WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal-combustion engine ice

  1. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) bottoming with Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaja, Iacopo; Gambarotta, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a specific thermodynamic analysis in order to efficiently match a vapour cycle to that of a stationary Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Three different working fluids are considered to represent the main classes of fluids, with reference to the shape of the vapour lines in the T-s diagram: overhanging, nearly isoentropic and bell shaped. First a parametric analysis is conducted in order to determine optimal evaporating pressures for each fluid. After which three different cycles setups are considered: a simple cycle with the use of only engine exhaust gases as a thermal source, a simple cycle with the use of exhaust gases and engine cooling water and a regenerated cycle. A second law analysis of the cycles is performed, with reference to the available heat sources. This is done in order to determine the best fluid and cycle configuration to be employed, the main parameters of the thermodynamic cycles and the overall efficiency of the combined power system. The analysis demonstrates that a 12% increase in the overall efficiency can be achieved with respect to the engine with no bottoming; nevertheless it has been observed that the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) can recover only a small fraction of the heat released by the engine through the cooling water.

  2. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  3. Internal combustion engine report: Spark ignited ICE GenSet optimization and novel concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Blarigan, P. Van [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    In this manuscript the authors report on two projects each of which the goal is to produce cost effective hydrogen utilization technologies. These projects are: (1) the development of an electrical generation system using a conventional four-stroke spark-ignited internal combustion engine generator combination (SI-GenSet) optimized for maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, and (2) the development of a novel internal combustion engine concept. The SI-GenSet will be optimized to run on either hydrogen or hydrogen-blends. The novel concept seeks to develop an engine that optimizes the Otto cycle in a free piston configuration while minimizing all emissions. To this end the authors are developing a rapid combustion homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using a linear alternator for both power take-off and engine control. Targeted applications include stationary electrical power generation, stationary shaft power generation, hybrid vehicles, and nearly any other application now being accomplished with internal combustion engines.

  4. Internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  5. Low emission internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  6. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  7. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  8. Carburetor for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csonka, John J.; Csonka, Albert B.

    1978-01-01

    A carburetor for internal combustion engines having a housing including a generally discoidal wall and a hub extending axially from the central portion thereof, an air valve having a relatively flat radially extending surface directed toward and concentric with said discoidal wall and with a central conoidal portion having its apex directed toward the interior of said hub portion. The housing wall and the radially extending surface of the valve define an air passage converging radially inwardly to form an annular valving construction and thence diverge into the interior of said hub. The hub includes an annular fuel passage terminating at its upper end in a circumferential series of micro-passages for directing liquid fuel uniformly distributed into said air passage substantially at said valving constriction at right angles to the direction of air flow. The air valve is adjustable axially toward and away from the discoidal wall of the carburetor housing to regulate the volume of air drawn into the engine with which said carburetor is associated. Fuel is delivered under pressure to the fuel metering valve and from there through said micro-passages and controlled cams simultaneously regulate the axial adjustment of said air valve and the rate of delivery of fuel through said micro-passages according to a predetermined ratio pattern. A third jointly controlled cam simultaneously regulates the ignition timing in accordance with various air and fuel supply settings. The air valve, fuel supply and ignition timing settings are all independent of the existing degree of engine vacuum.

  9. Modeling the internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible and computationally economical model of the internal combustion engine was developed for use on large digital computer systems. It is based on a system of ordinary differential equations for cylinder-averaged properties. The computer program is capable of multicycle calculations, with some parameters varying from cycle to cycle, and has restart capabilities. It can accommodate a broad spectrum of reactants, permits changes in physical properties, and offers a wide selection of alternative modeling functions without any reprogramming. It readily adapts to the amount of information available in a particular case because the model is in fact a hierarchy of five models. The models range from a simple model requiring only thermodynamic properties to a complex model demanding full combustion kinetics, transport properties, and poppet valve flow characteristics. Among its many features the model includes heat transfer, valve timing, supercharging, motoring, finite burning rates, cycle-to-cycle variations in air-fuel ratio, humid air, residual and recirculated exhaust gas, and full combustion kinetics.

  10. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  11. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  12. Experimental studies of thermal preparation of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukhov, N. N.; Merdanov, Sh M.; V, Konev V.; Borodin, D. M.

    2018-05-01

    In conditions of autonomous functioning of road construction machines, it becomes necessary to use its internal sources. This can be done by using a heat recovery system of an internal combustion engine (ICE). For this purpose, it is proposed to use heat accumulators that accumulate heat of the internal combustion engine during the operation of the machine. Experimental studies have been carried out to evaluate the efficiency of using the proposed pre-start thermal preparation system, which combines a regular system based on liquid diesel fuel heaters and an ICE heat recovery system. As a result, the stages of operation of the preheating thermal preparation system, mathematical models and the dependence of the temperature change of the antifreeze at the exit from the internal combustion engine on the warm-up time are determined.

  13. Internal combustion engines history - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria Rios, Jorge Enrique; Mora Guzman, Jorge Hernan; Agudelo, John Ramiro

    2002-01-01

    In this article, a chronological analysis of the technologies and events that any way influenced in the evolution of the internal combustion engine is done everything it through the observation of the works carried out for scientific empiric and engineers whose technical and conceptual value meant the motivation of other people for the search of a better development in this engineering field

  14. Miniaturization limitations of rotary internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Zuo, Zhengxing; Liu, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed a phenomenological model for rotary internal combustion engines. • Presented scaling laws for the performance of micro rotary engines. • Adiabatic walls can improve the cycle efficiency but result in higher charge leakage. • A lower compression ratio can increase the efficiency due to lower mass losses. • Presented possible minimum engine size of rotary internal combustion engines. - Abstract: With the rapid development of micro electro-mechanical devices, the demands for micro power generation systems have significantly increased in recent years. Traditional chemical batteries have energy densities much lower than hydrocarbon fuels, which makes internal-combustion-engine an attractive technological alternative to batteries. Micro rotary internal combustion engine has drawn great attractions due to its planar design, which is well-suited for fabrication in MEMS. In this paper, a phenomenological model considering heat transfer and mass leakage has been developed to investigate effects of engine speed, compression ratio, blow-by and heat transfer on the performance of micro rotary engine, which provide the guidelines for preliminary design of rotary engine. The lower possible miniaturization limits of rotary combustion engines are proposed.

  15. Exhaust gas afterburner for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, G

    1977-05-12

    The invention pertains to an exhaust gas afterburner for internal combustion engines, with an auxiliary fuel device arranged upstream from the afterburner proper and controlled by the rotational speed of the engine, which is additionally controlled by an oxygen or carbon monoxide sensor. The catalytic part of the afterburner, together with a rotochamber, is a separate unit.

  16. Simulation Of The Internal-Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1987-01-01

    Program adapts to available information about particular engine. Mathematical model of internal-combustion engine constructed and implemented as computer program suitable for use on large digital computer systems. ZMOTTO program calculates Otto-cycle performance parameters as well as working-fluid compositions and properties throughout cycle for number of consecutive cycles and for variety of input parameters. Written in standard FORTRAN IV.

  17. Science review of internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Alex M.K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Internal combustion engines used in transportation produce about 23% of the UK's carbon dioxide emission, up from 14% in 1980. The current science described in this paper suggests that there could be 6-15% improvements in internal combustion fuel efficiency in the coming decade, although filters to meet emission legislation reduce these gains. Using these engines as hybrids with electric motors produces a reduction in energy requirements in the order of 21-28%. Developments beyond the next decade are likely to be dominated by four topics: emission legislation and emission control, new fuels, improved combustion and a range of advanced concepts for energy saving. Emission control is important because current methods for limiting nitrogen oxides and particulate emissions imply extra energy consumption. Of the new fuels, non-conventional fossil-derived fuels are associated with larger greenhouse gas emissions than conventional petroleum-based fuels, while a vehicle propelled by fuel cells consuming non-renewable hydrogen does not necessarily offer an improvement in emissions over the best hybrid internal combustion engines. Improved combustion may be developed for both gasoline and diesel fuels and promises better efficiency as well as lower noxious emissions without the need for filtering. Finally, four advanced concepts are considered: new thermodynamic cycles, a Rankine bottoming cycle, electric turbo-compounding and the use of thermoelectric devices. The latter three all have the common theme of trying to extract energy from waste heat, which represents about 30% of the energy input to an internal combustion engine

  18. Fatigue of internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanois, P

    1924-01-01

    The above conditions enable the employment of a criterion of general fatigue which simultaneously takes account of both mechanical and thermal conditions, for the sake of comparing any projected engine with engines of the same type already in use.

  19. Internal Combustion Engine Principles with Vehicle Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C

    The book is an introductory text on the subject of internal combustion engines, intended for use in engineering courses at the senior or introductory graduate student level. The focus in on describing the basic principles of engine operation on a broad basis, to provide a foundation for further...... exchange processes, combustion in different engine types, exhaust emissions, engine control including mean value engine models, pressure charging, fuels and fuel systems, balancing, friction, and heat transfer. In addition, methods to establish the connection between engine characteristics and vehicle...

  20. Ignition system for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, G

    1977-05-12

    The invention pertains to ignition systems for internal combustion engines; in particular, these are used in the engines of modern small motorcycles, where power is supplied by means of a so-called flywheel magneto, so that there is no need for an additional battery. The invention will prevent back-kicking. This is achieved by the following means: in the right direction of rotation of the internal combustion engine, due to an axial magnetic unsymmetry of the rotor, a voltage component that can switch the electronic switch will occur only in one of the two parts of the control winding at the point of ignition. In the wrong direction of rotation, on the other hand, this voltage component will only occur in the other part of the control winding and will act in direction on a diode connected in parallel to this part of the winding.

  1. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  2. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts of...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts of...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion engines...

  5. Exhaust system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-04

    A catalytic converter system for internal combustion engines is described that includes a means to maintain the catalyst temperature within a predetermined range for the efficient reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Upstream of the catalytic converter, the exhaust pipe is encased in a structure such that a space is provided for the flow of a coolant around the exhaust pipe in response to the sensed catalytic temperature. A coolant control valve is actuated in response to the temperature sensor.

  6. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  7. Fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, H; Kobayashi, H; Nagata, S

    1975-01-07

    A fuel injection apparatus for a rapid cut of fuel supply to internal combustion engines during deceleration is described. The fuel cut is achieved by an electromagnetic switch. The number of engine revolutions are determined by the movement of cam shafts, and one of the cam shafts is made of electroconductive and nonconductive materials which generate an intermittent electrical signal to the magnetic switch. The device can cut the fuel in any deceleration condition, therefore it is more advantageous than fuel injection utilizing the intake load variation which can operate only under certain deceleration conditions.

  8. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyches, Gregory M.; Dudar, Aed M.

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion engine starting apparatus uses a signal from a curt sensor to determine when the engine is energized and the starter motor should be de-energized. One embodiment comprises a transmitter, receiver, computer processing unit, current sensor and relays to energize a starter motor and subsequently de-energize the same when the engine is running. Another embodiment comprises a switch, current transducer, low-pass filter, gain/comparator, relay and a plurality of switches to energize and de-energize a starter motor. Both embodiments contain an indicator lamp or speaker which alerts an operator as to whether a successful engine start has been achieved. Both embodiments also contain circuitry to protect the starter and to de-energize the engine.

  9. Plasma igniter for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.; Breshears, R. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An igniter for the air/fuel mixture used in the cylinders of an internal combustion engine is described. A conventional spark is used to initiate the discharge of a large amount of energy stored in a capacitor. A high current discharge of the energy in the capacitor switched on by a spark discharge produces a plasma and a magnetic field. The resultant combined electromagnetic current and magnetic field force accelerates the plasma deep into the combustion chamber thereby providing an improved ignition of the air/fuel mixture in the chamber.

  10. Benchmarking the internal combustion engine and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The internal combustion engine is a cost-effective and highly reliable energy conversion technology. Exhaust emission regulations introduced in the 1970's triggered extensive research and development that has significantly improved in-use fuel efficiency and dramatically reduced exhaust emissions. The current level of gasoline vehicle engine development is highlighted and representative emissions and efficiency data are presented as benchmarks. The use of hydrogen fueling for IC engines has been investigated over many decades and the benefits and challenges arising are well-known. The current state of hydrogen-fueled engine development will be reviewed and evaluated against gasoline-fueled benchmarks. The prospects for further improvements to hydrogen-fueled IC engines will be examined. While fuel cells are projected to offer greater energy efficiency than IC engines and zero emissions, the availability of fuel cells in quantity at reasonable cost is a barrier to their widespread adaptation for the near future. In their current state of development, hydrogen fueled IC engines are an effective technology to create demand for hydrogen fueling infrastructure until fuel cells become available in commercial quantities. During this transition period, hydrogen fueled IC engines can achieve PZEV/ULSLEV emissions. (author)

  11. Chemistry and the Internal Combustion Engine II: Pollution Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses pollution problems which arise from the use of internal combustion (IC) engines in the United Kingdom (UK). The IC engine exhaust emissions, controlling IC engine pollution in the UK, and some future developments are also included. (HM)

  12. Introduction to modeling and control of internal combustion engine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, Lino; Onder, Christopher H. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICE) still have potential for substantial improvements, particularly with regard to fuel efficiency and environmental compatibility. In order to fully exploit the remaining margins, increasingly sophisticated control systems have to be applied. This book offers an introduction to cost-effective model-based control-system design for ICE. The primary emphasis is put on the ICE and its auxiliary devices. Mathematical models for these processes are developed and solutions for selected feedforward and feedback control-problems are presented. The discussions concerning pollutant emissions and fuel economy of ICE in automotive applications constantly intensified since the first edition of this book was published. Concerns about the air quality, the limited resources of fossil fuels and the detrimental effects of greenhouse gases exceedingly spurred the interest of both the industry and academia in further improvements. The most important changes and additions included in this second edition are: - restructured and slightly extended section on superchargers; - short subsection on rotational oscillations and their treatment on engine test-benches; - complete section on modeling, detection, and control of engine knock; - improved physical and chemical model for the three-way catalytic converter; - new methodology for the design of an air-to-fuel ratio controller; - short introduction to thermodynamic engine-cycle calculation and corresponding control-oriented aspects. (orig.)

  13. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher; Babbitt, Guy

    2016-12-27

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a method is featured which includes placing a first cylinder of an internal combustion engine in a compressor mode, and compressing a gas within the first cylinder, using the cylinder as a reciprocating compressor. In some embodiments a compression check valve system is used to regulate pressure and flow within cylinders of the engine during a compression process.

  14. ZMOTTO- MODELING THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1994-01-01

    The ZMOTTO program was developed to model mathematically a spark-ignited internal combustion engine. ZMOTTO is a large, general purpose program whose calculations can be established at five levels of sophistication. These five models range from an ideal cycle requiring only thermodynamic properties, to a very complex representation demanding full combustion kinetics, transport properties, and poppet valve flow characteristics. ZMOTTO is a flexible and computationally economical program based on a system of ordinary differential equations for cylinder-averaged properties. The calculations assume that heat transfer is expressed in terms of a heat transfer coefficient and that the cylinder average of kinetic plus potential energies remains constant. During combustion, the pressures of burned and unburned gases are assumed equal and their heat transfer areas are assumed proportional to their respective mass fractions. Even the simplest ZMOTTO model provides for residual gas effects, spark advance, exhaust gas recirculation, supercharging, and throttling. In the more complex models, 1) finite rate chemistry replaces equilibrium chemistry in descriptions of both the flame and the burned gases, 2) poppet valve formulas represent fluid flow instead of a zero pressure drop flow, and 3) flame propagation is modeled by mass burning equations instead of as an instantaneous process. Input to ZMOTTO is determined by the model chosen. Thermodynamic data is required for all models. Transport properties and chemical kinetics data are required only as the model complexity grows. Other input includes engine geometry, working fluid composition, operating characteristics, and intake/exhaust data. ZMOTTO accommodates a broad spectrum of reactants. The program will calculate many Otto cycle performance parameters for a number of consecutive cycles (a cycle being an interval of 720 crankangle degrees). A typical case will have a number of initial ideal cycles and progress through levels

  15. Process gas generator feeding internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwantscheff, G; Kostka, H; Henkel, H J

    1978-10-26

    The invention relates to a process gas generator feeding gaseous fuel to internal combustion piston engines. The cylinder linings of the internal combustion engine are enclosed by the catalytic reaction chamber of the process gas generator which contains perforated sintered nozzle bricks as carriers of the catalysts needed for the conversion. The reaction chamber is surrounded by the exhaust gas chamber around which a tube coil is ound which feeds the fuel charge to the reaction chamber after evaporation and mixing with exhaust gas and air. The fuel which may be used for this purpose, e.g., is low-octane gasoline or diesel fuel. In the reaction chamber the fuel is catalytically converted at temperatures above 200/sup 0/C, e.g., into low-molecular paraffins, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Operation of the internal combustion engine with a process gas generator greatly reduces the pollutant content of the exhaust gases.

  16. Powertrain sizing of electrically supercharged internal combustion engine vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murgovski, N.; Marinkov, S.; Hilgersom, D.; de Jager, B.; Steinbuch, M.; Sjöberg, J.

    2015-01-01

    We assess the concept of electrically supercharged internal combustion engines, where the supercharger, consisting of a compressor and an electric motor, draws electric power from a buffer (a battery or a supercapacitor). In particular, we investigate the scenario of downsizing the engine, while

  17. Carbon/Carbon Pistons for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon/carbon piston performs same function as aluminum pistons in reciprocating internal combustion engines while reducing weight and increasing mechanical and thermal efficiencies of engine. Carbon/carbon piston concept features low piston-to-cylinder wall clearance - so low piston rings and skirts unnecessary. Advantages possible by negligible coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon/carbon.

  18. Results of measurements of emission from internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Jovanovska, Vangelica

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model for solving the emission from internal combustion engines on the cross roads are made. The exhausted pipes from vehicles are substituted with a pipe in a centre of the cross road. This model is proved with measurement made on vehicles in the city of Bitola (Macedonia). (Author)

  19. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  20. Laboratory Test of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    Control Module (ECM) torque horsepower engine speed boost turbocharger throttle injector power curve...13 2.4 Calibration ............................................................................. 14...Control Units (ECU). Originally, diesel engines were naturally aspirated, but most have evolved to include forced induction devices (turbochargers

  1. Knocking in an Internal-combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, A; Voinov, A

    1940-01-01

    The question remains open of the relation between the phenomena of knocking in the engine and the explosion wave. The solution of this problem is the object of this paper. The tests were conducted on an aircraft engine with a pyrex glass window in the cylinder head. Photographs were then taken of various combinations of fuels and conditions.

  2. Electrostatic fuel conditioning of internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P. I.

    1982-01-01

    Diesel engines were tested to determine if they are influenced by the presence of electrostatic and magnetic fields. Field forces were applied in a variety of configurations including pretreatment of the fuel and air, however, no affect on engine performance was observed.

  3. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  4. DESIGNING AND PROTOTYPING OF AN ALTERNATIVE ELLIPTIC INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    AKSOY, Nadir; İÇİNGÜR, Yakup

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn the conventional internal combustion engines, the elements of linear movement cause the friction power to increase the manufacturing economy to deteriorate and also cause vibration. The diameter of intake valves, which is smaller than the diameter of the cylinder, causes the volumetric efficiency to decrease. In the two stroke engines, in which the number of work per cycle is increased, power output per unit volume (kW/liter) is higher; however, specific fuel consumption decreases ...

  5. Thermal Loss Determination for a Small Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    an engine driven compressor (supercharger) or by means of an exhaust turbine driven compressor (turbocharger). The compressed air has a higher density...low and high adjustment screws were screwed in (leaned) or out (enrich) as needed to bring the air /fuel mixture closer to stoichiometric conditions...THERMAL LOSS DETERMINATION FOR A SMALL INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE THESIS Joshua A. Rittenhouse, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENY-14-M-41 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR

  6. Fuels for internal-combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-10-23

    To reduce knocking in internal-conbustion engines, the fuel is mixed with a small quantity, for instance 10 percent, of the hydrocarbon obtained by extracting with liquid sulfur dioxide hydrocarbon material, such as mineral oil fractions, coal tar and lignite tar distillates of higher boiling point, for example distillates boiling between 150 and 300/sup 0/C.

  7. Bulkhead insert for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Clifford E.; Chottiner, Jeffrey Eliot; Williams, Rick L.; Thibault, Mark W.; Ervin, James Douglas; Boileau, James Maurice; McKeough, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    An engine includes a cylinder block defining at least one main bearing bulkhead adjacent to a cylinder, and a crankshaft rotatably housed within the block by a main bearing. A bulkhead insert has a cap portion, and an insert portion provided within the bulkhead. The insert portion has having first and second end regions connected by first and second straps. Each strap having a flanged beam cross section. The first and second ends of the insert portion are configured to connect a main bearing cap column to a cylinder head column. Each of the first and second end regions define at least one protrusion having a surface substantially normal to engine combustion and reactive loads. The cap portion is configured to mate with the first end region at the main bearing cap column and support the main bearing.

  8. Electronic ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, L W

    1980-11-20

    Mechanical ignition adjustment devices are sensitive to many effects, for example breakage, faults due to manufacturing tolerances, play in the linkage and the effect of a dirty or corrosive environment. It is therefore the purpose of the invention to provide an electronic ignition system which avoids the disadvantages of a mechanical system. The invention provides adjustment of the ignition point, which gives advance of the ignition timing with increasing speed. An output signal is formed, which supersedes the signal supplied by the electronic control system, so that the ignition is advanced. This also occurs with a larger crankshaft angle before top dead centre of the engine. The electronic control system combines with a source of AC time signals which has a generator as electrical transmitter and a DC battery and ignition coil. The rotor of the electrical generator is driven synchronised with the engine. Structural and functional details of the transistor control circuits are given in 5 patent claims.

  9. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  10. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  11. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  12. Exergetic analysis of cogeneration plants through integration of internal combustion engine and process simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonardo de Oliveira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: leonardo.carvalho@petrobras.com.br; Leiroz, Albino Kalab; Cruz, Manuel Ernani [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: leiroz@mecanica.ufrj.br, manuel@mecanica.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICEs) have been used in industry and power generation much before they were massively employed for transportation. Their high reliability, excellent power-to-weight ratio, and thermal efficiency have made them a competitive choice as main energy converters in small to medium sized power plants. Process simulators can model ICE powered energy plants with limited depth, due to the highly simplified ICE models used. Usually a better understanding of the global effects of different engine parameters is desirable, since the combustion process within the ICE is typically the main cause of exergy destruction in systems which utilize them. Dedicated commercial ICE simulators have reached such a degree of maturity, that they can adequately model a wide spectrum of phenomena that occur in ICEs. However, ICE simulators are unable to incorporate the remaining of power plant equipment and processes in their models. This paper presents and exploits the integration of an internal combustion engine simulator with a process simulator, so as to evaluate the construction of a fully coupled simulation platform to analyze the performance of ICE-based power plants. A simulation model of an actual cogeneration plant is used as a vehicle for application of the proposed computational methodology. The results show that by manipulating the engine mapping parameters, the overall efficiency of the plant can be improved. (author)

  13. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines. Kraftstoffeinspritzsystem fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, U.

    1990-09-13

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine is provided with a fuel supply line (13) and at least one electromagnetically actuated fuel injection valve (14) for apportioning a quantity of fuel for injection. A connection muzzle (24) coming from the valve body (23) juts into an opening (22) in the suction pipe (21) of the internal combustion engine. The end of the injection valve opposite the connecting muzzle (24) is connected with the fuel supply line via a fuel entry. The valve body (23) is enclosed by a casing (25) in order to provide the conditions required for a warm start. An annulus (31) extending over a large part of the axial length of the valve remains between the casing and the valve body (23). The annulus (31) communicates with the fuel flow through the fuel supply line (13) via an afflux and an efflux opening (32, 33) (Fig. 1).

  14. Minimal algorithm for running an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, V.; Borborean, A.; Ciocan, A.; Manciu, C.

    2018-01-01

    The internal combustion engine control is a well-known topic within automotive industry and is widely used. However, in research laboratories and universities the use of a control system trading is not the best solution because of predetermined operating algorithms, and calibrations (accessible only by the manufacturer) without allowing massive intervention from outside. Laboratory solutions on the market are very expensive. Consequently, in the paper we present a minimal algorithm required to start-up and run an internal combustion engine. The presented solution can be adapted to function on performance microcontrollers available on the market at the present time and at an affordable price. The presented algorithm was implemented in LabView and runs on a CompactRIO hardware platform.

  15. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyko, V I; Fisch, N J

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency.

  16. 46 CFR 32.35-5 - Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL. 32... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-5 Installation of internal combustion engines—TB/ALL. Each internal combustion engine located on the weather deck shall be provided with...

  17. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus for internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigemori, M; Eguchi, N

    1975-01-07

    An exhaust gas recirculation device to reduce nitrogen oxides emission from internal combustion engines is described. The recirculation is achieved by employing a tube connecting between the exhaust pipe and intake tube. A throttle valve is installed within the exhaust pipe between the muffler and recirculation tube, and regulated by exhaust gas temperature. Whenever the gas temperature is high, the valve closes and increases the gas flow to the intake tube. A temperature sensor is installed within the exhaust pipe and controls a solenoid or magnetic air valve linking to the throttle valve through a relay. The recirculation tube can be cooled by a fan to improve the engine power.

  18. Cylinder head fastening structure for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futakuchi, Y.; Oshiro, N.

    1988-01-26

    In a construction for an overhead cam internal combustion engine comprising a cylinder head adapted to be affixed to another component of the engine by at least one fastener having a tool receiving portion for tightening thereof and having a bearing cap affixed to the cylinder head and rotatably journaling the overhead camshaft, the improvement is described comprising the bearing cap having a portion overlying the fastener tool receiving portion, and means defining an access opening passing through the bearing cap and adapted to pass a tool for tightening of the fastener without removal of the bearing cap.

  19. Possibility of reducing CO2 emissions from internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dawid; Mamala, Jarosław; Śmieja, Michał; Prażnowski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Article defines on the possibility of reduction CO2 of the internal combustion engine and presents the analysis based on originally conducted studies. The increase in overall engine efficiency is sought after by all engineers dealing with engine construction, one of the major ways to reduce CO2 emissions is to increase the compression ratio. The application of the compression ratio that has been increased constructional in the engine will, on one hand, bring about the increase in the theoretical efficiency, but, on the other hand, require a system for pressure control at a higher engine load in order to prevent engine knocking. For the purposes of the article there was carried out a number of studies and compiled results, and on their basis determined what have a major impact on the reducing CO2.

  20. Experimental results with hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, P. C. T.; Mclean, W. J.; Homan, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The paper focuses on the most important experimental findings for hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, with particular reference to the application of these findings to the assessment of the potential of hydrogen engines. Emphasis is on the various tradeoffs that can be made, such as between maximum efficiency, maximum power, and minimum NO emissions. The various possibilities for induction and ignition are described. Some projections are made about areas in which hydrogen engines may find their initial application and about optimum ways to design such engines. It is shown that hydrogen-fueled reciprocal internal combustion engines offer important advantages with respect to thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. Problems arising from preignition can suitably be avoided by restricting the fuel-air equivalence ratio to values below about 0.5. The direct cylinder injection appears to be a very attractive way to operate the engine, because it combines a wide range of possible power outputs with a high thermal efficiency and very low NO emissions at part loads.

  1. The Thermodynamics of Internal Combustion Engines: Examples of Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerald A. Caton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of the development of internal combustion (IC engines continues to be higher performance and efficiencies. A major aspect of achieving higher performance and efficiencies is based on fundamental thermodynamics. Both the first and second laws of thermodynamics provide strategies for and limits to the thermal efficiencies of engines. The current work provides three examples of the insights that thermodynamics provides to the performance and efficiencies of an IC engine. The first example evaluates low heat rejection engine concepts, and, based on thermodynamics, demonstrates the difficulty of this concept for increasing efficiencies. The second example compares and contrasts the thermodynamics associated with external and internal exhaust gas dilution. Finally, the third example starts with a discussion of the Otto cycle analysis and explains why this is an incorrect model for the IC engine. An important thermodynamic property that is responsible for many of the observed effects is specific heat.

  2. Variable compression ratio device for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Ronald P.; Faletti, James J.

    2004-03-23

    An internal combustion engine, particularly suitable for use in a work machine, is provided with a combustion cylinder, a cylinder head at an end of the combustion cylinder and a primary piston reciprocally disposed within the combustion cylinder. The cylinder head includes a secondary cylinder and a secondary piston reciprocally disposed within the secondary cylinder. An actuator is coupled with the secondary piston for controlling the position of the secondary piston dependent upon the position of the primary piston. A communication port establishes fluid flow communication between the combustion cylinder and the secondary cylinder.

  3. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  4. Observing and modeling nonlinear dynamics in an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, C.S.; Kennel, M.B.; Finney, C.E.; Connolly, F.T.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a low-dimensional, physically motivated, nonlinear map as a model for cyclic combustion variation in spark-ignited internal combustion engines. A key feature is the interaction between stochastic, small-scale fluctuations in engine parameters and nonlinear deterministic coupling between successive engine cycles. Residual cylinder gas from each cycle alters the in-cylinder fuel-air ratio and thus the combustion efficiency in succeeding cycles. The model close-quote s simplicity allows rapid simulation of thousands of engine cycles, permitting statistical studies of cyclic-variation patterns and providing physical insight into this technologically important phenomenon. Using symbol statistics to characterize the noisy dynamics, we find good quantitative matches between our model and experimental time-series measurements. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  5. Holographic aids for internal combustion engine flow studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Worldwide interest in improving the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (I.C.) engines has sparked research efforts designed to learn more about the flow processes of these engines. The flow fields must be understood prior to fuel injection in order to design efficient valves, piston geometries, and fuel injectors. Knowledge of the flow field is also necessary to determine the heat transfer to combustion chamber surfaces. Computational codes can predict velocity and turbulence patterns, but experimental verification is mandatory to justify their basic assumptions. Due to their nonintrusive nature, optical methods are ideally suited to provide the necessary velocity verification data. Optical sytems such as Schlieren photography, laser velocimetry, and illuminated particle visualization are used in I.C. engines, and now their versatility is improved by employing holography. These holographically enhanced optical techniques are described with emphasis on their applications in I.C. engines.

  6. 40 CFR 60.4210 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4210 Section 60.4210 Protection of... CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? (a) Stationary CI internal combustion engine... certified to the standards in 40 CFR part 1039. (b) Stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers...

  7. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  8. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Armando; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user. PMID:27034893

  9. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Armando; Ramos, Rogelio; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user.

  10. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  11. Impact of Fuel Type on the Internal Combustion Engine Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Schauperl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the influence of liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuel on the condition of the internal combustion engine. The traffic, energy, economic and ecological influence as well as the types of fuel are studied and analyzed in an unbiased manner, objectively, and in detail, and the obtained results are compared with the condition of the engine of a vehicle powered by the stipulated fuel, petrol Eurosuper 95. The study was carried out on two identical passenger cars with one being fitted with gas installation. The obtained results show that properly installed gas installations in vehicles and the usage of LPG have no significant influence on the driving performances, but they affect significantly the ecological and economic parameters of using passenger cars.

  12. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  13. Automatic compression adjusting mechanism for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Means for controlling the compression pressure in an internal combustion engine having one or more cylinders and subject to widely varying power output requirements are provided. Received between each crank pin and connecting rod is an eccentric sleeve selectively capable of rotation about the crank pin and/or inside the rod and for latching with the rod to vary the effective length of the connecting rod and thereby the clearance volume of the engine. The eccentric normally rotates inside the connecting rod during the exhaust and intake strokes but a latching pawl carried by the eccentric is movable radially outwardly to latch the rod and eccentric together during the compression and power strokes. A control valve responds to intake manifold pressure to time the supply of hydraulic fluid to move the latch-pawl outwardly, varying the effective rod length to maintain a substantially optimum firing chamber pressure at all intake manifold pressures.

  14. The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, K.

    1947-01-01

    While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given. The critical evaluation of the possibilities of development and fields of application of the various combustion engine systems, wherever it is not clearly expressed in the publications referred to, represents the opinion of the author. The state of development of the internal-combustion engine is in its main features generally known. It is used predominantly at the present time for the propulsion of aircraft and road vehicles and, except for certain restrictions due to war conditions, has been used to an increasing extent in ships and rail cars and in some fields applied as stationary power generators. In the Diesel engine a most economical heat engine with a useful efficiency of about 40 percent exists and in the Otto aircraft engine a heat engine of greatest power per unit weight of about 0.5 kilogram per horsepower.

  15. A combined thermodynamic cycle used for waste heat recovery of internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Maogang; Zhang, Xinxin; Zeng, Ke; Gao, Ke

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a steady-state experiment, energy balance and exergy analysis of exhaust gas in order to improve the recovery of the waste heat of an internal combustion engine (ICE). Considering the different characteristics of the waste heat of exhaust gas, cooling water, and lubricant, a combined thermodynamic cycle for waste heat recovery of ICE is proposed. This combined thermodynamic cycle consists of two cycles: the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), for recovering the waste heat of lubricant and high-temperature exhaust gas, and the Kalina cycle, for recovering the waste heat of low-temperature cooling water. Based on Peng–Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS), the thermodynamic parameters in the high-temperature ORC were calculated and determined via an in-house computer program. Suitable working fluids used in high-temperature ORC are proposed and the performance of this combined thermodynamic cycle is analyzed. Compared with the traditional cycle configuration, more waste heat can be recovered by the combined cycle introduced in this paper. -- Highlights: ► We study the energy balance of fuel in internal combustion engine. ► Heat recovery effect of exhaust gas is good when ICE is at a high-load condition. ► We propose a new combined thermodynamic cycle for waste heat of ICE. ► The combined cycle has a higher recovery efficiency than previous configurations.

  16. Fractal and spectroscopic analysis of soot from internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, M. S.; Saritha Devi, H. V.; Raj, Vimal; Sankararaman, S.

    2018-03-01

    Today diesel engines are used worldwide for various applications and very importantly in transportation. Hydrocarbons are the most widespread precursors among carbon sources employed in the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The aging of internal combustion engine is an important parameter in deciding the carbon emission and particulate matter due to incomplete combustion of fuel. In the present work, an attempt has been made for the effective utilization of the aged engines for potential applicationapplications in fuel cells and nanoelectronics. To analyze the impact of aging, the particulate matter rich in carbon content areis collected from diesel engines of different ages. The soot with CNTs is purified by the liquid phase oxidation method and analyzed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric analysis. The SEM image contains self-similar patterns probing fractal analysis. The fractal dimensions of the samples are determined by the box counting method. We could find a greater amount of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the particulate matter emitted by aged diesel engines and thereby giving information about the combustion efficiency of the engine. The SWCNT rich sample finds a wide range of applicationapplications in nanoelectronics and thereby pointing a potential use of these aged engines.

  17. Biogas utilization as flammable for internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this work the energetic potential stored in form of generated biogas of organic industrial wastes treatment is analyzed. Biogas utilization as flammable at internal combustion engine coupled to electrical energy generating is studied in the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Bucaramanga city (Colombia). This Plant was designed for 160.000 habitants treatment capacity, 1300 m3/h wealth, 170 BDO/m3 residues concentration and 87% process efficiency. The plant generate 2.000 m3/d of biogas. In laboratory trials was worked with biogas originating from Treatment Plant, both without purifying and purified, and the obtained results were compared with both yields determined with 86-octanes gasoline and natural gas. The analysis of pollutant by-products generated in combustion process as leak gases, present corrosive compounds and not desirable. elements in biogas composition are included

  18. Exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines. Abgasturbolader fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnert, R.; Dommes, W.; Gerwig, W.

    1982-01-21

    The invention aimes at the heat protection of a turbocharger for internal combustion engines. The turbine is feeded with exhaust gas and drives the shaft of a compressor. For resolving this problem a thermal shield has been installed on the backside of the turbine. The shaft is sealed with an elastic gasket ring. This gasket avoids the deposition of dust and dirt. As a consequence of this constructive measure a growth of tinder and oxides can be avoided as well as the deposition of dirt. A constant reflection factor is ensured. The thermal shield can be manufactured of thin sheet with a nickel surface and can fastened with distance pieces on the backside of the turbine case. Furthermore it is possible to use a ceramic heat shield.

  19. Internal combustion engines fueled by natural gas-hydrogen mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akansu, S.O.; Kahraman, N. [Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey). Engineering Faculty; Dulger, Z. [Kocaeli University (Turkey). Engineering Faculty; Veziroglu, T.N. [University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). College of Engineering

    2004-11-01

    In this study, a survey of research papers on utilization of natural gas-hydrogen mixtures in internal combustion engines is carried out. In general, HC, CO{sub 2}, and CO emissions decrease with increasing H{sub 2}, but NO{sub x} emissions generally increase. If a catalytic converter is used, NO{sub x} emission values can be decreased to extremely low levels. Consequently, equivalence zero emission vehicles (EZEV) standards may be reached. Efficiency values vary with H{sub 2} amount, spark timing, compression ratio, equivalence ratio, etc. Under certain conditions, efficiency values can be increased. In terms of BSFC, emissions and BTE, a mixture of low hydrogen percentage is suitable for using. (author)

  20. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35-35 Section 62.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for prime...

  1. Recurrence plot for parameters analysing of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, O.; Ilie, C. O.; Marinescu, M.; Vilau, R.; Grosu, D.

    2015-11-01

    In many technical disciplines modem data analysis techniques has been successfully applied to understand the complexity of the system. The growing volume of theoretical knowledge about systems dynamic's offered researchers the opportunity to look for non-linear dynamics in data whose evolution linear models are unable to explain in a satisfactory manner. One approach in this respect is Recurrence Analysis - RA which is a graphical method designed to locate hidden recurring patterns, nonstationarity and structural changes. RA approach arose in natural sciences like physics and biology but quickly was adopted in economics and engineering. Meanwhile. The fast development of computer resources has provided powerful tools to perform this new and complex model. One free software which was used to perform our analysis is Visual Recurrence Analysis - VRA developed by Eugene Kononov. As is presented in this paper, the recurrence plot investigation for the analyzing of the internal combustion engine shows some of the RPA capabilities in this domain. We chose two specific engine parameters measured in two different tests to perform the RPA. These parameters are injection impulse width and engine angular speed and the tests are I11n and I51n. There were computed graphs for each of them. Graphs were analyzed and compared to obtain a conclusion. This work is an incipient research, being one of the first attempts of using recurrence plot for analyzing automotive dynamics. It opens a wide field of action for future research programs.

  2. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  3. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and vehicles with certain electronic equipment when transported by aircraft or vessel. When an... vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines, and battery powered vehicles or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.220 Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines This appendix sets forth the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's...

  5. Internal combustion engines - Modelling, estimation and control issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigild, C.W.

    2001-12-01

    Alternative power-trains have become buzz words in the automotive industry in the recent past. New technologies like Lithium-Ion batteries or fuel cells combined with high efficient electrical motors show promising results. However both technologies are extremely expensive and important questions like 'How are we going to supply fuel-cells with hydrogen in an environmentally friendly way?', 'How are we going to improve the range - and recharging speed - of electrical vehicles?' and 'How will our existing infrastructure cope with such changes?' are still left unanswered. Hence, the internal combustion engine with all its shortcomings is to stay with us for the next many years. What the future will really bring in this area is uncertain, but one thing can be said for sure; the time of the pipe in - pipe out engine concept is over. Modem engines, Diesel or gasoline, have in the recent past been provided with many new technologies to improve both performance and handling and to cope with the tightening emission legislations. However, as new devices are included, the number of control inputs is also gradually increased. Hence, the control matrix dimension has grown to a considerably size, and the typical table and regression based engine calibration procedures currently in use today contain both challenging and time-consuming tasks. One way to improve understanding of engines and provide a more comprehensive picture of the control problem is by use of simplified physical modelling - one of the main thrusts of this dissertation. The application of simplified physical modelling as a foundation for engine estimation and control design is first motivated by two control applications. The control problem concerns Air/Fuel ratio control of Spark Ignition engines. Two different ways of control are presented; one based on. a model based Extended Kalman Filter updated predictor, and one based on robust H {infinity} techniques. Both controllers are

  6. Producer gas production of Indonesian biomass in fixed-bed downdraft gasifier as an alternative fuels for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, J. P.; Lisyanto; Daryanto, E.; Tambunan, B. H.

    2018-03-01

    downdraft biomass gasification reactors, coupled with reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) are a viable technology for small scale heat and power generation. The direct use of producer gas as fuel subtitution in an ICE could be of great interest since Indonesia has significant land area in different forest types that could be used to produce bioenergy and convert forest materials to bioenergy for use in energy production and the versatility of this engine. This paper will look into the aspect of biomass energie as a contributor to energy mix in Indonesia. This work also contains information gathered from numerous previews study on the downdraft gasifier based on experimental or simulation study on the ability of producer gas as fuels for internal combustion engines aplication. All data will be used to complement the preliminary work on biomass gasification using downdraft to produce producer gas and its application to engines.

  7. Four-Stroke, Internal Combustion Engine Performance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard C.

    In this thesis, two models of four-stroke, internal combustion engines are created and compared. The first model predicts the intake and exhaust processes using isentropic flow equations augmented by discharge coefficients. The second model predicts the intake and exhaust processes using a compressible, time-accurate, Quasi-One-Dimensional (Q1D) approach. Both models employ the same heat release and reduced-order modeling of the cylinder charge. Both include friction and cylinder loss models so that the predicted performance values can be compared to measurements. The results indicate that the isentropic-based model neglects important fluid mechanics and returns inaccurate results. The Q1D flow model, combined with the reduced-order model of the cylinder charge, is able to capture the dominant intake and exhaust fluid mechanics and produces results that compare well with measurement. Fluid friction, convective heat transfer, piston ring and skirt friction and temperature-varying specific heats in the working fluids are all shown to be significant factors in engine performance predictions. Charge blowby is shown to play a lesser role.

  8. Motor vehicles and internal combustion engines; Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargende, M.; Wiedemann, J. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The book comprises the papers presented at the 3rd Stuttgart symposium. It reviews the state of the art in science and engineering and outlines future perspectives in the fields of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines. As the conference, the book comprises three sections: 'Engines' on DI spark ignition engines and diesel engines, mixing, combustion and exhaust purification. 'Motor cars' discusses acoustics and aeroacoustics, aerodynamics and wind tunnel technology, comfort, driving gear and stability control. 'Motor vehicle systems' contains papers on thermomanagement, control and automation, real-time applications in motor car simulation, software tools in the control systems development process, and simulation in motor vehicle systems development. Finally, the plenary paper 'Fuel cells, a solution for non-polluting motor car drives' by Dr.-Ing. F. Panik is also contained in the book. [German] Das vorliegende Buch enthaelt die Vortraege des 3. Stuttgarter Symposiums. Es gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den aktuellen Stand von Wissenschaft und Technik und zeigt zukuenftige Perspektiven im Bereich Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren. Entsprechend der Tagung gliedert sich das Buch in drei Teile. Teil 1 'Motoren' besteht aus Vortraegen ueber Ottomotoren mit Direkteinspritzung und Dieselmotoren, Gemischbildung, Verbrennung und Abgasnachbehandlung, Analyse, Simulation und Motorkomponenten. Teil 2 'Kraftfahrzeuge' enthaelt Arbeiten ueber Fahrzeugakustik und Aeroakustik, Fahrzeug-Aerodynamik und Windkanaltechnik, Fahrzeugkomfort, Fahrwerk und Fahrdynamik. Teil 3 'Kraftfahrzeugsystemtechnik' enthaelt Beitraege ueber Thermomanagement, Regelungs- und Automatisierungstechnik, Echtzeitanwendungen in der Kfz-Simulationstechnik, Softwaretools im Steuergeraete-Entwicklungsprozess und Simulation in der Kraftfahrzeug-Systementwicklung. Der abschliessende Plenarvortrag des Symposiums &apos

  9. Air-steam hybrid engine : an alternative to internal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 project, an energy-efficient air-steam propulsion system has been developed and patented, and key performance attributes have been demonstrated to be superior to those of internal combustion e...

  10. Control of internal combustion engines and hybrid engines; Regelung von Verbrennungsmotoren und Hybridantrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isermann, R. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Forschungsgruppe Regelungstechnik und Prozessautomatisierung

    2007-07-15

    In the development of internal combustion engines, there are increasingly rigid specifications for further reduction of consumption, exhaust and noise emissions, better specific performance, lower weight, and good driving characteristics. The contributions in this special issue provide an insight into the many aspects of internal combustion engine and hybrid engine control. The editors of at journal took care to select interesting papers presented at the 3. VDI/VDE-GMA conference AUTOREG 2006. They show how control and mechatronics support the high demands on functionality in motor car engineering. (orig.)

  11. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  12. Modeling reacting gases and aftertreatment devices for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depcik, Christopher David

    As more emphasis is placed worldwide on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, automobile manufacturers have to create more efficient engines. Simultaneously, legislative agencies want these engines to produce fewer problematic emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. In response, newer combustion methods, like homogeneous charge compression ignition and fuel cells, are being researched alongside the old standard of efficiency, the compression ignition or diesel engine. These newer technologies present a number of benefits but still have significant challenges to overcome. As a result, renewed interest has risen in making diesel engines cleaner. The key to cleaning up the diesel engine is the placement of aftertreatment devices in the exhaust. These devices have shown great potential in reducing emission levels below regulatory levels while still allowing for increased fuel economy versus a gasoline engine. However, these devices are subject to many flow control issues. While experimental evaluation of these devices helps to understand these issues better, it is impossible to solve the problem through experimentation alone because of time and cost constraints. Because of this, accurate models are needed in conjunction with the experimental work. In this dissertation, the author examines the entire exhaust system including reacting gas dynamics and aftertreatment devices, and develops a complete numerical model for it. The author begins by analyzing the current one-dimensional gas-dynamics simulation models used for internal combustion engine simulations. It appears that more accurate and faster numerical method is available, in particular, those developed in aeronautical engineering, and the author successfully implements one for the exhaust system. The author then develops a comprehensive literature search to better understand the aftertreatment devices. A number of these devices require a secondary injection of fuel or reductant in the exhaust stream

  13. The thermodynamic characteristics of high efficiency, internal-combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermodynamics of an automotive engine are determined using a cycle simulation. ► The net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% to 53.9%. ► High compression ratio, lean mixtures and high EGR were the important features. ► Efficiency increased due to lower heat losses, and increased work conversion. ► The nitric oxides were essentially zero due to the low combustion temperatures. - Abstract: Recent advancements have demonstrated new combustion modes for internal combustion engines that exhibit low nitric oxide emissions and high thermal efficiencies. These new combustion modes involve various combinations of stratification, lean mixtures, high levels of EGR, multiple injections, variable valve timings, two fuels, and other such features. Although the exact combination of these features that provides the best design is not yet clear, the results (low emissions with high efficiencies) are of major interest. The current work is directed at determining some of the fundamental thermodynamic reasons for the relatively high efficiencies and to quantify these factors. Both the first and second laws are used in this assessment. An automotive engine (5.7 l) which included some of the features mentioned above (e.g., high compression ratios, lean mixtures, and high EGR) was evaluated using a thermodynamic cycle simulation. These features were examined for a moderate load (bmep = 900 kPa), moderate speed (2000 rpm) condition. By the use of lean operation, high EGR levels, high compression ratio and other features, the net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% to 53.9%. These increases are explained in a step-by-step fashion. The major reasons for these improvements include the higher compression ratio and the dilute charge (lean mixture, high EGR). The dilute charge resulted in lower temperatures which in turn resulted in lower heat loss. In addition, the lower temperatures resulted in higher ratios of the specific heats which

  14. Advances for laser ignition of internal combustion and rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2011-01-01

    The scope of the PhD thesis presented here is the investigation of theoretical and practical aspects of laser-induced spark ignition and laser thermal ignition. Laser ignition systems are currently undergoing a rapidly development with growing intensity involving more and more research groups who mainly concentrate on the field of car and large combustion engines. This research is primarily driven by the engagement to meet the increasingly strict emission limits and by the intention to use the limited energy reserves more efficiently. For internal combustion engines, laser plasma-induced ignition will allow to combine the goals for legally required reductions of pollutant emissions and higher engine efficiencies. Also for rocket engines laser ignition turns out to be very attractive. A highly reliable ignition system like laser ignition would represent an option for introducing non-toxic propellants in order to replace highly toxic and carcinogenic hydrazine-based propellants commonly used in launch vehicle upper stages and satellites. The most important results on laser ignition and laser plasma generation, accomplished by the author and, in some respects, enriched by cooperation with colleagues are presented in the following. The emphasis of this thesis is placed on the following issues: - Two-color effects on laser plasma generation - Theoretical considerations about the focal volume concerning plasma generation - Plasma transmission experiments - Ignition experiments on laser-induced ignition - Ignition experiments on thermally-induced ignition - Feasibility study on laser ignition of rocket engines The purpose of the two-color laser plasma experiments is to investigate possible constructive interference effects of driving fields that are not monochromatic, but contain (second) harmonic radiation with respect to the goal of lowering the plasma generation threshold. Such effects have been found in a number of related processes, such as laser ablation or high

  15. PARAMETER MATCHING OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND ELECTROMECHANICAL POWER TRAIN OF WHEEL TRACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kliuchnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers stepless electromechanical power train of a wheel tractor. Methodology for parameter matching of electromechanical transmission and internal combustion engine for their optimum performance as part of a power wheel tractor unit. 

  16. Progress in Finite Time Thermodynamic Studies for Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlin Ge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of introducing the origin and development of finite time thermodynamics (FTT, this paper reviews the progress in FTT optimization for internal combustion engine (ICE cycles from the following four aspects: the studies on the optimum performances of air standard endoreversible (with only the irreversibility of heat resistance and irreversible ICE cycles, including Otto, Diesel, Atkinson, Brayton, Dual, Miller, Porous Medium and Universal cycles with constant specific heats, variable specific heats, and variable specific ratio of the conventional and quantum working fluids (WFs; the studies on the optimum piston motion (OPM trajectories of ICE cycles, including Otto and Diesel cycles with Newtonian and other heat transfer laws; the studies on the performance limits of ICE cycles with non-uniform WF with Newtonian and other heat transfer laws; as well as the studies on the performance simulation of ICE cycles. In the studies, the optimization objectives include work, power, power density, efficiency, entropy generation rate, ecological function, and so on. The further direction for the studies is explored.

  17. Fault Diagnosis of Internal Combustion Engine Valve Clearance Using the Impact Commencement Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhinong; Wang, Zijia; Zhang, Jinjie

    2017-01-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICEs) are widely used in many important fields. The valve train clearance of an ICE usually exceeds the normal value due to wear or faulty adjustment. This work aims at diagnosing the valve clearance fault based on the vibration signals measured on the engine cylinder heads. The non-stationarity of the ICE operating condition makes it difficult to obtain the nominal baseline, which is always an awkward problem for fault diagnosis. This paper overcomes the problem by inspecting the timing of valve closing impacts, of which the referenced baseline can be obtained by referencing design parameters rather than extraction during healthy conditions. To accurately detect the timing of valve closing impact from vibration signals, we carry out a new method to detect and extract the commencement of the impacts. The results of experiments conducted on a twelve-cylinder ICE test rig show that the approach is capable of extracting the commencement of valve closing impact accurately and using only one feature can give a superior monitoring of valve clearance. With the help of this technique, the valve clearance fault becomes detectable even without the comparison to the baseline, and the changing trend of the clearance could be trackable. PMID:29244722

  18. Fault Diagnosis of Internal Combustion Engine Valve Clearance Using the Impact Commencement Detection Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhinong; Mao, Zhiwei; Wang, Zijia; Zhang, Jinjie

    2017-12-15

    Internal combustion engines (ICEs) are widely used in many important fields. The valve train clearance of an ICE usually exceeds the normal value due to wear or faulty adjustment. This work aims at diagnosing the valve clearance fault based on the vibration signals measured on the engine cylinder heads. The non-stationarity of the ICE operating condition makes it difficult to obtain the nominal baseline, which is always an awkward problem for fault diagnosis. This paper overcomes the problem by inspecting the timing of valve closing impacts, of which the referenced baseline can be obtained by referencing design parameters rather than extraction during healthy conditions. To accurately detect the timing of valve closing impact from vibration signals, we carry out a new method to detect and extract the commencement of the impacts. The results of experiments conducted on a twelve-cylinder ICE test rig show that the approach is capable of extracting the commencement of valve closing impact accurately and using only one feature can give a superior monitoring of valve clearance. With the help of this technique, the valve clearance fault becomes detectable even without the comparison to the baseline, and the changing trend of the clearance could be trackable.

  19. Computation and Analysis of EGR Mixing in Internal Combustion Engine Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Sakowitz, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with turbulent mixing processes occurring in internal combustion engines, when applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). EGR is a very efficient way to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in internal combustion engines. Exhaust gases are recirculated and mixed with the fresh intake air, reducing the oxygen con- centration of the combustion gas and thus the peak combustion temperatures. This temperature decrease results in a reduction of NOx emissions. When applying EGR...

  20. Modeling of Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on a Multi-Stage Gasifier and Internal Combustion Engines of Various Power Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is concerned with an integrated system of internal combustion engine and mini combined heat and power plant (ICE-CHP). The system is based on multi-stage wood biomass gasification. The use of producer gas in the system affects negatively the internal combustion engine performance and, therefore, reduces the efficiency of the ICE-CHP plant. A mathematical model of an internal combustion engine running on low-calorie producer gas was developed using an overview of Russian and foreign manufacturers of reciprocating units, that was made in the research. A thermal calculation was done for four-stroke gas engines of different rated power outputs (30, 100 and 250 kW), running on producer gas (CO2 - 10.2, CO - 45.8, N2 - 38.8%). Thermal calculation demonstrates that the engine exhaust gas temperature reaches 500 - 600°C at the rated power level and with the lower engine power, the temperature gets higher. For example, for an internal combustion engine power of 1000 kW the temperature of exhaust gases equals 400°C. A comparison of the efficiency of engine operation on natural gas and producer gas shows that with the use of producer gas the power output declines from 300 to 250 kWe. The reduction in the effective efficiency in this case makes up 2%. The measures are proposed to upgrade the internal combustion engine to enable it to run on low-calorie producer gas.

  1. Small Engines as Bottoming Cycle Steam Expanders for Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Weerasinghe, Rohitha; Hounsham, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Heat recovery bottoming cycles for internal combustion engines have opened new avenues for research into small steam expanders [1]. Dependable data for small steam expanders will allow us to predict on their suitability as bottoming cycle engines and the fuel economy achieved by using them as bottoming cycles. Wankel Engines, with its lower resistance properties at small scale provide excellent contenders for bottoming cycle expanders. Present paper is based on results of experiments carried ...

  2. Innovative Calibration Method for System Level Simulation Models of Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Prah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines a procedure for the computer-controlled calibration of the combined zero-dimensional (0D and one-dimensional (1D thermodynamic simulation model of a turbocharged internal combustion engine (ICE. The main purpose of the calibration is to determine input parameters of the simulation model in such a way as to achieve the smallest difference between the results of the measurements and the results of the numerical simulations with minimum consumption of the computing time. An innovative calibration methodology is based on a novel interaction between optimization methods and physically based methods of the selected ICE sub-systems. Therein physically based methods were used for steering the division of the integral ICE to several sub-models and for determining parameters of selected components considering their governing equations. Innovative multistage interaction between optimization methods and physically based methods allows, unlike the use of well-established methods that rely only on the optimization techniques, for successful calibration of a large number of input parameters with low time consumption. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable for efficient calibration of simulation models of advanced ICEs.

  3. Comparison of different chemical kinetic mechanisms of methane combustion in an internal combustion engine configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Ennetta Ridha; Hamdi Mohamed; Said Rachid

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical kinetic mechanisms of methane combustion were tested and compared using the internal combustion engine model of Chemkin 4.02 [1]: one-step global reaction mechanism, four-step mechanism, and the standard detailed scheme GRIMECH 3.0. This study shows good concordances, especially between the four-step and the detailed mechanisms in the prediction of temperature and main species profiles. But reduced schemes were incapables to predict pollutant emissions in an internal combustion...

  4. Dynamical and quasi-static multi-physical models of a diesel internal combustion engine using Energetic Macroscopic Representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrein, L.; Bouscayrol, A.; Cheng, Y.; El Fassi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) dynamical and static models. • Organization of ICE model using Energetic Macroscopic Representation. • Description of the distribution of the chemical, thermal and mechanical power. • Implementation of the ICE model in a global vehicle model. - Abstract: In the simulation of new vehicles, the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is generally modeled by a static map. This model yields the mechanical power and the fuel consumption. But some studies require the heat energy from the ICE to be considered (i.e. waste heat recovery, thermal regulation of the cabin). A dynamical multi-physical model of a diesel engine is developed to consider its heat energy. This model is organized using Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) in order to be interconnected to other various models of vehicle subsystems. An experimental validation is provided. Moreover a multi-physical quasi-static model is also derived. According to different modeling aims, a comparison of the dynamical and the quasi-static model is discussed in the case of the simulation of a thermal vehicle. These multi-physical models with different simulation time consumption provide good basis for studying the effects of the thermal energy on the vehicle behaviors, including the possibilities of waste heat recovery

  5. Vibro-acoustic condition monitoring of Internal Combustion Engines: A critical review of existing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, S.; Bonfiglio, P.; Pompoli, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the state-of-the-art strategies and techniques based on vibro-acoustic signals that can monitor and diagnose malfunctions in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) under both test bench and vehicle operating conditions. Over recent years, several authors have summarized what is known in critical reviews mainly focused on reciprocating machines in general or on specific signal processing techniques: no attempts to deal with IC engine condition monitoring have been made. This paper first gives a brief summary of the generation of sound and vibration in ICEs in order to place further discussion on fault vibro-acoustic diagnosis in context. An overview of the monitoring and diagnostic techniques described in literature using both vibration and acoustic signals is also provided. Different faulty conditions are described which affect combustion, mechanics and the aerodynamics of ICEs. The importance of measuring acoustic signals, as opposed to vibration signals, is due since the former seem to be more suitable for implementation on on-board monitoring systems in view of their non-intrusive behaviour, capability in simultaneously capturing signatures from several mechanical components and because of the possibility of detecting faults affecting airborne transmission paths. In view of the recent needs of the industry to (-) optimize component structural durability adopting long-life cycles, (-) verify the engine final status at the end of the assembly line and (-) reduce the maintenance costs monitoring the ICE life during vehicle operations, monitoring and diagnosing system requests are continuously growing up. The present review can be considered a useful guideline for test engineers in understanding which types of fault can be diagnosed by using vibro-acoustic signals in sufficient time in both test bench and operating conditions and which transducer and signal processing technique (of which the essential background theory is here reported) could be

  6. Cylinder head seal for piston engines especially internal combustion engines. Zylinderkopfdichtung fuer Hubkolbenmaschinen, insbesondere Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, H.; Winter, J.

    1991-01-17

    The invention concerns a cylinder head seal for reciprocating piston engines especially internal combustion engines and preferentially those with cylinder sleeves. With performances of internal combustion engines encreasing all the time it is becoming more and more difficult to seal the cylinder heat. The invention proposes a ring seal whose sides are plastically deformed when the cylinder headed screws are tightened. The inner deformations of the cylinder head resulting from the pressure forces inside the cylinder are compensated by means of elastic spring action of the combustion chamber sealing ring. The dimension of land, groove and sides are matched in such a way as to prevent any seal squeezing during plastification which would result in a deformation of the cylinder sleeve. The ring can therefore be set directly into the centering of the cylinder sleeve. Separate centering devices are not required.

  7. Internal combustion engines a detailed introduction to the thermodynamics of spark and compression ignition engines, their design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Rowland S

    1979-01-01

    Internal Combustion of Engines: A Detailed Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Spark and Compression Ignition Engines, Their Design and Development focuses on the design, development, and operations of spark and compression ignition engines. The book first describes internal combustion engines, including rotary, compression, and indirect or spark ignition engines. The publication then discusses basic thermodynamics and gas dynamics. Topics include first and second laws of thermodynamics; internal energy and enthalpy diagrams; gas mixtures and homocentric flow; and state equation. The text ta

  8. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  9. Hydrogen enrichment of an internal combustion engine via closed loop thermochemical recuperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, J.G.; Hofman, T.; Erickson, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen enrichment in an internal combustion engine can greatly improve efficiency and at the same time reduce emissions without the need for extensive engine modifications. One option for a hydrogen source for the enrichment is actively producing hydrogen on-board the vehicle through steam

  10. Convex modeling and sizing of electrically supercharged internal combustion engine powertrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkov, S.; Murgovski, N.; de Jager, B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates a concept of an electrically supercharged internal combustion engine powertrain. A supercharger consists of an electric motor and a compressor. It draws its power from an electric energy buffer (e.g., a battery) and helps the engine during short-duration high-power demands.

  11. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.; Bourn, Gary D [Laramie, WY

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  12. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an internal combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  13. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an international combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  14. Small Engines as Bottoming Cycle Steam Expanders for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohitha Weerasinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery bottoming cycles for internal combustion engines have opened new avenues for research into small steam expanders (Stobart and Weerasinghe, 2006. Dependable data for small steam expanders will allow us to predict their suitability as bottoming cycle engines and the fuel economy achieved by using them as bottoming cycles. Present paper is based on results of experiments carried out on small scale Wankel and two-stroke reciprocating engines as air expanders and as steam expanders. A test facility developed at Sussex used for measurements is comprised of a torque, power and speed measurements, electronic actuation of valves, synchronized data acquisition of pressure, and temperatures of steam and inside of the engines for steam and internal combustion cycles. Results are presented for four engine modes, namely, reciprocating engine in uniflow steam expansion mode and air expansion mode and rotary Wankel engine in steam expansion mode and air expansion mode. The air tests will provide base data for friction and motoring effects whereas steam tests will tell how effective the engines will be in this mode. Results for power, torque, and p-V diagrams are compared to determine the change in performance from air expansion mode to steam expansion mode.

  15. Development of the regulation mapping of 1 MW internal combustion engine for diagnostic scopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Bonucci, F.

    2009-01-01

    The present work deals with the creation, on the basis of experimental data, of the regulation maps for the 1 MW cogenerative internal combustion engine (ICE) installed at the Engineering Faculty of Perugia University. The regulation logic mapping is necessary for the development of a thermodynamic model of the engine behaviour to simulate the effects of possible malfunctions occurrence, such as deterioration or fouling not directly experienced on the engine. Such a work is carried out as a part of a more general research activity concerning the development of a diagnosis system for the cogenerative plant. Therefore, a first phase of the present work relates to the experimental data gathering campaign and the consequent data analysis to individuate the characteristic parameters of regulation. In the second phase, instead, a neural simulator of the control logic was developed on the basis of the experimental data for the engine operation at full load (initially considered at 980 kW) and during transitory. Consequently, through such a simulator the regulation maps of the engine were determined considering the variation range of all the characteristic parameters. Finally, a more accurate analysis of the experimental data relative to the dependence of the produced electric power at regimen on the fuel valve position, encouraged the authors to develop a further neural simulator able to reproduce the regulation commands for different values of the target power set for the regimen operation. Consequently, also the regulation mapping was revised obtaining a synthetic representation of the regulation logic useful for the implementation in the thermodynamic model of the engine dynamic behaviour

  16. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  17. Numerical Study on the Performance Characteristics of Hydrogen Fueled Port Injection Internal Combustion Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli A. Bakar; Mohammed K. Mohammed; M. M. Rahman

    2009-01-01

    This study was focused on the engine performance of single cylinder hydrogen fueled port injection internal combustion engine. GT-Power was utilized to develop the model for port injection engine. One dimensional gas dynamics was represented the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine model. The governing equations were introduced first, followed by the performance parameters and model description. Air-fuel ratio was varied from stoichiometric limit to a lean limit and the rota...

  18. A review of internal combustion engine combustion chamber process studies at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of internal combustion stratified-charge engines is highly dependent on the in-cylinder fuel-air mixing processes occurring in these engines. Current research concerning the in-cylinder airflow characteristics of rotary and piston engines is presented. Results showing the output of multidimensional models, laser velocimetry measurements and the application of a holographic optical element are described. Models which simulate the four-stroke cycle and seal dynamics of rotary engines are also discussed.

  19. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Expander Suitable for Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle with Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, José; Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; Royo-Pascual, Lucía; Haller, R.; Melis, J.

    2016-01-01

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) in exhaust gas flow of automotive engines has proved to be a useful path to increase the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE). Recovery potentials of up to 7% are shown in several works in the literature. However, most of them are theoretical estimations. Some present results from prototypes fed by steady flows generated in an auxiliary gas tank and not with actual engine exhaust gases. This paper deals with the modeling and experimenta...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.136 - Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment. 1915.136 Section 1915.136 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment §...

  1. Non-traditional Process of Hydrogen Containing Fuel Mixtures Production for Internal-combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady G. Kuvshinov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the perspectives of development of the environmentally sound technology of hydrogen containing fuel mixtures for internal-combustion engines based on the catalytic process of low-temperature decomposition of hydrocarbons into hydrogen and nanofibrous carbon.

  2. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  3. Use of a perfume composition as a fuel for internal combustion engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to fuel compositions containing perfume fractions, that is to say compositions of fragrance materials, and to the use of such perfume fractions containing fuel compositions to provide a fuel for internal combustion engines and burners. According to the present fuel

  4. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, Allister; Phillips, Al; Morales, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  5. Ionization in the Knock Zone of an Internal-combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasting, Charles E

    1940-01-01

    The ionization in the knock zone of an internal-combustion engine was investigated. A suspected correlation between the intensity of knock and the degree of ionization was verified and an oscillation in the degree of ionization corresponding in frequency to the knock vibrations in the cylinder pressure was observed.

  6. Internal combustion engines in stationary installations for the efficient use of energy. VDI-meeting at Stuttart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titl, A

    1976-11-01

    The efficient use of stationary internal combustion engines for energy supply is discussed: the state of technology and the scientific significance of internal combustion engines; thermal power coupling with unit-type thermal power plants which supply current as well as heat; and operational experience with unit-type thermal power plants for living districts, sport centers, industries etc.

  7. Researches on direct injection in internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuscher, Jean E

    1941-01-01

    These researches present a solution for reducing the fatigue of the Diesel engine by permitting the preservation of its components and, at the same time, raising its specific horsepower to a par with that of carburetor engines, while maintaining for the Diesel engine its perogative of burning heavy fuel under optimum economical conditions. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  8. Engine modeling and control modeling and electronic management of internal combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Isermann, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demands for internal combustion engines with regard to fuel consumption, emissions and driveability lead to more actuators, sensors and complex control functions. A systematic implementation of the electronic control systems requires mathematical models from basic design through simulation to calibration. The book treats physically-based as well as models based experimentally on test benches for gasoline (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engines and uses them for the design of the different control functions. The main topics are: - Development steps for engine control - Stationary and dynamic experimental modeling - Physical models of intake, combustion, mechanical system, turbocharger, exhaust, cooling, lubrication, drive train - Engine control structures, hardware, software, actuators, sensors, fuel supply, injection system, camshaft - Engine control methods, static and dynamic feedforward and feedback control, calibration and optimization, HiL, RCP, control software developm...

  9. Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Craig N.; Cross, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATION FOR AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS OF WATER SUPPLY IN AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bizhaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water additive to fuel became one of effective ways of the solution of the main problems of the piston internal combustion engines (ICE as it reduces thermal factor of the engine, toxic emissions of exhaust products, and also increases efficiency by some operating modes. The way of fuel and air mix with water feeding in the combustion chamber has a great influence on process of combustion. Experimental installation for obtaining comparative characteristics of the main methods of water supply in the ICE combustion chamber was created. It was defined that there are two ways of water supply in the combustion chamber. At the first way water feed is carried out in the form of a water fuel emulsion which moves to the combustion chamber through a nozzle by means of the fuel pump with a high pressure. At the second way water arrives with air through the spraying element - the carburetor or a nozzle. This way is very simple in difference of emulsion feeding. The easiest way is nozzles application. It was established that the emulsion as the non-uniform highly dispersed fluid can be divide into components. Therefore it is necessary to use during the feeding system operation special emulsifiers with air for the uniformity water getting to the cylinder. The system for each nozzle opening at some point was offered. System of feedback with sensors of exhaust gases temperature in a final collector for adjustment of duration of injection was worked out. It was showed that at the developed experimental stand it is possible to carry out tests at various power modes. As result it will be possible to estimate both ways of fuel and air mix with water feeding.

  11. Internal Combustion Engine Powered by Synthesis Gas from Pyrolysed Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chríbik Andrej

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the application of synthesis gas from pyrolysis of plastics in petrol engine. The appropriate experimental measurements were performed on a combustion engine LGW 702 designated for micro-cogeneration unit. The power parameters, economic parameters in term of brake specific fuel consumption, and internal parameters of the engine were compared to the engine running on the reference fuel - natural gas and synthesis gas. Burning synthesis gas leads to decreased performance by about 5% and to increased mass hourly consumption by 120 %. In terms of burning, synthesis gas has similar properties as natural gas. Compared with [5] a more detailed study has been prepared on the effects of angle of spark advance on the engine torque, giving more detailed assessment of engine cycle variability and considering specification of start and end of combustion in the logarithm p-V diagram.

  12. Piston ring lubrication and hydrocarbon emissions from internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelund, K.

    1997-11-01

    Is it the intention with this project to improve the existing hydrocarbon emission model at the Institute by combining it with a model for predicting the piston ring lubrication. The piston ring lubrication model should be experimentally verified to ensure the validity of the model. The following items were the objectives of the current study: Develop a piston ring lubrication model. This implies the development of a ring-pack gas flow model; Examine the response of the piston ring lubrication model to changing engineer conditions. Especially, it would be interesting to look at the engine warm-up phase since this is the phase where the engine-out emissions are highest and where the commonly used three way catalyst is not capable of converting the engine-out emissions, thereby leading the engine-out emissions directly out in to the environment with the exhaust gases; In order to verify the piston ring lubrication model the lubricant distribution on the cylinder liner should be investigated experimentally. Here again it would be of great interesting to look at the engine warm-up phase; The piston ring lubrication model should be adjusted for application together with the new hydrocarbon emission model for SI-engines at the Institute in order to increase the accuracy of the latter; The piston ring lubrication model could be used for describing the transport of PAH`s in diesel engines. (EG)

  13. Inherently safe nuclear-driven internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, P.; Chow, Tze-Show; Condit, R.; Heidrich, J.; Pettibone, J.; Streit, R.

    1991-01-01

    A family of nuclear driven engines is described in which nuclear energy released by fissioning of uranium or plutonium in a prompt critical assembly is used to heat a working gas. Engine performance is modeled using a code that calculates hydrodynamics, fission energy production, and neutron transport self-consistently. Results are given demonstrating a large negative temperature coefficient that produces self-shutoff of energy production. Reduced fission product inventory and the self-shutoff provide inherent nuclear safety. It is expected that nuclear engine reactor units could be scaled from 100 MW on up. 7 refs., 3 figs

  14. Analysis of an Internal Combustion Engine Using Porous Foams for Thermal Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ali Ehyaei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous and complete combustion in internal combustion engines is advantageous. The use of a porous foam in the exhaust gas in an engine cylinder for heat recovery is examined here with the aim of reducing engine emissions. The internal combustion engine with a porous core regenerator is modeled using SOPHT software, which solved the differential equations for the thermal circuit in the engine. The engine thermal efficiency is observed to increase from 43% to 53% when the porous core regenerator is applied. Further, raising the compression ratio causes the peak pressure and thermal efficiency to increase, e.g., increasing the compression ratio from 13 to 15 causes the thermal efficiency and output work to increase from 53% to 55% and from 4.86 to 4.93 kJ, respectively. The regenerator can also be used as a catalytic converter for fine particles and some other emissions. The regenerator oxidizes unburned hydrocarbons. Meanwhile, heat recovered from the exhaust gases can reduce fuel consumption, further reducing pollutant emissions from the internal combustion engine.

  15. Co-Optimization of Internal Combustion Engines and Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-03-08

    The development of advanced engines has significant potential advantages in reduced aftertreatment costs for air pollutant emission control, and just as importantly for efficiency improvements and associated greenhouse gas emission reductions. There are significant opportunities to leverage fuel properties to create more optimal engine designs for both advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition combustion strategies. The fact that biofuel blendstocks offer a potentially low-carbon approach to fuel production, leads to the idea of optimizing the entire fuel production-utilization value chain as a system from the standpoint of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. This is a difficult challenge that has yet to be realized. This presentation will discuss the relationship between chemical structure and critical fuel properties for more efficient combustion, survey the properties of a range of biofuels that may be produced in the future, and describe the ongoing challenges of fuel-engine co-optimization.

  16. A Thermoelectric Generator Replacing Radiator for Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiho Kim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed and developed a low temperature thermoelectric generator (TEG using engine water coolant of light-duty vehicles. Experimental results from test vehicle, of which engine size is about 2.0 liters, show that fabricated prototype Thermoelectric Generator generates more than 75W for driving condition of 80 km/hour, and output power is about 28W during idle condition. The proposed TEG can replace conventional radiator without additional water pumps or mechanical devices except for basic components of legacy water cooling system of radiator.

  17. Waste heat recovery systems for internal combustion engines: classification and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko, A.; Samoilenko, D.; Adel Hamzah, Ali; Adel Hamzah, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Recent trend about the best ways of using the deployable sources of energy in to useful work in order to reduce the rate of consumption of fossil fuel as well as pollution. Out of all the available sources, the internal combustion engines are the major consumer of fossil fuel around the globe. The remaining heat is expelled to the environment through exhaust gases and engine cooling systems, resulting in to entropy rise and serious environmental pollution, so it is required to utilized waste ...

  18. Particular mechanism for continuously varying the compression ratio for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raţiu, S.; Cătălinoiu, R.; Alexa, V.; Miklos, I.; Cioată, V.

    2018-01-01

    Variable compression ratio (VCR) is a technology to adjust the compression ratio of an internal combustion engine while the engine is in operation. The paper proposes the presentation of a particular mechanism allowing the position of the top dead centre to be changed, while the position of the bottom dead centre remains fixed. The kinematics of the mechanism is studied and its trajectories are graphically represented for different positions of operation.

  19. Conflict between internal combustion engine and thermoelectric generator during waste heat recovery in cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhuev, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    It is shown that an internal combustion engine and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) arranged on the exhaust pipe of this engine come into the conflict of thermal machines that is related to using the same energy resource. The conflict grows with increasing useful electric power W e of the TEG, which leads to the limitation of both the maximum TEG output power ( W {e/max}) and the possibility of waste heat recovery in cars.

  20. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  1. Adaptive system of supplying lubricant to the internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barylnikova, E. P.; Kulakov, A. T.; Kulakov, O. A.

    2017-09-01

    This paper assesses the impact of reducing the pressure in the lubrication system on the failures of the crankshaft bearings. The method of adapting lubricating system of the diesel engine as the wear in operation and depending on the operation modes.

  2. An injection limiting thrustor control device for internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givaudan, B.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this device is the automatic limitation, without any command circuit, of the injection in large diesel engines (16 or 20 cylinders) during a compressed air assisted start-up. The thrustor is driven directly by the compressed air. The limitation may be extended and regulated by the means of valves. Application to start-up of diesel generating sets for nuclear power plants

  3. Study of Second Generation Biofuels in Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Dhandapani

    2012-07-01

    This research focused on the fuel modification approach to emissions reduction. In order to address the food-fuel-fiber conflicts, the alternative fuel has to have its source preferably from non-food crops. Therefore, non-food-crop-based blends of biomass-derived bio diesel (BD), derived from Jatropha curcus, is considered a good choice. However this bio-diesel has a high viscosity and thereby problems associated with its spray characteristics. In order to tide over these challenges, it is blended with low-viscosity fuels such as ethanol or Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic diesel. This research studied the feasibility and usage of bio-fuels in IC engines to address the aforesaid concerns, understand what the fundamentally acceptable emission levels are and also determine the optimal blending limits of bio-fuels. In this context, the experimental works are carried out as two cases. First, the experimental investigations on blends of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic diesel and Jatropha methyl ester (JME), as fuel in a diesel engine, are carried out. The JME was produced by the trans-esterification process and the blends are tested against EN14214, or in some cases, ASTM standards. The volumetric blending percentages of BD to FT fuel are 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0 respectively. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicate that the BD and FT fuels are mainly aliphatic and ester compounds. The gas chromatography (GC) result shows that the neat BD (B100) contains more than 97% ester. The experiment was conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, turbo-charged, direct injection (DI) diesel engine with an optimum engine speed of 1450 rpm and a dynamic fuel injection timing of 20 crank angle degrees (CAD) before the top dead centre (TDC). The experimental results showed that the exhaust emissions including carbon monoxide (CO), total unburnt hydrocarbon (THC), smoke, total particulate matter (TPM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were reduced with FT

  4. LES of Internal Combustion Engine Flows Using Cartesian Overset Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkenstein Tobias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate computations of turbulent flows using the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES technique with an appropriate SubFilter Scale (SFS model require low artificial dissipation such that the physical energy cascade process is not perturbed by numerical artifacts. To realize this in practical simulations, energy-conserving numerical schemes and high-quality computational grids are needed. If unstructured meshes are used, the latter requirement often makes grid generation for complex geometries very difficult. Structured Cartesian grids offer the advantage that uncertainties in mesh quality are reduced to choosing appropriate resolution. However, two intrinsic challenges of the structured approach are local mesh refinement and representation of complex geometries. In this work, the effectiveness of numerical methods which can be expected to reduce both drawbacks is assessed in engine flows, using a multi-physics inhouse code. The overset grid approach is utilized to arbitrarily combine grid patches of different spacing to a flow domain of complex shape during mesh generation. Walls are handled by an Immersed Boundary (IB method, which is combined with a wall function to treat underresolved boundary layers. A statistically stationary Spark Ignition (SI engine port flow is simulated at Reynolds numbers typical for engine operation. Good agreement of computed and measured integral flow quantities like overall pressure loss and tumble number is found. A comparison of simulated velocity fields to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurement data concludes the validation of the enhanced numerical framework for both mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations. The performance of two SFS models, the dynamic Smagorinsky model with Lagrangian averaging along pathlines and the coherent structure model, is tested on different grids. Sensitivity of pressure loss and tumble ratio to the wall treatment and mesh refinement is presented. It is shown that increased wall

  5. Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Internal Combustion Engines. Process Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia-Faure, Luis; Oliva-Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín-Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla-Suarez, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy sources worldwide greater prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By different processes and energy conversion technologies is possible to obtain solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from any biomass.In this paper the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification of Integral Forestry Company Santiago de Cuba is presented, designed to electricity generation from waste forest industry. The gasifier is a downdraft reactor, COMBO-80 model of Indian manufacturing and motor (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was conducted at different loads (electric power generated) of the motor from experimental measurements of flow and composition of gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25 %. (author)

  6. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  7. Ignition system for an internal combustion engine with rotary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstein, P A

    1977-05-18

    In the Wankel engine, the sparking plugs spark three times per rotation of the rotor and are never cooled by the incoming mixture. This constant high temperature environment necessitates the use of special sparking plugs. The covered top of the sparking plug is particularly liable to carbon deposits. This invention makes it possible to use sparking plugs on the rotor, without the disadvantages due to the use of high voltage. Further, the use of distributors or mechanical devices determining the ignition timing is no longer necessary. The fuel/air mixture is ignited in a combustion chamber, which is limited by first and second components moving relative to one another in repeated cycles. A generator device is fitted to the first components and an ignition device to the second components. The magnetic flux linking takes place in a predetermined area of the relative movement between the first and second components in a repeated cycle. An ignition signal is produced in the combustion chamber by the magnetic flux linking.

  8. Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG: A futuristic fuel for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is fast becoming a serious global problem with increasing population and its subsequent demands. This has resulted in increased usage of hydrogen as fuel for internal combustion engines. Hydrogen resources are vast and it is considered as one of the most promising fuel for automotive sector. As the required hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations are not meeting the demand, widespread introduction of hydrogen vehicles is not possible in the near future. One of the solutions for this hurdle is to blend hydrogen with methane. Such types of blends take benefit of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and at the same time reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. Enriching natural gas with hydrogen could be a potential alternative to common hydrocarbon fuels for internal combustion engine applications. Many researchers are working on this for the last few years and work is now focused on how to use this kind of fuel to its maximum extent. This technical note is an assessment of HCNG usage in case of internal combustion engines. Several examples and their salient features have been discussed. Finally, overall effects of hydrogen addition on an engine fueled with HCNG under various conditions are illustrated. In addition, the scope and challenges being faced in this area of research are clearly described.

  9. A Robust Model Predictive Control for efficient thermal management of internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzonia, Francesco; Castiglione, Teresa; Bova, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Robust Model Predictive Control for ICE thermal management was developed. • The proposed control is effective in decreasing the warm-up time. • The control system reduces coolant flow rate under fully warmed conditions. • The control strategy operates the cooling system around onset of nucleate boiling. • Little on-line computational effort is required. - Abstract: Optimal thermal management of modern internal combustion engines (ICE) is one of the key factors for reducing fuel consumption and CO_2 emissions. These are measured by using standardized driving cycles, like the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), during which the engine does not reach thermal steady state; engine efficiency and emissions are therefore penalized. Several techniques for improving ICE thermal efficiency were proposed, which range from the use of empirical look-up tables to pulsed pump operation. A systematic approach to the problem is however still missing and this paper aims to bridge this gap. The paper proposes a Robust Model Predictive Control of the coolant flow rate, which makes use of a zero-dimensional model of the cooling system of an ICE. The control methodology incorporates explicitly the model uncertainties and achieves the synthesis of a state-feedback control law that minimizes the “worst case” objective function while taking into account the system constraints, as proposed by Kothare et al. (1996). The proposed control strategy is to adjust the coolant flow rate by means of an electric pump, in order to bring the cooling system to operate around the onset of nucleate boiling: across it during warm-up and above it (nucleate or saturated boiling) under fully warmed conditions. The computationally heavy optimization is carried out off-line, while during the operation of the engine the control parameters are simply picked-up on-line from look-up tables. Owing to the little computational effort required, the resulting control strategy is suitable for

  10. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion engine...

  11. AN ALGORITHM OF ADAPTIVE TORQUE CONTROL IN INJECTOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Gerasimov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Internal combustion engine as a plant is a highly nonlinear complex system that works mostly in dynamic regimes in the presence of noise and disturbances. A number of engine characteristics and parameters is not known or known approximately due to the complex structure and multimode operating of the engine. In this regard the problem of torque control is not trivial and motivates the use of modern techniques of control theory that give the possibility to overcome the mentioned problems. As a consequence, a relatively simple algorithm of adaptive torque control of injector engine is proposed in the paper. Method. Proposed method is based on nonlinear dynamic model with parametric and functional uncertainties (static characteristics which are suppressed by means of adaptive control algorithm with single adjustable parameter. The algorithm is presented by proportional control law with adjustable feedback gain and provides the exponential convergence of the control error to the neighborhood of zero equilibrium. It is shown that the radius of the neighborhood can be arbitrary reduced by the change of controller design parameters. Main Results. A dynamical nonlinear model of the engine has been designed for the purpose of control synthesis and simulation of the closed-loop system. The parameters and static functions of the model are identified with the use of data aquired during Federal Test Procedure (USA of Chevrolet Tahoe vehicle with eight cylinders 5,7L engine. The algorithm of adaptive torque control is designed, and the properties of the closed-loop system are analyzed with the use of Lyapunov functions approach. The closed-loop system operating is verified by means of simulation in the MatLab/Simulink environment. Simulation results show that the controller provides the boundedness of all signals and convergence of the control error to the neighborhood of zero equilibrium despite significant variations of engine speed. The

  12. Dynamic and Thermodynamic Examination of a Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine

    OpenAIRE

    İPCİ, Duygu; KARABULUT, Halit

    2016-01-01

    In this study the combined dynamic and thermodynamic analysis of a two-stroke internal combustion engine was carried out. The variation of the heat, given to the working fluid during the heating process of the thermodynamic cycle, was modeled with the Gaussian function. The dynamic model of the piston driving mechanism was established by means of nine equations, five of them are motion equations and four of them are kinematic relations. Equations are solved by using a numerical method based o...

  13. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  14. Exhaust gas turbo-charger for internal combustion engines. Abgasturbolader fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnert, R.

    1982-01-07

    The invention is concerned with a exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines. A turbine driving a compressor, is feeded with the exhaust gas. Intended is the over-temperature protection of the exhaust gas turbocharger. For this reason a ring shaped sheet with a well polished nickel surface, serves as thermal shield. A sealing avoids soiling of the turbine shaft. Due to the heat shielding effect no tinder, oxide or dirt deposition is possible. The heat reflection factor is constant.

  15. The effect of oil additives on exhaust emission of internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, M.B.; Kuzmanovski, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    An attempt was conducted to acquire data on connection between motor oil and motor oil additives and exhaust emission of internal combustion engine. The consulted literature did not contain enough data, so experiments were conducted. The results of the experiments are presented on diagrams that have been processed in the computer program EXCEL. Conclusions that were made out of that work show the need of expanding research on the subject. (Author)

  16. A review of internal combustion engine combustion chamber process studies at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of internal combustion stratified-charge engines is highly dependent on the in-cylinder fuel-air mixing processes occurring in these engines. Current research concerning the in-cylinder airflow characteristics of rotary and piston engines is presented. Results showing the output of multidimensional models, laser velocimetry measurements and the application of a holographic optical element are described. Models which simulate the four-stroke cycle and seal dynamics of rotary engines are also discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N84-24999

  17. ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH A NEW CONCEPT OF POROUS MEDIUM COMBUSTION FOR THE FUTURE CLEAN ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok A Dhale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the emissions of internal combustion engine can only be improved by catalytic treatments of the exhaust gases. Such treatments, however, result in high costs and relatively low conversion efficiency. This suggests that a new combustion technique should be developed to yield improved primary combustion processes inside the engine with drastically reduced exhaust gas emissions. To fulfill all requirements, Dr. Franz Drust has proposed a new combustion concept to perform homogenous combustion in internal combustion engines. This concept used the porous medium combustion technique and is called "PM-engine". It is shown that the PM combustion technique can be applied to internal combustion engines. Theoretical considerations are presented for internal combustion engines, indicating that an overall improvement in thermal efficiency can be achieved for the PM-engine. This is explained and general performance of the new PM-engines is demonstrated for a single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine. Verification of experiments at primary stage is described that were carried out as a part of the present study.

  18. Self adaptive internal combustion engine control for hydrogen mixtures based on piezoelectric dynamic cylinder pressure transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courteau, R.; Bose, T. K. [Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Hydrogen Research Institute, Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    An algorithm for self-adaptive tuning of an internal combustion engine is proposed, based on a Kalman filter operating on a few selected metrics of the dynamic pressure curve. Piezoelectric transducers are devices to monitor dynamic cylinder pressure; spark plugs with embedded piezo elements are now available to provide diagnostic engine functions. Such transducers are also capable of providing signals to the engine controller to perform auto tuning, a function that is considered very useful particularly in vehicles using alternative fuels whose characteristics frequently show variations between fill-ups. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Vibration survey of internal combustion engines for use on unmanned air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duanis, B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the method, the procedure and data results of engine vibration test which is carried out on engines for use on unmanned air vehicles. The paper focuses on the testing of rotating propulsion systems powered by an internal combustion engine which is composed of main rotating components such as the alternator, gearbox, propeller , dampers and couplings. Three measurement methods for measuring torsional and lateral vibrations are presented: a. Gear tooth pulse signal. b. Shaft Strain Gage. c. Laser Displacement Sensors The paper also presents data from tests which were performed using each method and discusses the applications, the advantages and disadvantages of each method

  20. Concept for lowest emissions of a hydrogen internal combustion engine; Niedrigstemissionskonzept fuer einen wasserstoffbetriebenen Verbrennungsmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Marcel Christian Thomas

    2012-03-15

    This paper describes a concept with lowest emissions for a hydrogen internal combustion engine for passenger cars. With optimisation of the combustion concept the level of nitrogen oxide is below 90%, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide below 99% of the SULEV target (CARB). This concept enables a potential in power density that is comparable to current supercharged combustion engines at lowest emission level without catalytic aftertreatment. Additionally with a catalytic aftertreatment system, the emission level of a current hydrogen combustion engine (mono-fuel) is lowered to a level, that this car can be labeled as air cleaning vehicle for hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  1. Energy efficiency of a direct-injection internal combustion engine with high-pressure methanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poran, Arnon; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of a direct-injection ICE (internal combustion engine) with thermo-chemical recuperation realized through SRM (steam reforming of methanol). It is shown that the energy required to compress the reformate gas prior to its injection into the cylinder is substantial and has to be accounted for. Results of the analysis prove that the method of reformate direct-injection is unviable when the reforming is carried-out under atmospheric pressure. To reduce the energy penalty resulted from the gas compression, it is suggested to implement a high-pressure reforming process. Effects of the injection timing and the injector's flow area on the ICE-SRM system's fuel conversion efficiency are studied. The significance of cooling the reforming products prior to their injection into the engine-cylinder is demonstrated. We show that a direct-injection ICE with high-pressure SRM is feasible and provides a potential for significant efficiency improvement. Development of injectors with greater flow area shall contribute to further efficiency improvements. - Highlights: • Energy needed to compress the reformate is substantial and has to be accounted for. • Reformate direct-injection is unviable if reforming is done at atmospheric pressure. • Direct-injection engine with high-pressure methanol reforming is feasible. • Efficiency improvement by 12–14% compared with a gasoline-fed engine was shown

  2. Comparative analysis between a PEM fuel cell and an internal combustion engine driving an electricity generator: Technical, economical and ecological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Lúcia Bollini; Silveira, Jose Luz; Evaristo da Silva, Marcio; Machin, Einara Blanco; Pedroso, Daniel Travieso; Tuna, Celso Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In the recent years the fuel cells have received much attention. Among various technologies, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is currently the most appropriate and is used in several vehicles prototype. A comparative technical, economical and ecological analysis between an Internal Combustion Engine fueled with Diesel driving an electricity Generator (ICE-G) and a PEMFC fed by hydrogen produced by ethanol steam reforming was performed. The technical analysis showed the advantages of the PEMFC in comparison to the ICE-G based in energetic and exergetic aspects. The economic analysis shows that fuel cells are not economic competitive when compared to internal combustion engine driving an electricity generator with the same generation capacity; it will only be economically feasible in a long term; due to the large investments required. The environmental analysis was based on concepts of CO 2 equivalent, pollution indicator and ecological efficiency. Different to the ICE-G system, the Fuel Cell does not emit pollutants directly and the emission related to this technology is linked mainly with hydrogen production. The ecological efficiency of PEMFC was 96% considering the carbon dioxide cycle, for ICE-G system this parameter reach 51%. -- Highlights: • The exergetic efficiency of ICE-G was 22% and for the fuel cell was 40%. • The PEM fuel cell at long-term become economically competitive compared to ICE-G. • The ecological efficiency of PEM fuel cell was 96% and Diesel ICE-G was 51%

  3. Acoustically damped metal oil trough for internal combustion engines. Schallgedaempfte Blech-Oelwanne fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, H.

    1991-03-28

    The invention refers to an acoustically damped oil trough. As there are strict requirements for reducing the noise emission from internal combustion engines, according to the invention it is proposed that the oil trough should be surrounded by an outer trough, where the outer trough is made of plastic or sheet steel in one or more layers. To avoid noise bridges, the oil trough and outer trough are separated by elastomer elements. The outer trough achieves a reasonably priced increase in sound insulation. It is also possible to backfit an outer trough on engines.

  4. New Turbo Compound Systems in Automotive Industry for Internal Combustion Engine to Recover Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, R.; Chiru, A.; Condrea, O.

    2017-10-01

    The large amount of heat is scattered in the internal combustion engine through exhaust gas, coolant, convective and radiant heat transfer. Of all these residual heat sources, exhaust gases have the potential to recover using various modern heat recovery techniques. Waste heat recovery from an engine could directly reduce fuel consumption, increase available electrical power and improve overall system efficiency and if it would be used a turbochargers that can also produce energy. This solution is called turbo aggregation and has other ways to develop it in other areas of research like the electrical field. [1-3

  5. Modeling, simulation, parametric study and economic assessment of reciprocating internal combustion engine integrated with multi-effect desalination unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Mohsen; Amidpour, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of small MED unit with gas engine power cycle is studied in this paper. • Modeling, simulation, parametric study and sensitivity analysis were performed. • A thermodynamic model for heat recovery and power generation of the gas engine has been presented. • Annualized Cost of System (ACS) has been employed for economic assessment. • Economic feasibilty dependence of integrated system on natural gas and water prices has been investigated. - Abstract: Due to thermal nature of multi-effect desalination (MED), its integration with a suitable power cycle is highly desirable for waste heat recovery. One of the proper power cycle for proposed integration is internal combustion engine (ICE). The exhaust gas heat of ICE is used to produce motive steam for the required heat for the first effect of MED system. Also, the water jacket heat is utilized in a heat exchanger to pre-heat the seawater. This paper studies a thermodynamic model for a tri-generation system composed of ICE integrated with MED. The ICE thermodynamic model has been used in place of different empirical efficiency relations to estimate performance – load curves reasonably. The entire system performance has been coded in MATLAB, and the results of proposed thermodynamic model for the engine have been verified by manufacturer catalogue. By increasing the engine load from 40% to 100%, the water production of MED unit will increase from 4.38 cubic meters per day to 26.78 cubic meters per day and the tri-generation efficiency from 31% to 56%. Economic analyses of the MED unit integrated with ICE was performed based on Annualized Cost of System method. This integration makes the system more economical. It has been determined that in higher market prices for fresh water (more than 7 US$ per cubic meter), the increase in effects number is more significant to the period of return decrement.

  6. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  7. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  8. Design and Implementation of the Control System of an Internal Combustion Engine Test Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Koç

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate tests and performance analysis of engines are required to minimize measurement errors and so the use of the advanced test equipment is imperative. In other words, the reliable test results depend on the measurement of many parameters and recording the experimental data accurately which is depended on engine test unit. This study aims to design the control system of an internal combustion engine test unit. In the study, the performance parameters of an available internal combustion engine have been transferred to computer in real time. A data acquisition (DAQ card has been used to transfer the experimental data to the computer. Also, a user interface has been developed for performing the necessary procedures by using LabVIEW. The dynamometer load, the fuel consumption, and the desired speed can easily be adjusted precisely by using DAQ card and the user interface during the engine test. Load, fuel consumption, and temperature values (the engine inlet-outlet, exhaust inlet-outlet, oil, and environment can be seen on the interface and also these values can be recorded to the computer. It is expected that developed system will contribute both to the education of students and to the researchers’ studies and so it will eliminate a major lack.

  9. Control Scheme Formulation for the Production of Hydrogen on Demand to Feed an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarniel García Morales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a control strategy is presented to produce hydrogen on demand to feed an internal combustion (IC engine. For this purpose, the modeling of the IC engine fueled by gasoline blended with 10 % v/v of anhydrous ethanol (E10 and hydrogen as an additive is developed. It is considered that the hydrogen gas is produced according to the IC engine demand, and that the hydrogen gas is obtained by an alkaline electrolyzer. The gasoline–ethanol blend added into the combustion chamber is determined according to the stoichiometric ratio and the production of hydrogen gas is regulated by a proportional and integral controller (P.I.. The controller reference is varying according to the mass flow air induced into the cylinder, in order to ensure an adequate production of hydrogen gas for any operating condition of the IC engine. The main contribution of this work is the control scheme developed, through simulation, in order to produce hydrogen on demand for any operating point of an internal combustion engine fueled by an E10 blend. The simulation results showed that the use of hydrogen gas as an additive in an E10 blend decreases the E10 fuel consumption 23 % on average, and the thermal efficiency is increased approximately 2.13 % , without brake power loss in the IC engine.

  10. Start up system for hydrogen generator used with an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hydrogen generator provides hydrogen rich product gases which are mixed with the fuel being supplied to an internal combustion engine for the purpose of enabling a very lean mixture of that fuel to be used, whereby nitrous oxides emitted by the engine are minimized. The hydrogen generator contains a catalyst which must be heated to a pre-determined temperature before it can react properly. To simplify the process of heating up the catalyst at start-up time, either some of the energy produced by the engine such as engine exhaust gas, or electrical energy produced by the engine, or the engine exhaust gas may be used to heat up air which is then used to heat the catalyst.

  11. Fluid dynamic modeling of junctions in internal combustion engine inlet and exhaust systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalet, David; Chesse, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    The modeling of inlet and exhaust systems of internal combustion engine is very important in order to evaluate the engine performance. This paper presents new pressure losses models which can be included in a one dimensional engine simulation code. In a first part, a CFD analysis is made in order to show the importance of the density in the modeling approach. Then, the CFD code is used, as a numerical test bench, for the pressure losses models development. These coefficients depend on the geometrical characteristics of the junction and an experimental validation is made with the use of a shock tube test bench. All the models are then included in the engine simulation code of the laboratory. The numerical calculation of unsteady compressible flow, in each pipe of the inlet and exhaust systems, is made and the calculated engine torque is compared with experimental measurements.

  12. Equipment for heating the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines in order to improve afterburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki,

    1976-04-15

    The device described here serves to heat exhaust gases of internal combustion engines by heat exchange with hot gases and also, in cold engines, to raise the temperature of the fuel-air mixture drawn in by the engine. The device is installed next to the outlet opening of the engine. It consists of a burner to generate the hot gas, as well as a heat exchanger permitting heat supply to the exhaust gases and a hot-gas line leading to the intake line. Heating of the air is taken in leads to a better atomization of the mixture and thus to improved combustion. Heating of the exhaust gases improves afterburning. The burner generating the hot gas is shut off when the normal operational temperature of the engine is reached. The temperature is controlled by means of a temperature sensor installed in the device.

  13. Effect of plasma spraying modes on material properties of internal combustion engine cylinder liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhova, O. M.; Burmistrova, O. N.; Sirina, E. A.; Timokhov, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The paper analyses different methods of remanufacturing worn-out machine parts in order to get the best performance characteristics. One of the most promising of them is a plasma spraying method. The mathematical models presented in the paper are intended to anticipate the results of plasma spraying, its effect on the properties of the material of internal combustion engine cylinder liners under repair. The experimental data and research results have been computer processed with Statistica 10.0 software package. The pare correlation coefficient values (R) and F-statistic criterion are given to confirm the statistical properties and adequacy of obtained regression equations.

  14. The highlighting of an internal combustion engine piston ring radial oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djallel ZEBBAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the definition of the lube-oil film thickness in the piston ring cylinder liner junction of an internal combustion engine. At first, a mathematical model for the estimation of the film thickness is established. It is used to point out the oscillating motion of the piston ring normal to the cylinder wall. For the first time, has been highlighted and analytically evaluated the oscillating behavior of the piston ring in its housing in the radial direction. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the radial oscillations frequency is a function of piston ring stiffness, material and geometry.

  15. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composites Rotary Valves for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite rotary, sleeve, and disc valves for internal combustion engines and the like are disclosed. The valves are formed from knitted or braided or warp-locked carbon fiber shapes. Also disclosed are valves fabricated from woven carbon fibers and from molded carbon matrix material. The valves of the present invention with their very low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent thermal and self-lubrication properties, do not present the sealing and lubrication problems that have prevented rotary, sleeve, and disc valves from operating efficiently and reliably in the past. Also disclosed are a sealing tang to further improve sealing capabilities and anti-oxidation treatments.

  16. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Rotary Valve for an Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G.Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite rotary sleeve, and disc valves for internal combustion engines and the like are disclosed. The valves are formed from knitted or braided or wrap-locked carbon fiber shapes. Also disclosed are valves fabricated from woven carbon fibers and from molded carbon matrix material. The valves of the present invention with their very low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent thermal and self-lubrication properties do not present the sealing and lubrication problems that have prevented rotary sleeve and disc valves from operating efficiently and reliably in the past. Also disclosed are a sealing tang to further improve sealing capabilities and anti-oxidation treatments.

  17. A Completely New Type of Actuator -or- This Ain't Your Grandfather's Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian W.; Hawkins, Gary F.; Hess, Peter A.; Moore, Teresa A.; Fournier, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    A completely new type of actuator - one that is proposed for use in a variety of environments from sea to land to air to space - has been designed, patented, built, and tested. The actuator is loosely based on the principle of the internal combustion engine, except that it is a completely closed system, only requiring electrical input, and the working fuel is water. This paper outlines the theory behind the electrolysis- and ignition-based cycle upon which the actuator operates and describes the performance capability test apparatus and results for the actuator. A mechanism application that harnessed the unit s power to twist a scaled rotor blade is also highlighted.

  18. Fundamental limitations of non-thermal plasma processing for internal combustion engine NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the physics and chemistry of non-thermal plasma processing for post-combustion NO x control in internal combustion engines. A comparison of electron beam and electrical discharge processing is made regarding their power consumption, radical production, NO x removal mechanisms, and by product formation. Can non-thermal deNO x operate efficiently without additives or catalysts? How much electrical power does it cost to operate? What are the by-products of the process? This paper addresses these fundamental issues based on an analysis of the electron-molecule processes and chemical kinetics

  19. Internal combustion engine cold-start efficiency: A review of the problem, causes and potential solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Andrew; Brooks, Richard; Shipway, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The sources of I.C. engine cold start efficiency are reviewed and quantified. • Potential solutions are reviewed and the benefit quantified together. • Potential conflicts between different engine sub-systems are discussed. • Fuel consumption benefits of up to 7% are observed during cold start. • Emission reductions of up to 40% during cold start are observed. - Abstract: Legislation on vehicle emissions continues to become more stringent in an effort to minimise the impact of internal combustion engines on the environment. One area of significant concern in this respect is that of the cold-start; the thermal efficiency of the internal combustion engine is significantly lower at cold-start than when the vehicle reaches steady state temperatures owing to sub-optimal lubricant and component temperatures. The drive for thermal efficiency (of both the internal combustion engine and of the vehicle as a whole) has led to a variety of solutions being trialled to assess their merits and effects on other vehicle systems during this warm-up phase (and implemented where appropriate). The approaches have a common theme of attempting to reduce energy losses so that systems and components reach their intended operating temperature range as soon as possible after engine start. In the case of the engine, this is primarily focused on the lubricant system. Lubricant viscosity is highly sensitive to temperature and the increased viscosity at low temperatures results in higher frictional and pumping losses than would be observed at the target operating temperature. The approaches used to tackle the problem include the use of phase change materials (to reduce the cool-down rate during a period following engine running) [1,2] and the use of thermal barrier coatings in an attempt to insulate the cylinder bore and prevent heat loss (thus increasing the amount of energy utilised as brake work [3]). A range of system alterations have also been trialled including

  20. Influence of biofuels usage in internal combustion engines of agricultural tractors on output parametrs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Šmerda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of alternative fuels brings the social benefits in terms of reducing dependence on oil industry and its products as well as decreasing of damage of the environment together with using of na­tu­ral resources, especially in field of renewable energy resources. The use of biofuels is the most important part of energy strategy in European Union, whose member states have agreed the content of biofuels will achieve 5.75% of the total energy sum of fuel for transport purposes in 2010. Operation of internal combustion engine fueled by RME brings environmental benefits as described several authors in analysis of the life cycle. The contribution deals with technical difficulties of the RME usage in internal combustion engine used in agricultural tractors. Different fuel causes different process of combustion which means changes in output power and pollution. The aim of this experiment was to determine these effects. Experimental work was divided into two parts according to various fuel systems. The first tractor was equipped with mechanical injection system, the second one was provided with common-rail fuel system. The test procedures consisted of measurement of power- torque curves where the engine load was created by Eddy current dynamometer. Exhaust gas analyzer sampled the pollution of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons as the most important indicators of combustion process.

  1. Auto-ignition control in turbocharged internal combustion engines operating with gaseous fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Jorge; Amador, Germán; Garcia, Jesus; Fontalvo, Armando; Vasquez Padilla, Ricardo; Sanjuan, Marco; Gonzalez Quiroga, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Control strategies for auto-ignition control in turbocharged internal combustion engines operating with gaseous fuels are presented. Ambient temperature and ambient pressure are considered as the disturbing variables. A thermodynamic model for predicting temperature at the ignition point is developed, adjusted and validated with a large experimental data-set from high power turbocharged engines. Based on this model, the performance of feedback and feedforward auto-ignition control strategies is explored. A robustness and fragility analysis for the Feedback control strategies is presented. The feedforward control strategy showed the best performance however its implementation entails adding a sensor and new control logic. The proposed control strategies and the proposed thermodynamic model are useful tools for increasing the range of application of gaseous fuels with low methane number while ensuring a safe running in internal combustion engines. - Highlights: • A model for predicting temperature at the ignition point. • Robust PID, modified PID, and feedforward strategies for auto-ignition control. • λ′ were the best set of tuning equations for calculating controller parameters. • Robust PID showed significant improvements in auto-ignition control. • Feedforward control showed the best performance

  2. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  3. Dynamic estimator for determining operating conditions in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, Erik; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Jiang, Li; Larimore, Jacob

    2016-01-05

    Methods and systems are provided for estimating engine performance information for a combustion cycle of an internal combustion engine. Estimated performance information for a previous combustion cycle is retrieved from memory. The estimated performance information includes an estimated value of at least one engine performance variable. Actuator settings applied to engine actuators are also received. The performance information for the current combustion cycle is then estimated based, at least in part, on the estimated performance information for the previous combustion cycle and the actuator settings applied during the previous combustion cycle. The estimated performance information for the current combustion cycle is then stored to the memory to be used in estimating performance information for a subsequent combustion cycle.

  4. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  5. Conversion of a gasoline internal combustion engine to operate on hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, M.; Dincer, I.

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the conversion of a gasoline spark ignition internal combustion engine to operate on hydrogen fuel while producing similar power, economy and reliability as gasoline. The conversion engine will have the fuel system redesigned and ignition and fuel timing changed. Engine construction material is of great importance due to the low ignition energy of hydrogen, making aluminum a desirable material in the intake manifold and combustion chamber. The engine selected to convert is a 3400 SFI dual over head cam General Motors engine. Hydrogen reacts with metals causing hydrogen embrittlement which leads to failure due to cracking. There are standards published by American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to avoid such a problem. Tuning of the hydrogen engine proved to be challenging due to the basic tuning tools of a gasoline engine such as a wide band oxygen sensor that could not measure the 34:1 fuel air mixture needed for the hydrogen engine. Once the conversion was complete the engine was tested on a chassis dynamometer to compare the hydrogen horsepower and torque produced to that of a gasoline engine. Results showed that the engine is not operating correctly. The engine is not getting the proper amount of fuel needed for complete combustion when operated in a loaded state over 3000 rpm. The problem was found to be the use of the stock injector driver that could not deliver enough power for the proper operation of the larger CM4980 injectors. (author)

  6. Bottoming organic Rankine cycle configurations to increase Internal Combustion Engines power output from cooling water waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peris, Bernardo; Navarro-Esbrí, Joaquín; Molés, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on waste heat recovery of jacket cooling water from Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Cooling water heat does not always find use due to its low temperature, typically around 90 °C, and usually is rejected to the ambient despite its high thermal power. An efficient way to take benefit from the ICE cooling water waste heat can be to increase the power output through suitable bottoming Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). Thereby, this work simulates six configurations using ten non flammable working fluids and evaluates their performances in efficiency, safety, cost and environmental terms. Results show that the Double Regenerative ORC using SES36 gets the maximum net efficiency of 7.15%, incrementing the ICE electrical efficiency up to 5.3%, although requires duplicating the number of main components and high turbine size. A more rigorous analysis, based on the system feasibility, shows that small improvements in the basic cycle provide similar gains compared to the most complex schemes proposed. So, the single Regenerative ORC using R236fa and the Reheat Regenerative ORC using R134a seem suitable cycles which provide a net efficiency of 6.55%, incrementing the ICE electrical efficiency up to 4.9%. -- Highlights: • Suitable bottoming cycles for ICE cooling water waste heat recovery are studied. • Non flammable working fluids and various ORC configurations are evaluated. • Double regenerative cycle using SES36 is the most efficient configuration. • Regenerative and reheat regenerative ORCs seem feasible cycles. • Electrical efficiency of the ICE can be improved up to 5.3%

  7. Internal combustion engine run on biogas is a potential solution to meet Indonesia emission target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has released two different Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets. The first target, released in 2009, is reduction GHG emissions 26% from Business-as-Usual (BAU) level using own budget and up 41% if supported international aids by 2020. The second target is reduction 29% and 41% from BAU by 2030 using own budget and with international support, respectively. In this paper, the BAU emissions and emissions reduction target of these two targets are elaborated. In addition, the characteristics of emissions from transportation sector are discussed. One of the potential mitigation actions is switching fuel in transportation sector. The results the most promising mitigation action in the transportation is switching oil fuel with biofuel. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) focuses on using biodiesel and bioethanol to run internal combustion engine in transportation sector and biogas is aimed to fuel power plant unit. However, there is very limited of success stories on using biogas in the power plant. The barriers and challenges will be discussed here. It is suggested to run internal combustion engine with biogas.

  8. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4203 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by...

  9. Self adaptive internal combustion engine control for hydrogen mixtures based on piezoelectric dynamic cylinder pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteau, R.; Bose, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Piezoelectric transducers offer an effective, non-intrusive way to monitor dynamic cylinder pressure in internal combustion engines. Devices dedicated to this purpose are appearing on the market, often in the form of spark plugs with embedded piezo elements. Dynamic cylinder pressure is typically used to provide diagnostic functions, or to help map an engine after it is designed. With the advent of powerful signal processor chips, it is now possible to embed enough computing power in the engine controller to perform auto tuning based on the signals provided by such transducers. Such functionality is very useful if the fuel characteristics vary between fill ups, as is often the case with alternative fuels. We propose here an algorithm for self-adaptive tuning based on a Kalman filter operating on a few selected metrics of the dynamic pressure curve. (author)

  10. Research of Data Acquisition and Analysis System for Internal Combustion Engine Based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y H; Tian, X L; Cheng, P; Chang, X; Dou, W J

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, the structure, working principle, functions and characteristics of an data acquisition and analysis system for internal combustion engines (I.C. engine) based on DSP is introduced. The DSP can not only acquire and analyze the data alone, also can work with the PC together to form data acquisition and analysis system with high speed and large memory. The system takes advantages of TMS320F2812's plenty of peripherals on chip, becomes small and easy for installation. USB technique is used to translate data between DSP and PC in high speed, so the system's real time processing is proved very much. It is proved that the designed system can acquire and analyze the steady and transient parameters of the I.C. engine very well

  11. Predictive piston motion control in a free-piston internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikalsen, R.; Jones, E.; Roskilly, A.P. [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU England (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    A piston motion controller for a free-piston internal combustion engine is presented. To improve dynamic performance in the control of the piston motion and engine compression ratio, the controller response is determined from a prediction of engine top dead centre error rather than the measured value from the previous cycle. The proposed control approach showed superior performance compared with that of standard PI feedback control known from the literature due to a reduced control action time delay. The manipulation of fuel injection timing to reduce in-cylinder pressure peaks and cycle-to-cycle variations was also studied, indicating that with the piston motion estimation, the injection timing is a powerful control variable for this purpose. (author)

  12. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part I Standard Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of diagnostic informativeness of exhaust gas temperature measurements in turbocharged marine internal combustion engines. Theoretical principles of the process of exhaust gas flow in turbocharger inlet channels are analysed in its dynamic and energetic aspects. Diagnostic parameters are defined which enable to formulate general evaluation of technical condition of the engine based on standard online measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. A proposal is made to extend the parametric methods of diagnosing workspaces in turbocharged marine engines by analysing time-histories of enthalpy changes of the exhaust gas flowing to the turbocompressor turbine. Such a time-history can be worked out based on dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature, performed using a specially designed sheathed thermocouple.

  13. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  14. Computational fluid dynamics applied to flows in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M. D.; Diwakar, R.; Anderson, J. D., Jr.; Jones, E.

    1978-01-01

    The reported investigation is a continuation of studies conducted by Diwakar et al. (1976) and Griffin et al. (1976), who reported the first computational fluid dynamic results for the two-dimensional flowfield for all four strokes of a reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engine cycle. An analysis of rectangular and cylindrical three-dimensional engine models is performed. The working fluid is assumed to be inviscid air of constant specific heats. Calculations are carried out of a four-stroke IC engine flowfield wherein detailed finite-rate chemical combustion of a gasoline-air mixture is included. The calculations remain basically inviscid, except that in some instances thermal conduction is included to allow a more realistic model of the localized sparking of the mixture. All the results of the investigation are obtained by means of an explicity time-dependent finite-difference technique, using a high-speed digital computer.

  15. Application of ceramic short fiber reinforced Al alloy matrix composite on piston for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenqing

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and properties of ceramic short fiber reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite and it’s application on the piston for internal combustion engines are presented. Alumina or aluminosilicate fibers reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite has more excellent synthetical properties at elevated temperature than the matrix alloys. A partially reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite piston produced by squeeze casting technique has a firm interface between reinforced and unreinforced areas, low reject rate and good technical tolerance. As a new kind of piston material, it has been used for mass production of about 400,000 pieces of automobile engines piston. China has become one of a few countries in which aluminum alloy matrix composite materials have been used in automobile industry and attained industrialization.

  16. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  17. Combustion Velocity of Benzine-Benzol-Air Mixtures in High-Speed Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnauffer, Kurt

    1932-01-01

    The present paper describes a device whereby rapid flame movement within an internal-combustion engine cylinder may be recorded and determined. By the aid of a simple cylindrical contact and an oscillograph the rate of combustion within the cylinder of an airplane engine during its normal operation may be measured for gas intake velocities of from 30 to 35 m/s and for velocities within the cylinder of from 20 to 25 m/s. With it the influence of mixture ratios, of turbulence, of compression ratio and kind of fuel on combustion velocity may be determined. Besides the determination of the influence of the above factors on combustion velocity, the degree of turbulence may also be determined. As a unit of reference in estimating the degree of turbulence, the intake velocity of the charge is chosen.

  18. Rebound effects from speed and acceleration in electric and internal combustion engine cars: An empirical and conceptual investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Vehicle rebound effects have been investigated for distance but not speed. • We investigate speed rebounds for an e- and an ICE-car in controlled lab tests. • We develop a mathematical model to include these with distance rebound effects. • The e-car shows 20% speed rebound comparing 1975 and modern driving styles. • The ICE-car shows speed rebound due to lock-in from auto gear ratios. - Abstract: Rebound effect studies of road vehicle travel focus mostly on increases in distance traveled after increases in energy efficiency. Average journeying speed also increases with energy efficiency, but rebound studies avoid quantifying speed-related rebound effects. This may underestimate rebound effects by around 60%. This study offers a first attempt to show how increases in speed and acceleration contribute to rebound effects, and how these can be quantified. Its empirical data is dynamometer test results for a plug-in electric car and an internal combustion engine (ICE) pick-up van with automatic transmission, each on the WLTP and NEDC drive cycles, representing driving styles from today and 1975 respectively. Rebound effects are estimated by comparing the WLTP and NEDC results, using typical 1975 energy efficiencies for the NEDC. The electric car shows a 20.5% speed rebound effect, and a mathematical development sets out how speed rebound effects can be included in traditional rebound effect analyses. Results for the ICE-vehicle do not allow a direct rebound effect estimate due to wasteful engine revving on the NEDC and wrong gear ratios for sedate travel. However, this can be seen as a form of ‘transformational’ rebound effect, where vehicle design locks drivers into fast driving styles.

  19. Gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongxian

    The demand of portable power generation systems for both domestic and military applications has driven the advances of mesoscale internal combustion engine systems. This dissertation was devoted to the gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of the mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems. First, the system-level thermodynamic modeling for the swing engine/generator systems has been developed. The system performance as well as the potentials of both two- and four-stroke swing engine systems has been investigated based on this model. Then through parameterc studies, the parameters that have significant impacts on the system performance have been identified, among which, the burn time and spark advance time are the critical factors related to combustion process. It is found that the shorter burn time leads to higher system efficiency and power output and the optimal spark advance time is about half of the burn time. Secondly, the turbulent combustion modeling based on levelset method (G-equation) has been implemented into the commercial software FLUENT. Thereafter, the turbulent flame propagation in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber and realistic swing engine chambers has been studied. It is found that, in mesoscale combustion engines, the burn time is dominated by the mean turbulent kinetic energy in the chamber. It is also shown that in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber, the burn time depends on the longest distance between the initial ignition kernel to its walls and by changing the ignition and injection locations, the burn time can be reduced by a factor of two. Furthermore, the studies of turbulent flame propagation in real swing engine chambers show that the combustion can be enhanced through in-chamber turbulence augmentation and with higher engine frequency, the burn time is shorter, which indicates that the in-chamber turbulence can be induced by the motion of moving components as well as the intake gas jet flow. The burn time

  20. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  1. A combined thermodynamic cycle based on methanol dissociation for IC (internal combustion) engine exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Xu, Zhengxin; Ren, Chengqin; Deng, Banglin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for exhaust heat recovery was proposed to improve IC (internal combustion) engine fuel efficiency and also to achieve the goal for direct usage of methanol as IC engine fuel. An open organic Rankine cycle system using methanol as working medium is coupled to IC engine exhaust pipe for exhaust heat recovery. In the bottom cycle, the working medium first undergoes dissociation and expansion processes, and is then directed back to IC engine as fuel. As the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle are combined together, this scheme forms a combined thermodynamic cycle. Then, this concept was applied to a turbocharged engine, and the corresponding simulation models were built for both of the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle. On this basis, the energy saving potential of this combined cycle was estimated by parametric analyses. Compared to the methanol vapor engine, IC engine in-cylinder efficiency has an increase of 1.4–2.1 percentage points under full load conditions, while the external bottom cycle can increase the fuel efficiency by 3.9–5.2 percentage points at the working pressure of 30 bar. The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points. - Highlights: • A combined thermodynamic cycle using methanol as working medium for IC engine exhaust heat recovery is proposed. • The external bottom cycle of exhaust heat recovery and IC engine working cycle are combined together. • IC engine fuel efficiency could be improved from both in-cylinder working cycle and external bottom cycle. • The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points at full load

  2. An investigation of volute cross-sectional shape on turbocharger turbine under pulsating conditions in internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mingyang; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo; Rajoo, Srithar; Yokoyama, Takao; Ibaraki, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cycle averaged efficiency is higher for the volute A (low aspect ratio). • More distorted flow in volute B is the reason for performance deterioration. • Flow in volute B (high aspect ratio) is more sensitive to pulsating flow. - Abstract: Engine downsizing is a proven method for CO_2 reduction in Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). A turbocharger, which reclaims the energy from the exhaust gas to boost the intake air, can effectively improve the power density of the engine thus is one of the key enablers to achieve the engine downsizing. Acknowledging its importance, many research efforts have gone into improving a turbocharger performance, which includes turbine volute. The cross-section design of a turbine volute in a turbocharger is usually a compromise between the engine level packaging and desired performance. Thus, it is beneficial to evaluate the effects of cross-sectional shape on a turbine performance. This paper presents experimental and computational investigation of the influence of volute cross-sectional shape on the performance of a radial turbocharger turbine under pulsating conditions. The cross-sectional shape of the baseline volute (denoted as Volute B) was optimized (Volute A) while the annulus distribution of area-to-radius ratio (A/R) for the two volute configurations are kept the same. Experimental results show that the turbine with the optimized volute A has better cycle averaged efficiency under pulsating flow conditions, for different loadings and frequencies. The advantage of performance is influenced by the operational conditions. After the experiment, a validated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was employed to investigate the mechanism by which performance differs between the baseline volute and the optimized version. Computational results show a stronger flow distortion in spanwise direction at the rotor inlet with the baseline volute. Furthermore, compared with the optimized volute, the flow

  3. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2014-01-21

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

  4. Internal combustion engine exhaust pipe flow simulation. Part I: theoretical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady gas flow theory can be used for simulating a spark ignition internal combustion engine’s exhaust system, using pressure waves. The method explained here is based on the discretization of interpolated spaces (called meshes which are located throughout the whole length of the exhaust pipe, irrespective of its form or size. The most important aspects of this theory are theoretically explored, such as pressure wave movement and shock and their application to cases found in real engines’ exhaust pipes. This work also considers how the simulation must be made, based on the previous exploration. The results (presented as e- quations in this first paper show the great influence exerted by pressure wave movement on flow through the engine and there- fore on its final performance.

  5. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Valve for an Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite valve for internal combustion engines and the like formed of continuous carbon fibers throughout the valve's stem and head is disclosed. The valve includes braided carbon fiber material over axially aligned unidirectional carbon fibers forming a valve stem; the braided and unidirectional carbon fibers being broomed out at one end of the valve stem forming the shape of the valve head; the valve-shaped structure being densified and rigidized with a matrix of carbon containing discontinuous carbon fibers: and the finished valve being treated to resist oxidation. Also disclosed is a carbon matrix plug containing continuous and discontinuous carbon fibers and forming a net-shape valve head acting as a mandrel over which the unidirectional and braided carbon fibers are formed according to textile processes. Also disclosed are various preform valves and processes for making finished and preform carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite valves.

  6. Schlieren measurements in the round cylinder of an optically accessible internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sebastian Arnold; Salazar, Victor Manuel; Hoops, Alexandra A

    2013-05-10

    This paper describes the design and experimental application of an optical system to perform schlieren measurements in the curved geometry of the cylinder of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Key features of the system are a pair of cylindrical positive meniscus lenses, which keep the beam collimated while passing through the unmodified, thick-walled optical cylinder, and a pulsed, high-power light-emitting diode with narrow spectral width. In combination with a high-speed CMOS camera, the system is used to visualize the fuel jet after injection of hydrogen fuel directly into the cylinder from a high-pressure injector. Residual aberrations, which limit the system's sensitivity, are characterized experimentally and are compared to the predictions of ray-tracing software.

  7. Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerle, Wayne [Cummins, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Rutland, Chris [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Rohlfing, Eric [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Singh, Gurpreet [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; McIlroy, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-03-03

    This report is based on a SC/EERE Workshop to Identify Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE), held March 3, 2011, to determine strategic focus areas that will accelerate innovation in engine design to meet national goals in transportation efficiency. The U.S. has reached a pivotal moment when pressures of energy security, climate change, and economic competitiveness converge. Oil prices remain volatile and have exceeded $100 per barrel twice in five years. At these prices, the U.S. spends $1 billion per day on imported oil to meet our energy demands. Because the transportation sector accounts for two-thirds of our petroleum use, energy security is deeply entangled with our transportation needs. At the same time, transportation produces one-quarter of the nation’s carbon dioxide output. Increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a technologically proven and cost-effective approach to dramatically improving the fuel economy of the nation’s fleet of vehicles in the near- to mid-term, with the corresponding benefits of reducing our dependence on foreign oil and reducing carbon emissions. Because of their relatively low cost, high performance, and ability to utilize renewable fuels, internal combustion engines—including those in hybrid vehicles—will continue to be critical to our transportation infrastructure for decades. Achievable advances in engine technology can improve the fuel economy of automobiles by over 50% and trucks by over 30%. Achieving these goals will require the transportation sector to compress its product development cycle for cleaner, more efficient engine technologies by 50% while simultaneously exploring innovative design space. Concurrently, fuels will also be evolving, adding another layer of complexity and further highlighting the need for efficient product development cycles. Current design processes, using “build and test” prototype engineering, will not

  8. The realization and analysis of a new thermodynamic cycle for internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorić Jovan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents description and thermodynamic analysis of a new thermodynamic cycle. Realization of this new cycle is possible to achieve with valveless internal combustion engine with more complete expansion. The main purpose of this new IC engine is to increase engines’ thermal efficiency. The engine was designed so that the thermodynamic changes of the working fluid are different than in conventional engines. Specific differences are reflected in a more complete expansion of the working fluid (the expansion stroke is larger than compression stroke, valveless gas flowing and complete discharge of residual combustion products from the combustion chamber. In this concept, the movement of the piston is different than in conventional piston mechanisms. The results obtained herein include the efficiency characteristics of irreversible reciprocating new engine cycle which is very similar to Miller cycle. The results show that with this thermodynamic cycle engine has higher efficiency than with the standard Otto cycle. In this article, the patent application material under number 2008/607 at the Intellectual Property Office of the Republic of Serbia was used.

  9. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C P; Davy, Martin H; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  10. Exhaust gas heat recovery through secondary expansion cylinder and water injection in an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiri Toosi Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance thermal efficiency and increase performance of an internal combustion engine, a novel concept of coupling a conventional engine with a secondary 4-stroke cylinder and direct water injection process is proposed. The burned gases after working in a traditional 4-stroke combustion cylinder are transferred to a secondary cylinder and expanded even more. After re-compression of the exhaust gases, pre-heated water is injected at top dead center. The evaporation of injected water not only recovers heat from exhaust gases, but also increases the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, therefore improves the overall thermal efficiency. A 0-D/1-D model is used to numerically simulate the idea. The simulations outputs showed that the bottoming cycle will be more efficient at higher engines speeds, specifically in a supercharged/turbocharged engine, which have higher exhaust gas pressure that can reproduce more positive work. In the modeled supercharged engine, results showed that brake thermal efficiency can be improved by about 17%, and brake power by about 17.4%.

  11. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy temperature measurements in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Don; Driver, H. Steve T.; Hutcheon, Richard J.; Lockett, Russel J.; Robertson, Gerald N.

    1994-09-01

    Part of a project to investigate the physics and chemistry of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines is reported. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is used to probe the fuel-air mixture in the cylinder of a Richardo E6 variable compression ratio research engine. The laser system comprises a passively Q- switched single-longitudinal-mode frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and a broadband dye laser, both with a pulse length of 15 ns. A crankshaft encoder and electronic delay are used to fire the lasers at specified times during the engine cycle, and CARS spectra are acquired using a 0.75 m spectrometer and a 1024 optical multichannel analyzer. Because of the uncertainties associated with collisional narrowing in the theoretical modeling of high-pressure CARS spectra, temperatures are determined by comparing the engine spectra with a library of experimental CARS spectra from a calibrated high-pressure, high- temperature cell. This purely experimental technique is shown to be superior to two theoretical models under the considered conditions, giving temperatures during the compression stroke of the engine with standard deviations of typically 10 K and a possible systematic error of 15 K. Together with pressure records, this information is used as input data for chemical kinetic modeling of the combustion process.

  12. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C. P.; Davy, Martin H.; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  13. Biomass gasification for electricity generation with internal combustion engines. Process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia Faure, Luis; Recio Recio, Angel; Oliva Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla Suarez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable source of energy worldwide increased prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By processes and energy conversion technologies it is possible to obtain fuels in solid, liquid and gaseous form from any biomass. The biomass gasification is the thermal conversion thereof into a gas, which can be used for electricity production with the use of internal combustion engines with a certain level of efficiency, which depends on the characteristics of biomass and engines used. In this work the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification in Integrated Forestry Enterprise of Santiago de Cuba, designed to generate electricity from waste from the forest industry is presented. Is a downdraft gasifier reactor, COMBO-80 model and engine manufacturing Hindu (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was carried out for different loads (electric power generated) engine from experimental measurements of flow and composition of the gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25%. (full text)

  14. Dynamic Oil Consumption Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines using Laser Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmeier, Stefan; Alonso, Eduardo; Boesl, Ulrich

    2014-01-07

    A new approach has been developed to measure dynamic consumption of lubricant oil in an internal combustion engine. It is based on the already known technique where sulfur is used as a natural tracer of the engine oil. Since ejection of motor oil in gaseous form into the exhaust is by far the main source of engine oil consumption, detection of sulfur in the exhaust emission is a valuable way to measure engine oil consumption in a dynamic way. In earlier approaches, this is done by converting all sulfur containing chemical components into SO2 by thermal pyrolysis in a high temperature furnace at atmospheric pressure. The so-formed SO2 then is detected by broadband-UV-induced fluorescence or mass spectrometric methods. The challenge is to reach the necessary detection limit of 50 ppb. The new approach presented here includes sulfur conversion in a low-pressure discharge cell and laser-induced fluorescence with wavelength and fluorescence lifetime selection. A limit of detection down to 10 ppb at a temporal resolution in the time scale of few seconds is reached. Extensive, promising studies have been performed at a real engine test bench. Future developments of a compact, mobile device based on these improvements are discussed.

  15. The internal combustion engine; a simple solution for pollution from petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The internal combustion (IC) engine is an indirect cause of groundwater and soil contamination from petroleum hydrocarbons. Leaking underground storage tank systems that are used to store and distribute fuel for automobiles are a major cause of environmental degradation. That same IC engine which has indirectly caused the pollution is an excellent tool for cleaning up environmental contamination from petroleum releases. An extremely flexible clean-up system using an IC engine was designed, constructed and operated to recover free product, treat contaminated soil and remediate groundwater pollution. The treatment system uses the IC engine for vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, spray aeration and incineration. The IC engine is an excellent incinerator. The petroleum vapors are burned in the IC engine with a supplemental propane fuel. The engine drives a power-takeoff unit and provides energy for an air compressor, water pump, electrical generation and other accessories. Using waste to energy methods multiple techniques are being used in combination with different treatment technologies to optimize the remediation. As the remediation progresses the treatment system can be modified to use additional techniques. Another benefit that is directly associated with the IC engine is the presence of excess heat which is helpful in northern climates. The excess heat has many uses including spray aeration and enhanced biological remediation. The IC engine has several limitations and requires an understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the contamination. As with all environmental remediation, a proper understanding of the Hydrogeological System is critical. When properly applied the IC engine has many advantages over other methods of remediation for petroleum hydrocarbons

  16. Flow effects due to valve and piston motion in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semlitsch, Bernhard; Wang, Yue; Mihăescu, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow regime identification depending on the valve lift during the exhaust stroke. • Analysis of the valve motion effect onto the flow development in the exhaust port. • Physical interpretation of commonly used discharge and flow coefficient formulations. • Illustration of flow effects in junction regions with pulsatile flow. - Abstract: Performance optimization regarding e.g. exhaust valve strategies in an internal combustion engine is often performed based on one-dimensional simulation investigation. Commonly, a discharge coefficient is used to describe the flow behavior in complex geometries, such as the exhaust port. This discharge coefficient for an exhaust port is obtained by laboratory experiments at fixed valve lifts, room temperatures, and low total pressure drops. The present study investigates the consequences of the valve and piston motion onto the energy losses and the discharge coefficient. Therefore, Large Eddy Simulations are performed in a realistic internal combustion geometry using three different modeling strategies, i.e. fixed valve lift and fixed piston, moving piston and fixed valve lift, and moving piston and moving valve, to estimate the energy losses. The differences in the flow field development with the different modeling approaches is delineated and the dynamic effects onto the primary quantities, e.g. discharge coefficient, are quantified. Considering the motion of piston and valves leads to negative total pressure losses during the exhaust cycle, which cannot be observed at fixed valve lifts. Additionally, the induced flow structures develop differently when valve motion is taken into consideration, which leads to a significant disparity of mass flow rates evolving through the two individual valve ports. However, accounting for piston motion and limited valve motion, leads to a minor discharge coefficient alteration of about one to two percent

  17. The production of hydrogen through the uncatalyzed partial oxidation of methane in an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Ghazi A.; Wierzba, I. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    The thermodynamic and kinetic limitations of the uncatalyzed partial oxidation of methane for the production of synthesis gas, which is made up of mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a variety of proportions, are reviewed. It is suggested that such processes can be made to proceed successfully in a conventional internal combustion engine when operated on excessively rich mixtures of methane and oxygenated air. This is achieved while simultaneously producing power and regenerative exhaust gas heating. Experimental results are described that show a dual fuel engine of the compression ignition type with pilot liquid fuel injection can be operated on excessively rich mixtures of methane and air supplemented with oxygen gas to produce hydrogen rich gas with high methane conversion rates. Similarly, a spark ignition engine was reported to be equally capable of such production and performance. It is shown that there are viable prospects for the simultaneous production of synthesis gas in engines with efficient useful mechanical power and exhaust gas regenerative heating. (author)

  18. Energy efficiency analyses of active flow aftertreatment systems for lean burn internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ming; Reader, Graham T.

    2004-01-01

    The use of three way catalytic converters in stoichiometric burn reciprocating internal combustion engine systems has proved to be an effective and efficient method for reducing the level of criteria pollutants. However, such passive systems have not been as successful in emission amelioration when combined with lean burn engines. This is because of the thermochemical nature of the exhaust gases generated by such engines. The high content of exhaust oxygen largely negates the effectiveness of three way catalytic converters, and the comparatively low temperature of the combusted gases means that supplemental energy has to be added to these gases to enable the converter to function correctly. This requirement severely reduces the energy efficiency of conventional passive aftertreatment systems. However, initial empirical studies have indicated that a possible means of improving the performance of aftertreatment devices when used with lean burn engine systems is to use active flow control of the exhaust gases. These results are reported in this paper. This concept has been further investigated by developing an energy efficiency analysis that enables the effects on aftertreatment performance of different gas flow rates, flow reversal frequencies and monolith solid properties to be investigated. Simulation results indicate that through active thermal management, the supplemental energy consumption can be drastically reduced

  19. Vibration Diagnostics as an effective Tool for Testing Engines of Internal Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Dömötör

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods of automotive diagnostics used in services to detect a large variety of faults and damages of various parts of engines of internal combustion. Undoubtedly, they are effective, but they are simply unable to find all types of mechanical faults occurring during the operation. This is the reason why authors of this paper tried to use a special tool, which has been proven for years for detecting faults of rolling element bearing in rotating machinery. During their research, the authors tried to find valuable results by measuring vibration of various parts of engines. Three items were tested, a Diesel engine and two Otto motors. A large number of measurements have been taken at various speed, at different points, in different directions, with different parameter setup, etc. However, there was one setup which has been applied to all three engines. It is the measurement setup of vibration velocity, in the frequency range of 2 Hz-300 Hz. Valuable consequences have been found regarding the clogging of the air filters and the exhaust systems. As a conclusion the authors expressed their opinion, that, apart from the traditional diagnostic methods used in services, vibration measurements can also be useful, especially for detecting faults of rolling element bearings.

  20. Review of organic Rankine cycles for internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, Charles; Depcik, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Escalating fuel prices and future carbon dioxide emission limits are creating a renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of engines beyond the limit of in-cylinder techniques. One promising mechanism that accomplishes both objectives is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. This paper reviews the history of internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery focusing on Organic Rankine Cycles since this thermodynamic cycle works well with the medium-grade energy of the exhaust. Selection of the cycle expander and working fluid are the primary focus of the review, since they are regarded as having the largest impact on system performance. Results demonstrate a potential fuel economy improvement around 10% with modern refrigerants and advancements in expander technology. -- Highlights: ► This review article focuses on engine exhaust waste heat recovery works. ► The organic Rankine cycle is superior for low to medium exergy heat sources. ► Working fluid and expander selection strongly influence efficiency. ► Several authors demonstrate viable systems for vehicle installation

  1. Achievement of the charge exchange work diminishing of an internal combustion engine in part load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines, used for driving of different cars, occurs not only at full load, but mostly at the part load. The relative load exchange work at the full (nominal engine load is significantly low. At the part load of the IC engine its energy efficiency ηe is significantly lower than in the optimal (nominal field range of the performance parameters. One of the numerous reasons of this effect is regular growing of the relative load exchange work of the IC engine. It is directly connected with the quantitative regulation method commonly used in the IC engines. From the thermodynamic point of view - the main reason of this effect is the throttling process (causing exergy losses occurring in the inlet and outlet channels. The known proposals for solving of this problem are based on applying of the fully electronic control of the motion of inlet, outlet valves and new reference cycles.The idea presented in the paper leads to diminishing the charge exchange work of the IC engines. The problem can be solved using presented in the paper a new concept of the reference cycle (called as eco-cycle of IC engine. The work of the engine basing on the eco-cycle occurs in two 3-stroke stages; the fresh air is delivered only once for both stages, but in range of each stage a new portion of fuel is burned. Normally the charge exchange occurs once during each engine cycle realized. Elaborated proposition bases on the elimination of chosen charge exchange processes and through this the dropping of the charge exchange work can be achieved.

  2. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  3. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  4. Effect of using hydrogen in the power and performance of an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Tamayo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the real working parameters of an Otto cycle internal combustion engine, using as fuel hydrogen plus gasoline. Two stoichiometric equations were determined. In the first equation, the reagents are octane and air, in the second equation was added the quantity of 3.86 H2 moles obtained from a hydrogen cell. Two sets of equations, for consumption and power, were determined from the chemical equations, working at the conditions of Quito: altitude 2850 msnm, 72.794 kPa of atmospheric pressure and 300 K of temperature. A single cylinder engine powered with hydrogen plus gasoline was used for getting real data of engine power, using mixtures of air-gasoline and hydrogen; the theoretical power without H2 was 3.91 HP and with H2 5.41 HP, it increased 27.1%, the real power is 3.78 HP without H2 and 4.66 HP with H2, it increased 16.7%. Theoretical fuel consumption is 401.61 g/kWh and addition of H2 is less to 373.52 g/kWh, the actual consumption that indicates the manufacturer is 395 g/kWh.

  5. THE HYDROGEN-FUELLED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS WITH A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. Seddiek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern marine power plants have been designed to improve the overall ship’s efficiency. This pushed the designers of marine machinery to search for unconventional fuels for these plants. During the previous years, diesel oil has been extensively used on-board ships. Due to the high price of light diesel oil and the environmental problems resulting from the use of heavy fuel oil, it has become necessary to search for an alternative to traditional fuels. As a result, natural gas fuel has been used on-board some types of ships, especially short-voyage cruise ships. Unfortunately, there are still some technical and logistic problems related to the use of natural gas as a fuel, especially as it is considered a non-renewable energy source. The use of hydrogen fuel on-board ships, particularly in modern power plants may contribute to overcoming the above problems. The present paper considers the possibility of the use of hydrogen fuel for marine applications and discusses different stages of hydrogen gas cycle beginning with hydrogen generation process from clean energy until using it as fuel for internal combustion engines on-board one RO/RO ship, named Taba, operating in the Mediterranean Sea. Compared to the diesel engine, the hydrogen fuelled engine is found to be lower in thermal efficiency and fuel consumption, however, some adjustments are needed.

  6. Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voldrich, W. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.

    1992-04-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components` gas-pressure sinterable Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

  7. Regulated and unregulated emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on ethanol-containing fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulopoulos, S. G.; Samaras, D. P.; Philippopoulos, C. J.

    In the present work, the effect of ethanol addition to gasoline on regulated and unregulated emissions is studied. A 4-cylinder OPEL 1.6 L internal combustion engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. For exhaust emissions treatment a typical three-way catalyst was used. Among the various compounds detected in exhaust emissions, the following ones were monitored at engine and catalyst outlet: methane, hexane, ethylene, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, acetic acid and ethanol. Addition of ethanol in the fuel up to 10% w/w had as a result an increase in the Reid vapour pressure of the fuel, which indicates indirectly increased evaporative emissions, while carbon monoxide tailpipe emissions were decreased. For ethanol-containing fuels, acetaldehyde emissions were appreciably increased (up to 100%), especially for fuel containing 3% w/w ethanol. In contrast, aromatics emissions were decreased by ethanol addition to gasoline. Methane and ethanol were the most resistant compounds to oxidation while ethylene was the most degradable compound over the catalyst. Ethylene, methane and acetaldehyde were the main compounds present at engine exhaust while methane, acetaldehyde and ethanol were the main compounds in tailpipe emissions for ethanol fuels after the catalyst operation.

  8. A new closed-form thermodynamic model for thermal simulation of spark ignition internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjaneh, Afshin; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new closed-form thermal model was developed for SI engines. • Various irreversibilities of real engines were integrated into the model. • The accuracy of the model was examined on two real SI engines. • The superiority of the model to previous closed-form models was shown. • Accuracy and losses were studied over the operating range of engines. - Abstract: A closed form model based on finite speed thermodynamics, FST, modified to consider various losses was developed on Otto cycle. In this regard, the governing equations of the finite speed thermodynamics were developed for expansion/compression processes while heat absorption/rejection of the Otto cycle was determined based on finite time thermodynamics, FTT. In addition, other irreversibility including power loss caused by heat transfer through the cylinder walls and irreversibility due to throttling process was integrated into the model. The developed model was verified by implementing on two different spark ignition internal combustion engines and the results of modeling were compared with experimental results as well as FTT model. It was found that the developed model was not only very simple in use like a closed form thermodynamic model, but also it models a real spark ignition engine with reasonable accuracy. The error in predicting the output power at rated operating range of the engine was 39%, while in the case of the FTT model, this figure was 167.5%. This comparison for predicting thermal efficiency was +7% error (as difference) for the developed model compared to +39.4% error of FTT model.

  9. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  10. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  11. Investigation on the Potential of High Efficiency for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current brake thermal efficiency of advanced internal combustion engines is limited to 50%, and how to further improve the efficiency is a challenge. In this study, a theoretical investigation on engine thermal efficiency was carried out using one-dimension simulations based on the first law of thermodynamics. The energy balance was evaluated by varying parameters such as compression ratio (CR; heat transfer coefficient; intake charge properties; and combustion phasing etc.—their influences on the efficiency limits were demonstrated. Results show that for a given heat transfer coefficient, an optimal CR exists to obtain the peak efficiency. The optimal CR decreases with the increase of heat transfer coefficient, and high CR with a low heat-transfer coefficient can achieve a significantly high efficiency. A higher density and specific heat ratio of intake charge, as well as a shorter combustion duration with a proper CA50 (crank angle at 50% of total heat release, can increase efficiency significantly. Methanol shows an excellent ability in decreasing the peak in-cylinder temperature; and the peak indicated efficiency is relatively higher than other tested fuels. The displacement has few effects on the indicated efficiency, while it shows a strong effect on the energy distribution between heat transfer and exhaust energy. All these strategies with high CR result in high in-cylinder pressure and temperature; which means a breakthrough of material is needed in the future.

  12. Accelerated Electromechanical Modeling of a Distributed Internal Combustion Engine Generator Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy V. Bozhko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation with a combustion engine prime mover is still widely used to supply electric power in a variety of applications. These applications range from backup power supply systems and combined wind-diesel generation to providing power in places where grid connection is either technically impractical or financially uneconomic. Modelling of such systems as a whole is extremely difficult due to the long-time load profiles needed and the computational difficulty of including small time-constant electrical dynamics with large time-constant mechanical dynamics. This paper presents the development of accelerated, reduced-order models of a distributed internal combustions engine generator unit. Overall these models are shown to achieve a massive improvement in the computational time required for long-time simulations while also achieving an extremely high level of dynamic accuracy. It is demonstrated how these models are derived, used and verified against benchmark models created using established techniques. Throughout the paper the modelling set as a whole, including multi level detail, is presented, detailed and finally summarised into a crucial tool for general system investigation and multiple target optimisation.

  13. Unsteady analysis of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for exhaust heat recovery from an Internal Combustion Engine using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Tong; An, Wei; Song, Xu; Liu, Liuchen; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimization model of ORC for the recovery of ICE exhaust heat is established. • Three unsteady parameters are considered for the design of ICE-ORC system. • The unsteady performances of ICE-ORC are illustrated using Monte Carlo simulation. - Abstract: An optimization model is developed to maximize the net power output of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with ten working fluids for exhaust heat recovery from an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) theoretically. The ICE-ORC system is influenced by several unsteady parameters which make it difficult to determine the optimal design parameters. Therefore, we introduce probability density functions in order to investigate the impacts of the ICE power output, the sink temperature and the pinch point temperature difference on the ORC performances. Each unsteady parameter is illustrated to analyze the performances of the ICE-ORC system. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to investigate the role played by the unsteady parameters, each of which obeys different probability distributions. By these methods, we obtained the convergence values, the frequency distributions and the cumulative probability distributions of various performance parameters. These results can provide valuable suggestions for the design of ICE-ORC system.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system for internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Sipeng; Deng, Kangyao; Qu, Shuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system especially for turbocharged engines is proposed to improve the thermal efficiencies of internal combustion engines. Simplified recovery processes can be described as follows: superheated steam generated by engine waste heat is injected into the pipe before the turbine to increase the boost pressure of the fresh air; intake valve close timing is adjusted to control the amount of fresh air as the original level, and thus the higher pressure charged air expands in the intake stroke and transfers the pressure energy directly to the crankshaft. In this way, the increased turbine output by the pre-turbine steam injection is finally recovered in the cylinder, which is different from the traditional Rankine cycle. The whole energy transfer processes are studied with thermodynamic analyses and numerical simulations. The results show that the mass flow rate of the injected steam has the biggest influence on the energy transfer processes followed by the temperature of the injected steam. With this in-cylinder waste heat recovery system, the fuel economy of a selected turbocharged diesel engine can be improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point when the injected mass flow ratio is set to be 0.1. - Highlights: • An in-cylinder waste heat recovery system is proposed. • Effects of injected parameters are studied with energy and exergy balance theories. • Variations of operating points on the compressor map are studied in detail. • The fuel economy is improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point

  15. Investigation and design optimization of exhaust-based thermoelectric generator system for internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Diao, Hai; Yu, Shuhai; Jiao, Kui; Du, Qing; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for exhaust-based thermoelectric waste heat recovery is developed. • Various heat, mass and electric transfer characteristics are elucidated. • Channel size needs to be moderate to balance heat transfer and pressure drop. • Bafflers need to be placed at all locations near all TEG modules. • Baffler angle needs to be sufficiently large, especially for downstream locations. - Abstract: Thermoelectric generator (TEG) has attracted considerable attention for the waste heat recovery of internal combustion engine. In this study, a 3-D numerical model for engine exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (ETEG) system is developed. By considering the detailed geometry of thermoelectric generator (TEG) and exhaust channel, the various transport phenomena are investigated, and design optimization suggestions are given. It is found that the exhaust channel size needs to be moderate to balance the heat transfer to TEG modules and pressure drop along channel. Increasing the number of exhaust channels may improve the performance, however, since more space and TEG modules are needed, the system size and cost need to be considered as well. Although only placing bafflers at the channel inlet could increase the heat transfer coefficient for the whole channel, the near wall temperature downstream might decrease significantly, leading to performance degradation of the TEG modules downstream. To ensure effective utilization of hot exhaust gas, the baffler angle needs to be sufficiently large, especially for the downstream locations. Since larger baffler angles increase the pressure drop significantly, it is suggested that variable baffler angles, with the angle increasing along the flow direction, might be a middle course for balancing the heat transfer and pressure drop. A single ETEG design may not be suitable to all the engine operating conditions, and making the number of exhaust channels and baffler angle adjustable according to different engine

  16. Regeneration in an internal combustion engine: Thermal-hydraulic modeling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyageswaran, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An arrangement is proposed for in-cylinder regeneration in a 4-stroke engine. • Thermodynamic models are formulated for overall cycle analysis. • A design procedure is outlined for micro-channel regenerators. • Partial differential equations are solved for flow inside the regenerator. • Regeneration with lean combustion decreases the idealized cycle efficiency. - Abstract: An arrangement is proposed for a four-stroke internal combustion engine to: (a) recover thermal energy from products of combustion during the exhaust stroke; (b) store that energy as sensible heat in a micro-channel regenerator matrix; and (c) transfer the stored heat to compressed fresh charge that flows through the regenerator during the succeeding mechanical cycle. An extra moveable piston that can be locked at preferred positions and a sequence of valve events enable the regenerator to lose heat to the working fluid during one interval of time but gain heat from the fluid during another interval of time. This paper examines whether or not this scheme for in-cylinder regeneration (ICR) improves the cycle thermal efficiency η I . Models for various thermodynamic processes in the cycle and treatments for unsteady compressible flow and heat transfer inside the regenerator are developed. Digital simulations of the cycle are made. Compared to an idealized engine cycle devoid of regeneration, provisions for ICR seem to deteriorate the thermal efficiency. In an 8:1 compression ratio octane engine simulated with an equivalence ratio of 0.75, η I  = 0.455 with regeneration and η I  = 0.491 without. This study shows that previous claims on efficiency gains via ICR, using highly-simplified models, may be misleading.

  17. Design and operational procedures for ORC-based systems coupled with internal combustion engines driving electrical generators at full and partial load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, Viorel; Aboaltabooq, Mahdi Hatf Kadhum; Pop, Horatiu; Apostol, Valentin; Prisecaru, Malina; Prisecaru, Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat recovery from Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). • Organic Ranking Cycle (ORC) systems driving Electric Generators (EGs). • ICE-EG partial load operation. • Optimum design geometry of ORC system. • Optimum operation of ORC system at partial EG load. - Abstract: This paper refers to recovering waste heat from the hot gases exhausted by internal combustion engines (ICEs) driving electric generators (EGs) at full and partial load. The topic is of particular interest for developing countries where electric grids are underdeveloped or missing and electricity is generated locally by using classical fuels. The heat recovery system is based on an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). A novel method is proposed for the optimum design of ORC-based systems operating in combination with ICE at partial EG loads. First, ORC-based systems coupled with ICEs operating at full EG load is treated. Specific results for the operation at full EG load are as follows: (i) the optimum superheating increment ranges between 30 and 40 °C, depending on the type of the working fluids; (ii) a pinch point temperature difference exits between the flue gas temperature and the working fluid at the evaporator inlet; (iii) the total area of the evaporator is very close to the total area of the condenser, a fact which facilitates manufacturing; (iv) the surface area of the preheater zone is about 75% of the total surface area, while those of the boiler zone and superheater zone is about 13.5% and 11.5%, respectively. Second, the case of the ORC-based systems coupled with ICEs operating at partial EG load is considered. Specific results for this case are as follows: (v) the net power may be maximized by optimizing the working fluid mass flow rate; (vi) when the ICE is coupled with an ORC-based system, the overall thermal efficiency of the combined system, η ICE-ORC , is higher than the thermal efficiency of the ICE operating alone. As an example, for the case treated here,

  18. Emission characterization and evaluation of natural gas-fueled cogeneration microturbines and internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, Aldo; Chicco, Gianfranco; Genon, Giuseppe; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    The increasing diffusion of small-scale energy systems within the distributed generation (DG) paradigm is raising the need for studying the environmental impact due to the different DG solutions in order to assess their sustainability. Addressing the environmental impact calls for building specific models for studying both local and global emissions. In this framework, the adoption of natural gas-fueled DG cogeneration technologies may provide, as a consequence of cogeneration enhanced overall energy efficiency and of natural gas relatively low carbon content, a significant reduction of global impact in terms of CO 2 emissions with respect to the separate production of electricity and heat. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the DG alternatives should take into account as well the impact due to the presence of plants spread over the territory that could increase the local pollution, in particular due to CO and NO x , and thus could worsen the local air quality. This paper provides an overview on the characterization of the emissions from small-scale natural gas-fueled cogeneration systems, with specific reference to the DG technologies nowadays most available in the market, namely, microturbines and internal combustion engines. The corresponding local and global environmental impacts are evaluated by using the emission balance approach. A numerical case study with two representative machines highlights their different emission characteristics, also considering the partial-load emission performance

  19. Investigation of a rotary valving system with variable valve timing for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Hansen, Craig N.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of the program was to provide a functional demonstration of the Hansen Rotary Valving System with Variable Valve Timing (HRVS/VVT), capable of throttleless inlet charge control, as an alternative to conventional poppet-valves for use in spark ignited internal combustion engines. The goal of this new technology is to secure benefits in fuel economy, broadened torque band, vibration reduction, and overhaul accessibility. Additionally, use of the variable valve timing capability to vary the effective compression ratio is expected to improve multifuel tolerance and efficiency. Efforts directed at the design of HRVS components proved to be far more extensive than had been anticipated, ultimately requiring that proof-trial design/development work be performed. Although both time and funds were exhausted before optical or ion-probe types of in-cylinder investigation could be undertaken, a great deal of laboratory data was acquired during the course of the design/development work. This laboratory data is the basis for the information presented in this final report.

  20. Electronic ignition device for internal combustion engines. Elektronische Zuendvorrichtung fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhard, W

    1983-07-14

    The purpose of the invention is to create an electronic ignition device for internal combustion engines, so that the exact setting of a required ignition timing can be done without troublesome balancing of the circuit and without temperature compensation processes. According to the invention, in order to solve this problem, the ignition device is characterized by an auxiliary circuit, with an auxiliary winding magnetically coupled to the ignition coil, a capacitor and a diode, which is connected in parallel with the control section of the control component. The auxiliary winding charges the capacitor up via the diode, as long as the induction and therefore the voltage in the auxiliary winding are increasing. After exceeding the maximum voltage, this is maintained at the capacitor while the voltage in the auxiliary winding decreases. If the difference reaches the threshold voltage of the control component, in particular of a thyristor, this is switched on and blocks the switching transistor. Due to this circuit, the ignition timing is very close behind the timing of the greatest possible energy input into the primary coil.

  1. The scaling of performance and losses in miniature internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Shyam Kumar

    Miniature glow ignition internal combustion (IC) piston engines are an off--the--shelf technology that could dramatically increase the endurance of miniature electric power supplies and the range and endurance of small unmanned air vehicles provided their overall thermodynamic efficiencies can be increased to 15% or better. This thesis presents the first comprehensive analysis of small (system is developed that is capable of making reliable measurements of engine performance and losses in these small engines. Methodologies are also developed for measuring volumetric, heat transfer, exhaust, mechanical, and combustion losses. These instruments and techniques are used to investigate the performance of seven single-cylinder, two-stroke, glow fueled engines ranging in size from 15 to 450 g (0.16 to 7.5 cm3 displacement). Scaling rules for power output, overall efficiency, and normalized power are developed from the data. These will be useful to developers of micro-air vehicles and miniature power systems. The data show that the minimum length scale of a thermodynamically viable piston engine based on present technology is approximately 3 mm. Incomplete combustion is the most important challenge as it accounts for 60-70% of total energy losses. Combustion losses are followed in order of importance by heat transfer, sensible enthalpy, and friction. A net heat release analysis based on in-cylinder pressure measurements suggest that a two--stage combustion process occurs at low engine speeds and equivalence ratios close to 1. Different theories based on burning mode and reaction kinetics are proposed to explain the observed results. High speed imaging of the combustion chamber suggests that a turbulent premixed flame with its origin in the vicinity of the glow plug is the primary driver of combustion. Placing miniature IC engines on a turbulent combustion regime diagram shows that they operate in the 'flamelet in eddy' regime whereas conventional--scale engines operate

  2. An investigation of the techno-economic impact of internal combustion engine based cogeneration systems on the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions of the Canadian housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaee, S. Rasoul; Ugursal, V. Ismet; Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a techno-economic evaluation of retrofitting internal combustion engine (ICE) based cogeneration systems in the Canadian housing stock (CHS). The study was conducted using the Canadian Hybrid Residential End-Use Energy and GHG Emissions Model (CHREM). CHREM includes close to 17,000 unique house files that are statistically representative of the Canadian housing stock. The cogeneration system performance was evaluated using a high resolution integrated building performance simulation software. It is assumed that the ICE cogeneration system is retrofitted into all houses that currently use a central space heating system and have a suitable basement or crawl space. The GHG emission intensity factor associated with marginal electricity generation in each province is used to estimate the annual GHG emissions reduction due to the cogeneration system retrofit. The results show that cogeneration retrofit yields 13% energy savings in the CHS. While the annual GHG emissions would increase in some provinces due to cogeneration retrofits, the total GHG emissions of the CHS would be reduced by 35%. The economic analysis indicates that ICE cogeneration system retrofits may provide an economically feasible opportunity to approach net/nearly zero energy status for existing Canadian houses. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation ICE cogeneration systems for Canadian housing is reported. • ICE cogeneration retrofit could yield 13% annual energy savings in Canadian housing. • Annual GHG emissions of Canadian housing could decrease by 35% with ICE cogeneration. • But, in some provinces, GHG emissions would increase as a result of ICE cogeneration

  3. Constant speed control of four-stroke micro internal combustion swing engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zhu, Honghai; Ni, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The increasing demands on safety, emission and fuel consumption require more accurate control models of micro internal combustion swing engine (MICSE). The objective of this paper is to investigate the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE. The operation principle of the four-stroke MICSE is presented based on the description of MICSE prototype. A two-level Petri net based hybrid model is proposed to model the four-stroke MICSE engine cycle. The Petri net subsystem at the upper level controls and synchronizes the four Petri net subsystems at the lower level. The continuous sub-models, including breathing dynamics of intake manifold, thermodynamics of the chamber and dynamics of the torque generation, are investigated and integrated with the discrete model in MATLAB Simulink. Through the comparison of experimental data and simulated DC voltage output, it is demonstrated that the hybrid model is valid for the four-stroke MICSE system. A nonlinear model is obtained from the cycle average data via the regression method, and it is linearized around a given nominal equilibrium point for the controller design. The feedback controller of the spark timing and valve duration timing is designed with a sequential loop closing design approach. The simulation of the sequential loop closure control design applied to the hybrid model is implemented in MATLAB. The simulation results show that the system is able to reach its desired operating point within 0.2 s, and the designed controller shows good MICSE engine performance with a constant speed. This paper presents the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE and carries out the simulation tests, the models and the simulation results can be used for further study on the precision control of four-stroke MICSE.

  4. Fundamental test results of a hydraulic free piston internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibi, A.; Ito, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-10-01

    The hydraulic free piston internal combustion engine pump that has been constructed and tested in this work is the opposed piston, two-stroke cycle, uniflow scavenging, direct fuel injection, and compression ignition type. The opposed engine pistons reciprocate the hydraulic pump pistons directly and the hydraulic power to be used in the hydraulic motors is generated. The hydraulic pressure generated is substantially constant. The opposed free pistons rest after every gas cycle and hydraulic power is continuously supplied by a hydraulic accumulator during the free pistons' rest. The smaller the hydraulic flow output, the longer the duration of the rest. Every gas cycle is performed under a fixed working condition independent of hydraulic power output. The test results in this work indicate that the number of gas cycles per second of the free piston engine pump is directly proportional to hydraulic flow output. The opposed free pistons operate every 53.2 s when hydraulic flow output is 1.02 cm{sup 3}/s; at that time hydraulic power output is 0.0124 kW. Hydraulic thermal efficiency, the ratio of hydraulic energy produced to fuel energy consumed, has been measured in the range 0.0124 kW to 4.88 kW of hydraulic power output and it has become clear that hydraulic thermal efficiency in this range is constant. The measured value of hydraulic thermal efficiency is 31 per cent. It has been demonstrated that hydraulic thermal efficiency is kept constant even if hydraulic power output is very small. (author)

  5. Cold flow simulation of an internal combustion engine with vertical valves using layering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinas, G.; Cupsa, O. S.; Stan, L. C.; Arsenie, A.

    2015-11-01

    Complying with emission requirements and fuel consumption efficiency are the points which drive any development of internal combustion engine. Refinement of the process of combustion and mixture formation, together with in-cylinder flow refinement, is a requirement, valves and piston bowl and intake exhaust port design optimization is essential. In order to reduce the time for design optimization cycle it is used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Being time consuming and highly costly caring out of experiment using flow bench testing this methods start to become less utilized. Air motion inside the intake manifold is one of the important factors, which govern the engine performance and emission of multi-cylinder diesel engines. Any cold flow study on IC is targeting the process of identifying and improving the fluid flow inside the ports and the combustion chamber. This is only the base for an optimization process targeting to increase the volume of air accessing the combustion space and to increase the turbulence of the air at the end of the compression stage. One of the first conclusions will be that the valve diameter is a fine tradeoff between the need for a bigger diameter involving a greater mass of air filling the cylinder, and the need of a smaller diameter in order to reduce the blind zone. Here there is room for optimization studies. The relative pressure indicates a suction effect coming from the moving piston. The more the shape of the inlet port is smoother and the diameter of the piston is bigger, the aerodynamic resistance of the geometry will be smaller so that the difference of inlet port pressure and the pressure near to piston face will be smaller. Here again there is enough room for more optimization studies.

  6. Effect of the Miller cycle on the performance of turbocharged hydrogen internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Qing-he; Sun, Bai-gang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Miller cycle can increase power density for turbocharged hydrogen engines. • The boundaries is limited by the turbocharged system and valve lift. • Broke power and BSFC of using Miller cycle is the best in three technical methods. - Abstract: Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, and the port fuel injection (PFI) is a fuel-flexible, durable, and relatively cheap method of energy conversion. However, the contradiction of increasing the power density and controlling NOx emissions limits the wide application of PFI hydrogen internal combustion engines. To address this issue, two typical thermodynamic cycles—the Miller and Otto cycles—are studied based on the calculation model proposed in this study. The thermodynamic cycle analyses of the two cycles are compared and results show that the thermal efficiency of the Miller cycle (η_M_i_l_l_e_r) is higher than η_O_t_t_o, when the multiplied result of the inlet pressure and Miller cycle coefficient (δ_Mγ_M) is larger than that of the Otto cycle (i.e., the value of the inlet pressure ratio multiplied by the Miller cycle coefficient is larger than the value of the inlet pressure ratio of the Otto cycle). The results also show that the intake valve closure (IVC) of the Miller cycle is limited by the inlet pressure and valve lift. The two factors show the boundaries of the Miller cycle in increasing the power density of the turbocharged PFI hydrogen engine. The ways of lean burn + Otto cycle (LO), stoichiometric equivalence ratio burn + EGR + Otto cycle (SEO) and Miller cycle in turbocharged hydrogen engine are compared, the results show that the Miller cycle has the highest power density and the lowest BSFC among the three methods at an engine speed of 2800 rpm and NOx emissions below 100 ppm. The brake power of the Miller cycle increases by 37.7% higher than that of the LO and 26.3% higher than that of SEO, when γ_M is 0.7. The BSFC of the Miller cycle decreases by 16% lower than that of

  7. Experimental study of hydrogen as a fuel additive in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saanum, Inge

    2008-07-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbons in internal combustion engines results in emissions that can be harmful both to human health and to the environment. Although the engine technology is improving, the emissions of NO{sub x}, PM and UHC are still challenging. Besides, the overall consumption of fossil fuel and hence the emissions of CO{sub 2} are increasing because of the increasing number of vehicles. This has lead to a focus on finding alternative fuels and alternative technologies that may result in lower emissions of harmful gases and lower CO{sub 2} emissions. This thesis treats various topics that are relevant when using blends of fuels in different internal combustion engine technologies, with a particular focus on using hydrogen as a fuel additive. The topics addressed are especially the ones that impact the environment, such as emissions of harmful gases and thermal efficiency (fuel consumption). The thesis is based on experimental work performed at four different test rigs: 1. A dynamic combustion rig with optical access to the combustion chamber where spark ignited premixed combustion could be studied by means of a Schlieren optical setup and a high speed video camera. 2. A spark ignition natural gas engine rig with an optional exhaust gas recycling system. 3. A 1-cylinder diesel engine prepared for homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. 4. A 6-cylinder standard diesel engine The engine rigs were equipped with cylinder pressure sensors, engine dynamometers, exhaust gas analyzers etc. to enable analyses of the effects of different fuels. The effect of hydrogen blended with methane and natural gas in spark ignited premixed combustion was investigated in the dynamic combustion rig and in a natural gas engine. In the dynamic combustion rig, the effect of hydrogen added to methane on the flame speed and the flame structure was investigated at elevated pressure and temperature. A considerable increase in the flame speed was observed when adding 30 vol

  8. Repurposing Mass-produced Internal Combustion Engines Quantifying the Value and Use of Low-cost Internal Combustion Piston Engines for Modular Applications in Energy and Chemical Engineering Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Zara E.

    This thesis proposes that internal combustion piston engines can help clear the way for a transformation in the energy, chemical, and refining industries that is akin to the transition computer technology experienced with the shift from large mainframes to small personal computers and large farms of individually small, modular processing units. This thesis provides a mathematical foundation, multi-dimensional optimizations, experimental results, an engine model, and a techno-economic assessment, all working towards quantifying the value of repurposing internal combustion piston engines for new applications in modular, small-scale technologies, particularly for energy and chemical engineering systems. Many chemical engineering and power generation industries have focused on increasing individual unit sizes and centralizing production. This "bigger is better" concept makes it difficult to evolve and incorporate change. Large systems are often designed with long lifetimes, incorporate innovation slowly, and necessitate high upfront investment costs. Breaking away from this cycle is essential for promoting change, especially change happening quickly in the energy and chemical engineering industries. The ability to evolve during a system's lifetime provides a competitive advantage in a field dominated by large and often very old equipment that cannot respond to technology change. This thesis specifically highlights the value of small, mass-manufactured internal combustion piston engines retrofitted to participate in non-automotive system designs. The applications are unconventional and stem first from the observation that, when normalized by power output, internal combustion engines are one hundred times less expensive than conventional, large power plants. This cost disparity motivated a look at scaling laws to determine if scaling across both individual unit size and number of units produced would predict the two order of magnitude difference seen here. For the first

  9. Flow effects due to pulsation in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semlitsch, Bernhard; Wang, Yue; Mihăescu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using POD analysis to identify large coherent flow structures in a complex geometry. • Flow field alters significant for constant and pulsating boundary conditions. • The discharge coefficient of the exhaust port decreases 2% with flow pulsation. • Pulsation causes a pumping mechanism due to a phase shift of pressure and momentum. - Abstract: In an internal combustion engine, the residual energy remaining after combustion in the exhaust gasses can be partially recovered by a downstream arranged device. The exhaust port represents the passage guiding the exhaust gasses from the combustion chamber to the energy recovering device, e.g. a turbocharger. Thus, energy losses in the course of transmission shall be reduced as much as possible. However, in one-dimensional engine models used for engine design, the exhaust port is reduced to its discharge coefficient, which is commonly measured under constant inflow conditions neglecting engine-like flow pulsation. In this present study, the influence of different boundary conditions on the energy losses and flow development during the exhaust stroke are analyzed numerically regarding two cases, i.e. using simple constant and pulsating boundary conditions. The compressible flow in an exhaust port geometry of a truck engine is investigated using three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The results contrast the importance of applying engine-like boundary conditions in order to estimate accurately the flow induced losses and the discharge coefficient of the exhaust port. The instantaneous flow field alters significantly when pulsating boundary conditions are applied. Thus, the induced losses by the unsteady flow motion and the secondary flow motion are increased with inflow pulsations. The discharge coefficient decreased about 2% with flow pulsation. A modal flow decomposition method, i.e. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), is used to analyze the coherent structures induced with the particular

  10. Cradle-to-gate greenhouse gas emissions of battery electric and internal combustion engine vehicles in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Qinyu; Zhao, Fuquan; Liu, Zongwei; Jiang, Shuhua; Hao, Han

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Cradle-to-gate greenhouse gas emissions of internal combustion engine and battery electric vehicles are compared. •Greenhouse gas emissions of battery electric vehicles are 50% higher than internal combustion engine vehicles. •Traction battery production causes about 20% greenhouse gas emissions increase. •10% variations of curb weight, electricity and Li-ion battery production affect the results by 7%, 4% and 2%. •Manufacturing technique improvement, vehicle recycling and energy structure optimization are major mitigation opportunities. -- Abstract: Electric drive vehicles are equipped with totally different propulsion systems compared with conventional vehicles, for which the energy consumption and cradle-to-gate greenhouse gas emissions associated with vehicle production could substantially change. In this study, the life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle production are compared between battery electric and internal combustion engine vehicles in China’s context. The results reveal that the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a battery electric vehicle production range from 92.4 to 94.3 GJ and 15.0 to 15.2 t CO 2 eq, which are about 50% higher than those of an internal combustion engine vehicle, 63.5 GJ and 10.0 t CO 2 eq. This substantial change can be mainly attributed to the production of traction batteries, the essential components for battery electric vehicles. Moreover, the larger weight and different weight distribution of materials used in battery electric vehicles also contribute to the larger environmental impact. This situation can be improved through the development of new traction battery production techniques, vehicle recycling and a low-carbon energy structure.

  11. The model for calculation of emission and imisson of air pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done; Dimitrovski, Mile

    1994-01-01

    The model for calculation of emission and immision of air pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engine on the crossroads in urban environments, with substitution of a great number of exhaust-pipes with one chimney in the centre of the crossroad has been made. The whole calculation of the pollution sources mentioned above is, in the fact, the calculation of the emission and imisson of pollutants from point sources of pollution. (author)

  12. From orbital debris capture systems through internal combustion engines on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and conceptualization of an orbital debris collector was the primary area of design. In addition, an alternate structural design for Space Station Freedom and systems supporting resource utilization at Mars and the moon were studied. Hardware for production of oxygen from simulate Mars atmosphere was modified to permit more reliable operation at low pressures (down to 10 mb). An internal combustion engine was altered to study how Mars atmosphere could be used as a diluent to control combustion temperatures and avoid excess Mars propellant production requirements that would result from either methane-rich or oxygen-rich, methane-oxygen combustion. An elastic loop traction system that could be used for lunar construction vehicles was refined to permit testing. A parabolic heat rejection radiator system was designed and built to determine whether it was capable of increasing heat rejection rates during lunar daytime operation. In addition, an alternate space station truss design, utilizing a pre-integrated concept, was studied and found to reduce estimate extravehicular activity (EVA) time and increase the structural integrity when compared to the original Warren truss concept. An orbital-debris-capturing spacecraft design which could be mated with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle was studied. The design identified Soviet C-1B boosters as the best targets of opportunity in Earth orbits between an altitude of 900 km and 1100 km and at an inclination of 82.9 deg. A dual robot pallet, which could be spun to match the tumbling rate of the C-1B booster, was developed as the conceptual design.

  13. Determination of TDC in internal combustion engines by a newly developed thermodynamic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipitone, Emiliano; Beccari, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In-cylinder pressure analysis is nowadays an indispensable tool in internal combustion engine research and development. It allows the measure of some important performance related parameters, such as indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), mean friction pressure, indicated fuel consumption, heat release rate, mass fraction burned, etc. Moreover, future automotive engine will probably be equipped with in-cylinder pressure sensors for continuous combustion monitoring and control, in order to fulfil the more and more strict emission limits. For these reasons, in-cylinder pressure analysis must be carried out with maximum accuracy, in order to minimize the effects of its characteristic measurement errors. The exact determination of crank position when the piston is at top dead centre (TDC) is of vital importance, since a 1 deg. error can cause up to a 10% evaluation error on IMEP and 25% error on the heat released by the combustion: the position of the crank shaft (and hence the volume inside the cylinder) should be known with the precision of at least 0.1 crank angle degrees, which is not an easy task, even if the engine dimensions are well known: it corresponds to a piston movement in the order of one tenth of micron, which is very difficult to estimate. A good determination of the TDC position can be pursued by means of a dedicated capacitive TDC sensor, which allows a dynamic measurement (i.e. while engine is running) within the required 0.1 deg. precision . Such a sensor has a substantial cost and its use is not really fast, since it must be fitted in the spark plug or injector hole of the cylinder. A different approach can be followed using a thermodynamic method, whose input is in-cylinder pressure sampled during the compression and expansion strokes: some of these methods, more or less valid, can be found in literature . This paper will discuss a new thermodynamic approach to the problem of the right determination of the TDC position. The base theory of the

  14. Self adaptive internal combustion engine control for hydrogen mixtures using piezoelectric transducers for dynamic cylinder pressure monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courteau, R.; Bose, T.K. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Institut de recherche sur l' hydrogene

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogen internal combustion engine research at the Hydrogen Research Institute includes the following infrastructure: a 20 square metre test cell, an engine preparation room, a 150 hp dynamometer, exhaust gas analysers and a hydrogen supply. The goal of the research is to develop internal combustion engine technologies that can use hydrogen as a fuel without knocking, backfires, excessive engine wear, and with low emissions. As well as hydrogen, fuels such as biogas are also investigated. Technologies under investigation include adaptive control algorithms, as well as advanced sensors and actuators. The latter include piezolelectrics, optical fibres, nitrogen oxide detectors, and chemical composition detectors. Developments include microprocessor-controlled injection and ignition control systems for both single cylinder and multicylinder engines. Research on the influence of fuel composition on best ignition timing is presented. There is also dynamic cylinder pressure monitoring to prevent knocking make engine state assessments and perform engine calibration. Piezoelectric cylinder pressure sensors are employed, either integrated with the spark plugs, or stand-alone, inserted through separate holes through the cylinder head. tabs, figs.

  15. Internal combustion engine exhaust pipe flow simulation. Part I: theoretical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Miguel Mantilla; Camilo Andrés Falla; Jorge Arturo Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Unsteady gas flow theory can be used for simulating a spark ignition internal combustion engine’s exhaust system, using pressure waves. The method explained here is based on the discretization of interpolated spaces (called meshes) which are located throughout the whole length of the exhaust pipe, irrespective of its form or size. The most important aspects of this theory are theoretically explored, such as pressure wave movement and shock and their application to cases found in re...

  16. Internal combustion engine exhaust pipe flow simulation. Part I: theoretical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Miguel Mantilla; Camilo Andrés Falla; Jorge Arturo Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Unsteady gas flow theory can be used for simulating a spark ignition internal combustion engine’s exhaust system, using pressure waves. The method explained here is based on the discretization of interpolated spaces (called meshes) which are located throughout the whole length of the exhaust pipe, irrespective of its form or size. The most important aspects of this theory are theoretically explored, such as pressure wave movement and shock and their application to cases found in real engines’...

  17. Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flows in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaeizadeh, Araz

    The two-phase compressible scalar filtered mass density function (FMDF) model is further developed and employed for large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines. In this model, the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in a generalized curvilinear coordinate system with high-order, multi-block, compact differencing schemes for the turbulent velocity and pressure. However, turbulent mixing and combustion are computed with a new two-phase compressible scalar FMDF model. The spray and droplet dispersion/evaporation are modeled with a Lagrangian method. A new Lagrangian-Eulerian-Lagrangian computational method is employed for solving the flow, spray and scalar equation. The pressure effect in the energy equation, as needed in compressible flows, is included in the FMDF formulation. The performance of the new compressible LES/FMDF model is assessed by simulating the flow field and scalar mixing in a rapid compression machine (RCM), in a shock tube and in a supersonic co-axial jet. Consistency of temperatures predicted by the Eulerian finite-difference (FD) and Lagrangian Monte Carlo (MC) parts of the LES/FMDF model are established by including the pressure on the FMDF. It is shown that the LES/FMDF model is able to correctly capture the scalar mixing in both compressible subsonic and supersonic flows. Using the new two-phase LES/FMDF model, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, spray and combustion in the RCM with flat and crevice piston are studied. It is shown that the temperature distribution in the RCM with crevice piston is more uniform than the RCM with flat piston. The fuel spray characteristics and the spray parameters affecting the fuel mixing inside the RCM in reacting and non-reacting flows are also studied. The predicted liquid penetration and flame lift-off lengths for respectively non-reacting and reacting sprays are found to compare well with the available experimental data. Temperatures and

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system used to cool down the intake air in an Internal Combustion Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novella, R.; Dolz, V.; Martín, J.; Royo-Pascual, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Enough power in the exhaust gases is available to operate the absorption cycle. • Three engine operating points are presented in the article. • Improvement potential up to 4% is possible in the engine indicated efficiency. • Engine indicated efficiency benefit was experimentally confirmed by direct testing. - Abstract: This paper deals with the thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration cycle used to cool down the temperature of the intake air in an Internal Combustion Engine using as a heat source the exhaust gas of the engine. The solution of ammonia-water has been selected due to the stability for a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures and the low freezing point. The effects of operating temperatures, pressures, concentrations of strong and weak solutions in the absorption refrigeration cycle were examined to achieve proper heat rejection to the ambient. Potential of increasing Internal Combustion Engine efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions was estimated by means of theoretical models and experimental tests. In order to provide boundary conditions for the absorption refrigeration cycle and to simulate its effect on engine performance, a 0D thermodynamic model was used to reproduce the engine performance when the intake air is cooled. Furthermore, a detailed experimental work was carried out to validate the results in real engine operation. Theoretical results show how the absorption refrigeration system decreases the intake air flow temperature down to a temperature around 5 °C and even lower by using the bottoming waste heat energy available in the exhaust gases in a wide range of engine operating conditions. In addition, the theoretical analysis estimates the potential of the strategy for increasing the engine indicated efficiency in levels up to 4% also at the operating conditions under evaluation. Finally, this predicted benefit in engine indicated efficiency has been experimentally confirmed by direct

  19. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  20. Lubricant Formulations to Enhance Engine Efficiency in Modern Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Wai [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Wong, Victor [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Plumley, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Martins, Tomas [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Gu, Grace [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tracy, Ian [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Molewyk, Mark [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Park, Soo Youl [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    The research program presented aimed to investigate, develop, and demonstrate low-friction, environmentally-friendly and commercially-feasible lubricant formulations that would significantly improve the mechanical efficiency of modern engines without incurring increased wear, emissions or deterioration of the emission-aftertreatment system.

  1. Modeling and optimization of a shell and louvered fin mini-tubes heat exchanger in an ORC powered by an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrullo, Rita; Mauro, Alfonso William; Revellin, Rémi; Viscito, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New ORC HEX design. • Dedicated model. • On-road uses. • Simulations for real ICEs’ conditions. - Abstract: Waste heat recovery from exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (ICEs) is an interesting option to increase energy conversion efficiency, especially on on-road applications. Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) fit well the temperature levels available. Current research interests are devoted to the definition of new design solutions to improve each part of the energy conversion process. Concerning the heat recovery, new concepts for heat exchangers are required to reduce their weight, the refrigerant charge and the related environmental concerns. At the same time, a high performance of the whole system must be kept. In this paper, a new design is introduced related to a shell and louvered fin mini-tubes heat exchanger. Modeling and simulation results are presented to define an optimal design in the whole map of working conditions for a heavy duty diesel engine and a light duty gasoline engine, in order to maximize the overall system efficiency (ORC+ICE). The length and weight of the heat exchanger are consistent with the use in automotive and truck applications, while an increase of the overall system efficiency up to 9% can be achieved

  2. CRANK-PISTON MODEL OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE USING CAD/CAM/CAE IN THE MSC ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał BIAŁY

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the modeling and simulation of the crank-piston model of internal combustion engine. The object of the research was the engine of the vehicle from the B segment. The individual elements of the gasoline engine were digitizing using the process of reverse engineering. After converting the geometry, assembling was imported to MSC Adams software. The crank-piston system was specified by boundary conditions of piston forces applied on the pistons crowns. This force was obtain from the cylinder pressure recorded during the tests, that were carried out on a chassis dynamometer. The simulation studies allowed t determine the load distribution in a dynamic state for the selected kinematic pairs.

  3. Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Johan; Richter, Mattias; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hultqvist, Anders; Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

    2002-08-20

    High-repetition-rate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel and OH concentrations in internal combustion engines are demonstrated. Series of as many as eight fluorescence images, with a temporal resolution ranging from 10 micros to 1 ms, are acquired within one engine cycle. A multiple-laser system in combination with a multiple-CCD camera is used for cycle-resolved imaging in spark-ignition, direct-injection stratified-charge, and homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines. The recorded data reveal unique information on cycle-to-cycle variations in fuel transport and combustion. Moreover, the imaging system in combination with a scanning mirror is used to perform instantaneous three-dimensional fuel-concentration measurements.

  4. Equipment to reduce the emission of noxious components in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsutomi, Y; Inoue, H

    1976-10-21

    The invention concerns an arrangement for the reduction of emission of noxious components in exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine with automatic drive. According to the invention, there is a further switch in parallel with the usual kickdown switch, which is actuated by a temperature sensor and/or choke. If the operating temperature of the engine is below a certain value, or if the choke is pulled out, then the switch is closed. This has the effect that the downstream valve is brought into the same position as that in which the closed kickdown switch would place it. The automatic drive therefore takes up that position, independently of the position of the accelerator pedal, which it would normally occupy only with the accelerator pedal fully pressed down. This guarantees that the engine is always kept at high speed during the hot running phase, which reduces the portion of the noxious gas components emitted.

  5. Fluorescence characteristics of the fuel tracers triethylamine and trimethylamine for the investigation of fuel distribution in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Susanne; Aßmann, Simon; Zigan, Lars; Will, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence based on fuel tracers like amines is a suitable measurement technique for mixing studies in internal combustion (IC) engines. Triethylamine has often been used in gasoline IC engines; however, no detailed fluorescence characterization for excitation at 263 or 266 nm is available. Trimethylamine (TMA) exhibits high potential as a gaseous fuel tracer but little information about TMA fluorescence is currently available. A picosecond laser source combined with a streak camera equipped with a spectrograph was used to determine the spectral fluorescence emission and fluorescence decay time of both tracers. The tracers were investigated at various temperatures and pressures in a calibration cell with nitrogen as bath gas. The results provide an in-depth understanding of the fluorescence characteristics of both tracers and allow assessment of their application to the investigation of fuel distribution in IC engines.

  6. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Expander Suitable for Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galindo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery (WHR in exhaust gas flow of automotive engines has proved to be a useful path to increase the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE. Recovery potentials of up to 7% are shown in several works in the literature. However, most of them are theoretical estimations. Some present results from prototypes fed by steady flows generated in an auxiliary gas tank and not with actual engine exhaust gases. This paper deals with the modeling and experimental validation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC with a swash-plate expander integrated in a 2 L turbocharged petrol engine using ethanol as working fluid. A global simulation model of the ORC was developed with a maximum difference of 5%, validated with experimental results. Considering the swash-plate as the main limiting factor, an additional specific submodel was implemented to model the physical phenomena in this element. This model allows simulating the fluid dynamic behavior of the swash-plate expander using a 0D model (Amesim. Differences up to 10.5% between tests and model results were found.

  7. Lubricant for corrosion protection of the inner chambers of internal combustion engines. Schutzschmiermittel zum Korrosionsschutz der Innenraeume von Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettig, A.; Ferke, M.; Fueloep, J.; Gal, L.; Gyoengyoessy, L.; Horvath, R.; Keresztessy, Z.; Keresztessy, M.; Papp, I.

    1987-09-17

    The invention is concerned with lubricants for corrosion protecion in internal combustion engines which contain (a) 85 to 99 weight-% of a base oil and/or engine oil, (b) 0.1 to 1.0 weight-% of a corrosion and simultaneously emulsification inhibitor from a monoester, diester or triester of fatty acids with a double bond, (c) 0.1 to 6.0 weight-% of an additive improving the viscosity index and adhesiveness, from a polyolefin or olefin copolymer or a polyacrylic or polymethacrylic acid ester and also, if necessary (d) 0.1 to 8.0 weight-% of a detergent additive with neutralizing effect. The effect of these protective lubricants is by far better as of those known up to now.

  8. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY... hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the EPA received three petitions for...

  9. STUDIES AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH CONCERNING THE PERFORMANCES OF THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE, CONTROLLED OVER THE POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis URICANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available the paper present how can be controlled a road vehicle through a powertrain control module, a type of ECU, programmable ECU (Electronic Control Unit, when we want to increase the performances of the engine, compared with the standard performances of the engine. The programmable ECU is a control system which replaces the ECU from the vehicle and is able to manage, better than the standard ECU, the behaviour of the spark ignition engine on increasing the performances. Sports cars need to obtain the best performances from them engine, the specific regimes at which them must function impose certain limits which will be achieved during the competition. Nowadays the vehicles designers and engineering, working for the production cars, have adopted many solutions from the race cars area, due to the advantage offered by these elements (lightweight materials, fasts responses, high speeds and system like programmable ECU. To obtain more power on the engine, we have to find and applied the best solution concerning the internal combustion processes and the consequences concerning the exhaust. This papers present who can be increased the performances of the spark ignition engine through the air-flow ratio, controlled by the programmable ECU and with the sensors help, like water temperature sensor, intake air temperature sensor, throttle position sensor, lambda sensor

  10. Secondary drive of an internal combustion engine for an air presser. Nebenantrieb einer Brennkraftmaschine fuer einen Luftpresser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, H.

    1990-04-19

    The invention concerns an air presser propelled by a gearwheel and designed as a piston compressor. The drive gearwheel on the air presser crankshaft meshes with a gearwheel on the camshaft of the internal combustion engine. In the case of these drives, a negative torque of the air presser results when the top dead centre of the air presser piston is reached. This is accompanied by an unpleasant noise. In addition, the driving torque of the camshaft often has negative fractions. If the negative torque of the air presser is superposed by small or negative torques of the camshaft in the re-expansion phase additionally to the air presser wheel there will be a backward acceleration of the camshaft gear which propagates as impact into the rest of the gear drive. The invention prevents the backward acceleration of the camshaft wheel and minimizes stroke momentum and noise in the mesh of the camshaft wheel.

  11. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  12. Working fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) exhaust heat recovery of an internal combustion engine power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    Organic Rankine cycle technology is capable to efficiently convert low-grade heat into useful mechanical power. In the present investigation such a cycle is used for the recovery of heat from the exhaust gases of a four stroke V18 MAN 51/60DF internal combustion engine power plant operating with natural gas. Design is focused on the selection of the appropriate working fluid of the Rankine cycle in terms of thermodynamic, environmental and safety criteria. 37 candidate fluids have been considered and all Rankine cycles examined were subcritical. The thermodynamic analysis of all fluids has been comparatively undertaken and the effect of key operation conditions such as the evaporation pressure and the superheating temperature was taken into account. By appropriately selecting the working fluid and the Rankine cycle operation conditions the overall plant efficiency was improved by 5.52% and fuel consumption was reduced by 12.69%.

  13. Electrically controlled fuel injection device for internal combustion engines with air quantity meter. Elektrisch gesteuerte Kraftstoffeinspritzeinrichtung fuer Brennkraftmaschinen mit Luftmengenmesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, B; Soell, W

    1980-12-11

    The invention concerns an electrically controlled preferably intermittently working fuel injection device for internal combustion engines with a throttle valve, a solenoid operated injection valve and a transistor circuit, which supplies electrical pulses used to open the injection valve synchronously to the revolution of the crankshaft. The invention is characterized by the fact that an electrical control device is provided, which extends the individual opening pulses in thrust operation (with the throttle valve closed or nearly closed and with a working speed above the speed). The extension produced by the control device decreases from a value at about 20% for the maximum speed to a value of 0 for the tickover speed. Details of the transistor control are made clear by detailed circuit diagrams and 5 patent claims.

  14. Comparison of catalytic converter performance in internal combustion engine fueled with Ron 95 and Ron 97 gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, Fakhrurrazi; Jajuli, Afiqah; Feriyanto, Dafit; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Generating ideal stability between engine performance, fuel consumption and emission is one of the main challenges in the automotive industry. The characteristics of engine combustion and creation of emission might simply change with different types of operating parameters. This study aims in investigating the relationship between two types of fuels on the performance and exhaust emission of internal combustion engine using ceramic and metallic catalytic converters. Experimental tests were performed on Mitsubishi 4G93 engine by applying several ranges of engine speeds to determine the conversion of pollutant gases released by the engine. The obtained results specify that the usage of RON 97 equipped with metallic converters might increase the conversion percentage of 1.31% for CO and 126 ppm of HC gases. The metallic converters can perform higher conversion compared to ceramic because in the high space velocities, metallic has higher surface geometry area and higher amount of transverse Peclet number (Pi). Ceramic converters achieved conversion at 2496 ppm of NOx gas, which is higher than the metallic converter.

  15. A Modified Version of the RNG k–ε Turbulence Model for the Scale-Resolving Simulation of Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselin Krassimirov Krastev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady and random character of turbulent flow motion is a key aspect of the multidimensional modeling of internal combustion engines (ICEs. A typical example can be found in the prediction of the cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV in modern, highly downsized gasoline direct injection (GDI engines, which strongly depends on the accurate simulation of turbulent in-cylinder flow structures. The current standard for turbulence modeling in ICEs is still represented by the unsteady form of Reynold-averaged Navier Stokes equations (URANS, which allows the simulation of full engine cycles at relatively low computational costs. URANS-based methods, however, are only able to return a statistical description of turbulence, as the effects of all scales of motion are entirely modeled. Therefore, during the last decade, scale-resolving methods such as large eddy simulation (LES or hybrid URANS/LES approaches are gaining increasing attention among the engine-modeling community. In the present paper, we propose a scale-resolving capable modification of the popular RNG k– ε URANS model. The modification is based on a detached-eddy simulation (DES framework and allows one to explicitly set the behavior (URANS, DES or LES of the model in different zones of the computational domain. The resulting zonal formulation has been tested on two reference test cases, comparing the numerical predictions with the available experimental data sets and with previous computational studies. Overall, the scale-resolved part of the computed flow has been found to be consistent with the expected flow physics, thus confirming the validity of the proposed simulation methodology.

  16. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule... reciprocating internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and surgical...

  17. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines...

  18. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit comment on specific issues...

  19. 77 FR 33811 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

  20. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance...

  1. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  2. A method and instruments to identify the torque, the power and the efficiency of an internal combustion engine of a wheeled vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. V.; Kozlov, K. E.; Belogusev, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method and instruments to identify the torque, the power, and the efficiency of internal combustion engines in transient conditions. This method, in contrast to the commonly used non-demounting methods based on inertia and strain gauge dynamometers, allows controlling the main performance parameters of internal combustion engines in transient conditions without inaccuracy connected with the torque loss due to its transfer to the driving wheels, on which the torque is measured with existing methods. In addition, the proposed method is easy to create, and it does not use strain measurement instruments, the application of which does not allow identifying the variable values of the measured parameters with high measurement rate; and therefore the use of them leads to the impossibility of taking into account the actual parameters when engineering the wheeled vehicles. Thus the use of this method can greatly improve the measurement accuracy and reduce costs and laboriousness during testing of internal combustion engines. The results of experiments showed the applicability of the proposed method for identification of the internal combustion engines performance parameters. In this paper, it was determined the most preferred transmission ratio when using the proposed method.

  3. The analysis of results received from the programme for calculating the concentration of pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engines on the crossroads in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done; Dimitrovski, Mile

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of results and influence of specified factors on the concentration of pollutants on the crossroads with chosen characteristic conditions has been made, on the basis of the programme for calculating the concentration of pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engines on the crossroads in urban environments. (author)

  4. A high efficiency 10 kWe microcogenerator based on an Atkinson cycle internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaldi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the design and the overall performance of a 10 kW electric power microcogeneration plant suitable for local energy production, based on an Atkinson-cycle internal combustion engine prototype and entirely set by Istituto Motori of the Italian National Research Council. The engine was originally a wide-spread Diesel automotive unit, then converted into a methane spark ignition system and finally modified to perform an Atkinson/Miller cycle with an extended expansion, capable of a higher global efficiency and low gaseous emissions. The paper starts by defining the ratio which leaded to this specific choice among many other automotive and industrial engines, in order to obtain a reliable, long endurance, cost effective, high efficiency base, suitable for microcogeneration in residential or commercial applications. The new engine has been coupled with a liquid cooled induction generator, a set of heat exchangers and finally placed in a sealed containing case, to reduce both noise emission and heat losses. Then the plant has been tested as an electricity and heat production system, ready for grid connection thanks to a new designed management/control system. During endurance test a complete description of its functioning behaviour has been given. - Highlights: • A new high efficiency microcogenerator based on an Atkinson/Miller cycle engine. • Atkinson cycle together with stoichiometric operation deliver better performance. • A cost-effective microcogenerator based on widespread elements (automotive engine). • The chosen automotive engine has heavy duty characteristics (Diesel derived). • A conversion criteria from a Diesel to an Atkinson cycle engine was individuated

  5. General aviation internal-combustion engine research programs at NASA-Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    An update is presented of non-turbine general aviation engine programs. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel and rotary engines. It's three major thrusts are: (1) reduced SFC's; (2) improved fuels tolerance; and (3) reduced emissions. Current and planned future programs in such areas as lean operation, improved fuel management, advanced cooling techniques and advanced engine concepts, are described. These are expected to lay the technology base, by the mid to latter 1980's, for engines whose life cycle fuel costs are 30 to 50% lower than today's conventional engines.

  6. General aviation internal combustion engine research programs at NASA-Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    An update is presented of non-turbine general aviation engine programs underway at the NASA-Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel and rotary engines. Its three major thrusts are: (a) reduced SFC's; (b) improved fuels tolerance; and (c) reducing emissions. Current and planned future programs in such areas as lean operation, improved fuel management, advanced cooling techniques and advanced engine concepts, are described. These are expected to lay the technology base, by the mid to late 1980's, for engines whose life cycle fuel costs are 30 to 50% lower than today's conventional engines.

  7. Supercharging an internal combustion engine by aid of a dual-rotor bi-flux axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grǎdinariu, Andrei Cristian; Mihai, Ioan

    2016-12-01

    Internal combustion engines can be supercharged in order to enhance their performances [1-3]. Engine power is proportional to the quantity of fresh fluid introduced into the cylinder. At present, the general tendency is to try to obtain actual specific powers as high as possible, for as small as possible cylinder capacity, without increasing the generated pollution hazards. The present paper investigates the impact of replacing a centrifugal turbo-compressor with an axial double-rotor bi-flux one [4]. The proposed method allows that for the same number of cylinders, an increase in discharged airflow, accompanied by a decrease in fuel consumption. Using a program developed under the MathCad environment, the present work was aimed at studying the way temperature modifies at the end of isentropic compression under supercharging conditions. Taking into account a variation between extreme limits of the ambient temperature, its influence upon the evolution of thermal load coefficient was analyzed considering the air pressure at the compressor cooling system outlet. This analysis was completed by an exergetical study of the heat evacuated through cylinder walls in supercharged engine conditions. The conducted investigation allows verification of whether significant differences can be observed between an axial, dual-rotor, bi-flux compressor and centrifugal compressors.

  8. Technology for emission control in internal combustion engines; Kakushu nainen kikan ni okeru hai gas joka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Described herein are emission control technology and exhaust gas cleaning measures for internal combustion engines. Gas turbines burn relatively high-quality fuels, such as natural gas, kerosene, diesel oil and gas oil, where the major concerns are to reduce NOx and dust emissions. The NOx abatement techniques fall into two general categories; wet processes which inject water or steam, and dry processes which depend on improved combustion. Power generation and cogeneration which burn natural gas adopt lean, premixed combustion and two-stage combustion as the major approaches. Low-speed, large-size diesel engines, which realize very high thermal efficiency, discharge high concentrations of NOx. Delayed fuel injection timing is the most easy NOx abatement technique to meet the related regulations, but is accompanied by decreased fuel economy. Use of water-emulsified fuel, water layer injection and multi-port injection can reduce NOx emissions without decreasing fuel economy, depending on optimization methods adopted. Automobile gasoline engines are required to further clean exhaust gases by catalystic systems. 9 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullett, J D [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Dodd, R [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Williams, C J [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Triantos, G [Powertrain Control Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Dearden, G [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Shenton, A T [Powertrain Control Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Watkins, K G [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Carroll, S D [Ford Motor Company, Dunton Research and Engineering Centre, Laindon, Basildon, Essex, SS15 6EE (United Kingdom); Scarisbrick, A D [Ford Motor Company, Dunton Research and Engineering Centre, Laindon, Basildon, Essex, SS15 6EE (United Kingdom); Keen, S [GSI Group, Cosford Lane, Swift Valley, Rugby, Warwickshire, CV21 1QN (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-07

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COV{sub IMEP}) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (Var{sub PPP}). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air.

  10. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullett, J D; Dodd, R; Williams, C J; Triantos, G; Dearden, G; Shenton, A T; Watkins, K G; Carroll, S D; Scarisbrick, A D; Keen, S

    2007-01-01

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COV IMEP ) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (Var PPP ). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air

  11. METHODS OF EVALUATION AND INDICATORS OF OPTIMAL TEMPERATURE OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND VEHICLES IN OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Volkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of forming methods of determination and system, as a part of the computer-integrated technology of transport operation, estimation of indecies of the optimal temperature state of the ICE and the vehicle under operation conditions, which is provided with the help of analysis of possible schemes and processes of the complex system of combined heating, using the technology of heat accumulation are described.

  12. The Scaling of Performance and Losses in Miniature Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    systems compared here.25 Lithium ion batteries are somewhat better with peak energy densities of about 130 W–hr/kg.26 Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel...measurement by raising background noise. Excessive vibration also can damage the force sensor. Fourth, air flow into the engine is highly unsteady... automobile engines surveyed here are also four stroke engines with the number of cylinders varying between 4 and 12. The majority of these are naturally

  13. Measuring Scaling Effects in Small Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-20

    was used [9]. Compression ignition (CI) engines rely on auto - ignition to initiate combustion during an engine cycle. During intake, only air flows...9 Figure 2: Four-stroke IC engine cycle. (a) Intake stroke (b) Compression stroke (c) Ignition (d) Power...CAD crank angle degrees CI compression ignition COTS commercial off the shelf CoV coefficient of variance DAQ data acquisition system DI

  14. Production of hydrogen driven from biomass waste to power Remote areas away from the electric grid utilizing fuel cells and internal combustion engines vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Hazem [Farmingdale State College, NY (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Recent concerns over the security and reliability of the world’s energy supply has caused a flux towards the research and development of renewable sources. A leading renewable source has been found in the biomass gasification of biological materials derived from organic matters such as wood chips, forest debris, and farm waste that are found in abundance in the USA. Accordingly, there is a very strong interest worldwide in the development of new technologies that provide an in-depth understanding of this economically viable energy source. This work aims to allow the coupling of biomass gasification and fuel cell systems as well as Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to produce high-energy efficiency, clean environmental performance and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass gasification is a process, which produces synthesis gas (syngas) that contains 19% hydrogen and 20% carbon monoxide from inexpensive organic matter waste. This project main goal is to provide cost effective energy to the public utilizing remote farms’ waste and landfill recycling area.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of a Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke, Single Cylinder, Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    Turbocharging an engine increases specific power, improves fuel economy, reduces emissions, and lowers cost compared to a naturally aspirated engine of the same power output. These advantages make turbocharging commonplace for multi-cylinder engines. Single cylinder engineers are not commonly turbocharged due to the phase lag between the exhaust stroke, which powers the turbocharger, and the intake stroke, when air is pumped into the engine. Our proposed method of turbocharging single cylinder engines is to add an ``air capacitor'' to the intake manifold, an additional volume that acts as a buffer to store compressed air between the exhaust and intake strokes, and smooth out the pressure pulses from the turbocharger. This talk presents experimental results from a single cylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fit with various sized air capacitors. Power output from the engine was measured using a dynamometer made from a generator, with the electrical power dissipated with resistive heating elements. We found that intake air density increases with capacitor size as theoretically predicted, ranging from 40 to 60 percent depending on heat transfer. Our experiment was able to produce 29 percent more power compared to using natural aspiration. These results validated that an air capacitor and turbocharger may be a simple, cost effective means of increasing the power density of single cylinder engines.

  16. Study on the design of inlet and exhaust system of a stationary internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesgin, Ugur

    2005-01-01

    The design and operational variables of inlet and exhaust systems are decisive to determine overall engine performance. The best engine overall performance can be obtained by proper design of the engine inlet and exhaust systems and by matching the correct turbocharger to the engine. This paper presents the results of investigations to design the inlet and exhaust systems of a stationary natural gas engine family. To do this, a computational model is verified in which zero dimensional phenomena within the cylinder and one dimensional phenomena in the engine inlet and exhaust systems are used. Using this engine model, the effects of the parameters of the inlet and exhaust systems on the engine performance are obtained. In particular, the following parameters are chosen: valve timing, valve diameter, valve lift profiles, diameter of the exhaust manifold, inlet and exhaust pipe lengths, and geometry of pipe junctions. Proper sizing of the inlet and exhaust pipe systems is achieved very precisely by these investigations. Also, valve timing is tuned by using the results obtained in this study. In general, a very high improvement potential for the engines studied here is presented

  17. Handbook of air pollution from internal combustion engines: pollutant formation and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sher, Eran

    1998-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix PART I OVERViEW . 1. Motor Vehicle Emissions Control: Achievements, Future Prospects Past 3 John B. Heywood Sun Jae Professor of Mechanical Engineering...

  18. Disturbing effect of free hydrogen on fuel combustion in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedler, A

    1923-01-01

    Experiments with fuel mixtures of varying composition, have recently been conducted by the Motor Vehicle and Airplane Engine Testing Laboratories of the Royal Technical High School in Berlin and at Fort Hahneberg, as well as at numerous private engine works. The behavior of hydrogen during combustion in engines and its harmful effect under certain conditions, on the combustion in the engine cylinder are of general interest. Some of the results of these experiments are given here, in order to elucidate the main facts and explain much that is already a matter of experience with chauffeurs and pilots.

  19. Experimentally Studied Thermal Piston-head State of the Internal-Combustion Engine with a Thermal Layer Formed by Micro-Arc Oxidation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Dudareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental study to show the efficiency of reducing thermal tension of internal combustion engine (ICE pistons through forming a thermal barrier coating on the piston-head. During the engine operation the piston is under the most thermal stress. High temperatures in the combustion chamber may lead to the piston-head burnout and destruction and engine failure.Micro-arc oxidation (MAO method was selected as the technology to create a thermal barrier coating. MAO technology allows us to form the ceramic coating with a thickness of 400μm on the surface of aluminum alloy, which have high heat resistance, and have good adhesion to the substrate even under thermal cycling stresses.Deliverables of MAO method used to protect pistons described in the scientific literature are insufficient, as they are either calculated or experimentally obtained at the special plants (units, which do not reproduce piston operation in a real engine. This work aims to fill this gap. The aim of the work is an experimental study of the thermal protective ability of MAO-layer formed on the piston-head with simulation of thermal processes of the real engine.The tests were performed on a specially designed and manufactured stand free of motor, which reproduces operation conditions maximum close to those of the real engine. The piston is heated by a fire source - gas burner with isobutene balloon, cooling is carried out by the water circulation system through the water-cooling jacket.Tests have been conducted to compare the thermal state of the regular engine piston without thermal protection and the piston with a heat layer formed on the piston-head by MAO method. The study findings show that the thermal protective MAO-layer with thickness of 100μm allows us to reduce thermal tension of piston on average by 8,5 %. Thus at high temperatures there is the most pronounced effect that is important for the uprated engines.The obtained findings can

  20. Small Internal Combustion Engine Testing for a Hybrid-Electric Remotely-Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    is relatively small in a mild system. It is used to aid in acceleration and utilizes regenerative braking to recharge batteries during decelerations...engine speed ............................... 82 Figure 45: Engine characteristic comparison bar graph with category contribution ........ 84 Page...Center BMEP Brake Mean Effective Pressure BSFC Brake Specific Fuel Consumption CEA Chemical Equilibrium with Applications CI Compression Ignition

  1. A quick, simplified approach to the evaluation of combustion rate from an internal combustion engine indicator diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Miroljub V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simplified procedure of an internal combustion engine in-cylinder pressure record analysis has been presented. The method is very easy for programming and provides quick evaluation of the gas temperature and the rate of combustion. It is based on the consideration proposed by Hohenberg and Killman, but enhances the approach by involving the rate of heat transferred to the walls that was omitted in the original approach. It enables the evaluation of the complete rate of heat released by combustion (often designated as “gross heat release rate” or “fuel chemical energy release rate”, not only the rate of heat transferred to the gas (which is often designated as “net heat release rate”. The accuracy of the method has been also analyzed and it is shown that the errors caused by the simplifications in the model are very small, particularly if the crank angle step is also small. A several practical applications on recorded pressure diagrams taken from both spark ignition and compression ignition engine are presented as well.

  2. Passive Sampling and Analysis of Naphthalene in Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust with Retracted SPME Device and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiba Baimatova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gases from internal combustion engines are the main source of urban air pollution. Quantification of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the exhaust gases is needed for emissions monitoring, enforcement, development, and testing of control technologies. The objective was to develop quantification of gaseous naphthalene in diesel engine exhaust based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME fiber coating and analysis on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Extraction of naphthalene with retracted fibers followed Fick’s law of diffusion. Extracted mass of naphthalene was proportional to Cg, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limit (p = 0.95 was 11.5 ppb (0.06 mg·m−3 at t = 9 h, Z = 10 mm and T = 40 °C, respectively. It was found that the % mass extracted of naphthalene by SPME needle assembly depended on the type of fiber. Storage time at different temperatures did not affect analyte losses extracted by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS 100 µm fiber. The developed method was tested on exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and tractor, and compared side-by-side with a direct injection of sampled exhaust gas method. Time-weighted average (TWA concentrations of naphthalene in exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and a tractor ranged from 0.08 to 0.3 mg·m−3 (15.3–53.7 ppb.

  3. Numerical study with experimental comparison of pressure waves in the air intake system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Carlos E.G.; Vielmo, Horacio A. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mails: vielmoh@mecanica.ufrgs.br; Hanriot, Sergio M. [Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mail: hanriot@pucminas.br

    2010-07-01

    The work investigates the pressure waves behavior in the intake system of an internal combustion engine. For the purpose of examining this problem, it was chosen an experimental study in order to validate the results of the present simulation. At the literature there are several experimental studies, and some numerical simulations, but the most of the numerical studies treat the problem only in one dimension in practical problems, or two dimensions in specific problems. Using a CFD code it is possible to analyze more complex systems, including tridimensional effects. The pulsating phenomenon is originated from the periodic movement of the intake valve, and produces waves that propagate within the system. The intake system studied was composed by a straight pipe connected to a 1000 cc engine with a single operating cylinder. The experiments were carried out in a flow bench. In the present work, the governing equations was discretized by Finite Volumes Method with an explicit formulation, and the time integration was made using the multi-stage Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme. The solution is independent of mesh or time step. The numerical analysis presents a good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  4. Power generation and gaseous emissions performance of an internal combustion engine fed with blends of soybean and beef tallow biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Waldir Nagel; Gauer, Mayara Ananda; Tomaz, Edson; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Pinto; de Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari; Chaves, Luiz Inácio; Villetti, Lucas; Olanyk, Luciano Zart; Cabral, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the performance of an internal combustion engine fed with blends of biodiesel produced from soybean and diesel, and blends of biodiesel produced from beef tallow and diesel. Performance was evaluated in terms of power generated at low loading conditions (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kW) and emission of organic and inorganic pollutants. In order to analyse inorganic gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), an automatic analyser was used and the organic emissions (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene - BTEX) were carried out using a gas chromatograph. The results indicate that the introduction of the two biodiesels in the fuel caused a reduction in CO, SO2 and BTEX emissions. In addition, the reduction was proportional to the increase in loading regime. Beef tallow biodiesels presented better results regarding emission than soybean biodiesels. The use of pure biodiesels also presented a net reduction in pollutant gas emissions without hindering the engine generator performance.

  5. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  6. Efficiency of a new internal combustion engine concept with variable piston motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorić Jovan Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of working process in a new IC engine concept. The main feature of this new IC engine concept is the realization of variable movement of the piston. With this unconventional piston movement it is easy to provide variable compression ratio, variable displacement and combustion during constant volume. These advantages over standard piston mechanism are achieved through synthesis of the two pairs of non-circular gears. Presented mechanism is designed to obtain a specific motion law which provides better fuel consumption of IC engines. For this paper Ricardo/WAVE software was used, which provides a fully integrated treatment of time-dependent fluid dynamics and thermodynamics by means of onedimensional formulation. The results obtained herein include the efficiency characteristic of this new heat engine concept. The results show that combustion during constant volume, variable compression ratio and variable displacement have significant impact on improvement of fuel consumption.

  7. Sensitivities of Internal Combustion Automotive Engines to Variations in Fuel Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    An assessment of the sensitivity of the automotive gasoline and diesel engines to variations in fuel properties has been made. The variables studied include H/C ratio, distillation range, aromatic content, ignition quality as determined by the octane...

  8. Assessment of the Potential Impact of Combustion Research on Internal Combustion Engine Emission and Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A review of the present level of understanding of the basic thermodynamic, fluid dynamic, and chemical kinetic processes which affect the fuel economy and levels of pollutant exhaust products of Diesel, Stratified Charge, and Spark Ignition engines i...

  9. An approach for exhaust gas energy recovery of internal combustion engine: Steam-assisted turbocharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Deng, Banglin; Feng, Renhua; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Feng; Zhao, Xiaohuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The calculation method for SAT engine was developed and introduced. • SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine. • At 1500 r/min, intake pressure reaches target value and torque is increased by 25%. • The thermal efficiency of SAT engine only has a slight increase. - Abstract: An approach for IC engine exhaust gas energy recovery, named as steam-assisted turbocharging (SAT), is developed to assist the exhaust turbocharger. A steam generating plant is coupled to the exhaust turbocharged engine’s exhaust pipe, which uses the high-temperature exhaust gas to generate steam. The steam is injected into turbine inlet and used as the supplementary working medium for turbine. By this means, turbine output power and then boosting pressure can be promoted due to the increase of turbine working medium. To reveal the advantages and energy saving potentials of SAT, this concept was applied to an exhaust turbocharging engine, and a parameter analysis was carried out. Research results show that, SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine, and make the peak torque shift to low-speed area. At 1500 r/min, the intake gas pressure can reach the desired value and the torque can be increased by 25.0% over the exhaust turbocharging engine, while the pumping mean effective pressure (PMEP) and thermal efficiency only have a slight increase. At 1000 r/min, the improvement of IC engine performances is very limited due to the low exhaust gas energy

  10. A novel split cycle internal combustion engine with integral waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Guangyu; Morgan, Robert; Heikal, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel engine thermodynamic cycle is proposed. • Theoretical analysis is applied to identify the key parameters of the thermodynamic cycle. • The key stages of the split cycle are analysed via one-dimensional modelling work. • The effecting mechanism of the split cycle efficiency is analysed. - Abstract: To achieve a step improvement in engine efficiency, a novel split cycle engine concept is proposed. The engine has separate compression and combustion cylinders and waste heat is recovered between the two. Quasi-isothermal compression of the charge air is realised in the compression cylinder while isobaric combustion of the air/fuel mixture is achieved in the combustion cylinder. Exhaust heat recovery between the compression and combustion chamber enables highly efficient recovery of waste heat within the cycle. Based on cycle analysis and a one-dimensional engine model, the fundamentals and the performance of the split thermodynamic cycle is estimated. Compared to conventional engines, the compression work can be significantly reduced through the injection of a controlled quantity of water in the compression cylinder, lowering the gas temperature during compression. Thermal energy can then be effectively recovered from the engine exhaust in a recuperator between the cooled compressor cylinder discharge air and the exhaust gas. The resulting hot high pressure air is then injected into a combustor cylinder and mixed with fuel, where near isobaric combustion leads to a low combustion temperature and reduced heat transferred from the cylinder wall. Detailed cycle simulation indicates a 32% efficiency improvement can be expected compared to the conventional diesel engines.

  11. Stand for Experimental Evaluation of Effects of Hydrogen Use in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente B.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxy gas or the Brown gas or simply HHO, as it is called more often now days, is a highly flammable gas that has been around since the beginning of the XX-th century, when scientist Yull Brown has dedicated his work to study the properties and means of production of HHO by water electrolysis. In the second half of the century, the oil crisis, the simplicity of HHO production and its high combustion temperature and flame propagation have spurred the interest of ”garage inventors” around the world, who started doing practical experiments with HHO injection on personal vehicles and power-generators, in trying to reduce gas mileage, increase the engine performance and lower tailpipe emissions. Today, this technology is being rediscovered, again due to higher fuel prices and this time also due to some increasing concerns over global warming. Many have learned that HHO injection into the IC engine improves the gas mileage and reduces emissions, some reporting fuel savings of up to 40%, while others even claim to have reached the performance of operating their engines on HHO entirely produced onboard of the running vehicle. There are also reports that claim increased life span of the engine and engine lubrication, due to reduction effect of HHO on the solid hydrocarbon depositions onto the engine critical components, like pistons, valves, cylinder walls, etc. In this regard, the University Politehnica Timisoara Department of Mechanical Machines, Equipment and Transportation and Department for Applied Chemistry and Engineering of Inorganic Compounds and Environment, have joined together in a project to study and understand the mechanism that take place during HHO injection to IC engines, quantify the benefits and develop safer, better and more reliable materials for HHO on-demand and on-board production by water electrolysis.

  12. Exhaust Composition in a Small Internal Combustion Engine Using FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    consumption of intake charge by mass xv CAD crank angle degrees CI compression ignition COTS commercial o↵ the shelf CoV coecient of variance C... ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI). A spark ignition engine ignites the fuel-air mixture via an electric arc across a spark plug located in...two-stroke engines that operate at very high speeds. The heat of combustion is transferred to a fine wire that remains hot enough to auto - ignite the

  13. Modifying intake flow to increase EGR tolerance in an Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Daniel; Drabo, Mebougna; Puzinauskas, Paul

    2010-11-01

    The worldwide effort to reduce vehicle emissions and increase fuel efficiencies has continuously intensified as the need to improve air quality and reduce fuel consumption becomes more acute. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a method that has long been employed to reduce combustion temperatures and therefore reduce thermal NOx formation and accommodate higher compression ratios and more optimum combustion phasing for improved efficiency. Generally the effective EGR level as a percent of trapped charge is limited by its affect on combustion stability. Inducing flow structures such as swirl, squish and tumble in the trapped charge have proven to extend this EGR limit in homogeneous charge spark-ignited engines at part load, but this enhancement has not been significantly studied at full loads in such engines. This research explored modifying the intake flow into an engine to create tumble and evaluate its effect at high loads in such engines. This exploration included characterizing the flow on a steady flow bench and quantifying the results using engine dynamometer tests.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Miniature Internal Combustion Engine and Electric Motor for UAV Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiclana, Branden Mark

    This thesis compares the performance of an engine/fuel tank based propulsion system to a motor/battery based propulsion system of equal total mass. The results show that the endurance of the engine/fuel system at the same thrust output is approximately 5 times greater than that of the motor/battery system. This is a direct result of the fact that the specific energy of the fuel is 20 times that of the lithium-polymer batteries used to power the motor. A method is also developed to account for the additional benefits of fuel consumption (and hence weight reduction) over the course of the flight. Accounting for this effect can increase endurance exponentially. Taken together, the results also demonstrate the dramatic performance improvements that are possible simply by replacing motor/battery systems with engine/fuel systems on small unmanned air vehicles.

  15. The Influence of Hydrogen Gas on the Measures of Efficiency of Diesel Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Latakas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper energy and ecological parameters of diesel engine which works under addition of hydrogen (10, 20, 30 l/ min are presented. A survey of research literature has shown that addition of hydrogen gases improve diesel combustion; increase indicated pressure; decrease concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrocarbons (HC, particles; decrease fuel consumptions. Results of the experiment revealed that hydrogen gas additive decreased pressure in cylinder in kinetic combustion phase. Concentration of CO2 and nitrous oxides (NOx decreased not significantly, HC – increased. Concentration of particles in engine exhaust gases significantly decreased. In case when hydrogen gas as additive was supplied, the fuel consumptions decreased a little. Using AVL BOOST software combustion process analysis was made. It was determined that in order to optimize engine work process under hydrogen additive usage, it is necessary to adjust diesel injection angle.

  16. Conductometric Sensor for Soot Mass Flow Detection in Exhausts of Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Müller, Andreas; Schott, Andreas; Zöllner, Christian; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Soot sensors are required for on-board diagnostics (OBD) of automotive diesel particulate filters (DPF) to detect filter failures. Widely used for this purpose are conductometric sensors, measuring an electrical current or resistance between two electrodes. Soot particles deposit on the electrodes, which leads to an increase in current or decrease in resistance. If installed upstream of a DPF, the “engine-out” soot emissions can also be determined directly by soot sensors. Sensors were characterized in diesel engine real exhausts under varying operation conditions and with two different kinds of diesel fuel. The sensor signal was correlated to the actual soot mass and particle number, measured with an SMPS. Sensor data and soot analytics (SMPS) agreed very well, an impressing linear correlation in a double logarithmic representation was found. This behavior was even independent of the used engine settings or of the biodiesel content. PMID:26580621

  17. Conductometric Sensor for Soot Mass Flow Detection in Exhausts of Internal Combustion Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Müller, Andreas; Schott, Andreas; Zöllner, Christian; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2015-11-13

    Soot sensors are required for on-board diagnostics (OBD) of automotive diesel particulate filters (DPF) to detect filter failures. Widely used for this purpose are conductometric sensors, measuring an electrical current or resistance between two electrodes. Soot particles deposit on the electrodes, which leads to an increase in current or decrease in resistance. If installed upstream of a DPF, the "engine-out" soot emissions can also be determined directly by soot sensors. Sensors were characterized in diesel engine real exhausts under varying operation conditions and with two different kinds of diesel fuel. The sensor signal was correlated to the actual soot mass and particle number, measured with an SMPS. Sensor data and soot analytics (SMPS) agreed very well, an impressing linear correlation in a double logarithmic representation was found. This behavior was even independent of the used engine settings or of the biodiesel content.

  18. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  19. FAILURE MECHANISMS OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND llMPROVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADNAN PARLAK

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available MechanicaJ properties of high performance ceramics have been improved to the point where their use in heat engines is possible. The high temperature strength and low thermal expansion properties of bigh performance ceramics offer an advantage over metals in the development of non-water cooling engine. However, because bard environment in diesel engine combustion chamber, solving the problem of durabiUty of TBC is important. DurabiUty of thermal barrier coatings(TBC is liınited by two main failure mechanisms: Therınal expansion nlİsmatch betwcen bond coat and top coat and bond coat oxidation. Both of these can cause failure of the ceramic top coat. Developments of recent years sholv that bond coats \\Vith higher oxidation resistance tend to have better coating system cyclic lives

  20. Conductometric Sensor for Soot Mass Flow Detection in Exhausts of Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Feulner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soot sensors are required for on-board diagnostics (OBD of automotive diesel particulate filters (DPF to detect filter failures. Widely used for this purpose are conductometric sensors, measuring an electrical current or resistance between two electrodes. Soot particles deposit on the electrodes, which leads to an increase in current or decrease in resistance. If installed upstream of a DPF, the “engine-out” soot emissions can also be determined directly by soot sensors. Sensors were characterized in diesel engine real exhausts under varying operation conditions and with two different kinds of diesel fuel. The sensor signal was correlated to the actual soot mass and particle number, measured with an SMPS. Sensor data and soot analytics (SMPS agreed very well, an impressing linear correlation in a double logarithmic representation was found. This behavior was even independent of the used engine settings or of the biodiesel content.

  1. Workshop: High-performance coatings for internal combustion engines; Workshop: Hochleistungsschichten fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, W. [Foerdergemeinschaft Duenne Schichten e.V., Dresden (Germany). Transferzentrum Oberflaechen- und Schichttechnologie; Lugscheider, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Werkstoffwissenschaften; Suchentrunk, R. (comps.) [DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (Dasa), Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Progress in vehicles is closely related to progress in materials. Engine components must withstand high thermal, corrosive and mechanical loads. The workshop focused on the coating and boundary layer treatment of components especially of piston engines, although gas turbine technology was gone into as well. [German] Fortschritte in der Verkehrstechnik sind oft eng mit Fortschritten in der Werkstofftechnik verknuepft. Besonders hoch sind die Anforderungen hinsichtlich thermischer, korrosiver und mechanischer Belastbarkeit bei Bauteilen von Verbrennungsmotoren. Der Workshop widmet sich ausschliesslich dem Teilgebiet die Beschichtung und Randschichtbehandlung von Bauteilen. Kolbenmotoren stehen im Mittelpunkt, Querverbindungen zur Gasturbinentechnik werden angesprochen. (orig./AKF)

  2. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratapas, John [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Zelepouga, Serguei [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gnatenko, Vitaliy [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Saveliev, Alexei [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Jangale, Vilas [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Li, Hailin [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Getz, Timothy [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Mather, Daniel [Digital Engines, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  3. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  4. Internal combustion engine control for series hybrid electric vehicles by parallel and distributed genetic programming/multiobjective genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, D.; Stewart, P.; Stewart, J.

    2011-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining a stable rectified DC output from the three-phase AC generator in a series-hybrid vehicle powertrain. The series-hybrid prime power source generally comprises an internal combustion (IC) engine driving a three-phase permanent magnet generator whose output is rectified to DC. A recent development has been to control the engine/generator combination by an electronically actuated throttle. This system can be represented as a nonlinear system with significant time delay. Previously, voltage control of the generator output has been achieved by model predictive methods such as the Smith Predictor. These methods rely on the incorporation of an accurate system model and time delay into the control algorithm, with a consequent increase in computational complexity in the real-time controller, and as a necessity relies to some extent on the accuracy of the models. Two complementary performance objectives exist for the control system. Firstly, to maintain the IC engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly, to supply a stable DC supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the IC engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. In order to achieve these objectives, and reduce the complexity of implementation, in this article a controller is designed by the use of Genetic Programming methods in the Simulink modelling environment, with the aim of obtaining a relatively simple controller for the time-delay system which does not rely on the implementation of real time system models or time delay approximations in the controller. A methodology is presented to utilise the miriad of existing control blocks in the Simulink libraries to automatically evolve optimal control

  5. Effect of intake pipe on the volumetric efficiency of an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capetti, Antonio

    1929-01-01

    The writer discusses the phenomena of expansion and compression which alternately take place in the cylinders of four-stroke engines during the induction process at a high mean piston speed due to the inertia and elasticity of the mixture in the intake pipe. The present paper is intended to demonstrate theoretically the existence of a most favorable pipe length for charging.

  6. COOPERATIVE MODE OF ELECTRIC MOTOR AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OPERATION IN THE CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the authors proposed a method to control the car, which is converted into a hybrid one. The electric motor and combustion engine operate alternately in the car. They proposed a device for implementing this method and a circuit design for the device in question. They also calculated the dynamics of the vehicle under the joint acceleration.

  7. Production, purification and utilization of biogas as fuel for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Noel M.; Villanueva, Eliseo P.

    2018-03-01

    This study attempts to modify a 4-cylinder gasoline engine to run with a purified compressed biogas as substitute for fossil fuels. Water scrubbing method was used as the easiest purification technique to remove CO2 and iron filing for H2S. The pressurized raw biogas was fed in a low cost made portable floating type gas holder with volume capacity of 0.74 m3. The purified biogas was compressed using a reciprocating compressor through a two stage series of enrichment and moisture removal process using activated alumina into the steel cylinder to improve the quality of the methane content. The enriched biogas was filled in the LPG tank for 20 minutes at 10 bars at an average of 73.67% CH4 with no traces of H2S as storage for engine utilization. The modification involved the installation and mounting of LPG conversion kit. A comparative analysis of the performance and combustion characteristics of the engine was evaluated separately with gasoline and purified compressed biogas using electro-dynamometer as variable loads. The findings show that power output deterioration in compressed biogas was mainly due to high percentage of CO2 and other gases impurities. It also shows that because of the calorific value of biogas, the thermal efficiency is lesser than that of gasoline. It implies that the overall engine performance can be improved by removing undesirable gases in the mixture.

  8. Cost effective simulation-based multiobjective optimization in the performance of an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aittokoski, Timo; Miettinen, Kaisa

    2008-07-01

    Solving real-life engineering problems can be difficult because they often have multiple conflicting objectives, the objective functions involved are highly nonlinear and they contain multiple local minima. Furthermore, function values are often produced via a time-consuming simulation process. These facts suggest the need for an automated optimization tool that is efficient (in terms of number of objective function evaluations) and capable of solving global and multiobjective optimization problems. In this article, the requirements on a general simulation-based optimization system are discussed and such a system is applied to optimize the performance of a two-stroke combustion engine. In the example of a simulation-based optimization problem, the dimensions and shape of the exhaust pipe of a two-stroke engine are altered, and values of three conflicting objective functions are optimized. These values are derived from power output characteristics of the engine. The optimization approach involves interactive multiobjective optimization and provides a convenient tool to balance between conflicting objectives and to find good solutions.

  9. Acoustic and Emission Characteristics of Small, High-Speed Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    The intent of this study is to obtain information on small high-speed engines so that their effect on the urban environment may be assessed, and if necessary, programs devised to reduce the noise and other emissions from vehicles using these highly d...

  10. Impact of Formaldehyde Addition on Auto-Ignition in Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Kazunari; Ando, Hiromitsu; Furutani, Masahiro; Ohta, Yasuhiko

    By employing a direct-injection diesel engine equipped with a common-rail type of injection system, by adding formaldehyde (CH2O) to the intake air, and by changing the fuel-injection timing, the compression ratio and the intake-air temperature, a mechanism for CH2O as a fuel additive to affect auto-ignition was discussed. Unlike an HCCI type of engine, the diesel engine can expose an air-fuel mixture only to a limited range of the in-cylinder temperature before the ignition, and can separate low- and high-temperature parts of the mechanism. When low-temperature oxidation starts at a temperature above 900K, there are cases that the CH2O advances the ignition timing. Below 900K, to the contrary, it always retards the timing. It is because, above 900K, a part of the CH2O changes into CO together with H2O2 as an ignition promoter. Below 900K, on the other hand, the CH2O itself acts as an OH radical scavenger against cool-flame reaction, from the beginning of low-temperature oxidation. Then, the engine was modified for its extraordinary function as a gasoline-knocking generator, in order that an effect of CH2O on knocking could be discussed. The CH2O retards the onset of auto-ignition of an end gas. Judging from a large degree of the retardation, the ignition is probably triggered below 900K.

  11. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  12. Multi-point laser spark generation for internal combustion engines using a spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, Elliott; Kuang, Zheng; Dearden, Geoff; Cheng, Hua; Page, Vincent; Shenton, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a technique demonstrating for the first time successful multi-point laser-induced spark generation, which is variable in three dimensions and derived from a single laser beam. Previous work on laser ignition of internal combustion engines found that simultaneously igniting in more than one location resulted in more stable and faster combustion – a key potential advantage over conventional spark ignition. However, previous approaches could only generate secondary foci at fixed locations. The work reported here is an experimental technique for multi-point laser ignition, in which several sparks with arbitrary spatial location in three dimensions are created by variable diffraction of a pulsed single laser beam source and transmission through an optical plug. The diffractive multi-beam arrays and patterns are generated using a spatial light modulator on which computer generated holograms are displayed. A gratings and lenses algorithm is used to accurately modulate the phase of the input laser beam and create multi-beam output. The underpinning theory, experimental arrangement and results obtained are presented and discussed. (paper)

  13. Identification of black-box linear models : the case of thermal periodic contact of exhaust valves in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaeefard, M.H.; Fazelpour, M. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Automotive Engineering; Goudarzi, K. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In internal combustion engines, hot exhaust gases that pass through the exhaust valve lead to high temperatures in the exhaust valve and the valve seat. Heat must be transferred from the exhaust valve to valve seat as they come in contact with each other during the opening and closing cycle in order to avoid damaging the exhaust valve. The heat transfer rate from the valve to valve seat is a function of many factors, including the thermal contact conductance (TCC) between the valve and valve seat. The objective of this study was to experimentally calculate the TCC for six different frequencies in the quasi-steady-state condition and also to obtain a transfer function to estimate the exhaust valve temperature by using black-box models of system identification. Periodic contact was taken into consideration in the study. The paper presented the experimental setup including the loading system, heat and cooling system, temperature measurement system, specimens properties, and data acquisition system. The paper also described the test procedure and experimental results. System identification was also described. It was concluded that the TCC decreased as the frequency of contact increased. The temperature transfer function was calculated by using the system identification method and having the temperatures at both sides of the contact surface. By knowing the temperature of one rod, the temperature of the other rod was estimated with high accuracy. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Internal Combustion Engines as the Main Source of Ultrafine Particles in Residential Neighborhoods: Field Measurements in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Stolcpartova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter < 100 nm exposure has already been associated with adverse effects on human health. Spatial distribution of UFP is non-uniform; they concentrate in the vicinity of the source, e.g. traffic, because of their short lifespan. This work investigates spatial distribution of UFP in three areas in the Czech Republic with different traffic load: High traffic (Prague neighborhood—Sporilov, commuter road vicinity (Libeznice, and a small city with only local traffic (Celakovice. Size-resolved measurements of particles in the 5–500 nm range were taken with a particle classifier mounted, along with batteries, GPS and other accessories, on a handcart and pushed around the areas, making one-minute or longer stops at places of interest. Concentrations along main roads were elevated in comparison with places farther from the road; this pattern was observed in all sites, while particle number distributions both close and away from main roads had similar patterns. The absence of larger particles, the relative absence of higher concentrations of particles away from the main roads, and similar number distributions suggest that high particle number concentrations cannot be readily attributed to sources other than internal combustion engines in vehicles and mobile machinery (i.e., mowers and construction machines.

  15. Experimental Study of Ignition by Hot Spot in Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serruys, Max

    1938-01-01

    In order to carry out the contemplated study, it was first necessary to provide hot spots in the combustion chamber, which could be measured and whose temperature could be changed. It seemed difficult to realize both conditions working solely on the temperature of the cooling water in a way so as to produce hot spots on the cylinder wall capable of provoking autoignition. Moreover, in the majority of practical cases, autoignition is produced by the spark plug, one of the least cooled parts in the engine. The first procedure therefore did not resemble that which most generally occurs in actual engine operation. All of these considerations caused us to reproduce similar hot spots at the spark plugs. The hot spots produced were of two kinds and designated with the name of thermo-electric spark plug and of metallic hot spot.

  16. A predictive model of natural gas mixture combustion in internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Espinoza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the development of a predictive natural gas mixture combustion model for conventional com-bustion (ignition engines. The model was based on resolving two areas; one having unburned combustion mixture and another having combustion products. Energy and matter conservation equations were solved for each crankshaft turn angle for each area. Nonlinear differential equations for each phase’s energy (considering compression, combustion and expansion were solved by applying the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The model also enabled studying different natural gas components’ composition and evaluating combustion in the presence of dry and humid air. Validation results are shown with experimental data, demonstrating the software’s precision and accuracy in the results so produced. The results showed cylinder pressure, unburned and burned mixture temperature, burned mass fraction and combustion reaction heat for the engine being modelled using a natural gas mixture.

  17. Analysis of heat release dynamics in an internal combustion engine using multifractals and wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.K.; Litak, G.; Finney, C.E.A.; Daw, C.S.; Wagner, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyze data from previously reported experimental measurements of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations in a lean-fueled, multi-cylinder spark-ignition (SI) engine. We characterize the changes in the observed combustion dynamics with as-fed fuel-air ratio using conventional histograms and statistical moments, and we further characterize the shifts in combustion complexity in terms of multifractals and wavelet decomposition. Changes in the conventional statistics and multifractal structure indicate trends with fuel-air ratio that parallel earlier reported observations. Wavelet decompositions reveal persistent, non-stochastic oscillation modes at higher fuel-air ratios that were not obvious in previous analyses. Recognition of these long-time-scale, non-stochastic oscillations is expected to be useful for improving modelling and control of engine combustion variations and multi-cylinder balancing.

  18. Transistorized ignition system for internal combustion engines, in particular for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mieras, L F; Skay, F

    1977-05-12

    The invention concerns an ignition system for motor vehicles with solid state control of the power transistor switching the primary current of the ignition coil. A pulse generator driven by the engine is used for this, whose voltage pulses control the switching on of the power transistor and increase in a certain ratio to the engine speed. This ensures that the closing angle, i.e. the mechanical angle of rotation which the machine passes through while loading the ignition coil with mechanical energy, is automatically changed so that for low speeds it is just sufficient for certain ignition, but increases with increasing speed, so that the required ignition energy is always available. At low speeds one avoids charging current flowing through the primary winding of the ignition coil for longer than necessary and thus wasting electrical energy.

  19. Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) biodiesel blend B5 as internal combustion engine fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Boruah, Dibakor

    2014-01-01

    In this study, fuel characteristics of biodiesel abstracted from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) were evaluated and compared with petroleum diesel. Various fuel properties such as density, viscosity, calorific value, ash content, cloud point, pour points, induction period and flash point were evaluated according to ASTM standards. A (5% v/v) blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel were used to run a diesel engine and their performances were investigated and compared in terms of fuel power, indicat...

  20. Effects of Temperature on the Performance of a Small Internal Combustion Engine at Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    to learn from the successes of others as well as problems encountered during similar studies. Additional literature review information is located in...progression, and the lower limit is the leanest mixture (Turns [17]). Due to increasing time losses, spark timing other than optimum usually increases...carbureted crankcase-scavenged engine (without stratification or DI) has about 15-20% of its fuel short-circuited into the exhaust. Backflows are

  1. Active lubrication applied to internal combustion engines - evaluation of control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    surface. The behaviour of a main bearing of a medium size combustion engine, operating with radial oil injection and with four different control strategies is analyzed, giving some insights into the minimum fluid film thickness, maximum fluid film pressure, friction losses and maximum vibration levels...... of reducing friction losses and vibrations between the crankshaft and the bearings. The conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with hydrostatic lubrication which is actively modified by radially injecting oil at controllable pressures, through orifices circumferentially located around the bearing...

  2. Contactless ignition device for an internal combustion engine. Kontaktfreie Zuendanlage fuer eine Brennkraftmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohki, Y; Komiya, H

    1980-01-16

    The invention deals with the design of a contactless ignition device with semiconductor elements of the induction discharge type, provided with a self actuator. A short circuit current of the primary transformer coil flows through the transistor system. The emitter is capacitively connected with the primary transformer coil. When the primary short circuit current reaches its maximum, the circuit is interrupted and the ignition begins. Changes of the short circuit current are monitored. The ignition time can be pre-selected. The ignition process is independent from the engine speed.

  3. Assessing the damage importance rank in acoustic diagnostics of technical conditions of the internal combustion engine with multi-valued logical decision trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deptuła Adam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents possible applications of acoustic diagnostics in inspecting the technical condition of an internal combustion engine with autoignition on the example of the Fiat drive unit with the common rail system. As a result of measuring the sound pressure level for specific faults and comparing the noise generated by the motor running smoothly, the detailed maps of changes in the acoustic spectrum may be generated. These results may be helpful in future diagnostics of internal combustion engines. In the paper, we present the results from the scientific works in the area of research, design and operation of internal combustion engines, conducted at the Department of Automotive Engineering, in cooperation with the Laboratory of Hydraulic Drives & Vibroacoustics of Machines at the Wroclaw University of Technology. The broader study has so far allowed us to develop an authoritative method of identifying the type of engine damage using gametree structures. The present works assess the possibility of using multi-valued logic trees.

  4. Development of Novel Fe-Based Coating Systems for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.; Dröder, K.; Hoffmeister, H.-W.; Mahlfeld, G.; Schläfer, T.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, combustion engines are the most common way to power vehicles. Thereby, losses occur due to cooling, exhaust gas and friction. With regard to frictional losses, highest potentials for optimization can be found in the tribological system of the inner surface of combustion chamber and piston ring. Besides friction, corrosive stress increases, e.g., due to utilization of exhaust gas recovery. In order to save energy, reduce emissions and enhance the life span of combustion engines, the demand for innovative coating material systems, especially for the inner surface of combustion chamber, increases. This study focuses on the development of innovative iron-based coating materials for the combustion chamber. As a first step, the plasma transferred wire arc and rotating single wire arc (RSW) technologies were compared using 0.8% C-steel as a reference. Subsequently, RSW was used for coating deposition using an innovative iron-based feedstock material. In order to improve wear and corrosion resistance, boron and chromium were added to the feedstock material. After deposition, different honing topographies were manufactured and compared under tribological load. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted using an electrolyte simulating the exhaust gas concentrate. Especially with regard to corrosion, the novel coating system FeCrBMn showed promising results.

  5. Advanced exergy analysis for a bottoming organic rankine cycle coupled to an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, J.; Ruiz, S.; Dolz, V.; Royo-Pascual, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergy analysis were carried out using experimental data of an ORC. • Exergy destruction analyzed as endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable. • Exergy destruction was estimated by considering technological restrictions. - Abstract: This paper deals with the evaluation and analysis of a bottoming ORC cycle coupled to an IC engine by means of conventional and advanced exergy analysis. Using experimental data of an ORC coupled to a 2 l turbocharged engine, both conventional and advanced exergy analysis are carried out. Splitting the exergy in the advanced exergy analysis into unavoidable and avoidable provides a measure of the potential of improving the efficiency of this component. On the other hand, splitting the exergy into endogenous and exogenous provides information between interactions among system components. The result of this study shows that there is a high potential of improvement in this type of cycles. Although, from the conventional analysis, the exergy destruction rate of boiler is greater than the one of the expander, condenser and pump, the advanced exergy analysis suggests that the first priority of improvement should be given to the expander, followed by the pump, the condenser and the boiler. A total amount of 3.75 kW (36.5%) of exergy destruction rate could be lowered, taking account that only the avoidable part of the exergy destruction rate can be reduced.

  6. Development of Novel Fe-Based Coating Systems for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.; Dröder, K.; Hoffmeister, H.-W.; Mahlfeld, G.; Schläfer, T.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, combustion engines are the most common way to power vehicles. Thereby, losses occur due to cooling, exhaust gas and friction. With regard to frictional losses, highest potentials for optimization can be found in the tribological system of the inner surface of combustion chamber and piston ring. Besides friction, corrosive stress increases, e.g., due to utilization of exhaust gas recovery. In order to save energy, reduce emissions and enhance the life span of combustion engines, the demand for innovative coating material systems, especially for the inner surface of combustion chamber, increases. This study focuses on the development of innovative iron-based coating materials for the combustion chamber. As a first step, the plasma transferred wire arc and rotating single wire arc (RSW) technologies were compared using 0.8% C-steel as a reference. Subsequently, RSW was used for coating deposition using an innovative iron-based feedstock material. In order to improve wear and corrosion resistance, boron and chromium were added to the feedstock material. After deposition, different honing topographies were manufactured and compared under tribological load. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted using an electrolyte simulating the exhaust gas concentrate. Especially with regard to corrosion, the novel coating system FeCrBMn showed promising results.

  7. Substructuring of multibody systems for numerical transfer path analysis in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acri, Antonio; Offner, Guenter; Nijman, Eugene; Rejlek, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Noise legislations and the increasing customer demands determine the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) development of modern commercial vehicles. In order to meet the stringent legislative requirements for the vehicle noise emission, exact knowledge of all vehicle noise sources and their acoustic behavior is required. Transfer path analysis (TPA) is a fairly well established technique for estimating and ranking individual low-frequency noise or vibration contributions via the different transmission paths. Transmission paths from different sources to target points of interest and their contributions can be analyzed by applying TPA. This technique is applied on test measurements, which can only be available on prototypes, at the end of the designing process. In order to overcome the limits of TPA, a numerical transfer path analysis methodology based on the substructuring of a multibody system is proposed in this paper. Being based on numerical simulation, this methodology can be performed starting from the first steps of the designing process. The main target of the proposed methodology is to get information of noise sources contributions of a dynamic system considering the possibility to have multiple forces contemporary acting on the system. The contributions of these forces are investigated with particular focus on distribute or moving forces. In this paper, the mathematical basics of the proposed methodology and its advantages in comparison with TPA will be discussed. Then, a dynamic system is investigated with a combination of two methods. Being based on the dynamic substructuring (DS) of the investigated model, the methodology proposed requires the evaluation of the contact forces at interfaces, which are computed with a flexible multi-body dynamic (FMBD) simulation. Then, the structure-borne noise paths are computed with the wave based method (WBM). As an example application a 4-cylinder engine is investigated and the proposed methodology is applied on the

  8. Modeling and control of fuel distribution in a dual-fuel internal combustion engine leveraging late intake valve closings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassa, Mateos [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Hall, Carrie [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Ickes, Andrew [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA; Wallner, Thomas [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA

    2016-10-07

    Advanced internal combustion engines, although generally more efficient than conventional combustion engines, often encounter limitations in multi-cylinder applications due to variations in the combustion process encountered across cylinders and between cycles. This study leverages experimental data from an inline 6-cylinder heavy-duty dual fuel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), a variable geometry turbocharger, and a fully-flexible variable intake valve actuation system to study cylinder-to-cylinder variations in power production and the underlying uneven fuel distribution that causes these variations. The engine is operated with late intake valve closure timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode in which a high reactivity fuel is directly injected into the cylinders and a low reactivity fuel is port injected into the cylinders. Both dual fuel implementation and late intake valve closing (IVC) timings have been shown to improve thermal efficiency. However, experimental data from this study reveal that when late IVC timings are used on a multi-cylinder dual fuel engine a significant variation in IMEP across cylinders results and as such, leads to efficiency losses. The difference in IMEP between the different cylinders ranges from 9% at an IVC of 570°ATDC to 38% at an IVC of 610°ATDC and indicates an increasingly uneven fuel distribution. These experimental observations along with engine simulation models developed using GT-Power have been used to better understand the distribution of the port injected fuel across cylinders under various operating conditions on such dual fuel engines. This study revealed that the fuel distribution across cylinders in this dual fuel application is significantly affected by changes in the effective compression ratio as determined by the intake valve close timing as well as the design of the intake system (specifically the length of the intake runners). Late intake valve closures allow a portion of the trapped air

  9. Cogeneration with natural gas fired internal combustion engines: Italian utility's 10 years operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montermini, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experience that AGAC, an Italian gas and water utility, has acquired in the operation of a 116 Km long district heating network serving about 40,000 inhabitants. The network is powered by a mix of methane fuelled Otto and diesel cycle engines, coal fired fluidized bed boilers, and methane fired boilers producing annually about 153,000 kW of thermal energy, 2,300 kW of cooling energy, and 28.8 million kWh of electric power. This paper reports on the performance of this system in terms of production and sales trends, equipment efficiency and compatibility with new European Communities air pollution standards

  10. TEM and HRTEM of Soot-in-oil particles and agglomerates from internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, M W; Rocca, A La; Shayler, P J

    2014-01-01

    Over time, the performance of lubricating oil in a diesel engine is affected by the build-up of carbon soot produced by the combustion process. TEM and HRTEM are commonly used to investigate the characteristics of individual and agglomerated particles from diesel exhaust, to understand the structure and distribution of the carbon sheets in the primary particles and the nanostructure morphology. However, high resolution imaging of soot-in-oil is more challenging, as mineral oil is a contaminant for the electron microscope and leads to instability under the electron beam. In this work we compare solvent extraction and centrifugation techniques for removing the mineral oil contaminant, and the effect on particle size distribution

  11. Problems of Modelling Toxic Compounds Emitted by a Marine Internal Combustion Engine in Unsteady States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnicki Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary engine tests are performed based on the theory of experiment. The available versions of programmes used for analysing experimental data make frequent use of the multiple regression model, which enables examining effects and interactions between input model parameters and a single output variable. The use of multi-equation models provides more freedom in analysing the measured results, as those models enable simultaneous analysis of effects and interactions between many output variables. They can also be used as a tool in preparing experimental material for other advanced diagnostic tools, such as the models making use of neural networks which, when properly prepared, enable also analysing measurement results recorded during dynamic processes.

  12. Heat transfer from an internal combustion (Otto-cycle) engine on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Owen

    1992-05-01

    The cooling requirements for an average car sized engine (spark-ignition, V-6, four-stroke, naturally aspirated, about 200 kg, about 100 kW) were looked at for Mars. Several modes of cooling were considered, including forced convection, exhaust, radiation and closed loop systems. The primary goal was to determine the effect of the thinner Martian atmosphere on the cooling system. The results show that there was only a 6-percent difference in the cooling requirements. This difference was due mostly to the thinner atmosphere during forced convection and the heat capacity of the exhaust. A method using a single pass counter-flow heat exchanger is suggested to offset this difference in cooling requirements.

  13. Heat transfer from an internal combustion (Otto-cycle) engine on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Owen

    1992-01-01

    The cooling requirements for an average car sized engine (spark-ignition, V-6, four-stroke, naturally aspirated, about 200 kg, about 100 kW) were looked at for Mars. Several modes of cooling were considered, including forced convection, exhaust, radiation and closed loop systems. The primary goal was to determine the effect of the thinner Martian atmosphere on the cooling system. The results show that there was only a 6-percent difference in the cooling requirements. This difference was due mostly to the thinner atmosphere during forced convection and the heat capacity of the exhaust. A method using a single pass counter-flow heat exchanger is suggested to offset this difference in cooling requirements.

  14. Experimental analysis of micro-cogeneration units based on reciprocating internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Possidente, R.; Sibilio, S. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipartimento di Storia e Processi dell' ambiente Antropizzato (DiSPAMA), Borgo San Lorenzo, Aversa, CE (Italy); Roselli, C.; Sasso, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universita degli Studi del Sannio, Benevento (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The cogeneration, or the combined production of electric and/or mechanical and thermal energy, is a well-established technology now, which has important environmental benefits and has been noted by the European Community as one of the first elements to save primary energy, to avoid network losses and to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, our interest will be focused on the micro-cogeneration, MCHP (electric power up to 15 kW), which represents a valid and interesting application of this technology which refers, above all, to residential and light commercial users [M. Dentice d'Accadia, M. Sasso, S. Sibilio, Cogeneration for energy saving in household applications, in: P. Bertoldi, A. Ricci, A. de Almeida (Eds.), Energy Efficiency in Household Appliances and Lighting, Springer, Berlin, 2001, pp. 210-221; Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of the 11 February 2004 on the promotion of cogeneration based on the useful heat demand in the internal energy market and amending Directive 92/42/EEC, Official Journal of the European Union (2004)]. In particular, our work group started a R and D programme on micro-cogeneration in 1995: a laboratory, equipped with the most common appliances (washing-machine, dishwasher, storage water heater, ...), has been built and some MCHP prototypes have been tested too. In this article, the results of an intense experimental activity on three different micro-cogenerators, one of them made in Japan and in a pre-selling phase, are reported. In a previous paper a detailed analysis of the test facility, with the description of the equipment and the data acquisition systems, can be found [M. Dentice d'Accadia, M. Sasso, S. Sibilio, R. Vanoli, Micro-combined heat and power in residential and light commercial applications, Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 1247-1259]. A typical 3-E (Energetic, Economic and Environmental) approach has been performed to compare the proposed energy system

  15. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  16. A method of controlling a large two-stroke turbocharged internal combustion engine and an engine for use in this method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjemtrup, N; Grone, O S

    1994-03-03

    A large two-stroke turbocharged internal combusted engine has a reactor for reduction of the NO[sub x]-content in the exhaust gas connected upstream of the turbocharger. At least one sensor measures at least one engine parameter and in a control unit it is determined whether the reactor is heated by the exhaust gas, which heating may cause reduced energy supply to the turbocharger. When this is the case the control unit opens for supply of supplementary air or gas to the engine which may be effected by starting an auxiliary blower and/or by actuating a control means in a bypass conduit so that a large amount of exhaust gas with a corresponding increase in the power is delivered to the turbocharger turbine. (author) figs.

  17. Effects of alloying elements on the microstructure and fatigue properties of cast iron for internal combustion engine exhaust manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, David J.

    In the design of exhaust manifolds for internal combustion engines the materials used must exhibit resistance to corrosion at high temperatures while maintaining a stable microstructure. Cast iron has been used for manifolds for many years by auto manufacturers due to a combination of suitable mechanical properties, low cost, and ease of casting. Over time cast iron is susceptible to microstructural changes, corrosion, and oxidation which can result in failure due to fatigue. This thesis seeks to answer the question: "Can observed microstructural changes and measured high temperature fatigue life in cast iron alloys be used to develop a predictive model for fatigue life?" the importance of this question lies in the fact that there is little data for the behavior of cast iron alloys at high temperature. For this study two different types of cast iron, 50HS and HSM will be examined. Of particular concern for the high Si+C cast irons (and Mo in the case of the HSM cast iron) are subsurface microstructural changes that result due to heat treatment including (1) decarburization, (2) ferrite formation, (3) graphitization, (4) internal oxidation of the Si, (5) high temperature fatigue resistance, and (6) creep potential. Initial results obtained include microstructure examination after being exposed to high temperatures, grain size, nodule size, and hardness measurements. The initial examinations concluded that both cast irons performed fairly similarly, although the microstructure of the HSM samples did show slightly better resistance to high temperature as compared to that of the 50HS. Follow on work involved high temperature fatigue testing of these two materials in order to better determine if the newer alloy, HSM is a better choice for exhaust manifolds. Correlations between fatigue performance and microstructure were made and discussed, with the results examined in light of current and proposed models for predicting fatigue performance based on computational methods

  18. ProMotor - a technology programme of internal combustion engines; Moottoritekniikan teknologiaohjelma ProMOTOR 1999-2003. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The technology program ProMOTOR, related to the technology of internal combustion engines, covered the whole chain from fuels to engine, and from engine combustion to exhaust gas clean-up. One of the main challenges in the engine sector is to decrease emissions significantly. In order to meet this challenge, the whole chain has to be considered. The program was designed in close cooperation with the national industry of this sector. The main objective of the program was to support product development of the engine- related industry in order to develop and maintain international competitiveness. Corporate projects formed a substantial part of the program, amounting to about 70% of the whole budget volume. Good results were achieved in every sector of the program. In the sector of 'Engine Theory' great efforts were directed to the development of calculation and simulation procedures and protocols. The efforts paid off, and significant progress was achieved. Close international cooperation and academic theses give indication of the high level. In addition to computational work optical method to study incylinder phenomena was developed. Research infrastructure was improved in many different areas. A new research engine, EVE (Extreme Value Engine), makes it possible to vary the operational parameters and the engine process in such ways which are not possible in ordinary engines. A very high boost pressure and freely selectable valve timing are important new features providing more freedom in testing. The mechanical structure of this engine, which is designed for extremely high mean effective pressures, is unique. A research device for piston ring tribology and a large bearing test rig were also designed and constructed for tribology research. The research facilities for work on heavy vehicles and engines improved significantly. Today it is possible to run complete heavy-duty vehicles on a chassis dynamometer and test engines, for example, according to

  19. Life cycle analysis of vehicles powered by a fuel cell and by internal combustion engine for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The transportation sector is responsible for a great percentage of the greenhouse gas emissions as well as the energy consumption in the world. Canada is the second major emitter of carbon dioxide in the world. The need for alternative fuels, other than petroleum, and the need to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions are the main reasons behind this study. In this study, a full life cycle analysis of an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has been carried out. The impact of the material and fuel used in the vehicle on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is analyzed for Canada. The data collected from the literature shows that the energy consumption for the production of 1 kg of aluminum is five times higher than that of 1 kg of steel, although higher aluminum content makes vehicles lightweight and more energy efficient during the vehicle use stage. Greenhouse gas regulated emissions and energy use in transportation (GREET) software has been used to analyze the fuel life cycle. The life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting, and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extraction of hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that the use of coal to obtain hydrogen generates the highest emissions and consumes the highest energy. Comparing the overall life cycle of an ICEV and a FCV, the total emissions of an FCV are 49% lower than an ICEV and the energy consumption of FCV is 87% lower than that of ICEV. Further, CO 2 emissions during the hydrogen fuel production in a central plant can be easily captured and sequestrated. The comparison carried out in this study between FCV and ICEV is extended to

  20. Car engine breather icing

    OpenAIRE

    Horoufi, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    Icing in an engine breather system can block the engine breather pipe, cause excessive crankcase pressure and degrade the engine performance. In this project, a numerical study, experimental tests and CFD analysis are employed in order to understand condensation and the extent of freezing inside a vertical pipe, a horizontal pipe and a T-joint pipe which are exposed to an external convective cooling. The pipe internal flow is assumed to be a vapour/air mixture. This study has l...

  1. Experimental study on emissions and performance of an internal combustion engine fueled with gasoline and gasoline/n-butanol blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfasakhany, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using of 3 and 7 vol.% n-butanol blends in SI engine is studied for the first time. • Engine performance and emissions depend on both engine speed and blend rates. • CO and UHC for blended fuels are maximum at 3000–3100 r/min. • The higher the rate of n-butanol, the lower the emissions and performance. • This study strongly supports using low blend rates of n-butanol (<10 vol.%) in ICE. - Abstract: In this paper, exhaust emissions and engine performance have been experimentally studied for neat gasoline and gasoline/n-butanol blends in a wide range of working speeds (2600–3400 r/min) without any tuning or modification on the gasoline engine systems. The experiment has the ability of evaluating performance and emission characteristics, such as break power, torque, in-cylinder pressure, volumetric efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and concentrations of CO 2 , CO and UHC. Results of the engine test indicated that using n-butanol–gasoline blended fuels slightly decrease the output torque, power, volumetric efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and in-cylinder pressure of the engine as a result of the leaning effect caused by the n-butanol addition; CO, CO 2 and UHC emissions decrease dramatically for blended fuels compared to neat gasoline because of the improved combustion since n-butanol has extra oxygen, which allows partial reduction of the CO and UHC through formation of CO 2 . It was also noted that the exhaust emissions depend on the engine speed rather than the n-butanol contents

  2. A feasibility study of dynamic stress analysis inside a running internal combustion engine using synchrotron X-ray beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimpas, Nikolaos; Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Song, Xu; Pandazaras, Costas; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation establishes the feasibility of using synchrotron-generated X-ray beams for time-resolved in situ imaging and diffraction of the interior components of an internal combustion engine during its operation. The demonstration experiment was carried out on beamline I12 (JEEP) at Diamond Light Source, UK. The external hutch of the JEEP instrument is a large-scale engineering test bed for complex in situ processing and simulation experiments. The hutch incorporates a large capacity translation and rotation table and a selection of detectors for monochromatic and white-beam diffraction and imaging. These capabilities were used to record X-ray movies of a motorcycle internal combustion engine running at 1850 r.p.m. and to measure strain inside the connecting rod via stroboscopic X-ray diffraction measurement. The high penetrating ability and high flux of the X-ray beam at JEEP allowed the observation of inlet and outlet valve motion, as well as that of the piston, connecting rod and the timing chain within the engine. Finally, the dynamic internal strain within the moving connecting rod was evaluated with an accuracy of ~50 × 10(-6).

  3. Influence of the single EGR valve usability on development of the charge directed to individual cylinders of an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakowian Konrad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas recirculation systems (EGR, aside to a catalytic converters, are nowadays widely used in piston internal combustion engines to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx in the exhaust gas. They are characterized in that a portion of exhaust gases from the exhaust manifold is recirculated (via a condenser, and directed to a particular valve. The valve, depending on the current engine load and speed, doses the appropriate amount of exhaust gas into the exhaust manifold. Moreover, its location has a significant impact on the diverse formation of nitrogen oxides and fumes smokiness from the individual cylinders of the engine, which is a result of uneven propagation of exhaust gas into the channels of the intake manifold. This article contains the results of numerical characterized charges formed in symmetrical intake manifold with a centrally–placed EGR valve. Simulations were performed for the original intake system derived from the two-liter, turbocharged VW diesel engine.

  4. Influence of the single EGR valve usability on development of the charge directed to individual cylinders of an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowian, Konrad; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Górniak, Aleksander; Wróbel, Radosław

    2017-11-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation systems (EGR), aside to a catalytic converters, are nowadays widely used in piston internal combustion engines to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust gas. They are characterized in that a portion of exhaust gases from the exhaust manifold is recirculated (via a condenser), and directed to a particular valve. The valve, depending on the current engine load and speed, doses the appropriate amount of exhaust gas into the exhaust manifold. Moreover, its location has a significant impact on the diverse formation of nitrogen oxides and fumes smokiness from the individual cylinders of the engine, which is a result of uneven propagation of exhaust gas into the channels of the intake manifold. This article contains the results of numerical characterized charges formed in symmetrical intake manifold with a centrally-placed EGR valve. Simulations were performed for the original intake system derived from the two-liter, turbocharged VW diesel engine.

  5. Performance analysis of single stage libr-water absorption machine operated by waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Hafiz Zafar; Leman, A. M.; Muthuraman, S.; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Combined heating, cooling, and power is also known as Tri-generation. Tri-generation system can provide power, hot water, space heating and air -conditioning from single source of energy. The objective of this study is to propose a method to evaluate the characteristic and performance of a single stage lithium bromide-water (LiBr-H2O) absorption machine operated with waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine which is integral part of trigeneration system. Correlations for computer sensitivity analysis are developed in data fit software for (P-T-X), (H-T-X), saturated liquid (water), saturated vapor, saturation pressure and crystallization temperature curve of LiBr-H2O Solution. Number of equations were developed with data fit software and exported into excel work sheet for the evaluation of number of parameter concerned with the performance of vapor absorption machine such as co-efficient of performance, concentration of solution, mass flow rate, size of heat exchangers of the unit in relation to the generator, condenser, absorber and evaporator temperatures. Size of vapor absorption machine within its crystallization limits for cooling and heating by waste energy recovered from exhaust gas, and jacket water of internal combustion engine also presented in this study to save the time and cost for the facilities managers who are interested to utilize the waste thermal energy of their buildings or premises for heating and air conditioning applications.

  6. A model of turbocharger radial turbines appropriate to be used in zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamics codes for internal combustion engines modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J.R.; Arnau, F.J.; Dolz, V.; Tiseira, A. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Cervello, C. [Conselleria de Cultura, Educacion y Deporte, Generalitat Valenciana (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The paper presents a model of fixed and variable geometry turbines. The aim of this model is to provide an efficient boundary condition to model turbocharged internal combustion engines with zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamic codes. The model is based from its very conception on the measured characteristics of the turbine. Nevertheless, it is capable of extrapolating operating conditions that differ from those included in the turbine maps, since the engines usually work within these zones. The presented model has been implemented in a one-dimensional gas dynamic code and has been used to calculate unsteady operating conditions for several turbines. The results obtained have been compared with success against pressure-time histories measured upstream and downstream of the turbine during on-engine operation. (author)

  7. A model of turbocharger radial turbines appropriate to be used in zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamics codes for internal combustion engines modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, J.R.; Arnau, F.J.; Dolz, V.; Tiseira, A.; Cervello, C.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a model of fixed and variable geometry turbines. The aim of this model is to provide an efficient boundary condition to model turbocharged internal combustion engines with zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamic codes. The model is based from its very conception on the measured characteristics of the turbine. Nevertheless, it is capable of extrapolating operating conditions that differ from those included in the turbine maps, since the engines usually work within these zones. The presented model has been implemented in a one-dimensional gas dynamic code and has been used to calculate unsteady operating conditions for several turbines. The results obtained have been compared with success against pressure-time histories measured upstream and downstream of the turbine during on-engine operation

  8. Dictionary of engines. The internal combustion engine from A-Z; Lexikon Motorentechnik. Der Verbrennungsmotor von A-Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, F. (ed.); Basshuysen, R. van

    2004-04-01

    This dictionary describes current engine technology and gives an outlook to the future. Cross-references, broader and narrower terms ensure optimal user guidance. Entries do not stand alone but provide content-oriented information. About 4,500 terms are included from A-Z, providing an outline of subjects like exhaust systems, acoustics, supercharging, combustion chamber, injection systems, control, flame propagation, mixing, catalytic converters, pistons, fuels, cooling, crank casing, stratified charging, lambda control, camshaft, oil, particulate filters, sensors/actuators, pollutants, valves, combustion processes, efficiency, ignition, cylinder head. The dictionary is for development engineers in the motor car industry, in component and system development in the supply industry, university teachers and students, foremen in motor car repair shops, etc. (orig.) [German] Das Lexikon Motorentechnik ist ein Nachschlagewerk, das die aktuelle Motorentechnik umfassend beschreibt und Ausblicke in der Zukunft ermoeglicht. Das ausgefeilte System aus Querverweisen fuehrt alle Unterbegriffe zum Hauptbegriff und ermoeglicht so eine optimale Benutzerfuehrung. Dadurch stehen die Stichwoerter nicht isoliert, sondern es werden inhaltlich zusammenhaengende Betrachtungen moeglich. Der Inhalt umfasst 4 500 Begriffe von A-Z wie z.B.: Abgastechnik, Akustik, Aufladung, Brennraum, Einspritzsysteme, Elektronische Motorsteuerung, Flammenausbreitung, Gemischbildung, Katalysator, Kolben, Kraftstoff, Kuehlung, Kurbelgehaeuse, Kurbeltrieb, Ladungswechsel, Lambda-Regelung, Nockenwelle, Oel, Partikelfilter, Sensoren/Aktuatoren, Schadstoffe, Ventiltrieb, Verbrennungsverfahren, Wirkungsgrad, Zuendung, Zylinderkopf. Die Zielgruppen waeren Ingenieure in Motoren- und Fahrzeugentwicklung der Automobilindustrie, Ingenieure in der Komponenten- und Systementwicklung der Zuliefererindustrie, Professoren und Studenten an Hochschulen mit Schwerpunkt Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, Meister in Kfz-Werkstaetten. (orig.)

  9. Generation of rotary vibrations in internal combustion engines with elastically coupled electric power systems; Erzeugung von verbrennungsmotorischen Drehschwingungen mit elastisch gekoppelten elektrischen Antrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Jens Werner [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik und Mechatronik

    2004-07-01

    The design of motor car powertrains requires simulations as well as prototype tests. For the simulations, prototype parameters must be identified on test rigs, simulation results must be verified, and life tests must be carried out. This necessitates realistic and reproducible excitation of vibrations. Thee book describes the development and construction of a test rig which, with the aid of electric power systems, induces rotary vibrations like those which may occur in internal combustion engines due to gas forces and unbalanced mass forces. In combination with excess resonance, the test stand achieves high dynamics with average rotary momenta up to 600 Nm. The development process is documented, from test stand design with specially developed servo-engines to the control hardware to modelling, control element design, and commissioning. (orig.)

  10. Experimental investigation of the fluid dynamic efficiency of a high performance multi-valve internal combustion engine during the intake phase: Influence of valve-valve interference phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is the analysis of the fluid dynamic behavior of a high performance internal combustion engine during the intake phase. In particular, a four-valve spark-ignition engine has been characterized at the steady flow rig. Dimensionless discharge coefficients have been used to define the global fluid dynamic efficiency of the intake system, while the Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA technique has been employed to evaluate the mean flow in the valve curtain area and to characterise the interference phenomena between the two intake valves. The investigation has shown the significant influence of the valve lift on the volumetric efficiency of the intake apparatus. Moreover, the experimental analysis has highlighted that the valve-valve interference phenomena have a relevant impact on the head breathability, on the flow development within the combustion chamber and on the velocity standard deviations.

  11. Device for the catalytic after-burning of exhaust gases in the exhaust gas system of an internal-combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, K

    1975-06-19

    The invention deals with a device which protects the catalyst for the after-burning of exhaust gases against damage by high temperatures. When the catalyst temperature reaches a certain limiting value, a throttle is activated by an electrical control device influenced by a temperature sensor via a servomotor. The throttle valve opens a by-pass for the exhaust gases which had previously flowed through the system for catalytic after-burning. In order to prevent the throttle from rusting due to its rare use, it is regularly put into use after switching off the ignition of the internal-combustion engine by the still briefly present oil pressure in the engine via an oil pressure switch and the mentioned control device.

  12. Calibration and validation of a model for simulating thermal and electric performance of an internal combustion engine-based micro-cogeneration device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, A.; Sibilio, S.

    2012-01-01

    The growing worldwide demand for more efficient and less polluting forms of energy production has led to a renewed interest in the use of micro-cogeneration technologies in the residential. Among the others technologies, internal combustion engine-based micro-cogeneration devices are a market-ready technology gaining an increasing appeal thanks to their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, low emissions, low noise and vibration. In order to explore and assess the feasibility of using internal combustion engine-based cogeneration systems in the residential sector, an accurate and practical simulation model that can be used to conduct sensitivity and what-if analyses is needed. A residential cogeneration device model has been developed within IEA/ECBCS Annex 42 and implemented into a number of building simulation programs. This model is potentially able to accurately predict the thermal and electrical outputs of the residential cogeneration devices, but it relies almost entirely on empirical data because the model specification uses experimental measurements contained within a performance map to represent the device specific performance characteristics coupled with thermally massive elements to characterize the device's dynamic thermal performance. At the Built Environment Control Laboratory of Seconda Università degli studi di Napoli, an AISIN SEIKI micro-cogeneration device based on natural gas fuelled reciprocating internal combustion engine is available. This unit has been intensively tested in order to calibrate and validate the Annex 42 model. This paper shows in detail the series of experiments conducted for the calibration activity and examines the validity of this model by contrasting simulation predictions to measurements derived by operating the system in electric load following control strategy. The statistical comparison was made both for the whole database and the segregated data by system mode operation. The good agreement found in the predictions of

  13. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3). Inadvertently...

  14. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator received two petitions for reconsideration... Any industry using a stationary 2211 Electric power reciprocating internal generation, combustion...

  15. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCar & Vehicle Technologies Program CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion engine Vehicle -- Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-01

    The CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle was undertaken to define the requirements to achieve a California Air Resource Board Executive Order for a hydrogenfueled vehicle retrofit kit. A 2005 to 2006 General Motors Company Sierra/Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD pickup was assumed to be the build-from vehicle for the retrofit kit. The emissions demonstration was determined not to pose a significant hurdle due to the non-hydrocarbon-based fuel and lean-burn operation. However, significant work was determined to be necessary for Onboard Diagnostics Level II compliance. Therefore, it is recommended that an Experimental Permit be obtained from the California Air Resource Board to license and operate the vehicles for the durability of the demonstration in support of preparing a fully compliant and certifiable package that can be submitted.

  16. Estimation of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio of an internal combustion engine by the use of pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunestaal, Per

    2000-03-01

    This thesis investigates the use of cylinder pressure measurements for estimation of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio in a spark ignited internal combustion engine. An estimation model which uses the net heat release profile for estimating the cylinder air/fuel ratio of a spark ignition engine is developed. The net heat release profile is computed from the cylinder pressure trace and quantifies the conversion of chemical energy of the reactants in the charge into thermal energy. The net heat release profile does not take heat- or mass transfer into account. Cycle-averaged air/fuel ratio estimates over a range of engine speeds and loads show an RMS error of 4.1% compared to measurements in the exhaust. A thermochemical model of the combustion process in an internal combustion engine is developed. It uses a simple chemical combustion reaction, polynominal fits of internal energy as function of temperature, and the first law of thermodynamics to derive a relationship between measured cylinder pressure and the progress of the combustion process. Simplifying assumptions are made to arrive at an equation which relates the net heat release to the cylinder pressure. Two methods for estimating the sensor offset of a cylinder pressure transducer are developed. Both methods fit the pressure data during the pre-combustion phase of the compression stroke to a polytropic curve. The first method assumes a known polytropic exponent, and the other estimates the polytropic exponent. The first method results in a linear least-squares problem, and the second method results in a nonlinear least-squares problem. The nonlinear least-squares problem is solved by separating out the nonlinear dependence and solving the single-variable minimization problem. For this, a finite difference Newton method is derived. Using this method, the cost of solving the nonlinear least-squares problem is only slightly higher than solving the linear least-squares problem. Both methods show good statistical

  17. 3-D modeling of parietal liquid films in internal combustion engines; Modelisation tridimensionnelle des films liquides parietaux dans les moteurs a combustion interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucart, H

    1998-12-11

    To simulate the air-fuel mixing in the intake ports and cylinder of an internal combustion engines, a wall fuel liquid film model has been developed for integration in 3D CFD codes. Phenomena taken into account include wall film formation by an impinging spray without splashing effect, film transport such as governed by mass and momentum equations with hot wall effects, and evaporation considering energy equation with an analytical mass transfer formulation developed here. A continuous-fluid method is used to describe the wall film over a three dimensional complex surface. The basic approximation is that of a laminar incompressible boundary layer; the liquid film equations are written in an integral form and solved by a first-order ALE finite volume scheme; the equation system is closed without coefficient fitting requirements. The model has been implemented in a Multi-Block version of KIVA-II (KMB) and tested against problems having theoretical solutions. Then in a first step, it has been compared to the measurements obtained in a cylindrical pipe reproducing the main characteristics of SI engine intake pipe flow and in a second step, it has been compared to the Xiong experiment concerning the film evaporation on a hot wall. The film behaviour is satisfactory reproduced by the computations for a set of operating conditions. Finally, engine calculations were conducted showing the importance of including a liquid film model for the simulations. (author) 54 refs.

  18. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature on a Small Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine’s Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    aid of a pump . A carbureted 10 engine uses the principles of a venturi or system of venturis to produce the required fuel flow. The carburetor...fuel R specific gas constant Sg specific gravity t time ttot total time T torque (Eq. 4), (Eq. 6) T temperature (Eq. 10), (Eq. 13), (Eq. 22...meters the fuel based on a pressure difference created by the venturi . This fuel flow mixes with the air stream in the intake of the engine before it

  19. A highly efficient six-stroke internal combustion engine cycle with water injection for in-cylinder exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, James C.; Szybist, James P.

    2010-01-01

    A concept adding two strokes to the Otto or Diesel engine cycle to increase fuel efficiency is presented here. It can be thought of as a four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a two-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. A partial exhaust event coupled with water injection adds an additional power stroke. Waste heat from two sources is effectively converted into usable work: engine coolant and exhaust gas. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection and expansion was used to investigate this modification. By changing the exhaust valve closing timing during the exhaust stroke, the optimum amount of exhaust can be recompressed, maximizing the net mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEP steam ). The valve closing timing for maximum MEP steam is limited by either 1 bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens. The range of MEP steam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline engine and is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEP combustion ) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy.

  20. Measurement improvements of heat flux probes for internal combustion engine; Nainen kikan ni okeru netsuryusokukei no kaihatsu to kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, H; Tasaka, H [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In heat flux measurement in engines, material properties of a heat flux probe and numerical prediction of those influence have been discussed rather than practical measurement accuracy. This study featured the process for the quantitative examination of heat flux probes. Although the process required direct comparison among all the probes and additional measurements in a constant volume bomb, precision of heat flux measurement was greatly improved so that the essential characteristics of heat transfer in engines can be detected. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The impact of microgeometry pistons with a stepped bearing surface for the friction loss of the internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblewski Emil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the results of experimental piston friction losses on stepped bearing surface microgeometry obtained on the test rig. This test rig is equipped with special temperature control system, which provides better stability to temperature than in standard systems. The results of station tests was discussed. Tests was analyzed depending the moment caused by the friction on the oil temperature in the oil sump. Specified conclusions allow to assess the impact of the stepped profile of the pistons bearing surface microgeometry for different values of engine speed and the oil temperature at the friction losses in the main kinematic engine node which is piston-cylinder.

  2. Using neuronal nets for modelling and control of internal combustion engines; Der Einsatz neuronaler Netze zur Modellierung, Steuerung und Regelung von Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isermann, R.; Hafner, M.; Mueller, N.; Schueler, M. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik

    1999-07-01

    Design and testing of digital electronic control systems necessitate relatively accurate mathematical models of the static and dynamic characteristics of internal combustion engines. Control variables are injection volume, injection angle, ignition point and several others, which means a large number of characteristic fields and long measuring times in engine test stands. Neuronal nets enable a more compact description than characteristic field grids and are also more easily adaptable in test stand measurements. The contribution describes a particularly favourable local linear radial basis function net (LOLIMOT) and shows how it can be used for modelling the steady-state and dynamic exhaust characteristics of a diesel engine and the dynamic characteristics of an exhaust turbocharger. It also shows how combustion chamber control with adaptive control of the ignition pooint can be designed for a spark ignition engine with the aid of a neuronal net. [German] Entwurf und Test von digitalelektronischen Steuerungen und Regelungen erfordern in zunehmendem Masse relativ genaue mathematische Modelle fuer das statische und dynamische Gesamtverhalten von Verbrennungsmotoren. Ausser den Stellgroessen Einspritzmenge, Einspritzwinkel und Zuendzeitpunkt kommen noch weitere Stellgroessen hinzu. Die Zahl der in modernen Motorsteuerungen zu realisierenden Kennfelder steigt deshalb sehr stark an und damit auch die erforderliche Messzeit an Motorenpruefstaenden. Kuenstliche neuronale Netze bieten nun die Moeglichkeit, mehrdimensionale Kennfelder wesentlich kompakter zu beschreiben als Rasterkennfelder. Sie erlauben ausserdem eine wesentlich bessere Adaption bei Pruefstandsversuchen. Im Beitrag wird ein besonders geeignetes lokal lineares Radial-Basis-Funktions-Netz (LOLIMOT) beschrieben und dessen Anwendung gezeigt zur Modellierung des stationaeren und dynamischen Abgasverhaltens eines Dieselmotors und des dynamischen Verhaltens eines Abgas-Turboladers. Dann wird gezeigt, wie man eine

  3. High-duty pistons and sliding bearings for internal combustion engines. Hochbelastbare Kolben und Gleitlager fuer Verbrennungsmotoren: Spuerbare Leistungssteigerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfestorf, H. (Kolbenschmidt AG, Neckarsulm (Germany, F.R.))

    Rising demands on high-performance engines, particularly on their connecting rod bearings, call for advanced materials, mainly concerning better resistance to fatigue and corrosion at high temperatures and reduced wear rate in zones of intensive friction. Material suppliers will have to take these demands into account by launching new innovative grades or material combinations. (orig.).

  4. Effectiveness of Prepared Instruction Units in Teaching the Principles of Internal Combustion Engine Operation and Maintenance. Technical Bulletin No. 192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Clinton O.

    The report is an evaluation of the effectiveness of the 12 instructional units developed around the use of the Briggs-Stratton Model 80302, 3HP, 8 cu. in. displacement engine having a fuel induction system similar in construction to farm tractor types. The evaluation procedure used was the "one-group Pre-test and Post-test" research method. The…

  5. Investigation of Spark Ignition and Autoignition in Methane and Air Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Reaction Kinetics. A numerical Study of Ignition Processes in Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordrik, R.

    1993-12-01

    The processes in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines have received increased attention in recent years because their efficiencies are important both economically and environmentally. This doctoral thesis studies the ignition phenomena by means of numerical simulation methods. The fundamental physical relations include flow field conservation equations, thermodynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, transport properties and spark modelling. Special attention is given to the inclusion of chemical kinetics in the flow field equations. Using his No Transport of Radicals Concept method, the author reduces the computational efforts by neglecting the transport of selected intermediate species. The method is validated by comparison with flame propagation data. A computational method is described and used to simulate spark ignition in laminar premixed methane-air mixtures and the autoignition process of a methane bubble surrounded by hot air. The spark ignition simulation agrees well with experimental results from the literature. The autoignition simulation identifies the importance of diffusive and chemical processes acting together. The ignition delay times exceed the experimental values found in the literature for premixed ignition delay, presumably because of the mixing process and lack of information on low temperature reactions in the skeletal kinetic mechanism. Transient turbulent methane jet autoignition is simulated by means of the KIVA-II code. Turbulent combustion is modelled by the Eddy Dissipation Concept. 90 refs., 81 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Methods of Assessing the Resource of the Crankshaft Bearing of Internal Combustion Engine Based on the Calculation of Hydro-Mechanical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Levanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop a tool to assess the theoretical resource crankshaft bearings of internal combustion engine. As a result, two methods for evaluating of the theoretical resource crankshaft bearings have been developed on the basis of the calculation of hydro-mechanical characteristics of bearings: the minimum film thickness and the extent of the zone of boundary friction. Under the theoretical resource of crankshaft bearing it is understood that during his work an increase of the radial clearance in the area of potential exposure (boundary friction is over the limit. The first technique is based on the bearing life dependence on the ratio between the minimum film thickness and its maximum allowable value. The second technique is based on the molecular-mechanical theory of friction and wear fatigue theory. Thus, these techniques may be used to estimate the resource of the crankshaft journal bearings at the design and finishing stage. However, some parameters of mathematical models have to be determined from the experimental test. The use of molecular-mechanical theory of friction and wear fatigue theory takes into account the influence of the physical and mechanical properties of a bearing material on his life.

  7. CONCEPTION OF USE VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNALS AND NEURAL NETWORKS FOR DIAGNOSING OF CHOSEN ELEMENTS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN CAR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr CZECH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently used diagnostics systems are not always efficient and do not give straightforward results which allow for the assessment of the technological condition of the engine or for the identification of the possible damages in their early stages of development. Growing requirements concerning durability, reliability, reduction of costs to minimum and decrease of negative influence on the natural environment are the reasons why there is a need to acquire information about the technological condition of each of the elements of a vehicle during its exploitation. One of the possibilities to achieve information about technological condition of a vehicle are vibroacoustic phenomena. Symptoms of defects, achieved as a result of advanced methods of vibroacoustic signals processing can serve as models which can be used during construction of intelligent diagnostic system based on artificial neural networks. The work presents conception of use artificial neural networks in the task of combustion engines diagnosis.

  8. A comparative evaluation on the emission characteristics of ceramic and metallic catalytic converter in internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Jajuli, Afiqah; Rahman, Fakhrurrazi; Feriyanto, Dafit; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Enforcement of a stricter regulation on exhaust emission by many countries has led to utilization of catalytic converter to reduce the harmful pollutant emission. Ceramic and metallic catalytic converters are the most common type of catalytic converter used. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of the ceramic and metallic catalytic converter on its conversion efficiency using experimental measurement. Both catalysts were placed on a modified exhaust system equipped with a Mitshubishi 4G93 single cylinder petrol engine that was tested on an eddy current dynamometer under steady state conditions for several engine speeds. The experimental results show that the metallic catalytic converter reduced a higher percentage of CO up to 98.6% reduction emissions while ceramic catalytic converter had a better reduction efficiency of HC up to 85.4% and 87.2% reduction of NOx.

  9. Thermocouples used in emission systems of internal combustion engines; Thermoelemente fuer den Einsatz in Abgassystemen von Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustin, Silke; Froehlich, Thomas; Mammen, Helge [Technische Univ. Illmenau (Germany). Inst. fuer Prozessmess- und Sensortechnik; Ament, Christoph; Guether, Thomas [Technische Univ. Illmenau (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungs- und Systemtechnik

    2012-11-01

    Thermocouples used in exhaust systems of combustion engines are exposed to high temperature gradients and temperature leaps ({Delta}T > 900 K), high flow speeds and pressure. When constructing these thermocouples, a compromise is needed between the resulting high demands on the mechanical-thermal stability, accuracy and the fast response time demanded by the servo-control of the motors. Additionally, a numerical correction of the measured signal may contribute to an improved sensor dynamics. (orig.)

  10. Investigating the effect of crevice flow on internal combustion engines using a new simple crevice model implemented in a CFD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Kosmadakis, G.M.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Pariotis, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is conducted to examine the way the crevice regions affect the mean cylinder pressure, the in-cylinder temperature, and the velocity field of internal combustion engines running at motoring conditions. For the calculation of the wall heat flux, a wall heat transfer formulation developed by the authors is used, while for the simulation of the crevices and the blow-by a newly developed simplified simulation model is presented herein. These sub-models are incorporated into an in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code. The main advantage of the new crevice model is that it can be applied in cases where no detailed information of the ring-pack configuration is available, which is important as this information is rarely known or may have been altered during the engine's life. Thus, an adequate estimation of the blow-by effect on the cylinder pressure can be drawn. To validate the new model, the measured in-cylinder pressure traces of a diesel engine, located at the authors' laboratory, running under motoring conditions at four engine speeds were used as reference, together with measured velocity profiles and turbulence data of a motored spark-ignition engine. Comparing the predicted and measured cylinder pressure traces of the diesel engine for all cases examined, it is observed that by incorporating the new crevice sub-model into the in-house CFD code, significant improvements on the predictive accuracy of the model is obtained. The calculated cylinder pressure traces almost coincide with the measured ones, thus avoiding the use of any calibration constants as would have been the case with the crevice effect omitted. Concerning the radial and swirl velocity profiles and the turbulent kinetic energy measured in the spark-ignition engine, the validation process revealed that the developed crevice model has a minor influence on the aforementioned parameters. The theoretical study has been extended by investigating in the same spark

  11. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  12. Calculation of Oil Film Thickness from Damping Coefficients for a Piston Ring in an Internal Combustion Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2007-01-01

    engine. The basic idea is to use the fluid film damping coefficients to estimate the film thickness variation for a piston ring under cyclic varying load. Reynolds Equation is solved for a piston ring and the oil film thickness is determined. In this analysis hydrodynamic lubrication is assumed......In 1966 Jorgen W. Lund published an approach to find the dynamic coefficients of a journal bearing by a first order perturbation of the Reynold's equation. These coefficients made it possible to perform a rotor-bearing stability analysis for a statically loaded bearing. In the mid seventies Jorgen...

  13. A computational fluid dynamics analysis on stratified scavenging system of medium capacity two-stroke internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitta Srinivasa Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to make a computational study of stratified scavenging system in two-stroke medium capacity engines to reduce or to curb the emissions from the two-stroke engines. The 3-D flows within the cylinder are simulated using computational fluid dynamics and the code Fluent 6. Flow structures in the transfer ports and the exhaust port are predicted without the stratification and with the stratification, and are well predicted. The total pressure and velocity map from computation provided comprehensive information on the scavenging and stratification phenomenon. Analysis is carried out for the transfer ports flow and the extra port in the transfer port along with the exhaust port when the piston is moving from the top dead center to the bottom dead center, as the ports are closed, half open, three forth open, and full port opening. An unstructured cell is adopted for meshing the geometry created in CATIA software. Flow is simulated by solving governing equations namely conservation of mass momentum and energy using SIMPLE algorithm. Turbulence is modeled by high Reynolds number version k-e model. Experimental measurements are made for validating the numerical prediction. Good agreement is observed between predicted result and experimental data; that the stratification had significantly reduced the emissions and fuel economy is achieved.

  14. Exergoeconomic analysis and multi-objective optimization of an ejector refrigeration cycle powered by an internal combustion (HCCI) engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ejector refrigeration systems powered by HCCI engine is proposed. • A new two-dimensional model is developed for the ejector. • Multi-objective optimization is performed for the proposed system. • Pareto frontier is plotted for multi-objective optimization. - Abstract: Ejector refrigeration systems powered by low-grade heat sources have been an attractive research subject for a lot of researchers. In the present work the waste heat from exhaust gases of a HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine is utilized to drive the ejector refrigeration system. Considering the frictional effects on the ejector wall, a new two-dimensional model is developed for the ejector. Energy, exergy and exergoeconomic analysis performed for the proposed system using the MATLAB software. In addition, considering the exergy efficiency and the product unit cost of the system as objective functions, a multi-objective optimization is performed for the system to find the optimum design variables including the generator, condenser and evaporator temperatures. The product unit cost is minimized while the exergy efficiency is maximized using the genetic algorithm. The optimization results are obtained as a set of optimal points and the Pareto frontier is plotted for multi-objective optimization. The results of the optimization show that ejector refrigeration cycle is operating at optimum state based on exergy efficiency and product unit cost when generator, condenser and evaporator work at 94.54 °C, 33.44 °C and 0.03 °C, respectively

  15. AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy as future material for castings of pistons for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents chosen properties and microstructure of AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy as future material for casting pistons in automotive industry. Tests were conducted to elaborate technology of preparation, assessment of crystallisation parameters and shaping the primary structure of the silumin with the aim to improve the working parameters and the functioning efficiency in cylinder-piston system. Refinement of Si crystals, achieved due to overheating above the temperature Tliq. causes that the alloy reaches satisfactory properties in working chamber of the engine are optimised. Such condition of material characteristics causes that hypereutectic silumins, for chosen applications in transport, may serve as an alternative to Al - Si alloys of hypoeutectic and near - eutectic type.

  16. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4241 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... internal combustion engines with a maximum engine power greater than 19 KW (25 HP) that do not use gasoline...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4240 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn..., and must test their engines as specified in that part. Stationary SI internal combustion engine...

  19. Modeling the lubrication, dynamics, and effects of piston dynamic tilt of twin-land oil control rings in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, T.; Wong, V.W.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to study the lubrication, friction, dynamics, and oil transport of twin-land oil control rings (TLOCR) in internal combustion engines. A mixed lubrication model with consideration of shear-thinning effects of multigrade oils was used to describe the lubrication between the running surfaces of the two lands and the liner. Oil squeezing and asperity contact were both considered for the interaction between the flanks of the TLOCR and the ring groove. Then, the moments and axial forces from TLOCR/liner lubrication and TLOCR/groove interaction were coupled into the dynamic equations of the TLOCR. Furthermore, effects of piston dynamic tilt were considered in a quasi three-dimensional manner so that the behaviors of the TLOCR at different circumferential location could be studied. As a first step, variation of the third land pressure was neglected. The model predictions were illustrated via an SI engine. One important finding is that around thrust and anti-thrust sides, the difference between the minimum oil film thickness of two lands can be as high as several micrometers due to piston dynamic tilt. As a result, at thrust and anti-thrust sides, significant oil can pass under one land of the TLOCR along the bore, although the other land perfectly seals the bore. Then, the capabilities of the model were further explained by studying the effects of ring tension and torsional resistance on the lubrication and oil transport between the lands and the liner. The effects of oil film thickness on the flanks of the ring groove on the dynamics of the TLOCR were also studied. Friction results show that boundary lubrication contributes significantly to the total friction of the TLOCR.

  20. Energy Analysis and Multi-Objective Optimization of an Internal Combustion Engine-Based CHP System for Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsaeid Ganjehkaviri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive thermodynamic study is conducted of a diesel based Combined Heat and Power (CHP system, based on a diesel engine and an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. Present research covers both energy and exergy analyses along with a multi-objective optimization. In order to determine the irreversibilities in each component of the CHP system and assess the system performance, a complete parametric study is performed to investigate the effects of major design parameters and operating conditions on the system’s performance. The main contribution of the current research study is to conduct both exergy and multi-objective optimization of a system using different working fluid for low-grade heat recovery. In order to conduct the evolutionary based optimization, two objective functions are considered in the optimization; namely the system exergy efficiency, and the total cost rate of the system, which is a combination of the cost associated with environmental impact and the purchase cost of each component. Therefore, in the optimization approach, the overall cycle exergy efficiency is maximized satisfying several constraints while the total cost rate of the system is minimized. To provide a better understanding of the system under study, the Pareto frontier is shown for multi-objective optimization and also an equation is derived to fit the optimized point. In addition, a closed form relationship between exergy efficiency and total cost rate is derived.

  1. Design of the measurements validation procedure and the expert system architecture for a cogeneration internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.

    2005-01-01

    A research activity has been initiated to study the development of a diagnostic methodology, for the optimization of energy efficiency and the maximization of the operational time in those conditions, based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such as artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic. The diagnostic procedure, developed specifically for the cogeneration plant located at the Engineering Department of the University of Perugia, must be characterized by a modular architecture to obtain a flexible architecture applicable to different systems. The first part of the study deals with the identifying the principal modules and the corresponding variables necessary to evaluate the module 'health state'. Also the consequent upgrade of the monitoring system is described in this paper. Moreover it describes the structure proposed for the diagnostic procedure, consisting of a procedure for measurement validation and a fuzzy logic-based inference system. The first reveals the presence of abnormal conditions and localizes their source distinguishing between system failure and instrumentation malfunctions. The second provides an evaluation of module health state and the classification of the failures which have possibly occurred. The procedure was implemented in C++

  2. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Device for controlling the composition of the mixture burnt in the combustion spaces of an internal combustion engine. Einrichtung zur Regelung der Zusammensetzung des in den Brennraeumen einer Brennkraftmaschine zur Verbrennung kommenden Betriebsgemisches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latsch, R; Bianchi, V

    1986-07-31

    The purpose of the invention is to create a device by which the extent of the reaction to the control of the composition of the mixture burnt in the combustion spaces of an internal combustion engine can be measured in a sensitive, responsive and safe way, where the position of the elements detecting the reaction should have a relatively small effect on the accuracy of the measurement and the extent of measurement. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the use of 2 thermal sensors connected to a control device (photo-electric diode, photo-electric transistor), one of which acts catalytically and causes the parts of the gas mixture there to react. The thermal sensor output signals are periodically integrated via the piston work and are entered in the control device. The measured temperature is a measure of how far the method of operation of the internal combustion engine has approached its limits. (HWJ).

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of a dual loop heat recovery system with trilateral cycle applied to exhaust gases of internal combustion engine for propulsion of the 6800 TEU container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Chul; Kim, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    A dual loop waste heat recovery power generation system that comprises an upper trilateral cycle and a lower organic Rankine cycle, in which discharged exhaust gas heat is recovered and re-used for propulsion power, was theoretically applied to an internal combustion engine for propulsion in a 6800 TEU container ship. The thermodynamic properties of this exhaust gas heat recovery system, which vary depending on the boundary temperature between the upper and lower cycles, were also investigated. The results confirmed that this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system exhibited a maximum net output of 2069.8 kW, and a maximum system efficiency of 10.93% according to the first law of thermodynamics and a maximum system exergy efficiency of 58.77% according to the second law of thermodynamics. In this case, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the dual loop system were larger than those of the single loop trilateral cycle. Further, in the upper trilateral cycle, the volumetric expansion ratio of the turbine could be considerably reduced to an adequate level to be employed in the practical system. When this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system was applied to the main engine of the container ship, which was actually in operation, a 2.824% improvement in propulsion efficiency was confirmed in comparison to the case of a base engine. This improvement in propulsion efficiency resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the specific fuel oil consumption and specific CO 2 emissions of the main engine during actual operation. - Highlights: • WHRS was theoretically applied to exhaust gas of a main engine for ship propulsion. • A dual loop EG-WHRS using water and R1234yf as working fluids has been suggested. • Limitation of single loop trilateral cycle was improved by the dual loop system. • The propulsion efficiency of 2.824% was improved by the dual loop EG-WHRS. • This resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the SFOC and specific CO

  5. Development of an exhaust sensor for control of internal combustion engines and exhaust treatment systems - CatSens. Final report; Entwicklung eines Abgassensors zur Regelung von Verbrennungsmotoren und Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen - CatSens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepperhoff, G.; Milanovic, I.

    2002-05-01

    A sensor system for controlling combustion processes in small-scale furnaces and internal combustion engines and for on-board diagnosis of exhaust treatment systems, e.g. NO{sub x} adsorber catalytic converters in motor cars, was developed. [German] Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes soll ein Sensorsystem zur Regelung der Verbrennungsprozesse in Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und Verbrennungsmotoren sowie zur Regelung und Ueberwachung (On-Board Diagnose) von Abgasnachbehandlungseinrichtungen wie z.B. NO{sub x}-Adsorberkatalysatoren in Kraftfahrzeugen, entwickelt werden. (orig.)

  6. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  7. Ice Engineering. Number 25, September 2000. Remote Ice Motion Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Government agencies, and the engineering community in general. The potential exists for property damage, serious injury, and fatalities during ice-related flooding, evacuations, and other ice mitigation operations...

  8. PROTOTIPE ALAT PENGEKSTRAK PATI SAGU TIPE MIXER ROTARY BLADE BERTENAGA MOTOR BAKAR Prototype of Mixer Rotary Blade of Sago Starch Extractor Powered by Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Darma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Papua and West Papua Province have a large potential of sago. Approximately 994,000 hectares, mostly natural sago forest was existed in this area. Sago starch has long been an important source of nutrition troughout Papua. Product of sago palm is not only starch as source of carbohydrate for food stuff, but also for basic material of industries such as paper, plywood, hardboard, and food indutries. Traditional methods are used for starch extraction in almost all part of Papu, which is not efficient and production capacity is very low. The effort to increase sago starch production could be carry out by introducing mechanical equipment (traditional to mechanized processing. The objective of this research was to design mixer rotary blade of sago starch extraction powered by internal combustion engine. The result was prototype of mechanical sago starch extractor. The prototype has high performance with extraction capacity 160 kg of disintegrated pith per hour or equal to 33 kg of wet starch per hour, extractable starch more than 99 % while starch losses in hampas less lhan 1 %. Hopefully, application of this machine to the sago farmer will transform agricultural system from subsistence to commercial. It means that increasing of economic income. In conclusion, technically and economically this prototype was feasible. ABSTRAK Provinsi Papua dan Papua Barat memiliki potensi sagu yang sangat besar. Sekitar 994.000 hektar yang sebagian besar merupakan hutan sagu alam terdapat di kedua provinsi ini. Pati sagu telah lama digunakan sebagai sumber nutrisi bagi penduduk asli papua. Pati sagu tidak hanya digunakan sebagai sumber karbohidrat, namun juga digunakan seba- gai bahan dasar industri kertas, plywood, hardbord, dan pangan. Pengolahan sagu secara tradisional yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat tidak efisien dan kapasitas produksinya sangat rendah. Peningkatan produksi dapat dilakukan dengan mengintroduksi peralatan pengolahan mekanis untuk merubah metode

  9. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of...

  10. Eulerian method for ice crystal icing in turbofan engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The newer generations of high-bypass-ratio engines are susceptible to the ingestion of small ice crystals which may cause engine power loss or damage. The research presented in this thesis focusses on the development of a computational method for in-engine ice crystal accretion. The work has been

  11. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This direct final action amends certain... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  12. 内燃机附壁油膜蒸发的一维解析%An analytical solution for wall-film evaporation in internal combustion engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 闫燕安; 尹洪超; 贾明; 解茂昭

    2016-01-01

    The uncombusted film of fuel on the piston chamber walls of an internal combustion engine is a primaty source of pollutant discharge. In order to solve this problem, an equation for predicting the evaporation rate of the wall film was proposed. In addition, a one⁃dimensional unstable⁃state mathematical model was established to evalu⁃ate the heating and evaporation characteristics of the wall film. The conduction between the film and the wall, the convection between the film and the ambient air as well as the quantity of heat transferred by heat convection and e⁃vaporation of the wall film were considered in this new method. The transient behavior of an n⁃dodecane fuel at high ambient temperature and pressure was predicted by the new model, which provides an analytical solution for the temperature distribution within the fuel film. The results show that the process of wall⁃film heating and evaporation can be divided into three distinct stages, including an initial rapid heating stage, a stable heating and evaporation stage, and a final stage. The investigations show that the evaporation rate is higher for conditions of a thinner initial wall⁃film thickness, higher ambient temperature and convection rate, and lower ambient pressure.%内燃机中附壁油膜是产生污染物排放的重要原因,针对该问题,本文提出了一个用于预测附壁油膜蒸发率的方程,并建立了一维非稳态数学模型来分析附壁油膜的加热和蒸发特性。该模型考虑了油膜与壁面的热传导,与空气的对流换热以及自身蒸发所释放的热量。应用所建立的模型预测了正十二烷在高温高压环境中的瞬态加热蒸发过程,考虑了油膜物性随温度的变化,得到了不同时刻不同位置附壁油膜温度分布的解析解。结果表明:附壁油膜的加热蒸发过程大致可以分为3个阶段,即初始表面快速加热阶段,稳定加热蒸发阶段和末尾阶段;在较薄

  13. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What other...

  14. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9756-4] RIN 2060-AQ58 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule...

  15. H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} filtration of biogas used in internal combustion engines for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas, Jose Ignacio; Izquierdo, Sebastian [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, (Mexico)]. E-mail: jhuertas@itesm.mx

    2009-09-15

    Currently, there is an increasing interest in connecting thousands of small electrical plants powered by renewable energy sources to national electrical grids. The use of biogas as fuel for internal combustion engines connected to an electric generator is emerging as one of the most attractive alternatives because of its very low cost benefit ratio and very high positive impact on the environment. However, the use of biogas to generate electricity has been limited by its high content of H{sub 2}S ({approx}3500 ppm) and CO{sub 2} ({approx}40%). CO{sub 2} presence reduces the energetic density of the fuel and therefore the power output of the system. The high content of H{sub 2}S corrodes important components of the engine like the combustion chamber, bronze gears and the exhaust system. This work aims to design and manufacture a low-cost industrial filter for this application. Among the different available methodologies, CaO, NaOH and amines where selected as the most appropriate for a typical farm application of 100 kW electric generations. Since there is not reported data for the H{sub 2}S absorbing capacity of these substances, it was proposed to measure it by means of a bubbler. It is an experimental set up where the gas stream passes through a fixed amount of the absorbing substance until it becomes saturated. The absorbing capacity is determined as the amount of substance being trapped divided by the mass of the absorbing substance being used. Results showed an absorbing capacity of 2.8, 41.4 and 124.8 g of H{sub 2}S per Kg of NaOH, CaO and monoethanolamine respectively. A gas absorbing system of amines was designed and manufactured for H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} biogas filtration. Three different types of amines were evaluated: Monoethanolamine, Diethanolamine, and methyldiethanolamine. Results show that all the amines require a ratio of amines to biogas flow of 0.7 to obtain a 95% of H{sub 2}S filtering efficiency. This data represent only a 30% of H{sub 2}S

  16. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or...

  17. Study proposal for the use of biodiesel from 'pinhao manso' (Jatropha curcas L.) in internal combustion engines; Proposta de estudo para uso do biodiesel de pinhao manso em motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson Leal da [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), MS (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], e-mail: rlealsilva@hotmail.com; Pimentel, Carlos Alberto Rocha [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Araguaina, TO (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica], e-mail: pimentel@uft.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    In this work, a preliminary study is proposed as a general glimpse looking into the recent motivation in using biodiesel, from 'pinhao manso'. From that initial revision, a research proposal aims to evaluate the performance parameters in an internal combustion engine or turbines working with oil, mainly produced from plants crops in Tocantins state. Both equipment are used as electrical energy generators in regions were it is not easily available or non-existent. Some parameters to be analyzed in the research proposal are the thermal performance and gases emissions resulting from diesel-biodiesel mixture combustion, as CO, NOx , SO{sub 2} and others. At the ending, some points of view with respect to the potential effects of renewable energy sources usage in Brazil are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Socket for a central connection for measuring equipment into a transistor ignition system of an internal combustion engine. Steckdose einer Zentralsteckverbindung fuer den Anschluss von Messgeraeten an eine Transistorzuendung einer Brennkraftmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, H

    1980-09-25

    The invention refers to the socket of a central connection for measuring equipment into a transistor ignition system of an internal combustion engine. Various cables are looped into the transistor ignition system via the pins of this socket. By plugging in a multi-pole plug, the individual circuits of the ignition system are made. In this way, apart from connecting the measuring equipment for testing the transistor ignition system, it is possible to prevent the ignition system working in case of theft of the vehicle, by inserting a 'blind plate' which leaves individual circuits of the transistor system open. Structural details of this cylindrical socket and the multiple plug are explained in some crossection diagrams. The ideas of the invention are described in 7 patent claims.

  19. Work Plan for the Evaluation of Soil Vapor Extraction Using Internal Combustion Engine Technology at Site SS-42 Luke Air Force Base, Arizona

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ...). Luke AFB is one of several Air Force installations identified as prospective test sites to demonstrate the ICE system with advanced emission controls as part of a low-cost soil vapor extraction (SVE...

  20. Identification Of Damages Of Tribological Associations In Crankshaft And Piston Systems Of Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engines Used As Main Propulsion In Sea-Going Vessels And Proposal Of Probabilistic Description Of Loads As Causes Of These Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girtler Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses damages of essential tribological associations in crankshaft and piston systems of large power two-stroke engines used as main engines, which take place during transport tasks performed by those ships. Difficulties are named which make preventing those damages impossible, despite the fact that the technical state of engines of this type is identified with the aid of complex diagnostic systems making use of advanced computer technology. It is demonstrated that one of causes of the damages is the lack of research activities oriented on recognising random properties of the loads leading to those damages. A proposal is made for the loads acting at a given time t on tribological associations in crankshaft and piston systems of internal combustion engines used as main engines to be considered as random variables Qt. At the same time the loads examined within a given time interval tr ≤ t ≤ tz would be considered stochastic processes {Q(t: t ≥ 0}. Essential properties of the loads of the abovementioned tribological associations are named and explained by formulating hypotheses which need empirical verification. Interval estimation is proposed for estimating the expected value E(Qt of the load Qt acting at time t. A relation is indicated between the mechanical load and the thermal load acting on tribological associations in the ship main engine crankshaft and piston system. A suggestion is formulated that a stochastic form of the relation between these types of load is to be searched for, rather than statistic relation, and a proposal is made to measure the intensity (strength of the stochastic relation using the Czuprow’s convergence coefficient.

  1. Influence of Climatic Factors on the Efficiency of Disposal Metal- Hydride Unit for the Double-Fuel Low-Speed Internal Combustion Engine of Gas Tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Cherednichenko, Oleksandr Costyntunovich; Tkach, Mykhaylo Romanovich

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in the development of ship power engineering have been analyzed. Consideration was given to the specific features of the transportation of liquefied natural gas by gas tankers. The prospects of utilization of the secondary energy resources of marine double-fuel low-speed diesel engines were defined. The metal hydride units of a continuous action were offered for this purpose. The need for the estimation of the influence of climatic factors on the efficiency of disposal...

  2. Variable valve trains for internal combustion engines to control the valve height and the opening time; Variable Ventiltriebe fuer Verbrennungsmotoren zur Veraenderung von Ventilhub und Oeffnungsdauer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Gunther [ThyssenKrupp Presta TecCenter AG, Eschen (Liechtenstein). R and D Projects

    2009-11-15

    The PDVC (Presta Delta Valve Control) continuously variable valve lift system is a mechanical system of valve control for achieving optimum performance and resulting in improved fuel consumption and reduced emissions across the entire operating range of the combustion engine. The continuous variability allows for engine load control by adjusting the valve height and therefore can also be used to replace the traditional throttle. The advantages are lower fuel consumption, reduction in emissions, quicker engine response, higher torque during the low speed range as well as more stable idling. The PSVC (Presta Shiftable Valve Control) is a 3 step shiftable valve lift system that offers the possibility to achieve a major part of these performance and associated consumption benefits with a simpler and therefore more cost-effective system. (orig.)

  3. Device for controlling the current by an electromagnetic load, particularly by an electromagnetic injection valve of an internal combustion engine. Einrichtung zum Steuern des Stromes durch einen elektromagnetischen Verbraucher, insbesondere durch ein elektromagnetisch betaetigbares Einspritzventil einer Brennkraftmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, P; Hoenig, G; Kauff, H

    1980-07-24

    The invention refers to a device for controlling the current by an electromagnetic load, particularly the electromagnetically actuated injection valve of an internal combustion engine. A first electrical switching device and an ammeter are connected in series with the electromagnetic load between two voltage supply wires, with a free running circuit and a threshold switch together with the ammeter. The invention is characterised by the fact that the free running circuit has a series circuit consisting of a second electrical switching device and a second ammeter, and the first switching device is controlled, depending on time and depending on reaching the upper and lower limits of current flowing through the load and reaching the lower threshold value. The ammeter in the free running circuit has at least one threshold value switch, whose output is coupled to a time control circuit for one of the two switching devices. The time dependent flow control is carried out during the stopping phase of the electro-magnetic load by counting processes.

  4. Characterization of diesel oil mixtures with soy oil used for activation of engines of internal combustion; Caracterizacao de misturas de oleo diesel com oleo de soja reutilizado para acionamento de motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Teixiera, Mauri Martins; Abrahao, Selma Alves; Leite, Daniel Mariano [Universidade de Vicosa, (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: wagner.siqueira@ufv.br, haroldo@ufv.br, mauri@ufv.br, selma.abrahao@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Alternative energy sources have been studied in several countries, with emphasis on ways of obtaining and using more efficient. The objective of this work to evaluate and characterize mixtures of diesel oil (DO) with soybean oil reused (OSR), the ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of OSR in relation to specific gravity index viscosity and calorific value. To determine the specific gravity was used beaker, thermometer and a balance for each mixture was adjusted a regression model to estimate the bulk density as a function of temperature (25 to 90 deg C). We analyzed the viscosity of the mixtures using an orifice-type viscometer Saybolt, through regression analysis models were fit to estimate the viscosity as a function of temperature, heating the OSR 100% from 40 to 90 deg C decreased by up 90.4% to its viscosity. The tests were performed calorimetric using a bomb calorimeter determines the calorific value , the variation in calorific value followed a descending order with respect to OD with the increasing content of OSR. The OSR is efficient for use in internal combustion engines in small proportions. (author)

  5. Utilización de la zeolita para disminuir los gases tóxicos de los motores de combustión interna. // The utilization of Cuban zeolites in the decrease of toxic gases emissions of internal combustion engines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Reyes González

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos al utilizar la zeolita natural cubana para la disminución de los gasestóxicos que los motores de combustión interna MCI. envían a la atmósfera. Los experimentos fueron realizados en bancosde pruebas de MCI. tanto para motores de carburación como para motores diesel. Obteniéndose eficiencias de disminucióndel CO del 80 %, del CnHm del 50% y el humo negro en un 90%. Se demuestra la importancia de la granulometría de lazeolita para esta eliminación y para mantener la potencia del motor dentro de rangos aceptables.Palabras claves: Toxicidad, zeolita, medio ambiente, filtros, gases de escape._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper are presented the results of the utilization of Cuban zeolites in the decrease of toxic gas emissions toatmosphere of internal combustion engines, (MCI. The experiments were carried out in test bank for gasoline and dieselengines. The efficiency in the decrement of CO was of 80%, CnHm in 50%, and 90 % in soot. The size of the zeolitesparticle importance in the efficiency is demonstrated.Key words: Toxicity, zeolite, enviroment, filters, gas emissions.

  6. Electrically controlled fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine with a control multi-vibrator and electrical correction of the voltage. Elektrisch gesteuerte Kraftstoffeinspritzanlage fuer eine Brennkraftmaschine mit einem Steuermultivibrator und elektrischer Spannungskorrektur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, W; Drews, U; Moeder, H; Ohr, K; Werner, P

    1980-06-19

    The invention concerns an electrically controlled fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine with at least one solenoid operated injection valve and a power transistor in series with the magnetising winding of the valve and with a control multi-vibrator connected before this, which is switched on synchronously with the crankshaft rotation with simultaneous opening of the injection valve, and which is kept in this state for a period determining the quantity injected, depending on the quantity of suction air. A control pulse is supplied for at least one injection valve, which is extended by a voltage correction stage proportionally to the voltage of a source of electrical supply provided for operating the injection valve, particularly to a vehicle battery. It has been found that the delay in response of the solenoid injection valves is independent of the duration of the opening pulse and must be compensated by an additional fuse independent of the length of the opening pulse, whose duration increases with increasing voltage drop. According to the invention this is achieved by a voltage-correcting stage with a Zener diode and several transistors. The individual operating steps are made clear by 3 patent claims and several detailed circuit diagrams and pulse-time graphs.

  7. Experimental development, 1D CFD simulation and energetic analysis of a 15 kw micro-CHP unit based on reciprocating internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, M.; Gimelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cogeneration is commonly recognized as one of the most effective solutions to achieve the increasingly stringent reduction in primary energy consumption and greenhouse emissions. This characteristic led to the adoption of specific directives promoting this technique. In addition, a strategic role in power reliability is recognized to distributed generation. The study and prototyping of cogeneration plants, therefore, has involved many research centres. This paper deals with energetic aspects of CHP referring to the study of a 15 kW micro-CHP plant based on a LPG reciprocating engine designed, built and grid connected. The plant consists of a heat recovery system characterized by a single water circuit recovering heat from exhaust gases, from engine coolant and from the energy radiated by the engine within the shell hosting the plant. Some tests were carried out at whole open throttle and the experimental data were collected. However it was needed to perform a 1D thermo-fluid dynamics simulation of the engine to completely characterize the micro-CHP. As the heat actually recovered depends on the user's thermal load, particularly from the required temperature's level, a comparison of the results for six types of users were performed: residential, hospital, office, commercial, sports, hotel. Both Italian legislative indexes IRE and LT were evaluated, as defined by A.E.E.G resolution n. 42/02 and subsequent updates, as well as the plant's total Primary Energy Saving. - Highlights: • This paper deals with energetic aspects of CHP referring to the study of a 15 kW micro-CHP plant. • The 15 kW micro-CHP plant is based on a GPL reciprocating engine designed, built and grid connected. • Some tests were carried out at whole open throttle and the experimental data were collected. • It was needed to perform a 1D thermo-fluid dynamics simulation of the engine to completely characterize the micro-CHP. • The analysed solution is particularly suited for

  8. Electromotor actuators with integrated electronics for control of modern internal combustion engines; Elektromotorische Steller mit integrierter Elektronik zur Regelung moderner Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krome, J.; Dorissen, H.T.; Duerkopp, K. [Hella KG Hueck and Co., Lippstadt (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Combustion and emission specifications make increasing demands on motor car control systems, and pneumatic control elements are getting replaced by specialized electromotor systems. The contribution describes an electromotor actuator with integrated electronics which is suited for the extreme conditions inside motor engines and is already produced in series in turbo-supercharger engines with variable turbine geometries. [German] Durch die gestiegenen Anforderungen an Verbrauch und Emissionen werden auch immer hoehere Ansprueche an Stell- und Regelsysteme im Kraftfahrzeug gestellt. Dies fuehrt unter anderem dazu, dass die heute eingesetzten pneumatischen Stellsysteme zunehmend durch spezialisierte elektromotorische Systeme ersetzt werden. In diesem Beitrag wird ein elektromotorischer Aktuator mit integrierter Elektronik vorgestellt. Der Steller ist fuer die extremen Umgebungsbedingungen von Motoranbauteilen qualifiziert und wird bereits in Serie zur Verstellung von Turboladern mit variabler Turbinengeometrie eingesetzt. (orig.)

  9. Conversion of by-products from the vegetable oil industry into biodiesel and its use in internal combustion engines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piloto-Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from by-products and waste materials can be an economical way of reducing traditional oil consumption and environmental problems. The by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry such as soapstock, acid oil and fatty acid distillates are suitable for producing biodiesel. The present work is a survey related to the use of these by-products to obtain biodiesel, covering not only the traditional and most widely used acid/base catalysis, but also solid and enzymatic catalysis. Details of the techniques are presented and compared. The advantages and drawbacks of the different approaches are mentioned and analyzed. The synthesis and use of by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry are covered in this work. The use of the obtained biodiesel in diesel engines is also included, demonstrating the disparity between the number of papers related to biodiesel production and engine performance assessment.

  10. Metode za oblikovanje elementov sesalnega zbiralnika batnega motorja z notranjim zgorevanjem: Design methods for the intake-manifold elements of reciprocating internal combustion engines:

    OpenAIRE

    Kozarac, Darko; Lulić, Zoran; Mahalec, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Methods for intake-manifold design that will lead to an increase in volumetricefficiency by using dynamic changes of pressure, are presented in the introductory part of this paper. Analytical methods for tuning the intake-pipe length and diameter to a specific engine speed, and methods dealing with the resonance in the intake manifold are considered. The main part of the paper comprises an analysis of these methods that was conducted ona simulation model of a four-cylinder spark-ignition engi...

  11. Throughput of oil and demand for oil of non-stationary loaded sliding bearings in internal combustion engines. Oeldurchsatz und Oelbedarf instationaer belasteter Gleitlager am Verbrennungsmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, H.J.

    1981-12-17

    The throughput of oil and the demand for oil of the non-stationary loaded sliding bearings was determined in a high speed petrol engine. The crankshaft bearing and connecting rod bearing were examined. The bearing temperature of the connecting rod bearing was measured by thermocouples built into this bearing; transmission of the signal from the rotating to the fixed part of the system was by means of a rotating transmitter. The temperature measurement in the crankshaft bearing was done by thermocouples in the bearing shell. Using a separate oil supply for the test bearing, the demand for oil was determined by reducing the oil pressure. Comparative oil throughput calculations were carried out to clear up the relationships discovered in the equipment. The results of the investigation are collected in 15 points, which are explained in detail. These include: negligible effect on the oil throughput of the ignition timing, air ratio and coolant temperature at constant speed and constant mean pressure, the considerable rise of the oil throughput through the connecting rod and crankshaft bearing with increasing speed, and the dominating effect of play in the bearing on the maximum bearing temperature.

  12. Desempeño y emisiones de un motor de combustión interna con combustible dual Diesel – Gas natural ;Performance and emissions study of an internal combustion engine with dual fuel diesel - natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Muchos de los problemas reportados para los sistemas duales diesel- gas natural ocurren por mala dosificación del gas. Por esta razón se adaptó un sistema de alimentación dual con inyección electrónica de gas natural a un motor de combustión interna encendido por compresión. Se plantea un diseño experimental controlando el dosado de gas natural.Como resultado se obtiene un análisis comparativo entre los valoresde desempeño y emisiones desde la operación Diesel y Diesel-Gas natural. A partir de este análisis es posible observar que el desempeño del motor no se ve afectado por la operación del motor bajo el esquema Dual Diesel-GN, es decir que el motor funcionando bajo modo dual puede sostener las cargas solicitadas al motor. También se observa que la eficiencia volumétrica mejora bajo todas las condiciones de operación dual y las emisiones son mejores sólo cuando el motor trabaja a altas cargas. Many of the problems reported for dual diesel-natural gas systems occur due to poor gas dosage. For this reason a natural gas electronic injection feeding system was adapted to a compression ignitios internal combustion engine. An experimental design controlling the natural gas dosage is considered. As a result a comparative analysis between performance and emissions from the Diesel-and diesel-Natural Gas operation is obtained. From this analysis it is possible to see that engine performance is not affected by operation of the engine under the dual mode, i.e. the motor running under dual mode can support the loads applied to the engine. It is also observed that the volumetric efficiency improves under all conditions of operation and emissions from the dual mode of operation are better only when working at high engine loads.

  13. Process for the manufacture of a filter material for cleaning industrial or internal combustion engine exhaust gases and filter material manufactured according to the process. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Filterstoffes zur Reinigung von industriellen oder Brennkraftmaschinen-Abgasen und ein hiernach hergestellter Filterstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumbalek, A.

    1986-01-02

    This is a process for the manufacture of a filter material for cleaning industrial or internal combustion engine exhaust gases and filter material manufactured according to the process. The filter material is manufactured from the mineralized combustion product of peel of tropical fruits burnt at a temperature of 820/sup 0/C to 840/sup 0/C in an oxidising atmosphere excluding the production of carbon, particularly using banana skins and orange peels, which product is granulated with carrier materials or compressed.

  14. Performance evaluation of small scale internal combustion engine with mixtures for diesel oil-palm oil; Avaliacao do desempenho do motor de combustao interna de pequeno porte com misturas oleo diesel - oleo de dende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seye, Omar; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Emails: Seye62omar@yahoo.com, rcsouza@internext.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This work aims at the performance evaluation of the Cummins 4B -3.9, an internal combustion engine of maximum power 75 hp (56.6 kW) for small scale power generation, burning different mixtures of diesel fuel and palm oil. The palm oil in nature is mixed manually, what unfortunately will influence the engine performance as it hinders the combustion. The test protocol will include the biodiesel, later on. The emissions were assessed for several proportions of mixture diesel/palm oil covering the strip from 0 to 20% and the results were compared to the engine performance when it operates with diesel only. The motor is coupled to a dynamometer, whose operation consists of the acceleration and deceleration of water in order to simulate the effect of a load being applied to the motor. The system is controlled by the software LT commander that allows the start up and the shutdown of the engine from the screen of the computer that also monitors the following parameters as speed of rotation of the motor (RPM), applied torque (N-m), potency (hp), temperature of the lubricating oil, temperature of the water in the entrance and exit of the motor, and temperature of the environment (deg C), pressures of the lubricating oil and of opening of the injector (mBar). While a flow meter coupled to the piping measures the consumption of fuel, the gas analyzer ECHO Line 6000 it monitors the concentration and temperature of carbon monoxide (CO) (ppm), nitric oxide (NO) (ppm), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), (ppm), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) (ppm) and Oxygen (O{sub 2}) (%) in the exhaust gases. This equipment also determines the combustion parameters as excess of air and the efficiency. The technical results present the efficiency variation, the pressure of the fuel, monoxide carbon, NOx emissions, Oxygen content in the exhaust gases, for the different mixture proportions. Furthermore, the results of economic viability show generation cost values of US$ 135,66/MWh for the motor operating

  15. HYDROGEN USE IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE:

    OpenAIRE

    Ciniviz, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Fast depletion of fossil fuels is urgently demanding a carry out work for research to find out the viable alternative fuels for meeting sustainable energy demand with minimum environmental impact. In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms. The use of the hydrogen as fuel in the internal combusti...

  16. Hydrogen-oxygen powered internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, H.; Morgan, N.

    1970-01-01

    Hydrogen at 300 psi and oxygen at 800 psi are injected sequentially into the combustion chamber to form hydrogen-rich mixture. This mode of injection eliminates difficulties of preignition, detonation, etc., encountered with carburated, spark-ignited, hydrogen-air mixtures. Ignition at startup is by means of a palladium catalyst.

  17. Dynamic similitude in internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, O

    1941-01-01

    In this report it will be seen that the piston speed - as, moreover, any other speed, such as bearing velocity - must be independent of the quantity dimensions and must be a representative quantity similar to the high speed and the specific weight per horsepower.

  18. Study on the utilization of the energy produced by the exhaust gases and the cooling water of a internal combustion engine; Estudo do aproveitamento da energia obtida pelos gases de escapamento e pela agua de resfriamento de um motor de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andre Luiz dos; Arroyo, Narciso Angel Ramos [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Motores Termicos]. E-mail: als2000@tutopia.com.br; arroyo@sinmec.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    This work is about heat balance of an automotive internal combustion engine of 4 cylinders, using ethylic alcohol, and utilize the energy obtained in the exhaust gas and the water cooling system. This paper show an theoretical - experimental model for use this energy in an absorption refrigeration system using the work fluid water and Li Br. In this paper are analyzed engines charges of 30%, 50% and 100%. The results shows that for this charges and for any speed of the engines, the energy obtained in the evaporator are significant. (author)

  19. Large Eddy Simulations of Complex Flows in IC-Engine's Exhaust Manifold and Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Fjällman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the flow in pipe bends and radial turbines geometries that are commonly found in an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). The development phase of internal combustion engines relies more and more on simulations as an important complement to experiments. This is partly because of the reduction in development cost and the shortening of the development time. This is one of the reasons for the need of more accurate and predictive simulations. By using more complex computational ...

  20. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicles and Fueling Infrastructure : Alternative Fuels & Life-Cycle Engineering Program : November 29, 2006 to November 28, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    Wind turbines located on sites known as wind farms have become popular in the United States and elsewhere because they may be able to reduce, if not replace, the use of fossil fuels for energy production. The development of wind farms has been partic...

  1. Safe Loads on Ice Sheets (Ice Engineering. Number 13)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haynes, F. D; Carey, Kevin L; Cattabriga, Gioia

    1996-01-01

    Every winter, ice sheets that grow on lakes and rivers in northern states are used for ice roads, ice bridges, construction platforms, airstrips, and recreational activities, It becomes very important...

  2. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9244-2] RIN 2060-AP36 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines and requesting public comment on one issue arising from the final rule. Specifically, EPA...

  3. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Aladayleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively. The indication work, real shaft power and specific fuel consumption for Stirling engine, and the exhaust power losses for IC engine are calculated. The study shows the availability and possibility of recovery of the waste heat from internal combustion engine using Stirling engine.

  4. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aladayleh, Wail; Alahmer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively....

  5. Possible Mechanisms for Turbofan Engine Ice Crystal Icing at High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Struk, Peter M.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    A thermodynamic model is presented to describe possible mechanisms of ice formation on unheated surfaces inside a turbofan engine compression system from fully glaciated ice crystal clouds often formed at high altitude near deep convective weather systems. It is shown from the analysis that generally there could be two distinct types of ice formation: (1) when the "surface freezing fraction" is in the range of 0 to 1, dominated by the freezing of water melt from fully or partially melted ice crystals, the ice structure is formed from accretion with strong adhesion to the surface, and (2) when the "surface melting fraction" is the range of 0 to 1, dominated by the further melting of ice crystals, the ice structure is formed from accumulation of un-melted ice crystals with relatively weak bonding to the surface. The model captures important qualitative trends of the fundamental ice-crystal icing phenomenon reported earlier (Refs. 1 and 2) from the research collaboration work by NASA and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada. Further, preliminary analysis of test data from the 2013 full scale turbofan engine ice crystal icing test (Ref. 3) conducted in the NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) has also suggested that (1) both types of ice formation occurred during the test, and (2) the model has captured some important qualitative trend of turning on (or off) the ice crystal ice formation process in the tested engine low pressure compressor (LPC) targeted area under different icing conditions that ultimately would lead to (or suppress) an engine core roll back (RB) event.

  6. New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Ma, Kechun; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2014-01-01

    Microsystems become part of everyday life but their application is restricted by lack of strong and fast motors (actuators) converting energy into motion. For example, widespread internal combustion engines cannot be scaled down because combustion reactions are quenched in a small space. Here we

  7. Evaluation of Emissions Declarations according to 11. BimSchV of the year 2004 for the use of emissions reporting at UNFCCC and UNECE. Stationary internal combustion engines; Aufbereitung von Daten der Emissionserklaerungen gemaess 11. BImSchV aus dem Jahre 2004 fuer die Verwendung bei der UNFCCC- und UNECE-Berichterstattung. Teilbericht Stationaere Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degel, Melanie; Joerss, Wolfram [IZT Institut fuer Zukunftsstudien und Technologiebewertung, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The Emissions Declarations according to 11{sup th} BImSchV from 2004 for stationary internal combustion engines were analysed with the aim to derive fuel specific emission factors for a set of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. For that purpose, curtly 1.000 plants have been identified which on one hand are operated with exactly one fuel (no fuel mixing) and on the other hand technologically solely consist of internal combustion engines (no peak boilers). During extensive checks of plausibility, 80 - 95% of the data sets were rejected, depending on pollutant and fuel. Nonetheless, very high fluctuation ranges for specific emissions were found in the remaining data material. As the result, emission factors have been derived for the pollutants NO{sub x}, CO, SO{sub 2}, formaldehyde, total dust, methane, B(a)P, benzene and total-C without Methane and for the fuels natural gas, landfill gas, digester gas, biogas, mine gas, light fuel oil/diesel oil and plant oil. The uncertainties of the derived emission factors are between {+-} 15% and two orders of magnitude. No or no resilient data have been found for the pollutants NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, NMVOC, particulate matter PM{sub 2.5}/PM{sub 10} and soot as well as for the fuels Plant oil ester and wood gas. (orig.)

  8. Engine Icing Data - An Analytics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Brooke A.; Flegel, Ashlie B.

    2017-01-01

    Engine icing researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center use the Escort data acquisition system in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) to generate and collect a tremendous amount of data every day. Currently these researchers spend countless hours processing and formatting their data, selecting important variables, and plotting relationships between variables, all by hand, generally analyzing data in a spreadsheet-style program (such as Microsoft Excel). Though spreadsheet-style analysis is familiar and intuitive to many, processing data in spreadsheets is often unreproducible and small mistakes are easily overlooked. Spreadsheet-style analysis is also time inefficient. The same formatting, processing, and plotting procedure has to be repeated for every dataset, which leads to researchers performing the same tedious data munging process over and over instead of making discoveries within their data. This paper documents a data analysis tool written in Python hosted in a Jupyter notebook that vastly simplifies the analysis process. From the file path of any folder containing time series datasets, this tool batch loads every dataset in the folder, processes the datasets in parallel, and ingests them into a widget where users can search for and interactively plot subsets of columns in a number of ways with a click of a button, easily and intuitively comparing their data and discovering interesting dynamics. Furthermore, comparing variables across data sets and integrating video data (while extremely difficult with spreadsheet-style programs) is quite simplified in this tool. This tool has also gathered interest outside the engine icing branch, and will be used by researchers across NASA Glenn Research Center. This project exemplifies the enormous benefit of automating data processing, analysis, and visualization, and will help researchers move from raw data to insight in a much smaller time frame.

  9. A techno-economic & environmental analysis of a novel technology utilizing an internal combustion engine as a compact, inexpensive micro-reformer for a distributed gas-to-liquids system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joshua B.

    converts natural gas to synthesis gas (syngas) in a reciprocating internal combustion engine and then converts the syngas into methanol in a small-scale reactor. With methanol as the product, this research aims to show that such a system can not only address current and future natural gas flaring regulation, but eventually can compete economically with historically large-scale, centralized methanol production infrastructure. If successful, such systems could contribute to a shift away from large, multi-billion dollar capital cost chemical plants towards smaller systems with shorter lifetimes that may decrease the time to transition to more sustainable forms of energy and chemical conversion technologies. This research also quantifies the potential for such a system to contribute to mitigating GHG emissions, not only by addressing flared gas in the near-term, but also supporting future natural gas infrastructure ideas that may help to redefine the way the current natural gas pipeline system is used. The introduction of new, small-scale, distributed energy and chemical conversion systems located closer to the point of extraction may contribute to reducing methane leakage throughout the natural gas distribution system by reducing the reliance and risks associated with the aging natural gas pipeline infrastructure. The outcome of this thesis will result in several areas for future work. From an economic perspective, factors that contribute to overall system cost, such as operation and maintenance (O&M) and capital cost multiplier (referred to as the Lang Factor for large-scale petro-chemical plants), are not yet known for novel systems such as the technology presented here. From a technical perspective, commercialization of small-scale, distributed chemical conversion systems may create a demand for economical compression and air-separation technologies at this scale that do not currently exist. Further, new business cases may arise aimed at utilizing small, remote sources of

  10. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSL--the first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal

  11. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  12. Producer for vegetal combustibles for internal-combustion motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-12-28

    A producer is described for internal-combustion motors fed with wood or agricultural byproducts characterized by the fact that its full operation is independent of the degree of wetness of the material used.

  13. Teaching Process Engineering Principles Using an Ice Cream Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaletunc, Gonul; Duemmel, Kevin; Gecik, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The ice cream laboratory experiment is designed to illustrate and promote discussion of several engineering and science topics including material and energy balances, heat transfer, freezing, mass transfer, mixing, viscosity, and freezing point depression in a sophomore level engineering class. A pre-lab assignment requires the students to develop…

  14. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  15. Development and validation of an Eulerian model towards the simulation of fuel injection in internal combustion engines; Developpement et validation d'un modele eulerien en vue de la simulation des jets de carburants dans les moteurs a combustion interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truchot, B.

    2005-12-15

    The objective of this work is to develop an Eulerian two phase model to improve the prediction of fuel injection in internal combustion engines, particularly the dense liquid zone close to the nozzle. Lagrangian models, usually used in engine simulations, are based on the assumption of dispersed two phase flows with low liquid volume fraction, which is not fulfilled in the case of direct injection engine technology. Different Eulerian approaches are available in the literature. Physical phenomena that occur near the nozzle and characteristics of each model lead to the choice of a two fluids two pressures model. Several open terms appear in the equations of the model: exchange between the two phases and turbulent correlations. Closures of exchange terms are based on the spherical droplets hypothesis while a RANS approach is adopted to close turbulent correlations. This model has been integrated in the IFP CFD code, IFP-C3D. Several numerical tests and analytical validations (for single and two phase flows) have been then carried out in order to check the correct implementation of equations and the predictivity of the model and closures. Modifications in the turbulent model of the gas have required validations in both the gas phase (flow behind a sudden enlargement) and the liquid phase (pure liquid injection). A two phase mixing layer has been then used to validate the whole model. Finally, injection tests have been achieved under realistic conditions (similar to those encountered in automotive engines) in order to check the feasibility of engine computations using the developed Eulerian approach. These tests have also allowed to check the compatibility of this approach with the specificities of engine simulations (especially mesh movement). (author)

  16. Laser diagnosis and plasma technology: fundamentals for reduction of emissions and fuel consumption in DI internal combustion engines. Spray/wall-interaction under diesel engine conditions. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Spray/Wand-Wechselwirkung bei der motorischen Einspritzung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, U.; Meingast, U.

    2001-02-01

    Spray/wall-interaction under diesel engine conditions is not yet investigated extensively in detail with high spatial resolution and high time resolution as those experiments require extremely accurate techniques. Numerical modelling to predict fluiddynamic and heat transfer processes are validated mostly under non engine conditions. The processes during spray/wall interaction under internal combustion engine conditions were investigated experimentally in an injection chamber using enhanced laser optical methods. To enable validation and development of numerical spray/wall models the data was collected under well known and reproducible conditions. Microscopic visualisation tools, Phase-Doppler Anemometry (PDA) to measure droplet diameter and velocity as well as fluorescence based film measurement technique and high speed surface thermocouples to determine the wall heat flux were used. The numerical predictions of the spray wall interaction using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) including two spray/wall models from the literature show qualitatively good agreement with the experiments. However, quantitatively some insufficiencies are observed because the models base on experiments under atmospheric conditions disregarding the influences of high pressure and high temperature. Here more detailed investigation is necessary in the future. The present results build up a comprehensive basis to validate future models and their interaction. Progress was done in using measurement techniques to investigate complex mechanisms under challenging conditions. (orig.) [German] Die Spray/Wand Wechselwirkung unter dieselmotorischen Bedingungen ist bisher nicht mit hoher Zeit- und Ortsaufloesung umfassend charakterisiert worden, weil deren Untersuchung hohe Anforderungen an die Messtechniken stellt. Numerische Modelle zur Vorhersage der Stroemungs- und Waermetransportvorgaenge sind nur teilweise unter reale Bedingungen verifiziert worden. Die Vorgaenge beim Auftreffen eines

  17. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurpreet [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  18. Can regional climate engineering save the summer Arctic sea ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, S.; Jahn, Alexandra; Kay, Jennifer E.; Holland, Marika; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2014-02-01

    Rapid declines in summer Arctic sea ice extent are projected under high-forcing future climate scenarios. Regional Arctic climate engineering has been suggested as an emergency strategy to save the sea ice. Model simulations of idealized regional dimming experiments compared to a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission simulation demonstrate the importance of both local and remote feedback mechanisms to the surface energy budget in high latitudes. With increasing artificial reduction in incoming shortwave radiation, the positive surface albedo feedback from Arctic sea ice loss is reduced. However, changes in Arctic clouds and the strongly increasing northward heat transport both counteract the direct dimming effects. A 4 times stronger local reduction in solar radiation compared to a global experiment is required to preserve summer Arctic sea ice area. Even with regional Arctic dimming, a reduction in the strength of the oceanic meridional overturning circulation and a shut down of Labrador Sea deep convection are possible.

  19. Arctic Ice Management: an integrated approach to climate engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, S. J.; Hartnett, H. E.; Groppi, C. E.; Romaniello, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The warming climate is having the most rapid and pronounced effects in the high Arctic. The loss of Arctic sea ice is not only changing the physical oceanography of the Arctic Ocean and its coastlines; it is also promoting new conversations about the dangers and benefits for trade, transportation, and industry in the Arctic. The rate of decrease of summer sea ice in the Arctic is currently -300 km3 yr-1, a rate that will lead to complete loss of end-summer sea ice as soon as 2030. Preventing the strong positive feedbacks and increased warming due to sea ice albedo loss must be an important component of climate mitigation strategies. Here, we explore a direct engineering approach we call Arctic Ice Management (AIM) to reduce the loss of Arctic sea ice. We predict that pumping seawater onto the ice surface during the Arctic winter using wind-powered pumps can thicken sea ice by up to 1 m per year, reversing the current loss rates and prolonging the time until the Arctic Ocean is ice-free. Thickening sea ice would not change CO2 levels, which are the underlying cause of ice loss, but it would prevent some of the strongest feedbacks and would buy time to develop the tools and governance systems necessary to achieve carbon-neutrality. We advocate exploration of AIM as a mitigation strategy employed in parallel with CO2 reduction efforts. The opportunity and risk profiles of AIM differ from other geoengineering proposals. While similar in principle to solar radiation management, AIM may present fewer large-scale environmental risks. AIM is separate from greenhouse gas emission reduction or sequestration, but might help prevent accelerated release of methane from thawing permafrost. Further, AIM might be usefully employed at regional and local scales to preserve Arctic ecosystems and possibly reduce the effects of ice-loss induced coastal erosion. Through presentation of the AIM concept, we hope to spark new conversations between scientists, stakeholders, and decision

  20. OPTIMOT, a software package for computer-assisted modelling and optimized control of internal combustion engines on the test stand; OPTIMOT - Ein Softwarepaket zur rechnergestuetzten Modellbildung und optimierten Steuerung von Verbrennungsmotoren am Motorenpruefstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, M.; Isermann, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik

    2002-07-01

    The OptiMot toolbox is a simple interface to the complex optimization algorithms of the model-based engine optimization process developed under MATLAB. Defaults enable also inexpert users to achieve good results. The optimization algorithms are based on static and dynamic neuronal emission models. The training data required for the neuronal nets were recorded on an engine test stand with in a very short time (about 1 h) using new dynamic measuring strategies. [German] Zusammenfassend konnte in diesem Beitrag die OptiMot-Toolbox als einfache Schnittstelle zu den komplexen Optimierungsalgorithmen der unter MATLAB entwickelten modellbasierten Motoroptimierung vorgestellt werden. Default-Einstellungen ermoeglichen hierbei auch ungeuebten Benutzern, schnell Ergebnisse zu erarbeiten. Die verwendeten Optimierungsalgorithmen selbst basieren auf statischen und dynamischen neuronalen Emissionsmodellen. Die benoetigten Trainingsdaten fuer die neuronalen Netze wurden mit Hilfe von neuen dynamischen Messstrategien in kurzer Zeit (ca. 1 h) am Motorenpruefstand erfasst. (orig.)

  1. Development and testing of a washing process for exhaust gas of stationary operated internal combustion engines. Final report. Entwicklung und Erprobung eines Verfahrens der Abgaswaesche fuer stationaere Verbrennungsmotoren. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutelle, R; Huss, R; Wimberger, H J

    1986-01-01

    An exhaust gas washer for stationary operated diesel engines has been developed and tested in combination with a heat pump. The exhaust gas is washed with its own condensate in a packed column. The condensate circulation is performed by mammoth pumps. The pollutant emissions have been reduced depending on operating conditions (speed, temperature, pH of the condensate) by the following rates: HC by 30-85%, aldehydes by 35-99%, phenols by 50-80%, PAH by 80-95%, soot by 25-70%, SO/sub 2/ by 65-90%, NOsub(x) by 5-20%. It has been possible to reduce the NOsub(x) emissions by 75% at an inconsiderably increased fuel consumption by recycling exhaust gases. But higher soot emissions have to be accepted in this case. The condensate is completely degradable in a septic tank after being mixed with waste water containing phosphate. With 42 refs., 13 tabs., 32 figs.

  2. Evolution des modèles mathématiques directs appliqués aux moteurs à combustion interne Evolution of Direct Mathematical Models Applied to Internal-Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiano N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article rend compte de l'évolution présente et future des modèles mathématiques directs de simulation dans les moteurs. Ceux-ci sont basés sur la résolution des équations de Navier-Stokes, et deviennent peu à peu une nécessité surtout en ce qui concerne la combustion hétérogène. Après un aperçu sur l'état actuel des algorithmes de calcul et des sous-modèles physiques utilisés, on présente une revue des principaux codes de calcul appliqués au moteur, avec quelques-uns de leurs résultats. Après avoir évoqué les obstacles rencontrés lors de leur mise en oeuvre, on aborde l'évolution prévisible lors des prochaines années, tant pour les techniques de calcul que pour les codes eux-mêmes. This article describes the present and future evolution of direct mathematical models used for engine simulation. These models are based on the solving of Navier-Stokes equations and are gradually becoming an absolute necessity, especially with regard to heterogeneous combustion. Alter briefly describing the present state of the computing algorithms and physical submodels used, the leading computing codes applied to engines are reviewed, with some of their results. Then the stumbling blocks encountered during the implementation of these codes are described, followed by the foresable evolution in the next few years, for both computing techniques and the codes themselves.

  3. Ford's E-450 H2ICE program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.

    2006-01-01

    In 4th quarter of 2006, Ford delivered the first Hydrogen powered Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles to customers. Ford is a leader in alternative fuels and engine strategies for future applications, and these vehicles serve as a bridge to Fuel Cell Vehicle acceptance and continued development of the hydrogen economy. This program also supports continued growth in hydrogen fueling infrastructure and vehicle hydrogen storage development. This presentation provided a program summary and discuss some of the lessons learned in dealing with placements of hydrogen powered vehicles. (author)

  4. Cálculo de la temperatura en el interior de la cámara de combustión en motores de combustión interna. // Calculation of temperature into combustion chamber of internal combustion engines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soto Pau

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aquí presentado tiene como objetivo llegar a expresiones de cálculo de la temperatura en el interior de la cámarade combustión como vía de diagnostico de la combustión en motores térmicos. Este trabajo consiste en un modelo físicomatemático,el cual usa como herramientas fundamentalmente, los valores de presión medidos en el interior de la cámarade combustión, las características geométricas del motor y todos los valores normalmente medidos en el bancodinamométrico. El procesamiento teórico de este modelo consiste fundamentalmente en la determinación de la evoluciónde la combustión a partir de la curva de presión, basada en la Primera Ley de la Termodinámica, adoptando Modelo deGases Perfectos. A partir de la posición angular de cierre de la válvula de admisión es posible calcular la derivada de latemperatura en relación a la posición angular del cigüeñal para los gases quemados T&b y no quemados T&u . Teniendo estosvalores de T&u y T&b calculados, es posible integrar numéricamente las temperaturas utilizando el método de integración deEuler. Conociendo la composición química del combustible, es posible calcular la temperatura adiabática de llama, estesería el valor de temperatura inicial Tb que nos permitiría calcular un valor de entalpía específica de los gases quemados. Deigual forma con el valor de la temperatura inicial para los gases no quemados Tu se tiene el valor de temperatura inicial parael proceso de integración.Palabras claves: Proceso de combustión en motores térmicos, temperatura en el interior de la cámara decombustión, presión en el interior de la cámara de combustión.____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This paper presents calculation expressions of the temperature inside the combustion chamber in order to diagnose thecombustion in termic engines. This analysis consists in a physical-mathematical model, which uses

  5. Study of mechanisms of the formation of specific pollutants emitted by internal combustion engines; Etude des mecanismes de formation des polluants specifiques emis par les moteurs a combustion interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zervas, E

    1996-06-26

    Methods for the analysis on sulfur dioxide, alcohols and organic acids have been developed. The first one includes the capture of the sulfur dioxide in a solution of oxygenated water and the analysis bu ionic chromatography with a conductometric detector. The second one includes the capture in pure water and an analysis bu gas chromatography/flame ionisation detector. The third one uses the capture in pure water and the analysis of the formic acid by an ionic chromatography and of the other acids by gas chromatography. These methods have been applied in the case of vehicles` non-regulated pollutants research. An experiment design, combined specified fuels and analysis of the exhaust gazes, has been applied on a spark ignition engine. These tests proved several qualitative and quantitative correlations between the composition of the fuel and the emitted pollutants. Precursors of hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and organic acids have been found. These results show that aromatics and cyclohexane contribute for the benzene`s formation, 1-hexene and cyclohexane for the 1,3 butadiene`s, aromatics, are the precursors of the propionic acid and 0-xylene of the butyric acid. (author)

  6. Modeling of Commercial Turbofan Engine With Ice Crystal Ingestion: Follow-On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.; Coennen, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which is ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  7. Modeling of Commercial Turbofan Engine with Ice Crystal Ingestion; Follow-On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.; Coennen, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which is ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  8. Experimental analysis of the global energy balance in a DI diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Payri González, Francisco; Olmeda González, Pablo Cesar; Martín Díaz, Jaime; Carreño, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly stringent internal combustion engines (ICE) emissions regulations, has led to the extended use of after-treatment systems, giving progressively more importance to the engine efficiency optimization. In this context, the experimental methodologies to perform and analyse the energy balance show as a key issue to evaluate the potential of different engine strategies aimed at the consumption optimization and the improvement paths identification. This works deals with ...

  9. Methodology for sizing, energy analysis and selection of equipment for a biomass gasifier to drive an internal combustion engine; Metodologia de dimensionamento, analise energetica e selecao de equipamentos de um gaseificador de biomassa para o acionamento de um motor de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronado, Christian Rodriguez; Silveira, Jose Luz [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEG/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], e-mails: christian@feg.unesp.br, joseluz@feg.unesp.br; Arauzo, Jesus Perez [University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza (Spain). Centro Politecnico Superior. Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.], e-mail: qtarauzo@unizar.es

    2006-07-01

    Alter both oil crisis, of 1973 and 1979, a bad effect of the elevated costs and continuously increment of the oil prices was noted, for this reason, the interest for renewable energies sources widely available in developing countries was increased. All over the world, governments have formulated main objectives for energies savings and search for friendly technologies, taking into account the effects related with the environment. The imminent scarcity of fossil fuels has made humanity the rational use of primary energies, as a result of these; new plants with improved technology have been conceived taking into account energy savings and efficiency improvement. In this context, biomass gasification technologies are important, since they consist in techniques of parallel production of electricity and heat from just one fuel. This work consists in the development of a gasifier down draft of 100 kW for an internal combustion engine, which includes its sizing process and its energy analysis. The sizing includes design facts and the parameters of the conditioning systems for the exhaust gas. This part is mainly based in the experience of a work group of the Zaragoza State University - Spain, UNIZAR, specialists in the construction of small down draft gasifiers, for every case, air will be used as a gasifier agent and as biomass forestall. The availability of biomass resources and the application of the national energetic view system are relevant. The gasifier will have a 100 kg/h of feeding, the energetic analysis includes the matter and energy balance and the respective efficient such cold as hot efficient of the exhaust gas. Moreover it will be tried the equipment recommended for the cleaning and conditioning of this gas fuel for this equipment in particular. (author)

  10. New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly B.; Sanders, Remco G. P.; Ma, Kechun; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2014-01-01

    Microsystems become part of everyday life but their application is restricted by lack of strong and fast motors (actuators) converting energy into motion. For example, widespread internal combustion engines cannot be scaled down because combustion reactions are quenched in a small space. Here we present an actuator with the dimensions 100 × 100 × 5 μm3 that is using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen as part of its working cycle. Water electrolysis driven by short voltage pulses creates an extra pressure of 0.5–4 bar for a time of 100–400 μs in a chamber closed by a flexible membrane. When the pulses are switched off this pressure is released even faster allowing production of mechanical work in short cycles. We provide arguments that this unexpectedly fast pressure decrease is due to spontaneous combustion of the gases in the chamber. This actuator is the first step to truly microscopic combustion engines. PMID:24599052

  11. New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly B; Sanders, Remco G P; Ma, Kechun; Elwenspoek, Miko C

    2014-03-06

    Microsystems become part of everyday life but their application is restricted by lack of strong and fast motors (actuators) converting energy into motion. For example, widespread internal combustion engines cannot be scaled down because combustion reactions are quenched in a small space. Here we present an actuator with the dimensions 100 × 100 × 5 μm(3) that is using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen as part of its working cycle. Water electrolysis driven by short voltage pulses creates an extra pressure of 0.5-4 bar for a time of 100-400 μs in a chamber closed by a flexible membrane. When the pulses are switched off this pressure is released even faster allowing production of mechanical work in short cycles. We provide arguments that this unexpectedly fast pressure decrease is due to spontaneous combustion of the gases in the chamber. This actuator is the first step to truly microscopic combustion engines.

  12. Petroleum Dependency: The Case to Replace the Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    second method, electrolysis , uses electrical energy to separate the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in water molecules. This preferable method is...cost effective, but producing biofuels creates a competition for the same resources feeding humans: land and water . In addition, the simple fact...more costly than producing fuels like gasoline: electrolysis and steam reformation. The first method uses steam reforming to create a synthesis gas

  13. Experimental Investigation of Piston Rings for Internal Combustion Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2007-01-01

    One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. A very important condition for describing the frictional behavior of a piston ring correctly is knowledge about the amount of lubricant present. For piston rings the external...... forces are small compared to the rest of the acting forces the main design idea is to fix the piston, while the cylinder liner moves. This approach makes it simple to measure the parameters mentioned above by putting the instrumentation in the piston. The aim of this paper is describe the tribological...

  14. Experimental Investigation of Piston Rings for Internal Combustion Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2008-01-01

    absorbed in the bearing. Since the frictional forces are small compared to the rest of the acting forces the rig is designed such that the piston is fixed while the cylinder liner moves. This approach makes it simple to measure the parameters mentioned above by putting the instrumentation in the piston...

  15. Non-equilibrium plasma ignition for internal combustion engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correale, G.; Rakitin, A.; Nikipelov, A.; Pancheshnyi, S.; Popov, I.; Starikovskii, A.Yu; Shiraishi, T.; Urushihara, T.; Boot, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    High-voltage nanosecond gas discharge has been shown to be an efficient way to ignite ultra-lean fuel air mixtures in a bulk volume, thanks to its ability to produce both high temperature and radical concentration in a large discharge zone. Recently, a feasibility study has been carried out to study

  16. Exhaust gas purifying system for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, H; Saito, Z

    1976-10-07

    The exhaust gas purification system is a so-called three-way catalytic converter. It consists of an oxidation converter, a reduction converter, or a thermal converter. An exhaust sensor made up of an oxygen sensor, a carbon sensor, a carbon monoxide sensor, hydrocarbon sensor, or a nitrogen peroxide sensor, tests the composition of the exhaust and controls the air-fuel feed system in dependence of the exhaust mixture in such a manner that in the intake system an air-fuel mixture is taken in which the stoichiometric air-fuel relation is produced. Moreover, a thermostatically controlled air intake device is built into the fuel injection system which supplies the air of the fuel injection system with a relatively consistent temperature.

  17. Traveling-Wave Thermoacoustic Engines With Internal Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Nathan Thomas; Zinn, Ben T.; Swift, Gregory William

    2004-05-11

    Thermoacoustic devices are disclosed wherein, for some embodiments, a combustion zone provides heat to a regenerator using a mean flow of compressible fluid. In other embodiments, burning of a combustible mixture within the combustion zone is pulsed in phase with the acoustic pressure oscillations to increase acoustic power output. In an example embodiment, the combustion zone and the regenerator are thermally insulated from other components within the thermoacoustic device.

  18. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  19. Prototype testing and analysis of a novel internal combustion linear generator integrated power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhaoping; Chang, Siqin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A novel four-stroke free-piston engine equipped with a linear electric generator (namely internal combustion linear generator integrated power system) is proposed in this paper to achieve efficient energy conversion from fuel to electricity. Unique features of the novel power system are presented and their effects on the continuous running are discussed, along with potential advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional engines. A single cylinder, gasoline and spark ignition prototype is fabricated with reference to the geometric and control parameters of an existing conventional four-stroke engine. Stable running of the prototype is realized, and a 2.2 kW average output power with the generating efficiency of 32% has been obtained up to now. The feasibility and performance of the proposed design are verified. Detailed testing results from the continuous running prototype are analyzed in this paper for giving insight into the performance and dynamic behaviors of the novel power system. (author)

  20. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Cogeration System with Biogas Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Doseva, Nadezhda; Chakyrova, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an existing cogeneration system driven by biogas internal combustion engines (ICE) is a subject of an investigation by energy and exergy analyses. The system is installed in the Varna Wastewater Treatment Plant (Varna WWTP), Bulgaria and its purpose is to utilize the methane produced as a byproduct of the solids stabilization process at Varna WWTP. Otherwise, the produced methane would pollute the environment. The presented paperhas been organised in the following way: first, i...

  1. Method and apparatus for controlling hybrid powertrain system in response to engine temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ryan D; Spohn, Brian L; Lehmen, Allen J; Cerbolles, Teresa L

    2014-10-07

    A method for controlling a hybrid powertrain system including an internal combustion engine includes controlling operation of the hybrid powertrain system in response to a preferred minimum coolant temperature trajectory for the internal combustion engine.

  2. Experimental research of variable rotation speed ICE-based electric power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar’enkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing variable rotation speed ICE-based stand-alone electric power stations which can supply distant regions and autonomous objects with electricity are of scientific interest due to the insufficient study. The relevance of developing such electric power stations is determined by their usage is to provide a significant fuel saving as well as increase ICE motor service life. The article describes the electric station of autonomous objects with improved fuel economy. The article describes multivariate characteristic. Multivariate characteristic shows the optimal frequency of rotation of the internal combustion engine. At this rotational speed there is the greatest fuel economy.

  3. A Model to Assess the Risk of Ice Accretion Due to Ice Crystal Ingestion in a Turbofan Engine and its Effects on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.; Wright, William B.; Struk, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that were attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was one or more of the following anomalies: degraded engine performance, engine roll back, compressor surge and stall, and flameout of the combustor. The main focus of this research is the development of a computational tool that can estimate whether there is a risk of ice accretion by tracking key parameters through the compression system blade rows at all engine operating points within the flight trajectory. The tool has an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, coupled with a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor blade rows. Assumptions are made to predict the complex physics involved in engine icing. Specifically, the code does not directly estimate ice accretion and does not have models for particle breakup or erosion. Two key parameters have been suggested as conditions that must be met at the same location for ice accretion to occur: the local wet-bulb temperature to be near freezing or below and the local melt ratio must be above 10%. These parameters were deduced from analyzing laboratory icing test data and are the criteria used to predict the possibility of ice accretion within an engine including the specific blade row where it could occur. Once the possibility of accretion is determined from these parameters, the degree of blockage due to ice accretion on the local stator vane can be estimated from an empirical model of ice growth rate and time spent at that operating point in the flight trajectory. The computational tool can be used to assess specific turbine engines to their susceptibility to

  4. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  5. Solid Waste from Four-stroke Medium Speed Engine Power Plant Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the solid-state waste generated in power plants based on internal combustion engine (ICE) technology, supplied by the Wärtsilä Energy Solutions division. This thesis, which characterizes and quantifies the waste, was done to enhance the ability of supporting customers in issues related to social and environmental impact assessment, environmental permits, waste management planning, etc. The Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability and the E...

  6. Technician Career Opportunities in Engineering Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineers' Council for Professional Development, New York, NY.

    Career opportunities for engineering technicians are available in the technologies relating to air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, aviation and aerospace, building construction, chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial engineering, instrumentation, internal combustion engines, mechanical…

  7. Modeling and Detection of Ice Particle Accretion in Aircraft Engine Compression Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Simon, Donald L.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The accretion of ice particles in the core of commercial aircraft engines has been an ongoing aviation safety challenge. While no accidents have resulted from this phenomenon to date, numerous engine power loss events ranging from uneventful recoveries to forced landings have been recorded. As a first step to enabling mitigation strategies during ice accretion, a detection scheme must be developed that is capable of being implemented on board modern engines. In this paper, a simple detection scheme is developed and tested using a realistic engine simulation with approximate ice accretion models based on data from a compressor design tool. These accretion models are implemented as modified Low Pressure Compressor maps and have the capability to shift engine performance based on a specified level of ice blockage. Based on results from this model, it is possible to detect the accretion of ice in the engine core by observing shifts in the typical sensed engine outputs. Results are presented in which, for a 0.1 percent false positive rate, a true positive detection rate of 98 percent is achieved.

  8. Light Aircraft Piston Engine Carburetor Ice Detector/Warning Device Sensitivity/Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    10kHz max), converting raw data into engineering units as established by operator, displaying eight different parameters on cathode ray tube (CRT) and...TN No. 1790, February 1949. f. icing - Protection Requirements for Reciprocating Engine Induction Systems, NCA Technical Report No. 982, June 1949. q

  9. A Dynamic Model for the Evaluation of Aircraft Engine Icing Detection and Control-Based Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan W.; Jones, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    Aircraft flying in regions of high ice crystal concentrations are susceptible to the buildup of ice within the compression system of their gas turbine engines. This ice buildup can restrict engine airflow and cause an uncommanded loss of thrust, also known as engine rollback, which poses a potential safety hazard. The aviation community is conducting research to understand this phenomena, and to identify avoidance and mitigation strategies to address the concern. To support this research, a dynamic turbofan engine model has been created to enable the development and evaluation of engine icing detection and control-based mitigation strategies. This model captures the dynamic engine response due to high ice water ingestion and the buildup of ice blockage in the engines low pressure compressor. It includes a fuel control system allowing engine closed-loop control effects during engine icing events to be emulated. The model also includes bleed air valve and horsepower extraction actuators that, when modulated, change overall engine operating performance. This system-level model has been developed and compared against test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine undergoing engine icing studies in an altitude test facility and also against outputs from the manufacturers customer deck. This paper will describe the model and show results of its dynamic response under open-loop and closed-loop control operating scenarios in the presence of ice blockage buildup compared against engine test cell data. Planned follow-on use of the model for the development and evaluation of icing detection and control-based mitigation strategies will also be discussed. The intent is to combine the model and control mitigation logic with an engine icing risk calculation tool capable of predicting the risk of engine icing based on current operating conditions. Upon detection of an operating region of risk for engine icing events, the control mitigation logic will seek to change the

  10. Engineering of frustration in colloidal artificial ices realized on microfeatured grooved lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierno, Pietro

    Artificial spin-ice systems, namely lattices of interacting single domain ferromagnetic islands, have been used to date as microscopic models of frustration induced by lattice topology, allowing for the direct visualization of spin arrangements and textures. However, the engineering of frustrated ice states in which individual spins can be manipulated in situ and the real-time observation of their collective dynamics remain both challenging tasks. Inspired by recent theoretical advances, we realize a colloidal version of an artificial spin ice system using interacting polarizable particles confined to lattices of bistable gravitational traps. We show quantitatively that ice-selection rules emerge in this frustrated soft matter system by tuning the strength of the pair-interactions between the microscopic units. Via independent control of particle positioning and dipolar coupling, we introduce monopole-like defects and strings and use loops with defined chirality as an elementary unit to store binary information.

  11. Modeling of a Turbofan Engine with Ice Crystal Ingestion in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Jones, Scott M.; Nili, Samaun

    2017-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to apply a computational tool for the flow analysis of the turbine engine that has been tested with ice crystal ingestion in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has been used to test a highly instrumented Honeywell ALF502R-5A (LF11) turbofan engine at simulated altitude operating conditions. Test data analysis with an engine cycle code and a compressor flow code was conducted to determine the values of key icing parameters, that can indicate the risk of ice accretion, which can lead to engine rollback (un-commanded loss of engine thrust). The full engine aerothermodynamic performance was modeled with the Honeywell Customer Deck specifically created for the ALF502R-5A engine. The mean-line compressor flow analysis code, which includes a code that models the state of the ice crystal, was used to model the air flow through the fan-core and low pressure compressor. The results of the compressor flow analyses included calculations of the ice-water flow rate to air flow rate ratio (IWAR), the local static wet bulb temperature, and the particle melt ratio throughout the flow field. It was found that the assumed particle size had a large effect on the particle melt ratio, and on the local wet bulb temperature. In this study the particle size was varied parametrically to produce a non-zero calculated melt ratio in the exit guide vane (EGV) region of the low pressure compressor (LPC) for the data points that experienced a growth of blockage there, and a subsequent engine called rollback (CRB). At data points where the engine experienced a CRB having the lowest wet bulb temperature of 492 degrees Rankine at the EGV trailing edge, the smallest particle size that produced a non-zero melt ratio (between 3 percent - 4 percent) was on the order of 1 micron. This value of melt ratio was utilized as the target for all other subsequent data points analyzed, while the particle size was varied from 1 micron - 9

  12. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  13. Modeling the Effects of Ice Accretion on the Low Pressure Compressor and the Overall Turbofan Engine System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Wright, William B.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is on utilizing a mean line compressor flow analysis code coupled to an engine system thermodynamic code, to estimate the effects of ice accretion on the low pressure compressor, and quantifying its effects on the engine system throughout a notional flight trajectory. In this paper a temperature range in which engine icing would occur was assumed. This provided a mechanism to locate potential component icing sites and allow the computational tools to add blockages due to ice accretion in a parametric fashion. Ultimately the location and level of blockage due to icing would be provided by an ice accretion code. To proceed, an engine system modeling code and a mean line compressor flow analysis code were utilized to calculate the flow conditions in the fan-core and low pressure compressor and to identify potential locations within the compressor where ice may accrete. In this study, an "additional blockage" due to the accretion of ice on the metal surfaces, has been added to the baseline aerodynamic blockage due to boundary layer, as well as the blade metal blockage. Once the potential locations of ice accretion are identified, the levels of additional blockage due to accretion were parametrically varied to estimate the effects on the low pressure compressor blade row performance operating within the engine system environment. This study includes detailed analysis of compressor and engine performance during cruise and descent operating conditions at several altitudes within the notional flight trajectory. The purpose of this effort is to develop the computer codes to provide a predictive capability to forecast the onset of engine icing events, such that they could ultimately help in the avoidance of these events.

  14. Simulation and experiment for oxygen-enriched combustion engine using liquid oxygen to solidify CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Jia, Xiaoshe; Pei, Pucheng; Lu, Yong; Yi, Li; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    For capturing and recycling of CO2 in the internal combustion engine, Rankle cycle engine can reduce the exhaust pollutants effectively under the condition of ensuring the engine thermal efficiency by using the techniques of spraying water in the cylinder and optimizing the ignition advance angle. However, due to the water spray nozzle need to be installed on the cylinder, which increases the cylinder head design difficulty and makes the combustion conditions become more complicated. In this paper, a new method is presented to carry out the closing inlet and exhaust system for internal combustion engines. The proposed new method uses liquid oxygen to solidify part of cooled CO2 from exhaust system into dry ice and the liquid oxygen turns into gas oxygen which is sent to inlet system. The other part of CO2 is sent to inlet system and mixed with oxygen, which can reduce the oxygen-enriched combustion detonation tendency and make combustion stable. Computing grid of the IP52FMI single-cylinder four-stroke gasoline-engine is established according to the actual shape of the combustion chamber using KIVA-3V program. The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate are analyzed on the temperatures, the pressures and the instantaneous heat release rates when the EGR rate is more than 8%. The possibility of enclosing intake and exhaust system for engine is verified. The carbon dioxide trapping device is designed and the IP52FMI engine is transformed and the CO2 capture experiment is carried out. The experimental results show that when the EGR rate is 36% for the optimum EGR rate. When the liquid oxygen of 35.80-437.40 g is imported into the device and last 1-20 min, respectively, 21.50-701.30 g dry ice is obtained. This research proposes a new design method which can capture CO2 for vehicular internal combustion engine.

  15. Análise por cromatografia gasosa de BTEX nas emissões de motor de combustão interna alimentado com diesel e mistura diesel-biodiesel (B10 Analysis of BTEX in the emissions from an internal combustion engine burning diesel oil and diesel-biodiesel mixture (B10 by gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio L. Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedures for analysing pollutant gases emitted by engines, such as volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene by using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC. For IC engine burning, in a broad sense, the use of the B10 mixture reduces drastically the emissions of aromatic compounds. Especially for benzene the reduction of concentrations occurs at the level of about 24.5%. Although a concentration value below 1 µg mL-1 has been obtained, this reduction is extremely significant since benzene is a carcinogenic compound.

  16. Modeling of Highly Instrumented Honeywell Turbofan Engine Tested with Ice Crystal Ingestion in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Jones, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL), an altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center, has been used to test a highly instrumented turbine engine at simulated altitude operating conditions. This is a continuation of the PSL testing that successfully duplicated the icing events that were experienced in a previous engine (serial LF01) during flight through ice crystal clouds, which was the first turbofan engine tested in PSL. This second model of the ALF502R-5A serial number LF11 is a highly instrumented version of the previous engine. The PSL facility provides a continuous cloud of ice crystals with controlled characteristics of size and concentration, which are ingested by the engine during operation at simulated altitudes. Several of the previous operating points tested in the LF01 engine were duplicated to confirm repeatability in LF11. The instrumentation included video cameras to visually illustrate the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor (LPC) exit guide vane region in order to confirm the ice accretion, which was suspected during the testing of the LF01. Traditional instrumentation included static pressure taps in the low pressure compressor inner and outer flow path walls, as well as total pressure and temperature rakes in the low pressure compressor region. The test data was utilized to determine the losses and blockages due to accretion in the exit guide vane region of the LPC. Multiple data points were analyzed with the Honeywell Customer Deck. A full engine roll back point was modeled with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code. The mean line compressor flow analysis code with ice crystal modeling was utilized to estimate the parameters that indicate the risk of accretion, as well as to estimate the degree of blockage and losses caused by accretion during a full engine roll back point. The analysis provided additional validation of the icing risk parameters within the LPC, as well as the creation of models for

  17. Carbon Monoxide Exposure in Youth Ice Hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnow, Theodore; Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P

    2017-11-01

    To examine the effect of ice resurfacer type on carboxyhemoglobin levels in youth hockey players. We hypothesized that players in arenas with electric resurfacers would have normal, stable carboxyhemoglobin levels during games, whereas those in arenas with internal combustion engine (IC) resurfacers would have an increase in carboxyhemoglobin levels. Prospective cohort study. Enclosed ice arenas in the northeastern United States. Convenience sample of players aged 8 to 18 years old in 16 games at different arenas. Eight arenas (37 players) used an IC ice resurfacer and 8 arenas (36 players) an electric resurfacer. Carboxyhemoglobin levels (SpCO) were measured using a pulse CO-oximeter before and after the game. Arena air was tested for carbon monoxide (CO) using a metered gas detector. Players completed symptom questionnaires. The change in SpCO from pregame to postgame was compared between players at arenas with electric versus IC resurfacers. Carbon monoxide was present at 6 of 8 arenas using IC resurfacers, levels ranged from 4 to 42 parts per million. Carbon monoxide was not found at arenas with electric resurfacers. Players at arenas with IC resurfacers had higher median pregame SpCO levels compared with those at electric arenas (4.3% vs 1%, P carboxyhemoglobin during games and have elevated baseline carboxyhemoglobin levels compared with players at arenas with electric resurfacers. Electric resurfacers decrease the risk of CO exposure.

  18. Final presentation of the joint project: Laser-diagnostic and plasma-technological fundamentals of emission reduction and fuel consumption reduction in DI internal combustion engines. Results of subprojects; Abschlusspraesentation zum Verbundprojekt: Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Ergebnisse der Teilvorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, K.; Sellhorst, M. (eds.)

    2000-07-01

    New combustion processes, especially DI combustion processes, can be developed quickly and efficiently only if efficient and industrially applicable processes are available for investigating the processes of combustion in engines, for ignition of locally varying fuel/air mixtures, and for treatment of exhaust of nonstoichiometric combustion processes. The project aimed at the development and testing of laser diagnostic methods, numerical models and plasma processes. The conference comprised the sections: Processes inside the engine; processes behind the engine; system aspects. [German] Zielstellung des Verbundprojektes ist die Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von neuartigen motorischen Brennverfahren, von denen der direkteinspritzende (DI) Verbrennungsmotor die guenstigsten Voraussetzungen liefert und damit ein Potential bereitstellt, die zukuenftig geforderten Emissions-Grenzwerte entsprechend der gesetzlich vorgegebenen Euro-Normen zu erreichen. Neuartige, insbesondere direkteinspritzende Brennverfahren koennen von der Automobilindustrie jedoch nur dann schnell und effizient erarbeitet werden, wenn geeignete, von der Industrie einsetzbare Verfahren - zur Untersuchung von Wirkketten der motorischen Verbrennung, - zur Zuendung oertlich schwankender Kraftstoff-Luft-Gemische, - zur Abgasnachbehandlung von Abgasen aus nichtstoechiometrischer Verbrennung zur Verfuegung stehen. Ziel des geplanten Verbundprojektes war es also, laserdiagnostische Analyseverfahren, Verfahren der numerischen Modellierung und grundlegende plasmatechnologische Verfahren zu untersuchen und weitestgehend zu erproben, damit die Verfahren oder die mit ihnen gewonnenen Erkenntnisse von der Industrie als Werkzeug eingesetzt werden koennen. Aus Sicht des Anwenders ergab sich dabei eine inhaltliche Einteilung in die Themenfelder: - Innermotorische Prozesse, - Nachmotorische Prozesse und - Systemaspekte. (orig.)

  19. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  20. Multivariate analysis of performance and emissions for internal combustion engines running with gasoline-ethanol blends; Análisis multivariable del desempeño y las emisiones en motores de combustión interna que utilizan mezclas de gasolina y etanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have shown an increasing interest in ethanol blending to gasoline fuel, as well as a rapid implementation of this kind of biofuels in countries like Colombia. Taking into account the lack of studies about performance and emissions characteristics for the local engines, and the fact that new biofuels policies are emerging using studies made for non-local conditions, a study is proposed in order to verify the real changes in those characteristics into the Colombian conditions. This article presents a performance and emission analysis when different independent variables act on two engines working with gasoline-ethanol blends up to 30 % of the latter. A set of dependent variables are introduced in order to verify the real statistical influence of independent variables. Results confirm trends reported by other authors; nevertheless, these tendencies are not always statistical representative, like in the case of ethanol concentration influence on combustion duration.Los últimos años han mostrado un creciente interés en la mezcla gasolina-alcohol, así como una rápida implementación de este tipo de biocombustible en países como Colombia. Tomando en cuenta la falta de estudios sobre desempeño y emisiones para los motores locales, y el surgimiento de nuevas políticas utilizando como soporte estudios realizados en otros países, se propone verificar los cambios reales sobre esas características para las condiciones Colombianas. Este artículo presenta un análisis de desempeño y emisiones cuando diferentes variables independientes actúan sobre dos motores de combustión interna que trabajan con gasolina-etanol, con hasta 30 % en volumen de este último. Un grupo de variables dependientes es introducido para verificar la verdadera significancia estadística sobre las variables independientes. Los resultados confirman las tendencias reportadas por otros autores; sin embargo, estas tendencias no son siempre estad