kline, Julie; LeBreck, Carol; Reimbold, Rebecca; Tabachnick, Robert; Tantala, Renee; Wagler, Mark

    International education begins at home, in the very communities and environments most familiar to students. A student does not need to travel outside U.S. borders to meet the peoples or understand the issues of the global village. This planning guide shows how curriculum in all subject areas encompasses global challenges, global cultures, and…

  17. International Application of NAKT: NAKOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    NAKOS, piloted by the IAEA, represents an international application of the knowledge taxonomy developed. The access to the system will be provided to organizations in IAEA Member States. In the long term, NAKOS should perform as both a structured archive of knowledge resources and a community of practice in which relevant experience and knowledge can be shared responsibly, and with controlled access if required

  18. Irans Nuclear Program: Tehrans Compliance with International Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-03

    Research Service Summary Several U.N. Security Council resolutions required Iran to cooperate fully with the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s...comprehensive International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards; Tehran concluded a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the IAEA in 1974. 2 In 2002...IAEA agreed to “strengthen their cooperation and dialogue aimed at ensuring the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran’s nuclear programme through the

  19. International thermodynamic tables of the fluid state propylene (propene)

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, S; De Reuck, K M

    2013-01-01

    International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State - 7 Propylene (Propene) is a compilation of internationally agreed values of the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of propylene. This book is composed of three chapters, and begins with the presentation of experimental result of thermodynamic studies compared with the equations used to generate the tables. The succeeding chapter deals with correlating equations for thermodynamic property determination of propylene. The last chapter provides the tabulations of the propylene's thermodynamic properties and constants. This book will prove

  20. Le traité de paix en droit international public

    OpenAIRE

    LE BOEUF , Romain

    2014-01-01

    Peace treaty is an international legal act of a contractual nature, concluded by two or more States in order to end the war between them. Nevertheless, regarding both the circumstances of its conclusion and its content, this instrument is remotely compatible with the classical figure of international treaty. The requirement of free and equal wills faces both the existence of a prior use of force and the lack of reciprocity on the agreed rights and obligations. This does not mean that the inst...

  1. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity......., or dimension of variation. The dilemmas in question were chosen for the way they capture key themes in the field of International Studies (IR) as well as central aspects of the ‘international’ itself (ir). The six Blocks are: • Block 1: Co-operation or conflict? Introducing international relations • Block 2...

  2. Tanzania | Page 36 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Kenyan sociologist and gender specialist at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has heard the stories first-hand from her work in hundreds of communities throughout Kenya, Tanzania, and southern Africa. Read more about Empowering African women and communities through agriculture. Language ...

  3. Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mohammad Kais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, disaster risk reduction programs and climate initiatives across the globe have focused largely on the intimate connections between vulnerability, recovery, adaptation, and coping mechanisms. Recent focus, however, is increasingly paid to community resilience. Community, placed at the intersection between the household and national levels of social organization, is crucial in addressing economic, social, or environmental disturbances disrupting human security. Resilience measures a community’s capability of bouncing back—restoring the original pre-disaster state, as well as bouncing forward—the capacity to cope with emerging post-disaster situations and changes. Both the ‘bouncing back’ and ‘moving forward’ properties of a community are shaped and reshaped by internal and external shocks such as climate threats, the community’s resilience dimensions, and the intensity of economic, social, and other community capitals. This article reviews (1 the concept of resilience in relation to climate change and vulnerability; and (2 emerging perspectives on community-level impacts of climate change, resilience dimensions, and community capitals. It argues that overall resilience of a place-based community is located at the intersection of the community’s resilience dimensions, community capitals, and the level of climate disruptions.

  4. Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, Shaikh Mohammad; Islam, Md Saidul

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, disaster risk reduction programs and climate initiatives across the globe have focused largely on the intimate connections between vulnerability, recovery, adaptation, and coping mechanisms. Recent focus, however, is increasingly paid to community resilience. Community, placed at the intersection between the household and national levels of social organization, is crucial in addressing economic, social, or environmental disturbances disrupting human security. Resilience measures a community’s capability of bouncing back—restoring the original pre-disaster state, as well as bouncing forward—the capacity to cope with emerging post-disaster situations and changes. Both the ‘bouncing back’ and ‘moving forward’ properties of a community are shaped and reshaped by internal and external shocks such as climate threats, the community’s resilience dimensions, and the intensity of economic, social, and other community capitals. This article reviews (1) the concept of resilience in relation to climate change and vulnerability; and (2) emerging perspectives on community-level impacts of climate change, resilience dimensions, and community capitals. It argues that overall resilience of a place-based community is located at the intersection of the community’s resilience dimensions, community capitals, and the level of climate disruptions. PMID:27929448

  5. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  6. International collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the wake of the demise of the US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) project last year which empoverished both US and world science, some rapid scene shifting is going on. The SSC may be dead, but the underlying physics quest lives on. In the US, the 'future vision' subpanel of the High Energy Physics Advisory Board (HEPAP) is at work formulating its recommendations. On the international front, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) at a special meeting in Vancouver in January drafted a statement

  7. THE EUROPEAN POSITION OF DUTCH PLANT COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.M. JANSSEN

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is analyzed for which plant communities (alliances the Netherlands has an international responsibility. Data has been brought together on the range and distribution of alliances in Europe, the area of plant communities in the Netherlands and surrounding countries and the occurrence of endemic associations in the Netherlands. The analysis resulted in a list of 34 out of 93 alliances in the Netherlands which are important from an international point of view.

  8. Do community medicine residency trainees learn through journal club? An experience from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Muhammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal clubs are an internationally recognized teaching tool in many postgraduate medical education fields. In developing countries lack of funds for current print materials may have limited journal club use. But with advancing information technology trainees in developing countries increasingly have more access to high quality journals online. However, we are aware of no studies describing journal club existence and effectiveness in postgraduate medical training in Pakistan. Also we have found no published effectiveness studies of this teaching modality in Community Medicine (Public Health in any country. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Community Medicine (Public Health Resident Journal Club (CMR-JC in Aga Khan University, Pakistan using international criteria for successful journal clubs (2 years continuous existence and more than 50% attendance and examining resident and alumni satisfaction. Methods Journal club effectiveness criteria were searched using electronic search databases. Departmental records were reviewed from September1999–September 2005. Ninety percent of residents and alumni of Community Medicine Residency Programme participated voluntarily in a confidential survey. Results The CMR-JC was regularly conducted. More than 95% of residents attended. (Total residents in the CMR-Programme: 32. Twenty-seven out of 29 current residents/alumni responded to the anonymous questionnaire. Acquisition of critical appraisal skills (23 respondents and keeping up with current literature (18 respondents were the two most important objectives achieved. Respondents recommended improved faculty participation and incorporating a structured checklist for article review. Conclusion CMR-JC fulfils criteria for effective journal clubs. Residents and alumni agree CMR-JC meets its objectives. Incorporating suggested recommendations will further improve standards. The journal club learning modality should be included in

  9. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  10. International Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  11. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.; Ha Vinh Phuong

    1976-01-01

    Since the start of the post-war era, international safeguards were considered essential to ensure that nuclear materials should not be diverted to unauthorised uses. In parallel, it was proposed to set up an international atomic energy agency within the United Nations through which international cooperation in nuclear matters would be channelled and controlled. Created in 1957, the IAEA was authorized to administer safeguards in connection with any assistance it provided as well as at the request of Member State and of any party to bilateral or multilateral arrangements in its ambit. Today, there are two international treaties requiring that its parties should accept Agency safeguards unilaterally, the Latin America Tlatelolco Treaty of 1967, and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), operative since 1970, which requires in particular that non-nuclear weapon states should accept Agency safeguards on its peaceful nuclear activities. Thus while NPT covers peaceful nuclear activities indiscriminately in a country, the Agency's original safeguards system is applied according to specific agreements and to given facilities. A basic conflict has now emerged between commercial interests and the increasing wish that transfer of nuclear equipment and know-how should not result in proliferation of military nuclear capacity; however, serious efforts are currently in progress to ensure universal application of IAEA safeguards and to develop them in step with the uses of nuclear energy. (N.E.A.) [fr

  12. Community Involvement in Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Stephanie

    1988-01-01

    Lists several key concepts in developing successful interpretive programs for marine protected areas with community involvement. Identifies educational tools that help foster community involvement in conservation and management. Cites three model programs. Sets standards and goals for international success including leadership, education,…

  13. The Impact of Culture on International Advertising Campaigns: A Managerial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanso, Ali

    A study investigated advertising executives' perceptions of the importance of culture in international advertising, as well as advertising message approaches used by international corporations. It was hypothesized that more nonculturally oriented managers would agree to the use of the same creative strategies to advertise in both domestic and…

  14. Designed communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In current residential spaces there seem to be an increasing emphasis on small-scale communities. A number of new, high profiled residential complexes thus seek to promote new ways of social living by rethinking architectural design, typologies and concepts. In this paper I explore the emergence ...

  15. Walkable Communities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and discusses the benefits of walkable communities, as they relate to health, the environment, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  16. Interfirm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . These results yield a paradox which the present paper aims to address. Based on an in-depth case study of how a high-tech small firm organizes its interfirm activity, I show how a hybrid social relation, that is neither weak nor strong, is a useful conception for interfirm communities. Hereby, the study also...

  17. Optimal community structure for social contagions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Li, Lixiang; Stanley, H. Eugene; Braunstein, Lidia A.

    2018-05-01

    Community structure is an important factor in the behavior of real-world networks because it strongly affects the stability and thus the phase transition order of the spreading dynamics. We here propose a reversible social contagion model of community networks that includes the factor of social reinforcement. In our model an individual adopts a social contagion when the number of received units of information exceeds its adoption threshold. We use mean-field approximation to describe our proposed model, and the results agree with numerical simulations. The numerical simulations and theoretical analyses both indicate that there is a first-order phase transition in the spreading dynamics, and that a hysteresis loop emerges in the system when there is a variety of initially adopted seeds. We find an optimal community structure that maximizes spreading dynamics. We also find a rich phase diagram with a triple point that separates the no-diffusion phase from the two diffusion phases.

  18. Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Cross-Sectional Survey Assessing the Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asfaw Erku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Community pharmacists are key healthcare professionals for antimicrobial stewardship programs owing to their role in dispensing of antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to assess the perception and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship (AMS in Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by selecting pharmacy sites through stratified simple random sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. Majority of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS program is vital for the improvement of patient care. Almost all of respondents agreed that pharmacists can play a prominent role in AMS and infection prevention (93.2%, median = 5; IQR = 2–5. However, only 26.5% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS should be practiced at community pharmacy level (median = 4, IQR = 1–3 and more than half of community pharmacists (59.9% often/always dispense antimicrobial without a prescription. Conclusion. The present study revealed positive perceptions and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship. Yet, some weak areas like integration of AMS program in community pharmacies, the significance of interprofessional involvement, and dispensing of antimicrobials without a valid prescription still need improvement.

  19. Internal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Jun; Hayashi, Youjiro; Ueda, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an internal pump. A water hole allowing communication between internal and external circumferences of a stretch tube is provided at the portion of the stretch tube corresponding to a position where an end face of a nozzle portion of a motor case and an end face of a diffuser are joined with each other so that hot filtered water inside a pressure container which has entered from where the end face of the nozzle portion of the motor case and the end face of the diffuser are joined with each other is combined with the purged water so that it can be sent back to the pressure container again. (author) figs

  20. Processes of Internal and International Migration from Chitwan, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examine which factors predict internal and international migration from Chitwan, a flat valley located in the South-Central region of Nepal, seeking to measure the effect of theoretically specified variables such as human capital, social capital, physical capital, and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions while controlling for demographic variables. We use data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) to estimate a series of discrete time event history models of first and repeat migration to three competing destinations: other locations within Chitwan, other districts within Nepal, and places outside of Nepal. Results support hypotheses derived from neoclassical economics, the theory of new economics of migration, social capital theory, and cumulative causation theory. Our results underscore the need for a synthetic theoretical model that incorporates factors operating at the individual, household, and community levels. The use of multiple explanatory models yields a clearer picture of the forces driving internal and international migration from rural districts in developing nations such as Nepal.

  1. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The system of international safeguards carried out by the IAEA is designed to verify that governments are living up to pledges to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes under the NPT (Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons) and similar agreements. The film illustrates the range of field inspections and analytical work involved. It also shows how new approaches are helping to strengthen the system

  2. International nursing: a student outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C J

    1993-01-01

    World health depends upon our field of vision. If we selectively view the world from a narrow perspective, we will be unable to function effectively as nurses. The sobering reality of health conditions throughout the world should awaken our consciousness and sharpen our focus on priorities for the future. We can agree with Lindquist, that "nursing must be viewed from a global perspective if it is to influence the quality of health care provided in the future." Although not every student has the means and availability to travel overseas in a volunteer capacity, students may begin to examine the possibilities and start their own correspondence with an international agency. Regardless of our realm of service, the opportunity to provide care for individuals of all cultures, whether abroad or at home, remains the highest privilege of our profession.

  3. International agreements on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombey, N.

    1982-01-01

    The satellite detection of a nuclear explosion in the South Atlantic and Israel's destruction of a research reactor in Iraq make it essential to strengthen existing monitoring and enforcement programs to prevent proliferation. While there was no reliable evidence that either South Africa or Iraq was violating non-proliferation agreements, worst case scenarios can demonstrate to unfriendly countries that South Africa had diverted fuel to test a nuclear weapon and that Iraq is intending to produce weapons-grade plutonium 239. The situation can be improved by formulating better terms and conditions for internationalizing access to materials. Nuclear suppliers need to agree on terms that will assure their customers that contracts for civil programs will be honored. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which includes both nuclear suppliers and customers, could achieve stronger agreements that take into account recent technological advances that will expand enrichment and reprocessing activities. 23 references, 1 figure

  4. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  5. International food aid – directions of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sapa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Permanently unsolved world food insecurity problem makes the international community search for solutions. One of the used methods is international food aid directed to developing countries. Long term analyses of the food aid flows allow to identify some tendencies that show: increase of emergency food aid and decrease of direct transfer. These tendencies also apply to the two biggest food donors i.e. the USA and the EU. The noticeable directions of changes are based on the international community initiatives, on which the national regulation are formed later.

  6. International cooperation at RTNS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, C.M.

    1984-02-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source-II (RTNS-II) facility at LLNL is a unique materials-test facility. It provides the most intense source of 14-MeV neutrons in the world. Dedicated operation in support of the fusion-materials-research community began in early 1979. Three years later, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture (Monbusho) and the US Department of Energy agreed to jointly support the RTNS-II operation and to share in the use of the facility

  7. International payment for forest conservation. Special case: compensation for leaving the oil in the ground in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendal, Kristin; Schei, Peter Johan; Eikeland, Per Ove; Gulbrandsen, Lars

    2008-02-15

    This report evaluates the Ecuadorian proposal to have the international community compensate Ecuador for not exploiting the oil in the ITT area of Yasuni National Park. It includes the evaluation of this proposal in a broader context, assessing the possible consequences of the arrangement for future systems for international payment for biodiversity/rain forest conservation or payment for other ecosystem services as outlined in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Recently, the debate about international funding of rain forest conservation and payment for ecosystem services in general has received new momentum thanks to the climate change negotiations. Although the debate goes back several decades, the content has now been broadened to include at least five major concerns: carbon sequestration and uptake, biodiversity conservation, maintenance and balance of other ecosystem services, safeguarding the livelihoods of local and indigenous people, and adaptation to climate change. This report examines the various past and current efforts relating to the question of international payment for forest conservation, linking it to the international obligations of developed countries to support global environmental goals in developing countries. The Yasuni case raises several questions that are also relevant to the Norwegian Bali initiative to contribute NOK 3 billion annually over five years for forest conservation. A central question is how these (new) flows of funding should be organized in order to achieve the relevant internationally agreed objectives emanating from multilateral environmental agreements. Here we discuss the role of the GEF, with its implementing agencies the World Bank, UNDP and UNEP. We tie the discussion to the obligations that developed countries have undertaken to support the implementation of global environmental goals in developing countries as emanating from the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), as well as obligations pertaining to

  8. International payment for forest conservation. Special case: compensation for leaving the oil in the ground in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendal, Kristin; Schei, Peter Johan; Eikeland, Per Ove; Gulbrandsen, Lars

    2008-02-15

    This report evaluates the Ecuadorian proposal to have the international community compensate Ecuador for not exploiting the oil in the ITT area of Yasuni National Park. It includes the evaluation of this proposal in a broader context, assessing the possible consequences of the arrangement for future systems for international payment for biodiversity/rain forest conservation or payment for other ecosystem services as outlined in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Recently, the debate about international funding of rain forest conservation and payment for ecosystem services in general has received new momentum thanks to the climate change negotiations. Although the debate goes back several decades, the content has now been broadened to include at least five major concerns: carbon sequestration and uptake, biodiversity conservation, maintenance and balance of other ecosystem services, safeguarding the livelihoods of local and indigenous people, and adaptation to climate change. This report examines the various past and current efforts relating to the question of international payment for forest conservation, linking it to the international obligations of developed countries to support global environmental goals in developing countries. The Yasuni case raises several questions that are also relevant to the Norwegian Bali initiative to contribute NOK 3 billion annually over five years for forest conservation. A central question is how these (new) flows of funding should be organized in order to achieve the relevant internationally agreed objectives emanating from multilateral environmental agreements. Here we discuss the role of the GEF, with its implementing agencies the World Bank, UNDP and UNEP. We tie the discussion to the obligations that developed countries have undertaken to support the implementation of global environmental goals in developing countries as emanating from the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), as well as obligations pertaining to

  9. Community Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saganowski, Stanisław; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Havi...

  10. International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation (IRPhE) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation (IRPhE) Project aims to provide the nuclear community with qualified benchmark data sets by collecting reactor physics experimental data from nuclear facilities, worldwide. More specifically the objectives of the expert group are as follows: - maintaining an inventory of the experiments that have been carried out and documented; - archiving the primary documents and data released in computer-readable form; - promoting the use of the format and methods developed and seek to have them adopted as a standard. For those experiments where interest and priority is expressed by member countries or working parties and executive groups within the NEA provide guidance or co-ordination in: - compiling experiments into a standard international agreed format; - verifying the data, to the extent possible, by reviewing original and subsequently revised documentation, and by consulting with the experimenters or individuals who are familiar with the experimenters or the experimental facility; - analysing and interpreting the experiments with current state-of-the-art methods; - publishing electronically the benchmark evaluations. The expert group will: - identify gaps in data and provide guidance on priorities for future experiments; - involve the young generation (Masters and PhD students and young researchers) to find an effective way of transferring know-how in experimental techniques and analysis methods; - provide a tool for improved exploitation of completed experiments for Generation IV reactors; - coordinate closely its work with other NSC experimental work groups in particular the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), the Shielding Integral Benchmark Experiment Data Base (SINBAD) and others, e.g. knowledge preservation in fast reactors of the IAEA, the ANS Joint Benchmark Activities; - keep a close link with the working parties on scientific issues of reactor systems (WPRS), the expert

  11. Internal Medicine Residents' Perceived Responsibility for Patients at Hospital Discharge: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric; Stickrath, Chad; McNulty, Monica C; Calderon, Aaron J; Chapman, Elizabeth; Gonzalo, Jed D; Kuperman, Ethan F; Lopez, Max; Smith, Christopher J; Sweigart, Joseph R; Theobald, Cecelia N; Burke, Robert E

    2016-12-01

    Medical residents are routinely entrusted with transitions of care, yet little is known about the duration or content of their perceived responsibility for patients they discharge from the hospital. To examine the duration and content of internal medicine residents' perceived responsibility for patients they discharge from the hospital. The secondary objective was to determine whether specific individual experiences and characteristics correlate with perceived responsibility. Multi-site, cross-sectional 24-question survey delivered via email or paper-based form. Internal medicine residents (post-graduate years 1-3) at nine university and community-based internal medicine training programs in the United States. Perceived responsibility for patients after discharge as measured by a previously developed single-item tool for duration of responsibility and novel domain-specific questions assessing attitudes towards specific transition of care behaviors. Of 817 residents surveyed, 469 responded (57.4 %). One quarter of residents (26.1 %) indicated that their responsibility for patients ended at discharge, while 19.3 % reported perceived responsibility extending beyond 2 weeks. Perceived duration of responsibility did not correlate with level of training (P = 0.57), program type (P = 0.28), career path (P = 0.12), or presence of burnout (P = 0.59). The majority of residents indicated they were responsible for six of eight transitional care tasks (85.1-99.3 % strongly agree or agree). Approximately half of residents (57 %) indicated that it was their responsibility to directly contact patients' primary care providers at discharge. and 21.6 % indicated that it was their responsibility to ensure that patients attended their follow-up appointments. Internal medicine residents demonstrate variability in perceived duration of responsibility for recently discharged patients. Neither the duration nor the content of residents' perceived responsibility was

  12. Successful up-scaled population interventions to reduce risk factors for non-communicable disease in adults: results from the International Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Project in China, India and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Pamela A; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Stevens, Denise E; Champagne, Beatriz; Li, Li-Ming; Lv, Jun; Ramírez Hernández, Jorge; Thankappan, K R; Matthews, David R

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable disease (NCD) is increasing rapidly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and is associated with tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. There is little evidence for up-scaled interventions at the population level to reduce risk in LMIC. The Community Interventions for Health (CIH) program was a population-scale community intervention study with comparator population group undertaken in communities in China, India, and Mexico, each with populations between 150,000-250,000. Culturally appropriate interventions were delivered over 18-24 months. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of a stratified sample of adults aged 18-64 years were conducted at baseline and follow-up. A total of 6,194 adults completed surveys at baseline, and 6,022 at follow-up. The proportion meeting physical activity recommendations decreased significantly in the control group (C) (44.1 to 30.2%), but not in the intervention group (I) (38.0 to 36.1%), p<0.001. Those eating ≥ 5 portions of fruit and vegetables daily decreased significantly in C (19.2 to 17.2%), but did not change in I (20.0 to 19.6%,), p=0.013. The proportion adding salt to food was unchanged in C (24.9 to 25.3%) and decreased in I (25.9 to 19.6%), p<0.001. Prevalence of obesity increased in C (8.3 to 11.2%), with no change in I (8.6 to 9.7%,) p=0.092. Concerning tobacco, for men the difference-in-difference analysis showed that the reduction in use was significantly greater in I compared to C (p=0.014). Up-scaling known health promoting interventions designed to reduce the incidence of NCD in whole communities in LMIC is feasible, and has measurable beneficial outcomes on risk factors for NCD, namely tobacco use, diet, and physical inactivity.

  13. Successful up-scaled population interventions to reduce risk factors for non-communicable disease in adults: results from the International Community Interventions for Health (CIH Project in China, India and Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A Dyson

    Full Text Available Non-communicable disease (NCD is increasing rapidly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC, and is associated with tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. There is little evidence for up-scaled interventions at the population level to reduce risk in LMIC.The Community Interventions for Health (CIH program was a population-scale community intervention study with comparator population group undertaken in communities in China, India, and Mexico, each with populations between 150,000-250,000. Culturally appropriate interventions were delivered over 18-24 months. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of a stratified sample of adults aged 18-64 years were conducted at baseline and follow-up.A total of 6,194 adults completed surveys at baseline, and 6,022 at follow-up. The proportion meeting physical activity recommendations decreased significantly in the control group (C (44.1 to 30.2%, but not in the intervention group (I (38.0 to 36.1%, p<0.001. Those eating ≥ 5 portions of fruit and vegetables daily decreased significantly in C (19.2 to 17.2%, but did not change in I (20.0 to 19.6%,, p=0.013. The proportion adding salt to food was unchanged in C (24.9 to 25.3% and decreased in I (25.9 to 19.6%, p<0.001. Prevalence of obesity increased in C (8.3 to 11.2%, with no change in I (8.6 to 9.7%, p=0.092. Concerning tobacco, for men the difference-in-difference analysis showed that the reduction in use was significantly greater in I compared to C (p=0.014.Up-scaling known health promoting interventions designed to reduce the incidence of NCD in whole communities in LMIC is feasible, and has measurable beneficial outcomes on risk factors for NCD, namely tobacco use, diet, and physical inactivity.

  14. Data standards for the international virtual observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hanisch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which brings together Virtual Observatory Projects from 16 national and international development projects, is to develop, evaluate, test, and agree upon standards for astronomical data formatting, data discovery, and data delivery. In the three years that the IVOA has been in existence, substantial progress has been made on standards for tabular data, imaging data, spectroscopic data, and large-scale databases and on managing the metadata that describe data collections and data access services. In this paper, I describe how the IVOA operates and give my views as to why such a broadly based international collaboration has been able to make such rapid progress.

  15. Irish medical students’ understanding of the intern year

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gouda, P,

    2016-03-01

    Upon completion of medical school in Ireland, graduates must make the transition to becoming interns. The transition into the intern year may be described as challenging as graduates assume clinical responsibilities. Historically, a survey of interns in 1996 found that 91% felt unprepared for their role. However, recent surveys in 2012 have demonstrated that this is changing with preparedness rates reaching 52%. This can be partially explained by multiple initiatives at the local and national level. Our study aimed evaluate medical student understanding of the intern year and associated factors. An online, cross-sectional survey was sent out to all Irish medical students in 2013 and included questions regarding their understanding of the intern year. Two thousand, two hundred and forty-eight students responded, with 1224 (55.4%) of students agreeing or strongly agreeing that they had a good understanding of what the intern year entails. This rose to 485 (73.7%) among senior medical students. Of junior medical students, 260 (42.8%) indicated they understood what the intern year, compared to 479 (48.7%) of intermediate medical students. Initiatives to continue improving preparedness for the intern year are essential in ensuring a smooth and less stressful transition into the medical workforce

  16. Electricity imports from outside the Community in the EC Internal Market in electricity. Commercial policy of the EC, a subject matter of the EU internal electricity market Directive, or within national law-making competence of the EU member states?; Stromimporte aus Drittstaaten im EG-Binnenmarkt fuer Energie. Handelspolitik der EG, Gegenstand der Binnenmarkt-Richtlinien oder eigene Regelungszustaendigkeit der Mitgliedstaaten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Voelkerrecht, Euoparecht und Auslaendisches Oeffentliches Recht

    2000-07-01

    The author analyses in great depth the applicable laws and regulations as well as the Treaty of Rome in connection with the question of whether the implementation of the EU IEM Directive and the deregulation of electricity markets of EU member states really weakened the legal position of EC member states vis a vis non-member states to the extent that Community members have no means to defend themselves against dumping practices of electricity traders from outside the Community. The concluding statement of the legal analysis is that the EC member states do have the right to use the legal provisions governing competitive electricity trade inside the Community as well in dealing with traders from outside the Community. (orig./CB) [German] Der Beitrag untersucht die Frage, ob die Herstellung des Binnenmarkts fuer Elektrizitaet tatsaechlich dazu gefuehrt hat, dass Importeure aus Drittstaaten von den Mitgliedstaaten der Gemeinschaft in keiner Weise mehr beschraenkt werden koennen. Eine genauere Untersuchung der einschlaegigen Bestimmungen des EGV und des Sekundaerrechts ergibt ein differenziertes Bild; in jedem Fall sind die Mitgliedstaaten berechtigt, Beschraenkungen, die die Binnenmarkt-Richtlinien im Verhaeltnis zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten zulassen, auch im Verhaeltnis zu Drittstaaten anzuwenden. (orig./CB)

  17. Internal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organization. Method: How to achieve the purpose of research, used methods and theoretical approach. Results: Specific examples and opinions of employees. Results show the importance of trainings for an organization. We can see that all employees are fairly motivated and ready to participate in trainings and can adapt to changing business environment very well. The results demonstrate that all trainings in the organization are very important and welcome. Only with continuous learning, the organization can be successful and survive in the market despite strong competition. Organization: Trainings are designed for all employees inside an organization. Different employees participate in trainings in a different way as all trainings are divided into certain work and fields that are important for each individual or department in an organization. Society: Trainings have an impact on the whole organization by contributing to its development. Originality: The originality of study is what was new in the research, what is the value and originality of research. Limitations/Future Research: Research was limited to a small number of sources.

  18. Disaster: would your community bounce back?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    What makes some communities or organizations able to quickly bounce back from a disaster, while others take a long time to recover? This question has become very important for emergency planners in federal, state, and local government - particularly since the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina, which nearly destroyed New Orleans five years ago. These events have made people aware that we can't always prevent disasters, but might be able to improve the ability of communities and regions to respond to and bounce back from major disruptions. Social scientists have found that most communities are, in fact, quite resilient to most disasters. People tend to work together, overcome divisions, identify problems, and develop improvised solutions. This often leads to a greater sense of community and a sense of personal accomplishment. Long-term recovery can be harder, but rebuilding can create jobs and stimulate economies. Communities may even end up better than they were before. But there are some disturbing exceptions to this trend, including Hurricane Katrina. The hurricane killed many people, the federal and local emergency response was not effective, people who could not evacuate were housed in the Superdome and Convention Center in terrible conditions, crime was prevalent, and local government did not appear to have control over the situation. A significant portion of the population was eventually evacuated to other cities. Even five years later, many people have not returned, and large parts of the city have not been rebuilt. Clearly, New Orleans lacked sufficient resilience to overcome a disaster of the magnitude of Katrina. There are four factors that social scientists are beginning to agree are important for community resilience: (1) A strong, diverse economy - Stable jobs, good incomes, diversity of industries, personal savings; (2) Robust social networks - Community members know each other, help each other, and have connections outside the community; (3

  19. Deliberating Together on Geological Repository Siting: Expectations and Challenges in the Czech Republic. Synthesis and International Perspective of the 9. Community Visit and National Workshop of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) - Czech Republic, 24-26 October 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The 9. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency 'Forum on Stakeholder Confidence' Community Visit and National Workshop was held in Karlovy Vary, Chyse and Blatno in the Czech Republic in October 2012. Entitled 'Deliberating Together on Geological Repository Siting', the workshop focussed on the process for siting an installation for the final management of spent nuclear fuel, and the expectations and challenges raised by this process. Three themes were examined: developing confidence in a participatory process; local and regional partnership and added value; and expectations for safety assurance by national, local and regional authorities. The workshop was held under the patronage of the Minister of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic. It was hosted by SURAO, the state-controlled Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, in cooperation with the pluralistic Working Group for Dialogue on the Site Selection Process for a Deep Geological Repository (including representatives from directly concerned municipalities and civil society, as well as from the national authorities, technical organisations; the group is chaired by a professor of sociology from the Czech Academy of Sciences). A large number of mayors and community representatives attended the full workshop. The international FSC contingent was made up of 49 delegates from 14 countries as well as the European Commission. Several citizens attended from municipalities across Europe, of which all had hosted FSC workshops in the past. For the first time in an FSC event, the Community Visit took the form of a public meeting. This was created as a neutral platform to enable debate about Czech and international siting experience. About one hundred residents of communities concerned by the Czech siting process attended this 2-hour meeting hosted by a mayor and chaired by the FSC Secretariat. A small panel of Czech stakeholders from both the national technical level and local civil society presented their positions and concerns

  20. Policy and Challenges of Building Schools as Inclusive Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcic, Svjetlana; Gabel, Susan L.; Zeitlin, Virginia; Cribaro-DiFatta, Shannon; Glarner, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address building inclusive communities by looking at school as a community, as a place where students participate in learning and also learn to participate in the life of a community and life in a broader inclusive society. At the international level, policies increasingly position education as a business organisation, with…