WorldWideScience

Sample records for international cocoa agreement

  1. Cocoa

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Develop applications for Mac OS X with this Developer Reference guide. Make a clean transition to programming in Apple environments using the elegant and dynamic programming API Cocoa and this practical guide. Written by aseasoned Mac expert, this book shows you how to write programs in Cocoa for the rapidly expanding world of Macintosh users. Part of the Developer Reference series, this book prepares you for a productive programming experience on today's fastest-growing platform.: Cocoa is a programming framework for developing in Apple environments, including Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard; This

  2. International Fisheries Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games...... and stability of international fisheries agreements. A key message that emerges from this literature strand is that self-enforcing cooperative management of internationally shared fish stocks is generally difficult to achieve. Hence, the international legal framework and regulations play a decisive role...

  3. International environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, Aart

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of environmental externalities at the global level requires international agreements between sovereign states. Game theory provides an appropriate theoretical tool for analysis. However, game theory can result in a wide range of outcomes, and therefore it is important to discuss the

  4. International nuclear agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miatello, A.; Severino, R.

    1988-01-01

    This multilingual glossary, in the laborious compilation of which the authors have been greatly assisted by a group of professional translators and experts, presents for the first time a substantial number of entries in four languages (English, French, German and Italian), whose terminology and phraseology, all bearing the appropriate normative reference, has been drawn from the official text of the most relevant international agreements on nuclear policy. It is complemented by a thorough critical study on the status of nonproliferation by Lawrence Scheinman and Josef Pilat. Librarians, translators and interpreters as well as scholars and researchers in international law will find this volume a reference tool of specific interest

  5. Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the tree from which cocoa butter and chocolate is derived, is conserved in field genebanks. The largest of these ex situ collections in the public domain is the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Reduction of genetic redundancy is essential to improve the acc...

  6. International agreements on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombey, N.

    1982-01-01

    The satellite detection of a nuclear explosion in the South Atlantic and Israel's destruction of a research reactor in Iraq make it essential to strengthen existing monitoring and enforcement programs to prevent proliferation. While there was no reliable evidence that either South Africa or Iraq was violating non-proliferation agreements, worst case scenarios can demonstrate to unfriendly countries that South Africa had diverted fuel to test a nuclear weapon and that Iraq is intending to produce weapons-grade plutonium 239. The situation can be improved by formulating better terms and conditions for internationalizing access to materials. Nuclear suppliers need to agree on terms that will assure their customers that contracts for civil programs will be honored. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which includes both nuclear suppliers and customers, could achieve stronger agreements that take into account recent technological advances that will expand enrichment and reprocessing activities. 23 references, 1 figure

  7. Second International Congress on Chocolate and Cocoa in Medicine Held in Barcelona, Spain, 25–26th September 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Margarida Castell; Sandra Saldaña-Ruíz; Maria José Rodríguez-Lagunas; Àngels Franch; Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2015-01-01

    In order to further our understanding of, and disseminate the latest findings on the healthy properties of cocoa and chocolate, the International Society of Chocolate and Cocoa in Medicine (ISCHOM) was founded in 2010 in Florence (http://ischom.com/ischom/). This Society aims to gather information and become a forum of discussion and debate on cocoa and chocolate, not only among researchers from around the world, but also to introduce the science involved and the latest findings to the public...

  8. 43 CFR 24.5 - International agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.5 International agreements. (a) International conventions... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International agreements. 24.5 Section 24... shall be to recommend that the United States negotiate and accede to only those international agreements...

  9. Microsatellite fingerprinting in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad: Accession and plot homogeneity information for germplasm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) is the largest public domain field gene bank collection of cacao and the correct identity of each tree is crucial for germplasm movement, evaluation and phenotypic characterization. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess the identity of 1480 t...

  10. Analysis of international negotiations and trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Górriz Gonzalo, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze international trade agreements and negotiations. For that purpose, two agreements made by the United States are chosen to be analyzed. In the first place, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) agreement, that was signed by the United States, Canada and Mexico in 1994 in order to create a free trade area. In addition, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) will be analyze, an agreement that is still being negotiated between the United Stat...

  11. Verification of international environmental agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, J.H.; Victor, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Problems and opportunities frequently cross national borders. Informal and formal international arrangements-loosely termed regimes, defined in this paper as systems of rule or government that have widespread influence-arise for the collective management of such transboundary issues. Regimes are pervasive; their number and extent have grown markedly in the 20th century, especially since the Second World War. Students of the international system study the conditions under which regimes are formed and the factors that contribute to their success. These include distribution of power among states, the nature of the issue, its linkages to other issues, the roles and functions of international organizations, the processes of bargaining and rule-making, and the influence of domestic politics. Scholars also theorize how regimes are maintained and changed. In the past two decades students of international cooperation have increasingly applied their tools to issues of the environment and natural resources

  12. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide

  13. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  14. Agency Agreements Process Champion Support Intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksa, Ember

    2018-01-01

    This document will provide information on the 2018 Spring semester NIFS Intern who represented the Office of Chief Financial Officer (OCFO) as a Reimbursable Accountant at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This intern supported the Agency Agreements Process Champions and Team Lead, Susan Kroskey, Sandy Massey and Mecca Murphy, with major initiatives to advance the KSC OCFO's vision of creating and innovating healthy financial management practices that maximize the value of resources entrusted to NASA. These initiatives include, but are not limited to: updating the Agency Guidance and NASA Procedural Guidance 9090.1 Agreements, implementing a new budget structure to be utilized across all centers, submitting a Call Request (CRQ) to enhance non-federal customer reporting, initiating a discussion to incorporate a 3-year funding program for NASA agreements, and undertaking the Office of Inspector General (OIG) Audit. In support of these initiatives, this intern identified technical methods to enhance and reduce the workload of financial processes for reimbursable and non-reimbursable agreements, prepared reports in support of accounting functions, and performed administrative work and miscellaneous technical tasks in support of the OCFO as requested. In conclusion of the internship, the intern will become knowledgeable on reimbursable accounting, reimbursable policy, types of reimbursable agreements, the agreements process, estimated pricing reports, and the roles and responsibilities of the Financial Accounting and Financial Services offices.

  15. Flavor Profile of Clone CCN 51 Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Produced in Three Farms Municipality of San Vicente de Chucurí

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Fernando Quintana Fuentes; Salomón Goméz Castelblanco

    2011-01-01

    Colombia is one of the bigger producers of cocoa in America, the production is consumed in the totally in internal form. The department of Santander is me bigger producer of cocoa in Colombia and the municipality of San Vicente de Chucuri is considered the cocoa capital of the country. Actually theColombian federation of cocoa (Fedecacao) together with the Unad have an agreement of cooperation for the strengthening of the evaluating capacity of the sensorial quality of the cocoa.In the proces...

  16. Understanding the development of international environmental agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jens

    There are many different theoretical schools concerned with how international regimes develop, and each supplies its own interpretation focusing on one or a few aspects of the process. Such ‘one shot’ explanations may be fruitful for scientific debate, but less useful as conceptual frameworks...... for practitioners and planners manoeuvring in a complex world. On the basis of a review of selected theories of international and environmental regulation, this article initiates the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the development of internationalenvironmental agreements. The point...... of departure for developing the model is the actor-structure debate within social science and theory of international relations. Based on critical realism, a framework is developed specifying the relation between collective action problem situations and negotiation situations. It is argued that the main...

  17. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  18. OPEC's response to international climate agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaten, J.; Golombek, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies a game between a group of countries that have agreed to participate in an international climate agreement (the signatories) and OPEC. The purpose of the signatories is to design carbon taxes that maximize their total net income, given a goal on global carbon emissions. As a response to the climate agreement, OPEC imposes an oil tax on its member states that maximizes OPEC's profits. Within a numerical model we find the subgame-perfect equilibrium of a game in which each player chooses when to fix his decision variables. It is shown that in equilibrium the group of signatories chooses to be the leader and OPEC chooses to be the follower. It is demonstrated, however, that for both agents the order of move is of minor (numerical) importance. Hence, the players have limited incentives for strategic behaviour. 17 refs

  19. International petroleum agreements : Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Foreign investment in the oil and gas sector has had a profound impact on the development of crude oil production in Cuba. In 1982, in order to encourage economic development, the Cuban government adopted a form of Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for international petroleum agreements. In 1990, the first PSC was negotiated with a consortium of European companies. This was followed in 1992 through 1994 with companies from Canada, Europe and Latin America. Then in 1995, a more comprehensive foreign investment law was enacted to further encourage foreign investment in Cuba. Onshore and shallow water regions of Cuba were divided into 45 blocks, 19 of which were under licence in 2001. In addition, in 1999 the government of Cuba offered 53 blocks in the deep water zones of the Cuban sector of the Gulf of Mexico to foreign investment, of which 6 are already under licence. Most exploration for oil and gas since 1991 has been carried out by foreign companies. Crude oil production in 1991 totalled 11,000 bopd of heavy oil production from the north coast of Cuba. By 2001, domestic crude oil production increased to more than 50,000 bopd, mostly due to foreign investment in exploration and development. This paper described the model form for Cuban Production Sharing Contracts with reference to parties, rights granted, terms, relinquishments, minimum exploration commitments, discovery of hydrocarbons and recovery of petroleum operation expenses. The paper also discussed gross production, cost recovery for contractors, and sharing of profits with contractors and the state oil company, CubaPetroleo. 1 fig

  20. 47 CFR 73.1650 - International agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agreements for the Broadcasting Service in Region 2: (i) MF Broadcasting 535-1605 kHz, Rio de Janeiro, 1981. (ii) MF Broadcasting 1605-1705 kHz, Rio de Janeiro, 1988. (3) Bi-lateral Agreements between the United...

  1. The Nigerian Cocoa Farmers and the Fluctuations in World Cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics of the international economy, such as the 1930s fluctuations in the prices of primary commodities on the world market, affected Nigerian economy and society a great deal. Of all the commodity producers in Nigeria, cocoa farmers were the worst hit. This is because cocoa farmers depended on the world market ...

  2. 45 CFR 650.7 - Awards affected by international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Awards affected by international agreements. 650.7 Section 650.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... research performer such rights in any subject invention as are contemplated in the international agreement...

  3. Climatic changes: explicative guide of international agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The following themes of the negotiation in the United Nations Convention framework, on the climatic changes and the kyoto protocol are taken into account: the observation, the information communication, the policies and the measures, the developing countries, the flexibility mechanisms, the soils utilizations and the regime evolution. For each theme the document recalls quickly how the theme is detailed in the Convention and in the Protocol, it presents then the decisions and the adopted rules and defines the agreements contain, in terms of challenges and implication in the protocol implementation. (A.L.B.)

  4. Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the different bilateral and multilateral agreements concluded recently between the different OECD countries and concerning the nuclear energy domain: Argentina - Australia: Agreement concerning Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). Argentina - Brazil: Joint Declaration regarding the Creation of the Argentinean-Brazilian Agency for Nuclear Energy Applications (2001). Australia - Czech Republic / Australia - Hungary: Agreements on Co-operation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and the Transfer of Nuclear Material (2001). Australia - Indonesia: Arrangement Concerning Co-operation on Nuclear Safeguards and Related Matters (2001). Austria - Switzerland: Agreement on the Early Exchange of Information in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation. Brazil - United States: Extension of the Agreement concerning Research and Development in Nuclear Material Control, Accountancy, Verification, Physical Protection, and Advanced Containment and Surveillance Technologies for International Safeguards Applications (2001). Czech Republic - Republic of Korea: Agreement for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). European Union- Russian Federation: Agreements on Nuclear Safety and Controlled Nuclear Fusion (2001). France - United States: Agreement for Co-operation in Advanced Nuclear Reactor Science and Technology (2001). Japan - United Kingdom: Co-operation Agreement on Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Fast Breeder Reactor and Other Related Technologies (2001). Republic OF Korea - United States: Annex IV Joint Project on Cintichem Technology (2000). Morocco - United States: Protocol amending the Co-operation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). Multilateral Agreements: Agreement for Information Exchange on Radiological Surveillance in Northern Europe (2001). Status of Conventions in the Field of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  5. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VI. International agreement profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on world energy. The international agreement profiles in WENDS are all energy-related and are organized by energy technology. These are: coal; conservation; fusion; geothermal; nuclear fission; oil, gas, and shale; solar, wind, and ocean thermal; and other (cooperation in electrical power equipment acquisition, energy, energy research, etc.). The agreement profiles are accessible by energy technology and alphabetically by country.

  6. The oil market and international agreements on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, K.; Fimreite, O.; Golombek, R.; Hoel, M.

    1992-01-01

    According to most scientists, greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced significantly relative to current trends to avoid dramatic adverse climatic changes during the next century. CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas, so any international agreement will certainly cover CO 2 emissions. Any international agreement to reduce emissions of CO 2 is going to have a significant impact on the markets for fossil fuels. The analysis shows that it is not only the amount of CO 2 emissions permitted in an agreement which matters for fossil fuel prices, but also the type of agreement. Two obvious forms of agreements, which under certain assumptions both are cost efficient, are (a) tradeable emission permits, and (b) an international CO 2 tax. If the fossil fuel markets were perfectly competitive, these two types of agreements would have the same effect on the producer price of fossil fuels. However, fossil fuel markets are not completely competitive. It is shown that, under imperfect competition, direct regulation of the 'tradeable quotas' type tends to imply higher producer prices and a larger efficiency loss than an international CO 2 tax giving the same total CO 2 emissions. A numerical illustration of the oil market indicates that the difference in producer prices for the two types of CO 2 agreements is quite significant. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. The oil market and international agreements on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, K.; Fimreite, Oe.; Golombek, R.; Hoel, M.

    1991-01-01

    In order to avoid a relatively large risk of dramatic adverse climatic changes during the next century, greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced significantly relative to present emissions. CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas, so any international agreement will certainly cover CO 2 emissions. Any international agreement to reduce emissions of CO 2 is going to have a significant impact on the markets for fossil fuels. The analysis shows that is not only the amount of CO 2 emissions permitted in an agreement which matters for fossil fuel prices, but also the type of agreement. Two obvious forms of agreements, which under certain assumptions both are cost efficient, are (a) tradeable emission permits, and (b) an international CO 2 tax. If the fossil fuel markets were perfectly competitive, these two types of agreements would have the same effect on the producer price of fossil fuels. However, fossil fuel markets are not completely competitive. It is shown that, under imperfect competition, direct regulation of the ''tradeable quotas'' type tends to imply higher producer prices than an international CO 2 tax giving the same total CO 2 emissions. A numerical illustration of the oil market indicates that the difference in producer prices for the two types of CO 2 agreements is quite significant. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Signalling in international environmental agreements. Using pre-agreement emission level as a signalling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper addresses the question about strategic incentives in international environmental agreements and tries to give a positive description of how the design of the agreement influences the strategic behaviour of potential participants before they enter the treaty. A common feature of the design of agreements is that the reduction obligations (RO) are made contingent on a pre-agreement or baseline emission. As it is assumed that countries posses better information about their reduction costs than does the international body in charge of deciding the RO, countries might have incentives to signal higher costs by increasing their baseline emission, and thereby reducing the costs of entering the agreement. The appropriate analytical framework is to use a signalling game approach, where the pre-agreement emission level conveys information about the privately informed country`s reduction cost. In this paper two types of agreement design are considered, one with uniform obligations, and one with differentiated obligations. This enables us to make a comparison between two different reduction regimes. The result is that the predicted outcomes vary with regard to both the environmental effectiveness and the associated expected costs for the participating countries. This means that when private information is considered, the anticipation of a given institutional framework has significant impact on the resulting distortion of the total emission level, highlighting the necessity of taking this into consideration when future designs are proposed. (au)

  9. Signalling in international environmental agreements: Using pre-agreement emission level as a signalling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the question about strategic incentives in international environmental agreements and tries to give a positive description of how the design of the agreement influences the strategic behaviour of potential participants before they enter the treaty. A common feature of the design of agreements is that the reduction obligations (RO) are made contingent on a pre-agreement or baseline emission. As it is assumed that countries posses better information about their reduction costs than does the international body in charge of deciding the RO, countries might have incentives to signal higher costs by increasing their baseline emission, and thereby reducing the costs of entering the agreement. The appropriate analytical framework is to use a signalling game approach, where the pre-agreement emission level conveys information about the privately informed country's reduction cost. In this paper two types of agreement design are considered, one with uniform obligations, and one with differentiated obligations. This enables us to make a comparison between two different reduction regimes. The result is that the predicted outcomes vary with regard to both the environmental effectiveness and the associated expected costs for the participating countries. This means that when private information is considered, the anticipation of a given institutional framework has significant impact on the resulting distortion of the total emission level, highlighting the necessity of taking this into consideration when future designs are proposed. (au)

  10. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  11. Socio-Economic Characteristics of Registered Cocoa Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo State; ... Key words: socio-economics, characteristics, registered cocoa farmers. ... international exchange market in two world currencies ...

  12. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  13. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Industrial and Biological Section. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science. P.O. Box 31. Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  14. STABILITY OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS IN LEADERSHIP MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin ZHANG; Shouyang WANG; Lei ZU

    2008-01-01

    International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) are a form of cooperation ratified by countries which can improve the management of shared environmental resources. The authors analyze the stability of International Environmental Agreements in leadership model. In 2006, Diamantoudi & Sartzetakis found that a stable coalition consists of either 2, 3, or 4 members if the number of countries is greater than 4. Their model is reconsidered. It is shown that the size of stable IEAs decreases from 3 to 2 when the total number of countries involved increases. However, a situation that can guarantee 4 to be the size of stable IEAs could not be found.

  15. The 'horizontal direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at a less discussed topic in European legal scholarship: the horizontal direct effect of EU international agreements and the Court of Justice’s apparent reluctance to expressly confirm it. It is argued that the direct effect of EU international agreements has been confirmed...... in proceedings involving private individuals/professionals against the private regulatory bodies of a profession or a State owned and controlled entity. However, direct effect has not yet been expressly confirmed in cases involving veritable horizontal relationships, between private parties of equal positions...

  16. Agreements registered with the International Atomic Energy Agency. 11 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The eleventh edition of Legal Series No. 3 contains agreements registered up to 31 December 1993. The book is divided into three parts. Part I consists of a chronological list, by date of entry into force, of all agreements registered with the Agency. Part II of the booked is devoted to six major multilateral agreements for which the Agency is depository. All these agreements are listed in Part I in the appropriate chronological order, but information relating to signatories and parties appears in Part II. Since this listing reflects the current, not historical, situations, it does not reflect countries which are no longer parties. Part III is the Country Annex, with an additional section including international organizations and other parties with whom the Agency has agreements. It gives a tabular, alphabetical presentation of information set out in Parts I and II, which may serve as an index to specific agreements and an overview of the types of agreements to which particular countries are party. For historical purposes, Part III reflects all countries, even those no longer existing, which were or are party to a specific agreement

  17. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  18. Legal questions about negotiating a new international climate agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljean-Dubois, Sandrine; Wemaere, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Although the last IPCC report emphasized the need for urgent action, international cooperation on the climate has stalled. The second phase (2013-2020) of the Kyoto Protocol has been merely symbolic. The Cancun agreement, which made the Copenhagen one operational, laid the basis for a more flexible system for the period up to 2020. Negotiations on the period after 2020, which started in Durban in 2011, should end with a new agreement in Paris in late 2015. This future agreement should apply to all, as stipulated in the Durban Platform. However the increasing symmetry of obligations between North and South has been achieved by significantly lowering the goals set by each country with regard to its economic situation and national priorities. What kind of agreement will come out of Paris? What legal form will it take?

  19. The 'primacy' and 'direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    The rules on invoking EU norms before the Court of Justice and Member State courts are at the core of EU constitutional law. International agreements binding on the EU form an integral part of EU law and have primacy over inconsistent secondary EU legislation. Moreover, they also have primacy over...

  20. Cleaner Technologies and the Stability of International Environmental Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper shows that, if countries are farsighted when deciding whether to defect from a coalition, then the implementation of cleaner technologies may jeopardize the chances of reaching an international environmental agreement. The grand coalition may be destabilized by the

  1. Attainability of international environmental agreements as a social situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lise, W.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of social situations to study whether international environmental agreements (IEAs), mainly those on greenhouse gas emission reductions, can be attained. A game theoretic model is generally a black box for decision makers, where the mechanisms, which lead to solution(s)

  2. LEASE AGREEMENTS FINANCIAL REPORTING ISSUES ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MAISURADZE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available On January 13th 2016, the Board for International Accounting Standards  published the  new International Standard 16 of Financial Reporting,   named as “Lease”, which will substitute the International Accounting Standard 17 of financial reporting “Lease”. ISFR 16 ensures reflection of practically all lease agreements in the financial reporting, which, in is part, meets the requirements of investors regarding reliability and transparency of the information related to a financial state of an enterprise. The Article considers the changes caused by ISFR 16, which relate to recognition of the lease agreements as the asset, their accounting and, impact on the financial reporting. Relevant conclusions are provided regarding the above mentioned issues.

  3. IAEA and International Science and Technology Center sign cooperative agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA and the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) today signed an agreement that calls for an increase in cooperation between the two organizations. The memorandum of understanding seeks to amplify their collaboration in the research and development of applications and technology that could contribute to the IAEA's activities in the fields of verification and nuclear security, including training and capacity building. IAEA Safeguards Director of Technical Support Nikolay Khlebnikov and ISTC Executive Director Adriaan van der Meer signed the Agreement at IAEA headquarters in Vienna on 22 October 2008. (IAEA)

  4. Regional cooperation based on multilateral international agreements in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Multilateral international agreements have defined the framework of behavior and cooperation in various fields and aspects of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Thus, obligations have been defined in the following areas: nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, physical protection of nuclear material, liability for nuclear damage, nuclear safety, early notification about a nuclear accident and assistance in case of nuclear accident. Obligations regarding radioactive waste management should be defined soon. This paper gives a review of obligations from particular agreements with a special emphasis on those which are being realized through mutual cooperation of concerned countries and are important for safe use of nuclear energy. (author)

  5. On international fisheries agreements, entry deterrence, and ecological uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Hans; Grønbæk, Lone; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    2017-05-15

    A prerequisite for an international fisheries agreement (IFA) to be stable is that parties expect the benefits from joining the agreement to exceed the benefits from free riding on the agreement, and parties only comply with the agreement as long as this is true. The agreement, therefore, implicitly builds on an expectation of the ecological condition of the natural resource. Game theoretical models often assume that all parties have the same (often perfect) information about the resource and that the exploitation is an equilibrium use of the stock. As stated by experts in natural science, the fish ecology still has many open questions, for example how to predict population dynamics, migration patterns, food availability, etc. In some cases, parties disagree about the state, abundance, and migration of a stock, which can reduce the possibilities of reaching an agreement for exploitation of the stock. This paper develops a model and applies it to the North-East Atlantic mackerel fishery, in order to analyze an IFA under different ecological scenarios, and also combines the model with the economic theory of entry deterrence. The model is used empirically to determine whether the parties with original access to the resource have an advantage when forming an agreement with a new party in having the ability to fish the stock down to a smaller size and thereby prevent another party from entering into the fishery. With a basis in entry deterrence, combined with lack of information, the paper illustrates the obstacles that have made an agreement for the North-East Atlantic mackerel so difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incentives to participate in an international environmental agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, M.; Schneider, K.

    1997-01-01

    For international environmental problems involving many countries, such as the climate problem, it is unlikely that all countries will participate in an international environmental agreement. If some countries commit themselves to cooperate, while the remaining countries act independently and in pure self-interest, it appears to be possible to achieve a Pareto improvement if the non-signatory countries reduce their emissions, in exchange for transfers from the countries which sign an agreement. However, the paper shows that the prospect of receiving a transfer for reducing one's emissions provided the country does not commit itself to cooperation, tends to reduce the incentive a country might have to commit itself to cooperation. Moreover, if the disincentive effect of such side payments is strong, total emissions will be higher in a situation with side payments than in a situation in which the signatory countries commit themselves to not give transfers to free riding countries. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 2 appendices, 13 refs

  7. International Environmental Agreements with Endogenous or Exogenous Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhai Hong; Larry Karp

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of endogenous and exogenous risk on the equilibrium (expected) membership of an International Environmental Agreement when countries are risk averse. Endogenous risk arises when countries use mixed rather than pure strategies at the participation game, and exogenous risk arises from the inherent uncertainty about the costs and benefits of increased abate- ment. Under endogenous risk, an increase in risk aversion increases expected participation. Under exogenous risk and ...

  8. International Technology-Oriented Agreements to Address Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Fischer, C.; Newell, R.G.; Ueno, T.

    2007-01-01

    Much discussion has surrounded possible alternatives for international agreements on climate change, particularly post-2012. Among these alternatives, technology-oriented agreements (TOAs) are perhaps the least well defined. We explore what TOAs may consist of, why they might be sensible, which TOAs already exist in international energy and environmental governance, and whether they have the potential to make a valuable contribution to addressing climate change. We conclude that TOAs aimed at knowledge sharing and coordination, research, development, or demonstration could increase the overall efficiency and effectiveness of international climate cooperation, but have limited environmental effectiveness on their own. Technology transfer agreements are likely to have similar properties unless the level of resources expended on them is large, in which case they could be environmentally significant. Technology mandates, standards, or incentives can be environmentally effective, within the applicable sector. However, they are likely to be less cost-effective than broad-based, flexible approaches that place a price on emissions. These results indicate that TOAs have the potential to improve the effectiveness of the global response to climate change. The success of specific TOAs will depend on their design, implementation, and the role they are expected to play relative to other components of the climate policy portfolio

  9. OPEC`s response to international climate agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braaten, J.; Golombek, R.

    1996-03-01

    This publication studies a game between a group of countries that have agreed to participate in an international climate agreement (the signatories) and OPEC. The task of the signatories is to design carbon taxes that maximize their total net income, given a goal on global carbon emissions. In response to the climate agreement, OPEC imposes an oil tax on its member states that maximizes OPEC`s profits. Within a numerical model, the subgame-perfect equilibrium of a game is found in which each player chooses when to fix his decision variables. It is shown that, in equilibrium, the group of signatories chooses to be the leader and OPEC chooses to be the follower. It is demonstrated, however, that for both agents the order of move is of minor (numerical) importance. Hence, the players have limited incentives for strategic behaviour. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. A History of the International Agreement on Iran's Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabius, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    In May 2012, in the aftermath of the French presidential election, Iranian nuclear program posed a major challenge concerning both regional security questions and global efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation. The situation was characterized by a diplomatic stalemate, sanctions and the concerning development of Iran's nuclear program. Many fear that Iran's current program development will warrant military intervention in an effort to prevent further success. France therefore decided to implement a policy of 'constructive firmness' in the hope of reaching a robust and verifiable agreement that shows real progress in the international effort to prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons. The following text is an accurate account of the process leading up to this major agreement by one of its main actors

  11. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  12. Qualitative content analysis for international comparison of data usage agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Haux

    2017-04-01

    Undertaking an overview of privacy conditions can be a valuable step in comparing privacy and security requirements in different national regulations. The qualitative content analysis was found a suitable approach for this purpose because it enables the detection of fine characteristics. By using an incremental design, it is possible to adapt the coding system to include additional partners. However, the current coding system has the limitation that heterogeneity between the agreements leads to a fine granularity of categories that hamper the comparability between partners. Despite these problems, the approach allows the comparison of data privacy and supports the development of a data integration process for international harmonisation.

  13. Analisis Nilai Tambah Cokelat Batangan (Chocolate Bar) Di Pipiltin Cocoa, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta Selatan

    OpenAIRE

    Asheri, Vitalia Putri; Rifin, Amzul

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest world cocoa producer. For years, cocoa bean from Indonesia has been exporter as raw beans. Domestic cocoa manufacturing industry is still dominated by International companies such as Nestle, Marz, JB Cocoa Malaysia, and others than domestic small and medium enterprise. This condition shows that value added of cocoa processing have not yet accepted by local entrepreneurs. Nowadays, most of the small and medium enterprise produce intermediate and compound chocolat...

  14. 2 CFR 176.90 - Non-application to acquisitions covered under international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are: (1) The World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (Aruba, Austria, Belgium... under international agreements. 176.90 Section 176.90 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND...-application to acquisitions covered under international agreements. Acquisitions covered by international...

  15. License agreements: segmentation within the international market of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Díaz Vera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The self-replicating nature of seeds poses a challenge for the traditional configuration of Intellectual property rights, as it overlooks the boundary that prevents amateurs from replicating the technology embedded on it. The territorial scope of IP rights and the lack of an international consensus regarding the exhaustion of IP right aggravates the issue. This loophole enhances the segmentation of markets through license agreements of patents and plant varieties which multinationals employ to drag resources all along the market chain, by demanding payment of fees to each shackle. This might constitute an infringement of Competition Law regimes which is undertaken differently according with the tradition of each country but always with the aim of protecting the well-functioning of their internal market.

  16. Which approach should Europe adopt to reach an international agreement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Laurent; Durande, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    The goal of international negotiations on the climate should be an agreement that, applying to everyone, both addresses the issues of attenuation and adaptation, and focuses on the means for implementing a worldwide transition toward low-carbon economies. The European Union's position during negotiations has been laid down in the conclusions adopted by all member states of the Council of Europe. During bargaining sessions, meetings will be organized to coordinate EU member states' actions so that Europe speaks with a single voice. In this respect, the EU approach does not differ from France's. In effect, coordination between ministerial departments in France is ensured by the Secretariat General des Affaires Europeennes (SGAE), the secretary-general being the councilor on Europe to the President of the Republic

  17. Increasing Participation and Compliance in International Climate Change Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, S.; Stavins, R.

    2002-11-01

    Scientific and economic consensus increasingly points to the need for a credible and cost-effective approach to address the threat of global climate change, but the Kyoto Protocol to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change appears incapable of inducing significant participation and compliance. We assess the Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures that have been proposed, with particular attention to their respective abilities to induce participation and compliance. We find that those approaches that offer cost-effective mitigation are unlikely to induce significant participation and compliance, while those approaches that are likely to enjoy a reasonably high level of implementation by sovereign states are sorely lacking in terms of their anticipated cost effectiveness. The feasible set of policy architectures is thus limited to second-best alternatives. Much more attention needs to be given - both by scholarly research and by international negotiations - to aspects of future international climate agreements that will affect the degrees of participation and compliance that can reasonably be expected to be forthcoming

  18. Expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Schouten, N.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature (40–110 °C), applied mechanical pressure (20–80 MPa), applied pressure profile (constant/linearly increasing) and moisture content (0–8 wt.%, wet basis) on the expression of cocoa nibs were investigated. The maximum cocoa butter yield is achieved at 100 °C. The optimum

  19. Design cocoa processing towards healthy cocoa products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz-Reyes, Cinthya Nathaly; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    Roasting and fermentation are key steps in cocoa processing that can be modulated to optimize the presence of health-promoting compounds in the final product. Roasting promote melanoidins formation and polyphenols depolymerization. Results of Forastero and Criollo cocoa beans were processed in

  20. Cooperation Agreement. The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  1. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [fr

  2. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  3. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [es

  4. International Environmental Agreements: Emissions Trade, Safety Valves and Escape Clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2010-01-01

    We explain how the structure of multi-national or multi-regional environmental agreements affect their chance of success. Trade in emissions permits has ambiguous and in some cases surprising effects on both the equilibrium level of abatement, and on the ability to persuade nations or regions to participate in environmental agreements. An escape clause policy and a safety valve policy have essentially the same properties when membership in environmental agreement is pre-determined, but they create markedly different effects on the incentives to join such an agreement. The two policies lead to a qualitative difference in the leverage that a potential member of the agreement exercises on other members

  5. Assessing the Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenaz B. Seelarbokus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly claimed that assessing the effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs from the environmental problem-solving perspective is challenging because environmental data are not available. However, not much research has been done on the characterization of the nature and causes of such data unavailability. This article analyzes the term “data unavailability” and provides three typologies for data unavailability: (a “true unavailability,” where data collection complexities and resource constraints limit data collection and analysis; (b “false unavailability,” which refers to the existence of relevant data, but failure to report due to various causes; and (c “external availability,” which refers to the existence of relevant data in several organizations and research institutions, but with no established networks for data sharing between such institutions and the IEA institutions. This article discusses the causes for the various types of data unavailability and makes recommendations for promoting data availability.

  6. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Corti, R; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N K; Lüscher, T F

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...

  7. International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) Agreement Between the United States of American and Other Governments and Operating Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of State, Washington, DC.

    The INTELSAT (International Telecommunications Satellite) agreement was reached because of the desirability of continuing the development of a telecommunications satellite system. INTELSAT's aim was to achieve a single global commercial system as part of an improved global telecommunications network which will provide expanded services to all…

  8. Flavor Profile of Clone CCN 51 Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Produced in Three Farms Municipality of San Vicente de Chucurí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Fernando Quintana Fuentes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is one of the bigger producers of cocoa in America, the production is consumed in the totally in internal form. The department of Santander is me bigger producer of cocoa in Colombia and the municipality of San Vicente de Chucuri is considered the cocoa capital of the country. Actually theColombian federation of cocoa (Fedecacao together with the Unad have an agreement of cooperation for the strengthening of the evaluating capacity of the sensorial quality of the cocoa.In the process of evaluation of the sensorial quality of the cocoa liqueur (clone CNN 51 we established the needs in accordance to the current regulations for the implementation of a panel of trained judges, from the preselection, selection, specific training, training evaluation and the evaluation of the final samples ofthree representative farms in where is cultivated the clone CCN 51 in San Vicente del Chucuri.We conform a group of eleven trained judges and we obtained the sensorial profile of flavor for the samples for three representative farms of the municipality.

  9. 78 FR 77621 - Forum To Discuss Proposed Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... implement the PLTIA. Additional information concerning the proposed rules and the Hague Agreement, and any... [Docket No. PTO-C-2013-0059] Forum To Discuss Proposed Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning... Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs (``Hague...

  10. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  11. THE TPP AND TTIP TRADE AGREEMENTS: THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free trade is one of the ultimate purposes of the free trade agreements currently negotiated over the world. Two of these trials are represented by the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The common feature of these two trade deals is represented by the United States, a global actor that is making sure that it will be able to trade in best conditions on both of its geographical shores: on the Pacific and on The Atlantic. The negotiations are still ongoing, but results are expected on both sides. An important issue for the third parties, but not only, is represented by the secrecy of the negotiations undertaken and the lack of transparency shown by the negotiating Governments. If the agreements are concluded, a major global impact on trade and investments is expected, with significant positive implications for the TPP and TTIP negotiating states.

  12. Cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and chocolate products in the US Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Eileen; Fong Sam, Jennifer; Gray, Patrick; Robin, Lauren Posnick

    2018-06-01

    Cocoa powder and chocolate products are known to sometimes contain cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from environmental origins. A convenience sample of cocoa powder, dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and cocoa nib products was purchased at retail in the US and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to assess Cd and Pb concentrations. Cd and Pb were evaluated in relation to the percent cocoa solids and to the reported origin of the cocoa powder and chocolate products. Cd ranged from 0.004 to 3.15 mg/kg and Pb ranged from cocoa, with correlations varying by product type and geographic origin. Geographic variation was observed for Cd, with higher Cd concentrations found in products reported as originating from Latin America than from Africa. The influence of percent cocoa solids and cocoa origin on Cd levels are relevant to international standards for Cd in chocolate products.

  13. Making cocoa origin traceable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acierno, Valentina; Alewijn, Martin; Zomer, Paul; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2018-01-01

    More and more attention is paid to sustainability in the cocoa production. Tools that assist in making sustainable cocoa traceable are therefore welcome. In the present study, the applicability of Flow Infusion-Electrospray Ionization- Mass Spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) to assess the geographical origin

  14. THE UTILITY OF THE BARTER AGREEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA RĂVAŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explain how barter, as an economic institution, can help deal with the problem of contract enforcement across national borders in international trade and within borders in transition economies.

  15. International R&D collaboration networks and free trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hua Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the analysis of optimal industrial and strategic trade policy in the presence of oligopoly and other forms of imperfect competition, so as to make contact with important empirical regularities and policy concerns, such as international R&D collaboration, unionization and free trade. First, in the context of international competition in which R&D plays an important role, we study the consequences of allowing governments to subsidize R&D and coalition devi...

  16. Progress toward international agreement to improve reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.I.; Graham, B.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of nearly one-half of the 114 member states of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), including the United States, have participated in the development of an international nuclear safety conventions proposed multilateral treaty to improve civil nuclear power reactor safety. A preliminary draft of the convention has been developed (referred to as the draft convention for this report), but discussions are continuing, and when the final convention text will be completed and presented to IAEA member states for signature is uncertain. This report responds to the former and current Chairman's request that we provide information on the development of the nuclear safety convention, including a discussion of (1) the draft convention's scope and objectives, (2) how the convention will be implemented and monitored, (3) the views of selected country representatives on what provisions should be included in the draft convention, and (4) the convention's potential benefits and limitations

  17. Double Taxation Agreements: Between EU Law and Public International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    After the first drafts of the Treaty of Lisbon were available outside of the small circle of cogniscenti, specialists of the various policies tried to establish whether the new Treaty on European Union (TEU) and Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) contained anything relevant for their specific areas of law. People interested in tax law and those interested in the relation between EU law and public international law quickly established that one familiar yet not always well u...

  18. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  19. International conventions and agreements in the ecological area: In light of modern civilization and international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of authors examine the problem of environmental protection in their papers. The concept of sustainable development and intensive use of modern technology in order to overcome the environmental problems of modern civilization becomes an imperative. Theoretical engagement in ecological issues is not enough. It is necessary to implement ecological measures in practice and to spread environmental awareness. Modern science and social practice have interdependence of economy and ecology in their focus. The main direction of social change is movement from economic to ecological paradigm that involves an ethical responsibility to the current and future generations. There is a need to establish effective programs to protect the environment at the national and supranational level. Active international cooperation in the field of ecology has resulted in the formulation of a number of documents on environmental protection. This paper illustrates the importance of environmental protection and the necessity of implementing international conventions and agreements in the environmental field, with focus on their impact on international trade.

  20. 47 CFR 73.23 - AM broadcast station applications affected by international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... consistency with international relationships and as to which no final decision has been rendered, whenever action under this section becomes appropriate because of inconsistency with international relationships... international agreements. 73.23 Section 73.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  1. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter; Stocks, Nigel P

    2017-04-25

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure. To assess the effects on blood pressure of chocolate or cocoa products versus low-flavanol products or placebo in adults with or without hypertension when consumed for two weeks or longer. This is an updated version of the review initially published in 2012. In this updated version, we searched the following electronic databases from inception to November 2016: Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched international trial registries, and the reference lists of review articles and included trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of chocolate or cocoa products on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults for a minimum of two weeks duration. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias in each trial. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses on the included studies using Review Manager 5. We explored heterogeneity with subgroup analyses by baseline blood pressure, flavanol content of control group, blinding, age and duration. Sensitivity analyses explored the influence of unusual study design. Thirty-five trials (including 40 treatment comparisons) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, we added 17 trials (20 treatment comparisons) to the 18 trials (20 treatment comparisons) in the previous version of this updated review.Trials provided participants with 30 to 1218 mg of flavanols (mean = 670 mg) in 1.4 to 105

  2. International petroleum exploration and exploitation agreements: a comprehensive environmental appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiguo Gao

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the environmental aspects of international petroleum exploration and exploitation is outlined. Four case studies of modern petroleum contracts from four developing countries are presented. These are Thailand's modern concession contract, Indonesia's production sharing contract, Brazil's risk service contract and China's hybrid contract. The failure of these four countries to provide adequate environmental regulation through their petroleum contracts is typical of many countries in the developing world. An urgent need exists to recognise that important environmental and resource consequences are associated with the developments authorised by petroleum contracts and that appropriate legal changes must be made to take them into account. Environmental sustainability should be an explicit part of all investment arrangements. (UK)

  3. Safety in nuclear technology through introduction of internationally binding agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Presents the Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE) views in favour of continued utilisation of nuclear energy for electrical power generation. Nuclear energy helps to conserve finite natural resources of coal, oil, and gas for future generations, and avoids the considerable amount of environmental pollution produced by coal-burning power stations. Risks arise in every technology, but these must be considered in relation to the utility of the technology. Development of other forms of energy conversion must continue, but use of nuclear energy at the present time cannot be avoided without incurring great adverse economic and environmental pollution consequences. Safety aspects must be the object of committed and continuous research, and must be internationally agreed. (H.V.H.)

  4. Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of Cocoa Nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the expression of cocoa nibs and a way to optimise the cocoa butter yield (defined as the mass of cocoa butter recovered as a percentage of the total cocoa butter content) obtainable from cocoa nibs without modifying the composition of the cocoa

  5. Are stricter investment rules contagious? Host country competition for foreign direct investment through international agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Roy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the trend toward international investment agreements (IIAs) with stricter investment rules is driven by competitive diffusion, namely defensive moves of developing countries concerned about foreign direct investment (FDI) diversion in favor of competing host countries. Accounting for spatial dependence in the formation of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and preferential trade agreements (PTAs) that contain investment provisions, we find that the increase in agreements with ...

  6. THE STATUS OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS CONCLUDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE EU LEGAL ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoston Mohay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a member of the international community and is a party to numerous international agreements. The status of these international agreements in the EU legal order however is not made expressly clear by the Treaties. The most pertinent question that arises is whether secondary EU law may be reviewed in the light of international agreements in annulment procedures or preliminary ruling procedures before the Court of Justice of the EU. In its jurisprudence the Court of Justice has tied the possibility of review to the question of the direct effect of international treaties, but there are some issues of consistency in this regard. This problem is a part of the broader question of the relationship of international law and EU law, including the question whether this relationship is more akin to a monist or a dualist approach.

  7. An empirical test of new developments in coalition theory for the design of international environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Sáiz Pérez, M.E.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    We consider new developments in coalition theory for the design of international environmental agreements (IEAs). Applying an empirical model on climate change that comprises benefit and cost estimates from abatement for 12 world regions, we analyze how the design of an agreement affects the success

  8. Political and legal problems of international nuclear supply agreements: the Euratom experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyses the Chapters in the Euratom Treaty which are relevant to uranium supply agreements and the European Community's powers in international relations as conferred by the Treaty. It also examines the agreements concluded by Euratom with the US, Canada and Australia respectively with emphasis on their nuclear non-proliferation aspects. (NEA) [fr

  9. Trading in Education: The "Agreement on Internal Trade," Labour Mobility and Teacher Certification in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately…

  10. International Standards: Past Free Trade Agreements and the Prospects in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasson Leif Johan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership represents a strategic vision of transatlantic relations, including job creation, global leadership, and establishing high international standards. This paper discusses how three recent bi-lateral and regional agreements, along with positions adopted in transatlantic negotiations, convey respective side's acceptable parameters, and how international standards are emerging from and disseminated through agreements involving the European Union and the United States

  11. The Development Standard Agreement Influences on National and International Business Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindawati Cindawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing business traffic either nationally or internationally forces the business practices to establish a standard agreement to secure the products and to protect the buyer from any risks. The standard agreement successfully meets the demand of international trade which urgently need the high speed and the accuracy. The objective of this research is to find out how does the development of agreement affect to the commerce practices and what are the requirements of standard agreement in accordance with the right and obligation. A qualitative method is applied in searching data of business practices. This study uses a normative research which guides the rule of law or determines some business standards and norms. The finding of this study show that the development of agreement strongly affects to the commerce practices, and standar agreement is urgently needed by business practices as a guideline to perform business traffic as smooth as buyer and seller expect, then both seller and buyer should know the three alternative way used as the procedures of standard agreement, namely; contract signing, notification document agreement, and notification by bulletin board. At last, a standard agreement could be accepted as legal agreement corresponding to willingness and trustworthy.

  12. Pesticides use in cocoa sector in Cameroon: characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Journal Home > Vol 8, No 5 (2014) > ... The chemical control is the widely control method applied in Cameroon for pests and diseases by all the cocoa producers without technical ...

  13. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Engineering Design Activities (EDA). Agreement and protocol 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains protocol 1 to the agreement among the European Atomic Energy Community, the government of Japan, the Government of the Russian Federation, and the Government of the United States of America on cooperation in the engineering design activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which activities shall be conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  14. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  15. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The text of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959, is re produced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. As required by section 38 of the Agreement, the Director General will transmit certified copies, in the Agency's four working languages, to the Government of each Member State

  16. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter

  17. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-08-17

    The text of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959, is re produced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. As required by section 38 of the Agreement, the Director General will transmit certified copies, in the Agency's four working languages, to the Government of each Member State.

  18. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [ru

  19. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [fr

  20. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [es

  1. Climate change induced occupational stress and reported morbidity among cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Climate change is one of the major development hurdles in many developing countries. The health outcome of farm households are related to climate change, which is related to several external and internal health-related issues, such as management of occupational stressors. This study seeks, inter alia, to determine the climate related occupational stress and factors influencing reported sick times among cocoa farmers. Material and Method. Data were collected from selected cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analyses. Results. The results showed that cocoa farmers were ageing, and that the majority had cultivating cocoa for most of their years of farming. Cocoa was the primary crop for the majority of the farmers, while 92.00% of the farmers in Osun state owned the cultivated cocoa farms. The forms of reported climate change induced occupational stresses were increase in pest infestation (74.5% in Ekiti state, difficulties in weed control (82.1% in Ekiti state, missing regular times scheduled for spraying cocoa pods (45.7% in Ondo state, inability to spray cocoa effectively (58.5% in Ondo state, and reduction in cocoa yield (71.7% in Ekiti state. The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the age of farmers (0.0103, their education (-0.0226, years of cocoa farming (-0.0112, malaria infection (0.4901, missed spraying (0.5061, re-spraying of cocoa (0.2630, reduction in cocoa yield (0.20154, contact with extension (0.2411 and residence in Ondo state (-0.2311 were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. Climate change influences the farm operations of cocoa farmers with resultant occupational stresses. Efforts to assist cocoa farmers should include, among others, provision of weather forecasts and some form of insurance.

  2. The relic Criollo cacao in Belize- genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is native to the South American rainforest but it was domesticated in Mesoamerica. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality. Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva...

  3. On Banks, Courts and International Law: The Intergovernmental Agreement on the Single Resolution Fund in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabbrini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    In May 2014, 26 Member States of the EU concluded an intergovernmental agreement on the transfer and mutualization of contribution to the Single Resolution Fund (SRF). This international treaty constitutes a core component of the second pillar of the European Banking Union – the Single Resolution...... Mechanism, to wind down failing banks in the Euro-zone – and complements an EU regulation adopted by the European Parliament and the Council creating the SRF. This article critically analyses the choice to use international law to adopt the rules on transfer and mutualization of contributions to the SRF....... Moreover, as the article explains, resort to international law is unsound from a policy point of view. The use of an international treaty to regulate the transfer and mutualization of contributions to the SRF opens the door for national courts’ review of the agreement – a prospect which contrasts...

  4. The size of stable international environmental agreements in the case of stock pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.; de Zeeuw, A.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the literature on stability of International Environmental Agreements is essen- tially static and can therefore not identify changes in the size of the stable coalition in connection with changes in the stock of pollutants. This is a relevant issue because most global pollution problems are

  5. Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade : an analysis using matching econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; Trojanowska, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the heterogeneous effects of trade agreements (TAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on the volume of international trade. We extend Baier and Bergstrand’s (2009a) application of matching econometrics by distinguishing between different types of TAs and WTO

  6. Assessing implementation mechanisms for an international agreement on research and development for health products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2012-11-01

    The Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are currently debating the substance and form of an international agreement to improve the financing and coordination of research and development (R&D) for health products that meet the needs of developing countries. In addition to considering the content of any possible legal or political agreement, Member States may find it helpful to reflect on the full range of implementation mechanisms available to bring any agreement into effect. These include mechanisms for states to make commitments, administer activities, manage financial contributions, make subsequent decisions, monitor each other's performance and promote compliance. States can make binding or non-binding commitments through conventions, contracts, declarations or institutional reforms. States can administer activities to implement their agreements through international organizations, sub-agencies, joint ventures or self-organizing processes. Finances can be managed through specialized multilateral funds, financial institutions, membership organizations or coordinated self-management. Decisions can be made through unanimity, consensus, equal voting, modified voting or delegation. Oversight can be provided by peer review, expert review, self-reports or civil society. Together, states should select their preferred options across categories of implementation mechanisms, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. The challenge lies in choosing the most effective combinations of mechanisms for supporting an international agreement (or set of agreements) that achieves collective aspirations in a way and at a cost that are both sustainable and acceptable to those involved. In making these decisions, WHO's Member States can benefit from years of experience with these different mechanisms in health and its related sectors.

  7. Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Is There a Link between Antioxidant Properties and Health?

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Ismail; Abbe Maleyki Mhd Jalil

    2008-01-01

    Cocoa and cocoa products have received much attention due to their significant polyphenol contents. Cocoa and cocoa products, namely cocoa liquor, cocoa powder and chocolates (milk and dark chocolates) may present varied polyphenol contents and possess different levels of antioxidant potentials. For the past ten years, at least 28 human studies have been conducted utilizing one of these cocoa products. However, questions arise on which of these products would deliver the best polyphenol conte...

  8. Energy technologies at the cutting edge: international energy technology collaboration IEA Implementing Agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottinger, C. (ed.)

    2007-05-15

    Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change issues in a cost-effective way are the main challenges of energy policies and in the longer term will be solved only through technology cooperation. To encourage collaborative efforts to meet these energy challenges, the IEA created a legal contract - Implementing Agreement - and a system of standard rules and regulations. This allows interested member and non-member governments or other organisations to pool resources and to foster the research, development and deployment of particular technologies. For more than 30 years, this international technology collaboration has been a fundamental building block in facilitating progress of new or improved energy technologies. There are now 41 Implementing Agreements. This is the third in the series of publications highlighting the recent results and achievements of the IEA Implementing Agreements. This document is arranged in the following sections: Cross-cutting activities (sub-sectioned: Climate technology initiative; Energy Technology Data Eexchange; and Energy technology systems analysis programme); End-use technologies (sub-sectioned: Buildings; Electricity; Industry; and Transport; Fossil fuels (sub-sectioned: Clean Coal Centre; Enhanced oil recovery Fluidized bed conversion; Greenhouse Gas R & D; Multiphase flow sciences); Fusion power; Renewable energies and hydrogen; and For more information (including detail on the IEA energy technology network; IEA Secretariat Implementing Agreement support; and IEA framework. Addresses are given for the Implementing Agreements. The publication is based on core input from the Implementing Agreement Executive Committee.

  9. Multi-Residue studies of pesticides in fermented dried cocoa beans and selected cocoa products produced in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, S. K

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa is a major cash crop and contributes significantly to Ghana's economy. Majority of this contribution is as a result of foreign earnings in foreign trade partnership. Cocoa products are consumed locally aside it generating foreign income for the country. Pesticide residues above allowable limits in cocoa beans have potential detrimental effects on human health, depending on the frequency of exposure and/or the potency or toxicity of the pesticide. Pesticide residues on cocoa also attract trade sanctions from international trading partners. The approved pesticides, which are used to control pests in the growing cocoa in Ghana, are: Diazinon, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Acetamiprid, Imidicloprid and Pyrethrums; nevertheless some unapproved pesticides on cocoa such as Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Fenitrotion, Fenvalerate, Permethrin and others find their way for use on cocoa in Ghana. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in fermented dried cocoa beans produced and ready for export in Ghana, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It also seeks to provide the baseline information on contamination levels of pesticide residues in semi-finished and selected finished fermented dried cocoa beans products. Fermented dried cocoa beans were sampled at random in the two main COCOBOD warehouses located in Tema and Takoradi. Semi-finished and finished cocoa products were obtained from processing industries in Tema. Two extraction methods were used. The second extraction method was as by the QuEChERS method for vegetable oils which was used for the cocoa butter samples only, after being liquefied in water bath at 40 degrees celsius. The investigated pesticides consisted of fifteen organochlorine pesticides, thirteen organophosphorous pesticides and nine synthetic pyrethroids pesticides. Percentage recoveries ranged from 70-110 percent, with instrumental detection limits of 0.3ug/kg, 0.15ug/g and 0.15ug/g for

  10. The Return of the Cultural Exception and its Impact on International Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Bartsch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the influence of the French concept of the “cultural exception” on European media policy and international agreements. After briefly reviewing the historical background of the cultural exception in France, the essay describes how demands for the cultural exception and those for diversity affect inter-/transnational agreements within the European Union and around the world. Special focus is placed on the current secret EU/US Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement (TTIP negotiations that nearly failed because of France’s insistence that media and culture be exempted. The author argues that the concept of the “cultural exception” has been revived in recent years. However, due to the dual character of media (which is both a cultural and economic good, and the lack of a global media policy, the culture and trade debate will continue.

  11. Potential of border tax adjustments to deter free riding in international climate agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcu Irfanoglu, Zeynep; Sesmero, Juan P.; Golub, Alla

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct assessment of the hypothesis that trade sanctions in the form of border tax adjustments (BTAs) used by the United States against China, constitute a viable enforcement mechanism to sustain compliance with a range of emissions taxes in the context of agreements to curb global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The performance of BTAs is then compared with those of punitive tariffs on the basis of the range of emission taxes that can be successfully enforced by their implementation. Results show that BTAs are a viable enforcement mechanism for international GHG mitigation agreements. However the maximum level of carbon tax that can be enforced varies dramatically with (1) the marginal damage of pollution perceived by Chinese authorities, and (2) the legal limitations that GATT rules may impose on BTAs. Finally, while BTAs seem a promising enforcement mechanism in the context of climate agreements, punitive tariffs seem to be capable of supporting a much stricter environmental target.

  12. International Energy Agency Implementing Agreements and Annexes: A Guide for Building Technologies Program Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Runci, Paul; Meier, Alan

    2008-08-01

    This report presents results from a program evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Buildings Technologies Program (BTP) participation in collaborative international technology implementing agreements. The evaluation was conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the fall of 2007 and winter 2008 and was carried out via interviews with stakeholders in four implementing agreements in which BTP participates, reviews of relevant program reports, websites and other published materials. In addition to these findings, the report includes a variety of supporting materials such that aim to assist BTP managers who currently participate in IEA implementing agreements or who may be considering participation.

  13. The Paris Climate Conference: What kind of international agreement in 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmet, Sylvie; Watkinson, Paul; Navizet, Damien

    2015-01-01

    At stake during the 21. Climate Conference (COP21) to be held in Paris in 2015 is the adoption of a worldwide agreement that can be applied to all countries. This agreement, which will take effect by 2020, will focus not only on reducing greenhouse gases and adapting to climate change but also on funding and concrete actions for sustainable, resilient economic development. Throughout the coming year, France, which hosts and chairs the COP21, must see to it that a transparent, inclusive process allows all parties to express their viewpoints and be heard. An agreement is not the only result expected of this conference. For the sake of fairness and in order to limit global warming to 2 deg. C, pledges and commitments, including financial ones, from countries in favor of protecting the climate are expected too. International recognition will also have to be provided to climate-related initiatives that have already been launched

  14. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Is There a Link between Antioxidant Properties and Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ismail

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa and cocoa products have received much attention due to their significant polyphenol contents. Cocoa and cocoa products, namely cocoa liquor, cocoa powder and chocolates (milk and dark chocolates may present varied polyphenol contents and possess different levels of antioxidant potentials. For the past ten years, at least 28 human studies have been conducted utilizing one of these cocoa products. However, questions arise on which of these products would deliver the best polyphenol contents and antioxidant effects. Moreover, the presence of methylxanthines, peptides, and minerals could synergistically enhance or reduce antioxidant properties of cocoa and cocoa products. To a greater extent, cocoa beans from different countries of origins and the methods of preparation (primary and secondary could also partially influence the antioxidant polyphenols of cocoa products. Hence, comprehensive studies on the aforementioned factors could provide the understanding of health-promoting activities of cocoa or cocoa products components.

  16. Biotechnology for cocoa pod borer resistance in cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaidamsari, T.

    2005-01-01

    The cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L.) produces the beans that are the source of cacao, the basis for chocolate production, and an important commodity crop in South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.Cocoa Pod

  17. The role of bilateral agreements for cooperation in establishing international norms for nuclear exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, M.A.; Kraemer, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    It seems unlikely that a broad multilateral political consensus on the appropriate nuclear control norms will soon be achieved. Bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements will continue to be the dominant political instruments governing international nuclear commerce. Recent developments make the authors optimistic that flexible implementation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 will permit a more effective U.S. policy in the field of nuclear commerce. (CW) [de

  18. Beyond Sister City Agreements: Exploring the Challenges of Full International Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Mexican-American Attitudes toward Mexico,” International Migration Review 32, no. 2 ( Summer 1998). 36 de la Garza and DeSipio, “Interests Not Passions...Daily Times, October 7, 2014, 2. 44 Diana L. Haytko, John L. Kent, and Angela Hausman , “Mexican Maquiladoras: Helping or Hurting the US/Mexico...standing of a local player in a regional game. These interoperable agreements make sense from a political 175 Lawrence Freedman, Strategy-A History (New

  19. Legitimacy in global governance of sovereign default: the role of international investment agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Brahms, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the legitimacy of investor-state arbitration under international investment agreements in sovereign debt restructuring. The paper presents mechanisms governing sovereign default generally, namely collective action clauses and informal negotiation in the London and Paris clubs and then discusses how sovereign debt restructuring is governed by IIAs, looking at how the clauses affect restructuring. Taking the conception of legitimacy in global governance by Buchanan and Keoha...

  20. Pre-Ratification Judicial Review of International Agreements to be Concluded by the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2018-01-01

    incrementally shaping the law of EU external relations, and determining the manner in which the Union may enter into formal international relations. Understanding the Court’s importance in this field has been done time and again, but yet, consideration of the pre-ratification judicial review option, available...... in many cases, and being forced to wade into institutional debates over competence and the autonomy of the Union’s legal order, this chapter underlines the important role that the Court has played in external relations prior to international agreements being entered into, and seeks to carve out a formula...

  1. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers. The event is scheduled to...

  2. s larvae to stored cocoa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olufunke oyedokun

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... theobromine levels decrease, which in turn affects the colour, flavor (aroma) of the beans (Lagunes et al., 2007;. Rodriguez-Campos et al., 2011) and the organoleptic properties of the dried cocoa beans in store (Camu et al.,. 2008). Freshly harvested cocoa beans require fermentation for 5 - 7 days before ...

  3. An Experimental Study on Internal and External Negotiation for Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankyoung Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally studies the performance of negotiation considering individual and party, like a country, share of benefit over the best ones. It experiments two-stage bargaining games, internal and external negotiations. From the experimental results, this paper shows strong tendency to select fair allocation in the internal negotiations, but the tendency would be weaker with attractive outside option. In addition, the outside option may claim difference in individual benefit. From the regressions on individual performance in the negotiations, being a proposing party would matter to enhance the performance. However, relative individual performance within party fairness matters. Still attractive no-agreement options happen to break the tendency. As policy implication for trade negotiation, this paper warns that possible loss in individual benefit from not active participation to the external negotiations, no active role of proposer in case that players stick to internal allocations, and deviation of advantageous sector due to attractive outside options.

  4. Fulfilling environment related international commitments through implementation of multilateral environmental agreements (meas) in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Gillani, Z.A

    2014-01-01

    Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAS) help addresses the environmental problem being faced by the international community as a whole. The ultimate goal of reaching MEAs is to realize sustainable development across the globe. According to World Bank (2006), Pakistan's economy loses Rs.365 billion annually to environmental hazards. A key mechanism available under international law for countries to work together on global environmental issues is through MEAs. Pakistan is signatory to several MEAs and has acceded to other non-legally binding instruments, such as Agenda-21, Rio Principles and Johannesburg Plan of Implementation aiming at sustainable development of natural resources. As a party to various Conventions and Protocols, Pakistan has participating in different Conferences of Parties (COPs), Meetings of Parties (MOPs), and international consultative and technical meetings regarding MEAs organized by the United Nations and other international forum. Pakistan has been actively participating in and keeping liaison with institutional elements of each of these MEAs, i.e. COPs, the secretariat, advisory bodies, subsidiary bodies, clearing-house mechanisms, for effective decision making regarding the overall implementation and development of programme of work and strategic plans, budget and the revision of annexes to the treaties. Priorities and objectives of MEAs vary significantly from one international instrument to another while the common aspects include the sustainable development and use of natural resources and the protection of the environment in such a way as to ensure its judicious use. Based on different stages of implementation of these MEAs, the spectrum in priorities of Pakistan has quite broad. Pakistan attaches greater emphasis to crosscutting themes for MEAs that are primarily of a functional nature, such as strengthening of the capacities to meet the country's obligations or responsibilities under these agreements; enhancing coordination

  5. THE TRIPS AGREEMENT, INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND DEVELOPMENT: SOME LESSONS FROM STRENGTHENING IPR PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shugurov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the impact of the TRIPS Agreement provisions on further development of international technology transfer (ITT mainly to developing countries. The authors review the critical specificity of ITT connected with the adoption of TRIPS. Much attention is paid to an analysis of what is most discussed among international experts in the area of the issues on the dual results of stronger intellectual property rights (IPRs concerning various groups of developing countries. Their study also examines a number of problems with implementation of the TRIPS provisions, conducive to ITT, in the context of the TRIPS-plus era as a new stage in strengthening IPR protection. Bearing in mind the fragmentation of the international regime of IPR protection because of the adoption of numerous regional free trade agreements, the authors outline the possible position of advanced developing and least developed countries with respect to using TRIPS potentials for development of ITT under reasonable and just terms, with the aim of overall prosperity.

  6. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  7. Potential of border tax adjustments to deter free riding in international climate agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfanoglu, Zeynep Burcu; Golub, Alla; Sesmero, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct assessment of the hypothesis that trade sanctions in the form of border tax adjustments (BTAs) used by the United States against China, constitute a viable enforcement mechanism to sustain compliance with a range of emissions taxes in the context of agreements to curb global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The performance of BTAs is then compared with those of punitive tariffs on the basis of the range of emission taxes that can be successfully enforced by their implementation. Results show that BTAs are a viable enforcement mechanism for international GHG mitigation agreements. However the maximum level of carbon tax that can be enforced varies dramatically with (1) the marginal damage of pollution perceived by Chinese authorities, and (2) the legal limitations that GATT rules may impose on BTAs. Finally, while BTAs seem a promising enforcement mechanism in the context of climate agreements, punitive tariffs seem to be capable of supporting a much stricter environmental target. (letter)

  8. The Warwick Agreement on femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAI syndrome): an international consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R; Dickenson, E J; O'Donnell, J; Agricola, R; Awan, T; Beck, M; Clohisy, J C; Dijkstra, H P; Falvey, E; Gimpel, M; Hinman, R S; Hölmich, P; Kassarjian, A; Martin, H D; Martin, R; Mather, R C; Philippon, M J; Reiman, M P; Takla, A; Thorborg, K; Walker, S; Weir, A; Bennell, K L

    2016-10-01

    The 2016 Warwick Agreement on femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome was convened to build an international, multidisciplinary consensus on the diagnosis and management of patients with FAI syndrome. 22 panel members and 1 patient from 9 countries and 5 different specialties participated in a 1-day consensus meeting on 29 June 2016. Prior to the meeting, 6 questions were agreed on, and recent relevant systematic reviews and seminal literature were circulated. Panel members gave presentations on the topics of the agreed questions at Sports Hip 2016, an open meeting held in the UK on 27-29 June. Presentations were followed by open discussion. At the 1-day consensus meeting, panel members developed statements in response to each question through open discussion; members then scored their level of agreement with each response on a scale of 0-10. Substantial agreement (range 9.5-10) was reached for each of the 6 consensus questions, and the associated terminology was agreed on. The term 'femoroacetabular impingement syndrome' was introduced to reflect the central role of patients' symptoms in the disorder. To reach a diagnosis, patients should have appropriate symptoms, positive clinical signs and imaging findings. Suitable treatments are conservative care, rehabilitation, and arthroscopic or open surgery. Current understanding of prognosis and topics for future research were discussed. The 2016 Warwick Agreement on FAI syndrome is an international multidisciplinary agreement on the diagnosis, treatment principles and key terminology relating to FAI syndrome.Author note The Warwick Agreement on femoroacetabular impingement syndrome has been endorsed by the following 25 clinical societies: American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM), Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports and Exercise Medicine (ACPSEM), Australasian College of Sports and Exercise Physicians (ACSEP), Austian Sports Physiotherapists, British Association of Sports and Exercise

  9. Biotechnology for cocoa pod borer resistance in cocoa

    OpenAIRE

    Chaidamsari, T.

    2005-01-01

    The cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L.) produces the beans that are the source of cacao, the basis for chocolate production, and an important commodity crop in South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB,( Conopomorpha cramerella)has been the single most important limiting factor for cacao production in Southeast Asia.So far, there has been no single cost effective and environmentally safe way to control this pest.This thesis describes the first steps in a biotechnologica...

  10. Fertilizer use among cocoa farmers in Ghana: the case of Sefwi Wiawso District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Nunoo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses factors that influence fertilizer use among cocoa farmers in the Sefwi Wiawso District in the Western Region, Ghana. Primary data were obtained from 200 cocoa farmers in the district. Descriptive statistics and ordinary least square regression analysis were used to analyse data collected. The results revealed that majority of the cocoa farmers were males and are getting old. Also farm size and price of fertilizer were significant factors affecting fertilizer use among cocoa farmers in the Sefwi Wiawso District in the Western Region. Moreover 74.5 percent farmers do not use fertilizer whereas 25.5 percent use fertilizer on their cocoa farms. The study recommends that Ghana government should further subsidise the price of fertilizer to make fertilizer more affordable to small holder cocoa farmers and also adopt strategies that hedge against price risk. In addition, illiterate farmers should be encouraged to undergo adult literacy programmes. Rural development policies should think about the importance of improving small-scale farmers? access to credit market. Furthermore, the extension unit of the Ghana Cocoa board and Ministry of Agriculture should be strengthened to educate cocoa farmers more on fertilizer usage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9939 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 22-31

  11. Ghana's cocoa frontier in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Agergaard, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    Since the first commercial planting of cocoa in Ghana more than a century ago, the production of cocoa has been a key factor in the redistribution of migrants and has played a pivotal role in the development of both sending and receiving communities. This process has been acknowledged...... Region, this article aims to examine how immigration and frontier dynamics in the Western region are contributing to livelihood transitions and small town development, and how this process is gradually becoming delinked from the production of cocoa. The article focuses on how migration dynamics interlink...... in the literature for decades. However, how migration flows have changed in response to changing livelihoods dynamics of the frontier and how this has impacted on the development of the frontier has only attracted limited attention. Based on a study of immigration to Ghana's current cocoa frontier in the Western...

  12. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

    2014-02-01

    Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition.

  13. The Nordic Countries interests in principles for international greenhouse gas agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Meyer, H.; Stephensen, P.; Soerensen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of this report is the interests of the Nordic countries in international agreements on greenhouse gases. The subject is approached mainly from an economic point of view. Introductory, the climate convention are described, with special attention to obligations to emission reductions. Important discussion points are timing of the reductions as well as the question of meeting the reductions by cooperation with other countries through joint-implementation projects. The different attitudes of the Nordic countries to these issues are discussed. In the following, the technical and economic possibilities for meeting the reduction objectives of each country are described. For this purpose, governmental plans and studies (on bottom-up as well as top-down studies) are brought into focus. A discussion of the differences and similarities of the methodology of the studies are carried out. Finally, the report focuses on costs of reducing emissions in the Nordic countries. A comparison between the different Nordic countries, as well as between the Nordic countries and the other OECD countries is done. The analysis points out, that the Nordic countries are characterized by relatively high costs in general. Another conclusion is, that the costs of reduction after the year 2000/2005 are much lower than costs of reductions in the short run. An exception to this is Denmark. This points out, that some Nordic countries prefer emission reductions through joint-implementation projects in other countries, rather than reductions through restrictive agreements in the sort run. (au) (29 tabs., 28 ills., 45 refs.)

  14. The effects of R&D investments in international environmental agreements with asymmetric countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancardi, Marta; Villani, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the stability of international environmental agreements (IEAs) in a dynamic context where abatement levels are associated with the stock pollutant evolution. We underline two meaningful aspects of this matter. Firstly, we consider asymmetry among countries, dividing them in two types: developed countries that have a considerable environmental awareness and developing ones that pay a less attention to environmental preservation. Secondly, we introduce a positive externality in the cooperation where countries coordinate their R&D activities sharing the investments in order to avoid duplication of green activities. Otherwise, the non-cooperators support completely their R&D investments for clean technologies. These two aspects encourage the formation of stable coalitions till to determine conditions for which also the grand coalition is stable.

  15. Amendment to the agreement between CERN and Ukraine concerning the granting of the status of Associate Member at CERN Extension of the deadline for the notification of the completion of the internal approval procedures of the agreement by Ukraine

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Amendment to the agreement between CERN and Ukraine concerning the granting of the status of Associate Member at CERN Extension of the deadline for the notification of the completion of the internal approval procedures of the agreement by Ukraine

  16. Improving chocolate flavor in poor-quality cocoa almonds by enzymatic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hilana Salete Silva; Mamede, Maria Eugênia Oliveira; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Koblitz, Maria Gabriela Bello

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to enzymatically treat poor-quality cocoa almonds (known as "slate") to ensure the formation of chocolate flavor precursors. The production of flavor precursors improves the quality of these almonds, which are usually responsible for the low quality of the liquor produced. Proteases and carboxypeptidases from different sources were tested under various conditions. The different treatments were evaluated by chemical analysis (hydrolysis efficiency) and sensory analysis of the treated material compared to good-quality cocoa almonds. The results show that it is possible, through the use of microbial enzymes, to generate the mixture of compounds that will release, after roasting, the characteristic chocolate flavor in poor-quality almonds. However, it is necessary to optimize the conditions of enzymatic treatment to obtain better results and thus establish a process that can be used for industrial purposes for manufacturing cocoa and chocolate. The basidiomycete Moniliophtora perniciosa is the causative agent of witches' broom disease (WBD) of the cocoa tree, whose seeds are the source of chocolate. It is the most important phytopathological problem of cocoa-producing areas of the American continent, and has decimated the Brazilian cocoa industry. In Bahia (Brazil), M. perniciosa was identified in 1989 and, as a consequence of its spreading, the annual production of cocoa almonds dropped from 450,000 to 90,000 tons within 12 y, reducing export values from an all-time high of about US$ 1 billion to 110 million. The high incidence of WBD incapacitates Brazil to produce enough cocoa almonds even for the internal market, leading the country to import low-quality cocoa almonds mainly from African countries. Our work proposes an enzymatic treatment to increase the quality of that cocoa almonds and, consequently, to improve the quality of the chocolate produced and consumed in the country. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. The European Union Building Peace Near and Afar: Monitoring the Implementation of International Peace Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máire Braniff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU support and contribution to international peace and security continues to develop with involvement in the Balkans, South Caucasus, Africa, Middle East and South Asia (Council of the European Union 2005. Within the broad range of civilian and military interventions under the Common Security and Defence policy (CSDP there have been two monitoring missions that have emerged from peace agreements, in Aceh (2005-2006 and in Georgia (2008 to date. This article maps the evolution EU’s role in international peace building by focusing on how this role is increasingly constructed by the scope of monitoring missions which it has embarked upon outside of its borders. A thematic analysis of literature is used to explore how the EU’s monitoring role has evolved regarding the different degrees of intervention, time-frame and size of the monitoring mission which have resulted in a multi-level impact regarding societal transition. The article finds that political will, shadows of past and future missions and intergovernmental concerns dominates how the EU’s monitoring missions unfurl, affecting the practice of monitors and other EU actors in local conflict settings and contemplates scenarios for future monitoring missions.

  18. International inter-rater agreement in scoring acne severity utilizing cloud-based image sharing of mobile phone photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, Negar; Ornelas, Jennifer N; Clark, Ashley K; Ali, Ifrah; Sharon, Victoria R; Al Mubarak, Luluah; Lopez, Andrés; Alikhan, Ali; Al Dabagh, Bishr; Firooz, Alireza; Awasthi, Smita; Liu, Yu; Li, Chin-Shang; Sivamani, Raja K

    2017-09-01

    Cloud-based image sharing technology allows facilitated sharing of images. Cloud-based image sharing technology has not been well-studied for acne assessments or treatment preferences, among international evaluators. We evaluated inter-rater variability of acne grading and treatment recommendations among an international group of dermatologists that assessed photographs. This is a prospective, single visit photographic study to assess inter-rater agreement of acne photographs shared through an integrated mobile device, cloud-based, and HIPAA-compliant platform. Inter-rater agreements for global acne assessment and acne lesion counts were evaluated by the Kendall's coefficient of concordance while correlations between treatment recommendations and acne severity were calculated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. There was good agreement for the evaluation of inflammatory lesions (KCC = 0.62, P cloud-based image sharing for acne assessment. Cloud-based sharing may facilitate acne care and research among international collaborators. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. 21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a) Description. Cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cocoa. 163.113 Section 163.113 Food and Drugs FOOD...

  20. 21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a) Description. Lowfat cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lowfat cocoa. 163.114 Section 163.114 Food and...

  1. 21 CFR 163.112 - Breakfast cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.112 Breakfast cocoa. (a) Description. (1) Breakfast cocoa is the food prepared by pulverizing the material remaining after part of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breakfast cocoa. 163.112 Section 163.112 Food and...

  2. Mineral nutrition of cocoa : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.A.; Slingerland, M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    This literature review on mineral nutrition of cocoa was commissioned by the Scientific Committee of the Cocoa Fertiliser Initiative to address the following questions: What knowledge is currently available about mineral nutrition of cocoa? What are the current knowledge gaps? What are the key areas

  3. Lack of grading agreement among international hemostasis external quality assessment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John D; Jennings, Ian; Meijer, Piet; Bon, Chantal; Bonar, Roslyn; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Higgins, Russell A; Keeney, Michael; Mammen, Joy; Marlar, Richard A; Meley, Roland; Nair, Sukesh C; Nichols, William L; Raby, Anne; Reverter, Joan C; Srivastava, Alok; Walker, Isobel

    2018-01-01

    : Laboratory quality programs rely on internal quality control and external quality assessment (EQA). EQA programs provide unknown specimens for the laboratory to test. The laboratory's result is compared with other (peer) laboratories performing the same test. EQA programs assign target values using a variety of methods statistical tools and performance assessment of 'pass' or 'fail' is made. EQA provider members of the international organization, external quality assurance in thrombosis and hemostasis, took part in a study to compare outcome of performance analysis using the same data set of laboratory results. Eleven EQA organizations using eight different analytical approaches participated. Data for a normal and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and a normal and reduced factor VIII (FVIII) from 218 laboratories were sent to the EQA providers who analyzed the data set using their method of evaluation for aPTT and FVIII, determining the performance for each laboratory record in the data set. Providers also summarized their statistical approach to assignment of target values and laboratory performance. Each laboratory record in the data set was graded pass/fail by all EQA providers for each of the four analytes. There was a lack of agreement of pass/fail grading among EQA programs. Discordance in the grading was 17.9 and 11% of normal and prolonged aPTT results, respectively, and 20.2 and 17.4% of normal and reduced FVIII results, respectively. All EQA programs in this study employed statistical methods compliant with the International Standardization Organization (ISO), ISO 13528, yet the evaluation of laboratory results for all four analytes showed remarkable grading discordance.

  4. Lack of grading agreement among international hemostasis external quality assessment programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John D.; Jennings, Ian; Meijer, Piet; Bon, Chantal; Bonar, Roslyn; Favaloro, Emmanuel J.; Higgins, Russell A.; Keeney, Michael; Mammen, Joy; Marlar, Richard A.; Meley, Roland; Nair, Sukesh C.; Nichols, William L.; Raby, Anne; Reverter, Joan C.; Srivastava, Alok; Walker, Isobel

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory quality programs rely on internal quality control and external quality assessment (EQA). EQA programs provide unknown specimens for the laboratory to test. The laboratory's result is compared with other (peer) laboratories performing the same test. EQA programs assign target values using a variety of methods statistical tools and performance assessment of ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ is made. EQA provider members of the international organization, external quality assurance in thrombosis and hemostasis, took part in a study to compare outcome of performance analysis using the same data set of laboratory results. Eleven EQA organizations using eight different analytical approaches participated. Data for a normal and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and a normal and reduced factor VIII (FVIII) from 218 laboratories were sent to the EQA providers who analyzed the data set using their method of evaluation for aPTT and FVIII, determining the performance for each laboratory record in the data set. Providers also summarized their statistical approach to assignment of target values and laboratory performance. Each laboratory record in the data set was graded pass/fail by all EQA providers for each of the four analytes. There was a lack of agreement of pass/fail grading among EQA programs. Discordance in the grading was 17.9 and 11% of normal and prolonged aPTT results, respectively, and 20.2 and 17.4% of normal and reduced FVIII results, respectively. All EQA programs in this study employed statistical methods compliant with the International Standardization Organization (ISO), ISO 13528, yet the evaluation of laboratory results for all four analytes showed remarkable grading discordance. PMID:29232255

  5. Flavanol and procyanidin content (by degree of polymerization 1-10) of chocolate, cocoa liquors, cocoa powders, and cocoa extracts: first action 2012.24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

    2013-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing materials. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories--representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries--participated in this interlaboratory study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results for 12 laboratories yielded repeatability RSD (RSDr) values below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. Reproducibility RSD (RSDR) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g material analyzed. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSDR was 17.68%.

  6. Understanding sensory and analytical relationships in cocoa-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Sundara, Ramana; Festring, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The distinctive flavour of cocoa or chocolate made from fermented and roasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) is familiar to everybody in the cocoa consuming world. The industry differentiates between cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa processing covers the activity of converting the beans into nib, liquor, butter, cake and powder. Chocolate manufacturing covers the blending and refining of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and various optional ingredients, such as milk...

  7. 76 FR 78258 - Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ....htm . Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment I. Introduction The Federal... merger in this market. Specifically, the Consent Agreement requires that Valeant return the marketing... highly concentrated. Pursuant to a co-marketing agreement between Valeant and Spear Pharmaceuticals...

  8. Work for the International Energy Agency's Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA) in 2006; Arbeiten fuer das IEA Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA) 2006 - Jahresbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybach, L.; Megel, T.

    2006-12-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses work done in 2006 within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA). Information exchange with representatives of countries where geothermal energy is used is discussed as are the contributions made in this area by Swiss representatives. In particular, comprehensive appendices to the report present the Swiss Country Report, a basic paper on geothermal sustainability, comments on the environmental impact of geothermal energy development and risks posed by fluid injection in enhanced geothermal systems.

  9. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada's invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations.

  10. IEA hydrogen agreement, task 15: photobiological hydrogen production - an international collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, P.; Asada, Y.; Benemann, J.; Hallenbeck, P.; Melis, A.; Miyake, J.; Seibert, M.; Skulberg, O.

    2000-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production, the production of H 2 by microorganisms, has been an active field of basic and applied research for many years. Realization of practical processes for photobiological hydrogen production from water using solar energy would result in a major, novel source of sustainable and renewable energy, without greenhouse gas emissions or environmental pollution. However, development of such processes requires significant scientific and technological advances, and long-term basic and applied R and D. This International Energy Agency (lEA) Task covers research areas and needs at the interface of basic and applied R and D which are of mutual interest to the countries and researchers participating in the lEA Hydrogen Agreement. The overall objective is to sufficiently advance the basic and early-stage applied science in this area of research over the next five years to allow an evaluation of the potential of such a technology to be developed as a practical renewable energy source for the 21st Century. (author)

  11. Sharing R&D investments in international environmental agreements with asymmetric countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancardi, Marta; Villani, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies the coalition formation and the stability of the International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) in a pollution abatement dynamic model. We point out two meaningful aspects of this topic. Firstly, we consider asymmetry among countries, dividing them into two types: developed countries with a considerable environmental awareness and developing ones that pay less attention to environmental preservation. In addition, the former have a high-technology industry that allows for a unit abatement cost lower than the latter, and that are characterized by a labour-intensive industrial structure. Secondly, we introduce a positive externality in the cooperation by considering the R&D investment as two costs, namely the research investment and the developing cost. We assume that countries can coordinate their R&D activities by sharing their fixed research investments in order to avoid duplication of green activities. Moreover, by collaborating developing efforts, cooperators benefit from a reduction of a unit abatement cost higher than defectors. On the other hand, although non-cooperators completely support R&D investments for clean technologies, they realize lower abatements and benefits of a spillover effect due to development investments realized by cooperators. These two aspects could encourage the formation of stable coalitions.

  12. Cocoa agronomy, quality, nutritional, and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrie, Neela; Bekele, Frances; Sikora, Elzbieta; Sikora, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The history of cocoa and chocolate including the birth and the expansion of the chocolate industry was described. Recent developments in the industry and cocoa economy were briefly depicted. An overview of the classification of cacao as well as studies on phenotypic and genetic diversity was presented. Cocoa agronomic practices including traditional and modern propagation techniques were reviewed. Nutrition-related health benefits derived from cocoa consumption were listed and widely reviewed. The specific action of cocoa antioxidants was compared to those of teas and wines. Effects of adding milk to chocolate and chocolate drinks versus bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols were discussed. Finally, flavor, sensory, microbiological, and toxicological aspects of cocoa consumption were presented.

  13. Describing Peripancreatic Collections According to the Revised Atlanta Classification of Acute Pancreatitis: An International Interobserver Agreement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwense, Stefan A; van Brunschot, Sandra; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Besselink, Marc G; Bollen, Thomas L; Bakker, Olaf J; Banks, Peter A; Boermeester, Marja A; Cappendijk, Vincent C; Carter, Ross; Charnley, Richard; van Eijck, Casper H; Freeny, Patrick C; Hermans, John J; Hough, David M; Johnson, Colin D; Laméris, Johan S; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Mortele, Koenraad J; Sarr, Michael G; Stedman, Brian; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Werner, Jens; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Gooszen, Hein G; Horvath, Karen D

    2017-08-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with peripancreatic morphologic changes as seen on imaging. Uniform communication regarding these morphologic findings is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment. For the original 1992 Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement is poor. We hypothesized that for the revised Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement will be better. An international, interobserver agreement study was performed among expert and nonexpert radiologists (n = 14), surgeons (n = 15), and gastroenterologists (n = 8). Representative computed tomographies of all stages of acute pancreatitis were selected from 55 patients and were assessed according to the revised Atlanta classification. The interobserver agreement was calculated among all reviewers and subgroups, that is, expert and nonexpert reviewers; interobserver agreement was defined as poor (≤0.20), fair (0.21-0.40), moderate (0.41-0.60), good (0.61-0.80), or very good (0.81-1.00). Interobserver agreement among all reviewers was good (0.75 [standard deviation, 0.21]) for describing the type of acute pancreatitis and good (0.62 [standard deviation, 0.19]) for the type of peripancreatic collection. Expert radiologists showed the best and nonexpert clinicians the lowest interobserver agreement. Interobserver agreement was good for the revised Atlanta classification, supporting the importance for widespread adaption of this revised classification for clinical and research communications.

  14. Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Cesar G

    2009-12-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds.

  15. Finding a legal framework for transnational collective agreements through private international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoek, A.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The exact definition of transnational company agreements may be elusive, but agreements between representatives of workers and management that span more than one jurisdiction do exist is practice. They are a growing social phenomenon to which law must formulate an answer. This contribution looks at

  16. International climate protection legislation. The way towards a global climate agreement in the sense of common but differentiated responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahrmarkt, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Climate Change is one of the most important issues in the 21st century. Its extensive impacts regarding society, policy, economy and environment and its threats require an effective reaction at the international level. But does the newly adopted Paris Agreement comply to the expectations? Or how could an effective Climate Agreement be achieved to meet climate effectiveness and climate justice? To answer these questions this study analyses the development of international climate change law in a comprehensive way. In combination with analysing the principle of common, but differentiated responsibility it is possible to present new aspects for a climate Agreement by learning from failures of the past and embracing the raising threat brought about by climate change.

  17. Current and future role of agreements for cooperation as the framework for international nuclear commerce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, P.N.

    1976-01-01

    An agreement for cooperation in the civil use of atomic energy was established by Congress as the primary vehicle for ensuring that the benefits of cooperation outweigh the risks. The elements and nature of the agreement for cooperation are reviewed in this article. The evolution of some of the more significant provisions of the agreements and the type of activities conducted under them are discussed. The question is raised as to whether or not these agreements for cooperation are strong enough in the light of nations of the world becoming more concerned with the implications of burgeoning nuclear power activities. The question, ''Should these agreements be elevated to the status of treaties.'' is asked also

  18. 32 CFR 536.111 - Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). Responsibility for... civilian component is attached, including the legal office of another armed force, to carry out the responsibility to investigate. The investigation will comply with the responsible Service's implementing claims...

  19. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  20. Cocoa Polyphenols: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chisa

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests potential preventive effects of chocolate/cocoa on the risk of cardio vascular disease (CVD). However, cocoa products also contain high levels of sugar and fat, which increase CVD risk factors. Even, the identity of the substance in chocolate/cocoa that has a favorable effect on CVD and CVD risk factors remains unclear, growing evidence from experimental studies suggests that cocoa polyphenols might be a major contributor to cardiovascular-protective effects. However, epidemiological studies, which are necessary to evaluate an association between the risk of CVD and cocoa polyphenol, remain sparse. We will discuss recent evidence regarding the association between cocoa polyphenol consumption and the risks of CVD and its risk factors by reviewing recent epidemiological studies. We shall also provide some guidance for patient counseling and will discuss the public health implications for recommending cocoa polyphenol consumption to prevent CVD. Epidemiological studies evaluating the association between cocoa polyphenol itself and the risk of CVD are sparse. However, evidence from limited epidemiological studies suggests that cocoa polyphenol consumption may lower the risk of CVD. Given the potential adverse effects of the consumption of cocoa products with high fat and sugar and the fact that the most appropriate dose of cocoa polyphenol for cardio-protective effects has not yet been established, health care providers should remain cautious about recommending cocoa/cocoa polyphenol consumption to their patients to reduce the risk of CVD, taking the characteristics of individual patients into careful consideration. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. INFX GUIDE: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BILATERAL AGREEMENTS FOR COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (INFX: INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION EXCHANGE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, K. M.; Lakey, L. T.; Leigh, I. W.; Jeffs, A. G.

    1985-07-01

    As the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have increased the magnitude and scope of their cooperative activities with other nations in the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management field, a need has developed for ready sources of information concerning foreign waste management programs, DOE technology exchange policies, bilateral fuel cycle and waste management agreements and plans and activities to implement those agreements. The INFX (International InLormation E~change) Guide is one of a series of documents that have been prepared to provide that information. The INFX Guide has been compiled under the charter of PNL's International Support Office (IPSO) to maintain for DOE a center to collect, organize, evaluate and disseminate information on foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. Because the information in this document is constantly subject to change, the document is assembled in loose-leaf form to accommodate frequent updates.

  2. Identification of a Disease on Cocoa Caused by Fusariumin Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Rosmana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A disease presumed to be caused by Fusarium was observed in cocoa open fields with few or without shade trees. Within the population of cocoa trees in the field, some trees had died, some had yellowing leaves and dieback, and the others were apparently healthy. In order to demonstrate Fusarium species as the causal pathogen and to obtain information concerning the incidence of the disease, its distribution and its impact on sustainability of cocoa, isolation of the pathogen, inoculation of cocoa seedlings with isolates and a survey of disease has been conducted. Fusarium was isolated from roots and branches, and inoculated onto cocoa seedlings (one month old via soil. Symptoms appeared within 3-4 weeks after infection. These symptoms consisted of yellowing of leaves beginning from the bottom until the leaves falldown, and browning internal of vascular tissue. Darkened vascular traces in the petiole characteristic of vascularstreak dieback infection were absent. The occurrence of Fusarium in the field was characterized by the absence of obvious signs of fungal infestation on root of infected trees, yellowing of leaves on twigs, dieback, and tree mortality in severe infestations. Disease incidence could reach 77% and in this situation it was difficult for trees recover from heavy infections or to be regenerated in the farm. The study proves that Fusarium is a pathogen causing dieback and the disease is called as Fusarium vascular dieback (FVD. Its development is apparently enhanced by dry conditions in the field. Key words: Fusarium sp., vascular disease, dieback, FVD, Theobroma cacao L.

  3. Forensic botany II, DNA barcode for land plants: Which markers after the international agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M

    2015-03-01

    The ambitious idea of using a short piece of DNA for large-scale species identification (DNA barcoding) is already a powerful tool for scientists and the application of this standard technique seems promising in a range of fields including forensic genetics. While DNA barcoding enjoyed a remarkable success for animal identification through cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) analysis, the attempts to identify a single barcode for plants remained a vain hope for a longtime. From the beginning, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) showed a lack of agreement on a core plant barcode, reflecting the diversity of viewpoints. Different research groups advocated various markers with divergent set of criteria until the recent publication by the CBOL-Plant Working Group. After a four-year effort, in 2009 the International Team concluded to agree on standard markers promoting a multilocus solution (rbcL and matK), with 70-75% of discrimination to the species level. In 2009 our group firstly proposed the broad application of DNA barcoding principles as a tool for identification of trace botanical evidence through the analysis of two chloroplast loci (trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) in plant species belonging to local flora. Difficulties and drawbacks that were encountered included a poor coverage of species in specific databases and the lack of authenticated reference sequences for the selected markers. Successful preliminary results were obtained providing an approach to progressively identify unknown plant specimens to a given taxonomic rank, usable by any non-specialist botanist or in case of a shortage of taxonomic expertise. Now we considered mandatory to update and to compare our previous findings with the new selected plastid markers (matK+rbcL), taking into account forensic requirements. Features of all the four loci (the two previously analyzed trnH-psbA+trnL-trnF and matK+rbcL) were compared singly and in multilocus solutions to assess the most suitable combination for

  4. Lead contamination in cocoa and cocoa products: isotopic evidence of global contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Charley W; Nriagu, Jerome O; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K; Arowolo, Toyin A; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A Russell

    2005-10-01

    In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with market-basket surveys that have repeatedly listed lead concentrations in chocolate products among the highest reported for all foods. One source of contamination of the finished products is tentatively attributed to atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria. Because of the high capacity of cocoa bean shells to adsorb lead, contamination from leaded gasoline emissions may occur during the fermentation and sun-drying of unshelled beans at cocoa farms. This mechanism is supported by similarities in lead isotopic compositions of cocoa bean shells from the different farms (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1548-1.1581; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4344-2.4394) with those of finished cocoa products (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1475-1.1977; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4234-2.4673). However, the much higher lead concentrations and larger variability in lead isotopic composition of finished cocoa products, which falls within the global range of industrial lead aerosols, indicate that most contamination occurs during shipping and/or processing of the cocoa beans and the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products.

  5. CACAO TO COCOA TO CHOCOLATE: HEALTHY FOOD?

    OpenAIRE

    ROYA KELISHADI

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods). Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukot...

  6. Cocoa farming in Indonesia: Present Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Junaid

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses major constraints facing most recently cocoa farming in Indonesia. Critique of National cocoa revitalization program and dealing with these issues are discussed as well. Several recommendations are expressed. The global consumption of chocolate has risen twofold over the past two decades and chocolate demand is predicted to rise a quarter in the next decade. As the third largest cocoa producer in the world, Indonesia is keen to contribute more and more in the world ch...

  7. Agreement Between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities. Addition to the List of Facilities Subject to Safeguards Under the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities (hereinafter “the Agreement”), India shall notify the Agency in writing of its decision to offer any facility identified by India for Agency safeguards under the Agreement. Any facility so notified by India becomes subject to the Agreement as of the date of receipt by the Agency of such written notification from India, and is to be included in the Annex to the Agreement. On 11 March 2014, the Agency received from India written notification, pursuant to Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement, of its decision to bring one additional facility under safeguards in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. Pursuant to Paragraph 14 4(a) of the Agreement, the Annex to the Agreement has been updated and is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency

  8. 76 FR 43726 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Developing a Method for Conducting an Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... advance internal quality assurance. The awardee will work closely with designated NIC staff on all aspects... services, and (3) provide sufficient guidance for an organization to begin to strategize desired internal... technical assistance, additional funding, or enhancing internal quality assurance. Purpose: This methodology...

  9. 78 FR 71869 - Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... transmittal fee to it, for its own benefit, in respect of any international application filed through it... the World Trade Organization.'' Article 6(2) provides that ``[t]he international design application...) provides for domestic benefit claims with respect to international design applications designating the...

  10. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  11. Emissions Trading Regimes and Incentives to Participate in International Climate Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, B.; Carraro, C.

    2003-11-01

    This paper analyses whether different emissions trading regimes provide different incentives to participate in a cooperative climate agreement. Different incentive structures are discussed for those countries, namely the US, Russia and China, that are most important in the climate negotiation process. Our analysis confirms the conjecture that, by appropriately designing the emission trading regime, it is possible to enhance the incentives to participate in a climate agreement. Therefore, participation and optimal policy should be jointly analysed. Moreover, our results show that the US, Russia and China have different most preferred climate coalitions and therefore adopt conflicting negotiation strategies

  12. Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Charley W.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K.; Arowolo, Toyin A.; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A. Russell

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was ≤ 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. In contrast, lead concentrations of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with mark...

  13. Fluorescent detection of (-)-epicatechin in microsamples from cacao seeds and cocoa products: Comparison with Folin-Ciocalteu method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Maya, Lisandro; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2010-12-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of the flavanoid family are abundantly present in cacao seed and its cocoa products. Results from studies using cocoa products indicate beneficial effects of flavanols on cardiovascular endpoints. Evidence indicates that (-)-epicatechin is the main cacao flavanol associated with cardiovascular effects, so the accurate quantification of its content in cacao seeds or cocoa products is important. Common methods for the quantification of phenolic content in cocoa products are based on the reaction of phenols with colorimetric reagents such as the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) In this study, we compared the FC method of phenolic determinations using 2 different standards (gallic acid and (-)-epicatechin) to construct calibration curves. We compare these results with those obtained from a simple fluorometric method (Ex(280)/Em(320) nm) used to determine catechin/(-)-epicatechin content in samples of cacao seeds and cocoa products. Values obtained from the FC method determination of polyphenols yield an overestimation of phenol (flavonoid) content when gallic acid is used as standard. Moreover, the epicatechin is a more reliable standard because of its abundance in cacao seeds and cocoa products. The use of fluorometric spectra yields a simple and highly quantitative means for a more precise and rapid quantification of cacao catechins. Fluorometric values are essentially in agreement with those reported using more cumbersome methods. In conclusion, the use of fluorescence emission spectra is a quick, practical and suitable means to quantifying catechins in cacao seeds and cocoa products.

  14. Agreement and Diagnostic Performance of FITNESSGRAM®, International Obesity Task Force, and Hungarian National BMI Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Marton, Orsolya; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined agreement between all 3 standards (as well as relative diagnostic associations with metabolic syndrome) using a representative sample of youth from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study. Method: Body mass index (BMI) was assessed in a field sample of 2,352 adolescents (ages 10-18.5 years) and metabolic syndrome…

  15. 78 FR 66899 - International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the United States, the Government of Canada and the Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article...

  16. Effect of the International Agreement on Government Procurement and the Government Procurement Chapter of the North American Free Trade Agreement on public contracting opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Heldreth, Steven E.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper explores the specific legal content of the 1979 and 1993 Agreements on Government Procurement as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement's Chapter Ten (Government Procurement). One chapter addresses the use of free trade agreements, associated problems, and how the agreements have been applied to the public sector. The content of each of the primary documents is an...

  17. International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation Interim Agreement EPA Case No. 08-0113-00

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 27, 2008, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), suspended International Business Machines (IBM) from receiving Federal Contracts, approved subcontracts, assistance, loans and other benefits.

  18. The Text of an Agreement for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency, the Osterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie GmbH and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices, which was signed on 16 September 1964 and entered into force on 1 January 1965, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency,

  19. The Text of an Agreement for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-08-12

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency, the Osterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie GmbH and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices, which was signed on 16 September 1964 and entered into force on 1 January 1965, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency,.

  20. Co-operation Agreement. The Text of the Agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 25 May 1998, pursuant to Article 8 [fr

  1. Co-operation Agreement. The Text of the Agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 25 May 1998, pursuant to Article 8 [es

  2. Co-operation agreement. The text of the agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for accounting and control of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-25

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials which entered into force on 25 May 1998

  3. Co-operation agreement. The text of the agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for accounting and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials which entered into force on 25 May 1998

  4. ASPECTS REGARDING THE ENFORCEABILITY AGAINST THIRD PARTIES OF CHOICE OF COURT AGREEMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Oprea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem enforceability of agreements conferring jurisdiction to persons other than the parties that have accepted knows no textual legal settlement in European procedural law. Through its action, the European Court of Justice, however, brought important clarifications in the matter, without following yet a uniform: the disputes brought before it, the high European court preferred for certain hypotheses to consider solutions of national law, effectiveness agreements conferring jurisdiction admissible conditioning; other times, she opted for the formulation of European autonomous substantive rules recognizing or, alternatively, directly denying their effectiveness. In an attempt to bring more clarity in the matter, the study proposes a review of existing solutions, identifying their justifications and offering several key milestones that should be considered in solving concrete problems in practice.

  5. Improvements to enforcement of multilateral environmental agreements to control international shipments of chemicals and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Somboon, Vira; Wun'gaeo, Surichai; Middleton, Carl; Tingsabadh, Charit; Limjirakan, Sangchan

    2016-06-01

    Illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals has caused severe damage on human health and the environment, and brought big challenges to countries to meet their commitments to related multilateral environmental agreements. Synergy-building, like organising law enforcement operations, is critical to address illegal trade in waste and chemicals, and further improve the effectiveness of environmental enforcement. This article discusses how and why law enforcement operations can help countries to implement chemical and waste-related multilateral environmental agreements in a more efficient and effective way. The research explores key barriers and factors for organising law enforcement operations, and recommends methods to improve law enforcement operations to address illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Non-conventional provisions in regional trade agreements : do they enhance international trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Kimura, Fukunari; Nabeshima, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    The scope of recent regional trade agreements (RTAs) is becoming much wider in terms of including several provisions such as competition policy or intellectual property. This paper empirically examines how far advanced, non-conventional provisions in RTAs increase trade values among RTA member countries, by estimating the gravity equation with more disaggregated indicators for RTAs. As a result, we find that the provision on competition policy has the largest impacts on trade values, followin...

  7. Agreement between diagnoses of childhood lymphoma assigned in Uganda and by an international reference laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jackson Orem,1–3 Sven Sandin,1 Caroline E Weibull,1 Michael Odida,4 Henry Wabinga,4 Edward Mbidde,2,3 Fred Wabwire-Mangen,5 Chris JLM Meijer,6 Jaap M Middeldorp,6 Elisabete Weiderpass1,7,81Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Uganda Cancer Institute, 3School of Medicine, 4School of Biomedical Sciences, 5School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; 6Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 7Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo; Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 8Samfundet Folkhälsan, Helsinki, FinlandBackground: Correct diagnosis is key to appropriate treatment of cancer in children. However, diagnostic challenges are common in low-income and middle-income countries. The objective of the present study was to assess the agreement between a clinical diagnosis of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL assigned in Uganda, a pathological diagnosis assigned in Uganda, and a pathological diagnosis assigned in The Netherlands.Methods: The study included children with suspected NHL referred to the Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between 2004 and 2008. A clinical diagnosis was assigned at the Mulago National Referral Hospital, where tissue samples were also obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were used for histological diagnosis in Uganda, and were re-examined in a pathology laboratory in The Netherlands, where additional pathological, virological and serological testing was also carried out. Agreement between diagnostic sites was compared using kappa statistics.Results: Clinical and pathological diagnoses from Uganda and pathological diagnosis from The Netherlands was available for 118 children. The agreement between clinical and pathological diagnoses of NHL assigned in Uganda was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84–95; kappa 0.84; P < 0

  8. The establishment and early yield of cocoa intercropped with food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cocoa-food crop intercropping trial was set up in 1988 at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Tafo. The effects of plantain, cassava, and maize as intercrops with cocoa only and in their various combinations on the establishment, growth of the cocoa, and the profitability of the food crops were studied in a randomized ...

  9. Economic efficiency of cocoa production in Ghana | Aneani | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the economic efficiency of resource utilization in cocoa production among cocoa farmers in Ghana to provide information for effective application and management of farm input on cocoa farms. A random sample of 300 farmers was selected in six cocoa growing districts in ...

  10. Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the Republic of Austria. A further supplemental agreement to the Headquarters Agreement. Supplemental Agreement pursuant to Section 4(b) of the Agreement between the Republic of Austria and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The text of the exchange of Notes, dated 6 July 1995 and 29 September 1995 respectively, between the IAEA and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Austria regarding Section 4(b) of the Headquarters Agreement which allows the IAEA 'to establish and operate such additional radio and other telecommunications facilities as may be specified by supplemental agreement ....' is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency

  11. Lack of grading agreement among international hemostasis external quality assessment programs

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, John D.; Jennings, Ian; Meijer, Piet; Bon, Chantal; Bonar, Roslyn; Favaloro, Emmanuel J.; Higgins, Russell A.; Keeney, Michael; Mammen, Joy; Marlar, Richard A.; Meley, Roland; Nair, Sukesh C.; Nichols, William L.; Raby, Anne; Reverter, Joan C.

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory quality programs rely on internal quality control and external quality assessment (EQA). EQA programs provide unknown specimens for the laboratory to test. The laboratory's result is compared with other (peer) laboratories performing the same test. EQA programs assign target values using a variety of methods statistical tools and performance assessment of ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ is made. EQA provider members of the international organization, external quality assurance in thrombosis and h...

  12. Cocoa, blood pressure, and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Isabella; Flammer, Andreas J; Roas, Susanne; Enseleit, Frank; Ruschitzka, Frank; Corti, Roberto; Noll, Georg

    2012-08-01

    The consumption of a high amount of fruits and vegetables was found to be associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Epidemiologically, a similar relationship has been found with cocoa, a naturally polyphenol-rich food. Obviously, double blind randomized studies are difficult to perform with cocoa and chocolate, respectively. However, intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including the lowering of blood pressure, the improvement of vascular function and glucose metabolism, and the reduction of platelet aggregation and adhesion. Several potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its positive effects have been proposed, among them activation of nitric oxide synthase, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on blood pressure and vascular function.

  13. Developing an approach to assessing the political feasibility of global collective action and an international agreement on antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers Van Katwyk, Susan; Danik, Marie Évelyne; Pantis, Ioana; Smith, Rachel; Røttingen, John-Arne; Hoffman, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global issue. International trade, travel, agricultural practices, and environmental contamination all make it possible for resistant microbes to cross national borders. Global collective action is needed in the form of an international agreement or other mechanism that brings states together at the negotiation table and commits them to adopt or implement policies to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms. This article describes an approach to assessing whether political and stakeholder interests can align to commit to tackling AMR. Two dimensions affecting political feasibility were selected and compared across 82 countries: 1) states' global influence and 2) self-interest in addressing AMR. World Bank GDP ranking was used as a proxy for global influence, while human antibiotic consumption (10-year percent change) was used as a proxy for self-interest in addressing AMR. We used these data to outline a typology of four country archetypes, and discuss how these archetypes can be used to understand whether a proposed agreement may have sufficient support to be politically feasible. Four types of countries exist within our proposed typology: 1) wealthy countries who have the expertise and financial resources to push for global collective action on AMR, 2) wealthy countries who need to act on AMR, 3) countries who require external assistance to act on AMR, and 4) neutral countries who may support action where applicable. Any international agreement will require substantial support from countries of the first type to lead global action, and from countries of the second type who have large increasing antimicrobial consumption levels. A large number of barriers exist that could derail efforts towards global collective action on AMR; issues of capacity, infrastructure, regulation, and stakeholder interests will need to be addressed in coordination with other actors to achieve an agreement on AMR. Achieving a global agreement on

  14. Climatic changes: explicative guide of international agreements; Changements climatiques: guide explicatif des accords internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The following themes of the negotiation in the United Nations Convention framework, on the climatic changes and the kyoto protocol are taken into account: the observation, the information communication, the policies and the measures, the developing countries, the flexibility mechanisms, the soils utilizations and the regime evolution. For each theme the document recalls quickly how the theme is detailed in the Convention and in the Protocol, it presents then the decisions and the adopted rules and defines the agreements contain, in terms of challenges and implication in the protocol implementation. (A.L.B.)

  15. Overview of the cocoa pod borer, conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella is one of the most devastating pests of cocoa in Southeast Asia. This pest is currently responsible of a 40-60% loss of the cocoa production, which is worth about $500 million annually for the Indonesian cocoa industry alone. Because the cocoa industry in Indonesia is mainly ...

  16. The definition of polytrauma: variable interrater versus intrarater agreement--a prospective international study among trauma surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Nerida E; Enninghorst, Natalie; Sisak, Krisztian; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2013-03-01

    The international trauma community has recognized the lack of a validated consensus definition of "polytrauma." We hypothesized that using a subjective definition, trauma surgeons will not have substantial agreement; thus, an objective definition is needed. A prospective observational study was conducted between December 2010 and June 2011 (John Hunter Hospital, Level I trauma center). Inclusion criteria were all trauma call patients with subsequent intensive care unit admission. The study was composed of four stages as follows: (1) four trauma surgeons assessed patients until 24 hours, then coded as either "yes" or "no" for polytrauma, and results compared for agreement; (2) eight trauma surgeons representing the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands graded the same prospectively assessed patients and coded as either "yes" or "no" for polytrauma; (3) 12 months later, the original four trauma surgeons repeated assessment via data sheets to test intrarater variability; and (4) individual subjective definitions were compared with three anatomic scores, namely, (a) Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than 15, (b) ISS of greater 17, and (c) Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of greater than 2 in at least two ISS body regions. A total of 52 trauma patients were included. Results for each stage were as follows: (1) κ score of 0.50, moderate agreement; (2) κ score of 0.41, moderate agreement; (3) Rater 1 had moderate intrarater agreement (κ score, 0.59), while Raters 2, 3, 4 had substantial intrarater agreement (κ scores, 0.75, 0.66, and 0.71, respectively); and (4) none had most agreement with ISS of greater than 15 (κ score, 0.16), while both definitions ISS greater than 17 and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of greater than 2 in at least two ISS body regions had on average fair agreement (κ scores, 0.27 and 0.39, respectively). Based on subjective assessments, trauma surgeons do not agree on the definition of polytrauma, with the subjective

  17. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Acuerdo sobre privilegios e inmunidades del Organismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-31

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [Spanish] El Acuerdo sobre Privilegios e Inmunidades del Organismo Internacional de Energia Atomica, cuyo texto se reproduce en este documento, fue aprobado por la Junta de Gobernadores el dia 1 de julio de 1959. Como se dispone en la seccion 38, el Director General ha remitido copias certificadas del Acuerdo a cada uno de los Estados que son Miembros del Organismo, y se las remitira a todos los Estados que pasen a serlo en lo sucesivo.

  18. 76 FR 63906 - Henry Gordy International, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... International, Inc., containing a civil penalty of $1,100,000.00. DATES: Any interested person may ask the... report of a death involving a Target Set on or about May 1, 2006, after an 8-year-old boy choked on a dart and died on March 9, 2006. 8. In response to the death reported on or about May 1, 2006, Henry...

  19. The trends and constructive ambiguity in international agreements on intellectual property and pharmaceutical affairs: Implications for domestic legislations in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-Bok; Lee, Tae-Jin

    2017-06-06

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in international agreements including Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), Korea-United States Free Trade Agreements, and Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreements on intellectual property and pharmaceutical affairs with the updated framework. The study also assesses constructive ambiguity in international agreements, which might affect the implementation process through interpretation and domestic legislations. Five flexibility clauses and three TRIPS-plus provisions were selected, and presence of constructive ambiguity in the agreements was analysed to draw actual trends in international agreements. Flexibility provisions excluding compulsory licensing were not noticeably changed, and TRIPS-plus provisions including data exclusivity and patent linkage were expanded in scope or newly appeared, respectively. The clause regarding compulsory licensing, extension of the patent term, data exclusivity, and patent linkage showed unclear definitions or the lack of adequate explanations. With constructive ambiguity in those clauses, a country who wants to join international agreements in the near future could amend domestic legislations to minimise the detrimental effect of international agreements on access to medicines.

  20. Quality and market chain of Aceh Cocoa Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan; Sulaiman, I.; Ikhsan, CN; Faizun, N.

    2018-05-01

    After long-lasting conflict and tsunami on December 26, 2004, some international donors/NGOs supported Aceh on cocoa development. Aceh cocoa sector has experienced tremendous growth in Indonesia. This study aims to investigate quality and market chain of Aceh cocoa beans. The survey was conducted in Pidie District. A number of 21 farmers and 1 exporter were interviewed; the beans from farmer’s warehouses were analyzed and compared to Indonesia National Standard (INS). The result showed that the beans were generally produced from 6 Sub-Districts: Keumala, Titeue, Glumpang Tiga, Padang Tiji, and Tangse. They were not fermented; most were exported to the USA. Based on bean count, quality was mainly included in I/A and II/B. The main quality problem was high moisture content. Presumably, the beans were bought by wholesalers with lower price although not been sufficiently dried. Other quality parameters were good: no moldy bean and contaminant, very low insect damage/hollow-/germinated beans, and tiny broken beans (quality I)

  1. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre-Ratification Judicial Review of International Agreements to be Concluded by the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2018-01-01

    incrementally shaping the law of EU external relations, and determining the manner in which the Union may enter into formal international relations. Understanding the Court’s importance in this field has been done time and again, but yet, consideration of the pre-ratification judicial review option, available...... for how ex ante judicial review can work in developing the Union into an even more enhanced global actor, through its own unique judicial order....

  3. Domestic Compliance with International Environmental Agreements: A Review of Current Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Roginko, A.

    1994-01-01

    This essay is an attempt to review the main determinants of compliance with international environmental commitments at the domestic level, with special attention to: 1) the mechanisms by which states determine whether or not to comply, and the roles actors, other than governments, play in these issues, and 2) regime rules and factors exogenous to the regime that affect variation in compliance, with implications for mechanisms by which compliance can be improved.

  4. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Doukakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90 compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95. Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  5. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Pikitch, Ellen K; Rothschild, Anna; DeSalle, Rob; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90) compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95). Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail). Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  6. Expression of cocoa genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves cocoa butter production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1......), and it is essential to modulate the yeast TAG biosynthetic pathway for higher CBL production.Results: We cloned seven GPAT genes and three LPAT genes from cocoa cDNA, in order to screen for CBL biosynthetic gene candidates. By expressing these cloned cocoa genes and two synthesized cocoa DGAT genes in S. cerevisiae......, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some of the strains. In the best producer, the potential CBL content was eightfold higher than the control strain, suggesting the cocoa genes expressed in this strain were functional and might be responsible...

  7. Dataset of cocoa aspartic protease cleavage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Janek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data provide information in support of the research article, “The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors” (Janek et al., 2016 [1]. Three different protein substrates were partially digested with the aspartic protease isolated from cocoa beans and commercial pepsin, respectively. The obtained peptide fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS and identified using the MASCOT server. The N- and C-terminal ends of the peptide fragments were used to identify the corresponding in-vitro cleavage sites by comparison with the amino acid sequences of the substrate proteins. The same procedure was applied to identify the cleavage sites used by the cocoa aspartic protease during cocoa fermentation starting from the published amino acid sequences of oligopeptides isolated from fermented cocoa beans. Keywords: Aspartic protease, Cleavage sites, Cocoa, In-vitro proteolysis, Mass spectrometry, Peptides

  8. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa.

  9. Enhancing Human Cognition with Cocoa Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Socci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cognitive abilities has become a fascinating scientific challenge, recently driven by the interest in preventing age-related cognitive decline and sustaining normal cognitive performance in response to cognitively demanding environments. In recent years, cocoa and cocoa-derived products, as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanols sub-class, have been clearly shown to exert cardiovascular benefits. More recently, neuromodulation and neuroprotective actions have been also suggested. Here, we discuss human studies specifically aimed at investigating the effects of acute and chronic administration of cocoa flavanols on different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention and memory. Through a variety of direct and indirect biological actions, in part still speculative, cocoa and cocoa-derived food have been suggested to possess the potential to counteract cognitive decline and sustain cognitive abilities, particularly among patients at risk. Although still at a preliminary stage, research investigating the relations between cocoa and cognition shows dose-dependent improvements in general cognition, attention, processing speed, and working memory. Moreover, cocoa flavanols administration could also enhance normal cognitive functioning and exert a protective role on cognitive performance and cardiovascular function specifically impaired by sleep loss, in healthy subjects. Together, these findings converge at pointing to cocoa as a new interesting nutraceutical tool to protect human cognition and counteract different types of cognitive decline, thus encouraging further investigations. Future research should include complex experimental designs combining neuroimaging techniques with physiological and behavioral measures to better elucidate cocoa neuromodulatory properties and directly compare immediate versus long-lasting cognitive effects.

  10. Conceptualizing threats to tobacco control from international economic agreements: the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; McGrady, Benn; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Lencucha, Raphael; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-10-19

    Using the results of dozens of interviews with key actors involved in tobacco control policymaking, we examine these actors' perceptions of threats to tobacco control policy efforts from international economic policies on trade and investment. We also evaluate, from a legal perspective, the genuine threats that exist or potential challenges that economic policies may pose to the Brazilian government's public health efforts. We find that most actors did not perceive these economic policies as a major threat to tobacco control. Objectively, we found that some threats do exist. For example, Brazil's attempt to ban most tobacco additives and flavorings continues to met resistance at the World Trade Organization.

  11. The role of cocoa as a cigarette additive: opportunities for product regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Natasha A; Kennedy, Ryan David; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-07-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibited the use of characterizing flavors in cigarettes; however, some of these flavors are still used in cigarettes at varying levels. We reviewed tobacco industry internal documents to investigate the role of one of these flavors, cocoa, with the objective of understanding its relationship to sensory and risk perception, promotion of dependence, and enhancement of attractiveness and acceptability. We used the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library to identify documents relevant to our research questions. Initial search terms were generated following an examination of published literature on cocoa, other cigarette additives, and sensory and risk perception. Further research questions and search terms were generated based on review of documents generated from the initial search terms. Cocoa is widely applied to cigarettes and has been used by the tobacco industry as an additive since the early 20th century. Cocoa can alter the sensory properties of cigarette smoke, including by providing a more appealing taste and decreasing its harshness. The tobacco industry has experimented with manipulating cocoa levels as a means of achieving sensory properties that appeal to women and youth. Although cocoa is identified as a flavor on tobacco industry Web sites, it may serve other sensory purposes in cigarettes as well. Eliminating cocoa as an additive from tobacco products may affect tobacco product abuse liability by altering smokers' perceptions of product risk, and decreasing product appeal, especially among vulnerable populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Biomass of cocoa and sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto; Sumanto; Hartati, R. S.; Prastowo, B.

    2017-05-01

    The role of the agricultural sector is very important as the upstream addressing downstream sectors and national energy needs. The agricultural sector itself is also highly dependent on the availability of energy. Evolving from it then it must be policies and strategies for agricultural development Indonesia to forward particularly agriculture as producers as well as users of biomass energy or bioenergy for national development including agriculture balance with agriculture and food production. Exports of biomass unbridled currently include preceded by ignorance, indifference and the lack of scientific data and potential tree industry in the country. This requires adequate scientific supporting data. This study is necessary because currently there are insufficient data on the potential of biomass, including tree biomasanya detailing the benefits of bioenergy, feed and food is very necessary as a basis for future policy. Measurement of the main estate plants biomass such as cocoa and sugarcane be done in 2015. Measurements were also conducted on its lignocellulose content. Tree biomass sugarcane potential measured consist of leaves, stems and roots, with the weight mostly located on the stem. Nevertheless, not all the potential of the stem is a good raw material for bioethanol. For cocoa turned out leaves more prospective because of its adequate hemicellulose content. For sugarcane, leaf buds contain a good indicator of digestion of feed making it more suitable for feed.

  13. Cocoa and health: a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen A; Donovan, Jennifer L; Waterhouse, Andrew L; Williamson, Gary

    2008-01-01

    It has been over 10 years since the first mention in a medical journal about cocoa and chocolate as potential sources of antioxidants for health. During this time, cocoa has been found to improve antioxidant status, reduce inflammation and correlate with reduced heart disease risk; with these results, and its popularity, it has received wide coverage in the press. However, after 10 years of research, what is known about the potential health benefits of cocoa and what are the important next steps in understanding this decadent source of antioxidants?

  14. Ethical principles in international nuclear trade and the role of international treaties and agreements in their implementation. Reflections on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalanti, C. de A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing importance of nuclear energy (on the threshold of the twenty-first century) and of its ethical uses is considered, including major political events in recent years, their social and economic consequences in the world scene. International Nuclear Law is seen as the most adequate instrument to promote the ethical uses of nuclear energy on a worldwide basis, so that mankind can benefit safely and properly and improving their living conditions in general. Problems associated with access to nuclear technology, plants, equipments and materials are addressed. Basic principles of international agreements ruling nuclear trade, ethical aspects are also covered. The different markets involved in international nuclear trade and their specific requirements are described. Certain international treaties on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are discussed such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty as are international conventions on matters related to the use of nuclear energy, such as the environment and protection of personnel. The author concludes by debating whether ethical uses of nuclear energy are a possible reality or merely utopia. Prospects on the future of international nuclear trade are considered. (author)

  15. Effect of Price Determinants on World Cocoa Prices for Over the Last Three Decades: Error Correction Model (ECM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Aklimawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High  volatility  cocoa  price  movement  is  consequenced  by  imbalancing between power demand and power supply in commodity market. World economy expectation and market  liberalization would lead to instability on cocoa prices in  the  international  commerce.  Dynamic  prices  moving  erratically  influence the benefit  of market players, particularly  producers. The aim of this research is  (1  to  estimate  the  empirical  cocoa  prices  model  for  responding  market dynamics and (2 analyze short-term and long-term effect of price determinants variables  on cocoa prices.  This research  was  carried out by  analyzing  annualdata from 1980 to 2011, based on secondary data. Error correction mechanism (ECM  approach was  used  to  estimate the  econometric  model  of  cocoa  price.The  estimation  results  indicated  that  cocoa  price  was  significantly  affected  by exchange rate IDR-USD, world gross domestic product,  world inflation, worldcocoa production, world cocoa consumption, world cocoa stock and Robusta prices at varied significance level from 1 - 10%. All of these variables have a long run equilibrium relationship. In long run effect, world gross domestic product, world  cocoa  consumption  and  world  cocoa  stock  were  elastic  (E  >1,  while other  variables  were  inelastic  (E  <1.  Variables  that  affecting  cocoa  pricesin  short  run  equilibrium  were  exchange  rate  IDR-USD,  world  gross  domestic product,  world  inflation,  world  cocoa  consumption  and  world  cocoa  stock. The  analysis  results  showed  that  world  gross  domestic  product,  world  cocoa consumption  and  world  cocoa  stock  were  elastic  (E  >1  to  cocoa  prices  in short-term.  Whereas,  the  response  of  cocoa  prices  was  inelastic  to  change  of exchange rate IDR-USD and world inflation.Key words: Price

  16. The Effect of Export Tax on Indonesia’s Cocoa Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Rifin, Amzul; Nauly, Dahlia

    2013-01-01

    The government of Indonesia implemented an export tax policy on cocoa beans since April 2010 in order to develop cocoa processing industry. The objective of this article is to analyze the effect of export tax on Indonesia’s cocoa export competitiveness. The results indicate that with the implementation of export tax, cocoa export product composition shift from cocoa beans to processed cocoa products. On the other hand, Indonesia’s cocoa export growth is lower than the growth of cocoa world de...

  17. New International Agreements About Space Techniques Among Argentina, China and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A. M.; Podestá, R.; Actis, E.; Adarvez, S.; Quinteros, J.; Li, J.; Saunier, J.; Podestá, F.; Ramos, F.; Aguilera, J.; Sosa, G.; Hauser, D.

    2018-01-01

    The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems (IERS) is in charge of defining and materializing celestial reference systems (ICRS - ICRF) and terrestrial reference systems (ITRS - ITRF). In order to perform this task it uses data from the following techniques: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS). Nowadays, the Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) has two instruments with these advanced techniques: SLR and a permanent GNSS station. In the nearby future a 40 m diameter radio telescope will be available that will be operated in VLBI mode along with a DORIS buoy which will be co-localized with a SLR telescope and GNSS antennas. In this way OAFA will become a zero station, first class, of the ITRF 2014 frame.

  18. Towards a Novel Integrated Approach for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Support of International Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Henne, S.; Brunner, D.; Emmenegger, L.; Manning, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Krummel, P. B.; Dunse, B. L.; DeCola, P.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    In the recently adopted Paris Agreement the community of signatory states has agreed to limit the future global temperature increase between +1.5 °C and +2.0 °C, compared to pre-industrial times. To achieve this goal, emission reduction targets have been submitted by individual nations (called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, INDCs). Inventories will be used for checking progress towards these envisaged goals. These inventories are calculated by combining information on specific activities (e.g. passenger cars, agriculture) with activity-related, typically IPCC-sanctioned, emission factors - the so-called bottom-up method. These calculated emissions are reported on an annual basis and are checked by external bodies by using the same method. A second independent method estimates emissions by translating greenhouse gas measurements made at regionally representative stations into regional/global emissions using meteorologically-based transport models. In recent years this so-called top-down approach has been substantially advanced into a powerful tool and emission estimates at the national/regional level have become possible. This method is already used in Switzerland, in the United Kingdom and in Australia to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and independently support the national bottom-up emission inventories within the UNFCCC framework. Examples of the comparison of the two independent methods will be presented and the added-value will be discussed. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and partner organizations are currently developing a plan to expand this top-down approach and to expand the globally representative GAW network of ground-based stations and remote-sensing platforms and integrate their information with atmospheric transport models. This Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (IG3IS) initiative will help nations to improve the accuracy of their country-based emissions inventories and their ability to evaluate the

  19. Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material in all peaceful nuclear activities of Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to all Nuclear Material in all Peaceful Nuclear Activities of Ukraine is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 28 September 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 13 January 1995.

  20. Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material in all peaceful nuclear activities of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to all Nuclear Material in all Peaceful Nuclear Activities of Ukraine is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 28 September 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 13 January 1995

  1. The research with animal lab, colombia most accomplish the international agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mrad

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se realiza investigación en un marco pleno de ética  y se mantiene el bienestar de los animales, la calidad de la ciencia y los datos que se deriven del trabajo serán lo mejor que se puede lograr. La experimentación animal es y seguirá siendo fundamental en la investigación biológica y biomédica, puesto que gracias a ella la humanidad ha podido hacer acopio de los más grandes descubrimientos por y para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida humana y animal (Mrad y Cardozo, 1998. La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS en su XI Reunión Interamericana de 1.980 dejaba claro que "los países que han logrado un gran avance en el control de las enfermedades humanas y animales son aquellos que han establecido mecanismos y entidades que se dedican al mejor desarrollo de la Ciencia de los Animales de Laboratorio". También se ocupan de éste tema organismos internacionales como ICLAS (International Council of Laboratory Animal Science, ILAR (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, así como muchas asociaciones dedicadas al cuidado de animales de laboratorio como son AALAS (American Associaton of Laboratory Animal Science y FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations

  2. THE PERFORMANCE OF FERMENTATED YIELD OF COCOA BEAN QUALITY IN WEST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon David H

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides research aims to improve post-harvest handling through fermentaasi also to improve the quality of fermented cocoa beans so that the value the higher the cocoa product jula. The study was conducted in villages of the National program on Gapoktan GERNAS COCOA Joint Business Village District Pegadang Sekayam Sanggau Fermentation done with treatment for 5 days with a reversal of 1 time after 48 hours and followed by artificial drying for 8 hours and 12 hours of sun drying. Quality parameters are analyzed adjusted as required by SNI 01-2323-2002 which includes the general requirements: insect life, water content, bii smell and / or abnormal levels of broken seeds, kotora levels, levels of foreign objects, dirt mammals, and special requirements: size /100 gr, grade seed and seed fungi. Results The study concluded that meet the requirements of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI, 2002 and also the International Cocoa Standards. While the quality requirements based on the number of seeds g tiap100 the fermentation of cocoa beans from Pegadang Village, Sekayam, Sanggau located on I-D quality.

  3. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Valeria; Barthelmes, Jens; Nägele, Matthias P.; Enseleit, Frank; Ferri, Claudio; Flammer, Andreas J.; Ruschitzka, Frank; Sudano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP), improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure). Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function. PMID:28824916

  4. Mycobiota of cocoa: From farm to chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Marina V.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    , liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated...... was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology......The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs...

  5. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ludovici

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP, improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure. Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function.

  6. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated by Olam Organisation in ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... level, household size, no of farm family assisting on the farm, management system adopted, ...

  7. Agreement Between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities. Addition to the List of Facilities Subject to Safeguards Under the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities (hereinafter “the Agreement”), India shall notify the Agency in writing of its decision to offer any facility identified by India for Agency safeguards under the Agreement. Any facility so notified by India becomes subject to the Agreement as of the date of receipt by the Agency of such written notification from India, and is to be included in the Annex to the Agreement. On 11 March 2014, the Agency received from India written notification, pursuant to Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement, of its decision to bring one additional facility under safeguards in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. Pursuant to Paragraph 14 4(a) of the Agreement, the Annex to the Agreement has been updated and is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency [es

  8. TOWARDS MORE SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COCOA TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Philip C.

    2003-01-01

    Cocoa is a classic Third World cash crop. It is produced mostly by small, poor farmers in Africa, while its products - chocolate and sun tan oil - are consumed by rich consumers in North America and Europe. A few West African economies are highly dependent on foreign exchange earned from cocoa sales. It has therefore been targeted by Oxfam's Fair Trade initiative, and IITA's Sustainable Tree Crops Program (STCP) is launching an effort of become more aligned with consumer's social preferences....

  9. Model protocol additional to the agreement(s) between state(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document is a model Additional Protocol designed for States having a Safeguards Agreement with the Agency, in order to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguard system as a contribution to global nuclear non-proliferation objectives.

  10. Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This document is a model Additional Protocol designed for States having a Safeguards Agreement with the Agency, in order to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguards system as a contribution to global nuclear non-proliferation objectives

  11. Model protocol additional to the agreement(s) between state(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This document is a model Additional Protocol designed for States having a Safeguards Agreement with the Agency, in order to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguard system as a contribution to global nuclear non-proliferation objectives

  12. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa products and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehí, Josep

    2004-10-06

    In this work, the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in 170 samples of cocoa products of different geographical origins was studied. An immunoaffinity column with HPLC separation was developed to quantify low levels of OTA in cocoa bean, cocoa cake, cocoa mass, cocoa nib, cocoa powder, cocoa shell, cocoa butter, chocolate, and chocolate cream with >80% recoveries. The method was validated by performing replicate analyses of uncontaminated cocoa material spiked at three different levels of OTA (1, 2, and 5 microg/kg). The data obtained were related on the acceptable safe daily exposure for OTA. The highest levels of OTA were detected in roasted cocoa shell and cocoa cake (0.1-23.1 microg/kg) and only at minor levels in the other cocoa products. Twenty-six cocoa and chocolate samples were free from detectable OTA (cocoa powder 38.7% of the samples analyzed contained OTA at levels ranging from 0.1 to 2 microg/kg, and 54.8% was contaminated at >2 microg/kg (and 12 samples at >3 microg/kg). Ochratoxin A was detected in cocoa bean at levels from 0.1 to 3.5 microg/kg, the mean concentration being 0.45 microg/kg; only one sample exceeded 2 microg/kg (4.7%). In contrast, 51.2% of cocoa cake samples contained OTA at levels > or =2 microg/kg, among which 16 exceeded 5 microg/kg (range of 5-9 microg/kg). These results indicate that roasted cocoa powder is not a major source of OTA in the diet.

  13. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Ackar, Djurdjica; Valek Lendić, Kristina; Valek, Marina; Šubarić, Drago; Miličević, Borislav; Babić, Jurislav; Nedić, Ilija

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyph...

  14. Natural cocoa as diet-mediated antimalarial prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, F K

    2010-05-01

    The Maya of Central America are credited with the first consumption of cocoa and maintaining its ancient Olmec name kakawa translated in English as "God Food", in recognition of its multiple health benefits. The legend of cocoa is receiving renewed attention in recent years, on account of epidemiological and scientific studies that support its cardiovascular health benefits. Increasing numbers of scientific reports corroborating cocoa's antiquated reputation as health food persuaded this author to promote regular consumption of cocoa in Ghana since 2004. Cocoa is readily available in Ghana; the country is the second largest producer accounting for 14% of the world's output. Numerous anecdotal reports of reduced episodic malaria in people who daily drink natural unsweetened cocoa beverage prompted a search for scientific mechanisms that possibly account for cocoa's antimalarial effects. This paper presents the outcome as a hypothesis. Internet search for literature on effects of cocoa's ingredients on malaria parasites and illness using a variety of search tools. Evidential literature suggests five mechanisms that possibly underpin cocoa's anecdotal antimalarial effects. (i) Increased availability of antioxidants in plasma, (ii) membrane effects in general and erythrocyte membrane in particular, (iii) increased plasma levels of nitric oxide, (iv) antimalarial activity of cocoa flavanoids and their derivatives, and (v) boosted immune system mediated by components of cocoa including cocoa butter, polyphenols, magnesium, and zinc. A hypothesis is formulated that cocoa offers a diet-mediated antimalarial prophylaxis; and an additional novel tool in the fight against the legendary scourge.

  15. COCOA CMS Object-oriented Code for Optical Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Arce, P

    2007-01-01

    COCOA is a C++ software that is able to reconstruct the positions, angular orientations, and internal optical parameters of any optical system described by a seamless combination of many different types of optical objects. The program also handles the propagation of uncertainties, which makes it very useful to simulate the system in the design phase. The software is currently in use by the different optical alignment systems of CMS and is integrated in the CMS framework so that it can read the geometry description from simple text files or the CMS XML format, and the input and output data from text files, ROOT trees, or an Oracle or MySQL database.

  16. The Nordic Countries interests in principles for international greenhouse gas agreements; Nordens interesser i principper for internationale drivhusgasaftaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Meyer, H.; Stephensen, P.; Soerensen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of this report is the interests of the Nordic countries in international agreements on greenhouse gases. The subject is approached mainly from an economic point of view. Introductory, the climate convention are described, with special attention to obligations to emission reductions. Important discussion points are timing of the reductions as well as the question of meeting the reductions by cooperation with other countries through joint-implementation projects. The different attitudes of the Nordic countries to these issues are discussed. In the following, the technical and economic possibilities for meeting the reduction objectives of each country are described. For this purpose, governmental plans and studies (on bottom-up as well as top-down studies) are brought into focus. A discussion of the differences and similarities of the methodology of the studies are carried out. Finally, the report focuses on costs of reducing emissions in the Nordic countries. A comparison between the different Nordic countries, as well as between the Nordic countries and the other OECD countries is done. The analysis points out, that the Nordic countries are characterized by relatively high costs in general. Another conclusion is, that the costs of reduction after the year 2000/2005 are much lower than costs of reductions in the short run. An exception to this is Denmark. This points out, that some Nordic countries prefer emission reductions through joint-implementation projects in other countries, rather than reductions through restrictive agreements in the sort run. (au) (29 tabs., 28 ills., 45 refs.)

  17. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Accord sur les Privileges et Immunites ee 'Agence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-31

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [French] Le texte de l'Accord sur les privileges et immunites de l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique, qui a ete approuve par le Conseil des gouverneurs le 1er juillet 1959, est reproduit dans le present document pour l'information de tous les Etats Membres. Conformment aux dispositions de la section 38 de l'Accord, le Directeur general a adresse au gouvernement de chaque Etat Membre une copie certifiee conforme de l'Accord et en enverra une auv gouvernement de chaque nouvel Etat Membre.

  18. Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards to civilian nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 1 August 2008. It was signed in Vienna on 2 February 2009. Pursuant to paragraph 108 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 11 May 2009, the date on which the Agency received from India written notification that India's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  19. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdjica Ackar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyphenols and influence of cocoa and chocolate on human health. Although research on health benefits of dark chocolate and cocoa is quite extensive nowadays and shows potentially beneficial effects of dark chocolate and cocoa, there are still lots of unknowns and some controversies. This is obviously an area that needs more research in order to determine factual influence of chocolate on health.

  20. Increasing cocoa butter-like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Gossing, Michael; Bergenholm, David

    2017-01-01

    for CB biosynthesis from the cocoa genome using a phylogenetic analysis approach. By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some S. cerevisiae strains. The relative CBL content in three yeast...... higher level of CBL compared with the control strain. In summary, CBL production by S. cerevisiae were increased through expressing selected cocoa genes potentially involved in CB biosynthesis.......Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol(POS,C16:0C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18...

  1. The Agency's Agreement with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization concerning the Joint Operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste. Extension of the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    By an exchange of letters between the Directors General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Agency, the duration of the agreement between the two organizations concerning the joint operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste has been extended until 31 December 1986.

  2. The Agency's Agreement with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization concerning the Joint Operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste. Extension of the Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-02-15

    By an exchange of letters between the Directors General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Agency, the duration of the agreement between the two organizations concerning the joint operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste has been extended until 31 December 1986.

  3. Determination of flavanol and procyanidin (by degree of polymerization 1-10) content of chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa flavanol extracts by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection (FLD) for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in materials containing chocolate and cocoa. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries participated in the study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results from 12 laboratories yielded repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values that were below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSD(R) was 17.68%. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa extracts.

  4. The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambali B; Andel I van; Schenk E; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Vleeming W; TOX; SIR; LVM; PZO

    2003-01-01

    In this report the effect of these compounds on the addiction to cigarette smoking was assessed, using currently available information in the literature on psychoactive compounds of cocoa. The investigated psychoactive cocoa compounds were theobromine, caffeine, serotonin, histamine, tryptophan,

  5. Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam Isolates of Botryodiplodia theobromae in Ghana. ... A total of 25 fungal isolates were sampled from cocoa, mango, banana and yam within four ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  6. 551 training needs assessment of cocoa farmers association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-08-26

    Aug 26, 2013 ... assessed cocoa farmers' training needs on soil management techniques in Cross River State of. Nigeria. .... attention to soil management by cooca farmers as one of ..... in cocoa production in Ghana (Pilot survey). Retrieved ...

  7. How can the productivity of Indonesian cocoa farms be increased?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tothmihaly, A.; Ingram, V.J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the Indonesian cocoa production to reveal the possibilities for poverty alleviation while considering the threats to environmental sustainability. We estimate, based on a large household panel data set and stochastic frontier analysis, the technical efficiency of cocoa

  8. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what about cocoa and chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    Cocoa flavonoids are able to reduce cardiovascular risk by improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure (BP). Interest in the biological activities of cocoa is daily increasing. A recent meta-analysis shows flavanol-rich cocoa administration decreases mean systolic (-4.5mm Hg; pcocoa effects on cardiovascular health focusing on putative mechanisms of action and nutritional and "pharmacological" viewpoints. Cocoa consumption could play a pivotal role in human health. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. International codes and agreements to restrict the promotion of harmful products can hold lessons for the control of alcohol marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Jane; Lobstein, Tim; Godfrey, Fiona; Johns, Paula; Brookes, Chris; Jernigan, David

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The 2011 UN Summit on Non-Communicable Disease failed to call for global action on alcohol marketing despite calls in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases 2013-20 to restrict or ban alcohol advertising. In this paper we ask what it might take to match the global approach to tobacco enshrined in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), and suggest that public health advocates can learn from the development of the FCTC and the Code of Marketing on infant formula milks and the recent recommendations on restricting food marketing to children. Methods Narrative review of qualitative accounts of the processes that created and monitor existing codes and treaties to restrict the marketing of consumer products, specifically breast milk substitutes, unhealthy foods and tobacco. Findings The development of treaties and codes for market restrictions include: (i) evidence of a public health crisis; (ii) the cost of inaction; (iii) civil society advocacy; (iv) the building of capacity; (v) the management of conflicting interests in policy development; and (vi) the need to consider monitoring and accountability to ensure compliance. Conclusion International public health treaties and codes provide an umbrella under which national governments can strengthen their own legislation, assisted by technical support from international agencies and non-governmental organizations. Three examples of international agreements, those for breast milk substitutes, unhealthy foods and tobacco, can provide lessons for the public health community to make progress on alcohol controls. Lessons include stronger alliances of advocates and health professionals and better tools and capacity to monitor and report current marketing practices and trends. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. 76 FR 35966 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...-0070; Airspace Docket No. 10-ASO-43] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as the... Island Airport, Cocoa, FL (75 FR 21266) Docket No. FAA-2011-0070. Interested parties were invited to...

  11. Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Variability on Cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Variability on Cocoa ( Theobroma Cacao ) Yields in Meme Division, South West Region of Cameroon. ... Farm selection was based on age, consistency of sizes and management practices in an attempt to keep the factors affecting cocoa yield constant. Data on cocoa yield, flowering, ...

  12. Awareness and effects of climate change on cocoa production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This, according to reports, resulted from climate failure, among other factors. In the light of this, this study examined awareness and effects of climate change on cocoa production in Ondo State, the Nigeria's leading cocoa producing state. Specifically, the study decribed socio-‐economic characteristics of cocoa farmers in ...

  13. Analysis of factors affecting the technical efficiency of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study estimated the technical efficiency of cocoa producers and the socioeconomic factors influencing technical efficiency and identified the constraints to cocoa production. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select 180 cocoa farmers who were interviewed for the study. Data on the inputs used and ...

  14. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration, “Definitions and Standards of Identity for Cocoa Products... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture...

  15. Analysis of economic efficiency in cocoa production in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the economic efficiency of resource utilization in cocoa production of the cocoa farmers in Ghana to provide information for effective application and management of farm inputs on cocoa farms and policy recommendation. A random sample of 300 farmers in the Eastern, Ashanti ...

  16. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (17), pp. 2054-2061, 5 September 2007. Available online at ... Plant Pathology Division, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Accepted 9 August, 2007 ... economic importance of the disease in Nigeria. Key words: Cocoa, cocoa swollen shoot ...

  17. Influence of the position of detached cocoa pod inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) to determine if there were any interactions between Phytophthora infection at the distal, proximal and mid-region positions of cocoa pods. The number and size of lesions in nine different cocoa clones were counted and measured at the three ...

  18. Cocoa farmers'perception of Community Based Nursery Scheme: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian cocoa production has declined compared to the existing situation before oil discovery in the early 1970s. This decline has been linked to the presence of old cocoa varieties on cocoa plantations and incidence of pests and diseases. Sustainable Tree Crop Programme (STCP)| -Nigeria established Community ...

  19. Mycological evaluation of a ground cocoa-based beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are processed into cocoa beverage through fermentation, drying, roasting and grounding of the seed to powder. The mycological quality of 39 samples of different brand of these cocoa – based beverage referred to as 'eruku oshodi' collected from 3 different markets in south – west Nigeria ...

  20. Farmers' compliance with the use of approved cocoa pesticides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey evaluates the awareness and level of compliance in the use of approved cocoa pesticides by local farmers in selected cocoa producing states of Nigeria. Thirty farmers were randomly selected in Kwara, Ogun and Osun States. More than 70 percent of the farmers were aware of banned cocoa pesticides.

  1. Cocoa Farmers Attitude towards Utilisation of Integrated Pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined cocoa farmers' attitude towards the utilization of integrated pest management (IPM) in Edo and Ogun States of Nigeria. In Edo State, 60 respondents were randomly selected out of 100 trained cocoa farmers. Random selection of 60 respondents from registered cocoa farmers that were not trained in IPM ...

  2. Metals and cocoa products: a study on characterization of toxic and essential metals in chocolates (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Husnain, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometer (both with FAAS and GFAAS modes of atomization), was used for analyzing essential and toxic metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd) contents in 32 commonly consumed cocoa products (chocolates) prepared by different national and multinational companies. Significant differences were observed between the micro element contents of the 32 varieties (P < 0.01). The risk posed by the quantity of heavy metals lead, cadmium and nickel present in cocoa products (chocolates) is of serious apprehension and weekly intake was calculated. The Concentration of Pb and Cd in cocoa powder is found to be highest 492 and 197 mu g/L followed by cocoa based chocolates 306 and 46.8 mu g/L, sugar based chocolates 209.8 and 40.3 mu g/L whereas it is least in milk based chocolates samples 88.3 and 33 mu g/L respectively. The concentration of Pb and Cd was found below the provisional tolerable weekly intake defined by FAO/WHO. All essential elements were assessed for their weekly intake with the dietary reference intakes. In order to validate our results, certified reference material (Wheat flour 1589, Milk powder A-11 and Milk Powder A-8) were analyzed for Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd levels. Determined concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Data was interpreted through cluster analysis and pattern recognition. (author)

  3. Cocoa agroforestry is less resilient to suboptimal and extreme climate than cocoa in full sun: Reply to Norgrove (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulai, Issaka; Vaast, Philippe; Hoffmann, Munir P; Asare, Richard; Jassogne, Laurence; Asten, Piet Van; Rötter, Reimund P; Graefe, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    Resilience of cocoa agroforestry vs. full sun under extreme climatic conditions. In the specific case of our study, the two shade tree species associated with cocoa resulted in strong competition for water and became a disadvantage to the cocoa plants contrary to expected positive effects. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Agreement on the establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. Latest status. Declarations/reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, for which the Director General of the IAEA is depositary, was done in Paris on 21 November 2006. Pursuant to Article 22 thereof, the Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project 'shall enter into force thirty days after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Agreement by the People's Republic of China, EURATOM, the Republic of India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America. The text of the Agreement is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  5. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. Latest status. Declarations/reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, for which the Director General of the IAEA is depositary, was done in Paris on 21 November 2006. Pursuant to Article 25 thereof, the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project 'shall enter into force thirty days after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Agreement by the People's Republic of China, EURATOM, the Republic of India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation.' The text of the Agreement is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  6. The Text of the Agency's Agreement with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Concerning the Joint Operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-10-20

    The text of the agreement between the Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) concerning the joint operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, which was signed by the Director General of the Agency on 3 July and by the Director General of UNESCO on 15 July 1969, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The agreement will enter into force on 1 January 1970.

  7. The Text of the Agency's Agreement with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Concerning the Joint Operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The text of the agreement between the Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) concerning the joint operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, which was signed by the Director General of the Agency on 3 July and by the Director General of UNESCO on 15 July 1969, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The agreement will enter into force on 1 January 1970.

  8. COCOA: Simulating Observations of Star Cluster Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Dalessandro, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) creates idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or N-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. The code can simulate optical observations from simulation snapshots in which positions and magnitudes of objects are known. The parameters for simulating the observations can be adjusted to mimic telescopes of various sizes. COCOA also has a photometry pipeline that can use standalone versions of DAOPHOT (ascl:1104.011) and ALLSTAR to produce photometric catalogs for all observed stars.

  9. Text of the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization concerning the joint operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization concerning the Joint Operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993 and by the UNESCO General Conference on 16 November 1993

  10. Text of the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 25 February 1993, by the UNESCO General Conference on 16 November 1993, and ratified by the Italian Parliament on 2 January 1995.

  11. Text of the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993, by the UNESCO General Conference on 16 November 1993, and ratified by the Italian Parliament on 2 January 1995

  12. Targeting improved patient outcomes using innovative product listing agreements: a survey of Canadian and international key opinion leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Melissa Thompson,1 Chris Henshall,2 Louis P Garrison,3 Adrian D Griffin,4 Doug Coyle,2,5 Stephen Long,6 Zayna A Khayat,7 Dana L Anger,1 Rebecca Yu8 1Cornerstone Research Group Inc., Burlington, ON, Canada; 2Health Economics Research Group, Brunel University London, London UK; 3Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research and Policy Program, School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 4Government Affairs & Policy, Johnson & Johnson, High Wycombe, UK; 5School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 6Health and Life Sciences, Global Public Affairs, Calgary, AB, 7Health Systems Innovation at MaRS Discovery District, Toronto, ON, Canada; 8Strategic Health Technology Assessment, Government Affairs & Market Access, Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objectives: To address the uncertainty associated with procuring pharmaceutical products, product listing agreements (PLAs are increasingly being used to support responsible funding decisions in Canada and elsewhere. These agreements typically involve financial-based rebating initiatives or, less frequently, outcome-based contracts. A qualitative survey was conducted to improve the understanding of outcome-based and more innovative PLAs (IPLAs based on input from Canadian and international key opinion leaders in the areas of drug manufacturing and reimbursement. Methods: Results from a structured literature review were used to inform survey development. Potential participants were invited via email to partake in the survey, which was conducted over phone or in person. Responses were compiled anonymously for review and reporting. Results: Twenty-one individuals participated in the survey, including health technology ­assessment (HTA key opinion leaders (38%, pharmaceutical industry chief executive officers/vice presidents (29%, ex-payers (19%, and current payers/drug plan managers/HTA (14%. The participants suggested that ~80%–95% of

  13. THE JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TO DELIVER A CANCELLATION JUDGMENT REGARDING THE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS TO WHICH THE EU IS PARTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Mariana POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the case where international agreements are treated as legal acts of EU institutions, they may be subject to judicial review exercised by the Court in Luxembourg. Given the fact that we assimilate international agreements to legal acts of the European Union, we would be tempted to ask ourselves the following questions: to what extent declaring an agreement, by a judgment of the Court of Justice of the EU delivered in the action for cancellation, as being inapplicable to the EU legal order, affects the security of international relationships? If these relationships are affected, is it possible to exclude the subsequent verification conducted by the Court? In the study below, our purpose is to find answer to these questions.

  14. Major phytopathogens and strains from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) are differentiated by MALDI-MS lipid and/or peptide/protein profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Fábio Neves; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Kátia Roberta Anacleto; Magalhães, Dilze Maria Argôlo; Luz, Edna Dora Martins Newman; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2017-03-01

    Phytopathogens are the main disease agents that promote attack of cocoa plantations in all tropical countries. The similarity of the symptoms caused by different phytopathogens makes the reliable identification of the diverse species a challenge. Correct identification is important in the monitoring and management of these pests. Here we show that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis is able to rapidly and reliably differentiate cocoa phytopathogens, namely Moniliophthora perniciosa, Phytophthora palmivora, P. capsici, P. citrophthora, P. heveae, Ceratocystis cacaofunesta, C. paradoxa, and C. fimbriata. MALDI-MS reveals unique peptide/protein and lipid profiles which differentiate these phytopathogens at the level of genus, species, and single strain coming from different hosts or cocoa tissues collected in several plantations/places. This fast methodology based on molecular biomarkers is also shown to be sufficiently reproducible and selective and therefore seems to offer a suitable tool to guide the correct application of sanitary defense approaches for infected cocoa plantations. International trading of cocoa plants and products could also be efficiently monitored by MALDI-MS. It could, for instance, prevent the entry of new phytopathogens into a country, e.g., as in the case of Moniliophthora roreri fungus that is present in all cocoa plantations of countries bordering Brazil, but that has not yet attacked Brazilian plantations. Graphical Abstract Secure identification of phytopathogens attacking cocoa plantations has been demonstrated via typical chemical profiles provided by mass spectrometric screening.

  15. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.

    1979-01-01

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 32 0 C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  16. Radiotreated cocoa powder for frozen elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Jorge, M.; Alvarez Gil, M.; Prieto Miranda, E.; Morales Valladares, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present papers is to study the possibilities of 2.0 kGy gamma radiotreated cocoa powder to be used in the elaboration of powder mixture for the preparation of chocolate frozen. Three industrial productions were carried out. Microbiological and organoleptic evaluations of the final product were performed. The results showed that the use of radurized cocoa powder in the frozen elaboration is feasible. A good hygienic quality of this product was obtained and no organoleptic alterations were detected [es

  17. Intercropping cocoa with fruit trees : Innovative systems in cocoa cultivation. Setting up a new plot on fallows or savannah areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgoing, Raymond; Todem, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of the 80s, cocoa growers in Cameroon have experienced a low level of income due, among others, to the low productivity of cocoa trees. The average yield is estimated at about 300 kg of dried cocoa beans per hectare. The low level of adoption of the results and recommendations of cocoa research as well as the fact that the technologies developed do not respond to the real needs of the producers are among the causes of the low yields observed in cocoa farms. In addition, the insu...

  18. A conceptual framework for investigating the impacts of international trade and investment agreements on noncommunicable disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Ashley; Ruckert, Arne; VanDuzer, J Anthony; Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Stuckler, David; Labonte, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    We developed a conceptual framework exploring pathways between trade and investment and noncommunicable disease (NCD) outcomes. Despite increased knowledge of the relevance of social and structural determinants of health, the discourse on NCD prevention has been dominated by individualizing paradigms targeted at lifestyle interventions. We situate individual risk factors, alongside key social determinants of health, as being conditioned and constrained by trade and investment policy, with the aim of creating a more comprehensive approach to investigations of the health impacts of trade and investment agreements, and to encourage upstream approaches to combating rising rates of NCDs. To develop the framework we employed causal chain analysis, a technique which sequences the immediate causes, underlying causes, and root causes of an outcome; and realist review, a type of literature review focussed on explaining the underlying mechanisms connecting two events. The results explore how facilitating trade in goods can increase flows of affordable unhealthy imports; while potentially altering revenues for public service provision and reshaping domestic economies and labour markets-both of which distribute and redistribute resources for healthy lifestyles. The facilitation of cross-border trade in services and investment can drive foreign investment in unhealthy commodities, which in turn, influences consumption of these products; while altering accessibility to pharmaceuticals that may mediate NCDs outcomes that result from increased consumption. Furthermore, trade and investment provisions that influence the policy-making process, set international standards, and restrict policy-space, may alter a state's propensity for regulating unhealthy commodities and the efficacy of those regulations. It is the hope that the development of this conceptual framework will encourage capacity and inclination among a greater number of researchers to investigate a more comprehensive

  19. Metals and cocoa products: a study on characterization of toxic and essential metals in chocolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Husnain, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) were assessed in 32 commonly consumed cocoa products (chocolates) prepared by different national and multinational companies. Significant differences were observed between the micro element contents of these varieties (P < 0.01). Frequent consumption of chocolates can enhance the intake of toxic metals in children. The concentration of Pb and Cd in cocoa powder is found to be highest 492 and 197 mu g/L followed by cocoa based chocolates 306 and 46.8 mu g/L, sugar based chocolates 209.8 and 40.3 mu g/L whereas it is least in milk based chocolates samples 88.3 and 33 mu g/L respectively. Weekly intake of toxic metals Pb, Cd and Ni was also calculated. Mean concentration of Pb and Cd was found below the provisional tolerable weekly intake defined by FAO/WHO. All essential elements were assessed for their weekly intake with the dietary reference intakes (DRI). Results were validated through the analysis of certified reference materials and determined metals concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Data was interpreted through cluster analysis and pattern recognition as depicted. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Fe were found to be highest in the cocoa-based followed by milk-based and sugar-based chocolates. The daily intake of cocoa-based chocolates must be reduced as lead and cadmium intake can otherwise cross the limits set by Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO 2006). Raw materials should be checked before use for metal contents in order to decrease the concentrations of these metals in final chocolate products. (Orig./A.B.)

  20. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Panama to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 23 March 1984 between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [fr

  1. Agreement of 9 September 1996 between Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Antigua and Barbuda to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [fr

  2. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Panama to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 23 March 1984 between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  3. Agreement of 9 September 1996 between Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Antigua and Barbuda to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  4. Agreement of 18 April 1975 between Honduras and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Honduras to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 18 April 1975 between the Republic of Honduras and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  5. Microbiota Dynamics and Diversity at Different Stages of Industrial Processing of Cocoa Beans into Cocoa Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lídia J. R.; van der Velpen, Vera; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith; Kamphuis, Henri J.; Nout, M. J. Rob

    2012-01-01

    We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library construction, to analyze the samples. Aerobic thermoresistant spores (ThrS) (100°C; 10 min) were also isolated and characterized (identity, genetic diversity, and spore heat resistance), in view of their relevance to the quality of downstream heat-treated cocoa-flavored drinks. In the nibs (broken, shelled cocoa beans), average levels of total aerobic microorganisms (TAM) (4.4 to 5.6 log CFU/g) and aerobic total spores (TS) (80°C; 10 min; 4.3 to 5.5 log CFU/g) were significantly reduced (P cocoa samples revealed a predominance of members of the Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Enterococcaceae. Eleven species of ThrS were found, but Bacillus licheniformis and the Bacillus subtilis complex were prominent and revealed great genetic heterogeneity. We concluded that the microbiota of cocoa powder resulted from microorganisms that could have been initially present in the nibs, as well as microorganisms that originated during processing. B. subtilis complex members, particularly B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, formed the most heat-resistant spores. Their occurrence in cocoa powder needs to be considered to ensure the stability of derived products, such as ultrahigh-temperature-treated chocolate drinks. PMID:22327588

  6. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  7. The gravity model specification for modeling international trade flows and free trade agreement effects: a 10-year review of empirical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kepaptsoglou, Konstantinos; Karlaftis, Matthew G.; Tsamboulas, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    The gravity model has been extensively used in international trade research for the last 40 years because of its considerable empirical robustness and explanatory power. Since their introduction in the 1960's, gravity models have been used for assessing trade policy implications and, particularly recently, for analyzing the effects of Free Trade Agreements on international trade. The objective of this paper is to review the recent empirical literature on gravity models, highlight best practic...

  8. Guidelines for the International Observation by the Agency of Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes under the Provisions of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or Analogous Provisions in Other International Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    On 21 June 1972 the Board of Governors approved guidelines for the international observation by the Agency of nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes under the provisions of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or analogous provisions in other international agreements. These guidelines are now reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  9. Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pereira, José L; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2011-12-01

    The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated and identified using different keys of identification. The largest numbers and diversity of fungi were observed in the samples collected at the farm, especially during drying and storage. The species with the highest occurrence among samples were: Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. nov., A. flavus, Penicillium paneum and yeasts. A total of 1132 potentially toxigenic fungi were isolated from the following species or species groups: A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus niger group, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus group. The highest percentage of toxigenic fungi was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology. This understanding leads to a reduction in fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in this product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the varimax rotation revealed that the major constraints to adoption of cocoa technologies were socio-cultural, literacy and financial problems. It was therefore recommended that existing farmers' organizations should be strengthened through regular meetings and training by Olam organization to enhance rapid ...

  11. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998

  12. CACAO TO COCOA TO CHOCOLATE: HEALTHY FOOD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROYA KELISHADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods. Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukotriene/ prostacyclin ratio and is shown to have beneficial effects on platelets and possibly inflammation and vessel dilation. They inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, raise the high-density lipoprotein (HDL level and reduce the thrombotic tendency. Their antioxidant catechin content is four times that of tea. They help the body process nitric oxide. Their flavanols and procyanidins have inhibitory effects on hemolysis, they can also attribute as a defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS and can inhibit their carcinogenic processes. Also they are shown to inhibit growth and polyamine biosynthesis of human colonic cancer cells. They contain tryptophan and anandamide, which lessen anxiety, promote relaxation and trigger the production of endorphins. Cocoa can prevent dental caries and may play a regulating role in the function of the immune system and prevent infectious and autoimmune diseases. It stimulates lactase enzyme activity. Although caffeine may be harmful in large dose, chocolate contains it in small amount in comparison to coffee and tea. Negative effects of chocolate on childhood hyperactivity and migraine  as well as tension headaches are controversial. Since the theobromine content of chocolate relaxes the esophageal sphincter, patients suffering from heartburn should avoid it. Cocoa can trigger some allergic reactions such as atopic dermatitis. This article reviews the potential health benefits and disadvantages of cocoa

  13. Agreement of 9 June 1994 between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Croatia to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency. The amendments agreed upon in the Exchange of Letters entered into force on 26 May 2008, the date on which the Agency received from Croatia written notification that Croatia's internal requirements for entry into force had been fulfilled

  14. The effects of cocoa on the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is a food relatively rich in polyphenols, which makes it a potent antioxidant. Due to its activity as an antioxidant, as well as through other mechanisms, cocoa consumption has been reported to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, brain functions, and cancer prevention. Furthermore, cocoa influences the immune system, in particular the inflammatory innate response and the systemic and intestinal adaptive immune response. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that a cocoa-enriched diet modifies T-cell functions that conduce to a modulation of the synthesis of systemic and gut antibodies. In this regard, it seems that a cocoa diet in rats produces changes in the lymphocyte composition of secondary lymphoid tissues and the cytokines secreted by T cells. These results suggest that it is possible that cocoa could inhibit the function of Th2 cells, and in line with this, the preventive effect of cocoa on IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model has been reported, which opens up new perspectives when considering the beneficial effects of cocoa compounds. On the other hand, cocoa intake modifies the functionality of gut-associated lymphoid tissue by means of modulating IgA secretion and intestinal microbiota. The mechanisms involved in these influences are discussed here. Further research may elucidate the cocoa compounds involved in such an effect and also the possible medical approaches to these repercussions.

  15. The effects of cocoa on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a food relatively rich in polyphenols, which makes it a potent antioxidant. Due to its activity as an antioxidant, as well as through other mechanisms, cocoa consumption has been reported to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, brain functions, and cancer prevention. Furthermore, cocoa influences the immune system, in particular the inflammatory innate response and the systemic and intestinal adaptive immune response. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that a cocoa-enriched diet modifies T cell functions that conduce to a modulation of the synthesis of systemic and gut antibodies. In this regard, it seems that a cocoa diet in rats produces changes in the lymphocyte composition of secondary lymphoid tissues and the cytokines secreted by T cells. These results suggest that it is possible that cocoa could inhibit the function of T helper type 2 cells, and in line with this, the preventive effect of cocoa on IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model has been reported, which opens up new perspectives when considering the beneficial effects of cocoa compounds. On the other hand, cocoa intake modifies the functionality of gut-associated lymphoid tissue by means of modulating IgA secretion and intestinal microbiota. The mechanisms involved in these influences are discussed here. Further research may elucidate the cocoa compounds involved in such an effect and also the possible medical approaches to these repercussions.

  16. Impact of shade and cocoa plant densities on soil organic carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    There were no soil organic carbon sequestration in the highest cocoa plant ... It is concluded that cocoa farming could be an effective means to mitigate carbon dioxide ... growth and yield of cocoa at the CRIG substation Bunso (060 13' N,.

  17. Determination of Selection Index of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Yield Traits Using Regression Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawan, Bayu; Taryono; Mitrowihardjo, Suyadi

    2016-01-01

    The increasing chocolate consumption has not been followed by growing production of dry cocoa beans. In order to support the increase in cocoa production, planting materials with high yield are needed. The objective of this research was to determine the components of cocoa traits affecting weight of dry cocoa beans, and set a selection index for superior cocoa trees. The experiment material were four cocoa hybrid populations of which their family ancestry were unknown, and were planted on Sam...

  18. Effect of cocoa bean irradiation on sensory quality of processed cocoa products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bah, F.A.; Appiah, V.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Akomea-Adjei, F.

    2007-01-01

    Cocoa is the traditional export crop for Ghana. Its beans are susceptible to insect attack and microbial contamination, both of which reduce their quality. Irradiation has been reported as effective in insect disinfestation and microbial decontamination of the bean, without adversely affecting the chemical and organoleptic quality of its products. This study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effect that irradiation of the beans at the appropriate doses, had on the sensory quality of processed products stored up to their 'best before date', which is approximately one year. Cocoa beans irradiated at doses of 1 kGy and 5 kGy, for insect disinfestation and microbial decontamination respectively, were used to prepare chocolate bars and cocoa powder. The products were stored for a year, at room temperature of 18±2 C , and their sensory quality evaluated after 4, 7, 10 and 11 months production. Multiple comparison test was used to determine the effect that the irradiation doses had on the taste, colour and flavour of the products during the storage period while preference test was used to determine consumer acceptability and preference. After 4 months storage, the I kGy cocoa powder differed significantly (p<0.05) from the non-irradiated and 5 kGy samples in terms of colour while after 7 months storage, there was significant difference in both taste and flavour, between the irradiated and non-irradiated cocoa powders. After 10 and I I months of storage, the colours of the irradiated cocoa powders significantly differed (p< O. 01) from the non-irradiated one and also from each other. The chocolate bars did not differ significantly from each other in terms of all the 3 measurable attributes. Differences that were observed between the irradiated and non-irradiated cocoa powders were slight and did not render the irradiated samples unacceptable to the consumer panel. (au)

  19. Describing Peripancreatic Collections According to the Revised Atlanta Classification of Acute Pancreatitis An International Interobserver Agreement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwense, Stefan A.; van Brunschot, Sandra; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Besselink, Marc G.; Bollen, Thomas L.; Bakker, Olaf J.; Banks, Peter A.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Cappendijk, Vincent C.; Carter, Ross; Charnley, Richard; van Eijck, Casper H.; Freeny, Patrick C.; Hermans, John J.; Hough, David M.; Johnson, Colin D.; Laméris, Johan S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Mayerle, Julia; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Sarr, Michael G.; Stedman, Brian; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Werner, Jens; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Horvath, Karen D.; Aghdassi, Ali A.; van Enckevort, Conny C.; de Haas, Robbert J.; Horsthuis, Karin; van der Jagt, Michel F.; Kok, Niels F.; Koopmanschap, Desirée H.; Koppe, Manuel J.; Krak, Nanda C.; Lane, Charlotte E.; Lee, Jean H.; de Lussanet, Q.; Saunders, Michael D.; Swaroop Vege, Santhi; van der Vlugt, Manon; van Wageningen, Bas; Wassenaar, Eelco; van Wely, Bob J.; Wijnhoven, Bas P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with peripancreatic morphologic changes as seen on imaging. Uniform communication regarding these morphologic findings is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment. For the original 1992 Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement is poor.

  20. Publication concerning the scope of the agreement concerning privileges and exemptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The agreement of July 1, 1959, concerning the privileges and exemptions of the IAEA have come into force in Maroc on March 30, 1977, and in the Mongolian People's Republic on January 12, 1976, with some reservations. (HSCH) [de

  1. Packaging of Post Acclimatized Somatic Embryogenesis Cocoa Plantlet (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedarsianto Soedarsianto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plants that produced by somatic embryogenesis technique is one of the best choice to produce supperior clonal cacao (Theobroma cacao L. planting materials. The somatic embryogenesis technique is a possible way for massive propagation, the outcome is true to type plants, the architecture similarity that the seedlings but there is not segregation like seedlings plants. At present mass production started of plantlets production until post-acclimatized plantlets of somatic embryogenesis cocoa was done at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Distribution system of the planting materials to whole areas in form of as up-rooted post-acclimatized plantlet. Some problems identified to reduce probability of decreasing viability of up-rooted post-acclimatized plantlets and one of them is extreme internal water deficit. This research investigate of the influece storage condition (air tight and non-air tight and box storage (mica plastic and cardboardbox. The first experiment result show, there is no significant different between mica plastic and cardboard box usage for storage of post-acclimatized cocoa pantlet. Viability of up-rooted post acclimatized cocoa plantlet influenced exactly by air tight and non-air tight storage condition. Air tight storage condition have better viability of up-rooted post acclimatised (81,58% than non-air tight storage condition (65,00%. Leaf sanasence on air tight storage condition (10,33% lower than non-air tight storage (32,58%. There is not significantly on volume storage per plantlet between 4.416 cm3 and 12.600 cm3. Relationship between fallen leaves and cocoa planlet viability follow negative linear correlation y = -1,4719x + 104,88 (R2 = 0,9772. The second experiment treatment showed that maximal storage periode of post cclimatized cocoa plantlet just until 6 days stored (97% and not significant with 3 days one. Viability of post acclimatized cocoa plantlet decreased after 6 days storage period

  2. Cocoa bean quality assessment by using hyperspectral images and fuzzy logic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Juan; Granda, Guillermo; Prieto, Flavio; Ipanaque, William; Machacuay, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, cocoa bean exportation from Piura-Peru is having a positive international market response due to their inherent high quality. Nevertheless, when using subjective techniques for quality assessment, such as the cut test, a wastefulness of grains is generated, additional to a restriction in the selection as well as improvement approaches in earlier stages for optimizing the quality. Thus, in an attempt to standardize the internal features analyzed by the cut test, for instance, crack formation and internal color changes during the fermentation, this research is submitted as an approach which aims to make use of hyperspectral images, with the purpose of having a quick and accurate analysis. Hyperspectral cube size was reduced by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The image generated by principal component PC1 provides enough information to clearly distinguish the internal cracks of the cocoa bean, since the zones where these cracks are, have a negative correlation with PC1. The features taken were processed through a fuzzy block, which is able to describe the cocoa bean quality. Three membership functions were defined in the output: unfermented, partly fermented and well fermented, by using trapezoidal-shaped and triangular-shaped functions. A total of twelve rules were propounded. Furthermore, the bisector method was chosen for the defuzzification. Begin the abstract two lines below author names and addresses.

  3. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hayes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  4. Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-06-21

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  5. Effect of Price Determinants on World Cocoa Prices for Over the Last Three Decades: Error Correction Model (ECM) Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lya Aklimawati; Teguh Wahyudi

    2013-01-01

    High  volatility  cocoa  price  movement  is  consequenced  by  imbalancing between power demand and power supply in commodity market. World economy expectation and market  liberalization would lead to instability on cocoa prices in  the  international  commerce.  Dynamic  prices  moving  erratically  influence the benefit  of market players, particularly  producers. The aim of this research is  (1)  to  estimate  the  empirical  cocoa  prices  model  for  responding  market dynamics and (2) ...

  6. The ENSO Impact on Predicting World Cocoa Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ubilava, David; Helmers, Claes Gustav

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa beans are produced in equatorial and sub-equatorial regions of West Africa, Southeast Asia and South America. These are also the regions most affected by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) -- a climatic anomaly affecting temperature and precipitation in many parts of the world. Thus, ENSO, has a potential of affecting cocoa production and, subsequently, prices on the world market. This study investigates the benefits of using a measure of ENSO variable in world cocoa price forecasting ...

  7. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Thea Magrone; Matteo Antonio Russo; Emilio Jirillo; Emilio Jirillo

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothe...

  8. Mitigating humanitarian crises during non-international armed conflicts: the role of human rights and ceasefire agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Lottie

    2016-01-01

    Situations of humanitarian crisis are often caused by armed conflicts. Given the prevalence of non-international armed conflicts today, ways of ameliorating these situations are at the forefront of concerns. The international humanitarian law rules governing non-international armed conflict remain much less developed than those for international armed conflicts. This is exacerbated by the lack of direct human rights obligations for non-state armed groups, which makes governing the behaviour o...

  9. Incentives for smallholders to enhance the production of quality cocoa beans in Ghana: the role of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa beans from Ghana have a reputation of being of consistent quality. As such they sell at a premium on the international market. As a result of this quality reputation, Ghana is able to sell over 70% of its annual produce in forward markets. This trading practice ensures that

  10. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma

  11. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  12. Cocoa and Objective-C Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Build solid applications for Mac OS X, iPhone, and iPod Touch, regardless of whether you have basic programming skills or years of programming experience. With this book, you'll learn how to use Apple's Cocoa framework and the Objective-C language through step-by-step tutorials, hands-on exercises, clear examples, and sound advice from a Cocoa expert. Cocoa and Objective-C: Up and Running offers just enough theory to ground you, then shows you how to use Apple's rapid development tools -- Xcode and Interface Builder -- to develop Cocoa applications, manage user interaction, create great UIs,

  13. Polymorph identification studies on cocoa butter from Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Fadzillah Basri; Fauziah Abdul Aziz; Mohd Omar, A.K.; Nik Norulaini, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyzed and examined the cocoa butter samples from Sabah. This work presence the crystal phases present in cocoa butter sample thus proved the existence of polymorph obtained from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cocoa butter samples were extracted using a conventional method by Soxhlet Extraction method. Crystals were formed under controlled static and tempered conditions. Cocoa butter polymorphism demonstrates that it is the actual crystallization temperature, not the cooling rate that determines the polymorph that crystallizes. (author)

  14. Cocoa and heart health: a historical review of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L

    2013-09-26

    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés's first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America--ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa's bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health.

  15. Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yeyi; Lambert, Joshua D

    2013-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science

    OpenAIRE

    Deanna L. Pucciarelli

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hern?n Cort?s?s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America?ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa?s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in ...

  17. Theobromine and the pharmacology of cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hendrik Jan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of theobromine in man are underresearched, possibly owing to the assumption that it is behaviourally inert. Toxicology research in animals may appear to provide alarming results, but these cannot be extrapolated to humans for a number of reasons. Domestic animals and animals used for racing competitions need to be guarded from chocolate and cocoa-containing foods, including foods containing cocoa husks. Research ought to include caffeine as a comparative agent, and underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. Of all constituents proposed to play a role in our liking for chocolate, caffeine is the most convincing, though a role for theobromine cannot be ruled out. Most other substances are unlikely to exude a psychopharmacological effect owing to extremely low concentrations or the inability to reach the blood-brain barrier, whilst chocolate craving and addiction need to be explained by means of a culturally determined ambivalence towards chocolate.

  18. Incentives for smallholders to enhance the production of quality cocoa beans in Ghana: the role of institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Quarmine, W.

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa beans from Ghana have a reputation of being of consistent quality. As such they sell at a premium on the international market. As a result of this quality reputation, Ghana is able to sell over 70% of its annual produce in forward markets. This trading practice ensures that farmers are protected from price fluctuation in the international market. Consequently, farmers, buyers, scientists and policy makers agree that sustaining Ghana’s premium quality position on the international mar...

  19. High agreement on family affluence between children's and parents' reports: international study of 11-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke; Currie, Candace

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the agreement between parents' and children's reports on four items of family affluence: number of cars, own bedroom, number of family holidays, and number of computers, and to analyse predictors of disagreement. DESIGN: Cross sectional child-parent validation study of selec...

  20. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Announcement on the scope of application of the agreement on the privileges and exemptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The German Democratic Republic does not feel bound by articles 26 and 34 of the Convention enacting obligatory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice. With regard to the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice in controversies arising from the interpretation or application of the Convention, the GDR holds the view that in every single case the consent of all parties concerned is necessary for the commitment of a specific controversy to the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice. This reservation also applies to the terms under article 34 according to which the opinion of the International Court of Justice is considered to be of binding force. (orig./AK) [de

  2. Agreement Between New Zealand and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with New Zealand to Amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between New Zealand and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Prolilferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The amendments agreed upon in the Exchange of Letters entered into force on 24 February 2014, the date on which the Agency received New Zealand's affirmative reply

  3. Protocol Additional to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in France is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998. Pursuant to Article 16 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 30 April 2004, the date on which the Agency received written notification that the European Atomic Energy Community and France had met their respective internal requirements for entry into force

  4. International cooperation and nuclear development. On the approval of the Argentina - Australia co-operation agreement for the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol Varela, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Argentina, with its National Atomic Energy Commission, has been maintaining during more than half a century an important activity for the development of nuclear energy and its peaceful applications. As a consequence of this tradition, it has strengthened its experience with the contribution to the international co-operation, as in the case of the Argentina-Australia co-operation agreement for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, signed on August 8th, 2001 and ratified by the Argentine Law No. 26.014. Both countries are parties of several international treaties and conventions: physical protection of nuclear materials, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear accidents, fuel and wastes management, and others. These legal instruments are complemented by agreements for the applications of safeguards with the International Atomic Energy Agency. On the basis of these regulations the parties agreed to establish co-operation conditions in accordance with the pledge of non-proliferation. Furthermore the agreement states that the Governments have the power to designate the governmental organizations or individuals, as well as the legal entities, which will carry out the co-operation. The co-operation covers basic and applied research, development, design, construction and operation of nuclear reactors and other installations of the nuclear fuel cycle, its related technology as well as nuclear medicine, radioisotopes, etc [es

  5. The Paris Agreement: a new international framework to facilitate the uptake of carbon pricing. Climate Brief No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, Lara; Vaidyula, Manasvini; Afriat, Marion; Alberola, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the implementation of domestic carbon pricing has been expanding at the national and sub-national level. This trend can be attributed to stakeholders and sectors at various levels recognising the benefits of carbon pricing and the ability of these policies to achieve cost-effective reductions. In contrast to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement has adopted a hybrid approach calling on all Parties to determine their own contributions to mitigate climate change affording flexibility to countries in their choice of policy tools. This new format of action gives the responsibility to Parties and sub-governments to implement domestic carbon pricing policies without recommending a specific tool. Article 6 of the Paris Agreement promotes the use of voluntary cooperative approaches by introducing the prospect for Parties to use: ITMOs, SDM and non-market approaches. This provision could create a suitable framework to support the development of trans-national carbon pricing policies by recognising the value of mitigation actions which could directly or indirectly put a price on carbon. Overall expansion of domestic carbon pricing policies will depend on whether it can enable a cost-effective transition to a low-carbon economy with subsequent benefits and co-benefits. Additionally, it will depend on how the rules and modalities of the Paris Agreement, defined in the coming months and years, can be applied to the development of effective carbon pricing policies

  6. Cocoa agroforestry is less resilient to sub-optimal and extreme climate than cocoa in full sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulai, Issaka; Vaast, Philippe; Hoffmann, Munir P; Asare, Richard; Jassogne, Laurence; Van Asten, Piet; Rötter, Reimund P; Graefe, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Cocoa agroforestry is perceived as potential adaptation strategy to sub-optimal or adverse environmental conditions such as drought. We tested this strategy over wet, dry and extremely dry periods comparing cocoa in full sun with agroforestry systems: shaded by (i) a leguminous tree species, Albizia ferruginea and (ii) Antiaris toxicaria, the most common shade tree species in the region. We monitored micro-climate, sap flux density, throughfall, and soil water content from November 2014 to March 2016 at the forest-savannah transition zone of Ghana with climate and drought events during the study period serving as proxy for projected future climatic conditions in marginal cocoa cultivation areas of West Africa. Combined transpiration of cocoa and shade trees was significantly higher than cocoa in full sun during wet and dry periods. During wet period, transpiration rate of cocoa plants shaded by A. ferruginea was significantly lower than cocoa under A. toxicaria and full sun. During the extreme drought of 2015/16, all cocoa plants under A. ferruginea died. Cocoa plants under A. toxicaria suffered 77% mortality and massive stress with significantly reduced sap flux density of 115 g cm -2  day -1 , whereas cocoa in full sun maintained higher sap flux density of 170 g cm -2  day -1 . Moreover, cocoa sap flux recovery after the extreme drought was significantly higher in full sun (163 g cm -2  day -1 ) than under A. toxicaria (37 g cm -2  day -1 ). Soil water content in full sun was higher than in shaded systems suggesting that cocoa mortality in the shaded systems was linked to strong competition for soil water. The present results have major implications for cocoa cultivation under climate change. Promoting shade cocoa agroforestry as drought resilient system especially under climate change needs to be carefully reconsidered as shade tree species such as the recommended leguminous A. ferruginea constitute major risk to cocoa functioning under

  7. The Long and Winding Road to a “Stake in the Internal Market” under the Association Agreement between the EU and Ukraine – with a Particular Focus on Telecommunication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batura, Olga; Kretova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of the granting a full internal market treatment to Ukraine arguably constitutes the core of the comprehensive Association Agreement (AA) between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine signed in June 2014. With regard to the internal market treatment the Association Agreement contain...

  8. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to

  9. Polyphenols from cocoa and vascular health-a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Gerald; Melchin, Mona; Moehring, Jennifer; Wagner, Anika E

    2009-11-20

    Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design) as well as prospective studies are warranted.

  10. Determinants of factors influencing technical efficiency of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors influencing technical efficiency of cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria using a stochastic frontier production function. Using the random sampling technique, well-structured questionnaire were used to elicit information from 120 cocoa farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. The mean technical ...

  11. Recovery of carbonates and hydroxides from cocoa pod ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashes of cocoa pods contain alkali which is traditionally leached out and used to produce 'alata' soap. Ghana's Institute of Industrial Research has tested a pilot plant that produces liquid soap from cocoa pod ash, waste lime (Ca(OH)2), and palm kernel oil by initially converting the potassium carbonate in the leachate to ...

  12. Cocoa husks in diets of Italian heavy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, D; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G; Rosi, F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cocoa husks feeding on liver composition of the Italian heavy pig. Cocoa husks are by-products derived from chocolate production and have a high content of proteins, lipids, and NDF. Cocoa husks are also rich in antioxidants, polyphenols in particular. Eight finishing pigs were divided into 2 groups: control group fed a traditional diet, based on cereals, and treatment group fed a diet obtained by substitution of 10% of the control diet with coarsely ground cocoa husks. The trial was conducted during the hot season and lasted 6 wk, at the end of which all the pigs were slaughtered. Cocoa husks diet reduced dry matter intake (P cocoa husks diet. Treatment did not influence carcass weight and hot dressing percentage but reduced liver weight (P cocoa husks increased liver ether extract (P = 0.05) without affecting cholesterol content. Liver weight loss, reduction of protein synthesis, and a shift toward glycogen use instead of fat oxidation are considered metabolic strategies to reduce heat production under hot conditions. It is possible, therefore, that cocoa husks feeding promoted the process of acclimation because pigs needed less feeding to reach similar body and carcass weight as control pigs.

  13. Metabolomics as a research tool for coffee and cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and cocoa quality is of evergrowing importance and bemg able to determine the key quality aspects of different batches of coffee or cocoa and their products Is central to match1ng industrial processes with mcreas1ng consumer demand for specific quality attnbutes. But what do we actually mean

  14. Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and Kwara states of ... A simple purposive random sampling technique was used to select 100 cocoa ... from the information were analysed with Descriptive Statistics, Food Security ... taken per day (p<0.05) would improve the food security status of households ...

  15. Cocoa and Chocolate in Human Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-κB. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2779–2811. PMID:21470061

  16. Effect of fermentation and drying on cocoa polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Barbara; Schoubben, Aurélie; Guarnaccia, Davide; Pinelli, Filippo; Della Vecchia, Mirco; Ricci, Maurizio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Blasi, Paolo

    2015-11-18

    Cocoa seed polyphenols have demonstrated interesting beneficial effects in humans. Most polyphenols contained in fresh seeds are chemically modified during fermentation, drying, and cocoa powder or chocolate production. The improvement of these procedures to obtain a high-polyphenol-content cocoa is highly desirable. To this aim, a field investigation on the effect of fermentation and natural drying on fine flavor National cocoa (cacao Nacional) was performed. Cocoa seeds were fermented for 6 days and, every day, samples were sun-dried and analyzed for polyphenol content and antioxidant power. During the first 2 days of fermentation, Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP tests evidenced a significant reduction of polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, respectively. Changes during the following days of fermentation were less significant. Epicatechin, the most studied member of the catechin family, followed a similar pathway of degradation. Data confirmed the high impact of fermentation and drying on cocoa seed polyphenols. Fermentation and drying are, on the one hand, necessary to obtain cocoa flavor and palatability but, on the other hand, are responsible for greatly compromising polyphenol content. To obtain high-polyphenol-content cocoa, the existing fermentation, drying, and manufacturing protocols should be scientifically reviewed to understand and modify the critical steps.

  17. Tree diversity and canopy cover in cocoa systems in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growing systems in Ghana and West Africa consist of diverse tree species and densities.This study was conducted to determine factors that influence tree species configurations and how tree characteristics affect canopy cover in cocoa farms. Eighty-six farmers...

  18. Isolation and characterization of an AGAMOUS homologue from cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaidamsari, T.; Sugiarit, H.; Santoso, D.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the cloning of a cDNA from TcAG, an AG (Arabidopsis thaliana MADS-box C-type transcription factor gene AGAMOUS) homologue from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). TcAG was in the cocoa flower expressed primarily in stamens and ovaries, comparable to AG in Arabidopsis. Additionally, we found that

  19. Cocoa introductions into Ghana | Abdul-Karimu | Ghana Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This material collected in the Upper Amazon region has been particularly successful, suggesting that cacao would be greatly improved if more germplasm material were provided for use by breeders. Maintaining adequate genetic variability in cocoa germplasm collection, essential for sustainable cocoa production, can be ...

  20. Biochemical composition and in vitro digestibility of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    products in the West African sub-region, namely cassava peel, plantain peel and cocoa pod husk have been analyzed to determine the content of protein, lipid, starch, soluble sugars and fibre. Cocoa pod husk contained the highest amount of ...

  1. variability of in vitro and phenological behaviours of cocoa hybrids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    analyse the variability of the in vitro and phenological behaviours of 6 cocoa ... The 4 aforementioned hybrids could be used to produce cocoa aroma, ... hybrids using a multivariate approach. .... 3 clusters and variables was assessed through ... function, and (iv) analysis of the representation quality. Thus, the number of ...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common or...

  3. Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-11-15

    Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-κB. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks.

  4. Socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo State; Nigeria. Primary data was collected using a well structured questionnaire administered to 180 registered cocoa farmers selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ...

  5. Herbal antihyperlipidemic formulation of cocoa tea: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize a formulation containing an ethanol extract of Camellia ptilophylla leaves (cocoa tea), with a focus on antihyperlipidemic and anti-obesity activities. Methods: An aloe vera–based formulation of an ethanol extract of cocoa tea (C. ptilophylla) was prepared. The formulation was given ...

  6. Determinants of food security among cocoa producing households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was set out to analyse the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in Abia state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to: determine the food security status of the households and estimate the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in the study area.

  7. Adoption of Integrated Pest Management among Cocoa Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The determinants of adoption of IPM among cocoa farmers were investigated in Cross Rivers State, 271 trained cocoa farmers were systematically selected out of 2704 while in Osun State 107 were selected out of 1070. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on respondents' socio-economic characteristics, ...

  8. Cocoa in Ikom: Origin and cultivation | Eba | Sophia: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes a look generally at the origin of cocoa in Nigeria, with particular reference to Ikom Local Government Area in Cross River State. The paper addresses Ikom from the generic perspective to include Etung and Boki Local Government Areas. Apart from the origin and spread of cocoa into Nigeria and Ikom, the ...

  9. A socio-economic survey among cocoa farmers on fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A socio-economic survey was conducted in some districts of the six cocoa growing regions of Ghana to provide information for adjustment of government's fertilizer use policy on cocoa farms. The study's objectives were to determine the proportion of farmers applying fertilizer to their farms, investigate the fertilizer application ...

  10. Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika E. Wagner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design as well as prospective studies are warranted.

  11. Cocoa Farmers' Perception of the Effect of World Trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the perception of cocoa farmers of the effect of the standards of the World Trade Organisation on cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select farmers in the area covered by the project and primary data were collected through the use of a structured ...

  12. Insect assemblage and the pollination system in cocoa ecosystems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... Key words: Cocoa, pollinators, insect assemblage, Forcipomyia spp, pollination system. INTRODUCTION ... that the ecological prediction of plant reproductive successes and ..... non-interaction between some resident insects and the cocoa plant might be as a result of evolution of floral structure of the ...

  13. Crop protection strategies for major diseases of cocoa, coffee and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, crop protection measures that are cheap, simple, cost-effective and sustainable are desirable to combat Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) and cocoa swollen shoot virus diseases of cocoa, coffee leaf rust and coffee berry diseases, inflorescence blight disease of cashew in order to make farming profitable and ...

  14. Variability of in vitro and phenological behaviours of cocoa hybrids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivated cocoa species (Theobroma cacao L.) is originated from tropical rainforests of South and Central America. Its fermented and dried seeds constitute the raw material for the chocolate manufacture. In order to analyse the variability of the in vitro and phenological behaviours of 6 cocoa hybrids, the typological and ...

  15. The Sustainable Use and Conservation of Biodiversity in ABNJ: What can be achieved using existing international agreements?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rayfuse, R.; Ardron, J.; Warner, R.; Gjerde, K.

    2014-01-01

    While the international community debates the desirability and possible content of a new global instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction, alternative approaches to improving the application and implementation of existing

  16. The influence of process parameters on Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that increased cocoa butter yields can be achieved with Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs when compared to conventional expression of cocoa nibs [Venter, M.J., Willems, P., Kuipers, N.J.M. & de Haan, A.B. (2006). Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of cocoa butter

  17. The influence of process parameters on gas assisted mechanical expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that increased cocoa butter yields can be achieved with Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs when compared to conventional expression of cocoa nibs [Venter, M.J., Willems, P., Kuipers, N.J.M. & de Haan, A.B. (2006). Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of cocoa butter

  18. The use of ionising radiation from 60CO gamma source in controlling mouldiness in dried cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah, Victoria

    2001-01-01

    Mouldiness in stored cocoa beans in Ghana and the production of aflatoxin have been studied. Based on actual weight of discarded beans, mouldy beans have been estimated to constitute 0.13 % and 0.00002 % of marketable beans at the farmers' level and the buying agents' depots respectively in the Tafo District. This is contrasted with an estimated value of 0.16 % obtained in a questionnaire type study involving farmers. Estimated mouldy beans at the Tema port was 0.69 % per year (based on the cut test) representing a financial loss of $1,688,637.19 per year at $989/T should the mouldy beans be discarded. Fifty-eight (58) internally- and externally- borne fungal species were isolated from dried cocoa beans. Of these, forty-eight (48) were internally- borne and ten (10) were superficial. Twenty-nine (29) of the internally occurring fungi have been recorded for the first time on cocoa beans in Ghana. Twenty-six (26) of the fungi isolated belong to Aspergillus group. They included A. parasiticus and A. flavus, which can produce aflatoxins. Five (5) belong to Penicillium, eight (8) to Fusarium and nineteen (19) to other species. Ionising radiation effectively controlled fungi associated with mouldiness in cocoa beans in a dose - dependent manner. A radiation dose of 6 kGy completely inactivated the moulds. A. flavus and A. tamarii were the most radiation - resistant moulds encountered. The moisture content of the beans before, during and after irradiation influenced the effect of radiation. The relative humidity during storage and the type of packaging also influenced the radiation effect. Conidia of A. flavus subjected to moist heat at temperatures 20 0 C to 60 0 C for 2.5, 5 and 10 min respectively were not significantly affected by heating up to 50 0 C. Heating an aqueous conidial suspension at 60 0 C for at least 2.5 min reduced the number of fungal colonies by at least 5 log cycles when the suspension was assayed on agar plate media. Heating at 59 0 C for 10 min

  19. Microbiota dynamics and diversity at different stages of industrial processing of cocoa beans into cocoa powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Velpen, van der V.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Kamphuis, H.J.; Zwietering, M.H.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library

  20. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  1. Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety David N. Kuhn, USDA ARS SHRS, Miami FL Sometimes it's hard to see the value and application of genomics to real world problems. How will sequencing the cacao genome affect West African farmers? Thi...

  2. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  3. Dynamics of insect pollinators as influenced by cocoa production systems in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon, Ian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is strictly entomophilous but studies on the influence of the ecosystem on insect pollinators in cocoa production systems are limited. The abundance of cocoa pollinators and pod-set of cocoa as influenced by a gradient of farm distances from natural forest and proportion of plantain/banana clusters in or adjacent to cocoa farms were therefore investigated. Cocoa pollinators trapped were predominantly ceratopogonid midges hence, analyses were based on their population. Variation in farm distance to forest did neither influence ceratopogonid midge abundance nor cocoa pod-set. However, we found a positive relationship between pollinator abundance and fruit set and the proportion of plantain/banana intercropped with cocoa. The results suggest appropriate cocoa intercrop can enhance cocoa pollination, and the current farming system in Ghana can conveniently accommodate such interventions without significant changes in farm practices.

  4. Cocoa Diet and Antibody Immune Response in Preclinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Camps-Bossacoma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of cocoa to interact with the immune system in vitro and in vivo has been described. In the latter context, a cocoa-enriched diet in healthy rats was able to modify the immune system’s functionality. This fact could be observed in the composition and functionality of lymphoid tissues, such as the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. Consequently, immune effector mechanisms, such as antibody synthesis, were modified. A cocoa-enriched diet in young rats was able to attenuate the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig G, IgM, and IgA and also the intestinal IgM and IgA secretion. Moreover, in immunized rats, the intake of cocoa decreased specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2c, and IgM concentrations in serum. This immune-regulator potential was then tested in disease models in which antibodies play a pathogenic role. A cocoa-enriched diet was able to partially prevent the synthesis of autoantibodies in a model of autoimmune arthritis in rats and was also able to protect against IgE and T helper 2-related antibody synthesis in two rat models of allergy. Likewise, a cocoa-enriched diet prevented an oral sensitization process in young rats. In this review, we will focus on the influence of cocoa on the acquired branch of the immune function. Therefore, we will focus on how a cocoa diet influences lymphocyte function both in the systemic and intestinal immune system. Likewise, its potential role in preventing some antibody-induced immune diseases is also included. Although further studies must characterize the particular cocoa components responsible for such effects and nutritional studies in humans need to be carried out, cocoa has potential as a nutraceutical agent in some hypersensitivity status.

  5. International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) terminology in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness ≥ 4.5 mm: agreement and reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladkevicius, P; Installé, A; Van Den Bosch, T; Timmerman, D; Benacerraf, B; Jokubkiene, L; Di Legge, A; Votino, A; Zannoni, L; De Moor, B; De Cock, B; Van Calster, B; Valentin, L

    2018-02-01

    To estimate intra- and interrater agreement and reliability with regard to describing ultrasound images of the endometrium using the International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) terminology. Four expert and four non-expert raters assessed videoclips of transvaginal ultrasound examinations of the endometrium obtained from 99 women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness ≥ 4.5 mm but without fluid in the uterine cavity. The following features were rated: endometrial echogenicity, endometrial midline, bright edge, endometrial-myometrial junction, color score, vascular pattern, irregularly branching vessels and color splashes. The color content of the endometrial scan was estimated using a visual analog scale graded from 0 to 100. To estimate intrarater agreement and reliability, the same videoclips were assessed twice with a minimum of 2 months' interval. The raters were blinded to their own results and to those of the other raters. Interrater differences in the described prevalence of most IETA variables were substantial, and some variable categories were observed rarely. Specific agreement was poor for variables with many categories. For binary variables, specific agreement was better for absence than for presence of a category. For variables with more than two outcome categories, specific agreement for expert and non-expert raters was best for not-defined endometrial midline (93% and 96%), regular endometrial-myometrial junction (72% and 70%) and three-layer endometrial pattern (67% and 56%). The grayscale ultrasound variable with the best reliability was uniform vs non-uniform echogenicity (multirater kappa (κ), 0.55 for expert and 0.52 for non-expert raters), and the variables with the lowest reliability were appearance of the endometrial-myometrial junction (κ, 0.25 and 0.16) and the nine-category endometrial echogenicity variable (κ, 0.29 and 0.28). The most reliable color Doppler variable was color score (mean weighted

  6. Induction of Cocoa Natural Resistancy to Cocoa Pod Borer by Silica Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Anom Wijaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although  the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.Kata kunci: Theobroma cacao L., polifenol, embrio somatik, kalus, flavonoid, katekin, in vitro recalcitance

  7. Proceeding of the second steering conference relating to the 'agreement on the Implementation of Research at the Chernobyl Center for International Research' between CHECIR and JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Togawa, Orihiko; Moriuchi, Shigeru; Rybalko, S.I.; Sukhoruchkin, A.K.; Kazakov, S.V.

    1994-11-01

    On June, 1992, JAERI and CHECIR concluded an agreement on the Implementation of Research at the Chernobyl Center for International Research (CHECIR). Based on the agreement, JAERI started 'Study on Assessment and Analysis of Environmental Radiological Consequences and Verification of an Assessment System.' CHECIR and JAERI make it a rule to hold steering conference twice a year in order to ensure mutual understanding and exchange of opinion because it its indispensable for smooth and effective implementation of this project. The first steering conference in Japan was held in February of 1994, and three research leaders of CHECIR side were invited from Ukraine. At that time, they gave lectures concerning the environmental Headquarter of JAERI. Progress reports on subject-1 and subject-2 were given from JAERI side at the steering conference. The 5 of presented papers are indexed individually. (author)

  8. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG VIETNAMESE COCOA ACCESSIONS USING A NON-CODING REGION OF THE CHLOROPLAST DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lam Thi, Viet Ha; D.T., Khang; Everaert, Helena; T.N, Dung; P.H.D, Phuoc; H.T., Toan; Dewettinck, Koen; Messens, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) cultivation has increased in tropical areas around the world, including Vietnam, due to the high demand of cocoa beans for chocolate production. The genetic diversity of cocoa genotypes is recognized to be complex, however, their phylogenetic relationships need to be clarified. The present study aimed to classify the cocoa genotypes that are imported and cultivated in Vietnam based on a chloroplast DNA region. Sixty-three Vietnamese Cocoa accessions were collected f...

  9. 75 FR 35033 - U-Haul International, Inc. and AMERCO; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... closest competitor in the consumer truck rental industry to join with U-Haul in a collusive scheme to...-Haul International, Inc. U-Haul's primary competitors in the truck rental industry are Avis Budget... several years leading up to 2006, Mr. Shoen was aware that price competition from Budget was forcing U...

  10. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.O. Oyekunle

    Full Text Available Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were determined in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa produce stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Cocoa beans samples were sun dried to a constant weight, pulverized and soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the OCPs. Qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of the extracted OCPs after clean-up on silica gel were accomplished with the aid of a Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD. Levels of OCPs in cocoa beans from Ondo had a mean range of ND (p, p’-DDE to 82.17 ± 54.53 ng/g (p, p’-DDT were higher than the OCPs levels in cocoa beans from Ile-Ife with a mean range of 0.37 ± 0.63 ng/g (Endrin to 57.76 ± 81.48 ng/g (p, p’-DDT. The higher levels of OCPs detected in the cocoa beans from Ondo could be an indication of higher volume of OCPs application by cocoa farmers in Ondo and its environs since cocoa plantations were more concentrated than Ile-Ife environs. Levels of OCPs determined in the cocoa beans were within the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs for OCPs set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization. The study established the presence of OCPs in an important crop of Nigeria. Hence, there is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in agricultural food products of Nigeria so as to take steps that ensure health safety of end users. Keywords: Pesticides, Organochlorine, Cocoa beans, Ondo, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

  11. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  12. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss. In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they are different in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyze several properties of the cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (crystal formation at 25 ° C, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition and mixtures between the two fats (rheological properties, in order to understand the behavior of these fats for their use in chocolate products. Fat flow was described using common rheological models ( Newton , Power Law, Casson and Bingham plastic.La manteca de cacao es un ingrediente muy importante en la formulación de chocolates y es responsable de la mayor parte de sus propiedades (textura, palatibilidad y brillo. En la industria de alimentos, la textura de productos que contienen grasa depende enormemente de las propiedades macroscópicas de la red cristalina de la grasa en el producto final. El cupuaçu es una fruta nativa de la región amazónica y sus semillas pueden ser usadas para obtener una grasa semejante a la manteca de cacao. En general, esta grasa es similar a la manteca de cacao, pero difiere en algunas de sus propiedades fisicas . El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades de la grasa de cupuaçu y de la manteca de cacao (formación de cristales a 25 °C, propiedades reológicas y composición en ácidos grasos y de algunas mezclas entre las dos grasas (propiedades reológicas, a fin de conocer el comportamiento de estas grasas para ser usadas en productos de la industria

  13. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin.

  14. How Brazil Transferred Billions to Foreign Coffee Importers: The International Coffee Agreement, Rent Seeking and Export Tax Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2003-01-01

    Rent seeking is well known, but empirical evidence of its effects is relatively rare. This paper analyzes how the domestic and international rent seeking caused Brazil to provide coffee export tax rebates that transferred foreign exchange to coffee importers. Although Brazil was the world's largest exporter, it began to pay export tax rebates to selected coffee importers in 1965 and, by 1988, had paid rebates totaling $8 billion. Brazil explained these rebates as a mechanism to price disc...

  15. Determination of Ochratoxin A in Black and White Pepper, Nutmeg, Spice Mix, Cocoa, and Drinking Chocolate by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Fluorescence Detection: Collaborative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Leon, Elena; Bouten, Katrien; Senyuva, Hamide; Stroka, Joerg

    2017-09-01

    A method validation study for the determination of ochratoxin A in black and white pepper (Piper spp.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), spice mix (blend of ginger, turmeric, pepper, nutmeg, and chili), cocoa powder, and drinking chocolate was conducted according to the International Harmonized Protocol of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The method is based on the extraction of samples with aqueous methanol, followed by a cleanup of the extract with an immunoaffinity column. The determination is carried out by reversed-phase LC coupled with a fluorescence detector. The study involved 25 participants representing a cross-section of research, private, and official control laboratories from 12 European Union (EU) Member States, together with Turkey and Macedonia. Mean recoveries ranged from 71 to 85% for spices and from 85 to 88% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDr values ranged from 5.6 to 16.7% for spices and from 4.5 to 18.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDR values ranged from 9.5 to 22.6% for spices and from 13.7 to 30.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The resulting Horwitz ratios ranged from 0.4 to 1 for spices and from 0.6 to 1.4 for cocoa and drinking chocolate according to the Horwitz function modified by Thompson. The method showed acceptable within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision for each matrix, and it conforms to requirements set by current EU legislation.

  16. Analysis of the Financial Cost of Diabetes Mellitus in Four Cocoa Clinics of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Ernest Attuquaye; Amporful, Edward O; Akweongo, Patricia; Aikins, Moses K

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the financial cost of managing diabetes mellitus in four Cocoa clinics of Ghana. A descriptive cross-sectional study of diabetes management was carried out in the four Cocoa clinics of Ghana from January to December 2009. The "cost-of-illness" approach from the institutional perspective was used. A pretested data extraction form was used to review the medical records of 304 randomly selected diabetic patients. The patients' mean age was 55.4 ± 9.4 years. The mean annual financial cost of managing one diabetic case at the clinics was estimated to be Ghana cedi (GHS) 540.35 (US $372.65). Service cost constituted 22% of the cost, whereas direct medical cost constituted 78% of the cost. Drug cost was 71% of the financial cost. The cost of hospitalization per patient-day at Cocoa clinics was estimated at GHS 32.78 (US $22.61). The total financial cost of diabetes management was estimated at GHS 420,087.67 (US $289,715.63). This accounted for 8% of the total expenditure for the clinics in the year 2009. The study showed that facility type, type of diabetes, and presence of complication are associated with the cost of diabetes management to Cocoa clinics. The mean age of detection suggests delay in diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and accompanying complications, which has cost implications. Policy that enhances early detection of diabetes in clinical practice would therefore improve management and reduce costs. The financial cost of managing diabetes can be used to forecast the economic burden of the disease in the area. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the People's Republic of China and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the People's Republic of China and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 31 December 1998. Pursuant to Article 10 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the date on which the Agency received from China written notification that China's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force have been met, i.e. on 28 March 2002

  18. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  19. Mood Components in Cocoa and Chocolate: The Mood Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuenter, Emmy; Foubert, Kenn; Pieters, Luc

    2018-03-14

    Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids. In this review a critical appraisal is made of recent studies on mood and cognition, with a special emphasis on analytical characterization of the test samples. It is concluded that the mood and cognition-enhancing effects of cocoa and chocolate can be ranked from more general activities associated with flavanols and methylxanthines, to more specific activities related to minor constituents such as salsolinol, with on top the orosensory properties of chocolate. Therefore, the "mood pyramid" of cocoa and chocolate is proposed as a new concept. To understand the role and interactions of the different major and minor constituents of cocoa, it is recommended that all test samples used in future in vitro, in vivo , or human studies should be phytochemically characterized in much more detail than is common practice today. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Magrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  1. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit. PMID:28649251

  2. COCOA code for creating mock observations of star cluster models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Dalessandro, Emanuele

    2018-04-01

    We introduce and present results from the COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) code that has been developed to create idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or N-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. In this paper, we describe the COCOA code and demonstrate its different applications by utilizing globular cluster (GC) models simulated with the MOCCA (MOnte Carlo Cluster simulAtor) code. COCOA is used to synthetically observe these different GC models with optical telescopes, perform point spread function photometry, and subsequently produce observed colour-magnitude diagrams. We also use COCOA to compare the results from synthetic observations of a cluster model that has the same age and metallicity as the Galactic GC NGC 2808 with observations of the same cluster carried out with a 2.2 m optical telescope. We find that COCOA can effectively simulate realistic observations and recover photometric data. COCOA has numerous scientific applications that maybe be helpful for both theoreticians and observers that work on star clusters. Plans for further improving and developing the code are also discussed in this paper.

  3. Determination of the levels of heavy metals in cocoa products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dankyi Enock

    2009-06-01

    Fermented and dried cocoa beans from all the major cocoa-producing regions in Ghana were analyzed for levels of the following heavy metals: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. The shells of the beans which usually do not form a part of the edible portion of the beans were removed and analyzed separately from the cocoa nibs (de-shelled beans) for all the elements above. To determine the distribution of metals during processing of the beans soxhlet extractions of fat from pulverised cocoa nibs was performed and cocoa powders obtained analyzed for their levels of heavy metals. Three commercial brands of 'natural' cocoa powders on the local market were also analyzed to determine the levels of these metals. The analyses were performed using an inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) following a microwave-assisted digestion process. The levels of toxic metals lead, cadmium and arsenic were found to be low (≤ 0.020 μg/g, ≤ 0.087 μg/g, < 0.001 μg/g, respectively) and well within the acceptable limits set by the WHO (0.100 μg/g, 0.100 μg/g, and 0.010 μg/g respectively). However, the levels of zinc copper, iron and manganese were however quite high. With a high fat content of the cocoa beans (approximately 50%) and greater portioning of metals into the non-fat portions of the beans, metals levels were considerably higher (almost double) in processed cocoa than in the cocoa itself. (au)

  4. Natural cocoa consumption: Potential to reduce atherogenic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Prado, Eric A; Best Sampson, Jill N; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2015-06-01

    Short-term consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been demonstrated to improve various facets of vascular health. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption on selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers in young (19-35 years) women of differing body mass indices (BMI; normal, overweight or obese). Subjects (n = 24) consumed a natural cocoa-containing product (12.7 g natural cocoa, 148 kcal/serving) or an isocaloric cocoa-free placebo daily for 4 weeks in a random, double-blind manner with a 2-week washout period between treatment arms. Fasted (>8-h) blood samples were collected before and after each 4-week period. Serum was analyzed to determine lipid profile (chemistry analyzer) and CVD biomarkers (26 biomarkers). EDTA-treated blood was used to assess monocytes (CD14, CD16, v11b and CD62L), while citrate-treated blood was used to measure changes in endothelial microparticles (EMPs; CD42a-/45-/144+) by flow cytometry. Natural cocoa consumption resulted in a significant decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034), EMP concentration (P = .017) and monocyte CD62L (P = .047) in obese compared to overweight and normal-weight subjects. Natural cocoa consumption regardless of BMI group was associated with an 18% increase in high-density lipoprotein (P = .020) and a 60% decrease in EMPs (P = .047). Also, obese subjects experienced a 21% decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034) and a 24% decrease in monocyte CD62L expression in (P = .047) following 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption. Collectively, these findings indicate that acute natural cocoa consumption was associated with decreased obesity-related disease risk. More research is needed to assess the stability of the observed short-term changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Needs Assesment of Cocoa Business Development Using the Value Chain Approach & National Movement of Cocoa Production and Quality Improvement (GERNAS KAKAO): Case Study on Majene Regency, West Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Boedi Rheza; Elizabeth Karlinda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study are as follows: 1) Describe the general situation of cocoa business in Majene Regency; 2) Analyze problems occurred in cocoa business value chain at Majene Regency; 3) Be a baseline or a base for follow up action plan to solve the problems of cocoa business value chain in Majene in the future and to develop cocoa business climate. It is expected that the result of the study can provide information regarding problems as well as stakeholder analysis at each ...

  6. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important...... for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  7. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  8. Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Anne-Marie; Scott, Peter M; Tague, Brett

    2013-08-01

    Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011-2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol-water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol-water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an AflaOchra immunoaffinity column (IAC). Determination was by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of the aflatoxins was with a post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification (LOQ) of chocolate and cocoa powders were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1), respectively. Survey results showed that the incidences of OTA above the LOQ in natural cocoa were 15/15 (mean 1.17 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 1.06 ng/g), 9/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.49 ng/g), 20/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.39 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 5/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. These results confirm our previous work with OTA. In the same samples, incidences of aflatoxin B1 above the LOQ were 14/15 for natural cocoa (mean 0.86 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 0.37 ng/g), 7/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.22 ng/g), 16/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.09 ng/g), 4/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. Both aflatoxins and OTA were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS when OTA or aflatoxin levels found were above 2 ng/g in cocoa.

  9. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America―ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health. PMID:24077240

  10. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L. Pucciarelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America—ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health.

  11. Bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Ten bilateral agreements are presented. These are: 1) Co-operation agreement relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and EURATOM (1996); 2) Agreement on co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and Greece (1997); 3) Implementing arrangement for technical exchange and co-operation in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and the United States (1997); 4) Agreement concerning co-operation in nuclear science and technology between Australia and Indonesia (1997); 5) Implementation of the 1985 Agreement for co-operation concerning the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between the People's Republic of China and the United States (1998); 6) Protocol of co-operation between France and Lithuania (1997); 7) Agreement on co-operation in energy research, science and technology, and development between Germany and the United States (1998); 8) Agreement on early notification of a nuclear accident and exchange of information on nuclear facilities between Greece and Romania (1997); 9) Agreement on early notification of nuclear accidents and co-operation in the field of nuclear safety between Hungary and the Ukraine (1997); 10) Agreement in the field of radioactive waste management between Switzerland and the United States (1997). (K.A.)

  12. Amendment to the Agreement between CERN and the Republic of Cyprus concerning the granting of the status of Associate Membership as the pr-stage to Membership at CERN Extension of the deadline for internal approval of the agreement by the Republic of Cyprus

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Amendment to the Agreement between CERN and the Republic of Cyprus concerning the granting of the status of Associate Membership as the pr-stage to Membership at CERN Extension of the deadline for internal approval of the agreement by the Republic of Cyprus

  13. Elaboration of the international transfer mechanism of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions on the basis of the Russian federal law About agreements of products sharing'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, N.R.; Koulikovskaya, L.

    2001-01-01

    Suggestions for a comprehensive legal framework for the implementation in Russia of the flexibility mechanisms established under the Kyoto Protocol (i.e. joint implementation; clean development mechanism; international emissions trading) are proposed. It is suggested that the legal framework be established using the principles embodied in the existing Russian federal law, 'About agreements of product sharing' adopted in 1995. As a basic requirement, it is suggested that the new federal law must include the fundamental elements required to create possibilities for the Russian Federation to participate in the process of certified emission reductions (CER) transfer, emissions reduction unit (ERU) negotiation, and adjusted amount units (AAU) trading within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol implementation. The new law must also embody the basic procedures required to enter into agreements at the international, inter-regional and inter-sectoral levels. Failure to develop the legislative support and the legal framework to facilitate valid Russian participation in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol will prevent many valuable initiatives and projects from being realized

  14. Studies and design activities for implementing the international agreements on abatement of pollution from thermoelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, L.

    1991-01-01

    The main provisions and resulting obligations from conventions, protocols, declarations, especially the 1970 Geneva Convention on long range transboundary air pollution are presented as well as their protocols on the reduction by 30 % of sulfur emissions and the control of nitrogen emissions or transboundary fluxes. The UN/ECE draft Convention on environmental impact assessment is also considered. A framework of the related study and design activities for implementation of pollution reduction solutions in power plants with reference to national and international emission standards and environmental protection laws is also presented. The conclusion of the report is that future energy development will be strongly influenced by the resulting commitments implying important human and financial efforts. 15 refs

  15. Molecular Characterization of Resistant Accessions of Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) to Phytophthora Pod Rot Selected on-Farm in Côte-d’Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa is (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in Côted’Ivoire which ranks 1st in the world cocoa export. Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr)also call Black pod is the most widespread disease of cocoa. Lost due to this disease depends on the species of the pathogen and vary globally fr...

  16. Multilateral and bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Finland has made both multilateral and bilateral agreements on the exchange of information related to radiation safety. The first arrangements for international agreements and exchange of information were made after the Chernobyl accident. In 1987, Finland joined the convention on early notification of a nuclear power accident coordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency. The convention is applied to accidents that cause of may cause emissions of radioactive substances that might affect the radiation safety of another country. Besides the convention on early notification, some other individual agreements have also been made. These include the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) system and power companies own information exchange systems. Finland has conducted bilateral agreements with the Nordic countries and the Soviet Union on the notification of accidents and exchange of nuclear power plant information. Today, Russia answers for the Soviet Union's contractual obligations. (orig.)

  17. Agreement of 30 September 1993 between the Republic of Armenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Armenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 21 September 1993 and signed in Vienna on 30 September 1993. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 5 May 1994

  18. Agreement of 22 September 1994 between the Republic of Zambia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Zambia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 8 June 1994 and signed in Vienna on 22 September 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 22 September 1994

  19. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  20. The text of the Agreement of 16 May 1986 between the Government of Monaco and the Agency concerning the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity and the privileges and immunities of the Agency within the Principality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document reproduces the Seat Agreement between the Government of Monaco and the Agency concerning the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity and defining the privileges and immunities of the Agency in Monaco, as approved by the Board of Governors of the IAEA In September 1985 and signed on 16 May 1985. The agreement entered into force on 17 October 1986

  1. Adoption of Integrated Pest Management among Cocoa Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Keywords: Integrated pest management, Cocoa farmers, Farmers Field School ... Total World production has increased in absolute terms from 3.98 million metric ..... and G.C. Rausser, eds Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 1B,.

  2. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON COCOA PRODUCTIVITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The study examined the relative effect of climate change on the productivity of cocoa in Nigeria. Data employed were national ... balance and harm agricultural sectors. However, .... and animal life which will inexorably affect productivity of ...

  3. PHYSICALCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COCOA HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics and thermophysical properties of cocoa hoeny. The cocoa honey had the following physicalchemical characteristics: pH (2.76, titratable acidity (0.73 %, moisture (87,22 %, soluble solids (14,03 °Brix, reducing sugar (10,2 % in glucose, non-reducing sugar (4,06 % in saccharose and ash (0,23 %. With respect to the thermophysical properties were determined the specific heat, density, thermal diffusivity and the dynamic viscosity as a function of temperature. The empirical models for each property were obtained. It was found that the temperature directly affects the cocoa liquor properties. The data are important for the development, adaptation and optimization of equipment for more efficient processing of cocoa honey, since the information on this subject is unknown.

  4. Global warming agreements, international trade and energy/carbon embodiments: an input-output approach to the Italian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongelli, I.; Tassielli, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the Kyoto Protocol the absence of Green House Gases (GHGs) commitments of developing countries (non-Annex I) and the more flexible terms of implementation which are allowed to countries shifting toward a market economy (transition economies) naturally lead to the absence or to less constraining national measures and policies of reduction of the GHGs emissions which, in turn, may determine a comparative advantage in the production of the highest energy/carbon intensive commodities for these countries. These arguments are valid also considering the future implementation of the European Emission Allowance Trading Scheme (EATS). Thus, developing countries may become a haven for the production of not environmental-friendly commodities; in this case, the so-called Pollution Haven Hypothesis, stating that due to freer international trade the comparative advantage may change the economic structure and consequently the trade patterns of the countries linked by trade relationships, could occur. This would lead to the increase of the transfers of energy and carbon embodied in traded commodities from developing countries and transition economies toward Kyoto or EATS constrained countries. The aim of this paper is to verify if for Italy, as a Kyoto and EATS complying country, evidence of a change in the trade patterns, occurred on the basis of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis, does exist and to estimate the magnitude of the under-estimation of the carbon actually emitted: the carbon leakage. The Input-Output model has been used to calculate the intensities of energy consumption and the related Green House Gases emission, for each Italian economic sector

  5. An untargeted metabolomic assessment of cocoa beans during fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga Gross, Ana Lucía; Quirós Guerrero, Luis Manuel; Fourny, G.; Vaillant Barka, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is a critical step in the processing of high quality cocoa; however, the biochemistry behind is still not well understood at a molecular level. In this research, using a non-targeted approach, the main metabolomic changes that occur throughout the fermentation process were explored. Genetically undefined cocoa varieties from Trinidad and Tobago (n = 3), Costa Rica (n = 1) and one clone IMC-67 (n = 3) were subjected to spontaneous fermentation using farm-based and pilot plant cont...

  6. Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch

    CERN Document Server

    Hockenberry, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch: The Mini Missing Manual walks you through developing your first iPhone App and introduces you to your programming environments and tools: Cocoa Touch, Interface Builder, Xcode, and the Objective-C programming language. If you're a Java or C developer, this eBook is your fast track to App development. This eBook is adapted from parts of iPhone App Development: The Missing Manual.

  7. COCOA Code for Creating Mock Observations of Star Cluster Models

    OpenAIRE

    Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Dalessandro, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    We introduce and present results from the COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) code that has been developed to create idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or \\textit{N}-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. In this paper, we describe the C...

  8. Seasonality in cocoa spot and forward markets: empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sarfo, S.; Geman, Hélyette

    2012-01-01

    This paper first describes the main features of supply and demand in cocoa spot markets. A state- variable model is proposed to describe the random evolution of cocoa forward curves over time, which essentially adapts to agricultural commodities, introduced by Borovkova and Geman (2006) for energy. In contrast to most of the literature on the subject, the first state variable is not the spot price, as it combines seasonal and stochastic features and may not be observable, instead, the average...

  9. Hypoglycemic effects of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Bahareh; Aminuddin, Farhana; Hamid, Muhajir; Saari, Nazamid; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin

    2012-09-15

    Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit α-amylase activity. However, no α-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cocoa flavanols on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, John W; Carson, LeaAnn; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Evans, Ellen M; Allen, Robin R

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations support the hypothesis that regular consumption of flavonoid-containing foods can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). While flavonoids are ubiquitous in plants, cocoa can be particularly rich in a sub-class of flavonoids known as flavanols. A number of human dietary intervention trials with flavanol-containing cocoa products have demonstrated improvements in endothelial and platelet function, as well as blood pressure. These studies provide direct evidence for the potential cardiovascular benefits of flavanol-containing foods and help to substantiate the epidemiological data. In this review, results from selective published trials with cocoa and chocolate focused on risk for CVD will be discussed along with a study we recently completed evaluating the effects of the daily consumption of flavanol-containing dark chocolate (CocoaVia?) with and without plant sterol esters on CVD markers in a normotensive population with mild hypercholesterolemia. In this study, the daily consumption of flavanol-containing dark chocolate was associated with a significant mean reduction of 5.8 mmHg in systolic blood pressure. Together the results of these human dietary intervention trials provide scientific evidence of the vascular effects of cocoa flavanols and suggest that the regular consumption of cocoa products containing flavanols may reduce risk of CVD.

  11. Effect of cocoa's theobromine on intestinal microbiota of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Rigo-Adrover, Mar; Franch, Àngels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2017-10-01

    To establish the role of cocoa theobromine on gut microbiota composition and fermentation products after cocoa consumption in rats. Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet (RF diet), a diet containing 10% cocoa (CC diet) or a diet including 0.25% theobromine (TB diet) for 15 days. Gut microbiota (fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to flow cytometry and metagenomics analysis), SCFA and IgA-coated bacteria were analyzed in fecal samples. CC and TB diets induced lower counts of E. coli whereas TB diet led to lower counts of Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp. and Clostridium histolyticum-C. perfingens group compared to RF diet. Metagenomics analysis also revealed a different microbiota pattern among the studied groups. The SCFA content was higher after both CC and TB diets, which was mainly due to enhanced butyric acid production. Furthermore, both diets decreased the proportion of IgA-coated bacteria. Cocoa's theobromine plays a relevant role in some effects related to cocoa intake, such as the lower proportion of IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, theobromine modifies gut microbiota although other cocoa compounds could also act on intestinal bacteria, attenuating or enhancing the theobromine effects. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-alpha secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  13. Bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The bilateral agreements concern Brazil with United States relative to the co operation in nuclear energy, Germany with Russian Federation relative to the elimination and disposal of nuclear weapons; The multilateral agreements concerns the signature of the Protocols to amend the Paris and Brussels Conventions, the multilateral nuclear environmental programme in the Russian Federation, the status of Conventions in the field of nuclear energy. (N.C.)

  14. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  15. The Tensions between Internal and External Multilateralism in the Case Law of the Court of Justice of the European Union Concerning International Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola

    2016-01-01

    The European Union’s (EU) commitment to multilateralism is enshrined in Article 21(1) of the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), which proclaims that the EU “shall promote multilateral solutions to common problems”. It is also reflected in numerous documents and treaties produced within the frame......The European Union’s (EU) commitment to multilateralism is enshrined in Article 21(1) of the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), which proclaims that the EU “shall promote multilateral solutions to common problems”. It is also reflected in numerous documents and treaties produced within...... to multilateralism externally appears problematic. This chapter examines the articulation between this internal and external multilateralism of the EU in the case-law of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU). It asks the question whether the main tool of legal interpretation deployed by the Court – teleological...

  16. Effect of forage supplementation and alkali treatment of cocoa pod on the utilization of cocoa pod based diets by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.B.

    1987-01-01

    Two treatment methods - forage supplementation and chemical treatment - both potentially capable of improving cocoa pod utilization by ruminants were evaluated. Forage supplementation, using Gliricidia sepium of cattle fed a 50% cocoa pod diet yielded no positive results. Consumption of Gliricidia was poor and equalled only 0.2 kg/head/d. Feed intake (4.6 versus 4.8 kg dry matter (DM)/d), growth rate (0.37 versus 0.40 kg/d) and feed/gain (12.7 versus 12.0) for control and test cattle were similar (P>0.05). Chemical treatment using cocoa pod ash solutions (PAS) - a caustic material - was more successful. Rumen digestibility (as determined by the nylon bag technique) of cocoa pods treated with PAS, equivalent in alkalinity to 2 (P 2 ), 4 (P 4 ), 6 (P 6 ) and 8% (P 8 ) NaOH, was linearly improved (P 0.05). Dry matter, ADF and NDF degradabilities increased (P 6 and 55, 46 and 42%, respectively, for P 8 treated samples. Dry matter digestibilities of cocoa pod based diets also increased (P 8 treated) in sheep and to 60% in goats. Nevertheless, treatment with P 8 solutions reduced (P 0.75 in sheep and from 48 to 42 g DM/kg W 0.75 in goats. Feed intake, however, was normal for diets containing P 6 treated cocoa pods (67 and 61 g DM/kg W 0.75 ) for sheep and goats, respectively. Cocoa pod ash for treating cocoa pods should therefore not be stronger than the P 6 level which corresponds in alkalinity to 6% NaOH. (author)

  17. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 8 March 2011. It was signed on 15 April 2011 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 15 April 2011, upon signature by the representatives of Pakistan and the Agency

  18. Agreement between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 5 June 2012. It was signed on 6 June 2012 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 25 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 4 April 2013, the date on which the Agency received from Bosnia and Herzegovina written notification that Bosnia and Herzegovina's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met.

  19. Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of a Nuclear Power Station from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 22 February 2007. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 22 February 2007, upon signature by the Director General of the Agency and by the authorised representative of Pakistan

  20. Agreement between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Burundi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 13 June 2007. It was signed in Vienna on 27 September 2007. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 27 September 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Burundi and the Agency. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  1. Agreement between the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 1 March 2005. It was signed on 3 May 2005 in New York. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 3 May 2005, upon signature by the representatives of the Marshall Islands and the Agency

  2. Agreement between the Republic of Tajikistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Republic of Tajikistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 12 June 2002. It was signed on 2 July 2003 in Vienna and on 7 July 2003 in Tashkent. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 14 December 2004. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  3. Agreement between the United Republic of Tanzania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the United Republic of Tanzania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 24 February 1992, It was signed on 28 July 1992 in Vienna and on 26 August 1992 in Geneva. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 1 February 2005. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  4. Agreement between the Republic of Yemen and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Republic of Yemen and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 12 September 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 21 September 2000. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 14 August 2002. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  5. Agreement between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement concluded between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 20 September 2005. It was signed on 21 July 2006 in Gaborone, Botswana, and on 24 August 2006 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 24 August 2006, upon signature by the representatives of Botswana and the Agency

  6. Agreement between the Republic of Niger and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Niger and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 20 March 2001. It was signed on 11 June 2002 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 February 2005, the date on which the Agency received from Niger written notification that Niger's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  7. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Cameroon and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Cameroon and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 24 February 1992. It was signed on 21 May 1992 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 17 December 2004. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  8. Agreement between the Republic of Palau and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Palau and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 1 March 2005. It was signed on 10 May 2005 in New York and 13 May 2005 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 13 May 2005, upon signature by the representatives of Palau and the Agency

  9. Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Portugal on 27 June 2006 and the United States on 13 December 2006, and by the Director General of the IAEA on 14 December 2006. Pursuant to the Article XII.1 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 19 April 2007, the date on which the Agency received written notification from Portugal that its internal requirements for entry into force had been met

  10. The Relationship between On-Farm Shade Trees and Cocoa Yields in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a crop that is widely cultivated across West Africa with Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria contributing about 70% of the global production. In Ghana cocoa contributes significantly to the national economy as over 20% of the world’s cocoa production comes from...... the country, making it the world’s second largest producer with an annual production level of over 700,000 metric tons, and an estimated cultivation area of ca. 1.6 million ha. Cocoa is mostly cultivated by smallholder farmers either as a monocrop or in association with other food crops, tree crops and under...... the cover of shade trees – cocoa agroforestry. This thesis hypothesizes that canopy cover of shade trees in low input (low-to-no fertilizer application) cocoa growing systems can contribute to cocoa yield improvements. The main theme deals with shade trees diversity and its effects on cocoa production...

  11. International agreements on commercial representation

    OpenAIRE

    Slanař, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to describe the possibilities for fixing the position of a company in the market through contracts for commercial representation with a focus to finding legal and economic impact on the company that contracted for exclusive representation.

  12. Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, Zubaida; Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Dutta, Suparna; Ali, Ather; Katz, David L

    2008-07-01

    Studies suggest cardioprotective benefits of dark chocolate containing cocoa. This study examines the acute effects of solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa intake on endothelial function and blood pressure in overweight adults. Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover trial of 45 healthy adults [mean age: 53 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30]. In phase 1, subjects were randomly assigned to consume a solid dark chocolate bar (containing 22 g cocoa powder) or a cocoa-free placebo bar (containing 0 g cocoa powder). In phase 2, subjects were randomly assigned to consume sugar-free cocoa (containing 22 g cocoa powder), sugared cocoa (containing 22 g cocoa powder), or a placebo (containing 0 g cocoa powder). Solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa ingestion improved endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated dilatation) compared with placebo (dark chocolate: 4.3 +/- 3.4% compared with -1.8 +/- 3.3%; P cocoa: 5.7 +/- 2.6% and 2.0 +/- 1.8% compared with -1.5 +/- 2.8%; P cocoa compared with placebo (dark chocolate: systolic, -3.2 +/- 5.8 mm Hg compared with 2.7 +/- 6.6 mm Hg; P cocoa: systolic, -2.1 +/- 7.0 mm Hg compared with 3.2 +/- 5.6 mm Hg; P cocoa (5.7 +/- 2.6% compared with 2.0 +/- 1.8%; P cocoa improved endothelial function and lowered blood pressure in overweight adults. Sugar content may attenuate these effects, and sugar-free preparations may augment them.

  13. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo; Sri Mulato; Edi Suharyanto

    2005-01-01

    Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type...

  14. Cadmium uptake by cocoa trees in agroforestry and monoculture systems under conventional and organic management

    OpenAIRE

    Gramlich, A.; Tandy, S.; Andres, C.; Chincheros Paniagua, J.; Armengot, L.; Schneider, M.; Schulin, R.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium(Cd) uptake by cocoa has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to establish values for tolerable Cd concentrations in cocoa products. Bean Cd concentrations from some cocoa provenances, especially from Latin America, were found to exceed these values. Cadmium uptake by cocoa is expected not only to depend on a variety of soil factors, but also on plant and management factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of different production systems on C...

  15. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Mart?nez-Pinilla, Eva; O?atibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found i...

  16. Nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of "cocoa honey" (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Elias Nascimento da; Ramos,Danilo da Cruz; Menezes,Lígia Miranda; Souza,Alexilda Oliveira de; Lannes,Suzana Caetano da Silva; Silva,Marcondes viana da

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa honey is considered as the liquid portion of cocoa pulp that is released from the fruit soon after it is cut open and can be used before fermentation by simple extraction due to its nutritional characteristics. The objective of the present study is to determine the biochemical characteristics of a cocoa by-product, "cocoa honey" (CH), produced in the State of Bahia-Brazil. The biochemical characterization was conducted to determine reducing sugars, total sugars, vitamin C, total dietary...

  17. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met

  18. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met [es

  19. The Texts of the Agreements Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations and the Federal Government of the Republic of Austria Regarding the Headquarters Seat and Related Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The texts of seven agreements concluded between the Agency and the Republic of Austria, as well as between the Agency, the United Nations and the Republic of Austria, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  20. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 17 June 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the governments of Colombia and the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993 and 2 December 1993, between the Agency and the Governments of Colombia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 17 June 1994, pursuant to Article XII

  1. 77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...-0099; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal... Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic coordinates... of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic coordinates for the airport need...

  2. 76 FR 30298 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ...-0070; Airspace Docket No. 10-ASO-43] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as the Merritt Island Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has... surface to support new standard instrument approach procedures developed at Merritt Island Airport, Cocoa...

  3. Market Concentration and Price Formation in the Global Cocoa Value Chain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomes, N.; Tieben, B.; Laven, A.; Ammerlaan, T.; Appelman, R.; Biesenbeek, Cindy; Buunk, E.

    2016-01-01

    This report explores to what extent market concentration in the cocoa value chain is responsible for the widespread poverty of cocoa farmers. The report finds that market concentration among chocolate manufacturers and cocoa processors is not the key cause. Instead, there are two other key reasons

  4. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...-0099; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal... Federal Register on April 11, 2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES: Effective 0901...), amends Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error was made in...

  5. 53 Cocoa Export Permit and Quota System In Nigeria During World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    To prevent the re-occurrence of untold hardship experienced by cocoa farmers during World War I (1914-18), as well as the concomitant upheavals, the colonial government in British. West Africa introduced a scheme of cocoa control which enabled the government, through its agents, to purchase all cocoa offered for sale in ...

  6. 21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preparation of the product, cocoa or a mixture of cocoa and chocolate liquor is used in such quantity that the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products...

  7. THE POTENTIAL AND SUPPLY CHAIN OF COCOA IN THE CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslimin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is a reliance commodity of the plantation that plays a strategic role in national economy, especially as a provider of employment, source of income, and foreign exchange income. This research aims to identify the cocoa potential and the supply chain of cocoa in Central Sulawesi – Indonesia. Type of the research is descriptive research using survey method in the cocoa supply chain in 13 Regencies/Cities in Central Sulawesi. The result of the study shows that: (1 The largest contributor of the cocoa producer in Indonesia is Central Sulawesi with 23.14 percent of national cocoa and 188,600 hectares area. (2 The cocoa supply chain consists of farmers → collecting traders → wholesalers → industry. (3 The risks in the supply chain of cocoa are (1 Price: No access to a certain information about the price of cocoa resulting in the price determined by the trader unilaterally, (2 Pest Risk: cocoa rot disease; Stem cancer, (3 Seasonal Risk: the rainy season can also cause fungal disease in the stems and damage the cocoa fruit, (4 Human Resources Risk: Low awareness of the community on how to maintain cocoa well and how to turn it into the main livelihood.

  8. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Investment in cocoa production in Nigeria: A cost and return analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined costs and returns in cocoa production in Cross River State by comparing three identified management systems of cocoa production in the area. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select a hundred and fifty cocoa farmers for the study. Data used in the study were collected using structured ...

  10. Illustrated manual on composting for improved soil fertility and enhanced cocoa production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In West and Central Africa, most cocoa farms are old and the soils are highly depleted in major nutrients. Cocoa pod harvest continues to remove nutrients, and this loss of soil fertility is one of the major causes of low cocoa yields and subsequent economic losses. Plant pathogens, including nema...

  11. Cocoa Export Permit and Quota System In Nigeria During World War ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The cocoa trade in colonial West Africa, before World War II, had been operated through market forces. All attempts made by foreign trading firms to form 'cocoa buying pool' and eliminate market forces met with stiff opposition by African farmers and middlemen, the famous of which was the cocoa hold-up in Ghana ...

  12. Cocoa pulp juice (sweatings) as a potential raw material for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa sweatings is a very interesting by-product of cocoa production and it forms the substrate for microbial growth during the fermentation process. Most of the sweatings go to waste during the processing of the cocoa beans and this has led to its utilization as a potential raw material for the development of soft drink to ...

  13. Effect of polybag size and foliar application of urea on cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different polybag sizes and foliar application of urea on the growth of cocoa seedlings in the nursery were studied at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana substation at Afosu in the Eastern Region of Ghana between June 2004 and May 2005. Hybrid cocoa seeds were sown in polybags measuring 17.5 cm ...

  14. The Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America Terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and Terminating the Protocol Suspending that Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and terminating the Protocol suspending that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Protocol entered into force on 27 June 1974, pursuant to Section 6 thereof.

  15. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans with particular reference to inorganic bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1976-01-01

    Inorganic bromide residues and 14 C-labelled methylated products (expressed as CH 3 Br equivalent) in cocoa beans fumigated with [ 14 C]-methyl bromide have been determined by radiometric and chemical methods. Determination of 14 C by direct combustion in an oxygen chamber followed by liquid scintillation counting confirmed previous findings with respect to the magnitude, distribution and chemical nature of the residues. Although recovery of added bromide was good, the values of total bromide obtained by the chemical method were only half of those estimated from the total residual 14 C-activity. This is attributed to loss of organic (presumably, protein-bound) bromide. In agreement with the total 14 C-labelled residue contents, total bromide in shells was 20 times greater than that in nibs. The low levels of residues in the nib (12ppm as CH 3 Br equivalent, 10ppm Br) and the further reduction of organic residues by roasting suggest that no toxicological and nutritional hazards may be expected from fumigation of cocoa beans with methyl bromide. (author)

  16. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Francene M; Bearden, Monica M; Keen, Carl L

    2003-02-01

    This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on other flavonoid-rich foods. Other constituents in cocoa and chocolate that may also influence cardiovascular health are briefly reviewed. The lipid content of chocolate is relatively high; however, one third of the lipid in cocoa butter is composed of the fat stearic acid, which exerts a neutral cholesterolemic response in humans. Cocoa and chocolate contribute to trace mineral intake, which is necessary for optimum functioning of all biologic systems and for vascular tone. Thus, multiple components in chocolate, particularly flavonoids, can contribute to the complex interplay of nutrition and health. Applications of this knowledge include recommendations by health professionals to encourage individuals to consume a wide range of phytochemical-rich foods, which can include dark chocolate in moderate amounts.

  17. The Impact of Cocoa Flavanols on Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachojannis, Julia; Erne, Paul; Zimmermann, Benno; Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to review the effect of cocoa flavanols on cardiovascular health, with emphasis on the doses ingested, and to analyze a range of cocoa products for content of these compounds. PubMed was searched from 2010 to locate systematic reviews (SR) on clinical effects of chocolate consumption. Thirteen SRs were identified and reviewed, and provided strong evidence that dark chocolate did not reduce blood pressure. The evidence was however strong for an association with increased flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) and moderate for an improvement in blood glucose and lipid metabolism. Our analysis showed that cocoa products with around 100 mg epicatechin can reliably increase FMD, and that cocoa flavanol doses of around 900 mg or above may decrease blood pressure in specific individuals and/or if consumed over longer periods. Out of 32 cocoa product samples analyzed, the two food supplements delivered 900 mg of total flavanols and 100 mg epicatechin in doses of 7 g and 20 g and 3 and 8 g, respectively. To achieve these doses with chocolate, around 100 to 500 g (for 900 mg flavanols) and 50 to 200 g (for 100 mg epicatechin) would need to be consumed. Chocolate products marketed for their purported health benefits should therefore declare the amounts of total flavanols and epicatechin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential.

  19. Applying life cycle management of colombian cocoa production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ortiz-R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to evaluate the usefulness of the application of Life Cycle Management in the agricultural sector focusing on the environmental and socio-economic aspects of decision making in the Colombian cocoa production. Such appraisal is based on the application of two methodological tools: Life Cycle Assessment, which considers environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of the cocoa production system, and Taguchi Loss Function, which measures the economic impact of a process' deviation from production targets. Results show that appropriate improvements in farming practices and supply consumption can enhance decision-making in the agricultural cocoa sector towards sustainability. In terms of agri-business purposes, such qualitative shift allows not only meeting consumer demands for environmentally friendly products, but also increasing the productivity and competitiveness of cocoa production, all of which has helped Life Cycle Management gain global acceptance. Since farmers have an important role in improving social and economic indicators at the national level, more attention should be paid to the upgrading of their cropping practices. Finally, one fundamental aspect of national cocoa production is the institutional and governmental support available for farmers in face of socio-economic or technological needs.

  20. The environmental and intrinsic yeast diversity of Cuban cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Maura, Yurelkys; Balzarini, Tom; Clapé Borges, Pablo; Evrard, Pierre; De Vuyst, Luc; Daniel, H-M

    2016-09-16

    The environmental yeast diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations in east Cuba was investigated. Seven fermentations, 25 equipment- and handling-related samples, and 115 environmental samples, such as flowers, leaf and cocoa pod surfaces, as well as drosophilid insects, were analysed. The basic fermentation parameters temperature and pH were recorded during five fermentations for at least six days. A total of 435 yeast isolates were identified by a combination of PCR-fingerprinting of genomic DNA with the M13 primer and sequence analysis of DNA from representative isolates, using the internal transcribed spacer region, the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, and an actin gene-encoding fragment, as required. Among 65 yeast species detected, Pichia manshurica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae were the most frequently isolated species, obtained from five and four fermentations, followed in frequency by Pichia kudriavzevii from two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated only occasionally. Cocoa fermentation yeast species were also present on processing equipment. The repeated isolation of a preliminarily as Yamadazyma sp. classified species, a group of strains similar to Saccharomycopsis crataegensis from fermentations and equipment, and the isolation of fifteen other potentially novel yeast species in low numbers provides material for further studies. Environmental samples showed higher yeast diversity compared to the fermentations, included the most frequent fermentation species, whereas the most frequently isolated environmental species were Candida carpophila, Candida conglobata, and Candida quercitrusa. Potential selective advantages of the most frequently isolated species were only partly explained by the physiological traits tested. For instance, tolerance to higher ethanol concentrations was more frequent in strains of Pichia spp. and S. cerevisiae compared to Hanseniaspora spp.; the ability to also assimilate ethanol might have

  1. Decree No 2674/1973 of 19 October 1973 determining the authorities competent for application of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    In accordance with the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) signed by Spain on 22 November 1972, every Government Parts to the Agreement must designate the authorities competent for its application, which in Spain are the Minister of the Interior, the Minister for Public Works and the Minister for Industry. Radioactive materials are classified as dangerous goods under the ADR. (N.E.A.) [fr

  2. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 7 December 1991 and signed in Vienna on 13 December 1991

  3. Agreement of 21 December 1993 between the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 2 December 1993 and signed in Vienna on 6 December 1993 and in Riga on 21 December 1993

  4. Agreement of 26 July 1994 between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 8 June 1994 and signed in Almaty on 26 July 1994

  5. Agreement of 18 November 1993 between the Kingdom of Tonga and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Kingdom of Tonga and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1975 and signed in Vienna on 31 October 1990 and in Nuku'Alofa on 18 November 1993

  6. Agreement of 26 July 1994 between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 8 June 1994 and signed in Almaty on 26 July 1994.

  7. Agreement between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 November 1999, signed in Vienna on 17 December 1999, and entered into force on the same date

  8. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States [fr

  9. Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Project and Supply Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Poland on 8 January 2007, the United States on 12 January 2007 and by the Director General of the IAEA on 16 January 2007. Pursuant to the Article XII of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 January 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Poland, the United States and the Director General of the IAEA

  10. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States

  11. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States [es

  12. Investigations on the Aroma of Cocoa Pulp ( Theobroma cacao L.) and Its Influence on the Odor of Fermented Cocoa Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetschik, Irene; Kneubühl, Markus; Chatelain, Karin; Schlüter, Ansgar; Bernath, Konrad; Hühn, Tilo

    2018-03-14

    The odor-active constituents of cocoa pulp have been analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) for the first time. Pulps of three different cocoa varieties have been investigated. The variety CCN51 showed low flavor intensities, in terms of flavor dilution (FD) factors, in comparison to varieties FSV41 and UF564, for which floral and fruity notes were detected in higher intensities. To gain first insights on a molecular level of how the cocoa pulp odorants affected the odor quality of cocoa beans during fermentation, quantitative measurements of selected aroma compounds were conducted in pulp and bean at different time points of the fermentation. The results showed significantly higher concentrations of 2-phenylethanol and 3-methylbutyl acetate in pulp than in the bean during the different time steps of the fermentation, whereas the reverse could be observed for the odorants linalool and 2-methoxyphenol. The findings of this study constitute a basis for further investigations on the aroma formation of cocoa during fermentation.

  13. 75 FR 24702 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Bay International Terminals, Inc. Operating Agreement. Parties: Tampa Bay International Terminals, Inc. and Tampa Port Authority. Filing Parties: Greg Lovelace, Director Cargo & Cruise Marketing; Tampa Port...

  14. Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

  15. The analysis of production and trade patterns in cocoa market worldwide and in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejuk, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa belongs to the group of one of the most valuable commodities in the world. Most production of cocoa beans takes place in the African countries in the Equatorial “Cocoa Belt”. However, most processing of raw products is made in Western European countries. Poland is a substantial producer of confectionery chocolate products, therefore the country imports cocoa butter and cocoa paste, which gives it 8th and 6th place in the world in terms of quantity imported. This paper presents an analys...

  16. 1H NMR study of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Acquotti, Domenico; Cirlini, Martina; Palla, Gerardo

    2010-12-08

    This study reports for the first time the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans using the (1)H NMR technique applied to polar extracts of fermented cocoa beans. The simultaneous detection and quantification of amino acids, polyalcohols, organic acids, sugars, methylxanthines, catechins, and phenols were obtained by assigning the major signals of the spectra for different varieties of cocoa beans (Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario) from different countries (Ecuador, Ghana, Grenada, and Trinidad). The data set obtained, representative of all classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was useful to characterize the fermented cocoa beans as a function of the variety and geographic origin.

  17. Characterization and Degradation of Pectic Polysaccharides in Cocoa Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Struyf, Nore; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Baert, Eline; Hemdane, Sami; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M; Hendrickx, Marc; Steensels, Jan

    2017-11-08

    Microbial fermentation of the viscous pulp surrounding cocoa beans is a crucial step in chocolate production. During this process, the pulp is degraded, after which the beans are dried and shipped to factories for further processing. Despite its central role in chocolate production, pulp degradation, which is assumed to be a result of pectin breakdown, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of cocoa pulp, focusing on pectic polysaccharides, and the factors influencing its degradation. Detailed analysis reveals that pectin in cocoa pulp largely consists of weakly bound substances, and that both temperature and enzyme activity play a role in its degradation. Furthermore, this study shows that pulp degradation by an indigenous yeast fully relies on the presence of a single gene (PGU1), encoding for an endopolygalacturonase. Apart from their basic scientific value, these new insights could propel the selection of microbial starter cultures for more efficient pulp degradation.

  18. Stable isotope composition of cocoa beans of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Barbero, Alice; Caligiani, Augusta; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic profile (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(2) H, δ(34) S) was used to characterise a wide selection of cocoa beans from different renowned production areas (Africa, Asia, Central and South America). The factors most influencing the isotopic signatures of cocoa beans were climate and altitude for δ(13) C and the isotopic composition of precipitation water for δ(18) O and δ(2) H, whereas δ(15) N and δ(34) S were primarily affected by geology and fertilisation practises. Multi-isotopic analysis was shown to be sufficiently effective in determining the geographical origin of cocoa beans, and combining it with Canonical Discriminant Analysis led to more than 80% of samples being correctly reclassified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. WILLINGNESS TO TAKE AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE BY COCOA FARMERS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Falola

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines willingness to take agricultural insurance by cocoa farmers in Nigeria. A three-stage sampling procedure was used to select 120 cocoa farm households and structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from the respondents. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics and probit regression model. Results showed that 77.5% of the farmers were aware of Agricultural Insurance but only 50% were willing to take it. The average willingness-to-pay (WTP for Agricultural Insurance by the respondents was N11,087.5/ha ($69.85/ha. The significant variables influencing willingness to take agricultural insurance by the farmers were age of household head, educational level, access to extension service and farm income. The study therefore recommends encouraging young well educated people to engage in cocoa farming, overhauling agricultural extension services as well as provision of insurance services to farmers at affordable rate.

  20. [Dark or white chocolate? Cocoa and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Roberto; Perdrix, Jean; Flammer, Andreas J; Noll, Georg

    2010-03-10

    Epidemiological data show that a regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent research indeed demonstrates interesting data about cocoa consumption, with high concentrations of polyphenols, and beneficial effects on blood pressure, insulin resistance and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert their benefits on cardiovascular health have been suggested: activation of nitric oxide, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet effects, which might in turn improve endothelial function, lipid levels, blood pressure and insulin resistance. This article reviews available data about the effects of the consumption of cocoa and different types of chocolate on cardiovascular health, and outlines potential mechanisms involved on the basis of recent studies.

  1. Agreement of 30 January 1992 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1991 and signed in Vienna on 30 January 1992. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 25, on 10 April 1992 [fr

  2. Agreement of 5 April 1995 between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 5 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 26, on 5 April 1995

  3. Agreement of 7 May 1996 between the Saint Kitts and Nevis and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and protocol thereof) between Saint Kitts and Nevis and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 10 July 1995 and in Basseterre on 7 May 1996. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 7 May 1996. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  4. Agreement of 26 June 1995 between the Republic of Zimbabwe and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Zimbabwe and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 26 June 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 26 June 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II.

  5. Agreement of 14 April 1995 between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 22 November 1994 and in Minsk on 14 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 2 August 1995

  6. Agreement of 26 June 1995 between the Republic of Zimbabwe and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Zimbabwe and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 26 June 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 26 June 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  7. Agreement of 20 April 1995 between the Union of Myanmar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Union of Myanmar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 20 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 20 April 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II.

  8. Agreement of 8 October 1994 between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 21 February 1994 and signed in Vienna on 5 April 1994 and in Tashkent on 8 October 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 8 October 1994.

  9. Agreement of 9 June 1994 between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 8 June 1994 and signed in Vienna on 9 June 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 19 January 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II.

  10. Agreement of 3 May 1996 between the government of the commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereof) between the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 10 July 1995 and in Roseau, Dominica on 3 May 1996. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 3 May 1996. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  11. Agreement of 7 May 1996 between the Saint Kitts and Nevis and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and protocol thereof) between Saint Kitts and Nevis and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 10 July 1995 and in Basseterre on 7 May 1996. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 7 May 1996. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II.

  12. Agreement of 9 June 1994 between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 8 June 1994 and signed in Vienna on 9 June 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 19 January 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  13. Agreement of 3 May 1996 between the government of the commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereof) between the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 10 July 1995 and in Roseau, Dominica on 3 May 1996. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 3 May 1996. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II.

  14. Agreement of 5 April 1995 between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 5 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 26, on 5 April 1995.

  15. Agreement of 20 April 1995 between the Union of Myanmar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Union of Myanmar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 20 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 20 April 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  16. Agreement of 14 April 1995 between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 22 November 1994 and in Minsk on 14 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 2 August 1995.

  17. Agreement of 8 October 1994 between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 21 February 1994 and signed in Vienna on 5 April 1994 and in Tashkent on 8 October 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 8 October 1994

  18. Agreement of 30 January 1992 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1991 and signed in Vienna on 30 January 1992. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 25, on 10 April 1992 [es

  19. Agreement of 30 January 1992 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1991 and signed in Vienna on 30 January 1992. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 25, on 10 April 1992

  20. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, A-M; Scott, P M

    2011-06-01

    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46-61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g(-1)) were 75-84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93-94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07-0.08 ng g(-1)), accurate (recovery = 75-94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g(-1); in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g(-1), the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g(-1); one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g(-1)).