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Sample records for internalized homophobia ih

  1. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Yanykin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  2. Parental Rejection Following Sexual Orientation Disclosure: Impact on Internalized Homophobia, Social Support, and Mental Health.

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    Puckett, Julia A; Woodward, Eva N; Mereish, Ethan H; Pantalone, David W

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority individuals face unique stressors because of their sexual identity. We explored associations between parental reactions to children's coming out, internalized homophobia (IH), social support, and mental health in a sample of 257 sexual minority adults. Path analyses revealed that higher IH and lower social support mediated the association between past parental rejection and current psychological distress. Mental health providers may benefit clients by utilizing interventions that challenge internalized stereotypes about homosexuality, increase social support, and process parental rejection, as well as focusing on how certain crucial experiences of rejection may impact clients' IH and mental health.

  3. Correlates of homophobia, transphobia, and internalized homophobia in gay or lesbian and heterosexual samples.

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    Warriner, Katrina; Nagoshi, Craig T; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2013-01-01

    This research assessed the correlates of homophobia and transphobia in heterosexual and homosexual individuals, based on a theory of different sources of perceived symbolic threat to social status. Compared to 310 heterosexual college students, a sample of 30 gay male and 30 lesbian college students scored lower on homophobia, transphobia, and religious fundamentalism. Mean gender differences were smaller for gay men and lesbians for homophobia, aggressiveness, benevolent sexism, masculinity, and femininity. Fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostile and benevolent sexism were correlated only with homophobia in lesbians, whereas fundamentalism and authoritarianism were correlated only with transphobia in gay men. Correlates of internalized homophobia were different than those found for homophobia and transphobia, which was discussed in terms of gender differences in threats to status based on sexual orientation versus gender identity.

  4. Internalized homonegativity/homophobia is associated with HIV-risk behaviours among Ugandan gay and bisexual men.

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    Ross, M W; Kajubi, P; Mandel, J S; McFarland, W; Raymond, H F

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the relationship of internalized homonegativity/homophobia (IH) to sexual risk behaviours among 216 Ugandan gay and bisexual men, using the 7-item IH scale previously developed on this population. IH was significantly associated with unprotected anal intercourse, and more so with unprotected receptive anal intercourse. Higher IH was also associated with more sex while intoxicated. There was a strong association between anal intercourse of any type and IH, suggesting a complex relationship between anal sex and identification with, or internalization of, homonegativity/homophobia. Specifically, it may be the anal component of sex rather than the sex with another man that is seen as labeling one as homosexual or stigmatizing. Those men who stated that they engaged in sex with other men for love, rather than for the physical feeling or for money, had higher IH scores. These data suggest that there may be an interactive relationship between IH and sexual behaviour, with greater internalization being associated with more stereotypically gay activities, which in turn may lead to more self-identification as gay and thus greater susceptibility to internalization.

  5. Prevalence of Internalized Homophobia and HIV Associated Risks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the level of internalized homophobia and associated factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. Using respondent driven sampling, MSM were recruited in Lagos and Ibadan between July and September, 2006. Internalized homophobia was assessed as a negative composite score ...

  6. Queer theory, late capitalism, and internalized homophobia.

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    Kirsch, Max

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of queer theory represents a transformation in the approach to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered peoples. It has claimed new ground for treating sexuality and gender as worthy subjects in their own rights, rather than offshoots of gay and lesbian studies or of general cultural theory. The author contends, however, that it is doubtful that this approach can lead to social change. Queer theory has dismissed the usefulness of the disciplines that were the foundation of the social movements that initiated gay and lesbian studies, such as political economy, and in doing so, it has surreptitiously mirrored the social relations of reproduction that constitute late capitalism. This mirroring has had unseen consequences for the individual in society, and with queer theory's insistence on the relativity of experience and the dismissal of identity, has set the stage for a benign reinforcement of internalized homophobia. The author argues that this approach can be mediated by recognizing that identity is fluid, and that by focusing on identifying with social movements rather than centering analyses on the problems associated with identifying as a particular category of status and being, we can refocus our energies on the building and maintenance of mutual support and collective recognition that can lead to resolving the stagnation now dominating attempts to develop coalitions around issues that matter.

  7. Internalized homophobia in homosexual men: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence about linguistic expressions used that show internalized homophobia by homosexual individuals. The objective of this research was to explore suggestive internalized homophobic language used by web page users for homosocialization purposes among homosexual men living in Bogotá and Cartagena, Colombia. A qualitative study was designed with the purpose of analyzing content of 40 profiles, 20 from Bogota, and in the same proportion in Cartagena. This was based on account profiles from a website which contained contact inquiries between people who were not heterosexual and described homophobic characteristics when referring to their ideal partner. It was observed that in 19 out of 20 profiles in Bogotá and the same proportion in Cartagena people used suggestive and direct qualifiers that showed internalized explicit homophobia and implicit language, for instance, “I am looking for serious people”. The internalized homophobia is expressed by looking for that “macho” man who is professional and lives a heterosexual lifestyle. Authors conclude that homosexual men who requested contact with other men by Internet often expressed internalized homophobia in explicit and implicit ways, which suggests accepting hegemonic model of masculine men. Quantitative studies are needed in Colombian non-heterosexual populations.

  8. Associations Between Internalized Homophobia and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

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    Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica

    2016-10-01

    To assess internalized homophobia (IH) and its relationship to sexual risk behaviors and prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs) in a clinic-based sample of young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). Six hundred YBMSM completed a self-interview and provided specimens for testing. A 7-item scale assessed IH, and 19 sexual risk behaviors were assessed. In adjusted models, compared with men with less IH, those with greater IH were more likely to report: any condomless anal receptive sex (P = 0.01) and sex with women (P < 0.001). Alternatively, men with greater IH were less likely to: discuss acquired immune deficiency syndrome prevention with sex partners (P = 0.009), disclose their same sex sexual behavior to providers (P = 0.01), be tested for human immunodeficiency virus in the past 12 months (P = 0.04), report condomless oral sex (P = 0.049), and test RPR positive (P = 0.01). With some exceptions, IH among YBMSM attending STI clinics may influence their sexual risk behaviors; however, STI prevalence was not associated with this construct.

  9. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships.

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    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed.

  10. Internalized homophobia, lesbian identity development, and self-esteem in undergraduate women.

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    Peterson, Trica L; Gerrity, Deborah A

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between internalized homophobia, self-esteem, and lesbian identity development in 35 undergraduate women. Results indicated evidence of a strong relationship between the two identity development measures, the Stage Allocation Measure (SAM; Cass, 1984) and the Gay Identity Questionnaire (GIQ; Brady & Busse, 1994), and moderate relationships between identity development and internalized homophobia, between identity development and self-esteem, and between internalized homophobia and self-esteem. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  11. Internalized Homophobia and Relationship Quality among Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals

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    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the associations between internalized homophobia, outness, community connectedness, depressive symptoms, and relationship quality among a diverse community sample of 396 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Structural equation models showed that internalized homophobia was associated with greater relationship problems…

  12. Internalized Homophobia and Drug Use in a National Cohort of Gay and Bisexual Men: Examining Depression, Sexual Anxiety, and Gay Community Attachment as Mediating Factors.

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    Moody, Raymond L; Starks, Tyrel J; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2018-05-01

    The minority stress process of internalized homophobia (IH) has been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes among gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, evidence is mixed regarding the effect of IH on drug use, suggesting the potential role of multiple mediated pathways. Researchers have linked depression, sexual anxiety, and gay community attachment with IH. Depression, sexual anxiety, and gay community attachment have also been linked with drug use and drug-related problems suggesting potential mediating roles. A U.S. national sample of 1071 HIV-negative GBM completed at-home surveys, including measures of sociodemographic characteristics, IH, depression, sexual anxiety, gay community attachment, and drug use and associated problems. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, depression mediated the association between IH and recent drug use. IH was positively associated with depression, and depression was positively associated with recent drug use. Gay community attachment partially mediated drug-related problems. IH had a positive direct association with drug-related problems and a negative direct association with gay community attachment. Gay community attachment had a positive association with drug-related problems. IH was positively associated with sexual anxiety, but sexual anxiety was not associated with either drug outcome. Efforts to reduce IH among HIV-negative GBM are likely to have a positive impact on mental health problems, as well as reduce risk for drug use and drug-related problems. Gay communities could provide the social support necessary for reducing IH; however, emphasis on community level interventions that address factors that increase risk for drug-related problems remains important.

  13. Psychometrics of an internalized homophobia instrument for men.

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    Theodore, John L; Shidlo, Ariel; Zemon, Vance; Foley, Frederick W; Dorfman, David; Dahlman, Karen L; Hamid, Sahira

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Axial Gay Men's Inventory-Men's Short Version (MAGI-MSV) assesses internalized homophobia via 20 items and 3 dimensions. This study extended the psychometric examination of the MAGI-MSV. The instrument was administered to 228 ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay men seeking counseling in New York City (mean age = 35, age range = 16-70). Following principal axis factoring and parallel analyses, 4 factors emerged and 14 items were retained. The descriptive labels for factors included gay self-assurance and worth, public appearance of homosexuality, and impact of HIV/AIDS on homosexuality. The new, fourth factor was named maladaptive measures to eliminate homosexuality.

  14. Examining the Conditions Under Which Internalized Homophobia Is Associated with Substance Use and Condomless Sex in Young MSM: the Moderating Role of Impulsivity.

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    Puckett, Jae A; Newcomb, Michael E; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Internalized homophobia (IH) is the internalization of homophobic attitudes by sexual minorities due to social bias. IH has been inconsistently related to substance use and condomless sex for young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We examined negative urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative emotional experiences), positive urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to positive emotional experiences), and sensation seeking as independent moderators of the association of IH with binge drinking, drug use, and condomless anal sex. Data were collected from 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) over the course of 18 months (baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up). Hierarchical generalized linear modeling revealed that there was a significant moderation for binge drinking and receptive condomless anal sex, with the association between IH and these risk behaviors increased for those with higher levels of negative urgency and positive urgency. IH is important to the negative health outcomes of binge drinking and condomless anal sex for individuals high in negative and/or positive urgency, who may act impulsively to avoid subjective negative experiences or in the face of positive emotional experiences. Future research is needed to further establish additional conditions under which IH may be important to understanding risk behaviors in YMSM, which is essential to developing targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  15. Internalized Homophobia Influences Perceptions of Men's Sexual Orientation from Photos of Their Faces.

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    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-04-01

    Although researchers have explored the perceiver characteristics that make people accurate at identifying others' sexual orientations, characteristics of the targets remain largely unexplored. In the current study, we examined how individual differences in internalized homophobia among gay men can affect perceptions of their sexual orientation by asking 49 individuals to judge the sexual orientations of 78 gay men from photos of their faces. We found that gay men reporting higher levels of internalized homophobia were less likely to have come out of the closet and were, in turn, less likely to be perceived as gay. Thus, internalized homophobia and the concealment of one's sexual minority status can impact perceptions of sexual orientation.

  16. Internalized homophobia and reduced HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China.

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    Pyun, Thomas; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Do, Tri; Hebert, Pato; Beck, Jack; Makofane, Keletso; Wilson, Patrick A; Ayala, George

    2014-03-01

    Although previous research has examined barriers and facilitators of HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, few studies have focused on social factors, including homophobia and internalized homophobia. This study utilized data from a global online survey to determine correlates of HIV testing as part of a subanalysis focused on Chinese MSM. Controlling for age, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners, and other covariates, ever having tested for HIV was significantly correlated with lower internalized homophobia. This study suggests that stigma associated with sexual orientation may serve as a barrier to participation in HIV testing and other health-promoting behaviors.

  17. Shame, internalized homophobia, identity formation, attachment style, and the connection to relationship status in gay men.

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    Brown, Jac; Trevethan, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This study reports on a survey of 166 gay men in Sydney, Australia, that explores the links between internalized shame, internalized homophobia, and attachment style. These variables were linked to the age of coming out, family and peer acceptance of their sexuality, relationship status, and previous marriage. Findings suggest a strong relationship between shame, internalized homophobia, and anxious and avoidant attachment style. Shame was predicted by internalized homophobia and anxious and avoidant attachment style. A significant proportion of gay men reported that they were not easily accepted when they first came out. There was a significant relationship between coming out and internalized homophobia but not with shame and attachment style. Furthermore, men who had never come out to family and friends reported higher levels of internalized homophobia but not higher levels of shame and attachment style. Of particular significance was the connection between previous marriage and higher levels of shame and internalized homophobia. Finally, gay men who were not currently in a relationship reported higher levels of shame anxious and avoidant attachment style. These findings are related to therapeutic work with gay men who have previously been married and those who are concerned with their current single status.

  18. Internalized Homophobia and Perceived Stigma: A Validation Study of Stigma Measures in a Sample of Young Men who Have Sex with Men.

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    Puckett, Jae A; Newcomb, Michael E; Ryan, Daniel T; Swann, Greg; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-03-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) experience minority stressors that impact their mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Internalized homophobia (IH) and perceived stigma represent two of these minority stressors, and there has been limited research empirically validating measures of these constructs. We validated measures of IH and perceived stigma with a sample of 450 YMSM (mean age=18.9) and a sample of 370 YMSM (mean age=22.9). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported modifications to the IH and perceived stigma scales, ultimately revealing a three factor and one factor structure, respectively. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined utilizing correlations between IH, perceived stigma, and other variables related to minority stress (e.g., victimization). We evaluated predictive validity by examining relations with mental health, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors measured 12-months from baseline. There were mixed findings for IH, with subscales varying in their relations to mental health, drinking, and sexual risk variables. Perceived stigma was not related to mental health or substance use, but was associated with greater prevalence of STIs. Findings supported the use of these modified scales with YMSM and highlight the need for further measurement studies.

  19. Internalized homophobia, mental health, sexual behaviors, and outness of gay/bisexual men from Southwest China.

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    Xu, Wenjian; Zheng, Lijun; Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2017-02-17

    Social attitudes toward male homosexuality in China so far are still not optimistic. Sexual minorities in China have reported high levels of internalized homophobia. This Internet-based study examined the associations among internalized homophobia, mental health, sexual behaviors, and outness among 435 gay/bisexual men in Southwest China from 2014 to 2015. Latent profile analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, univariate logistic regression, and separate multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. This descriptive study found the Internalized Homophobia Scale to be suitable for use in China. The sample demonstrated a high prevalence of internalized homophobia. Latent profile analysis suggested a 2-class solution as optimal, and a high level of internalized homophobia was significantly associated with greater psychological distress (Wald = 6.49, AOR = 1.66), transactional sex during the previous 6 months (Wald = 5.23, AOR = 2.77), more sexual compulsions (Wald = 14.05, AOR = 2.12), and the concealment of sexual identity from others (Wald = 30.70, AOR = 0.30) and parents (Wald = 6.72, AOR = 0.49). These findings contribute to our understanding of internalized homophobia in China, and highlight the need to decrease gay-related psychological stress/distress and improve public health services.

  20. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

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    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.

  1. The Impact of Victimization and Neuroticism on Mental Health in Young Men who have Sex with Men: Internalized Homophobia as an Underlying Mechanism.

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    Puckett, Jae A; Newcomb, Michael E; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Sexual minorities experience greater mental health issues compared to heterosexuals due to minority stressors. This study focused on the impact of victimization and neuroticism on mental health in young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and the mediating role of internalized homophobia (IH). IH refers to when a sexual minority person internalizes social bias and develops a negative view of themselves, which is a likely process through which victimization and neuroticism impact mental health. Data were collected over three time points across 12 months, with 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) and an 80.7% retention rate. Two mediation analyses with bias-corrected bootstrapping using 1000 samples were conducted, controlling for age, race, and sexual orientation. Results revealed that victimization [ F (9, 440) = 4.83, p < .001, R 2 = .09] and neuroticism [ F (9, 440) = 12.23, p < .001, R 2 = .20] had a significant indirect effect on mental health via increased levels of IH. These findings show how external experiences of stigma and personality level characteristics may impact YMSM in terms of their sense of self. Furthermore, these results support addressing social conditions that marginalize YMSM in order to promote better mental health through decreasing IH.

  2. Religious affiliation, internalized homophobia, and mental health in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals.

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    Barnes, David M; Meyer, Ilan H

    2012-10-01

    Most religious environments in the United States do not affirm homosexuality. The authors investigated the relationship between exposure to nonaffirming religious environments and internalized homophobia and mental health in a sample of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) in New York City. Guided by minority stress theory, the authors hypothesized that exposure to nonaffirming religious settings would lead to higher internalized homophobia, more depressive symptoms, and less psychological well-being. The authors hypothesized that Black and Latino LGBs would be more likely than White LGBs to participate in nonaffirming religious settings and would therefore have higher internalized homophobia than White LGBs. Participants were 355 LGBs recruited through community-based venue sampling and evenly divided among Black, Latino, and White race or ethnic groups and among age groups within each race or ethnic group, as well as between women and men. Results supported the general hypothesis that nonaffirming religion was associated with higher internalized homophobia. There was no main effect of nonaffirming religion on mental health, an unexpected finding discussed in this article. Latinos, but not Blacks, had higher internalized homophobia than Whites, and as predicted, this was mediated by their greater exposure to nonaffirming religion. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  3. The Interrelations Between Internalized Homophobia, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Australian Gay Men, Lesbians, and Bisexual Women.

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    McLaren, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Internalized homophobia has been linked to depression among gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Relatively little research has investigated the link between internalized homophobia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The current research investigated the interrelations among internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation by testing additive, mediation, and moderation models. Self-identified Australian gay men (n = 360), lesbians (n = 444), and bisexual women (n = 114) completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the suicide subscale of the General Health Questionnaire. Results supported the additive and partial mediation models for gay men and the mediation and moderation models for lesbians. None of the models were supported for bisexual women. The findings imply that clinicians should focus on reducing internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men and lesbians, and depressive symptoms among bisexual women, to reduce suicidal ideation.

  4. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

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    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 ( SD = 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ 2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  5. The Relationship Between Internalized Homophobia and Intimate Partner Violence in Same-Sex Relationships: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Longobardi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between internalized homophobia and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization in same-sex relationships. The literature search and the application of the inclusion criteria made it possible to identify 10 studies, 2 of which were excluded due to missing data. Therefore, eight studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed positive and statistically significant associations between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration and victimization, indicating that higher levels of internalized homophobia were related to higher levels of IPV. Specifically, the pooled effect size for the relationship between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration (all forms), it was r + = .147, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [.079, .214]; for the association between internalized homophobia and physical/sexual IPV perpetration, it was r + = .166, 95% CI [.109, .221]; p homophobia and psychological IPV perpetration, it was r + = .145, 95% CI [.073, .216]; and for the association between internalized homophobia and any type of IPV victimization, it was r + = .102, 95% CI [.030, .173]. Implications of these results for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  6. Gender nonconformity and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults: Homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia as mediators.

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    Van Beusekom, Gabriël; Bos, Henny Mw; Kuyper, Lisette; Overbeek, Geertjan; Sandfort, Theo Gm

    2016-04-01

    We assessed among a sample of 724 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual-identified adults ( M age  = 31.42) whether experiences with homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia simultaneously mediated the relation of gender nonconformity with mental health. Results indicated that homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia partially mediated the relation between gender nonconformity and mental health. Gender nonconformity was related to more mental health problems via increased experiences with homophobic stigmatization and to less mental health problems because of reduced levels of internalized homophobia. However, the mediated relation of gender nonconformity with mental health via homophobic stigmatization was only significant for men.

  7. Internalized Homophobia Scale for Gay Chinese Men: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

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    Ren, Zhengjia; Hood, Ralph W

    2018-04-01

    This study reports the development of an inventory to assess the perceived internalized homophobia of gay men in a collectivistic Chinese cultural context. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using two samples suggested the viability and stability of a three-factor model: internalized heteronormativity (IHN), family-oriented identity (FOI), and socially oriented identity (SOI). The 11-item internalized homophobia inventory demonstrated good internal consistency and construct validity. Internalized homophobia was related positively to the extent of a sense of loneliness and negatively to self-evaluation and the discrepancy in self-identification as a gay man. In addition, the participants' internalized SOI consistently predicted their coming out choices in their social surroundings, while their FOI predicted their decisions to enter into heterosexual marriages. The findings suggest that sexual self-prejudice was correlated with IHN, family values, and social norms. The present research demonstrates that a culturally sensitive scale is necessary to understand the cultural and family-oriented values that influence gay Chinese men's everyday lives, self-constructs, and behavioral choices.

  8. Levels and correlates of internalized homophobia among men who have sex with men in Pretoria, South Africa.

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    Vu, Lung; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Nel, Dawie

    2012-04-01

    This study examines levels and correlates of internalized homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Pretoria, South Africa. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 324 MSM from February to August 2009. Results were adjusted using RDSAT analysis to yield population-based estimates. High levels of internalized homophobia exist among South African MSM: 10-15% reported "often/very often" and over 20% reported "sometimes" having feelings of internalized homophobia. A greater level of internalized homophobia was significantly associated with a lower level of education [Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.9], a higher level of HIV misinformation [AOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.3-5.3], bisexual identity (vs. homosexual) [AOR = 5.5; 95% CI: 2.5-12.0], and HIV-related conspiracy beliefs [AOR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.02-5.8]. These findings contribute valuable information to our understanding of internalized homophobia in South Africa, highlighting the need to empower the gay community, promote self-acceptance of homosexual identity, and address conspiracy beliefs among MSM to reduce internalized homophobia and increase access to HIV prevention interventions.

  9. Relational aggression and victimization in gay male relationships: the role of internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M; Robertson, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents two studies that are the first to examine relational aggression and relational victimization in gay male peer relationships. A qualitative pilot study provides a strong rationale for a subsequent empirical investigation of 100 young adult, self-identified gay males. Results of both studies demonstrate that relational aggression and relational victimization are common experiences in gay male relationships. They also reveal forms of relational aggression and victimization that appear to be unique to gay males (e.g., outing). Results of the empirical study found significant relations between engaging in relational aggression against gay males and experiencing relational victimization and between experiencing relational victimization and internalized homophobia. However, there was no significant correlation between internalized homophobia and engaging in relational aggression. A multiple regression analysis found that experiencing relational victimization was correlated more strongly with the combination of engaging in relational aggression and internalized homophobia together than with relational aggression alone. Results are discussed within the framework of Allport's "traits due to victimization" theory and Meyer's theory of "minority stress." Implications for the prevention of relational aggression/victimization in gay male relationships are offered. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women (IHVN-W): Conceptualization, factor structure, reliability, and associations with hypothesized correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese internalized homophobia (IH) scale, for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n=1187), or as bisexual (n=641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n=353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscales’ associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the Minority Stress Model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed. PMID:27007469

  11. Internalized Homophobia as a Partial Mediator between Homophobic Bullying and Self-Esteem among Sexual Minority Youths in Quebec (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Martin; Gervais, Jesse; Hébert, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among sexual minority youths. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among sexual minority youths and to model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. Method: A community sample of 300 sexual minority youths aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equations model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. Results: 60.7% of the sample reported at least on form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. Conclusion: Our results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on well-being of sexual minority youths. PMID:24714888

  12. Prevalence of internalized homophobia and HIV associated risks among men who have sex with men in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Sylvia B; Eluwa, George I; Allman, Dan; Myers, Ted; Ahonsi, Babatunde A

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the level of internalized homophobia and associated factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. Using respondent driven sampling, MSM were recruited in Lagos and Ibadan between July and September, 2006. Internalized homophobia was assessed as a negative composite score using an 11-item scale. A total of 1,125 MSM were interviewed. About 44.4% self-identified as homosexual or gay while 55% regarded themselves as bisexual. About a third of the respondents reported internalized homophobia. With homosexual/gay men as reference, respondents who self-identified as bisexual were two times more likely [AOR 2.1; 95 CI: 1.6 - 2.9, p Nigeria.

  13. Gender, age, and place of residence as moderators of the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation among Australian gay men and lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Internalized homophobia is a risk factor for depression among gay men and lesbians. The aim of the study was to test whether the internalized homophobia-depression relation was moderated by gender (stronger among gay men compared with lesbians), age (stronger among younger compared with older gay men and lesbians), and place of residence (stronger among gay men and lesbians who live in rural areas compared with those who live in urban areas). An Australian sample of 311 self-identified gay men and 570 self-identified lesbians, aged 18 to 70 years, completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that age and gender did not moderate the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation. Place of residence was a significant moderator for gay men but not lesbians. In contrast to the hypothesis, the internalized homophobia-depression relation was significant only among gay men who resided in urban areas. Those who work with gay men should be particularly aware of the significant relationship between internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men who reside in urban areas.

  14. Internalized homophobia as a partial mediator between homophobic bullying and self-esteem among youths of sexual minorities in Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Martin; Gervais, Jesse; Hébert, Martine

    2014-03-01

    Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among youths of sexual minorities. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among youths of sexual minorities and model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. A community sample of 300 youths of sexual minorities aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equation model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. 60.7% of the sample reported at least one form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. The results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on the well-being of youths of sexual minorities.

  15. Internalized homophobia as a partial mediator between homophobic bullying and self-esteem among youths of sexual minorities in Quebec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Blais

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among youths of sexual minorities. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among youths of sexual minorities and model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. A community sample of 300 youths of sexual minorities aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equation model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. 60.7% of the sample reported at least one form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. The results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on the well-being of youths of sexual minorities.

  16. It gets better: resolution of internalized homophobia over time and associations with positive health outcomes among MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Amy L; Stall, Ron; Chmiel, Joan S; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Penniman, Typhanye; Shoptaw, Steven; Ostrow, David; Plankey, Michael W

    2013-05-01

    Health disparities research among gay and bisexual men has focused primarily on risk and deficits. However, a focus on resiliencies within this population may greatly benefit health promotion. We describe a pattern of resilience (internalized homophobia (IHP) resolution) over the life-course and its associations with current health outcomes. 1,541 gay and bisexual men from the Multi-Center AIDS Cohort study, an ongoing prospective study of the natural and treated histories of HIV, completed a survey about life-course events thought to be related to health. The majority of men resolved IHP over time independent of demographics. Men who resolved IHP had significantly higher odds of positive health outcomes compared to those who did not. These results provide evidence of resilience among participants that is associated with positive health outcomes. Understanding resiliencies and incorporating them into interventions may help to promote health and well-being among gay and bisexual men.

  17. [The role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and psychological distress among sexual-minority youths (SMY): a moderated mediation approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus

  18. Investigating the influence of shame, depression, and distress tolerance on the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating in lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Vanessa; Robert-McComb, Jacalyn J; Clopton, James R; Reich, Darcy A

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research evidence about the specific factors influencing disordered eating for lesbian and bisexual women. Therefore, this study investigated relationships among binge eating, internalized homophobia, shame, depression, and distress tolerance in a sample of lesbian (n=72) and bisexual women (n=66). Two hypotheses were tested. First, it was hypothesized that shame and depression would mediate the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating. Second, it was hypothesized that distress tolerance would moderate the relationship between shame and binge eating and the relationship between depression and binge eating in the mediation relationships proposed in the first hypothesis. Results indicated that shame was a significant mediator for the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating, that depression was not a significant mediator, and that distress tolerance did not moderate the significant mediation relationship between shame and binge eating. The data in this study also indicated that the proportions of lesbian and bisexual participants who reported binge eating and compensatory behavior did not differ significantly, but that bisexual participants reported significantly more depression and shame than lesbian participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing Heterosexuals' and Gay Men/Lesbians' Responses to Relationship Problems and the Effects of Internalized Homophobia on Gay Men/Lesbians' Responses to Relationship Problems in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutan, Nur; Buyuksahin Sunal, Ayda; Sakalli Ugurlu, Nuray

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effects of sexual orientation (heterosexuals and gay men/lesbians) and gender difference on responses to romantic relationship problems (Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect [EVLN] responses) and of perceived partner's EVLN responses in Turkey, and (2) to examine whether internalized homophobia was associated with EVLN responses and perceived partner's EVLN responses for gay men and lesbians. Responses to Dissatisfaction Scale-Accommodation Instrument, Internalized Homophobia, and Demographics Information were administered to 187 participants (44 lesbians, 44 gay men, 53 heterosexual women, 46 heterosexual men).The MANCOVA results showed that men reported higher loyalty than women, whereas women presented more exit responses than men. Further, the interactions between gender and sexual orientation on the participants' EVLN responses and on the perceived partner's EVLN responses were significant. With respect to heterosexual women, heterosexual men displayed more loyalty responses. Lesbians had higher scores on loyalty than did heterosexual women. Lesbians also had higher scores on perceived partner's exit response than did heterosexual women and gay men. On the contrary, heterosexual women reported more perceived partner's voice response than lesbians. In addition, lesbians reported higher perceived partner's neglect responses than heterosexual women. Compared to heterosexual women, heterosexual men reported higher perceived partner's exit response. Finally, internalized homophobia was associated with destructive responses for both lesbians and gay men.

  20. Development and validation of the International Hidradenitis Suppurativa Severity Score System (IHS4), a novel dynamic scoring system to assess HS severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zouboulis, C C; Tzellos, T; Kyrgidis, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A validated tool for the dynamic severity assessment of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a novel dynamic scoring system to assess the severity of HS. METHODS: A Delphi voting procedure was conducted among the members......, as well as examination for correlation (Spearman's rho) and agreement (Cohen's kappa) with existing scores, were engaged to recognize the variables for a new International HS4 (IHS4) that was established by a second Delphi round. RESULTS: Consensus HS4 was based on number of skin lesions, number of skin....... Three candidate scores were presented to the second Delphi round. The resulting IHS4 score is arrived at by the number of nodules (multiplied by 1) plus the number of abscesses (multiplied by 2) plus the number of draining tunnels (multiplied by 4). A total score of 3 or less signifies mild, 4...

  1. [Homophobia among nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Cogollo, Zuleima

    2010-09-01

    Homophobia is defined as a general negative attitude towards homosexual persons, with implications on public health. This fact has been less investigated among nursing students. The objective of this review was to learn about the prevalence of homophobia and its associated variables among nursing students. A systematic review was performed on original articles published in EBSCO, Imbiomed, LILACS, MEDLINE, Ovid, and ProQuest, including articles published between 1998 and 2008 in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Keywords used were homophobia, homosexuality, and nursing students. Descriptive analysis was performed. Eight studies were analyzed. The incidence of homophobia in nursing students is between 7% and 16%. Homophobia is more common among males and religious conservatism people. Homophobia is quite frequent in nursing students. This negative attitude toward homosexuality may affect services and care giving by nursing professions and could have negative implications in nursing practice.

  2. Homophobia: A New Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramick, Jeannine

    1983-01-01

    Gives a history of attitudes toward homosexuality and discusses the consequences of homophobia, an irrational fear of homosexuality. Stresses that social workers must understand that feelings and fantasies about same-sex behavior are natural before they can help clients cope with the social problems engendered by homophobia. (Author/JAC)

  3. Exploring Homophobia in Tbilisi, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestvirishvili, Maia; Zurabishvili, Tinatin; Iakobidze, Tamar; Mestvirishvili, Natia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine statistical predictors of homophobic attitudes among the residents of Tbilisi, Georgia. We analyze 2013 survey data from a representative sample of the Tbilisi adult population. Residents were asked about their attitudes, beliefs, and political and social values in the context of the May 17, 2013 attack on LGBT activists on the International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia (IDAHOT). Findings show that homophobia is significantly predicted by male gender, lower levels of education, acceptance of social inequality, nonliberal attitudes, and perceiving homosexuals as a "threat to national security." However, psychological perceptions and personal experiences also indirectly influence homophobic attitudes: the findings suggest that males report homophobic attitudes more often than females do and tend to be even more homophobic when they believe that homosexuality is inborn rather than acquired. The study also found that people without liberal attitudes tend to be more homophobic when they have personal contacts with homosexuals. This article highlights the need for a more comprehensive approach to education and the promotion of liberal values as well as legal equality for LGBTQ individuals to decrease the level of homophobia in Georgian society and, specifically, in Tbilisi.

  4. Mapping Homophobia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael Gaston; Flood, Michael; Flood, C.; Hamilton, Clive

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the Australian population believe that 'homosexuality is immoral', and this belief is spread in distinct ways across the nation. Using data from a survey of nearly 25,000 Australians, we can 'map' homophobia in Australia. Homophobic attitudes are worst in country areas of Queensland and Tasmania. Men are far more likely than women to feel that homosexuality does not have moral legitimacy, and this gender gap in attitudes persists across age, socioeconomic, educational, and region...

  5. International symposium on advances in isotope hydrology and its role in sustainable water resources management (IHS-2007). Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The quadrennial IAEA isotope hydrology symposia provide an international forum for a comprehensive review of the state of the art and recent advances in this field. The symposia also facilitate the transfer of information, knowledge and interactions between developed and developing countries. Isotopes are increasingly being used to address many of the challenges in sustainable water resources management. The integration of these tools with classical methods and spatial information technologies has been growing rapidly over the past sel years. These have provided unsurpassed capabilities to apply nuclear and geochemical techniques in complex hydrological systems. The main objectives of this symposium are to: - Review the state of the art in isotope hydrology; - Outline recent developments in the application of isotope techniques for water resources management; - Identify future trends and developments for research and applications.

  6. International symposium on advances in isotope hydrology and its role in sustainable water resources management (IHS-2007). Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The quadrennial IAEA isotope hydrology symposia provide an international forum for a comprehensive review of the state of the art and recent advances in this field. The symposia also facilitate the transfer of information, knowledge and interactions between developed and developing countries. Isotopes are increasingly being used to address many of the challenges in sustainable water resources management. The integration of these tools with classical methods and spatial information technologies has been growing rapidly over the past several years. These have provided unsurpassed capabilities to apply nuclear and geochemical techniques in complex hydrological systems. The main objectives of this symposium are to: - Review the state of the art in isotope hydrology; - Outline recent developments in the application of isotope techniques for water resources management; - Identify future trends and developments for research and applications

  7. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-09-01

    The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self-reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back into the English language. A psychologist and sexologist checked the translated items from a clinical point of view. We recruited 100 subjects aged18-65 for the Italian validation of the HS. The Pearson coefficient and Cronbach's α coefficient were performed to test the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. A sociodemographic questionnaire including the main information as age, geographic distribution, partnership status, education, religious orientation, and sex orientation was administrated together with the translated version of HS. The analysis of the internal consistency showed an overall Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.92. In the four domains, the Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.90 in behavior/negative affect, 0.94 in affect/behavioral aggression, and 0.92 in negative cognition, whereas in the total score was 0.86. The test-retest reliability showed the following results: the HS total score was r = 0.93 (P cognition was r = 0.75 (P validation of the HS revealed the use of this self-report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior.

  8. What Is IH (Intracranial Hypertension)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Store What is IH? What is IH? Intracranial hypertension literally means that the pressure of cerebrospinal fluid ( ... is too high. “Intracranial” means “within the skull.” “Hypertension” means “high fluid pressure.” To understand how this ...

  9. The impact of gendered friendship patterns on the prevalence of homophobia among belgian late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc

    2011-06-01

    In order to assess the determinants of homophobia among Belgian adolescents, a shortened version of the Homophobia scale (Wright et al., 1999) was included in a representative survey among Belgian adolescents (n = 4,870). Principal component analysis demonstrated that the scale was one-dimensional and internally coherent. The results showed that homophobia is still widespread among Belgian adolescents, despite various legal reforms in the country aiming to combat discrimination of gay women and men. A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that boys, ethnic minorities, individuals with high levels of ethnocentrism and an instrumental worldview, Muslim minorities, and those with low levels of associational involvement scored significantly higher on the scale. While among boys an extensive friendship network was associated with higher levels of homophobia, the opposite phenomenon was found among girls. We discuss the possible relation between notions of masculinity within predominantly male adolescent friendship networks and social support for homophobia.

  10. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L.; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self‐reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. Aim: The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. Methods: An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back i...

  11. Homophobia and communal coping for HIV risk management among gay men in relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the US and estimates suggest that one to two-thirds of new infections occur among main partners. Previous research has focused on individual MSM and their risk for HIV, yet couples' ability to manage risk has been largely understudied. In particular, the role that homophobia plays in shaping the ability of gay male couples to cope with HIV risk is currently understudied. A sample of 447 gay/bisexual men with main partners was taken from a 2011 survey of gay and bisexual men in Atlanta. Linear regression models were fitted for three couples' coping outcome scales (outcome efficacy, couple efficacy, communal coping) and included indicators of homophobia (internalized homophobia and homophobic discrimination). Findings indicate that reporting of increased levels of internalized homophobia were consistently associated with decreased outcome measures of couples' coping ability regarding risk management. The results highlight the role that homophobia plays in gay male couples' relationships and HIV risk, extending the existing literature in the field of same-sex relationships as influenced by homophobia.

  12. Homophobia and internalized homophobia: subjective productions of heteronormative control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alessandro Neman do Nascimento

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presentará, en teoría, algunas de las cuestiones que limitan el buque insignia de la homosexualidad en la historia, partindo de una posición teórica y metodológica marcada por los estudios culturales y de género realizado por los autores post-estructuralista. Actualmente, hay muchos avances y logros en el contexto socio-político en relación con la diversidad sexual, pero, La  visibilidad se há tambíen producido desencadenantes de las prácticas sociales se demuestra en los crímenes violentos y los discursos de odio, la intolerancia y la velada prohibiciones contra los homosexuales. Así, se pretende presentar la construcción social de la homofobia, y, posteriormente, de la homofobia internalizada, como pilares de sus instructores cuentan con el apoyo de procesos de subjetivación heteronormativa rociarán los contextos sociales en la vida cotidiana.

  13. Uncovering the Secrets: Homophobia in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Sutherland, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Studies examining the discourse on issues related to sexual orientation in physical education reveal that the physical education setting is an environment where heterosexism, heteronormativity, and homophobia subsist fervently. The purpose of this article is to review the growing research that has been conducted on homophobia in physical education…

  14. Homophobia and perceptions about homosexuality among students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is illegal in Nigeria.2 Discrimination by reason of sexual orientation, termed homophobia, embraces prejudices against LGBT individuals. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of homophobia, explore the perception about homosexuality and associations ...

  15. Predictors of Homophobia in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Johnson, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how self-esteem, self-discrepancy, and gender-attribute importance related to homophobia in predominantly white college women, noting sex role attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and extent of contact with homosexuals. The only significant predictor of homophobia was authoritarian attitudes. Other correlations included belief in sex…

  16. Changing the Game: Homophobia, Sexism, and Lesbians in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Pat

    1992-01-01

    A feminist discussion of the interconnected nature of homophobia and sexism in women's sport examines the origins of the lesbian stereotype, political functions of homophobia in a sexist culture, manifestations of homophobia in women's sport, and suggestions for confronting homophobia in women's sport. (SM)

  17. Review: Regulatory mechanisms of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that was discovered in quail as an inhibitory factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds through actions on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and gonadotropes, mediated via the GnIH receptor (GnIH-R, GPR147. Subsequently, GnIH was identified in mammals and other vertebrates. As in birds, mammalian GnIH inhibits gonadotropin secretion, indicating a conserved role for this neuropeptide in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis across species. Identification of the regulatory mechanisms governing GnIH expression and release is important in understanding the physiological role of the GnIH system. A nocturnal hormone, melatonin, appears to act directly on GnIH neurons through its receptor to induce expression and release of GnIH in quail, a photoperiodic bird. Recently, a similar, but opposite, action of melatonin on the inhibition of expression of mammalian GnIH was shown in hamsters and sheep, photoperiodic mammals. These results in photoperiodic animals demonstrate that GnIH expression is photoperiodically modulated via a melatonin-dependent process. Recent findings indicate that GnIH may be a mediator of stress-induced reproductive disruption in birds and mammals, pointing to a broad role for this neuropeptide in assessing physiological state and modifying reproductive effort accordingly. This paper summarizes the advances made in our knowledge regarding the regulation of GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic birds and mammals. This paper also discusses the neuroendocrine integration of environmental signals, such as photoperiods and stress, and internal signals, such as GnIH, melatonin and glucocorticoids, to control avian and mammalian reproduction.

  18. “Let’s get those queers!” : Homophobia and heteronormativity within young male sporting cultures in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnes Elling; Froukje Smits

    2016-01-01

    Presentation at ISSA Conference 2016 (International Sport Sociology Association): "Based on predominantly qualitative research, socio-critical sports sociologists from various (western) countries have in the past argued convincingly that heteronormativity and homophobia form early influences in

  19. Diffuse scattering in Ih ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Krisch, Michael; Bosak, Alexeï; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Bulat, Sergey; Ezhov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of ice Ih, extracted from the subglacial Lake Vostok accretion ice layer (3621 m depth) were investigated by means of diffuse x-ray scattering and inelastic x-ray scattering. The diffuse scattering was identified as mainly inelastic and rationalized in the frame of ab initio calculations for the ordered ice XI approximant. Together with Monte-Carlo modelling, our data allowed reconsidering previously available neutron diffuse scattering data of heavy ice as the sum of thermal diffuse scattering and static disorder contribution. (paper)

  20. Homophobia in an intercultural context Homophobia in an intercultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David William Foster

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade, na teoria queer, de discriminar diferenças leva ao devido estudo da relatividade de conceitos tais como sexo, gênero, desejo e atos sexuais. Contudo, o mesmo esforço analítico não vem sendo direcionado para o conceito de homofobia. O presente estudo propõe alguns dos parâmetros necessários para empreender diferenças analíticas fundamentais. Esses parâmetros são aqui ilustrados e discutidos com base no filme cubano, Fresa y chocolate, em três romances detetivescos do chicano Michael Nava. Palavras-chaves: Homofobia; diferença; teoria queer. The need to distinguish differences within queer theory leads to the study of the relativity of such concepts as those of sex, gender, desire, and sexual acts. However, this effort on which analysis depends has not been geared toward the concept of homophobia. The purpose of this paper is to propose strategic parameters for conceptualizing homophobia in order to enable fundamental analytical differences. Such parameters are herein illustrated based on the Cuban film Fresa y chocolate, and on three detective novels by U.S.-Chicano writer Michael Nava.

  1. Eşcinsel ve biseksüel erkeklerin içselleştirilmiş homofobi düzeyi ve sağlık üzerine etkileri/The internalized homophobia level of the homosexual and bisexual men and its effect on the health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgül Yalçınoğlu

    2014-08-01

    ğlı olarak psikolojik ve fiziksel sağlıklarının gelişimine faydalı olacağı düşünülmektedir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Gey, biseksüel, içselleştirilmiş homofobi, depresyon, Genel Sağlık Anketi (GSA-12Abstract Objective: Homosexual individuals are often alienated and stigmatised by society and exposure to discrimination. The prejudice and discrimination coming from society are assumed to increase emotional and anxiety disorders as well as alcohol and substance abuse and the risk of suicide in homosexual individuals. Therefore, the problems of homosexual individuals are issues of public health. The aim of this study is to determine the internalized homophobia levels of gay and bisexual men and the impact of this on their mental health. Method: 210 homosexual or bisexual men, who were accessed by the snowball method, were included in this descriptive study with the help of the Lambda Istanbul Association. The data were collected by using a self-reporting questionnaire under supervision, in the Beyoğlu District of Istanbul Province, between April 21 – June 24 2012. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, substance abuse, problems relating to sexual orientation and suicidal tendencies. The internalized homophobia scale, the Beck depression scale and General Health Questionnaire-12 were applied. Findings: Of the participants, 21,9% had internalized homophobia. Individuals who have homophobic families, who believe that homosexuality is a sin and who use alcohol everyday were regarded as homophobic against their own sexual orientation. In a logistic regression analysis, it was found that whereas suffering from internalized homophobia decreases after the age of 25, gay individuals have more risk than the bisexual individuals of internalized homophobia and the risk of internalized homophobia declines with education. Conclusion: Almost one fifth of homosexual men have internalized homophobia. It is assumed that public health efforts towards decreasing

  2. Homophobia, stigma and HIV in Jamaican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Figueroa, J Peter; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2011-02-01

    Success in addressing HIV and AIDS among men who have sex with men, a key population in the global epidemic, is impeded by homophobia. Homophobia as a barrier to HIV prevention and AIDS treatment is a particularly acute problem in the prison setting. In this qualitative study, we explore HIV and AIDS, stigma and homosexuality in the largest all male prison in Jamaica by conducting iterative in-depth interviews with 25 inmates. Participant narratives unveil a purposeful manipulation of beliefs related to homosexuality that impedes an effective response to HIV and AIDS both in prison and wider society. Findings indicate that homophobia is both a social construction and a tangible tool used to leverage power and a sense of solidarity in a larger political and economic landscape. This use of homophobia may not be unique to Jamaica and is an important issue to address in other low- and middle-income post-colonialist societies.

  3. Avoiding shame: young LGBT people, homophobia and self-destructive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Elizabeth; Roen, Katrina; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on findings from qualitative research conducted in the UK that sought to explore the connections between sexual identities and self-destructive behaviours in young people. International evidence demonstrates that there are elevated rates of suicide and alcohol abuse amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth. Rarely included in this body of research are investigations into young LGBT people's views and experiences of self-destructive behaviours. Data from interviews and focus groups with young LGBT participants suggest a strong link between homophobia and self-destructive behaviours. Utilising a discourse analytic approach, we argue that homophobia works to punish at a deep individual level and requires young LGBT people to manage being positioned, because of their sexual desire or gendered ways of being, as abnormal, dirty and disgusting. At the centre of the complex and multiple ways in which young LGBT people negotiate homophobia are 'modalities of shame-avoidance' such as: the routinization and minimizing of homophobia; maintaining individual 'adult' responsibility; and constructing 'proud' identities. The paper argues that these strategies of shame-avoidance suggest young LGBT people manage homophobia individually, without expectation of support and, as such, may make them vulnerable to self-destructive behaviours.

  4. Homophobia as a barrier to comprehensive media coverage of the Ugandan anti-homosexual bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local media. This article explores to what degree a discriminatory social environment manifests itself in the Ugandan print media and discusses the potential implications for media's coverage of contentious policy options such as the Anti-Homosexuality Bill. A content analysis of 115 items from two daily newspapers (the government-owned New Vision and the privately owned the Daily Monitor, between October and December 2009) indicates the existence of two separate house styles; this is in spite of the fact that both newspapers reproduce the surrounding society's homophobia, albeit with different frequency. Unlike the New Vision, the Daily Monitor includes coverage on homophobia and discrimination, as well as provides space for criticism of the Bill. By acknowledging discrimination and its negative impact, the newspaper de-legitimizes homophobia and problematizes the proposed Anti-homosexuality Bill for their readers.

  5. Das IHS und die Rolle der Forschungsinstitute

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Das Institut für Höhere Studien und wissenschaftliche Forschung (IHS) ist ein unabhängiges Forschungsinstitut und leistet Forschung und Ausbildung auf Spitzenniveau für Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Im Wettbewerb zwischen Universitäten und angewandten Forschungsinstituten ist das IHS einzigartig, weil es unter einem Dach Grundlagenforschung und forschungsnahe Lehre mit angewandter Forschung für die wissenschaftliche Politikberatung verbindet. Mit den drei Disziplinen Ökonomie, Soziolo...

  6. Homophobia in Registered Nurses: Impact on LGB Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Christopher W.; Kiehl, Ermalynn M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined registered nurses' overall attitudes and homophobia towards gays and lesbians in the workplace. Homophobia scores, represented by the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (ATLG) Scale, was the dependent variable. Overall homophobia scores were assessed among a randomized stratified sample of registered nurses licensed in the…

  7. Homophobia in Medical Students of the University of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, R. W. M.; Au, K. P.; Chan, W. K.; Cheung, L. W. M.; Lam, C. Y. Y.; Liu, H. H. W.; Ng, L. Y.; Wong, M. Y.; Wong, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Homosexuality is now accepted as a normal variant of human sexuality, but homophobia among healthcare professionals is well documented. Establishment of trustful doctor-patient relationships is impossible in the presence of homophobia. We were interested to examine the extent of homophobia among medical students, the future doctors. This article…

  8. Hegemony and the internalisation of homophobia caused by heteronormativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Dreyer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to focus on hegemony as it relates to the issue of sexuality and the trauma imposed on sexual minorities. A point of departure is that social identity theories can shed light on homophobia. The article argues that an empathic approach to those traumatised by internalised homophobia calls for a gay-friendly psychotherapy/analysis. The article reflects particularly on how heteronormativity maintains homophobia. It also illustrates the relationship between homophobia and social scientific insights regarding personality types and gender. The concepts homophobia and the internalisation of homophobia are discussed by focusing on aspects such as personality types and violence. The article finds that blind submission to heteronormativity, an outdated social construct, traumatises those who do not conform to the hetero norm, in two ways: hegemony is one consequence, and internalised homophobia is another.

  9. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Ciocca, PsyD, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The Italian validation of the HS revealed the use of this self‐report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior. Ciocca G, Capuano N, Tuziak B, Mollaioli D, Limoncin E, Valsecchi D, Carosa E, Gravina GL, Gianfrilli D, Lenzi A, and Jannini EA. Italian validation of Homophobia Scale (HS. Sex Med 2015;3:213–218.

  10. Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April S. Callis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available I analyze the relationship between homophobia/heteronormativity and slash fan fiction. Through reading and coding almost 6,000 pages of Kirk/Spock fan fiction written from 1978 to 2014, I illuminate shifts in how normative gender and sexuality are portrayed by K/S authors. Writers of K/S, while ostensibly writing about the 23rd century, consciously or unconsciously include cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries. Thus, slash becomes a lens through which readers can view a decrease in both homophobia and heteronormativity in US culture over the past several decades.

  11. Factors Related to Homophobia Among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowniak, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    A convenience sample of 90 nursing students participated in an online survey measuring homophobia or sexual prejudice. Significantly higher scores were seen among those who endorsed the belief that being gay was a matter of personal choice, did not have a friend or family member who was gay or lesbian, and endorsed religiosity. A significantly higher level of sexual prejudice was seen among those who identified as non-Catholic Christians when compared to other religions. Asian/Pacific Islanders showed significantly higher scores on the scales compared to non-Hispanic Caucasian students. Nursing education should focus on those aspects of homophobia amenable to change.

  12. FFT-enhanced IHS transform method for fusing high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y.; Ehlers, M.; Usery, E.L.; Madden, M.

    2007-01-01

    Existing image fusion techniques such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) transform and principal components analysis (PCA) methods may not be optimal for fusing the new generation commercial high-resolution satellite images such as Ikonos and QuickBird. One problem is color distortion in the fused image, which causes visual changes as well as spectral differences between the original and fused images. In this paper, a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-enhanced IHS method is developed for fusing new generation high-resolution satellite images. This method combines a standard IHS transform with FFT filtering of both the panchromatic image and the intensity component of the original multispectral image. Ikonos and QuickBird data are used to assess the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method. Experimental results indicate that the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method may improve upon the standard IHS transform and the PCA methods in preserving spectral and spatial information. ?? 2006 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).

  13. Homophobia Is Related to a Low Interest in Sexuality in General: An Analysis of Pupillometric Evoked Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Grob, Emmanuelle; Chanal, Julien; Ghisletta, Paolo; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Radel, Remi

    2016-10-01

    A recent study by Cheval et al (J Sex Med 2016;13:825-834) found that individuals high in homophobia look significantly less long at sex-related photographs, regardless of their nature (ie, homosexual or heterosexual). Because viewing time is under some conscious control, this result could indicate that individuals high in homophobia have a low sexual interest in any sexual stimuli or are consciously motivated to avoid sexual material in line with their conscious values. To determine the mechanism underlying shorter viewing time of sex-related photographs in individuals high in homophobia using pupil dilatation, which is considered a spontaneous, unconscious, and uncontrollable index of sexual interest. Heterosexual men (N = 36) completed a questionnaire assessing their level of homo-negativity and then performed a picture-viewing task with simultaneous eye-tracking recording to assess their pupillary responses to the presentation of sexually related or neutral photographs. Non-linear mixed models were carried out to fit the individual non-linear trajectories of pupillary reaction. Different parameters were obtained including the final asymptote of the pupillary response. Results showed that the final pupil size of men high in homophobia increased significantly less to the presentation of sex-related images (ie, heterosexual and homosexual) than the pupil size of men low in homophobia. In contrast, no significant difference in the final pupil size reaction toward homosexual images (vs heterosexual images) emerged between men high and men low in homophobia. Theoretically, these findings reinforce the necessity to consider that homophobia might reflect concerns about sexuality in general and not homosexuality in particular. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prejudice, homophobia and the Christian faith community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Dreyer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to illustrate that prejudice differs fundamentally from legitimate presuppositions that come into play when people interpret the Bible or reflect theologically on contemporary issues such as homosexuality. It is argued that prejudice leads to the theologically untenable phenomenon of homophobia. Though the rejection of prejudicial attitudes does not mean that �anything goes�, it is a theological necessity to expose harmful attitudes and behaviours regarding sexuality. To this end the article investigates the labels �homosexual�, �gay� and �queer� that, on the one hand, express and perpetuate homophobia and on the other hand represent a search for authentic identity on the part of sexual minorities. The� article reflects on the effect of underlying social identity theories on homophobia. Such theories include nominialism with its focus on �sameness� and essentialism that focuses on �difference�, as well as primordialism with its emphasis on the immutability of social identity formation and constructionism that highlights change.

  15. Understanding and Addressing Homophobia in Schools: A View from Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2012-01-01

    South African schools have been found to be homophobic. Teachers can play an important role in offering a critique of homophobia grounded in South Africa's legal claim to equality on the basis of sexual orientation. Currently there is a dearth of educational research about how teachers understand and address homophobia. By drawing upon focus-group…

  16. Hegemony and the internalisation of homophobia caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the article is to focus on hegemony as it relates to the issue of sexuality and the trauma imposed on sexual minorities. A point of departure is that social identity theories can shed light on homophobia. The article argues that an empathic approach to those traumatised by internalised homophobia calls for a gay- ...

  17. Homophobia, Transphobia, Young People and the Question of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Sanjakdar, Fida; Allen, Louisa; Quinlivan, Kathleen; Bromdal, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Young people may face conflicting and confusing messages about what it means to respond well in relation to homophobia and transphobia. Consequently, we ask--What might it mean to respond well to homophobia and transphobia? This strategy, inspired by Anika Thiem and Judith Butler, is recognition of the ambivalent conditions which structure…

  18. Gender Expression and Homophobia: A Motor Development and Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Clersida

    2011-01-01

    Homosexuality and homophobia are rarely discussed in schools, yet they are relevant in motor-development and motor-learning settings because people hold gender-stereotyped beliefs about movement and about lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered individuals. This article addresses homophobia and related stereotypes in physical education settings…

  19. Total Hip Arthroplasty in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O'hEireamhoin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Children affected by mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS type IH (Hurler Syndrome, an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, are known to experience a range of musculoskeletal manifestations including spinal abnormalities, hand abnormalities, generalised joint stiffness, genu valgum, and hip dysplasia and avascular necrosis. Enzyme therapy, in the form of bone marrow transplantation, significantly increases life expectancy but does not prevent the development of the associated musculoskeletal disorders. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with a diagnosis of Hurler syndrome with a satisfactory result following uncemented total hip arthroplasty.

  20. Post accelerator of the IH type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming

    2002-01-01

    The principle, structure, adjustment of the gap voltage, beam dynamic, RF system and the bunchers of the post-accelerator with Interdigital-H type structure, which was developed by the author and Technical University Munich in four years, is described. The energy of ions with mass of three was increased from 340 keV to 1.74 MeV, when resonant frequency of 84.2 MHz and input RF power of 3 kW. The effective shunt impedance reached to 408 MΩ/m. The commissioning was succeeded with H 3 + ion beams. The output energy of H 3 + ion beams reached the design value. The two harmonic double drift buncher used by the IH structure bunches the beam to the bunches with the width of 360 ps. Then the acceptance of the IH structure is increased to 240 degree. Its shunt impedance is three times higher than former single gap bunchers used by TUM and the length of the buncher system is one fifth of former one only because the use of λ/4 coaxial cavities with double gaps

  1. Review: Evolution of GnIH structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro eOsugi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH in the Japanese quail in 2000 was the first to demonstrate the existence of a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release. We now know that GnIH regulates reproduction by inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release via action on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH system and the gonadotrope in various vertebrates. GnIH peptides identified in birds and mammals have a common LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q motif at the C-terminus and inhibits pituitary gonadotropin secretion. However, the function and structure of GnIH peptides were diverse in fish. Goldfish GnIHs possessing a C-terminal LPXRF-amide motif had both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on gonadotropin synthesis or release. The C-terminal sequence of grass puffer and medaka GnIHs were MPQRF-amide. To investigate the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its ancestral structure and function, we searched for GnIH in agnathans, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates. We identified GnIH precursor gene and mature GnIH peptides with C-terminal QPQRF-amide or RPQRF-amide from the brain of sea lamprey. Lamprey GnIH fibers were in close proximity to GnRH-III neurons. Further, one of lamprey GnIHs stimulated the expression of lamprey GnRH-III peptide in the hypothalamus and gonadotropic hormone β mRNA expression in the pituitary. We further identified the ancestral form of GnIH, which had a C-terminal RPQRF-amide, and its receptors in amphioxus, the most basal chordate species. The amphioxus GnIH inhibited cAMP signaling in vitro. In sum, the original forms of GnIH may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. GnIH peptides may have had various C-terminal structures slightly different from LPXRF-amide in basal chordates, which had stimulatory and/or inhibitory functions on reproduction. The C-terminal LPXRF-amide structure and its inhibitory function on reproduction may be selected in later-evolved vertebrates, such as

  2. Social Justice and Lesbian Feminism: Two Theories Applied to Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Levy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in contemporary social work include the use of an eclectic theory base. In an effort to incorporate multiple theories, this article will examine the social problem of homophobia using two different theoretical perspectives: John Rawls’ theory of social justice and lesbian feminist theory.Homophobia, a current social problem, can be defined as “dislike or hatred toward homosexuals, including both cultural and personal biases against homosexuals” (Sullivan, 2003, p. 2. Rawls’ theory of justice and lesbian feminist theory are especially relevant to the issue of homophobia and provide a useful lens to understanding this social problem. In this article, these two theories will be summarized, applied to the issue of homophobia, and compared and contrasted based on their utility.

  3. [Discrimination and homophobia associated to the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Núñez, Emanuel; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Ruiz-Larios, José Arturo; Sucilla-Pérez, Héctor; García-Cerde, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    To describe a political mapping on discrimination and homophobia associated to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the context of public institutions in Mexico. The political mapping was conducted in six Mexican states. Stakeholders who were involved in HIV actions from public and private sectors were included. Semistructured interviews were applied to explore homophobia and discrimination associated with HIV. Information was systematized using the Policy Maker software, which is a good support for analyzing health policies. Discriminatory and homophobic practices in the public domain occurred, damaging people´s integrity via insults, derision and hate crimes. Most stakeholders expressed a supportive position to prevent discrimination and homophobia and some of them had great influence on policy-making decisions. It was found that state policy frameworks are less specific in addressing these issues. Homophobia and discrimination associated to HIV are still considered problematic in Mexico. Homophobia is a very sensitive issue that requires further attention. Also, an actual execution of governmental authority requires greater enforcement of laws against discrimination and homophobia.

  4. Resonant vibrational energy transfer in ice Ih

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Li, F.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-06-28

    Fascinating anisotropy decay experiments have recently been performed on H{sub 2}O ice Ih by Timmer and Bakker [R. L. A. Timmer, and H. J. Bakker, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 4148 (2010)]. The very fast decay (on the order of 100 fs) is indicative of resonant energy transfer between OH stretches on different molecules. Isotope dilution experiments with deuterium show a dramatic dependence on the hydrogen mole fraction, which confirms the energy transfer picture. Timmer and Bakker have interpreted the experiments with a Förster incoherent hopping model, finding that energy transfer within the first solvation shell dominates the relaxation process. We have developed a microscopic theory of vibrational spectroscopy of water and ice, and herein we use this theory to calculate the anisotropy decay in ice as a function of hydrogen mole fraction. We obtain very good agreement with experiment. Interpretation of our results shows that four nearest-neighbor acceptors dominate the energy transfer, and that while the incoherent hopping picture is qualitatively correct, vibrational energy transport is partially coherent on the relevant timescale.

  5. Teachers Reflect on Homophobia in the Cypriot Education System: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshilou, Panayiota A.; Vasiliou, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A review of the academic and lay literature concerning Cyprus reveals that homophobia is prevalent throughout society. This research aimed to investigate homophobia through the narratives of educators. Twenty-three teachers were randomly selected out of the pool of volunteers in a training project. Aspects of homophobia previously reported in…

  6. Genetic Variance in Homophobia: Evidence from Self- and Peer Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapko-Willmes, Alexandra; Kandler, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The present twin study combined self- and peer assessments of twins' general homophobia targeting gay men in order to replicate previous behavior genetic findings across different rater perspectives and to disentangle self-rater-specific variance from common variance in self- and peer-reported homophobia (i.e., rater-consistent variance). We hypothesized rater-consistent variance in homophobia to be attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental effects, and self-rater-specific variance to be partially accounted for by genetic influences. A sample of 869 twins and 1329 peer raters completed a seven item scale containing cognitive, affective, and discriminatory homophobic tendencies. After correction for age and sex differences, we found most of the genetic contributions (62%) and significant nonshared environmental contributions (16%) to individual differences in self-reports on homophobia to be also reflected in peer-reported homophobia. A significant genetic component, however, was self-report-specific (38%), suggesting that self-assessments alone produce inflated heritability estimates to some degree. Different explanations are discussed.

  7. Sexism and Homophobia in Adolescents of a Public Educational Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breiding Junior Bernuy Castromonte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research explores the relationship between sexism and homophobia in adolescents of a public educational institution in Chimbote. The research design was descriptive - correlational and a sample of 406 students between males and females from 1st to 5th level of secondary education. As a measure they were evaluated with the Scale of Detection of Sexism of Ramos, Cuadrado and Recio (2007 adaptation of Acosta (2010 and the scale of modern homophobia of Raja and Stokes (2005 adaptation of Paredes (2013. The results of the research reflect a very significant, direct and strong relationship that indicates that the more sexism in adolescents, the more homophobic attitudes they can show. For hostile sexism and homophobia towards gay, a correlation of (r =.641 ** p <.01 and for lesbians (r =. 658 ** p <.01 was obtained; between gay sexism and homophobia towards gay (r =.574 ** p <.01 and towards lesbians (r =.646 ** p <.01. Levels of sexism by gender are identified as a high level of hostile and benevolent sexism for the male population with 14.1% and 15.7% respectively. There are also levels of homophobia according to gender in adolescents to gay and lesbian people with 35.3% and 25.3%

  8. Understanding and addressing homophobia in schools: a view from teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deevia Bhana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South African schools have been found to be homophobic. Teachers can play an important role in offering a critique of homophobia grounded in South Africa's legal claim to equality on the basis of sexual orientation. Currently there is a dearth of educational research about how teachers understand and address homophobia. By drawing upon focus-group interviews with teachers based atfive schools, this paper shows dominant teaching views which contribute to homophobia, although this is not the only view. Informed by theoretical framings that seek to uncover heterosexual domination, the analysis shows three interrelated discursive constructions through which homophobia is both produced and resisted by teachers. Silencing homosexuality, denying its existence in the curriculum, and religious prohibitions were found to be dominant. It must be understood however that teachers are working in a context without any intervention and support. Their views also show potentialfor working against the climate of homophobia. Recommendations for such work are indicated in the conclusion of the paper.

  9. Homophobia in Marlowe’s Edward II Homophobia in Marlowe’s Edward II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Peres de Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on queer theory, this essay demonstrates how homophobia motivates the plot of usurpation in Edward II, by Chistopher Marlowe (1564-1593, a play in which complex power relations can be verified. The main characters, King Edward II, Pierce of Gaveston, Mortimer Junior, Mortimer Senior and Queen Isabella, together with the nobles and the clerics, interact in a world of fierce political dispute. Power relations are at the core of the play and involve, on the one hand, the characters who envy and dispute Edward II’s royal power. On the other hand, the king suffers the effects of the power of his own homosexual drive and affective ties with Gaveston. Drawing on queer theory, this essay demonstrates how homophobia motivates the plot of usurpation in Edward II, by Chistopher Marlowe (1564-1593, a play in which complex power relations can be verified. The main characters, King Edward II, Pierce of Gaveston, Mortimer Junior, Mortimer Senior and Queen Isabella, together with the nobles and the clerics, interact in a world of fierce political dispute. Power relations are at the core of the play and involve, on the one hand, the characters who envy and dispute Edward II’s royal power. On the other hand, the king suffers the effects of the power of his own homosexual drive and affective ties with Gaveston.

  10. Effects Of Field Distortions In Ih-apf Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery; Yamada, S

    2004-01-01

    The project on developing compact medical accelera-tors for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-MeV/u 200 MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in IH-cavity are caused by the asymmetry of the gap field due to presence of the drift-tube supporting stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the voltage distribution from programmed law. The RF fields in IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically.

  11. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload

  12. Using Nail Polish to Teach about Gender and Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nelta M.

    2010-01-01

    How might teachers help students investigate the relationship between gender and homophobia? This article describes an exercise that uses fingernail polish to do just that. The authors uses anecdotal evidence to describe the exercise in which students pair with someone of the opposite gender and paint each other's fingernails. Additionally, the…

  13. Teaching about Heterosexism: Challenging Homophobia in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dennis; Msibi, Thabo

    2011-01-01

    This article, a critical review of a module on heterosexism and homophobia, sets out the challenges to be overcome if the oppressive conditions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual students and teachers in South Africa are to be changed. It draws on evidence from student assignments, records of participatory discussions and the notes of the authors, who…

  14. Sexism and Homophobia in Adolescents of a Public Educational Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernuy Castromonte, Breiding Junior; Noé Grijalva, Hugo Martín

    2017-01-01

    The research explores the relationship between sexism and homophobia in adolescents of a public educational institution in Chimbote. The research design was descriptive-correlational with a sample of 406 students, including boys and girls, from 1st to 5th level of secondary education. They were evaluated using the Acosta's Adaptation (2010) of the…

  15. Understanding and addressing homophobia in schools: a view from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important role in offering a critique of homophobia grounded in South Africa's legal .... This could serve the interest of securing a safe environment for ... ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, ..... complicit in inciting feelings of 'abnormality' of conduct in relation to gay learners.

  16. Homophobia, Lesbians, and Women's Sports: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Patricia S.

    In addressing the subject of lesbian athletes, this paper discusses some ways in which sport psychologists, researchers and clinicians may constructively approach the issues. These include: (1) understand one's own homophobia and how it affects clinical work as a sport psychologist by studying the growing body of literature on the topic; (2)…

  17. Using a College Human Sexuality Course to Combat Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anissa; McRee, Nick; Arntz, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study seeks to identify factors among university students that may be associated with homophobic attitudes and whether homophobia may be reduced by educational interventions, such as knowledge-based curricula found in college sexuality courses. Participants were 128 undergraduate students attending a small, private university in the…

  18. Homophobia: An Impulsive Attraction to the Same Sex? Evidence From Eye-Tracking Data in a Picture-Viewing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Radel, Remi; Grob, Emmanuelle; Ghisletta, Paolo; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Chanal, Julien

    2016-05-01

    Some models suggest that homophobia can be explained as a denied attraction toward same-sex individuals. While it has been found that homophobic men have same-sex attraction, these results are not consistent. This study drew on the dual-process models to test the assumption that sexual interest in homosexual cues among men high in homophobia will depend on their specific impulses toward homosexual-related stimuli. Heterosexual men (N = 38) first completed a scale measuring their level of homonegativity. Then, they performed a manikin task to evaluate their impulsive approach tendencies toward homosexual stimuli (IAHS). A picture-viewing task was performed with simultaneous eye-tracking recording to assess participants' viewing time of the visual area of interest (i.e., face and body). IAHS positively predicted the viewing time of homosexual photographs among men with a high score of homonegativity. Men with a high homonegativity score looked significantly longer at homosexual than at heterosexual photographs but only when they had a high IAHS. These findings confirm the importance of considering the variability in impulsive processes to understand why some (but not all) men high in homophobia have homosexual interest. These findings reinforce the theoretical basis for elaborating a dual-process model for behaviors in the sexual context. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ocena prehranskega stanja starejših v socialnovarstvenem zavodu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Urh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uvod: Eden od dejavnikov kakovosti življenja starejših v socialnovarstvenem zavodu je prehrana. Namen raziskave je bil proučiti prehransko stanje in ponuditi predloge za izboljšanje prehrane starejših v socialnovarstvenem zavodu. Metode: V raziskavi je bila uporabljena kvantitativna opisna metoda raziskovanja. Analizirani so bili dnevni jedilniki v socialnovarstvenem zavodu in na vzorcu starejših (n = 48 izvedena analizo dejanskega vnosa hranil in prehranskega statusa. Prehransko stanje je bilo ugotovljeno na podlagi indeksa telesne mase in vprašalnika Mini prehranski pregled. Vključeni v raziskavo so imeli prehrano, pri kateri dietne prilagoditve niso bile potrebne. Rezultati: Povprečna energijska vrednost ponujenih jedilnikov je znašala 8457 kJ (2021 kcal na dan, 17 hranil je odstopalo od priporočil. Moški (M in ženske (Ž se statistično pomembno razlikujejo v deležu ostanka maščob (μM = 16 %, μŽ = 24 %; p = 0,036, holesterola (μM = 15 %, μŽ = 26 %; p = 0,035, vitamina D (μM = 15 %, μŽ = 27 %; p = 0,017 in vitamina B12 (μM = 17 %, μŽ = 25 %; p = 0,016. Indeks telesne mase je pokazal, da nihče od starejših, ki so bili vključeni v raziskavo, ni bil podhranjen ali v kategoriji debelost III. stopnje. Diskusija in zaključek: Raziskava je potrdila potrebo po sistematičnem spremljanju kakovosti prehrane starejših v socialnovarstvenih zavodih. Da bi starejšim zagotovili ustrezno prehransko oskrbo, je potrebno sodelovanje medpoklicnega tima s starejšimi in njihovimi družinskimi člani.

  20. 42 CFR 137.294 - What is the typical IHS environmental review process for construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.294 What is the typical IHS environmental review... impact on the environment, and therefore do not require environmental impact statements (EIS). Under current IHS procedures, an environmental review is performed on all construction projects. During the IHS...

  1. Is homophobia associated with an implicit same-sex attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnis, Cara C; Hodson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Some theorists propose that homophobia stems from underlying same-sex attraction. A few studies have tested this hypothesis, yet without a clear measure of implicit sexual attraction, producing mixed results. For the first time, we test this attraction-based account of homophobia among both men and women using an implicit measure of sexual attraction. No evidence of an attraction-based account of homophobia emerged. Instead, implicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians among female participants. Even in targeted analyses examining the relation between implicit same-sex attraction and homosexual evaluations among only those theoretically most likely to demonstrate an attraction-based homophobic effect, implicit same-sex attraction was not associated with evaluations of homosexuals or was associated with more positive evaluations of homosexuals. In addition, explicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians for male participants. These results are more in keeping with the attitude-similarity effect (i.e., people like, rather than dislike, similar others).

  2. Dismantling the Context and Breaking Free from Contextual Oppositions: How Teacher Education Programs Can Combat Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    In exploring homophobia in schools, the author discusses a qualitative research study conducted with a group of teachers from New York State. The article examines how the group of teachers (participating in professional development program) discusses their perceptions of homophobia in their classrooms and schools. Specifically, the teachers…

  3. From Sexuality (Gender) to Gender (Sexuality): The Aims of Anti-Homophobia Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airton, Liz

    2009-01-01

    The tradition of anti-homophobia education is often characterized by the conflation of gender and sexuality in which oppression arising from gender non-normativity is subsumed within the sexuality-based concepts of homophobia and heterosexism. This paper presents the view that oppression arising from stringent gender normativity should instead be…

  4. Texts, Structure, and Collaboration: Reflections of a Professional Development Addressing Homophobia in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Homophobia is an incredible problem within educational settings. Therefore, we must begin examining how we can address the challenge in an effective manner. Researchers postulate professional development (PD) discussing homophobia is an appropriate method to address the problem. To date, there is little published literature that discusses how a PD…

  5. A socioecological measurement of homophobia for all countries and its public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Erik; d'Elbée, Marc; Ross, Michael W; Carroll, Aengus; Plessis, André du; Loures, Luiz

    2018-03-03

    Measuring homophobia at country level is important to guide public health policy as reductions in stigma are associated with improved health outcomes among gay men and other men who have sex with men. Methods: We developed a Homophobic Climate Index incorporating institutional and social components of homophobia. Institutional homophobia was based on the level of enforcement of laws that criminalise, protect or recognise same-sex relations. Social homophobia was based on the level of acceptance and justifiability of homosexuality. We estimated the Index for 158 countries and assessed its robustness and validity. Western Europe is the most inclusive region, followed by Latin America. Africa and the Middle East are home to the most homophobic countries with two exceptions: South Africa and Cabo Verde. We found that a 1% decrease in the level of homophobia is associated with a 10% increase in the gross domestic product per capita. Countries whose citizens face gender inequality, human rights abuses, low health expenditures and low life satisfaction are the ones with a higher homophobic climate. Moreover, a 10% increase in the level of homophobia at country level is associated with a 1.7-year loss in life expectancy for males. A higher level of homophobia is associated with increased AIDS-related death among HIV-positive men. The socioecological approach of this index demonstrates the negative social, economic and health consequences of homophobia in low- and middle-income countries. It provides sound evidence for public health policy in favour of the inclusion of sexual minorities.

  6. Development of non-duct IH (induction heating) smokeless roaster; Nonduct IH (denjiha yudo kanetsu) muen roaster no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, K. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    As a part of diffusion and promotion of electric cooking apparatuses, a non-duct IH smokeless roaster has been developed for roast meat restaurants in cooperation with Hitachi Home Tech. Smoke and odor in the room can be removed without using exhaust duct by incorporating smoke and odor processing equipment into the main body. For the developed roaster, IH was adopted as a heat source with less smoke and exhaust gas compared with city gas. Generated smoke and odor are removed by the electrical precipitator and the deodorant catalyst incorporated in the main body. After the treatment, exhaust gas is emitted in the room. This roaster has characteristics as follows. This roaster can be used at high-class roast meat restaurants for avoiding smoke and odor, and can be brought in banqueting hall of hotels. Since it does not have a duct, there is no danger of fire. It is easy to change the layout of guest room. Since the IH system has less exhaust heat than the gas system, increase in room temperature is moderate, which results in the reduction of air conditioning load. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaines, S.O.; Henderson, M.C.; Kim, M.; Gilstrap, S.; Yi, J.; Rusbult, C.E.; Hardin, D.P.; Gaertner, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect,

  8. Inviting the breach: confronting homophobia in the name of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Subrina J; Johnson, Julia R; Rich, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 California was divided over Proposition 8, a measure designed to prohibit same-sex marriage. In this article, we focus on a university classroom setting to explore how discussions about Proposition 8 and homophobia led to what Turner (1986) termed a social drama. Drawing on student personal narratives as they moved through the stages of social drama, we provide a poignant example of the conflict that may erupt when homophobia and heteronormativity are part of the curriculum. After documenting the social drama, we offer pedagogical strategies and note the strategic ways Christian, hegemonic discourse is utilized during discussions about homophobia.

  9. Addressing the Question of Homophobia in Jordanian Public Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad El-Sharif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the question of homosexuality, homosexuals, and homophobia in the Jordanian public debate in the aftermath of an LGBTQIA meeting that was held secretly in Amman in May 2015. The main purpose of the article is to demonstrate the constituents and arguments which reproduce the public discourse on anti-homosexuality and anti-homosexuals and homophobia in Jordan. This purpose is reached by analysing 35 journal articles written in Standard Arabic in Jordanian public and open-access media. The analysis involves the qualitative analysis of the argument, processes, and themes used to represent homosexuality and homosexuals by the discourse producers. The analysis reveals that the question of homosexuality and homosexuals in Jordan can be addressed in terms of seven angles: the public anti-homosexuality and anti-homosexuals’ calls, the (Islamic religious argument, protecting and reinforcing law and order, the argument of (homosexually-transmitted diseases, the calls of pro-homosexuality and pro-homosexuals and LGBTQIA’s rights activists, the homosexuals’ own self-representation, and the neutral scientific account and representation.

  10. "Honk against homophobia": rethinking relations between media and sexual minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzo, Paul; Hess, Kristy

    2013-01-01

    The theory of "symbolic annihilation" or "symbolic violence" has been used in academic literature to describe the way in which sexual minorities have been ignored, trivialized, or condemned by the media. This article aims to de-center research from issues of media representation to consider the capacity for minority groups to proactively use new media and its various avenues for interactivity, social networking, and feedback to fight social exclusion. This work suggests that new media has become a space in which the nominally marginal in society may acquire "social artillery"-a term used to describe how sexual minorities utilize their expanding and more readily accessible social connections in digital space to combat instances of homophobia. The research draws on the results of an inquiry into the relation between media and a regional youth social justice group in Australia tackling homophobia. The research demonstrates that the group is becoming increasingly adept and comfortable with using a cross-section of media platforms to fulfill their own objectives, rather than seeing themselves as passive subjects of media representation. This article argues that this sets an example for other socially excluded groups looking to renegotiate their relation with the media in regional areas.

  11. Ih current is necessary to maintain normal dopamine fluctuations and sleep consolidation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gonzalo-Gomez

    Full Text Available HCN channels are becoming pharmacological targets mainly in cardiac diseases. But apart from their well-known role in heart pacemaking, these channels are widely expressed in the nervous system where they contribute to the neuron firing pattern. Consequently, abolishing Ih current might have detrimental consequences in a big repertoire of behavioral traits. Several studies in mammals have identified the Ih current as an important determinant of the firing activity of dopaminergic neurons, and recent evidences link alterations in this current to various dopamine-related disorders. We used the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to investigate how lack of Ih current affects dopamine levels and the behavioral consequences in the sleep:activity pattern. Unlike mammals, in Drosophila there is only one gene encoding HCN channels. We generated a deficiency of the DmIh core gene region and measured, by HPLC, levels of dopamine. Our data demonstrate daily variations of dopamine in wild-type fly heads. Lack of Ih current dramatically alters dopamine pattern, but different mechanisms seem to operate during light and dark conditions. Behaviorally, DmIh mutant flies display alterations in the rest:activity pattern, and altered circadian rhythms. Our data strongly suggest that Ih current is necessary to prevent dopamine overproduction at dark, while light input allows cycling of dopamine in an Ih current dependent manner. Moreover, lack of Ih current results in behavioral defects that are consistent with altered dopamine levels.

  12. Review: evolution of GnIH and related peptides structure and function in the chordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the Japanese quail in 2000 was the first to demonstrate the existence of a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release. We now know that GnIH regulates reproduction by inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release via action on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system and the gonadotrope in various vertebrates. GnIH peptides identified in birds and mammals have a common LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif at the C-terminus and inhibit pituitary gonadotropin secretion. However, the function and structure of GnIH peptides are diverse in fish. Goldfish GnIHs possessing a C-terminal LPXRF-amide motif have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on gonadotropin synthesis or release. The C-terminal sequence of grass puffer and medaka GnIHs are MPQRF-amide. To investigate the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its ancestral structure and function, we searched for GnIH in agnathans, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates. We identified GnIH precursor gene and mature GnIH peptides with C-terminal QPQRF-amide or RPQRF-amide from the brain of sea lamprey. Lamprey GnIH fibers were in close proximity to GnRH-III neurons. Further, one of lamprey GnIHs stimulated the expression of lamprey GnRH-III peptide in the hypothalamus and gonadotropic hormone β mRNA expression in the pituitary. We further identified the ancestral form of GnIH, which had a C-terminal RPQRF-amide, and its receptors in amphioxus, the most basal chordate species. The amphioxus GnIH inhibited cAMP signaling in vitro. In sum, the original forms of GnIH may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. GnIH peptides may have had various C-terminal structures slightly different from LPXRF-amide in basal chordates, which had stimulatory and/or inhibitory functions on reproduction. The C-terminal LPXRF-amide structure and its inhibitory function on reproduction may be selected in later-evolved vertebrates, such as birds and mammals.

  13. A Computer-Based Intervention to Reduce Internalized Heterosexism in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Jui; Israel, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Internalized heterosexism (IH) is a strong predictor of the psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), or other same-sex attracted individuals. To respond to the call for interventions to address IH, the current study developed and tested an online intervention to reduce IH among gay, bisexual, and other same-sex attracted men. A…

  14. Beyond Homophobia: How Do Jamaican Men Who Have Sex with Men Build Communities, Affirm Identity, and Mitigate Homophobia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Orlando O; Jarrett, Sharlene

    2018-03-14

    Jamaican men who have sex with men (MSM) have experienced widespread stigma and discrimination. Much of the research on Jamaican MSM has focused on HIV risk behaviors. We examined the social and romantic relationships of Jamaican MSM and how these factors fostered a sense of community in an antihomosexual environment. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 MSM ages 18 to 29 years. Women and familial matriarchal figures were more likely to accept someone identified as homosexual and provide protection against homophobia. Jamaican MSM affirmed their identity by providing emotional support and safe spaces, which aided in building a sense of community. Relationships with friends and intimate partners were a source of love and validation as opposed to simply sexual gratification. The social and romantic relationships of Jamaican MSM transcended the social boundaries of homophobia, affirmed sexual identity and orientation, and served as facilitators across most general societal and cultural interactions. Copyright © 2018 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolutionary origin and divergence of GnIH and its homologous peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Osugi, Tomohiro

    2009-03-01

    Probing undiscovered hypothalamic neuropeptides that play important roles in the regulation of pituitary function in vertebrates is essential for the progress of neuroendocrinology. In 2000, we discovered a novel hypothalamic dodecapeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release in quail and termed it gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). GnIH acts on the pituitary and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the hypothalamus via a novel G protein-coupled receptor for GnIH to inhibit gonadal development and maintenance by decreasing gonadotropin release and synthesis. Similar findings were observed in other avian species. Thus, GnIH is a key factor controlling avian reproduction. To give our findings a broader perspective, we also found GnIH homologous peptides in the hypothalamus of other vertebrates, such as mammals, reptiles, amphibians and teleosts. GnIH and its homologs share a common C-terminal LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) motif. A mammalian GnIH homolog also inhibited gonadotropin release in mammals like the GnIH action in birds. In contrast to higher vertebrates, hypophysiotropic activities of GnIH homologs were different in lower vertebrates. To clarify the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its homologs, we further sought to identify novel LPXRFamide peptides from the brain of sea lamprey and hagfish, two extant groups of the oldest lineage of vertebrates, Agnatha. In these agnathans, LPXRFamide peptide and its cDNA were identified only from the brain of hagfish. Based on these findings over the past decade, this paper summarizes the evolutionary origin and divergence of GnIH and its homologous peptides.

  16. Single Ih channels in pyramidal neuron dendrites: properties, distribution, and impact on action potential output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Hallermann, Stefan; Stuart, Greg J.

    2006-01-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability, yet its native single-channel properties in the brain are essentially unknown. Here we use variance-mean analysis to study the properties of single Ih channels in the apical dendrites of

  17. 42 CFR 137.206 - Why does the IHS need this information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Why does the IHS need this information? 137.206 Section 137.206 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.206 Why does the IHS...

  18. [Reliability and Validity of the Scale for Homophobia in Medicine Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Lafaurie, María Mercedes; Gaitán-Duarte, Hernando G

    2012-12-01

    There are several scales to quantify homophobia in different populations. However, the reliability and validity of these instruments among Colombian students are unknown. Consequently, this work is intended to assess reliability (inner consistency) as well as the validity of the Scale for Homophobia in Medicine students from a private university in Bogotá (Colombia). Methodological study with 199 Medicine students from 1st to 5th semester that filled out the Homophobia Scale form, the general welfare questionnaire, the Attitude Towards Gays and Lesbians Scale (ATGL), WHO-5 (divergent validity) and the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity (nomologic validity). Pearson's correlations were computed, the Cronbach's alfa coefficient, the omega coefficient (construct's reliability) and confirmatory factorial analysis. The Scale for Homophobia showed an alpha Cronbach coefficient of 0,785, an omega coefficient of 0,790 and a Pearson correlation with the ATGL of 0,844; with WHO-5, -0,059; and a Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity, 0,187. The Scale toward Homophobia exhibited a relevant factor of 44,7% of the total variance. The Scale for Homophobia showed acceptable reliability and validity. New studies should investigate the stability of the scale and the nomologic validity regarding other constructs. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Stigma and self-esteem across societies: avoiding blanket psychological responses to gay men experiencing homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Lyons, Evanthia; Dinos, Sokratis

    2015-08-01

    Aims and method The relationship between homophobia (varying from actual and perceived to internalised) and measures of well-being is well documented. A study in Athens, Greece and London, UK attempted to examine this relationship in two cities with potentially different levels of homophobia. One-hundred and eighty-eight men who have sex with men (MSM) living in London and 173 MSM living in Athens completed a survey investigating their views on their sexuality, perceptions of local homophobia and their identity evaluation in terms of global self-esteem. Results The results confirmed a negative association between homophobia and self-esteem within each city sample. However, Athens MSM, despite perceiving significantly higher levels of local homophobia than London MSM, did not differ on most indicators of internalised homophobia and scored higher on global self-esteem than London MSM. The city context had a significant impact on the relationship. Clinical implications The findings are discussed in relation to the implications they pose for mental health professionals dealing with MSM from communities experiencing variable societal stigmatisation and its effect on a positive sense of self.

  20. Economic and Social Political Ideology and Homophobia: The Mediating Role of Binding and Individualizing Moral Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Öz, Haluk C M; Marsden, Arthur D

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has linked conservative political ideology with homophobia. Political ideology has also been linked to differences in moral decision-making, with research suggesting that conservatives and liberals may use different values in their moral decision-making processes. Moral foundations theory is a model of moral decision-making that proposes that individuals emphasize different domains in moral decision-making. Conservatives tend to emphasize binding foundations, while liberals tend to emphasize individualizing foundations. Utilizing large, ethnically diverse college samples, the purpose of these two cross-sectional studies (Study 1 N = 492; Study 2 N = 861) was to explore whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and homophobia. These studies explored economic and social political ideology separately and utilized a two-factor model of moral foundations theory (individualizing and binding foundations). Results of both studies found that conservative economic and social political ideology was positively associated with homophobia. Study 1 found that both conservative economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through binding foundations. Study 2 found that both economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through both binding and individualizing foundations. Overall, the results were consistent with the notion that moral foundations may explain the relationship between political ideology and homophobia.

  1. Cell-Type Specific Development of the Hyperpolarization-Activated Current, Ih, in Prefrontal Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available H-current, also known as hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih, is an inward current generated by the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN cation channels. Ih plays an essential role in regulating neuronal properties, synaptic integration and plasticity, and synchronous activity in the brain. As these biological factors change across development, the brain undergoes varying levels of vulnerability to disorders like schizophrenia that disrupt prefrontal cortex (PFC-dependent function. However, developmental changes in Ih in PFC neurons remains untested. Here, we examine Ih in pyramidal neurons vs. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing (PV+ interneurons in developing mouse PFC. Our findings show that the amplitudes of Ih in these cell types are identical during the juvenile period but differ at later time points. In pyramidal neurons, Ih amplitude significantly increases from juvenile to adolescence and follows a similar trend into adulthood. In contrast, the amplitude of Ih in PV+ interneurons decreases from juvenile to adolescence, and does not change from adolescence to adulthood. Moreover, the kinetics of HCN channels in pyramidal neurons is significantly slower than in PV+ interneurons, with a gradual decrease in pyramidal neurons and a gradual increase in PV+ cells across development. Our study reveals distinct developmental trajectories of Ih in pyramidal neurons and PV+ interneurons. The cell-type specific alteration of Ih during the critical period from juvenile to adolescence reflects the contribution of Ih to the maturation of the PFC and PFC-dependent function. These findings are essential for a better understanding of normal PFC function, and for elucidating Ih’s crucial role in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  2. Internalized Stigma and Psychological Well-Being in Gay Men and Lesbians in Italy and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Lorenzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that internalized homophobia is a risk factor for mental health illness in homosexual individuals, whereas the perception of social support is a protective factor for their psychological well-being. In line with those studies, the present research has investigated the levels of internalized homophobia, anxiety, depression and social support, among two groups of gay men and lesbian individuals living in two European countries (N = 194: 86 Italian and 108 Belgian, where legislations grant different civil rights to lesbian and gay individuals (LG. The main goal of this research has been to verify the possible differences between the two groups. Results showed some significant differences in terms of observed levels of internalized homophobia, which was higher in the Belgian gay men’s group compared to the Italian one. Furthermore, path analysis emphasized the role of social support as a potential factor of mediation between internalized homophobia and mental health.

  3. Effect of cortisol on gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic peptides, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), play pivotal roles in the control of reproduction and gonadal maturation in fish. In the present study we tested the possibility that stress-mediated reproductive dysfunction in teleost may involve changes in GnRH and GnIH activity. We studied expression of brain GnIH, GnIH-R, seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), as well as circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Treatment with cortisol increased GnIH mRNA level, but reduced sbGnRH mRNA and circulating levels of LH and FSH in cinnamon clownfish. Using double immunofluorescence staining, we found expression of both GnIH and GnRH in the diencephalon region of cinnamon clownfish brain. These findings support the hypothesis that cortisol, an indicator of stress, affects reproduction, in part, by increasing GnIH in cinnamon clownfish which contributes to hypothalamic suppression of reproductive function in A. melanopus, a protandrous hermaphroditic fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reversible pressure-induced crystal-amorphous structural transformation in ice Ih

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Niall J.; Tse, John S.

    2014-08-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of depressurised high-density amorphous ice (HDA) at 80 K and at negative pressures has been performed. Over several attempts, HDA recrystallised to a form close to hexagonal ice Ih, albeit with some defects. The results support the hypothesis that compression of ice-Ih to HDA is a reversible first-order phase transition, with a large hysteresis. Therefore, it would appear that LDA is not truly amorphous. The elastic energy estimated from the area of the hysteresis loop is ca. 4.5 kJ/mol, in some way consistent with experimentally-determined accumulated successive heats of transformations from recovered HDA → ice Ih.

  5. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  6. Fans, homophobia and masculinities in association football: evidence of a more inclusive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Ellis; Cleland, Jamie

    2012-06-01

    This article draws on 3,500 responses from fans and professionals involved in association football (soccer) to an anonymous online survey posted from June 2010 to October 2010 regarding their views towards gay footballers. The overall findings are that, contrary to assumptions of homophobia, there is evidence of rapidly decreasing homophobia within the culture of football fandom. The results advance inclusive masculinity theory with 93 per cent of fans of all ages stating that there is no place for homophobia within football. Fans blame agents and clubs for the lack of openness and challenge football's governing organizations to oppose the culture of secrecy surrounding gay players and to provide a more inclusive environment to support players who want to come out. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  7. Prospects of implicit measures in assessment of defensive function of explicit homophobia in heterosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Ljiljana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some authors state that one of the functions of explicit homophobia is defensive, and that it has roots in latent attraction towards same sex. Large body of evidence suggests that implicit techniques enable assessment of those cognitions hidden from conscious awareness. Sample of 277 heterosexuals completed several implicit (Implicit Association Test-IAT and Affective Priming-AP and explicit measures of attitude (Test of homophobia and Connotative differential. Multi-group SEM analysis was done to investigate cross-sample stability of the model postulating influence of IAT and AP factors on latent explicit factor. Analyses suggest that both in males and females IAT latent factor predicts negative explicit attitude. Results revealed that explicit homophobia is related to implicit, negative attitude toward homosexuals and not to implicit attraction towards same sex. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018 i br. 179033

  8. 76 FR 73489 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...-1F, and LF507-IH turbofan engines. This AD requires removing from service certain second stage high... International Inc. ALF502L-2C, ALF502R-3, ALF502R-3A, ALF502R-5, LF507-1F, and LF507-IH turbofan engines, with...

  9. Experiences of homophobia among gay and bisexual men: results from a cross-sectional study in seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, Anna N; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia--external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia--and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from seven countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the UK and the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook. Two outcomes were examined: reporting experiences of homophobic discrimination and reporting feelings of internalised homophobia. No covariates were consistently significantly associated with experiencing external homophobic discrimination across countries. Across all countries, bisexually identifying respondents reported significantly greater feelings of internalised homophobia. Respondents in Brazil and the UK reporting a main partner, and respondents in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand and the USA reporting a larger gay/bisexual social network, reported significantly fewer feelings of internalised homophobia. Results suggest an ameliorative effect of social networks on experiencing homophobia. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms through which social networks reduce feelings of internalised homophobia.

  10. [A Brief Homophobia Scale in Medical Students From Two Universities: Results of A Refinement Process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi Celina

    The process of evaluating measurement scales is an ongoing procedure that requires revisions and adaptations according to the characteristics of the participants. The Homophobia Scale of seven items (EHF-7) has showed acceptable performance in medical students attending to two universities in Colombia. However, performance of some items was poor and could be removed, with an improvement in the psychometric findings of items retained. To review the psychometric functioning and refine the content of EHF-7 among medical students from two Colombian universities. A group of 667 students from the first to tenth semester participated in the research. Theirs ages were between 18 and 34 (mean, 20.9±2.7) years-old, and 60.6% were females. Cronbach alpha (α) and omega of McDonald (Ω) were calculated as indicators of reliability and to refine the scale, an exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. EHF-7 showed α=.793 and Ω=.796 and a main factor that explained 45.2% of the total variance. EFA and CFA suggested the suppression of three items. The four-item version (EHF-4) reached an α=.770 and Ω=.775, with a single factor that accounted for 59.7% of the total variance. CFA showed better indexes (χ 2 =3.622; df=1; P=.057; Root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA)=.063, 90% CI, .000-.130; Comparative Fit Indices (CFI)=.998; Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI)=.991). EHF-4 shows high internal consistency and a single dimension that explains more than 50% of the total variance. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations, that can be taken as preliminary. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study of Homophobia among HBCU Undergraduate Students toward Gay and Lesbian Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, Donna Gibson

    2014-01-01

    While recent research examines homophobia among social work majors, there is limited research devoted to social work students enrolled in a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Social workers are not immune to possessing homophobic attitudes; therefore, diversity training is important. This research explored whether there were any…

  12. Wearing a Rainbow Bumper Sticker: Experiential Learning on Homophobia, Heteronormativity, and Heterosexual Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Lisa M.; Bolt, Sophia C.

    2015-01-01

    College campuses are known to be heteronormative environments that often foster heterosexism and homophobia. There is a broad call for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) awareness-building curricula as one avenue for positive change in campus climates. This study interrogates the effects of an experiential learning activity…

  13. The "Gay Comfort Level": Examining a Media Advocacy Group's Efforts to Combat Youth Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachgal, Tara M.

    2011-01-01

    This article scrutinizes the efforts of a media advocacy group to redress the stigma of youth homosexuality among United States youth: a report published in 2003 by the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation called, "How Youth Media Can Help Combat Homophobia Among American Teenagers." The report, authored by Rodger Streitmatter, concluded…

  14. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  15. Religious Identity and Cultural Diversity: Exploring the Relationships between Religious Identity, Sexism, Homophobia, and Multicultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the results from a national study investigating the relationships between religious identity, sexism, homophobia, and multicultural competence. Participants were 111 randomly sampled counseling professionals and graduate students. The results indicated a relationship between religious identity and various…

  16. Bullying among Spanish Secondary Education Students: The Role of Gender Traits, Sexism, and Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Fernández, María-Victoria; Lameiras-Fernández, María; Rodríguez-Castro, Yolanda; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the combined influence of gender stereotypes, sexism, and homophobia on attitudes toward bullying and bullying behavior. A total of 1,500 Spanish adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age (49.3% girls and 50.7% boys) completed a questionnaire that included measures of bullying, attitudes toward bullying,…

  17. Combatting Homophobia in Sport and Physical Education: Academic and Professional Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenskyj, Helen

    This paper presents a discussion of events within national sport organizations that have recently addressed the problem of homophobia in sports; in particular, the social, professional, and political harassment of lesbian women who are career athletes. A brief overview is given of the stance of feminists, both liberal humanist and radical, on the…

  18. Effects of Field Distortions in IH-APF Linac for a Compact Medical Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery; Yamada, Satoru

    2004-01-01

    The project on developing compact medical accelerators for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is a doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-Mev/u 200-MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in the IH-cavity are caused by an asymmetry of the gap fields due to presence of the stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the gap voltages from programmed values. The RF fields in the IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically. The intrinsic field distortions a...

  19. Who has the worst attitudes toward sexual minorities? Comparison of transphobia and homophobia levels in gender dysphoric individuals, the general population and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A D; Castellini, G; Ristori, J; Casale, H; Giovanardi, G; Carone, N; Fanni, E; Mosconi, M; Ciocca, G; Jannini, E A; Ricca, V; Lingiardi, V; Maggi, M

    2017-03-01

    To date, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, little is known about health care providers' (HCP) attitudes toward sexual minorities. The aim of the present study is to compare attitudes toward homosexual and transgender individuals between gender dysphoric individuals (GDs), general population controls (C) and HCP. A total of 310 subjects were considered, including 122 GDs (63 transwomen and 59 transmen), 53 heterosexual HCP (26 males and 27 females) and 135 C. Participants completed the Modern Homophobia Scale (MHS) and the Attitudes Toward Transgendered Individuals Scale (ATTI) in order to assess attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women and toward transgender individuals, respectively. In addition, GDs completed the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire (GIDYQ-AA) and ATTI to measure, respectively, gender dysphoria levels and internalized transphobia. Religious attitudes were evaluated by means of the Religious Fundamentalism Scale (RFS), and Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12) was used to measure perceived discrimination. (1) Men showed significantly higher levels of homophobia and transphobia when compared to women (p attitudes, which are strongly dependent on religious precepts and dogma.

  20. Povratna informacija pri matematičnih domačih nalogah

    OpenAIRE

    Žitko, Urša

    2017-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljena povratna informacija pri matematičnih domačih nalogah. V teoretičnem delu so predstavljene domače naloge: njihova zgodovina, namen in več klasifikacij vrst domačih nalog. Domače naloge so namenjene učencem, da z njimi usvojijo in utrdijo obravnavano snov. Domača naloga učencem omogoča učenje uporabe postopkov, ki jih že poznajo, in pridobivanje novih spretnosti za nadaljnje razumevanje snovi. Z rednim pisanjem domačih nalog se učenci naučijo vestnega in sam...

  1. Qualidades psicométricas do Inventário de Habilidades Sociais (IHS: estudo sobre a estabilidade temporal e a validade concomitante Psychometric qualities of a Social Skills Inventory (IHS: a study of its temporal stability and concomitant validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bandeira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa investiga as qualidades psicométricas do Inventário de Habilidades Sociais (IHS em termos de sua validade concomitante e de sua fidedignidade ou estabilidade temporal. Participaram desta pesquisa, 104 estudantes de Psicologia que foram submetidos à aplicação do IHS e da Escala de Assertividade de Rathus. Os resultados mostram uma correlação significativa entre estas duas escalas de avaliação. Os dados referentes à aplicação teste-reteste do IHS, em uma subamostra aleatória de 39 sujeitos, mostram igualmente um correlação significativa entre as duas aplicações. Estes resultados indicam que o IHS possui validade concomitante e fidedignidade ou estabilidade temporal. Estas conclusões complementam os resultados de estudos anteriores sobre as qualidades psicométricas do IHS e recomendam a utilização desta escala para avaliar as habilidades sociais de estudantes universitários no contexto brasileiro.This research investigates the psychometric properties of the Social Skills Inventory (IHS in terms of its concomitant validity and reliability. A sample of 104 psychology students participated in this research. Two scales were applied to the subjects, the IHS and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. The results showed a significant correlation between the IHS and the Rathus Scale scores. The IHS was also reapplied to a randomized sub-sample of 39 students. The results of this test-retest application also showed a significant correlation between these scores. The results indicate that the IHS has concomitant validity and reliability or temporal stability. This study adds positive results to a previous study investigating some other psychometric properties of the IHS and recommends the use of this scale for the evaluation of college student social skills.

  2. 42 CFR 137.275 - May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Purpose and Scope § 137.275 May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement or in a funding...

  3. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae IH5T (=DSM 16299T), a phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacterium for bacterial biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yunyoung; Jung, Byung Kwon; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-10

    Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae IH5(T) (=DSM 16299(T)), isolated from the rhizospheric soil of grass growing in Spain, has been reported as a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas harboring insoluble phosphorus solubilizing activity. To understanding the multifunctional biofertilizer better, we report the complete genome sequence of P. rhizosphaerae IH5(T). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transforming wealth: using the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) and splines to predict youth's math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Terri; Masa, Rainier D; Chowa, Gina A N

    2015-01-01

    The natural log and categorical transformations commonly applied to wealth for meeting the statistical assumptions of research may not always be appropriate for adjusting for skewness given wealth's unique properties. Finding and applying appropriate transformations is becoming increasingly important as researchers consider wealth as a predictor of well-being. We present an alternative transformation-the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS)-for simultaneously dealing with skewness and accounting for wealth's unique properties. Using the relationship between household wealth and youth's math achievement as an example, we apply the IHS transformation to wealth data from US and Ghanaian households. We also explore non-linearity and accumulation thresholds by combining IHS transformed wealth with splines. IHS transformed wealth relates to youth's math achievement similarly when compared to categorical and natural log transformations, indicating that it is a viable alternative to other transformations commonly used in research. Non-linear relationships and accumulation thresholds emerge that predict youth's math achievement when splines are incorporated. In US households, accumulating debt relates to decreases in math achievement whereas accumulating assets relates to increases in math achievement. In Ghanaian households, accumulating assets between the 25th and 50th percentiles relates to increases in youth's math achievement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multipole moments of water molecules in clusters and ice Ih from first principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, E.R.; Xantheas, S.S.; Jonsson, H.

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated molecular multipole moments for water molecules in clusters and in ice Ih by partitioning the charge density obtained from first principles calculations. Various schemes for dividing the electronic charge density among the water molecules were used. They include Bader close-quote s zero flux surfaces and Voronoi partitioning schemes. A comparison was also made with an induction model including dipole, dipole-quadrupole, quadrupole-quadrupole polarizability and first hyperpolarizability as well as fixed octopole and hexadecapole moments. We have found that the different density partitioning schemes lead to widely different values for the molecular multipoles, illustrating how poorly defined molecular multipoles are in clusters and condensed environments. For instance, the magnitude of the molecular dipole moment in ice Ih ranges between 2.3 D and 3.1 D depending on the partitioning scheme used. Within each scheme, though, the value for the molecular dipole moment in ice is larger than in the hexamer. The magnitude of the molecular dipole moment in the clusters shows a monotonic increase from the gas phase value to the one in ice Ih, with the molecular dipole moment in the water ring hexamer being smaller than the one in ice Ih for all the partitioning schemes used. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  6. Remote Sensing Image Fusion Based on the Combination Grey Absolute Correlation Degree and IHS Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui LIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An improved fusion algorithm for multi-source remote sensing images with high spatial resolution and multi-spectral capacity is proposed based on traditional IHS fusion and grey correlation analysis. Firstly, grey absolute correlation degree is used to discriminate non-edge pixels and edge pixels in high-spatial resolution images, by which the weight of intensity component is identified in order to combine it with high-spatial resolution image. Therefore, image fusion is achieved using IHS inverse transform. The proposed method is applied to ETM+ multi-spectral images and panchromatic image, and Quickbird’s multi-spectral images and panchromatic image respectively. The experiments prove that the fusion method proposed in the paper can efficiently preserve spectral information of the original multi-spectral images while enhancing spatial resolution greatly. By comparison and analysis, the proposed fusion algorithm is better than traditional IHS fusion and fusion method based on grey correlation analysis and IHS transform.

  7. Photoabsorption of the molecular IH cation at the iodine 3 d absorption edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Stephan; Guda, Alexander A.; Schubert, Kaja; Mertens, Karolin; Hellhund, Jonas; Müller, Alfred; Schippers, Stefan; Bari, Sadia; Martins, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Yields of atomic iodine Iq + (q ≥2 ) fragments resulting from photoexcitation and photoionization of the target ions IH+ and I+ have been measured in the photon-energy range 610-680 eV, which comprises the thresholds for iodine 3 d ionization. The measured ion-yield spectra show two strong and broad resonance features due to the excitation of the 3 d3 /2 ,5 /2 electrons into ɛ f states rather similar for both parent ions. In the 3 d pre-edge range, excitations into (n p π ) -like orbitals and into an additional σ* orbital are found for IH+, which have been identified by comparison of the atomic I+ and molecular IH+ data and with the help of (time-dependent) density functional theory (DFT) and atomic Hartree-Fock calculations. The (5 p π ) orbital is almost atomlike, whereas all other resonances of the IH+ primary ion show a more pronounced molecular character, which is deduced from the chemical shifts of the resonances and the theoretical analysis.

  8. Substance use by same sex attracted young people: Prevalence, perceptions and homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John; Davis, Cassandra; Schlesinger, Carla

    2015-07-01

    Research highlights that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people use alcohol and drugs (AOD) more than heterosexual people; however, the incidence of AOD use by LGBT youth is less understood. The purpose of the current study was to ascertain AOD prevalence rates for LGBT youth compared with the Australian youth population; perceptions of AOD use within the LGBT community; and the impact of homophobia on AOD use. The study surveyed a cross-sectional sample of LGBT youth (13-24 years) (n = 161) who attended a LGBT festival in Brisbane, Australia, in 2012. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and Drug Check Assessment Tool were utilised to examine patterns of AOD use, with items developed to explore perceptions of AOD use and homophobia. AOD use was common among the LGBT sample, with higher prevalence rates compared with the general Australian youth population (2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey). AOD use by under 18-year-olds, and gender diverse youth was markedly higher. The majority misperceived AOD use to be the same in the LGBT and heterosexual communities. Those who believed homophobia impacted on AOD use were significantly more likely to use AOD. The higher prevalence of AOD use strongly suggests the need for AOD agencies to better respond to LGBT youth by not only screening sexuality and gender identity but also exploring young people's perceptions of AOD use in the LGBT community and their experiences of homophobia in order to provide effective AOD clinical treatment. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. High dendritic expression of Ih in the proximity of the axon origin controls the integrative properties of nigral dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Dominique; Seutin, Vincent

    2015-11-15

    The hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih is expressed in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra, but the subcellular distribution of the current and its role in synaptic integration remain unknown. We used cell-attached patch recordings to determine the localization profile of Ih along the somatodendritic axis of nigral dopamine neurons in slices from young rats. Ih density is higher in axon-bearing dendrites, in a membrane area close to the axon origin, than in the soma and axon-lacking dendrites. Dual current-clamp recordings revealed a similar contribution of Ih to the waveform of single excitatory postsynaptic potentials throughout the somatodendritic domain. The Ih blocker ZD 7288 increased the temporal summation in all dendrites with a comparable effect in axon- and non-axon dendrites. The strategic position of Ih in the proximity of the axon may influence importantly transitions between pacemaker and bursting activities and consequently the downstream release of dopamine. Dendrites of most neurons express voltage-gated ion channels in their membrane. In combination with passive properties, active currents confer to dendrites a high computational potential. The hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih present in the dendrites of some pyramidal neurons affects their membrane and integration properties, synaptic plasticity and higher functions such as memory. A gradient of increasing h-channel density towards distal dendrites has been found to be responsible for the location independence of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) waveform and temporal summation in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells. However, reports on other cell types revealed that smoother gradients or even linear distributions of Ih can achieve homogeneous temporal summation. Although the existence of a robust, slowly activating Ih current has been repeatedly demonstrated in nigral dopamine neurons, its subcellular distribution and precise role in synaptic integration

  10. Homophobia and the Transition to Adulthood: A Three Year Panel Study among Belgian Late Adolescents and Young Adults, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Meeusen, Cecil

    2012-01-01

    Studies on homophobia among adolescents routinely depart from the assumption that this attitude will be continued into adulthood. However, little research has been conducted on how the transition toward adulthood actually affects homophobia. While earlier studies relied on cross-sectional observations, the present analysis makes use of the Belgian…

  11. Challenging homophobia and heterosexism through storytelling and critical dialogue among Hong Kong Chinese immigrant parents in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Poon, Maurice Kwong-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Homophobia and heterosexism are ubiquitous in Canadian society. They contribute to significant health and mental health disparities for lesbian, gay and bisexual youth and their families. Anti-homophobia efforts tend to focus on students and teachers at school. While these efforts are important, they do not reach parents, who play an important role in shaping young people's attitudes towards gender and sexuality. To eliminate bullying and victimisation associated with homophobia at school and in the community, concerted efforts are urgently needed to mobilise parents to become champions against homophobia and heterosexism. In this paper, we report on our use of storytelling and critical dialogue to engage a group of Hong Kong Chinese immigrant parents in Toronto to interrogate their values and assumptions about homosexuality. In particular, we illustrate how we use storytelling to create a liminal space whereby the narrators and listeners collaborate to create counter-discourses that challenge social domination and exclusion. We then discuss the implications of using a critical dialogical approach to integrate anti-homophobia efforts in community parenting programmes.

  12. Path-integral simulation of ice Ih: The effect of pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Carlos P.; Ramírez, Rafael

    2011-12-01

    The effect of pressure on structural and thermodynamic properties of ice Ih has been studied by means of path-integral molecular dynamics simulations at temperatures between 50 and 300 K. Interatomic interactions were modeled by using the effective q-TIP4P/F potential for flexible water. Positive (compression) and negative (tension) pressures have been considered, which allowed us to approach the limits for the mechanical stability of this solid water phase. We have studied the pressure dependence of the crystal volume, bulk modulus, interatomic distances, atomic delocalization, and kinetic energy. The spinodal point at both negative and positive pressures is derived from the vanishing of the bulk modulus. For P300 K. At positive pressure the spinodal is associated with ice amorphization, and at low temperatures it is found to be between 1.1 and 1.3 GPa. Quantum nuclear effects cause a reduction of the metastability region of ice Ih.

  13. Revealing topographic lineaments through IHS enhancement of DEM data. [Digital Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Gary

    1990-01-01

    Intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) processing of slope (dip), aspect (dip direction), and elevation to reveal subtle topographic lineaments which may not be obvious in the unprocessed data are used to enhance digital elevation model (DEM) data from northwestern Nevada. This IHS method of lineament identification was applied to a mosiac of 12 square degrees using a Cray Y-MP8/864. Square arrays from 3 x 3 to 31 x 31 points were tested as well as several different slope enhancements. When relatively few points are used to fit the plane, lineaments of various lengths are observed and a mechanism for lineament classification is described. An area encompassing the gold deposits of the Carlin trend and including the Rain in the southeast to Midas in the northwest is investigated in greater detail. The orientation and density of lineaments may be determined on the gently sloping pediment surface as well as in the more steeply sloping ranges.

  14. Long Term Processing Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis plus Hydroconversion (IH2) for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Institute; Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Institute; Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Institute; Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Institute; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Institute; Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Institute; McLeod, Celeste [CRI Catalyst; Del Paggio, Alan [CRI Catalyst; Gephart, John [Johnson Timber; Starr, Jack [Cargill; Hahn, John [Cargill

    2013-06-09

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible

  15. Homophobia or sexism? A systematic review of prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Peroni, Rodrigo Oliva; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Nardi, Henrique Caetano

    2013-01-01

    Since it was coined in the 1970s, in the United States, the term "homophobia" has been invoked to define the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation. Besides the US, the phenomenon has been detected in many contemporary societies, including Brazil. Prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation is strongly associated with the historical and social contexts in which it is embedded, which means that the term should not be used without a clear definition of its local specificities. This applies to the recent debate around homophobia in the Brazilian context. In an attempt to identify existing studies of prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations in Brazil, a systematic review was conducted in SciELO indexes, PubMed, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. The articles were collected using the keyword "homophobia" and related terms, and "Brazil", in the languages of the databases. The search returned 355 articles. Of these, 247 were removed because they were duplicates. The abstracts of 109 studies published between 1973 and 2011were analyzed. Thirty-one articles were identified as relevant. The reviewed studies indicate that prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations is an evident and widespread phenomenon that is prevalent in various populations and contexts. Nevertheless, prejudice in Brazil is not homogeneous, and particular attention is necessary to the inequality of gender relations (sexism) and prejudice against gender nonconformity, which seem to explain, if not cause, most of the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations. Although theoretically there is a clear distinction between sexual orientation and gender expression, from the standpoint of manifestation of prejudice that distinction seems to be more tenuous.

  16. Lesbian mommy blogging in Canada: documenting subtle homophobia in Canadian society and building community online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes how lesbian mommy bloggers in Canada are using their blogs as forums for self-expression and a means to form community, as they record their unique experiences as queer parents. Further, it argues that lesbian mommy blogging is documenting a subtle form of homophobia that exists in Canada in terms of social acceptance. Although there is legal acceptance of queer families, society has not necessarily caught up with the law. These blogs show that lesbian parents in Canada still struggle with issues of equality, including difficulties being "out," invisibility, and having to advocate for the non-birth parent.

  17. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -IH and Vacuum cooking -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Murasaki, Masahiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. This study was aimed at making balance space foods menu for the healthy space-life. The kitchen utensil has a limit in the space environment. And a method to warm is only heater without fire. Therefore purpose of this study, we make the space foods which make by using vacuum cooking device and the IH heater We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores.. We could make the space foods which we devised with vacuum cooking and IH deliciously. As a result of sensuality examination, the eight points in ten points of perfect scores was appeared. This result showed, our space food menu is delicious. We can store these space foods with a refrigerator for 20 days by making vacuum cooking. This thing is at all important result so that a save is enabled when surplus food was done in future by performing vacuum cooking. We want to make delicious space foods menu with vacuum cooking and IH heater more in future.

  18. Development of an IH-type linac for the acceleration of high current heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, Jan Hendrik

    2017-07-20

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt will provide unprecedented intensities of protons and heavy ions up to uranium at energies of up to 29 GeV for protons and 2.7 GeV/u for U{sup 28+}. To achieve high intensities in the synchrotron accelerators, high beam currents have to be provided by the injector linear accelerators. High current heavy ion beams are provided by the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC), which in its current state will not be able to provide the required FAIR beam currents. This thesis deals with the development of upgrades for the UNILAC to ensure its high current capability. The first improvement is a matching section (MEBT) for the interface between the RFQ and the IH-DTL of the existing high current injector HSI at the UNILAC. With this new MEBT section, particle losses are eliminated and the overall beam quality is improved. As a second improvement, a complete replacement of the existing Alvarez-DTL is presented. A combination of efficient IH-type cavities and KONUS beam dynamics results in a reduction of the linac length from about 60 m (Alvarez) to just 23 m (new IH-DTL) while providing the same energy and fulfilling FAIR requirements of a high beam current and beam quality. This thesis contains a detailed beam dynamics design of the new linac including some fundamental investigations of the KONUS beam dynamics concept. A cross-check of the beam dynamics design was performed with two independent multi-particle simulation codes. Detailed error studies were conducted to investigate the influence of manufacturing, alignment and operating errors on the beam dynamics performance. Additionally, all five linac cavities were designed, optimized, and their RF parameters including power requirements calculated to provide a comprehensive linac design.

  19. Development of an IH-type linac for the acceleration of high current heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, Jan Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt will provide unprecedented intensities of protons and heavy ions up to uranium at energies of up to 29 GeV for protons and 2.7 GeV/u for U 28+ . To achieve high intensities in the synchrotron accelerators, high beam currents have to be provided by the injector linear accelerators. High current heavy ion beams are provided by the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC), which in its current state will not be able to provide the required FAIR beam currents. This thesis deals with the development of upgrades for the UNILAC to ensure its high current capability. The first improvement is a matching section (MEBT) for the interface between the RFQ and the IH-DTL of the existing high current injector HSI at the UNILAC. With this new MEBT section, particle losses are eliminated and the overall beam quality is improved. As a second improvement, a complete replacement of the existing Alvarez-DTL is presented. A combination of efficient IH-type cavities and KONUS beam dynamics results in a reduction of the linac length from about 60 m (Alvarez) to just 23 m (new IH-DTL) while providing the same energy and fulfilling FAIR requirements of a high beam current and beam quality. This thesis contains a detailed beam dynamics design of the new linac including some fundamental investigations of the KONUS beam dynamics concept. A cross-check of the beam dynamics design was performed with two independent multi-particle simulation codes. Detailed error studies were conducted to investigate the influence of manufacturing, alignment and operating errors on the beam dynamics performance. Additionally, all five linac cavities were designed, optimized, and their RF parameters including power requirements calculated to provide a comprehensive linac design.

  20. Ice Ih anomalies: Thermal contraction, anomalous volume isotope effect, and pressure-induced amorphization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Michael A.; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2016-05-01

    Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D2O ice greater than that of H2O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid softening of

  1. Ice Ih anomalies: Thermal contraction, anomalous volume isotope effect, and pressure-induced amorphization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Michael A.; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So, E-mail: sohirata@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D{sub 2}O ice greater than that of H{sub 2}O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid

  2. Evaluation of the Acceptance Journeys Social Marketing Campaign to Reduce Homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Shawnika J; Davis, Catasha R; Hollander, Gary; Gasiorowicz, Mari; Jeffries, William L; Gray, Simone; Bertolli, Jeanne; Mohr, Anneke

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Acceptance Journeys social marketing campaign to reduce homophobia in the Black community in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. We assessed the campaign's effectiveness using a rolling cross-sectional survey. Data were collected annually online between 2011 and 2015. Each year, a unique sample of Black and White adults, aged 30 years and older, were surveyed in the treatment city (Milwaukee) and in 2 comparison cities that did not have antihomophobia campaigns (St. Louis, MO, and Cleveland, OH; for total sample, n = 3592). Black self-identification and Milwaukee residence were significantly associated with exposure to the campaign, suggesting successful message targeting. The relationship between exposure and acceptance of gay men was significantly mediated through attitudes toward gay men, perceptions of community acceptance, and perceptions of the impact of stigma on gay men, but not through rejection of stereotypes. This model accounted for 39% of variance in acceptance. This evidence suggests that the Acceptance Journeys model of social marketing may be a promising strategy for addressing homophobia in US Black communities.

  3. Coping with Sexual Stigma: Emerging Adults with Lesbian Parents Reflect on the Impact of Heterosexism and Homophobia during Their Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvalanka, Katherine A.; Leslie, Leigh A.; Radina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how youth with LGB (lesbian, gay, and bisexual) parents experience various forms of sexual stigma (i.e., homophobia and heterosexism). Previous studies have focused primarily on frequency of teasing and harassment; therefore, much less is known about how indirect and institutional types of sexual stigma play out in the lives…

  4. Purple Boas, Lesbian Affection, and John Deere Hats: Teacher Educators' Role in Addressing Homophobia in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how one group of teachers discussed their perceptions of homophobia in their schools. A qualitative study was conducted that utilized the following: individual and group interviews, participant reflective journals, professional development sessions, and a research journal. The study illuminated how the role of hegemonic…

  5. Bullying, "Cussing" and "Mucking About": Complexities in Tackling Homophobia in Three Secondary Schools in South London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, schools have a responsibility to prevent all forms of bullying, including those related to sexual orientation. However, relatively little is known about how schools go about this work successfully. This study aimed to identify how three secondary schools in south London, England, were addressing homophobia. Three…

  6. Discussing Sexual Orientation and Gender in Classrooms: A Testimonial-Based Approach to Fighting Homophobia in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gabrielle; Vallerand, Olivier; Petit, Marie-Pier; Charbonneau, Amélie

    2015-01-01

    To fight homophobia in schools in Québec, many teachers rely on community organizations such as the Groupe de Recherche et d'Intervention Sociale (Research and Social Intervention Group) to address sexual diversity in class. This article documents major outcomes of these workshops as seen by students. Students identified topics related to…

  7. Infusing Multicultural Education into the Curriculum: Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Address Homophobia in K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role multicultural education can play in addressing homophobia in K-12 schools. The author explores the lack of multiculturalism courses in undergraduate teacher education programs. To address the lack of multiculturalism courses, three instructional activities are offered that faculty in teacher education programs can…

  8. Death qualification and prejudice: the effect of implicit racism, sexism, and homophobia on capital defendants' right to due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred venirepersons from the 12th Judicial Circuit in Bradenton, Florida completed the following measures: (1) one question that measured their level of support for the death penalty; (2) one question that categorized their death-qualification status; (3) 23 questions that measured their attitudes toward the death penalty (ATDP); (4) 22 questions that assessed their attitudes toward women (ATW); (5) 25 questions that measured their level of homophobia (H); (6) seven questions that assessed their level of modern racism (MR); (7) eight questions that measured their level of modern sexism (MS); and (8) standard demographic questions. Results indicated that as death-penalty support increased participants exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty, more negative attitudes toward women, and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Findings also suggested that death-qualified venirepersons exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Finally, more positive attitudes toward the death penalty were correlated with more negative attitudes toward women and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Legal implications are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Design and Construction of Power System for Induction Heating (IH) Cooker Using Resonant Converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soe Thiri Thandar; Clement Saldanah; Win Khaing Moe

    2008-06-01

    Induction Heating (IH) systems using electromagnetic induction are developed in many industrial applications in Myanmar. Many industries have benefited from this new breakthrough by implementing induction heating for melting, hardening, and heating. Induction heating cooker is based on high frequency induction heating,electrical and electronic technologies. From the electronic point of view, induction heating cooker is composed of four parts.They are rectifier, filter, high frequency inverter, and resonant load. The purpose of this research is mainly objected to developed an induction heating cooker. The rectifier module is considered as full-bridge rectifier. The second protion of the system is a capacitive filter. The ripple components are minimized by this filter. The third is a high frequency converter to convert the constant DC to high frequency AC by switching the devices alternately. In this research, the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) will be used as a power source, and can be driven by the pulse signals from the pulse transformer circuit. In the resonant load, the power consumption is about 500W. Construction and testing has been carried out. The merits of this research work is that IH cooker can be developed because of having less energy consumption, safe, efficient, quick heating, and having efficiency of 90% or more

  10. A method based on IHS cylindrical transform model for quality assessment of image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaokun; Jia, Yonghong

    2005-10-01

    Image fusion technique has been widely applied to remote sensing image analysis and processing, and methods for quality assessment of image fusion in remote sensing have also become the research issues at home and abroad. Traditional assessment methods combine calculation of quantitative indexes and visual interpretation to compare fused images quantificationally and qualitatively. However, in the existing assessment methods, there are two defects: on one hand, most imdexes lack the theoretic support to compare different fusion methods. On the hand, there is not a uniform preference for most of the quantitative assessment indexes when they are applied to estimate the fusion effects. That is, the spatial resolution and spectral feature could not be analyzed synchronously by these indexes and there is not a general method to unify the spatial and spectral feature assessment. So in this paper, on the basis of the approximate general model of four traditional fusion methods, including Intensity Hue Saturation(IHS) triangle transform fusion, High Pass Filter(HPF) fusion, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) fusion, Wavelet Transform(WT) fusion, a correlation coefficient assessment method based on IHS cylindrical transform is proposed. By experiments, this method can not only get the evaluation results of spatial and spectral features on the basis of uniform preference, but also can acquire the comparison between fusion image sources and fused images, and acquire differences among fusion methods. Compared with the traditional assessment methods, the new methods is more intuitionistic, and in accord with subjective estimation.

  11. Homophobia and racism experienced by Latino men who have sex with men in the United States: correlates of exposure and associations with HIV risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuko; Borkowf, Craig; Millett, Gregorio A; Bingham, Trista; Ayala, George; Stueve, Ann

    2012-04-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected from 1081 Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited with respondent-driven sampling (RDS) techniques from Los Angeles and New York, we examined the extent to which Latino MSM reported exposure to social discrimination (i.e., experienced both homophobia and racism, homophobia only, racism only, or neither homophobia nor racism). More than 40% of respondents experienced both homophobia and racism in the past 12 months. Los Angeles participants, those with lower income, and those who reported being HIV-positive were more likely to report experiencing both types of social discrimination. Adjusting for potential confounders, men exposed to both homophobia and racism were more likely than men exposed to neither form of discrimination to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse with a casual sex partner (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI, 1.18-3.24) and binge drinking (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI, 1.02-1.98). Our findings suggest the presence of a syndemic of adverse social experiences and call for more intervention research to address both homophobia and racism experienced among Latino MSM in the United States.

  12. The intersection of youth masculinities, decreasing homophobia and class: an ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Mark

    2014-03-01

    This article examines the emergence of progressive attitudes toward homosexuality among working-class boys in a sixth form in the south of England to develop an intersectional analysis of class, youth masculinities and decreasing homophobia. Drawing on three months of ethnographic data collection, I find that working-class male youth intellectualize pro-gay attitudes and that homophobic language is almost entirely absent from the setting. I document the presence of homosocial tactility, as well as the valuing of friendship and emotional closeness. However, these behaviours are less pronounced than documented among middle-class boys, and I use these findings to advance understanding of how class influences the development of inclusive attitudes and behaviours. Inclusive masculinity theory is used to understand these findings, refining the theory and extending it to a new demographic. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  13. Beyond "homophobia": Thinking more clearly about stigma, prejudice, and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M

    2015-09-01

    This article addresses the topic of homophobia. Recent events might make it seem as though it is dying out. Hate crimes based on a person's sexual orientation or gender presentation can now be prosecuted by the federal government, even when they occur in states lacking their own hate crime laws. Numerous states have changed their laws to permit same-sex couples to marry, some through the passage of legislation and others through ballot measures. Since the U.S. Supreme Court's 2013 decision overturning part of the Defense of Marriage Act, those marriages have been recognized by the federal government. With the dramatic and relatively rapid turnaround in public opinion, this article focuses on the changes in stigma and issues of sexual prejudice as well. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. 42 CFR 137.95 - May a Self-Governance Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis? 137.95 Section 137.95 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe may...-Governance Tribe, on a reimbursable basis, including payment in advance with subsequent adjustment. Prompt...

  15. 42 CFR 136.412 - What questions must the IHS ask as part of the background investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., exploitation, contact, or prostitution; crimes against persons; or offenses committed against children? If yes... Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.412 What questions must the IHS ask as part of the...: (1) Has the individual been arrested or charged with a crime involving a child? If yes, the...

  16. Dielectric constant and low-frequency infrared spectra for liquid water and ice Ih within the E3B model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Ni, Y.; Drews, S. E. P.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    Two intrinsic difficulties in modeling condensed-phase water with conventional rigid non-polarizable water models are: reproducing the static dielectric constants for liquid water and ice Ih, and generating the peak at about 200 cm{sup −1} in the low-frequency infrared spectrum for liquid water. The primary physical reason for these failures is believed to be the missing polarization effect in these models, and consequently various sophisticated polarizable water models have been developed. However, in this work we pursue a different strategy and propose a simple empirical scheme to include the polarization effect only on the dipole surface (without modifying a model's intermolecular interaction potential). We implement this strategy for our explicit three-body (E3B) model. Our calculated static dielectric constants and low-frequency infrared spectra are in good agreement with experiment for both liquid water and ice Ih over wide temperature ranges, albeit with one fitting parameter for each phase. The success of our modeling also suggests that thermal fluctuations about local minima and the energy differences between different proton-disordered configurations play minor roles in the static dielectric constant of ice Ih. Our analysis shows that the polarization effect is important in resolving the two difficulties mentioned above and sheds some light on the origin of several features in the low-frequency infrared spectra for liquid water and ice Ih.

  17. 77 FR 52748 - 60-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service (IHS) Sharing What Works-Best...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service 60-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service (IHS) Sharing What Works--Best Practice, Promising Practice, and Local Effort (BPPPLE) Form; Request For Public Comment AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  18. 42 CFR 137.401 - What role does Tribal consultation play in the IHS annual budget request process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What role does Tribal consultation play in the IHS annual budget request process? 137.401 Section 137.401 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Secretarial Responsibilities Budget Request § 137.401 What role does Tribal consultation play in...

  19. Elastic wave speeds and moduli in polycrystalline ice Ih, si methane hydrate, and sll methane-ethane hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgerud, M.B.; Waite, W.F.; Kirby, S.H.; Nur, A.

    2009-01-01

    We used ultrasonic pulse transmission to measure compressional, P, and shear, S, wave speeds in laboratory-formed polycrystalline ice Ih, si methane hydrate, and sll methane-ethane hydrate. From the wave speed's linear dependence on temperature and pressure and from the sample's calculated density, we derived expressions for bulk, shear, and compressional wave moduli and Poisson's ratio from -20 to 15??C and 22.4 to 32.8 MPa for ice Ih, -20 to 15??C and 30.5 to 97.7 MPa for si methane hydrate, and -20 to 10??C and 30.5 to 91.6 MPa for sll methane-ethane hydrate. All three materials had comparable P and S wave speeds and decreasing shear wave speeds with increasing applied pressure. Each material also showed evidence of rapid intergranular bonding, with a corresponding increase in wave speed, in response to pauses in sample deformation. There were also key differences. Resistance to uniaxial compaction, indicated by the pressure required to compact initially porous samples, was significantly lower for ice Ih than for either hydrate. The ice Ih shear modulus decreased with increasing pressure, in contrast to the increase measured in both hydrates ?? 2009.

  20. Homofobia en estudiantes de enfermería Homofobia em estudantes de enfermagem Homophobia among nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La homofobia es una actitud negativa hacia personas homosexuales, frecuente en profesionales de la salud y con implicaciones en la salud pública. Este fenómeno había sido poco estudiado en estudiantes de enfermería. El objetivo fue conocer la prevalencia y las variables asociadas a la homofobia en estudiantes de enfermería. La revisión sistemática fue realizada de los artículos de investigación formal en EBSCO, Imbiomed, LILACS, MEDLINE, Ovid y ProQuest. Fueron incluidos los artículos publicados entre 1998 y 2008, escritos en español, inglés o portugués. Fueron utilizadas las palabras llave homophobia, homosexuality y nursing students. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo. Se revisaron ocho investigaciones. Entre el 7 y el 16% de los estudiantes presenta algún grado de homofobia. La homofobia es más común en varones y en los religiosos más conservadores. La homofobia es frecuente en estudiantes de enfermería y puede tener implicancias negativas para el ejercicio de la enfermería.A homofobia é uma atitude negativa em relação a pessoas homossexuais, frequente em profissionais da saúde, e com implicações na saúde pública. Este fenômeno havia sido pouco estudado em estudantes de enfermagem. O objetivo foi conhecer a prevalência e variáveis associadas à homofobia em estudantes de enfermagem. A revisão sistemática foi realizada nos artigos de pesquisa formal em EBSCO, Imbiomed, LILACS, MEDLINE, Ovid e ProQuest. Foram incluídos os artigos publicados entre 1998 e 2008, escritos em espanhol, inglês ou português. Foram utilizadas as palavras-chave homophobia, homosexuality e nursing students. Uma análise descritiva foi realizada. Oito pesquisas foram revisadas. Entre 7% e 16% dos estudantes apresenta algum grau de homofobia. A homofobia é mais comum em homens e nos religiosos mais conservadores. A homofobia é frequente em estudantes de enfermagem, e pode ter implicações negativas para o exercício da enfermagem.Homophobia

  1. Hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in vestibular calyx terminals: characterization and role in shaping postsynaptic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Frances L; Benke, Tim A; Rennie, Katherine J

    2012-12-01

    Calyx afferent terminals engulf the basolateral region of type I vestibular hair cells, and synaptic transmission across the vestibular type I hair cell/calyx is not well understood. Calyces express several ionic conductances, which may shape postsynaptic potentials. These include previously described tetrodotoxin-sensitive inward Na(+) currents, voltage-dependent outward K(+) currents and a K(Ca) current. Here, we characterize an inwardly rectifying conductance in gerbil semicircular canal calyx terminals (postnatal days 3-45), sensitive to voltage and to cyclic nucleotides. Using whole-cell patch clamp, we recorded from isolated calyx terminals still attached to their type I hair cells. A slowly activating, noninactivating current (I(h)) was seen with hyperpolarizing voltage steps negative to the resting potential. External Cs(+) (1-5 mM) and ZD7288 (100 μM) blocked the inward current by 97 and 83 %, respectively, confirming that I(h) was carried by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated channels. Mean half-activation voltage of I(h) was -123 mV, which shifted to -114 mV in the presence of cAMP. Activation of I(h) was well described with a third order exponential fit to the current (mean time constant of activation, τ, was 190 ms at -139 mV). Activation speeded up significantly (τ=136 and 127 ms, respectively) when intracellular cAMP and cGMP were present, suggesting that in vivo I(h) could be subject to efferent modulation via cyclic nucleotide-dependent mechanisms. In current clamp, hyperpolarizing current steps produced a time-dependent depolarizing sag followed by either a rebound afterdepolarization or an action potential. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) became larger and wider when I(h) was blocked with ZD7288. In a three-dimensional mathematical model of the calyx terminal based on Hodgkin-Huxley type ionic conductances, removal of I(h) similarly increased the EPSP, whereas cAMP slightly decreased simulated EPSP size

  2. Trends in attitudes toward people living with HIV, homophobia, and HIV transmission knowledge in Quebec, Canada (1996, 2002, and 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, Alix; Beaulieu, Marianne; Leaune, Viviane; Perron, Michèle; Dassa, Clément

    2013-01-01

    People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ≥50 years of age, homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups.

  3. Developing a community-level anti-HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia intervention in new York city: The project CHHANGE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Paige, Mark Q; Gordon, Steven; Matthews, David; Musgrave, Geneva; Kornegay, Mark; Greene, Emily; Phelan, Jo C; Koblin, Beryl A; Taylor-Akutagawa, Vaughn

    2017-08-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia are associated with significant negative health and social outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and those at risk of infection. Interventions to decrease HIV stigma have focused on providing information and education, changing attitudes and values, and increasing contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), activities that act to reduce stereotyped beliefs and prejudice, as well as acts of discrimination. Most anti-homophobia interventions have focused on bullying reduction and have been implemented at the secondary and post-secondary education levels. Few interventions address HIV stigma and homophobia and operate at the community level. Project CHHANGE, Challenge HIV Stigma and Homophobia and Gain Empowerment, was a community-level, multi-component anti-HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia intervention designed to reduce HIV stigma and homophobia thus increasing access to HIV prevention and treatment access. The theory-based intervention included three primary components: workshops and trainings with local residents, businesses and community-based organizations (CBO); space-based events at a CBO-partner drop-in storefront and "pop-up" street-based events and outreach; and a bus shelter ad campaign. This paper describes the intervention design process, resultant intervention and the study team's experiences working with the community. We conclude that CHHANGE was feasible and acceptable to the community. Promoting the labeling of gay and/or HIV-related "space" as a non-stigmatized, community resource, as well as providing opportunities for residents to have contact with targeted groups and to understand how HIV stigma and homophobia relate to HIV/AIDS prevalence in their neighborhood may be crucial components of successful anti-stigma and discrimination programming. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Self-Stigma around Sexual Orientation: A Multiple Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadavaia, James E.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 6 to 10 sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for self-stigma around sexual orientation linked to same-sex attraction (what has generally been referred to as internalized homophobia; IH) in a concurrent multiple-baseline across-participants design. Three men and 2 women showed sizeable…

  5. Role of Ih in differentiating the dynamics of the gastric and pyloric neurons in the stomatogastric ganglion of the lobster, Homarus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Selverston, Allen I; Ayers, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated inward cationic current (Ih) is known to regulate the rhythmicity, excitability, and synaptic transmission in heart cells and many types of neurons across a variety of species, including some pyloric and gastric mill neurons in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) in Cancer borealis and Panulirus interruptus However, little is known about the role of Ih in regulating the gastric mill dynamics and its contribution to the dynamical bifurcation of the gastric mill and pyloric networks. We investigated the role of Ih in the rhythmic activity and cellular excitability of both the gastric mill neurons (medial gastric, gastric mill) and pyloric neurons (pyloric dilator, lateral pyloric) in Homarus americanus Through testing the burst period between 5 and 50 mM CsCl, and elimination of postinhibitory rebound and voltage sag, we found that 30 mM CsCl can sufficiently block Ih in both the pyloric and gastric mill neurons. Our results show that Ih maintains the excitability of both the pyloric and gastric mill neurons. However, Ih regulates slow oscillations of the pyloric and gastric mill neurons differently. Specifically, blocking Ih diminishes the difference between the pyloric and gastric mill burst periods by increasing the pyloric burst period and decreasing the gastric mill burst period. Moreover, the phase-plane analysis shows that blocking Ih causes the trajectory of slow oscillations of the gastric mill neurons to change toward the pyloric sinusoidal-like trajectories. In addition to regulating the pyloric rhythm, we found that Ih is also essential for the gastric mill rhythms and differentially regulates these two dynamics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Essay of accelerator R and D in a small laboratory of an university. Head ion IH linac for fusion material. 1983-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    The linear accelerator of Inter-Digital H type (IH linac) is known to have a high shunt impedance. Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors of Tokyo Institute of Technology introduced an IH linac for fusion materials irradiation test in 1983. The beam injector was a tandem electrostatic accelerator. The IH linac was designed and fabricated based on the developmental work at Institute for Nuclear Study of University of Tokyo. The processes of component alignment, cold test and start-up operation are described. Educational aspect of the project is also reviewed. (K.Y.)

  7. Argentinean adaptation of the Social Skills Inventory IHS-Del-Prette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaz, Fabián Orlando; Medrano, Leonardo; Greco, María Eugenia; Del Prette, Zilda Aparecida Pereira

    2009-11-01

    We present the results of the adaptation of the IHS-Del-Prette (Inventario de Habilidades Sociales, in English, Social Skills Inventory) to a sample of Argentinean college students. Firstly, we addressed the backward translation and carried out an equivalence study of the Portuguese and Spanish versions of the scale. The results showed the two versions were equivalent, as we obtained correlations lower than .50 in only 5 items. Secondly, we performed item analysis by calculating discrimination indexes and item-total correlations. Results indicated that the items are sensitive to differentiate between high and low social-skill groups. Exploratory factor analysis carried out with a sample of 602 college students yielded five factors that explained 26.5% of the total variance, although our data did not completely match the original factor structure. We also obtained moderate alpha values for the subscales, but high reliability for the total scale. Lastly, group differences between males and females are presented to provide evidence of validity. We discuss the implications of the results and present future lines of inquiry.

  8. Shuttle Return-to-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at CUBRC - Flow Field Calibration and CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kei Y.; Holden, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses one specific aspect of the Shuttle Retrun-To-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC), the test flow field calibration. It showed the versatility of the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock Tunnel (LENS) II wind tunnel for an aerothermal test with unique and demanding requirements. CFD analyses were used effectively to extend the test range at the low end of the Mach range. It demonstrated how ground test facility and CFD synergy can be utilitzed iteratively to enhance the confidence in the fedility of both tools. It addressed the lingering concerns of the aerothermal community on use of inpulse facility and CFD analysis. At the conclusion of the test program, members from the NASA Marshall (MSFC), CUBRC and USA (United Space Alliance) Consultants (The Grey Beards) were asked to independently verify the flight scaling data generated by Boeing for flight certification of the re-designed external tank (ET) components. The blind test comparison showed very good results.

  9. Anomalous diffusion of water molecules at grain boundaries in ice Ih.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pedro Augusto Franco Pinheiro; Veiga, Roberto Gomes de Aguiar; Ribeiro, Ingrid de Almeida; Freitas, Rodrigo; Helfferich, Julian; de Koning, Maurice

    2018-05-23

    Using ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations, we study pre-melting phenomena in pristine coincident-site-lattice grain boundaries (GBs) in proton-disordered hexagonal ice Ih at temperatures just below the melting point Tm. Concerning pre-melt-layer thicknesses, the results are consistent with the available experimental estimates for low-disorder impurity-free GBs. With regard to molecular mobility, the simulations provide a key new insight: the translational motion of the water molecules is found to be subdiffusive for time scales from ∼10 ns up to at least 0.1 μs. Moreover, the fact that the anomalous diffusion occurs even at temperatures just below Tm where the bulk supercooled liquid still diffuses normally suggests that it is related to the confinement of the GB pre-melt layers by the surrounding crystalline environment. Furthermore, we show that this behavior can be characterized by continuous-time random walk models in which the waiting-time distributions decay according to power-laws that are very similar to those describing dynamics in glass-forming systems.

  10. Četrta konferenca o izobraževanju in učenju starejših

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Pravijo, da je Univerza v Ulmu "najvišja nemška univerza". Najvišja zato, ker stoji zunaj mesta na vzpetini. Res je, da slovi po svojih tehniških fakultetah, pa vendar v Ulmu niso pozabili na družbene vede. Znanja iz teh ved si je na Univerzi v Ulmu moč pridobiti pri ZAWIW, Univerzitetnem centru za splošno nadaljevalno izobraževanje. Pri tem centru pa je leta 1994 nastal tudi sedež Evropske zveze "Učenje v poznejših letih". Tako je v njenem okviru lani potekala v Ulmu že četrta konferenca, posvečena izobraževanju in učenju starejših odraslih.

  11. Bullying among Spanish secondary education students: the role of gender traits, sexism, and homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Fernández, María-Victoria; Lameiras-Fernández, María; Rodríguez-Castro, Yolanda; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the combined influence of gender stereotypes, sexism, and homophobia on attitudes toward bullying and bullying behavior. A total of 1,500 Spanish adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age (49.3% girls and 50.7% boys) completed a questionnaire that included measures of bullying, attitudes toward bullying, gender-stereotyped personality traits (instrumentality and expressiveness), hostile and benevolent sexism, and attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. First, the findings demonstrated that boys scored significantly higher on all the variables assessed except on benevolent sexism. Two similar models were obtained for both sexes. Benevolent sexism and, in boys, more positive attitudes toward gay men predicted more negative attitudes toward bullying when mediated by more expressive gender traits. An inverse pattern was also observed: Hostile sexism predicted more favorable attitudes toward bullying when mediated by instrumental gender traits. Attitudes toward bullying were highly correlated with bullying behavior. The five-predictor variables (including attitudes toward bullying) explained 58% of the variance of bullying behavior in girls and 37% of such variance in boys.

  12. Sexual diversity and homophobia: a “disarrangement” culture in public educational policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Batista de Oliveira Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels resulting from the disqualification of “compulsory heteronormativity” process that focus on Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Bigenders, Transvestites, Transsexuals, Transgenders, Queers, Questioners, Intersexes, Indecisives, Asexuals and Allies people emerge in several instances. As a dialog agent, the school has been characterized asa strategic place to implement public policies and, in this context, emerge actions as the School without Homophobia and Health and Prevention in School programs. In order to promote the discussion on strategies developed in the national scenario, it is discussed its products: Gay Kit, Adolescents and Youth Peer Education Guide and Comic Books. Using bibliographical research as a methodology, excerpts of a master’s thesis are used so as to bring the theory of Cultural Studies as a mainstay of discourse. Given the government’s suspension of these materials, one realizes how difficult it is to stand up against public opinion. However, the refusal of the majority does not give the State the right to withhold basic rights of minorities.

  13. Homophobia is associated with sexual behavior that increases risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection among black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, William L; Marks, Gary; Lauby, Jennifer; Murrill, Christopher S; Millett, Gregorio A

    2013-05-01

    We investigated whether the experience of homophobic events increases the odds of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among black men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether social integration level buffered the association. Participants (N = 1,154) reported homophobic events experienced in the past 12 months. Social integration measures included social support, closeness with family members and friends, attachment to the black gay community, openness about sexuality within religious communities, and MSM social network size. Logistic regression analyses indicated that experiencing homophobia was associated with (1) UAI among men not previously diagnosed with HIV and (2) sexual HIV transmission risk behavior among men who knew they were HIV-infected. None of the social integration measures buffered these associations. Homophobia may promote acquisition and transmission of HIV infection among black MSM. Interventions are needed to reduce homophobia experienced by black MSM.

  14. “It's Just More Acceptable To Be White or Mixed Race and Gay Than Black and Gay”: The Perceptions and Experiences of Homophobia in St. Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Couzens

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB individuals come from diverse cultural groups with differing ethnic and racial identities. However, most research on LGB people uses white western samples and studies of Afro-Caribbean diaspora often use Jamaican samples. Thus, the complexity of Afro-Caribbean LGB peoples' experiences of homophobia is largely unknown. The authors' analyses explore experiences of homophobia among LGB people in St. Lucia. Findings indicate issues of skin-shade orientated tolerance, regionalized disparities in levels of tolerance toward LGB people and regionalized passing (regionalized sexual identity shifting. Finally, the authors' findings indicate that skin shade identities and regional location influence the psychological health outcomes of homophobia experienced by LGB people in St. Lucia.

  15. "It's Just More Acceptable To Be White or Mixed Race and Gay Than Black and Gay": The Perceptions and Experiences of Homophobia in St. Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzens, Jimmy; Mahoney, Berenice; Wilkinson, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals come from diverse cultural groups with differing ethnic and racial identities. However, most research on LGB people uses white western samples and studies of Afro-Caribbean diaspora often use Jamaican samples. Thus, the complexity of Afro-Caribbean LGB peoples' experiences of homophobia is largely unknown. The authors' analyses explore experiences of homophobia among LGB people in St. Lucia. Findings indicate issues of skin-shade orientated tolerance, regionalized disparities in levels of tolerance toward LGB people and regionalized passing (regionalized sexual identity shifting). Finally, the authors' findings indicate that skin shade identities and regional location influence the psychological health outcomes of homophobia experienced by LGB people in St. Lucia.

  16. “It's Just More Acceptable To Be White or Mixed Race and Gay Than Black and Gay”: The Perceptions and Experiences of Homophobia in St. Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzens, Jimmy; Mahoney, Berenice; Wilkinson, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals come from diverse cultural groups with differing ethnic and racial identities. However, most research on LGB people uses white western samples and studies of Afro-Caribbean diaspora often use Jamaican samples. Thus, the complexity of Afro-Caribbean LGB peoples' experiences of homophobia is largely unknown. The authors' analyses explore experiences of homophobia among LGB people in St. Lucia. Findings indicate issues of skin-shade orientated tolerance, regionalized disparities in levels of tolerance toward LGB people and regionalized passing (regionalized sexual identity shifting). Finally, the authors' findings indicate that skin shade identities and regional location influence the psychological health outcomes of homophobia experienced by LGB people in St. Lucia. PMID:28674508

  17. Ih equalizes membrane input resistance in a heterogeneous population of fusiform neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Celis Ceballos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a neuronal population, several combinations of its ionic conductances are used to attain a specific firing phenotype. Some neurons present heterogeneity in their firing, generally produced by expression of a specific conductance, but how additional conductances vary along in order to homeostatically regulate membrane excitability is less known. Dorsal cochlear nucleus principal neurons, fusiform neurons, display heterogeneous spontaneous action potential activity and thus represent an appropriate model to study the role of different conductances in establishing firing heterogeneity. Particularly, fusiform neurons are divided into quiet, with no spontaneous firing, or active neurons, presenting spontaneous, regular firing. These modes are determined by the expression levels of an intrinsic membrane conductance, an inwardly rectifying potassium current (IKir. In this work, we tested whether other subthreshold conductances vary homeostatically to maintain membrane excitability constant across the two subtypes. We found that Ih expression covaries specifically with IKir in order to maintain membrane resistance constant. The impact of Ih on membrane resistance is dependent on the level of IKir expression, being much smaller in quiet neurons with bigger IKir, but Ih variations are not relevant for creating the quiet and active phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrate that the individual proportion of each conductance, and not their absolute conductance, is relevant for determining the neuronal firing mode. We conclude that in fusiform neurons the variations of their different subthreshold conductances are limited to specific conductances in order to create firing heterogeneity and maintain membrane homeostasis.

  18. Popular heavy particle beam cancer therapeutic system (3). Development of high efficiency compact incident system-2. Great success of beam test of new APF-IH type DTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iwata, Yoshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    High efficiency compact incident system consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator and an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift tube linear accelerator (DTL). IH type DTL and alternating phase focusing (APF) method is explained. Its special features, production, and beam test are reported. The electric field generation method, outline of the APF method, drift tube, IH type DTL, distribution of electric field and voltage, set up of beam test, ECR ion source and incident line, the inside structure of the RFQ type linear accelerator and the APF-IH type DTL, matching Q lens section, beam, emittance, measurement results of momentum dispersion are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  19. Convergent and reciprocal modulation of a leak K+ current and Ih by an inhalational anaesthetic and neurotransmitters in rat brainstem motoneurones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Jay E; Lynch, Carl; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2002-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and volatile anaesthetics have opposing effects on motoneuronal excitability which appear to reflect contrasting modulation of two types of subthreshold currents. Neurotransmitters increase motoneuronal excitability by inhibiting TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ channels (TASK) and shifting activation of a hyperpolarization-activated cationic current (Ih) to more depolarized potentials; on the other hand, anaesthetics decrease excitability by activating a TASK-like current and inducing a hyperpolarizing shift in Ih activation. Here, we used whole-cell recording from motoneurones in brainstem slices to test if neurotransmitters (serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA)) and an anaesthetic (halothane) indeed compete for modulation of the same ion channels - and we determined which prevails. When applied together under current clamp conditions, 5-HT reversed anaesthetic-induced membrane hyperpolarization and increased motoneuronal excitability. Under voltage clamp conditions, 5-HT and NA overcame most, but not all, of the halothane-induced current. When Ih was blocked with ZD 7288, the neurotransmitters completely inhibited the K+ current activated by halothane; the halothane-sensitive neurotransmitter current reversed at the equilibrium potential for potassium (EK) and displayed properties expected of acid-sensitive, open-rectifier TASK channels. To characterize modulation of Ih in relative isolation, effects of 5-HT and halothane were examined in acidified bath solutions that blocked TASK channels. Under these conditions, 5-HT and halothane each caused their characteristic shift in voltage-dependent gating of Ih. When tested concurrently, however, halothane decreased the neurotransmitter-induced depolarizing shift in Ih activation. Thus, halothane and neurotransmitters converge on TASK and Ih channels with opposite effects; transmitter action prevailed over anaesthetic effects on TASK channels, but not over effects on Ih. These data suggest that

  20. High-pass filtering of input signals by the Ih current in a non-spiking neuron, the retinal rod bipolar cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cangiano

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-sensitive (HCN channels mediate the I(f current in heart and I(h throughout the nervous system. In spiking neurons I(h participates primarily in different forms of rhythmic activity. Little is known, however, about its role in neurons operating with graded potentials as in the retina, where all four channel isoforms are expressed. Intriguing evidence for an involvement of I(h in early visual processing are the side effects reported, in dim light or darkness, by cardiac patients treated with HCN inhibitors. Moreover, electroretinographic recordings indicate that these drugs affect temporal processing in the outer retina. Here we analyzed the functional role of HCN channels in rod bipolar cells (RBCs of the mouse. Perforated-patch recordings in the dark-adapted slice found that RBCs exhibit I(h, and that this is sensitive to the specific blocker ZD7288. RBC input impedance, explored by sinusoidal frequency-modulated current stimuli (0.1-30 Hz, displays band-pass behavior in the range of I(h activation. Theoretical modeling and pharmacological blockade demonstrate that high-pass filtering of input signals by I(h, in combination with low-pass filtering by passive properties, fully accounts for this frequency-tuning. Correcting for the depolarization introduced by shunting through the pipette-membrane seal, leads to predict that in darkness I(h is tonically active in RBCs and quickens their responses to dim light stimuli. Immunohistochemistry targeting candidate subunit isoforms HCN1-2, in combination with markers of RBCs (PKC and rod-RBC synaptic contacts (bassoon, mGluR6, Kv1.3, suggests that RBCs express HCN2 on the tip of their dendrites. The functional properties conferred by I(h onto RBCs may contribute to shape the retina's light response and explain the visual side effects of HCN inhibitors.

  1. Between queerpos and speeches: standardization of conducts, homosexualities and homophobia in the practices of School Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Matias do Prado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anchored in the queers studies, this article aims to discuss the tagging social process standardization of conducts, repudiation of homosexuality and construction of homophobia through some school practices of Physical Education. From reports generated by semi-structured interviews, it was possible to infer that, from the curriculum, sports are mobilized for the construction and maintenance of a representation of masculinity that subjugates and ranks other expressions of existence. In this relational game, students who do not fit (or will not fit to the hegemonic models are targets of constant derogatory demarcations, which aim to establish a difference that “is read” socially as “abnormal”.

  2. Psychosocial Implications of Family and Religious Homophobia: Insights for HIV Combination Prevention among Black Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Caroline; Parker, Richard G.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Philbin, Morgan; Hirsch, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) bear an increasingly disproportionate burden of HIV in the United States. Research demonstrates that psychosocial factors, such as homophobia, are associated with HIV risk. Between June 2013 and May 2014, we conducted three in-depth interviews with each of 31 BMSM and interviews with 17 community stakeholders in New York City to understand the sociocultural and structural factors that may affect adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among BMSM and to inform an adherence clinical trial. BMSM and community leaders frequently described condomless sex as a consequence of psychological factors and economic circumstances stemming from homophobia from families and religious groups. Negative support from social networks affected self-worth, which community stakeholders believed was crucial for men to engage in HIV prevention, such as PrEP. Our results indicate that addressing psychosocial factors and fostering social support are key elements to improve the effectiveness of combination prevention among BMSM. PMID:27037286

  3. [Descriptive study of homophobia and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of the transvestites in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Patricia Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Oscar Cardoso; de Sá, Janilson Barros

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to ascertain the vulnerabilities to HIV/Aids of transvestites of the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) method was selected for data collection. Among the 110 transvestites, high indices of homophobia were found in locations such as: security services, work facilities, family and religious environments, neighborhood, school, stores, leisure spaces, and healthcare services. Among the situations of violence experienced, the predominant cases involved verbal aggression (81.8%) and physical aggression (68.2%). The HIV test carried out at some stage in their lives was reported by 84.4% of the subjects. A high level of knowledge of the forms of HIV prevention and transmission was detected. The majority of the transvestites began their sexual activity before 15 years of age without condom use. It was seen that in the context of the HIV/Aids epidemic, the strategies for health promotion can only be effective if factors for enhancing the understanding of the vulnerability to HIV/Aids, such as homophobia, are considered.

  4. Colonoscopic band ligation for internal hemorrhoids - A tertiary care experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Jalihal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Rubber band ligation (BL is the most widely used technique for treatment of symptomatic internal haemorrhoids (IH that are refractory to conservative treatment. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of colonoscopic BL as therapy for symptomatic IH. Methods: Patients seen at our center with symptomatic IH who underwent BL between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in this prospective study. The clinical and colonoscopic details were entered in uniform structured data forms. Results: Two hundred and eighteen consecutive patients with symptomatic IH were enrolled in the study. The presentations were rectal bleeding in 150 (69% and prolapse in remaining 68 (31% patients. Twenty-four patients (11% had chronic liver disease (child B-C. Same operator treated all the patients. The severity of the IH was classified by using Goligher grading system. The mean age of patients was 48.3 + 15 years with range of 22 - 85 years. The mean follow up was 3months (range 1 month - 36 months. In 209 patients (96% there was at least 1 grade reduction in hemorrhoids as well the symptoms were controlled. Two patients required surgery and another 7 patients required repeat session of banding. After banding session 32 (15% patients had perianal pain and 13 (6% had mild bleeding. Conclusions: Colonoscopic BL is a safe, and effective outpatient therapeutic procedure for symptomatic internal hemorrhoids. Furthermore, the BL is safe and effective in patients of coagulopathy associated with chronic liver disease.

  5. Identification and localization of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) orthologs in the hypothalamus of the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Osugi, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered in 2000 as a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibited gonadotropin release in the Japanese quail. GnIH and its orthologs have a common C-terminal LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) motif, and have been identified in vertebrates from agnathans to humans, apart from reptiles. In the present study, we characterized a cDNA encoding GnIH orthologs in the brain of the red-eared slider turtle. The deduced precursor protein consisted of 205 amino-acid residues, encoding three putative peptide sequences that included the LPXRFamide motif at their C-termini. In addition, the precursor sequence was most similar to those of avian species. Immunoaffinity purification combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that three mature peptides were produced in the brain. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that turtle GnIH-containing cells were restricted to the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Immunoreactive fibers were densely distributed in the median eminence. Thus, GnIH and related peptides may act on the pituitary to regulate pituitary hormone release in turtles as well as other vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Izobraževanje starejših odraslih in pomen njihovega izobraževanja za njih same ter družbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avtorica predstavi pomen izobraževanja starejših odraslih za dejavno staranje v dolgem prehodnem obdobju, imenovanem »čas med delom, upokojitvijo in starostjo«. Ta koncept prehodnega obdobja, prehoda v starost, namreč danes nadomešča starejši koncept pokoja. V tem času ljudje v poznejših letih življenja opravljajo plačano delo, se izobražujejo, se (občasno vračajo na trg dela, delajo prostovoljno. Avtorica piše o prebivalstvenih spremembah in o pomenu izobraženosti vseh in vseh skupin starejših odraslih za soočanje s staranjem družbe. Dušana Findeisen zastane pri vprašanju značilnosti izobraževalnih programov za starejše odrasle, obravnava vrednote, nosilce in oblike izobraževanja starejših. Nazadnje opiše slovensko univerzo za tretje življenjsko obdobje kot konceptualno eno najbolj celostno domišljenih oblik in modelov izobraževanja ljudi v poznejših letih življenja.

  7. Analysis of the role of the low threshold currents IT and Ih in intrinsic delta oscillations of thalamocortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimy eAmarillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical neurons are involved in the generation and maintenance of brain rhythms associated with global functional states. The repetitive burst firing of TC neurons at delta frequencies (1-4 Hz has been linked to the oscillations recorded during deep sleep and during episodes of absence seizures. To get insight into the biophysical properties that are the basis for intrinsic delta oscillations in these neurons, we performed a bifurcation analysis of a minimal conductance-based thalamocortical neuron model including only the IT channel and the sodium and potassium leak channels. This analysis unveils the dynamics of repetitive burst firing of TC neurons, and describes how the interplay between the amplifying variable mT and the recovering variable hT of the calcium channel IT is sufficient to generate low threshold oscillations in the delta band. We also explored the role of the hyperpolarization activated cationic current Ih in this reduced model and determine that, albeit not required, Ih amplifies and stabilizes the oscillation.

  8. Testing IH Instrumentation: Analysis of 1996-1998 Tank Ventilation Data in Terms of Characterizing a Transient Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, James G.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of the 1996-1998 Hanford tank ventilation studies of average ventilation rates to help define characteristics of shorter term releases. This effort is being conducted as part of the design of tests of Industrial Hygiene's (IH) instrumentation ability to detect transient airborne plumes from tanks using current deployment strategies for tank operations. This analysis has improved our understanding of the variability of hourly average tank ventilation processes. However, the analysis was unable to discern the relative importance of emissions due to continuous releases and short-duration bursts of material. The key findings are as follows: (1) The ventilation of relatively well-sealed, passively ventilated tanks appears to be driven by a combination of pressure, buoyancy, and wind influences. The results of a best-fit analysis conducted with a single data set provide information on the hourly emission variability that IH instrumentation will need to detect. (2) Tank ventilation rates and tank emission rates are not the same. The studies found that the measured infiltration rates for a single tank are often a complex function of air exchanges between tanks and air exchanges with outdoor air. This situation greatly limits the usefulness of the ventilation data in defining vapor emission rates. (3) There is no evidence in the data to discern if the routine tank vapor releases occur over a short time (i.e., a puff) or over an extended time (i.e., continuous releases). Based on this analysis of the tank ventilation studies, it is also noted that (1) the hourly averaged emission peaks from the relatively well-sealed passively-vented tanks (such as U-103) are not a simple function of one meteorological parameter--but the peaks often are the result of the coincidence of temporal maximums in pressure, temperature, and wind influences and (2) a mechanistic combination modeling approach and/or field studies may be necessary to understand the short

  9. Ih tunes theta/gamma oscillations and cross-frequency coupling in an in silico CA3 model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Neymotin

    Full Text Available Ih channels are uniquely positioned to act as neuromodulatory control points for tuning hippocampal theta (4-12 Hz and gamma (25 Hz oscillations, oscillations which are thought to have importance for organization of information flow. contributes to neuronal membrane resonance and resting membrane potential, and is modulated by second messengers. We investigated oscillatory control using a multiscale computer model of hippocampal CA3, where each cell class (pyramidal, basket, and oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells, contained type-appropriate isoforms of . Our model demonstrated that modulation of pyramidal and basket allows tuning theta and gamma oscillation frequency and amplitude. Pyramidal also controlled cross-frequency coupling (CFC and allowed shifting gamma generation towards particular phases of the theta cycle, effected via 's ability to set pyramidal excitability. Our model predicts that in vivo neuromodulatory control of allows flexibly controlling CFC and the timing of gamma discharges at particular theta phases.

  10. Compatibility of amino acids in ice Ih and high-pressure phases: implications for the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, J.; Giovenco, E.; Pedreira-Segade, U.; Montagnac, G.; Daniel, I.

    2017-12-01

    Icy environments may have been common on the early Earth due to the faint young sun. Previous studies have proposed that the formation of large icy bodies in the early ocean could concentrate the building blocks of life in eutectic fluids and therefore facilitate the polymerization of monomers. This hypothesis is based on the untested assumption that organic molecules are virtually incompatible in ice Ih. In this study, we conducted freezing experiments to explore the partitioning behavior of selected amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-proline, and L-phenylalanine) between ice Ih and aqueous solutions analogous to seawater. We let ice crystals grow slowly from a few seeds in equilibrium with the solution and used Raman spectroscopy to analyze in situ the relative concentrations of amino acids in the ice and aqueous solution. During freezing, there was no precipitation of amino acid crystals, indicating that the concentrations in solution never reached their solubility limit, even when the droplet was mostly frozen. Analyses of the Raman spectra of ice and eutectic solution showed that considerable amounts of amino acids existed in the ice phase with partition coefficients ranging between 0.2 and 0.5. This study also explored the partitioning of amino acids between other phases of ice (ice VI and ice VII) and solutions at high pressures and observed similar results. These observations implied little incompatibility of amino acids in ice during the freezing of the solutions, rendering the hypothesis of a cold origin of life unwarranted. However, incorporation into ice could significantly improve the efficiency of extraterrestrial transport of small organics. Therefore, this study supports the hypothesis of extraterrestrial delivery of organic molecules in the icy comets and asteroids to the primitive Earth as suggested by an increasing number of independent observations.

  11. Self-diffusion of polycrystalline ice Ih under confining pressure: Hydrogen isotope analysis using 2-D Raman imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Naoki; Kubo, Tomoaki; Durham, William B.; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ichiko

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a high-resolution technique based on micro Raman spectroscopy to measure hydrogen isotope diffusion profiles in ice Ih. The calibration curve for quantitative analysis of deuterium in ice Ih was constructed using micro Raman spectroscopy. Diffusion experiments using diffusion couples composed of dense polycrystalline H2O and D2O ice were carried out under a gas confining pressure of 100 MPa (to suppress micro-fracturing and pore formation) at temperatures from 235 K to 245 K and diffusion times from 0.2 to 94 hours. Two-dimensional deuterium profiles across the diffusion couples were determined by Raman imaging. The location of small spots of frost from room air could be detected from the shapes of the Raman bands of OH and OD stretching modes, which change because of the effect of the molar ratio of deuterium on the molecular coupling interaction. We emphasize the validity for screening the impurities utilizing the coupling interaction. Some recrystallization and grain boundary migration occurred in recovered diffusion couples, but analysis of two-dimensional diffusion profiles of regions not affected by grain boundary migration allowed us to measure a volume diffusivity for ice at 100 MPa of (2.8 ± 0.4) ×10-3exp[ -57.0 ± 15.4kJ /mol RT ] m2 /s (R is the gas constant, T is temperature). Based on ambient pressure diffusivity measurements by others, this value indicates a high (negative) activation volume for volume diffusivity of -29.5 cm3/mol or more. We can also constrain the value of grain boundary diffusivity in ice at 100 MPa to be volume diffusivity.

  12. 'Triply cursed': racism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma are barriers to regular HIV testing, treatment adherence and disclosure among young Black gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M

    2014-06-01

    In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted upon by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and nine service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and non-disclosure of a positive HIV status to sexual partners. Participants experienced homophobia and HIV-related stigma from churches and families within the Black community and from friends within the Black gay community, which otherwise provide support in the face of racism. Vulnerability to HIV was related to strategies that young Black gay men enacted to avoid being stigmatised or as a way of coping with alienation and rejection.

  13. “Triply cursed”: Racism, homophobia, and HIV-related stigma are barriers to regular HIV testing, treatment adherence, and disclosure among young Black gay men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A.; Rebchook, Gregory M.; Kegeles, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and 9 service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and disclosure of a positive HIV status to sexual partners. Participants experienced homophobia and HIV-related stigma from churches and families within the Black community, and from friends within the Black gay community, that otherwise provide support in the face of racism. Vulnerability to HIV was related to strategies that young Black gay men enacted to avoid being stigmatised or as a way of coping with their alienation and rejection. PMID:24784224

  14. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under...

  15. Internal herniation after laparoscopic antecolic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sara Danshøj; Jess, Per; Floyd, Andrea Karen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is the most common surgical treatment for morbid obesity in Denmark. Internal herniation (IH) or intermittent internal herniation (IIH) is a major late complication after LRYGB due to persistent mesenteric defects. However, the incidence...

  16. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  17. LGB of Color and White Individuals' Perceptions of Heterosexist Stigma, Internalized Homophobia, and Outness: Comparisons of Levels and Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Wiseman, Marcie C.; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Goodman, Melinda B.; Sarkees, Anthony; Brewster, Melanie E.; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual discussions about LGB people of color suggest that, compared with White LGB individuals, LGB people of color may be exposed to greater levels of heterosexist stigma and its deleterious correlates (greater risk) or may be more resilient to such stigma (resilience). This study tested tenets of these two perspectives with a sample of 178…

  18. Compression of the superior mesenteric vein - a sign of acute internal herniation in patients with antecolic laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Jens; Herrasti Gallego, Amaya; Floyd, Andrea K.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether compression of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) on computed tomography (CT) can serve as a valid sign of internal herniation (IH) in patients with antecolic laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). With institutional review board approval, we performed a retrospective analysis of 41 patients with antecolic LRYGBP referred for acute CT of the abdomen with suspicion of IH or another cause of acute abdomen. CT scans were randomly reviewed for signs of IH by two radiologists in a blinded manner, and the findings were correlated with the results of the patients' bariatric workup. Sensitivity, specificity, and inter-observer agreement were calculated for each sign. Five patients were classified as having intermittent IH and were excluded. Eighteen patients were found to have IH at laparoscopy and served as the study group; 18 patients served as the control group. SMV compression had the best sensitivity (67 % for both reviewers) and inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.82) of all investigated signs. The swirl sign showed a lower sensitivity (39 and 50 % respectively) and kappa (0.37). SMV compression is a reliable sign of IH in patients with antecolic LRYGBP. circle CT can help detect internal herniation after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. (orig.)

  19. Compression of the superior mesenteric vein - a sign of acute internal herniation in patients with antecolic laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Jens; Herrasti Gallego, Amaya [Koege Sygehus, Department of Radiology, Koege (Denmark); Floyd, Andrea K. [Holbaek Sygehus, Department of Abdominal Surgery, Holbaek (Denmark)

    2017-04-15

    To investigate whether compression of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) on computed tomography (CT) can serve as a valid sign of internal herniation (IH) in patients with antecolic laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). With institutional review board approval, we performed a retrospective analysis of 41 patients with antecolic LRYGBP referred for acute CT of the abdomen with suspicion of IH or another cause of acute abdomen. CT scans were randomly reviewed for signs of IH by two radiologists in a blinded manner, and the findings were correlated with the results of the patients' bariatric workup. Sensitivity, specificity, and inter-observer agreement were calculated for each sign. Five patients were classified as having intermittent IH and were excluded. Eighteen patients were found to have IH at laparoscopy and served as the study group; 18 patients served as the control group. SMV compression had the best sensitivity (67 % for both reviewers) and inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.82) of all investigated signs. The swirl sign showed a lower sensitivity (39 and 50 % respectively) and kappa (0.37). SMV compression is a reliable sign of IH in patients with antecolic LRYGBP. circle CT can help detect internal herniation after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. (orig.)

  20. Sexual Identity and HIV Status Influence the Relationship Between Internalized Stigma and Psychological Distress in Black Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R.; Cook, Stephanie H.; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men. PMID:27017893

  1. Sexual identity and HIV status influence the relationship between internalized stigma and psychological distress in black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men.

  2. Kvalitet budućih ulja za motore niskih emisija / Future lubricants quality for low emission engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radinko Gligorijević

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available U tekućoj dekadi ovog milenijima proizvođači motora moraju postići dvostruko smanjenje potrošnje goriva, pa time i emisije CO2 i desetostruko smanjenje nivoa emisija, pre svega NOX i čestica. Za dostizanje tog cilja moraju se razviti nove specifikacije ulja, čiji doprinos smanjenju potrošnje goriva i nivou štetnih emisija postaje sve važniji. Trend razvoja ulja kreće se u pravcu nižih viskoznih gradacija sa nižim sadržajem sumpora, fosfora, sulfatnog pepela i nižom isparljivošću, čime se postiže smanjenje emisije, kao i potrošnje goriva. / In the current decade of this millennium automobile manufacturers must achieve an additional twofold increase in fuel efficiency and a tenfold reduction of emission of CO2 and pollutants, especially NOX and particles. To achieve this goal, a new specification of engine lubricants, whose contribution to fuel efficiency and reduction of emissions cannot be neglected, is to be developed. Development trends in lubricants move towards low viscosity, low content of sulfur, phosphorus, sulfate ash and low volatility, resulting in emission reduction and increase of fuel efficiency.

  3. Phase changes induced by guest orientational ordering of filled ice Ih methane hydrate under high pressure and low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, H; Tanaka, T; Yagi, T; Matsuoka, T; Ohishi, Y; Ohtake, M; Yamamoto, Y

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature and high-pressure experiments were performed with filled ice Ih structure of methane hydrate under pressure and temperature conditions of 2.0 to 77.0 GPa and 30 to 300 K, respectively, using diamond anvil cells and a helium-refrigeration cryostat. Distinct changes in the axial ratios of the host framework were revealed by In-situ X-ray diffractometry. Splitting in the CH vibration modes of the guest methane molecules, which was previously explained by the orientational ordering of the guest molecules, was observed by Raman spectroscopy. The pressure and temperature conditions at the split of the vibration modes agreed well with those of the axial ratio changes. The results indicated that orientational ordering of the guest methane molecules from orientational disordered-state occurred at high pressures and low temperatures, and that this guest ordering led to the axial ratio changes in the host framework. Existing regions of the guest disordered-phase and the guest ordered-phase were roughly estimated by the X-ray data. In addition, above the pressure of the guest-ordered phase, another high pressure phase was developed at a low-temperature region. The deuterated-water host samples were also examined and isotopic effects on the guest ordering and phase changes were observed.

  4. Serotonergic transmission at Merkel discs: modulation by exogenously applied chemical messengers and involvement of Ih currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weipang; Kanda, Hirosato; Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Gu, Jianguo G

    2017-05-01

    The Merkel disc is a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent endings that responds to tactile stimulation with slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferent impulses. Our recent study has shown that Merkel discs in whisker hair follicles are serotonergic synapses using endogenous serotonin to transmit tactile signals from Merkel cells to Aβ-afferent endings. In this study, we hypothesize that tactile sensitivity of Merkel discs can be modulated by chemical messengers. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether and how SA1 responses of mouse whisker hair follicles may be affected by exogenously applied chemical messengers. We found that SA1 responses were potentiated by serotonin at low concentration (10 μM) but almost completely occluded by serotonin at high concentration (2 mM). In contrast, SA1 responses were not significantly affected by ATP and its metabolically stable analog α,β-methylene-ATP, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and histamine. SA1 responses were also not affected by antagonists for P2X receptors, ionotropic glutamate receptors, and ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings reconfirm the presence of both ionotropic and metabotropic 5-HT receptors on afferent neurons and their terminals innervating whisker hair follicles. All whisker afferent neurons expressed hyperpolarization-activated inward currents (I h ), which are potentiated by serotonin through the activation of metabotropic 5-HT receptors. Taken together, the findings substantiate the serotonergic mechanism of tactile transmission at Merkel discs and identify the involvement of I h currents in postsynaptic excitatory actions of serotonin. In addition, the findings do not favor any significant involvement of ATP, glutamate, histamine, GABA, or glycine in tactile transmission at the Merkel discs of whisker hair follicles. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Mechanisms of IhERG/IKr Modulation by α1-Adrenoceptors in HEK293 Cells and Cardiac Myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janire Urrutia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr, carried by the hERG protein, is one of the main repolarising currents in the human heart and a reduction of this current increases the risk of ventricular fibrillation. α1-adrenoceptors (α1-AR activation reduces IKr but, despite the clear relationship between an increase in the sympathetic tone and arrhythmias, the mechanisms underlying the α1-AR regulation of the hERG channel are controversial. Thus, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which α1-AR stimulation regulates IKr. Methods: α1-adrenoceptors, hERG channels, auxiliary subunits minK and MIRP1, the non PIP2-interacting mutant D-hERG (with a deletion of the 883-894 amino acids in the C-terminal and the non PKC-phosphorylable mutant N-terminal truncated-hERG (NTK-hERG were transfected in HEK293 cells. Cell membranes were extracted by centrifugation and the different proteins were visualized by Western blot. Potassium currents were recorded by the patch-clamp technique. IKr was recorded in isolated feline cardiac myocytes. Results: Activation of the α1-AR reduces the amplitude of IhERG and IKr through a positive shift in the activation half voltage, which reduces the channel availability at physiological membrane potentials. The intracellular pathway connecting the α1-AR to the hERG channel in HEK293 cells includes activation of the Gαq protein, PLC activation and PIP2 hydrolysis, activation of PKC and direct phosphorylation of the hERG channel N-terminal. The PKC-mediated IKr channel phosphorylation and subsequent IKr reduction after α1-AR stimulation was corroborated in feline cardiac myocytes. Conclusions: These findings clarify the link between sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity and IKr reduction, one of the best characterized causes of torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation.

  6. Preparing LGBTQ-Allies and Combating Homophobia in a U. S. Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caroline T.

    2010-01-01

    Interns in a US teacher education program were surveyed regarding their attitudes towards diversity, particularly issues of sexuality, their feelings of "cultural competence" around diversity, and the repertoires of practices and resources they feel prepared to draw on in their work with middle and high schools students (11-18 year…

  7. State-Sponsored Homophobia and the Denial of the Right of Assembly in Central and Eastern Europe : The "Boomerang" and the "Ricochet" between European Organizations and Civil Society to Uphold Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    State-sponsored homophobia emerged in certain Central and Eastern European states in the past decade, with the denial of the right of assembly for gay pride marches. However, more recently there has been progress in the recognition of the fundamental democratic right of assembly. What accounts for

  8. The Role of Stress-Effected Subgrain Size Distribution in Anelastic Recovery: An Experimental Study on Polycrystalline Ice-Ih

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, T. E.; Goldsby, D. L.; Cooper, R. F.; Prior, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Anelasticity, or time-dependent and recoverable strain, is the source of attenuation at seismic and sub-seismic frequencies, yet the processes governing anelastic recovery are poorly resolved. Numerous experimental studies [e.g., 1-3] have demonstrated that anelasticity occurs via diffusion-effected relaxation along grain boundaries, which leads to a significant grain size sensitivity. Similar studies, however, conducted on deformed single crystals [e.g. 4], coarse-grained metals deforming in dislocation creep [e.g., 5] and polycrystalline ice deforming via a dislocation-accommodated mechanism [6] demonstrate the same frequency dependence, consistent with the grain boundary mechanism, but with no sensitivity to grain size. We postulate that it is the deformation-effected distribution of subgrains, which possesses unique diffusive properties relative to a defect-free lattice, that dominates attenuation in these situations. To test this idea we are conducting creep and stress-drop experiments on polycrystalline ice-Ih with concurrent high-resolution microstructural analysis conducted via Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) [7] to characterize the relationship between subgrain size distribution and diffusion-effected anelasticity. Our experiments establish the subgrain size distribution in steady-state creep of fine-grained ice-1h at compressional stresses between 0.1-4 MPa, which for the grain sizes and temperatures of our experiments places the rheology squarely within the regime of grain boundary sliding that is accommodated by basal dislocation slip [8]. We then explore the dynamics of the established microstructure, which includes subgrain formation [cf. 9], via stress-drop experiments [e.g. 10]. Experiments of this type allow the characterization of microstructural 'hardness,' i.e., the viscosity of the polycrystalline solid as effected by finite strain, from which we can discern the diffusive kinetics of subgrain boundaries [11, 12]. We are currently

  9. Internalised homophobia is differentially associated with sexual risk behaviour by race/ethnicity and HIV serostatus among substance-using men who have sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansergh, Gordon; Spikes, Pilgrim; Flores, Stephen A; Koblin, Beryl A; McKirnan, David; Hudson, Sharon M; Colfax, Grant N

    2015-08-01

    There is a continuing need to identify factors associated with risk for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), including a need for further research in the ongoing scientific debate about the association of internalised homophobia and sexual risk due partly to the lack of specificity in analysis. We assess the association of internalised homophobia by race/ethnicity within HIV serostatus for a large sample of substance-using MSM at high risk of HIV acquisition or transmission. Convenience sample of substance-using (non-injection) MSM reporting unprotected anal sex in the prior 6 months residing in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco. The analytic sample included HIV-negative and HIV-positive black (n=391), Latino (n=220), and white (n=458) MSM. Internalised homophobia was assessed using a published four-item scale focusing on negative self-perceptions and feelings of their own sexual behaviour with men, or for being gay or bisexual. Analyses tested associations of internalised homophobia with recent risk behaviour, stratified by laboratory-confirmed HIV serostatus within race/ethnicity, and controlling for other demographic variables. In multivariate analysis, internalised homophobia was inversely associated (pbehaviour among white and Latino MSM. More research is needed to further identify nuanced differences in subpopulations of MSM, but these results suggest differentially targeted intervention messages for MSM by race/ethnicity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Racial Disparities in Health Behaviors and Conditions Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women: The Role of Internalized Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane

    2013-01-01

    There are documented disparities in physical health behaviors and conditions, such as physical activity and obesity, with regard to both race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. However, physical health disparities for lesbian and bisexual (LB) women who are also racial minorities are relatively unexplored. Minority stressors, such as internalized stigma, may account for disparities in such multiply marginalized populations. We sought to (1) characterize inequalities among non-Hispanic white and African American LB women and (2) examine the roles of internalized sexism and homophobia in disparities. Data on health behaviors (diet, physical activity); physical health (hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity); internalized sexism; and internalized homophobia were collected via a web-based survey. Recruitment ads were sent electronically to over 200 listservs, online groups, and organizations serving the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community in all 50 U.S. states. The analytic sample consisted of 954 white and 75 African American LB women. African American participants were more likely than white participants to report low fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, a higher body mass index, and a history of diabetes and hypertension. There were no racial differences in internalized homophobia, but African American women reported higher levels of internalized sexism. Internalized sexism partially mediated racial disparities in physical activity and diabetes, but not in the other outcomes. Findings suggest that African American LB women may be at greater risk than their white counterparts for poor health and that internalized sexism may be a mediator of racial differences for certain behaviors and conditions. PMID:25364769

  11. Discrimination, Internalized Homonegativity, and Attitudes Toward Children of Same-Sex Parents: Can Secure Attachment Buffer Against Stigma Internalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trub, Leora; Quinlan, Ella; Starks, Tyrel J; Rosenthal, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    With increasing numbers of same-sex couples raising children in the United States, discriminatory attitudes toward children of same-sex parents (ACSSP) are of increasing concern. As with other forms of stigma and discrimination, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are at risk for internalizing these societal attitudes, which can negatively affect parenting-related decisions and behaviors and the mental and physical health of their children. Secure attachment is characterized by positive views of the self as loveable and worthy of care that are understood to develop in early relationships with caregivers. Secure attachment has been associated with positive mental and physical health, including among LGB individuals and couples. This study aimed to test the potential buffering role of secure attachment against stigma internalization by examining associations among secure attachment, discrimination, internalized homonegativity (IH), and ACSSP in an online survey study of 209 U.S. adults in same-sex relationships. Bootstrap analyses supported our hypothesized moderated mediation model, with secure attachment being a buffer. Greater discrimination was indirectly associated with more negative ACSSP through greater IH for individuals with mean or lower levels, but not for individuals with higher than average levels of secure attachment, specifically because among those with higher levels of secure attachment, discrimination was not associated with IH. These findings build on and extend past research, with important implications for future research and clinical work with LGB individuals, same-sex couples, and their families, including potential implementation of interventions targeting attachment security. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  12. A queer day in Canada: examining Canadian high school students' experiences with school-based homophobia in two large-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine how location (nationally, compared to Canadian regions) is related to indicators of a hostile school environment for sexual minority youth, particularly when physical abuse is used as the outcome variable. Data representing 5,766 Canadian students were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Results from the multivariate analyses showed that non-physical abuse was the most significant predictor of homophobically based physical abuse, for both LGBQ and non-LGBQ students. Findings reiterate the importance of considering the progression of harmful events as an escalation of violence as well as the need to view homophobic bullying as having a significant impact on all students. Finally, while the presence of homophobia is prevalent across all Canadian regions, there are, nevertheless, many regional differences, which could be used to inform region-specific action plans.

  13. [Socio-demographic characteristics, subjective well-being, and homophobia experienced by a sample of gay men from three cities in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Ojeda, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of gay men in three cities in Chile, as well as experience with homophobia and subjective well-being. Snowball sampling was used to interview 325 gay men. The main findings included high levels of perceived discrimination and victimization, but interviewees reported higher levels of social well-being compared to studies elsewhere in the country. Age was related to differences in levels of social well-being, but not other variables. Individuals with university education reported higher levels of victimization and greater impact of discrimination on their lives. Gay men in Santiago reported a higher relative impact from incidents of aggression, but better levels of social well-being and happiness compared to those in other regions of Chile.

  14. The Impact of Homophobia and HIV Stigma on HIV Testing Uptake Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men: a Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chongyi; Cheung, Doug H; Yan, Hongjing; Li, Jianjun; Shi, Ling-en; Raymond, Henry F

    2016-01-01

    Gay and HIV-related stigma and discrimination are major barriers to accessing HIV prevention services among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) worldwide. We aimed to identify modifiable factors that mediate the relationships between gay and HIV-related stigma and discrimination and HIV testing uptake among Chinese MSM. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of 523 HIV-uninfected or unknown HIV status MSM in Jiangsu Province, China between November 2013 and January 2014. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine the associations among experienced homophobia, HIV stigma, and recent HIV testing. Causal mediation parametric analyses were conducted to assess whether depression and social norms mediated hypothesized associations. Stronger subjective norms toward testing was associated with higher odds of recent HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 1.21), whereas increasing levels of depression and HIV stigma were both associated with lower odds of recent testing (AOR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.99; and AOR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.84 to 0.99, respectively). There was an indirect relationship (natural indirect effect [NIE]) of experienced homophobia on recent testing (ORNIE: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93 to 0.98) mediated (35.0%) through depression. Furthermore, there was an indirect relationship of HIV stigma on recent testing (ORNIE: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99) mediated (19.2%) through subjective norms. Depression and social norms are important mediators of HIV testing uptake among stigmatized Chinese MSM. Therefore, in addition to advocacy efforts and policies that address social-level stigma and discrimination, HIV prevention programs should also address mental health issues and incorporate community-based approaches to changing social norms toward HIV testing.

  15. Mixed quantum/classical approach to OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectroscopy for ambient and supercooled liquid water and ice Ih

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) has been measured to determine the vibrational density of states (VDOS) in the OH-stretch region for liquid water, supercooled water, and ice Ih, providing complementary information to IR and Raman spectroscopies about hydrogen bonding in these phases. In this work, we extend the combined electronic-structure/molecular-dynamics (ES/MD) method, originally developed by Skinner and co-workers to simulate OH-stretch IR and Raman spectra, to the calculation of IINS spectra with small k values. The agreement between theory and experiment in the limit k → 0 is reasonable, further validating the reliability of the ES/MD method in simulating OH-stretch spectroscopy in condensed phases. The connections and differences between IINS and IR spectra are analyzed to illustrate the advantages of IINS over IR in estimating the OH-stretch VDOS.

  16. Mixed quantum/classical approach to OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectroscopy for ambient and supercooled liquid water and ice Ih

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, L.; Skinner, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) has been measured to determine the vibrational density of states (VDOS) in the OH-stretch region for liquid water, supercooled water, and ice Ih, providing complementary information to IR and Raman spectroscopies about hydrogen bonding in these phases. In this work, we extend the combined electronic-structure/molecular-dynamics (ES/MD) method, originally developed by Skinner and co-workers to simulate OH-stretch IR and Raman spectra, to the calculation of IINS spectra with small k values. The agreement between theory and experiment in the limit k → 0 is reasonable, further validating the reliability of the ES/MD method in simulating OH-stretch spectroscopy in condensed phases. The connections and differences between IINS and IR spectra are analyzed to illustrate the advantages of IINS over IR in estimating the OH-stretch VDOS

  17. Measurements of Neuronal Soma Size and Estimated Peptide Concentrations in Addition to Cell Abundance Offer a Higher Resolution of Seasonal and Reproductive Influences of GnRH-I and GnIH in European Starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorin, Nelson; Calisi, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in vertebrate reproduction, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-I) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), can vary in the abundance of immunoreactive cells as a function of the reproductive status and nest box occupation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). While using the abundance of cells as an indicator of the activity of neurohormones is informative, incorporating information on cell size (readily observed using immunohistochemistry) can offer a more detailed understanding of environmentally-mediated changes in hormonal dynamics. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the size of cells' somas and the estimated concentration of peptides in cells immunoreactive (ir) for GnRH-I and GnIH would vary throughout the breeding season and as a function of nest-box status (resident or not). In the absence of a direct assay of protein, we estimated an index of the concentration of hypothalamic peptides via the relative optical density (i.e., the difference between the mean optical density and the optical density of background staining). In support of our hypothesis, we found that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration changed both in males and females throughout the breeding season. Somas were largest and estimated peptide concentration was highest mid-season when compared with earlier in the season or to the non-breeding period. For nest-box residents, GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration were higher during the middle of the breeding season than earlier in the breeding season, although residence in the nest box was not related to GnRH-I-ir variables. Our results confirm that previously reported changes in cell abundance mimic changes we see in GnRH-I and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration. However, investigating changes in the soma of GnRH-I-ir cells revealed a peak in size during the middle of the breeding season, a change not evident when solely examining data on the

  18. "Homosexuality/Homophobia Is Un-African"?: Un-Mapping Transnational Discourses in the Context of Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill/Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Amar

    2016-01-01

    This article un-maps the recent impasse between pro- and antigay mobilization around Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Act (AHA, 2009-2014). Drawing on scholarly and social media sources, it summarizes the increasing influence of (U.S.) transnational evangelism that has precipitated a state-religious complex of "anticipatory political homophobia" in Uganda. If transnational evangelism against same-sex sexuality in Uganda has generated a strong reaction from global LGBT human-rights advocates, this article critiques this Western homotransnationalist response by analyzing its limited terms of operation, focusing on the ways in which Uganda is hailed into the biopolitical project of a Western queer modernity. The author focuses on the copresence between homotransnationalist mobilization and "homophobic anticipatory countermobilization" as (re)organizing/suturing a global ordering project that is deeply invested in biopolitics and necropolitics. This suggests that the global flashpointing of Uganda in the context of the AHA incites further questions concerning the transnationality of "gay human rights" discourse under neoliberalism.

  19. Exploring risk behaviors and vulnerability for HIV among men who have sex with men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: poor knowledge, homophobia and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence.

  20. Exploring Risk Behaviors and Vulnerability for HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire: Poor Knowledge, Homophobia and Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G.; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011–2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  1. Sex, violence and HIV on the inside: cultures of violence, denial, gender inequality and homophobia negatively influence the health outcomes of those in closed settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kawage, Thomas; Vallely, Andrew; Mek, Agnes; Mathers, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    To map the context of HIV in closed settings in Papua New Guinea (PNG), semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 56 prisoners and detainees and 60 key stakeholders. The nature of HIV-related risk differs for detained women and men, and reflects important gender-based issues present in PNG society more broadly. Women in detention are vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation and at greatest risk of HIV while detained in police holding cells, where they are typically supervised by male officers, in contrast to prisons, where they have little contact with male staff. HIV risk for men in prison is associated with consensual and non-consensual sex; this risk is perpetuated by a pervasive culture of denial and institutionalised homophobia. The illegal nature of sodomy and male-to-male sex provides Correctional Services the legal grounds by which to refuse access to condoms for prisoners. Addressing HIV risk among detained men and women in PNG requires the reform of legislation, police and prison practices and an understanding of broader structural problems of gender-based violence and stigma and discrimination.

  2. Gender Identities in Class: the use of movies on combat against homophobia in schools of Brasília – Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlene Oliveira Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the cinema is a broadcasting place of negative images of homosexuality, as it reinforces stereotypes and prejudices about sexual and gender identities non-heteronormative. Yet, for its global reach, the movies can be used as a privileged way in the confrontation of homophobia and in debates about homosexuality at school. This paper analyses a pedagogical intervention in a public elementary school of Federal District of Brazil from the exhibition of the short-film “I don’t want to go back alone”, directed by Daniel Ribeiro (2010. In this work, our goal is understand in three stages the imaginary and social practices that instruct the student’s social representation of gender relations and homosexuality: the first is a chat session with the students, than a collective reading of texts about sexuality and gender relations, and then the use of the chosen movie. During this investigation, it was possible to identify proper teaching knowledge to the treatment of this subject under the suggested activities with the usage of the film and the gender and homosexuality conception, sometimes conservative, sometimes transgressive, branding the students discourses.

  3. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium-Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes-Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the Ti(IV) /Ti(III) Redox Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B; Samoylova, Nataliya A; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L; Popov, Alexey A

    2016-09-05

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc-Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4 C2 @C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3 C2 @C80 , isomers of Sc2 C2 @C82 , and the family Sc2 C2 n (2 n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3 CH@C80 . The Sc-Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2 TiC@C2 n (2 n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2 TiC2 @C2 n (2 n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 , and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 , were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2 TiC- and Sc2 TiC2 -containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster-cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Upregulation of Ih expressed in IB4-negative Aδ nociceptive DRG neurons contributes to mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-Lu; Lu, Na; Han, Wen-Juan; Chen, Rong-Gui; Cong, Rui; Xie, Rou-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Kong, Wei-Wei; Hu, San-Jue; Luo, Ceng

    2015-01-01

    Cervical radiculopathy represents aberrant mechanical hypersensitivity. Primary sensory neuron’s ability to sense mechanical force forms mechanotransduction. However, whether this property undergoes activity-dependent plastic changes and underlies mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain (CRP) is not clear. Here we show a new CRP model producing stable mechanical compression of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which induces dramatic behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity. Amongst nociceptive DRG neurons, a mechanically sensitive neuron, isolectin B4 negative Aδ-type (IB4− Aδ) DRG neuron displays spontaneous activity with hyperexcitability after chronic compression of cervical DRGs. Focal mechanical stimulation on somata of IB4- Aδ neuron induces abnormal hypersensitivity. Upregulated HCN1 and HCN3 channels and increased Ih current on this subset of primary nociceptors underlies the spontaneous activity together with neuronal mechanical hypersensitivity, which further contributes to the behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity associated with CRP. This study sheds new light on the functional plasticity of a specific subset of nociceptive DRG neurons to mechanical stimulation and reveals a novel mechanism that could underlie the mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathy. PMID:26577374

  5. "God Made Me Gay for a Reason": Young Men Who Have Sex with Men's Resiliency in Resolving Internalized Homophobia from Religious Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the role of religion in the lives of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is limited. Given the unique developmental stage of emerging adults and the fact that most religions have restrictions on homosexual behavior, it is important to understand how YMSM integrate their sexual and religious/spiritual identities. Drawing…

  6. It Was Too Rare To Be Normal : The Impact of Off-Stage Characters, Homosexuality and Homophobia in A Streetcar Named Desire and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Hege Linnerud

    2012-01-01

    Tennessee Williams’ on-stage characters have been given much attention by the critics, yet the off-stage characters that exist only as a memory are sometimes forgotten. The theme homosexuality is shown through Williams’ off-stage characters, as well as the homophobia we encounter, which is triggered by the deaths of these two. My main objective is to look at Allan Grey in A Streetcar Named Desire and Skipper in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and their function in the two plays. It is remarkable how Wi...

  7. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, Sonja; Martin, Susan; Pearson, Ann; Bagchi, Debasis; Earl, Judith; Gothard, Lone; Hall, Emma; Porter, Lucy; Yarnold, John

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tissue hardness (induration), pain and tenderness are common late adverse effects of curative radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with tissue induration after high-dose radiotherapy for early breast cancer in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Patients and methods: Sixty-six eligible research volunteers with moderate or marked breast induration at a mean 10.8 years since radiotherapy for early breast cancer were randomised to active drug (n=44) or placebo (n=22). All patients were given grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) 100 mg three times a day orally, or corresponding placebo capsules, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was percentage change in surface area (cm 2 ) of palpable breast induration measured at the skin surface 12 months after randomisation. Secondary endpoints included change in photographic breast appearance and patient self-assessment of breast hardness, pain and tenderness. Results: At 12 months post-randomisation, ≥50% reduction in surface area (cm 2 ) of breast induration was recorded in13/44 (29.5%) GSPE and 6/22 (27%) placebo group patients (NS). At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of external assessments of tissue hardness, breast appearance or patient self-assessments of breast hardness, pain or tenderness. Conclusions: The study failed to show efficacy of orally-adminstered GSPE in patients with breast induration following radiotherapy for breast cancer

  8. Internal hernia in late pregnancy after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruetter, Florian; Kraljević, Marko; Nebiker, Christian A; Delko, Tarik

    2014-12-23

    A 27-year-old patient in late pregnancy presented to the department of obstetrics with crampy abdominal pain located in the right flank, 3 years after a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Clinical investigation showed tenderness on palpation in the upper abdomen without signs of peritonitis. The cardiotocogram and blood tests were normal. The ultrasound showed a hydronephrosis on the right side, and a pigtail catheter was inserted. The abdominal symptoms did not abate and the abdominal surgeon was consulted 36 hours after admission. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed promptly because of high suspicion of internal hernia (IH). Laparoscopy showed IH at the mesojejunal intermesenteric defect with a herniated common channel and volvulus of the anastomosis. Conversion to open reduction and complete closure with non-absorbable interrupted sutures was performed. Small bowel resection was avoided. The patient was discharged 10 days after the operation and a healthy boy was born 4 weeks later. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Homophobia and hate speech in Serbian public discourse : how nationalist myths and stereotypes influence prejudices against the LGBT minority

    OpenAIRE

    Stakic, Isidora

    2011-01-01

    Human rights abuses targeted towards LGBT persons constitute a global pattern of serious concern. Despite the fact that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity is prohibited by various international, regional and national legal provisions, prejudices and stereotypes related to LGBT people significantly impede the implementation of non-discrimination laws. This study focuses on contemporary Serbia, and attempts to understand the role of public discourse in incitin...

  10. Effect of abutment screw length and cyclic loading on removal torque in external and internal hex implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hnd Hadi; Lee, Jin-Han; Bae, Ji-Myung; Cho, Hye-Won

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of abutment screw length and cyclic loading on the removal torque (RTV) in external hex (EH) and internal hex (IH) implants. Forty screw-retained single crowns were connected to external and internal hex implants. The prepared titanium abutment screws were classified into 8 groups based on the number of threads (n = 5 per group): EH 12.5, 6.5, 3.5, 2.5 and IH 6.5, 5, 3.5, 2.5 threads. The abutment screws were tightened with 20 Ncm torque twice with 10-minute intervals. After 5 minutes, the initial RTVs of the abutment screws were measured with a digital torque gauge (MGT12). A customized jig was constructed to apply a load along the implant long axis at the central fossa of the maxillary first molar. The post-loading RTVs were measured after 16,000 cycles of mechanical loading with 50 N at a 1-Hz frequency. Statistical analysis included one-way analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The post-loading RTVs were significantly lower than the initial RTVs in the EH 2.5 thread and IH 2.5 thread groups (P<.05). The initial RTVs exhibited no significant differences among the 8 groups, whereas the post-loading RTVs of the EH 6.5 and EH 3.5 thread groups were higher than those of the IH 3.5 thread group (P<.05). Within the limitations of this study, the external hex implants with short screw lengths were more advantageous than internal hex implants with short screw lengths in torque maintenance after cyclic loading.

  11. Homophobia in physical education and sport: the role of physical/sporting identity and attributes, authoritarian aggression, and social dominance orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Shovelton, Heather; Latner, Janet D

    2013-01-01

    We examined levels of, and reasons for, anti-gay and anti-lesbian prejudice (homophobia) in pre-service physical education (PE) and non-physical education (non-PE) university students. Participants (N = 409; 66% female; N = 199 pre-service physical educators) completed questionnaires assessing anti-gay and lesbian prejudice, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation (SDO), physical/athletic identity and self-concept, and physical attributes. ANCOVAs revealed that PE students had higher levels of anti-gay (p = .004) and lesbian prejudice than non-PE students (p = .008), respectively. Males reported greater anti-gay prejudice (p anti-lesbian prejudice, than females. Authoritarian aggression was positively associated with greater anti-gay (β = .49) and lesbian prejudice (β = .37) among male participants. Among females, higher authoritarian aggression and SDO was associated with greater anti-gay (β = .34 and β = .25, respectively) and lesbian (β = .26 and β = .16, respectively) prejudice. The physical identity-related constructs of athletic self-concept (β = .-15) and perceived upper body strength (β = .39) were associated with anti-gay attitudes among male participants. Physical attractiveness (β = -.29) and upper body strength (β = .29) were also associated with male participants' anti-lesbian prejudice. Regression analyses showed that the differences between PE and non-PE students in anti-gay and lesbian prejudice were largely mediated by authoritarianism and SDO. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between investment in physical/sporting identity and attributes and anti-gay and lesbian prejudice in PE/sport participants. In the present sample, anti-gay and lesbian prejudice was greater in pre-service PE students than non-PE students, but these differences appear to be explained by differences in conservative ideological traits. Additionally, physical identity and

  12. Challenging homophobia in schools: policies and programs for safe school climates Desafiando a homofobia nas escolas: políticas e programas para climas escolares seguros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the United States there has been growing public and scientific attention to homophobia in schools. A well-established body of research documents persistent and pervasive bullying, harassment and lack of safety at schools towards lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT students. This work makes clear that contemporary school and youth cultures are characterized by rigid gender and sexuality norms (including homophobia and expectations regarding masculinity, femininity, and heterosexuality; the well-being of students who do not conform to or who challenge these norms is often undermined. In recent years there has been a shift from consideration of the plight of individual students to the acknowledgement that the school context or climate must be better understood in order to prevent bias-motivated bullying and promote school safety and student well-being. During the last decade a number of studies have identified specific education policies, programs, and practices that promote safe school climates. In this article I review what is known about policies and programs that promote safety for LGBT as well as heterosexual students in schools. A growing body of work indicates that the following strategies are associated with safer school climates for LGBT students: enumerated school nondiscrimination and anti-bullying policies; teacher intervention when harassment takes place; availability of information and support about LGBT concerns for students; the presence of school-based support groups or clubs (often called "gay-straight alliances"; and curricular inclusion of LGBT people and issues. In the context of this research, I discuss several key issues for consideration by educators, policy-makers, and scholars.A homofobia nas escolas tem sido foco crescente de atenção científica e do público nos Estados Unidos da América. Um corpo bem estabelecido de pesquisa documenta o bullying, assédio e falta de segurança na escola para estudantes l

  13. Homofobia e educação: quando a omissão também é signo de violência Homophobia and education: when omission is also a sign of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Fernandes Dinis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Provocado pelo conceito de "amolador de facas", criado pelo psicólogo Luis Antonio Baptista, este artigo busca discutir alguns aspectos da violência contra estudantes LGBTT e a omissão do tema da diversidade sexual e de gênero no currículo escolar como forma oculta de homofobia e da cumplicidade de educadores e educadoras com essa violência.Being motivated by the concept of "knife sharpener" created by the psychologist Luis Antonio Baptista, this article aims to discuss some aspects of the violence against LGBTT students and the omission of the topic of gender and sexual diversity in schools curriculum as a hidden way of homophobia and as a sign of educators' complicity in this violence.

  14. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  15. Essentialist beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Ross, Michael W; Costa, Daniel S J; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and their implications for sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in a sample of gay men. A combination of targeted sampling and snowball strategies were used to recruit 639 gay identifying men for a cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sexual orientation beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and psychological wellbeing outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether essentialist beliefs were associated with psychological wellbeing indirectly via their effect on sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity. A unique pattern of direct and indirect effects was observed in which facets of essentialism predicted sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing. Of note, viewing sexual orientation as immutable/biologically based and as existing in discrete categories, were associated with less sexual identity uncertainty. On the other hand, these beliefs had divergent relationships with internalized homonegativity, with immutability/biological beliefs associated with lower, and discreteness beliefs associated with greater internalized homonegativity. Of interest, although sexual identity uncertainty was associated with poorer psychological wellbeing via its contribution to internalized homophobia, there was no direct relationship between identity uncertainty and psychological wellbeing. Findings indicate that essentializing sexual orientation has mixed implications for sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity and wellbeing in gay men. Those undertaking educational and clinical interventions with gay men should be aware of the benefits and of caveats of essentialist theories of homosexuality for this population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Homossexualidade, homofobia e a agressividade do palavrão: seu uso na educação sexual escolar Homosexuality, homophobia and the aggressiveness of curse words: its use in the school sexual education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadeu Roselli-Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso do palavrão pode gerar violência e até crime de morte na escola. Muitos professores e famílias relatam a dificuldade em lidar com ele. 90% da agressividade do palavrão se referem à sexualidade do ofendido e/ou de sua família, em especial à mãe, e à homossexualidade. Muitos dos livros de educação sexual sequer fazem referência à homossexualidade e, em nenhum deles encontramos conteúdos sobre o palavrão. O discurso religioso mais contribui para aumentar as possibilidades de punição do que à compreensão e aceitação do sujeito com esses comportamentos. Nossa pesquisa estudou jovens do sexo masculino entre 9 e 14 anos de escola pública de periferia, com o objetivo de verificar o uso do palavrão, a ofensa e a conotação expressa e entendida, mais especificamente referente a mecanismos de homofobia entre adolescentes na escola. A despreocupação para com o palavrão contribui para a homofobia e agressividade dentro da escola.The use of swear words may generate violence and even murder at school. Many teachers and families report having difficulty in dealing with it. 90% of the swear word aggressiveness refers to the offended person's and/or to hers or his family's sexuality, especially to the mother, and to homosexuality. Many of the sex education books do not even refer to homosexuality and, in none of them were found contents related to swear words. The religious discourse contributes to increase the possibilities of punishment rather than to understand and accept the individual who is the offended one. Our research has studied young state school boys in the outskirts between the age of 9 and 14, aiming to check the usage of swear words, the offense itself, the expressed and understood connotation, more specifically relative to homophobia mechanisms among teenagers at school. The unconcern in relation to the use of swear words contributes to homophobia and aggressiveness at school.

  17. Salud internacional: el nuevo desafío para la educación de enfermería International health: a new challenge to nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Gloria Miotto Wright

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Para identificar las actividades de salud internacional (SI en escuelas de enfermería y analizarlas en forma preliminar, se utilizó una muestra de 110 escuelas norteamericanas y, paralelamente, se enviaron cuestionarios a 4 escuelas latinoamericanas y a una del Caribe (ALC. Parte significativa de las escuelas norteamericanas y todas las 5 escuelas de ALC tienen actividades de salud internacional. Dicho interés es básicamente un fenómeno de los últimos cinco a dez años. Hubo diferencias en la estructura de las actividades de SI entre las escuelas, pero el tipo de apoyo ofrecido para actividades internacionales era similar, tanto en los EEUU como en ALC. El componente de SI en el currículo de las escuelas norteamericanas estaba dentro de cursos sobre cultura, sistemas de salud y salud de la comunidad, en cuanto en las escuelas de ALC dicho componente estaba en cursos relacionados con promoción de la salud, políticas y estrategias de salud y perspectivas de enfermería. Esas escuelas tienen sólamente 10% de sus profesores y estudiantes involucrados en actividades de salud internacional. Se verificó que las escuelas de enfermería todavía no hacen parte de los cursos y actividades que las Escuelas de Salud Pública han implementado en ese campo y se observan áreas que deben ser fortalecidas para que la enfermería ocupe una posición de liderazgo en la práctica y la investigación en salud internacional.A survey was conducted among 110 Schools of Nursing in USA and 5 Schools in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC to identify the international health (IH component in nursing education, practice and research. A significant part of U.S. schools and all 5 LAC schools have international activities, and this interest has started basically in the last 5 to 10 years. There was difference in the structure of IH activities among U.S. and LAC nursing schools, but they were similar in the type of support offered to IH initiatives. IH content in

  18. [Changes introduced into the recent International Classification of Headache Disorders: ICHD-III beta classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvis, Robert; Mas, Natàlia; Roig, Carles

    2015-01-16

    The International Headache Society (IHS) has published the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta), the most commonly used guide to diagnosing headaches in the world. To review the recent additions to the guide, to explain the new entities that appear in it and to compare the conditions that have had their criteria further clarified against the criteria in the previous edition. We have recorded a large number of clarifications in the criteria in practically all the headaches and neuralgias in the classification, but the conditions that have undergone the most significant clarifications are chronic migraine, primary headache associated with sexual activity, short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks, new daily persistent headache, medication-overuse headache, syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. The most notable new entities that have been incorporated are external-compression headache, cold-stimulus headache, nummular headache, headache attributed to aeroplane travel and headache attributed to autonomic dysreflexia. Another point to be highlighted is the case of the new headaches (still not considered entities in their own right) included in the appendix, some of the most noteworthy being epicrania fugax, vestibular migraine and infantile colic. The IHS recommends no longer using the previous classification and changing over to the new classification (ICHD-III beta) in healthcare, teaching and research, in addition to making this new guide as widely known as possible.

  19. Reflexões sobre homofobia e educação em escolas do interior paulista Reflections on homophobia and education in schools in the interior of Sao Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Silva Teixeira-Filho

    2011-12-01

    reinforce the hegemonic discourses of control of sexualities guided by the attempt to promote heterosexuality as the only form of sexual intelligibility, to the detriment of other forms of expression of sexuality. We discuss how homophobia and the devices of social control of sexuality (re produce prejudices and stereotypies, resulting in vulnerabilities that non-heterosexual teenagers have, such as homophobic victimization, social and affective isolation, ideations and suicide attempts. The study shows that the invariant were discrimination, homophobic violence and the insults that are perpetrated in the values and discourses of adolescents at school and in their family, demonstrating the institutionalization of homophobia as a regulatory practice of the psychological and social construction of gender and sexual identities. We highlight how important it is for the school to appropriate the means of deconstruction of heterocentric normativity to preserve the rights and citizenship of the people who do not identify with the prevailing models of heterosexuality.

  20. Percepção de professoras de ensino médio e fundamental sobre a homofobia na escola em Santa Maria (Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil Elementary and High School teachers'perception on homophobia at school in Santa Maria (Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulmira Newlands Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Em pesquisa com escolas estaduais na cidade de Santa Maria (RS, em que entrevistamos 20 professoras, observou-se que não existe a preocupação formal com questões de sexualidade na escola. Discriminações e brincadeiras em torno dos que são ou parecem ser homossexuais são geralmente ignoradas. Professoras entrevistadas relatam grandes dificuldades em tratar o tema homofobia em sala de aula. Os dados indicam que é necessário um trabalho educativo com diretoras de escolas e com orientadoras pedagógicas para que estas sejam sensibilizadas para a questão e possam dar suporte para as professoras que tomam para si a tarefa de abordar temas como a homofobia.In research on state schools in the city of Santa Maria (RS, in which 20 teachers were interviewed, it was observed that there is no formal concern with sexuality issues at school. Discrimination and jokes around those who are or appear to be homosexuals are generally ignored. Teachers interviewed reported great difficulty in dealing with the issue homophobia in the classroom. The data indicated that educational work with school principals and mentors is necessary so that they can be sensitized to the issue and can provide support for teachers who take upon themselves the task of addressing issues such as homophobia.

  1. Ih ljubit Fashion TV / Alina Zelimhanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zelimhanova, Alina

    2002-01-01

    Tutvustatakse uue põlvkonna supermodelle: Anouck Lepere (belgia), Caroline Ribeiro (brasiilia), Maria Carla Boscono (itaalia), Liya Kebede (etioopia), Jacquetta Wheeler (inglise), Karolina Kurkova (tšehhi), Natalja Vodjanova (vene), Alek Wek (sudaani), Hannelore Knuts (belgia). Lisatud fotod

  2. Ih, hvor jeg dog savner dig...!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen debatterer forholdet mellem børns behov for kontakt med forældre og forældres behov for bekræftelse af ders identitet som forældre og kontrol med deres børn, når de ikke er hjemme men fx på koloni eller hos 'den anden' forælder, når disse er skilt....

  3. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fractures (Part II) Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Severed or Constricted Limbs or Digits Soft-Tissue ...

  4. International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McGlinchey, S.

    2017-01-01

    A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...

  5. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  6. Homofobia y/o ser enfermero. Primer evento científico de violencia. Segundo trimestre del año 2009. Pinar del Río Homophobia and/or to be a male nurse. 1st Scientific Event of Violence on the second quarter of 2009. Pinar del Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Rodríguez Lazo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La homofobia significa un terror irracional e injustificado hacia a los homosexuales y la homosexualidad. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, a un grupo determinado de hombres del municipio de Pinar del Río con el objetivo de reflexionar sobre la homofobia en cuanto a los enfermeros homosexuales, durante el segundo trimestre del año 2009. El universo estuvo constituido por 147 hombres del municipio de Pinar del Río, a los cuales se le aplicó una encuesta, la muestra fue de 100 hombres seleccionados por el método estadístico al azar simple, lo que indica que se encuesto el 68,02%, obteniéndose los siguientes resultados, el 100% de los encuestados si conocen que es la homofobia, el 77% de los encuestados si sienten rechazo por los homosexuales, la totalidad de los encuestados no consideran que todos los enfermeros sean homosexuales, un 29% consideran que el trabajo de los enfermeros homosexuales es mejor, y el 70% de los encuestados opinan que la mayoría de los enfermeros que optan por su profesión tienen orientación por personas de su mismo sexo.Homophobia means an irrational and unjustified fear to homosexuals and homosexuality. A descriptive study was conducted to a determined group of men in Pinar del Rio municipality. This research was aimed at reflecting on homophobia regarding male homosexual nurses during the second quarter of 2009. The target group included 147 men in Pinar del Rio municipality, this group was polled. The sample was comprised of 100 men chosen at a simple random, which indicated that 68, 02% were surveyed, results showed that: 100% knew what homophobia was, 77% felt aversion to homosexuals, the totality of those polled did not consider all male nurses were homosexuals, 29% considered male homosexual nurses performed their job better, and 70% expressed the opinion that the majority of the male choosing nursing profession experience same-sex attraction.

  7. internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Anu; Omanga, Josphat

    2014-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  8. Internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Ramesh; Dhakal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  9. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  10. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  11. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  12. International Illiquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkhozov, Aytek; Mueller, Philippe; Vedolin, Andrea

    -predicted effect of funding conditions on asset prices internationally. Global illiquidity lowers the slope and increases the intercept of the international security market line. Local illiquidity helps explain the variation in alphas, Sharpe ratios, and the performance of betting-against-beta (BAB) strategies...

  13. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  14. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  15. Effect of closure of the mesenteric defect during laparoscopic gastric bypass and prevention of internal hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sara Danshøj; Naver, Lars; Jess, Per

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of closing the mesenteric defects during gastric bypass to avoid internal herniation (IH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is performed as a single-centre, randomised, controlled, blinded trial. Patients are randomly...... assigned to either conventional laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) without closing the mesenteric defects (n = 250) or RYGB with closing of the defects with hernia clips (n = 250). Follow-up is conducted at six months, one year, two years and five years after RYGB. The primary endpoint......: The study was registered with the Danish Data Protection Agency (SN-10-2012) and The Central Denmark Regional Committees on Biomedical Research Ethics (1-01-83-0209-12, SJ-284). The study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01595230....

  16. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  17. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  18. Regulating Internalities

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Allcott, Hunt

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for regulating internalities. Using a simple economic model, we provide four principles for designing and evaluating behaviorally-motivated policy. We then outline rules for determining which contexts reliably reflect true preferences and discuss empirical strategies for measuring internalities. As a case study, we focus on energy efficiency policy, including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and appliance and lighting energy efficiency standards.

  19. First-Year Principal Encounters Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retelle, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    A 1st-year principal encounters homonegativity and an ethical dilemma when she attempts to terminate a teacher because of the teacher's inadequate and ineffective teaching. The teacher responds by threatening to "out" Ms. L. to the parents.

  20. Jamaica: report documents homophobia and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Rebecca

    2005-04-01

    In November 2004, Human Rights Watch (HRW) released a report documenting widespread violence and discrimination against people living with, and at high risk of, HIV/AIDS in Jamaica. The report alleges police use Jamaica's Victorian-era sodomy laws, which criminalize consensual sex between adult men, as a basis to harass and persecute people suspected of homosexual conduct and peer educators who provide HIV/AIDS information and condoms to them.

  1. LGBT Rights Activism and Homophobia in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantueva, Radzhana

    2018-01-01

    This article explores how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual (LGBT) people's perception of increasing conservative trends and negative public attitudes affected the development of LGBT rights activism in Russia. It includes following sections: (1) the analysis of the development of LGBT community and activism in Russia; (2) the investigation of public perception of same-sex relations and how LGBT people's views of it affected their readiness to join activism; and (3) the examination of the state's policy toward LGBT people in a wake of conservative discourse and its impact on LGBT activism and LGBT people's willingness to get involved in it. The article concludes by considering implications that LGBT rights activism face nowadays in order to survive and continue its existence.

  2. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  3. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity......., or dimension of variation. The dilemmas in question were chosen for the way they capture key themes in the field of International Studies (IR) as well as central aspects of the ‘international’ itself (ir). The six Blocks are: • Block 1: Co-operation or conflict? Introducing international relations • Block 2...

  4. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  5. International collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the wake of the demise of the US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) project last year which empoverished both US and world science, some rapid scene shifting is going on. The SSC may be dead, but the underlying physics quest lives on. In the US, the 'future vision' subpanel of the High Energy Physics Advisory Board (HEPAP) is at work formulating its recommendations. On the international front, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) at a special meeting in Vancouver in January drafted a statement

  6. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  7. International Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  8. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.; Ha Vinh Phuong

    1976-01-01

    Since the start of the post-war era, international safeguards were considered essential to ensure that nuclear materials should not be diverted to unauthorised uses. In parallel, it was proposed to set up an international atomic energy agency within the United Nations through which international cooperation in nuclear matters would be channelled and controlled. Created in 1957, the IAEA was authorized to administer safeguards in connection with any assistance it provided as well as at the request of Member State and of any party to bilateral or multilateral arrangements in its ambit. Today, there are two international treaties requiring that its parties should accept Agency safeguards unilaterally, the Latin America Tlatelolco Treaty of 1967, and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), operative since 1970, which requires in particular that non-nuclear weapon states should accept Agency safeguards on its peaceful nuclear activities. Thus while NPT covers peaceful nuclear activities indiscriminately in a country, the Agency's original safeguards system is applied according to specific agreements and to given facilities. A basic conflict has now emerged between commercial interests and the increasing wish that transfer of nuclear equipment and know-how should not result in proliferation of military nuclear capacity; however, serious efforts are currently in progress to ensure universal application of IAEA safeguards and to develop them in step with the uses of nuclear energy. (N.E.A.) [fr

  9. Internal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Jun; Hayashi, Youjiro; Ueda, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an internal pump. A water hole allowing communication between internal and external circumferences of a stretch tube is provided at the portion of the stretch tube corresponding to a position where an end face of a nozzle portion of a motor case and an end face of a diffuser are joined with each other so that hot filtered water inside a pressure container which has entered from where the end face of the nozzle portion of the motor case and the end face of the diffuser are joined with each other is combined with the purged water so that it can be sent back to the pressure container again. (author) figs

  10. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The system of international safeguards carried out by the IAEA is designed to verify that governments are living up to pledges to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes under the NPT (Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons) and similar agreements. The film illustrates the range of field inspections and analytical work involved. It also shows how new approaches are helping to strengthen the system

  11. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  12. Internal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organization. Method: How to achieve the purpose of research, used methods and theoretical approach. Results: Specific examples and opinions of employees. Results show the importance of trainings for an organization. We can see that all employees are fairly motivated and ready to participate in trainings and can adapt to changing business environment very well. The results demonstrate that all trainings in the organization are very important and welcome. Only with continuous learning, the organization can be successful and survive in the market despite strong competition. Organization: Trainings are designed for all employees inside an organization. Different employees participate in trainings in a different way as all trainings are divided into certain work and fields that are important for each individual or department in an organization. Society: Trainings have an impact on the whole organization by contributing to its development. Originality: The originality of study is what was new in the research, what is the value and originality of research. Limitations/Future Research: Research was limited to a small number of sources.

  13. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA has now 200 Inspectors or so, and Euratom a similar number. People in Vienna are talking about increases of this staff, in the range of a possible doubling in the five years to come, although even an immediate restart of the expansion of nuclear industry, would not materialize significantly within this period. This means that keeping the same safeguarding approach would probably lead to another doubling of such staff in the ten following years, which is completely unrealistic. Such a staff is our of proportion with those of national inspectorates in other fields. The paper analyzes the basic irrealistic dogma which have hindered the progress of international safeguards, and recall the suggestions made since ten years to improve them

  14. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  15. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  16. International perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The workshop dealt with two distinct cases: - In Port Hope - an existing situation impacting a set of communities affected by the nuclear fuel industry since the 1930's. This situation concerns the remediation of soil 'tainted' by a low level of radioactivity resulting from the processing of uranium. The facility that produced those wastes is still in town but it has changed ownership and it no longer stores or disposes of the waste in the area. - The issuance and upcoming implementation of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NWF Act) charting a path towards the identification of a national, long-term management solution for nuclear fuel (high level) waste in Canada. The NWF Act restarts a process that was interrupted a few years ago, after the Seaborn Environmental Assessment Panel concluded that the solution proposed by proponent Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. had not been demonstrated to have broad public support. From an international perspective, numerous observations can be made and lessons can be drawn both from the individual and the combined cases. Some of the most prominent observations, in the view of the NEA Secretariat, are presented hereafter. (author)

  17. Internal Audit Service | Internal Audit Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    their internal auditing function in the areas of professional excellence, quality of service and Students and teachers Media Internal Audit Service Navbar Toggle Home About the Staff Risk Assessment and Planning Internal Audit Process Search for Search Home The mission of the Fermilab Internal Audit Service

  18. Stability of Microturbulent Drift Modes during Internal Transport Barrier Formation in the Alcator C-Mod Radio Frequency Heated H-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Fiore, C.L.; Dorland, W.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Rewoldt, G.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ernst, D.R.; Rice, J.E.; Wukitch, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent H-mode experiments on Alcator C-Mod [I.H. Hutchinson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 1 (1994) 1511] which exhibit an internal transport barrier (ITB), have been examined with flux tube geometry gyrokinetic simulations, using the massively parallel code GS2 [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88 (1995) 128]. The simulations support the picture of ion/electron temperature gradient (ITG/ETG) microturbulence driving high xi/ xe and that suppressed ITG causes reduced particle transport and improved ci on C-Mod. Nonlinear calculations for C-Mod confirm initial linear simulations, which predicted ITG stability in the barrier region just before ITB formation, without invoking E x B shear suppression of turbulence. Nonlinear fluxes are compared to experiment, which both show low heat transport in the ITB and higher transport within and outside of the barrier region

  19. [Should a doctor take into consideration the influence of climatic factors? Deliberations on the occasion of the publication of a new monograph (the book of essays of arid medicine by Z.R. Zununov, I.H. Nurov, and S.Z. Zununova)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povazhnaya, E L

    2018-04-09

    The authors analyze the monograph of the Uzbek scientists professor Z.R. Zununov, I.H. Nurov, and S.Z. Zununova «Essays of arid medicine» (Tashkent: «KAMALAK-PRESS» publishing house, 2016;540). The book presents the results of the comprehensive bioclimatic assessment of the arid zones of Uzbekistan, their extreme climatic conditions (such as high intensity and solar radiation and the considerable duration of its period, dry air and summer heat, sandstorms (the so-called «Afghans»), and the great variety of the natural health-improving factors including mineral waters, microclimate of the speleotherapeutic cave, the desert dune sand, etc. The work is based on the authors' conceptual theory of «arid/meteorological stress syndrome», underlain by the hypothesis of the predominant role of hyperthermal weather hypoxia. A wide range of issues id discussed related to weather and climate adaptation of the healthy subjects (both indigenous and non-indigenous residents) and the patients suffering from ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Of special interest are the methods proposed for the correction of dysadaptive changes including the application of the natural balneotherapeutic factors existing in the arid zone (hydrogen sulphide and iodine-bromine balneotherapy, climatic therapy, speleotherapy, and psammotherapy (arenation). An important definitive conclusion at which the authors arrive is the necessity of the experimental observations in agreement with the requirements of the medico-biological ethics.

  20. International Ecohealth Forum 2008 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... the International Forum on Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health (Montreal, ... the International Association of Ecology and Health (IAEH), and a Brazilian ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle: international market, international constraints and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the constraints on the nuclear fuel cycle are ones arising from economic and financial reasons, those caused by uranium resources and their distribution, those arising from technical reasons, issues of public acceptance, and those quite independent of normal industrial considerations, but caused by elements of international politics. The nuclear fuel cycle and the international market, matters of nuclear non-proliferation, and international cooperation are discussed

  2. Internal Affairs Allegations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains allegations brought to the attention of the Internal Affairs Division either through external complaints or internal complaint or recognition....

  3. The Internal Audit Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gołębiowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores an issue of the internal audit outsourcing. It indicates the differences between internal audit, outsourcing and cosourcing of this service as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Drawing from the research on internal audit outsourcing the recent market trends were identified as well as motivations for choosing different forms of internal auditing.

  4. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  5. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2015-01-01

    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger...... of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship....

  6. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2012-01-01

    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3......). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international...... entrepreneurship....

  7. Molecular multipole moments of water molecules in ice Ih

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, E.R.; Xantheas, S.S.; Jonsson, H.

    1998-01-01

    We have used an induction model including dipole, dipole endash quadrupole, quadrupole endash quadrupole polarizability and first hyperpolarizability as well as fixed octopole and hexadecapole moments to study the electric field in ice. The self-consistent induction calculations gave an average total dipole moment of 3.09 D, a 67% increase over the dipole moment of an isolated water molecule. A previous, more approximate induction model study by Coulson and Eisenberg [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 291, 445 (1966)] suggested a significantly smaller average value of 2.6 D. This value has been used extensively in recent years as a reference point in the development of various polarizable interaction potentials for water as well as for assessment of the convergence of water cluster properties to those of bulk. The reason for this difference is not due to approximations made in the computational scheme of Coulson and Eisenberg but rather due to the use of less accurate values for the molecular multipoles in these earlier calculations. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  8. Euler and applications of quantum mechanics. Paradox IH. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVASYSHIN Henrich Stepanovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By some estimation, thirty percent of the gross national product of the USA depends on the applications of quantum mechanics in one or another form. Different aspects of the development of quantum theory are considered. Based on the residual stresses and relaxation of the stresses in the details of arbitrary forms the analysis of technological option of the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox interpretation is performed by the method of shaped coordination grid. The option refers to the mystery of measurement of two particles which are located far from each other but at the same time which quantum states are interconnected. The paper also regards the application of involute with variable evolute to increase working capacity of interfaces in free wheels, gearing and ribbon and rack mechanisms.

  9. Molecular Origin of the Vibrational Structure of Ice Ih.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Daniel R; Straight, Shelby C; Knight, Christopher; Paesani, Francesco

    2017-06-15

    An unambiguous assignment of the vibrational spectra of ice I h remains a matter of debate. This study demonstrates that an accurate representation of many-body interactions between water molecules, combined with an explicit treatment of nuclear quantum effects through many-body molecular dynamics (MB-MD), leads to a unified interpretation of the vibrational spectra of ice I h in terms of the structure and dynamics of the underlying hydrogen-bond network. All features of the infrared and Raman spectra in the OH stretching region can be unambiguously assigned by taking into account both the symmetry and the delocalized nature of the lattice vibrations as well as the local electrostatic environment experienced by each water molecule within the crystal. The high level of agreement with experiment raises prospects for predictive MB-MD simulations that, complementing analogous measurements, will provide molecular-level insights into fundamental processes taking place in bulk ice and on ice surfaces under different thermodynamic conditions.

  10. Ih bõ ustami da med pit / Andrei Babin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Babin, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    17 analüütiku seas läbi viidud küsitluse tulemustest Euroopa Liiduga ühinemise mõjudest Eestile. Artikkel sisaldab intervjuud analüütik Erik Tergiga. Graafik: EL-iga liitumise mõju Eesti majandusele

  11. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  12. International aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    International collaborative efforts in magnetic confinement fusion in which the USA is involved are reviewed. These efforts are carried under the auspices of international agencies and through bilateral agreements

  13. International images: business cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, S; Pucci, J

    1991-01-01

    Nursing specialists engage in a variety of international professional activities. Business cards are an important aspect of establishing a professional image. This article presents recommended business card contents, international etiquette, card design and production, and cared innovations.

  14. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada L, Luis Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Topics are presented as economic theory and theory of the international trade, international dimension of the environmental problems, economic prosperity, environmental quality and lineament are given for an alternative, among others

  15. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  16. International energy outlook, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2035, : prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, including outlooks : for major energy fuels and associated carbon dioxide emissions. The International Energy Outlook 2010 (...

  17. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.; Lensink, B.W.; Spierdijk, L.

    2011-01-01

    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By

  18. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Rients; Lensink, Robert; Spierdijk, Laura

    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By

  19. Alternative international currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhentsova Vladimirovna Elena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern international monetary system has a number of flaws and therefore needs cardinal change. Hence, economists from all over the world are suggesting alternative international currencies that would make the international monetary system more efficient. However, it is essential when approaching the creation of a new international currency to analyze and take into account the experience of all the past international currencies. Therefore this paper begins with an exploration of the drawbacks of each of the past and present international currencies. Drawing on this analysis a justification will be made for the necessity of introducing a new international currency, pointing to the requirements it should meet. Further on, this paper proposes an alternative theoretically possible variant of the international currency, with a fixed value relative to a commodity basket. An abstract example is used to demonstrate its composition and circulation mechanism.

  20. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  1. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Körbl, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  2. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  3. A Realistic International Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Criticizes college textbooks for adopting a "party line" of laissez-faire economic doctrine which asserts the benefits of free trade. Offers an alternative interpretation of international trade, covering such topics as the effect of unregulated international trade on wage levels, and international lending. (JDH)

  4. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    , treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....

  5. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  6. Unit III: International Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    This lesson helps students understand the global network involved in international events. Students have an opportunity to examine the impact of international law and the role of international organizations, national governments, and private individuals in the effort to secure the release of United States hostages in Iran. (AM)

  7. International Corporate Debt Market

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Geranio; Issam Hallak

    2012-01-01

    Research on international debt markets has chiefly investigated sovereign debt markets. We suggest a review of the different types of borrowers and the differences in the instruments. In particular we show that syndicated loans are an essential tool of international debt markets to monitor international markets borrowers. We also show by looking at the details of these instruments the mechanisms behind such tools.

  8. Neurology and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2013-07-23

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  9. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  10. International safeguards and international nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, P.

    1991-01-01

    A particular feature of nuclear trade is the need to ensure a good equilibrium between technology transfer and the requirements linked to non proliferation of nuclear weapons. The recent dramatic changes that occurred on the international scene have particularly underlined the difficulty to reach this equilibrium, reminding us the fragility of the existing order and the responsibility of the nuclear community in the field of non-proliferation. Consequently, there is a need for an international thorough review of the actual non proliferation tools developed until now. This review could lead to reconsider some of the dogmas upon which the present safeguard system is based

  11. International network competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerås, Thomas P.; Tåg, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    We analyse network competition in a market with international calls. National regulatory agencies (NRAs) have incentives to set regulated termination rates above marginal cost to extract rent from international call termination. International network ownership and deregulation are alternatives to combat the incentives of NRAs to distort termination rates. We provide conditions under which each of these policies increase efficiency and aggregate welfare. Our findings provide theoretical suppor...

  12. International business transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Buczkowski, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Running a business on an international scale requires not only a substantial body of knowledge but also the ability to apply it in practice. That is why our textbook, with a vast collection of practical examples, discusses a wide variety of pertinent issues connected with business operations in international markets, from international market analysis, drafting business plans, concluding business transactions and the insurance of goods through to customs clearance procedures and professional ...

  13. Emancipating Labor Internationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The secular trinity of c19th socialism was Labor-Internationalism-Emancipation. As early-industrial capitalism developed into a national-industrial-colonial capitalism, the internationalism of labor became literally international, and simultaneously lost its emancipatory aspiration and capacity (or vice versa). The dramatic – and labor-devastating – development of a globalised-networked-informatised capitalism is raising the necessity and possibility of a new kind of labor internationalis...

  14. Dosimetry of internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Dosimetry of Internal Emitter Program endeavors to refine the correlation between radiation dose and observed biological effects. The program is presently engaged in the development of studies that will demonstrate the applicability of microdosimetry models developed under the Microdosimetry of Internal Sources Program. The program also provides guidance and assistance to Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Biology Department in the dosimetric analysis of internally deposited radionuclides. This report deals with alpha particle dosimetry plutonium 239 inhalation, and in vitro studies of chromosomal observations

  15. Editorial: International Entrepreneurial Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Wach

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, both the theory of internationalisation of the firm and/or the theory of international business have developed. Recent developments in international business studies prove that entrepreneurial orientation (EO) emerges as one of the important potential factors contributing to the intensification of the processes of internationalisation of the firm (Etemad, 2015; Gupta & Gupta, 2015). It seems that international entrepreneurship (IE) has been flourishing. The general theory o...

  16. International Research Chairs Initiative | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Research Chairs Initiative (IRCI) is a seven-year, CA$8 million research program that pairs top research talent from universities in Canada with their counterparts in developing countries to address key ... The results of this joint effort: world-class discoveries and healthier, wealthier, fairer societies.

  17. International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By offering a common format and central repository, the IATI improves the transparency, accountability, and effectiveness of international aid. It is used ... organizations. IDRC is one of almost 400 participants who publish project titles and descriptions, country and geographic area, aid type, dates, and budget information.

  18. Internal disruption in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    A review of results of experimental and theoretical investigations of internal disruption in tokamaks is given. Specific features of various types of saw-tooth oscillations are described and their classification is performed. Theoretical models of the process of development of internal disruption instability are discussed. Effect of internal disruption on parameters of plasma, confined in tokamak, is considered. Scalings of period and amplitude of saw-tooth oscillations, as well as version radius are presented. Different methods for stabilizing instability of internal disruption are described

  19. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  20. Internal disruptions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the phenomenon of internal disruptions in tokamaks are reviewed. A classification scheme is introduced and the features of different types of sawtooth oscillations are described. A theoretical model for the development of the internal disruption instability is discussed. The effect of internal disruptions on the parameters of plasma confined in tokamaks is discussed. Scaling laws for the period and amplitude of sawtooth oscillations, as well as for the inversion radius, are presented. Different methods of stabilizing the internal disruption instability are described

  1. BWR internals life assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M.L.; Stancavage, P.P.

    1988-01-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) internal components play an important role in power plant life extension. Many important internals were not designed for easy removal and changes in material properties and local environmental effects due to high radiation makes stress corrosion cracking more likely and more difficult to correct. Over the past several years, operating experience has shown that inspection, monitoring and refurbishment can be accomplished for internal structures with existing technology. In addition, mitigation techniques which address the causes of degradation are available to assure that life extension targets can be met. This paper describes the many considerations and aspects when evaluating life extension for reactor vessel internals

  2. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  3. International Entrepreneurship and Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Per; Zucchella, Antonella; Palamera, Giada

    2006-01-01

    This contribution focuses on international sourcing as an entrepreneurial act and aims at demonstrating that it is actually at the core of internationalization processes of small firms, both established and international new ventures. Another issue of this research is to understand how these firm...

  4. International Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This article, with a focus on North American postsecondary education, identifies international students as a strategic enrollment management institutional priority; presents themes in the international student retention, satisfaction, and success research literature; and describes related best practices. It also presents the findings from an…

  5. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  6. Wording in international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the demise of philosophical foundationalism and that of the Aristotelian idea of an inner meaning of words, scholarship about international law is no longer perceived as a mining activity geared towards the extraction of pre-existing meaning. Rather, international legal scholarship is in a

  7. Wording in International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the demise of philosophical foundationalism and that of the Aristotelian idea of an inner meaning of words, the scholarship about international law is no longer perceived as a mining activity geared towards the extraction of pre-existing meaning. Rather, international legal scholarship is in a

  8. OCRWM international procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    These international procedures provide guidance and assistance for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and for OCRWM Project Offices, contractors and subcontractors in conducting international activities. They supplement the relevant Department of Energy (DOE) orders (which are referenced), not supplant them

  9. International Cancer Screening Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cancer Screening Network promotes evidence-based cancer screening implementation and evaluation with cooperation from multilateral organizations around the globe. Learn more about how ICSN aims to reduce the global burden of cancer by supporting research and international collaboration.

  10. International Youth Nuclear Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.

    2017-01-01

    International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNC) was Initiated by an international YG group of enthusiasts in 1997. Mission statement developed at ENC1998 in Nice, France Growth in enthusiasm and support: IAEA, Nuclear Societies, companies. IYNC run by the Young Generation with full support of experienced advisors, nuclear societies and companies. First came to African continent when IYNC 2010 was hosted by South Africa

  11. Internal Evaluation, Historically Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzes the growth and nature of internal evaluation from the 1960s to the present and suggests that internal evaluation has been on the increase because of its perceived importance. Although the 1960s were characterized by a rich intellectual development of evaluation theory and practice, the fiscal conservatism of the 1980s ushered…

  12. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal

  13. International Fisheries Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games...... and stability of international fisheries agreements. A key message that emerges from this literature strand is that self-enforcing cooperative management of internationally shared fish stocks is generally difficult to achieve. Hence, the international legal framework and regulations play a decisive role...

  14. Cancer from internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of 226 Ra or medical injections of 224 Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes

  15. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  16. Attracting International Hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe

    2015-01-01

    With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations....

  17. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  18. Internal pump monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Toshikazu.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a thermometer is disposed at the upper end of an internal pump casing of a coolant recycling system in a BWR type reactor to detect leakage of reactor water thereby ensuring the improvement of reliability of the internal pump. Namely, a thermometer is disposed, which can detect temperature elevation occurred when water in the internal pump leaked from a reactor pressure vessel passes through the gap between a stretch tube and an upper end of the pump casing. Signals from the thermometer are transmitted to a signal processing device by an instrumentation cable. The signal processing device generates an alarm when the temperature signal exceeds a predetermined value and announces that leakage of reactor water occurs in the internal pump. Since the present invention can detect the leakage of the reactor water in the pump casing in an early stage, it can contribute to the improvement of the safety and reliability of the internal pump. (I.S.)

  19. Internal Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    2018-01-01

    Internal social media is a web-based communication arena that provides all organizational members with a communication opportunity. The media has emerged in organizations since 2004, and is increasingly seen as a way of giving employees a voice in organizations which can benefit the organization...... in terms of knowledge sharing, collaboration, and employee participation and engagement. The first wave of studies of internal social media was primarily from an information-systems perspective and focused more on its adoption, its affordances, and the outcome of its introduction. The second wave...... of studies was more concerned with studying the dynamics of communication on internal social media, in order to understand coworkers as strategic communicators and how communication on internal social media can constitute the organization. With a successful introduction of internal social media, coworkers...

  20. Scrutinizing Homophobia: A Model of Perception of Homosexuals in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, Olga A; Osin, Evgeny N; Isaenko, Nadezhda A; Brainis, Lilia M

    2017-10-10

    We aimed to develop and validate a model of associations of perceived threat of homosexuals with lay beliefs about causes of homosexuality, group entitativity of homosexuals, approval of social action strategies targeting homosexuals, and support for their rights using original Russian-language measures. We tested the model in two samples of social network users (n = 1,007) and student respondents (n = 292) using structural equation modeling and path analysis. Attribution of homosexuality to social causes was a positive predictor of perceived threat of homosexuals, whereas biological causes showed an inverse effect. Perceived threat predicted approval of discriminatory strategies targeting homosexuals and lack of support for their rights and fully mediated the effects of causal beliefs on these variables. Group entitativity of homosexuals was a positive predictor of perceived threat and a significant moderator of its effects on support for punishment and medical treatment of homosexuals. We discuss the findings with reference to the Russian social context.

  1. When gay is pretty: physical attractiveness and low homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innala, S M; Ernulf, K E

    1994-06-01

    Photographs of physically attractive men and women were presented as depicting homosexuals and heterosexuals to subjects on the University of California at Berkeley campus who were generally judged to be nonhomophobic opposite-sexed students. Analysis showed that the 62 women rated 3 men as significantly more physically attractive when they believed the men were homosexual than when they believed the men were heterosexual. The 65 men did not rate photographs of 3 women as more physically attractive when they believed the women were lesbian compared to when they believed the women were heterosexual. The results illustrate an effect of the "gay-pretty-boy stereotype," namely, that women judged to be nonhomophobic perceived homosexual men as more physically attractive than comparable heterosexual men.

  2. Standing "Straight" up to Homophobia: Straight Allies' Involvement in GSAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Alicia Anne

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study captures the experiences of four straight allies' and one gay youth involvement in gay--straight alliances (GSAs) at their Ontario, Canada, high schools. Participants' motivations for becoming GSA members and their roles as allies are examined. Queer theoretical perspectives, as espoused by Britzman (1995, 1998) and Linville…

  3. Homophobia and Sexuality Diversity in South African Schools: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dennis A.

    2017-01-01

    Post-apartheid, there has been an increase in research on issues of gender and sexuality diversity in South African schools. To build upon and advance gender and sexuality diversity studies, I conducted a review of the literature that addresses how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience schooling and how schools, if at…

  4. Diversity in School: A Brazilian Educational Policy against Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sergio; Nascimento, Marcos; Duque, Aline; Tramontano, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in School is a Brazilian initiative that seeks to increase understanding, recognition, respect, and value social and cultural differences through offering an e-learning course on gender, sexuality, and ethnic relations for teachers and school administrators in the public school system. The course and its objectives aim to enable staff…

  5. "Homophobia hurts": Mourning as resistance to violence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Julie

    2017-04-03

    Much has been written on the successful lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex movement in South Africa, and the resulting institutionalization of sexual minority rights. Comparatively less has been written about the forms of activism undertaken specifically by Black lesbians that are not oriented toward legal change. In this article, I assert the need to examine public demonstrations of mourning as an act of Black lesbian resistance to violence in South Africa. Based on in-depth interviews with members of Free Gender, a Black lesbian organization, I argue that members' conceptualizations of mourning as providing community support force a reconsideration of what it means to be human. In order to grasp the decolonial potential of Free Gender's activism, I draw on Sylvia Wynter's argument that a singular Western bourgeois conception of human has come to dominate globally.

  6. Research for Action: Challenging Homophobia in Slovene Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magic, Jasna; Maljevac, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Research has highlighted that during school, European lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience significantly higher levels of discrimination and verbal, physical, and sexual violence in comparison with their heterosexual peers. Slovenian youth are not exempt from this experience. While the educational system is exclusively…

  7. Floating call boys and agile homosexuals: homophobia/Venice/history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, John

    2014-01-01

    Because works of nonfiction are always composed of literary tropes and metaphors, they have to be read critically for the ways in which their truth claims are potentially structured by ideologies and stereotypes. This essay reads passages from Richard Sennett's sociological analysis Flesh and Stone, The Body and the City in Western Civilization and Joseph Brodsky's memoir Watermark in order to demonstrate how these alleged works of nonfiction shore up some dishearteningly familiar literary stereotypes of male homosexuality and participate in a tradition, dating from the 19th century, of linking the city of Venice with homosexuality and death.

  8. When Consciousness Dawns: Confronting Homophobia with Turkish High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michell, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Turkey, like many Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cultures, is homosocial. Profoundly intimate, though nonsexual, relationships between members of the same gender predominate. In such cultures it is expected that male friends kiss one another on the cheek when greeting or saying goodbye, and it is common to see men walk arm-in-arm together, hold…

  9. Social cohesion, sexuality, homophobia and women's sport in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... secondly, that the success of national teams and athletes promotes national pride and unity. ... We explore these issues by drawing on media reports of cases in which ... To realise the potential of sport as a tool for building social cohesion, ...

  10. Reconceptualization Sexuality and Rethinking Homophobia in Metropolitan Campus Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Caglar

    2017-01-01

    The Metropolitan city gives non-metropolitan students an opportunity to meet new social groups. In this article, the perceptions of sexuality of those students who come from provincial areas to a metropolitan city for university education are examined within a framework of semi-structured interviews. The study on which this article is based used a…

  11. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  12. Limites e possibilidades de uma ação educativa na redução da vulnerabilidade à violência e à homofobia Límites y posibilidades de una acción educativa en la reducción de la vulnerabilidad a violencia y a homofobia Limits and possibilities of an educational action in the reduction of the vulnerability to violence and homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulmira Newlands Borges

    2008-03-01

    termina por ubicar los participantes mismos del curso en una situación de vulnerabilidad frente su escuela, colegas de profesión y familiares.This article aims to analyze limits and possibilities of an educational action towards minimizing violence and homophobia. This action has been sponsored by the Health Ministry Program "Brasil Sem Homofobia", supported by the Education Ministry. The target of this research was to understand what teachers have realized as difficulties and problems, related to sexuality and homophobia, what has motivated them to strive for a qualification in the course and what kinds of results this formation has produced in their school activities. The methodology used was focused on groups of discussion and interviews with teachers who had enrolled, as students, in the course "Educando para a Diversidade". The main results show a strong moral panic related to the contamination and to the encouragement of a non-hegemonic sexuality, this situation end up putting, even those who have taken the course, in a vulnerable position, to face the school, profession colleagues and family.

  13. SME International Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Child, John; Hsieh, Linda; Elbanna, Said

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses two questions through a study of 180 SMEs located in contrasting industry and home country contexts. First, which business models for international markets prevail among SMEs and do they configure into different types? Second, which factors predict the international business...... models that SMEs follow? Three distinct international business models (traditional market-adaptive, technology exploiter, and ambidextrous explorer) are found among the SMEs studied. The likelihood of SMEs adopting one business model rather than another is to a high degree predictable with reference...

  14. International overcommitment draws warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that after rushing to take advantage of new opportunities offered by governments around the world, the international petroleum industry may be overcommitted. Cooperation among countries and companies in the next 2 years will be required if a lot of grief is to be avoided, says an international petroleum financing consultant. To respond adequately to the cash crisis, industry must: reduce internal costs; reduce project costs; lay off project obligations; sell noncore assets; renegotiate license obligations; and slow down, scale down projects; and finance projects

  15. The international development challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Markets are opening up to international competition and new opportunities will arise for companies. The first part of this international round table of the French gas association's annual conference was devoted to whether they have all necessary assets, especially in terms of know-how and new technologies. In the second part of this round table, gas industry leaders presented their ambitions and strategies on the international scene. The questions discussed related to the main areas of development from both business and geographic viewpoints; to the underlying factors such as expertise, technological know-how, market risks and potential, strategic alliances. (authors)

  16. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  18. Internal fuel pin oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel pin has positioned within it material which will decompose to release an oxidizing agent which will react with the cladding of the pin and form a protective oxide film on the internal surface of the cladding

  19. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling

  20. DRI internal Wave Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Stephen A; Levine, Murray D

    2005-01-01

    .... A processing module is developed that takes profile estimates as input and uses numerically simulated linear internal wave displacements to create two-dimensional range-dependent sound speed fields...

  1. Globalisation of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, G

    1998-02-07

    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  2. International New Venture Legitimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK......There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during......, and had internationalized and struggled for survival during the dotcom era. Grounded in data, this study corroborates a number of legitimation strategies yielded by prior research and refutes others. It further contributes to our understanding of international new venture legitimation by suggesting new...

  3. International Perspectives on Fieldcourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Karen; Higgitt, David; Vanneste, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Considers the context of internationalism for the enhancement of fieldwork practices. Discusses whether fieldcourses are valuable experiences. Addresses specific issues affecting internationalisation of fieldcourses, such as financial considerations, sharing courses (staff and resources), overseas fieldtrips and expeditions, safety, and student…

  4. ASKME Enterprise Portal (internal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASKME Enterprise Portal Internal (AEPi) is envisioned to be an integrated, single-point-of-entry solution that contains modular components. The AEPi will provide...

  5. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  6. NCEP Internal Office Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  7. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  8. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Survey of expert opinion, feedback and final consensus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development and the variables included in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS......: A committee of experts was established to select and define data elements. The data set was then disseminated to the appropriate committees and organizations for comments. All suggested revisions were considered and both the International Spinal Cord Society and the American Spinal Injury Association endorsed...... spinal intervention and procedure is coded (variables 1 through 7) and the spinal segment level is described (variables 8 and 9). Sample clinical cases were developed to illustrate how to complete it. CONCLUSION: The International SCI Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data Set...

  9. International SSAC training courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, O.G.

    1985-01-01

    A speech is presented on the International Atomic Energy Agency State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Materials. Two lists of countries participating in these courses are provided

  10. Seventh International Beaver Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri A. Gorshkov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents data on the seventh international Beaver Symposium. Brief historical background about previous Beaver Symposia beaver is shown. Data on the sections of symposium, number of participants and reports are presented.

  11. Seventh International Beaver Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri A. Gorshkov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the seventh international Beaver Symposium. Brief historical background about previous Beaver Symposia beaver is shown. Data on the sections of symposium, number of participants and reports are presented.

  12. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  13. International experience of microcredit

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarenko, M.; Nazarenko, O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze international experience of microcredit development and made appropriate conclusions about the advantages and disadvantages of microcredit organization. Microcredit organizations are self-sufficient and stable institutions which are regulated by bank and state legislation.

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  15. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben

    In this report, we present the results of a research project about international user studies. The project has been carried out by researchers from the Center for Persona Research and –Application, The IT University in Copenhagen and the Department of Learning and Philosophy, Aalborg University...... in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...... the countries/regions they operate in. Instead, they focus on a few strategic markets. International user studies tend to be large-scale studies that involve the effort of many both internal and external/local human resources. The studies typically cover 2-4 countries/regions and many end users in each country...

  16. INTERNAL AUDIT CHARTER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sandra Blanchard

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... ... conduct internal audits to assess that the corporation's accounts and records; financial and management controls; information systems and management .... o Information for decision making is accurate, relevant and timely; ...

  17. International OCD Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and productive lives. Join Donate Volunteer Events International OCD Foundation Research. Resources. Respect. About OCD About IOCDF ... Donate Here Why Should You Attend the Annual OCD Conference? Watch the Video Find Help Search the ...

  18. Risk in International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Canavan, Deirdre; Sharkey Scott, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Risk in international business can stress risk adverse behaviour to counteract foreign market uncertainty or individual entrepreneurial risk taking behaviour dependent on the characteristics of both the business sector and the individual. International business theory would suggest that the perception of risk may differ in situations including where new market entry is incremental, is taken in larger or earlier stages, or indeed whether it may be experienced in a continually fluctuating manne...

  19. International Real Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Mario J. Crucini

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a non-technical review of research developments in the international real business cycle literature. International business cycle facts are summarize with particular attention to the sources of output variance from the expenditure side of the NIPA and the production side, using a familiar neoclassical production function. Theoretical developments focus on the how consumption smoothing and investment dynamics shape the current account; the search for sources and propagation mecha...

  20. International Engagement Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    agreements and issue legal guidance on international law and intellectual property issues. ICPO will play an important role in realizing this vision and...the U.S. and its partners. INTERNATIONAL ENGAGEMENT VISION The directorate’s vision is for global S&T engagements to take advantage of emerging ideas...reduce risk to U.S. and partner countries, and increase their resilience; and Establish enduring relationships to provide access to

  1. Internal Control Organization Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Dorin Lenghel

    2013-01-01

    Internal control represents the totality of policies and procedures adopted by management, which contribute: to the fulfilment of managerial objectives, to the prevention and detection of frauds or errors, to the accuracy and exhaustiveness of accounting entries, as well as to the preparation in due course of financial accounting information. Internal control represents a managerial instrument which assures the fulfilment of objectives of the entity, being an ongoing process in which administ...

  2. Internal budget control

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-01-01

    Internal control is established by the Government to ensure effective and proper operations of ministries, institutions and generally of all public agencies, in compliance with the law, the goals and objectives stated by them, to provide protection against abuse and mismanagement or poor governance. The instrument of internal audit entails a series of mechanisms which aim at enabling budgetary policies compliance, such as: financial reporting; effective system of communication between mana...

  3. Performance and Internal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Mifti, Sri; Lestariyo, Nugroho Budi; Kowanda, Anacostia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the influence of internal auditing on performance. Research object is Inspectorate General Department of Home Affairs staffs. As research instrument, questionnaire was developed and distributed to respondents. Closed type questionnaire was developed with five (5) choices to measure the two (2) research variables. Internal auditing is measured using six (6) dimensions, and performance is measured using three (3) dimensions. As the two variables are lat...

  4. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  5. International energy outlook, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. This and other EIA reports are provided as a statistical service for use by managers and international energy analysts, not as a Government energy plan. Current US Government policies and foreign government policies are assumed to hold over the projection interval, which extends to the year 2010

  6. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    Common illegal drugs include cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs. International trade in these drugs represents a lucrative and what...into effect, decriminalizing “personal use” amounts of marijuana , heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other internationally sanctioned drugs.15 While...President Calls for Legalizing Marijuana ,”CNN.com, May 13, 2009. 15 “Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession,” Associated Press, August 21, 2009. 16 In support

  7. Marketing CANDU internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langstaff, J.H.

    1980-06-01

    The market for CANDU reactor sales, both international and domestic, is reviewed. It is reasonable to expect that between five and ten reactors can be sold outside Canada before the end of the centry, and new domestic orders should be forthcoming as well. AECL International has been created to market CANDU, and is working together with the Canadian nuclear industry to promote the reactor and to assemble an attractive package that can be offered abroad. (L.L.)

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This monthly publication provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  9. International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Hlušička, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to analyse one of the most used type of extrajudicial procedures, the International commercial arbitration. The reason for my research is the progress and elevation of use of the arbitration and not only on international field. The thesis is composed of six chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of Arbitration. Chapter One is introductory and defines basic terminology used in the thesis. The chapter is subdivided into two parts. Part One describes in...

  10. International Trade Students’ Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Matysová

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to detect stereotypes of students studying International Trade at the University of Economics Prague and, if need be, propose didactic measures for intercultural education at the university. In our study, 293 International Trade students described six ethnic and national groups (Roma, Ukrainians, Vietnamese, Russians, Germans and Czechs) in terms of explicit stereotypes. The following hypothesis was formulated in the study: On the one hand, stereotypes of the ...

  11. The international nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    With today's technology, isolationism is virtually impossible. The world's economies are so strongly intertwined that what affects one country will, in some way, influence another. Nuclear technology is no exception. If anything, nuclear technology is a catalyst for international cooperation. In the United States of America, nuclear technology is undergoing significant changes. Many of these changes are being greatly influenced by programs of international cooperation

  12. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  13. International Organizations and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol

    2010-01-01

    The three central primitives of international trade theory are consumer preferences, factor endowments, and the production technologies that allow firms to transform factors of production into consumer goods. A limitation of traditional trade theory, however, is that the specification of technology treats the mapping between factors of production and final goods as a black box. In practice, the decisions of agents in organizations determine this mapping. Recently, international trade economis...

  14. International organization at war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    number of practices for their power advantage to take its full effect. The article also illustrates how looking at practices helps to explain policy decisions, such as NATO’s decision to engage in Afghanistan, the establishment of an International Security and Assistance Force (ISAF) strategy...... and the wording of policy papers. By studying a case of military diplomacy, the article contributes to the emerging scholarship aimed at bridging the gap between diplomatic studies and practice-based approaches to International Relations....

  15. [What is Internal Medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Humberto

    2006-10-01

    Internal Medicine can be defined as a medical specialty devoted to the comprehensive care of adult patients, focused in the diagnosis and non surgical treatment of diseases affecting internal organs and systems (excluding gyneco-obstetrical problems) and the prevention of those diseases. This position paper reviews the history of Internal Medicine, the birth of its subspecialties and the difficulties faced by young physicians when they decide whether to practice as internist or in a subspecialty. In Chile as in most occidental countries formal training in a subspecialty of internal medicine requires previous certification in internal medicine but the proportion of young physicians who remain in practice as general internists appears to be considerably lower than those who choose a subspecialty. The main reasons for this unbalance can be related to financial advantages (by the practice of specialized technologies) and the patients' tendency to request direct assistance by a professional thought to be better qualified to take care of their specific problems. Training programs in internal medicine should consider a greater emphasis in comprehensive outpatient care instead of the traditional emphasis for training in hospital wards.

  16. International oil law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkzad, B.

    1997-01-01

    The 1973 energy crisis demonstrated that the international petroleum industry is not totally free. Very often it has been the object of an organization, even during the domination of international oil companies which have established a petroleum international system with a system of concession rights. This system is based on an oligopolistic structure which had the characteristics of a monopoly. This vertically integrated structure of the world petroleum industry during the 1920-1950 era was more or less locked up by the system of concessions. The incompatibility of this system of excessively long concession contracts with the economical development needs of oil exporting countries has led to their abolishment. They have been replaced by new agreements. As soon as the creation of stable and permanent international oil organizations (OPEC, OAPEC, IEA), an institutional right has been established which has generated international rights and principles governing the contractual relations between oil exporting and oil importing countries. This international petroleum right is both original and specific, it is evolutive, contractual and normative. (J.S.)

  17. Homophobia in Secondary Schools: An Investigation of Teachers' Perceptions of Homophobia through a Collaborative Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    According to Gay Lesbian Straight Education Network, GLSEN, (2003), 84% of GLBT students experienced homophobic remarks or verbal harassment and of those, 91.5% reported hearing the word "faggot" or "dyke" on a regular basis, and over 60% felt unsafe in their schools because of their sexual orientation. More recently, several middle school…

  18. International opportunities and value creation in international entrepreneurship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainela, Tuija; Puhakka, Vesa; Wakkee, Ingrid; Marinova, Svetla; Larimo, Jorma; Nummela, Niina

    2016-01-01

    International entrepreneurship (IE) as a field of research has emerged at the intersection of internationalization and entrepreneurship theories. At this intersection it has come to emphasize the activities centered on international opportunities. International opportunities, then, are about value

  19. International Scientific and Technical Organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear scientific and technical world is well aware of the EURATOM and IAEA activities but usually other international scientific and technical organisations relevant for their ordinary work are unknown. In this article three international organisations are described briefly, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). International Union of Pure and Applied chemistry (IUPAC) and the international council of Science (ICSU). (Author)

  20. Managerial Attention in International SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Managerial attention affects organizational strategies and the resulting consequences. In the international business context, it is noted that how much attention managers give to the international marketplace, i.e., international attention, has profound implications for large global companies’

  1. Internal targets for LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, K.; Gspann, J.; Mohl, D.; Poth, H.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of thin internal targets in conjunction with phase-space cooling at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Topics considered include the merits of internal target operation; the most efficient use of antiprotons and of proton synchrotron (PS) protons, highest center-of-mass (c.m.) energy resolution; highest angular resolution and access to extreme angles; the transparent environment for all reaction products; a windowless source and pure targets; highest luminosity and count rates; access to lowest energies with increasing resolution; internal target thickness and vacuum requirements; required cooling performance; and modes of operation. It is demonstrated that an internal target in conjunction with phase-space cooling has the potential of better performance in terms of the economic use of antiprotons and consequently of PS protons; energy resolution; angular resolution; maximum reaction rate capability (statistical precision); efficient parasitic operation; transparency of the target for reaction products; access to low energies; and the ease of polarized target experiments. It is concluded that all p - experiments which need high statistics and high p - flux, such as studies of rare channels or broad, weak resonance structures, would profit from internal targets

  2. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International... Code. International Property Maintenance Code. International Residential Code. International Swimming Pool and Spa Code International Wildland-Urban Interface Code. International Zoning Code. ICC Standards...

  3. Homosexuality as a silent insider: a call for social work discourse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nasw zimbabwe

    2018-06-02

    Jun 2, 2018 ... remains stuck in an argument between respect for religious belief ..... Results from this survey confirm – on a wide scale in the .... discovered a relationship between internalized homophobia and various forms of self-harm,.

  4. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, J.D.; Stasko, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    An international design team comprised of members from Canada, Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America, are designing an experimental fusion test reactor. The engineering and testing objectives of this International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are to validate the design and to demonstrate controlled ignition, extended burn of a deuterium and tritium plasma, and achieve steady state using technology expected to be available by 1990. The concept maximizes flexibility while allowing for a variety of plasma configurations and operating scenarios. During physics phase operation, the machine produces a 22 MA plasma current. In the technology phase, the machine can be reconfigured with a thicker shield and a breeding blanket to operate with an 18 MA plasma current at a major radius of 5.5 meters. Canada's involvement in the areas of safety, facility design, reactor configuration and maintenance builds on our internationally recognized design and operational expertise in developing tritium processes and CANDU related technologies

  5. International oil opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hares, T.N.D.; Mann, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Some of the key issues to be addressed when selecting international opportunities, were discussed. The ideal opportunity should have the following characteristics: (1) large, low risk (2) high percentage of rent available to the investor, (3) low cost and low technical requirements, (4) low country risk, (5) low competition, (6) easy to access, and (7) favorable environment in which to work. Entering an international opportunity can be achieved by competitive bidding, direct negotiation, partnership, corporate and/or asset acquisition, and long-term relationships. Key success factors were identified as (1) applying technical financial and commercial skills in the international environment, (2) speedy response, (3) excellent relationships in the foreign country, (4) understanding the local culture, and (5) keeping a good track record. 6 figs

  6. International power opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, A.

    1995-01-01

    Key factors in international development were discussed, using TransAlta Energy Corporation as an example. Trans-Alta is a company generating 4,500 MW of electricity from coal, hydro and natural gas. It has operating facilities in Canada, Argentina and New Zealand, including extensive coal mining interests in Canada. The climate for international opportunities in the energy field were judged to be very good in view of the projected requirement for some 900,000 MW of new power generation in different parts of the world by the year 2003. The five key factors identified for international power development were: (1) using core skills to add value, (2) have a long-term focus, (3) focus on specific countries and selected regions, (4) develop strong relationships with local partners, and (5) develop appropriate projects. 2 figs

  7. The International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  8. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  9. Developing International Personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Personas have become a popular method in new product development. Personas have traditionally, and are still, primarily created to represent users from a single national culture at a time during the design process. This, however, is unsatisfactory for companies operating on a global market...... as they show an increasing interest in international personas. However, research on personas in a global context is limited. To address this gap, this paper provides an overview of extant research on international personas. Secondly, it presents an empirical study on challenges Danish IT companies experience...... when using the persona method to collect and present insights about their international users. A key finding in both the literature review and the empirical study was the ambiguity concerning the concept of culture. Therefore, the paper draws on theories about culture, and especially practice theory...

  10. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L

    2002-01-01

    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  11. Internal Markets for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    of R&D to affiliated companies in the same business group. The challenges are analysed for affiliates in order to engage themselves in group-internal markets, for instance to avoid bottlenecks in the product development or to improve their technological knowledge. To research this phenomenon, a case...... study is accomplished by investigating a Multinational company whose affiliates are self-reliant and horizontally diversified. Mixed methods are applied by having structured depth interviews with the responsible R&D managers as well as by sending a survey out to associated project managers. The study...... indicates that the organizational complexity, infrastructures within the business group and the impact of external market structures play an essential role for the usage and effectiveness of group-internal markets. Hence, the insights offer valuable clues why internal markets have advantages...

  12. Internal friction in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of studies conducted to relate internal friction measurements in U to allotropic transformations. It was found that several internal friction peaks occur in α-uranium whose magnitude changed drastically after annealing in the β phase. All of the allotropic transformations in uranium are diffusional in nature under slow heating and cooling conditions. Creep at regions of high stress concentration appears to be responsible for high temperature internal friction in α-uranium. The activation energy for grain boundary relaxation in α-uranium was found to be 65.1 +- 4 kcal/mole. Impurity atoms interfere with the basic mechanism for grain boundary relaxation resulting in a distribution in activation energies. A considerable distribution in ln tau 0 was also found which is a measure of the distribution in local order and in the Debye frequency around a grain boundary

  13. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  14. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  15. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal ... disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and ... collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals.

  16. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  17. Why international primacy matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    Does international primacy matter? The answer seems so obvious that one first wonders why someone as intelligent, perceptive, and knowledgeable as Robert Jervis raises the question. On further thought, however, one sees that while the answer may be obvious for most people, the reasons why it is obvious may not be all that clear and may have been forgotten or lost in the other concerns of political scientists and economists studying international relations. By posing this question at this time of change in world affairs Jervis has constructively forced us to rethink why primacy is of central importance. This issue involves several subordinate questions

  18. International Business Cycle Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Otsu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I extend the business cycle accounting method a la Chari, Kehoe and McGrattan (2007) to a two-country international business cycle model and quantify the effect of the disturbances in relevant markets on the business cycle correlation between Japan and the US over the 1980-2008 period. This paper finds that disturbances in the labor market and production efficiency are important in accounting for the recent increase in the cross-country output correlation. If international fina...

  19. Internal sources dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    The absorbed dose, need of estimation in risk evaluation in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine practice,internal dosimetry,internal and external sources. Calculation methodology,Marinelli model,MIRD system for absorbed dose calculation based on biological parameters of radiopharmaceutical in human body or individual,energy of emitted radiations by administered radionuclide, fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed by target body.Limitation of the MIRD calculation model. A explanation of Marinelli method of dosimetry calculation,β dosimetry. Y dosimetry, effective dose, calculation in organs and tissues, examples. Bibliography .

  20. International Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the book International Market Analysis: Theories and Methods, written by John Kuiada, professor at Centre of International Business, Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University. The book is refreshingly new in its way of looking at a classical problem. It looks at market...... analysis from the point of vie of ways of thinking about markets. Furthermore, the book includes the concept of learning in the analysis of markets og how the way we understand business reality influneces our choice of methodology for market analysis....

  1. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    In this last part is reviewed international regulatory activities and bilateral agreements including two parts: concerning European atomic energy community with European commission proposal for a council directive setting up a community framework for nuclear safety, update of the nuclear illustrative programme in the context of the second strategic energy review, european commission recommendation on criteria for the export of radioactive waste and spent fuel to third countries and a communication on nuclear non-proliferation and the second part in relation with international atomic energy agency with a joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on safety of radioactive waste management (third review meeting). (N.C.)

  2. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Different international regulatory activities are presented: recommendation on the protection of the public against exposure to radon in drinking water supplies, amendment to the legislation implementing the regulation on imports of agricultural products originating in third countries following the Chernobyl accident, resolution on the commission green paper towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, declaration of mandatory nature of the international code for the safe carriage of packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes on board ships, adoption of action plan against nuclear terrorism. (N.C.)

  3. Internal variables in thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, Arkadi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes an effective method for modeling advanced materials like polymers, composite materials and biomaterials, which are, as a rule, inhomogeneous. The thermoelastic theory with internal variables presented here provides a general framework for predicting a material’s reaction to external loading. The basic physical principles provide the primary theoretical information, including the evolution equations of the internal variables. The cornerstones of this framework are the material representation of continuum mechanics, a weak nonlocality, a non-zero extra entropy flux, and a consecutive employment of the dissipation inequality. Examples of thermoelastic phenomena are provided, accompanied by detailed procedures demonstrating how to simulate them.

  4. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  5. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in: http://physics.conferenceseries.com/

  6. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  7. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  8. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...... model for epoch 2010.0, and a linear predictive secular variation model for 2010.0–2015.0. In this note the equations defining the IGRF model are provided along with the spherical harmonic coefficients for the eleventh generation. Maps of the magnetic declination, inclination and total intensity...

  9. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  10. International nuclear agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miatello, A.; Severino, R.

    1988-01-01

    This multilingual glossary, in the laborious compilation of which the authors have been greatly assisted by a group of professional translators and experts, presents for the first time a substantial number of entries in four languages (English, French, German and Italian), whose terminology and phraseology, all bearing the appropriate normative reference, has been drawn from the official text of the most relevant international agreements on nuclear policy. It is complemented by a thorough critical study on the status of nonproliferation by Lawrence Scheinman and Josef Pilat. Librarians, translators and interpreters as well as scholars and researchers in international law will find this volume a reference tool of specific interest

  11. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible....... The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory....

  12. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  13. ENSI international strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This brochure issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI discusses ENSI’s role in international cooperation in the nuclear safety area. Questions looked at include to what degree ENSI should engage itself at an international level, especially in certain IAEA missions, which topics should be addressed, which results should be aimed for and how current scientific and technical state-of-the-art should be monitored. Strategic targets are discussed, main areas of action are examined and ENSI’s position with respect to safety, transparency, independence and competence is declared. The various implementation instances within ENSI are looked at

  14. The international RESPO network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Winrock International, with sponsorship from the Center for Environment of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), is building a global network of non-governmental organizations to help catalyze the use of renewable energy technologies for rural energy supply in developing countries. Known as the Renewable Energy Project Support Offices (REPSOs), these in-country facilities are managed by local institutions in coordination with Winrock. REPSOs provide an array of technical and financial support services to help developers identify and evaluate opportunities for renewable energy projects.

  15. International Youth Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available International Youth Library, the biggest youth library in the world, was founded in 1948 in Munich, Germany, by Jella Lepman. She aimed to unite all the children of the world through books by establishing this library. IYL is still trying to achieve this end supporting scholarship programmes in children’s literature research, participating in or organizing meetings on children’s literature, and working with other national and international organizations deeding with children’s literature. Unfortunately the library is facing some problems recently which have risen from economic difficulties which also inhibits promotional activities.

  16. International radiofrequency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, J.

    2001-01-01

    Of the various radiofrequency standards in use around the world, many are based on or similar to the Guidelines published by ICNIRP (The International Commission on Non-ionising Radiation Protection). This organisation is a working group operating in co-operation with the Environmental Health division of the World Health Organisation (WHO). This paper presents a very brief overview of current international standards, beginning with a summary of the salient points of the ICNIRP Guidelines. It should be remembered that these are guidelines only and do not exist as a separate standard. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  17. The international safeguards profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has established a staff of safeguards professionals who are responsible for carrying out on-site inspections to determine compliance with international safeguards agreements. By IAEA Statute, the paramount consideration in recruiting IAEA staff is to secure employees of the highest standards of efficiency, technical competence, and integrity. An analysis of the distribution of professionals in the IAEA Department of Safeguards has revealed some interesting observations regarding the distribution of grade levels, age, time in service, gender, and geographical origin. Following several earlier studies performed by contractors for ACDA, U.S. efforts have been undertaken to attract and better prepare candidates for working at the IAEA

  18. Internationalism and Globalization as Contexts for International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, James; Thompson, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    A problem with the construction of an inclusive definition of international education is that the word 'international' has a variety of connotations. It is proposed that the term 'international education' is ambiguous because it appears to refer to contrasting usages in educational studies. International education is frequently discussed in the…

  19. Simulation in International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  20. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  1. Internal Dosimetry. Chapter 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindorf, C. [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2014-12-15

    The Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) is a committee within the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The MIRD Committee was formed in 1965 with the mission to standardize internal dosimetry calculations, improve the published emission data for radionuclides and enhance the data on pharmacokinetics for radiopharmaceuticals [18.1]. A unified approach to internal dosimetry was published by the MIRD Committee in 1968, MIRD Pamphlet No. 1 [18.2], which was updated several times thereafter. Currently, the most well known version is the MIRD Primer from 1991 [18.3]. The latest publication on the formalism was published in 2009 in MIRD Pamphlet No. 21 [18.4], which provides a notation meant to bridge the differences in the formalism used by the MIRD Committee and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [18.5]. The formalism presented in MIRD Pamphlet No. 21 [18.4] will be used here, although some references to the quantities and parameters used in the MIRD primer [18.3] will be made. All symbols, quantities and units are presented.

  2. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics...

  3. When managerialism meets internationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dykmann, Klaas; Lewis, Jenny; Bentzen, Sune Raahede

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether reform ideas that gained influence in national-level bureaucracies in the 1970s were also on the United Nations’ internal agenda. The Joint Inspection Unit (Bertrand) Report of 1971 is the focus of this analysis, as it addressed personnel problems in the UN Secretari...

  4. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION: Panelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At the meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), in Geneva in July, Chairman A.N. Skrinsky of Novosibirsk reviewed ICFA progress, particularly the activities of the specialist Panels which pursue specific Committee objectives in guiding worldwide collaboration in high energy physics

  5. Cyberinfrastructure for international competitiveness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Happy M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available to international science projects such as the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN. Benefits are being realised through efficient connectivity and decrease in the cost of bandwidth. In this presentation, Sithole will provide...

  6. Introducing International Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Geneva is variously known as the city of peace, the world’s smallest metropolis and a place where great ideas have taken form. It has been the home to philosophers such as Rousseau and Voltaire. It was the centre of the Calvinist reformation and birthplace of the Red Cross.   I hardly need to tell you that it is also a city of great international collaboration in science. Little wonder, then, that over the years, Geneva has developed into the world’s capital of internationalism in the broadest sense of the word. Yet while we all know of the existence of modern day International Geneva, how many of us really know what it does? Here at CERN, we’re about to find out. Next week sees the first in a series of talks at the Laboratory from the heads of some of the institutions that make up International Geneva. On Friday, 20 February, it will be my pleasure to introduce you to Michael Møller, Acting Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNO...

  7. International energy outlook 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  8. International environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, Aart

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of environmental externalities at the global level requires international agreements between sovereign states. Game theory provides an appropriate theoretical tool for analysis. However, game theory can result in a wide range of outcomes, and therefore it is important to discuss the

  9. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  10. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ely, James H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harper, Warren W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heimbigner, Tom R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, Charles W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Humble, Paul H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Madison, Jill C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Panisko, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ripplinger, Mike D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stewart, Timothy L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  11. Pathways Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Daniel James

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provides a formal training program for prospective employees titled, Pathways Intern Employment. The Pathways program targets graduate and undergraduate students who strive to become an active contributor to NASA's goal of space exploration. The report herein provides an account of Daniel Huggett's Pathways experience for the Spring and Summer 2017 semesters.

  12. Active internal corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Cottingham, J.; Dahl, P.

    1986-01-01

    Trim or corrector coils to correct main magnet field errors and provide higher multipole fields for beam optics purposes are a standard feature of superconducting magnet accelerator systems. This paper describes some of the design and construction features of powered internal trim coils and a sampling of the test results obtained

  13. [Internal migration studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stpiczynski, T

    1986-10-01

    Recent research on internal migration in Poland is reviewed. The basic sources of data, consisting of censuses or surveys, are first described. The author discusses the relationship between migration studies and other sectors of the national economy, and particularly the relationship between migration and income.

  14. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  15. Successful international negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerry, G.

    1997-01-01

    These remarks on successful international trade negotiations deal with the following topics: culture and differences in psychology; building friendly relationships and letting both sides appear to win; well written proposals; security of negotiating information; the complexity and length of nuclear negotiations

  16. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  17. INTERNAL AUDIT CHARTER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sblanchard

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... Assurance and Advice to Support Innovating for Development ... IDRC's Board of Governors approves the Internal Audit Charter which outlines the ... the principles of integrity, objectivity, confidentiality, and competency, and IDRC's Code of. Conduct and the Values and Ethics Code for the Public Service;.

  18. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION: Panelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-10-15

    At the meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), in Geneva in July, Chairman A.N. Skrinsky of Novosibirsk reviewed ICFA progress, particularly the activities of the specialist Panels which pursue specific Committee objectives in guiding worldwide collaboration in high energy physics.

  19. International fuel bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy

  20. The international atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-12-31

    The film explains in basic terms nuclear fission, the use of nuclear power (propulsion of ships), the production and use of radioisotopes (medicine-radioactive tracers, sterilization of instruments; agriculture-fertilizers, screw-worm elimination, irradiation of food; industry). Demonstrates international co-operation and research in the nuclear field

  1. International fusion research council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) is given and the minutes of the 1976 meeting in Garching are summarized. At the Garching meeting, the IFRC evaluated the quality of papers presented at recent IAEA conferences on plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear research, and made recommendations on the organization and timing of future meetings on nuclear fusion

  2. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  3. International energy outlook 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA's projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA's World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts' knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs

  4. International thermal reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The worldwide development of nuclear power plants is reviewed. Charts are presented which show the commitment to light-water reactor capacity construction with breakdown by region and country. Additional charts show the major nuclear research centers which have substantial scope in light water reactor development and extensive international activities

  5. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L

    1984-01-01

    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  6. International Students in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As the number of international students in Chinese higher education increases steadily, this volume is one of the first to focus on their many and varied experiences. With contributions focusing on such topics as intercultural adaptation, soft power and interculturality, language learning strateg...

  7. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  8. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  9. Medications and International Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-12

    This podcast answers a listener's question about her medications and an international trip she's planning.  Created: 4/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/12/2011.

  10. International nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.M. de.

    1981-01-01

    The peculiar feature of a developing nuclear law is discussed. Opinions from various writers and jurists are presented. It is concluded that it should be considered as international law, whose main sources are the various treaties, conventions and agreements. (A.L.) [pt

  11. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  12. International nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, P.H.W.

    1978-01-01

    The background to the development of internationally agreed safety principles and practices is discussed. The activities of the IAEA and the scope, structure, and organisation of its programme of Reactor Safety Codes and Guides are described. Attention is drawn to certain areas needing further considerations. (UK)

  13. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  14. International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    The International Photovoltaics Program Plan is in direct response to the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (PL 95-590). As stated in the Act, the primary objective of the plan is to accelerate the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets. Benefits which could result from increased international sales by US companies include: stabilization and expansion of the US photovoltaic industry, preparing the industry for supplying future domestic needs; contribution to the economic and social advancement of developing countries; reduced world demand for oil; and improvements in the US balance of trade. The plan outlines programs for photovoltaic demonstrations, systems developments, supplier assistance, information dissemination/purchaser assistance, and an informaion clearinghouse. Each program element includes tactical objectives and summaries of approaches. A program management office will be established to coordinate and manage the program plan. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) had the lead responsibility for preparing and implementing the plan, numerous federal organizations and agencies (US Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, Treasury; Agency for International Development; ACTION; Export/Import Bank; Federal Trade Commission; Small Business Administration) were involved in the plan's preparation and implementation.

  15. International waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the international waste management conference. Topics covered include: Quality assurance in the OCR WM program; Leading the spirit of quality; Dept. of Energy hazardous waste remedial actions program; management of hazardous waste projects; and System management and quality assurance

  16. International Chernobyl project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The film documents the work of the radiation experts of 8 international organizations in the area around the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant. During this evaluation, radiation measurements and medical examinations of the population were carried out and samples of soil, water, plants and food taken

  17. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  18. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    , to discuss how challenges related to perceptions of culture and intercultural communication might be overcome when working with international personas. In particular, it is suggested that the persona method could benefit from creating narratives that focus more on the similar practices enacted...

  19. Internal dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    Internal doses, the procedures for making them and their significance has been reviewed. Effects of uranium, radium, lead-210, polonium-210, thorium in man are analysed based on data from tables and plots. Dosimetry of some ingested nuclides and inhalation dose due to radon-222, radon-220 and their daugther products are discussed [pt

  20. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities in international co-operation carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. Professionality of the Bohunice NPPs staff was highly appreciated by inviting them to be the OSART team members