WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal mass exchange

  1. Mixture theory for a thermoelasto-plastic porous solid considering fluid flow and internal mass exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ristinmaa, M.; Ottosen, N.S.; Johannesson, Björn

    2011-01-01

    A thermoelastic-plastic body consisting of two phases, a solid and a fluid, each comprising two constituents is considered where one constituent in one phase is allowed to exchange mass with another constituent (of the same substance) in the other phase. A large strain setting is adopted and the ......A thermoelastic-plastic body consisting of two phases, a solid and a fluid, each comprising two constituents is considered where one constituent in one phase is allowed to exchange mass with another constituent (of the same substance) in the other phase. A large strain setting is adopted......, and in particular, a general evolution law for the rate of deformation tensor related to mass exchange is proposed and this leads to general absorption and desorption evolution laws for mass exchange between two constituents (of the same substance), one belonging to the solid phase and the other to the fluid phase....... Equilibrium curves for absorption and desorption also emerge from the theory....

  2. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  3. Conjugate heat and mass transfer in heat mass exchanger ducts

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Li-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Conjugate Heat and Mass Transfer in Heat Mass Exchanger Ducts bridges the gap between fundamentals and recent discoveries, making it a valuable tool for anyone looking to expand their knowledge of heat exchangers. The first book on the market to cover conjugate heat and mass transfer in heat exchangers, author Li-Zhi Zhang goes beyond the basics to cover recent advancements in equipment for energy use and environmental control (such as heat and moisture recovery ventilators, hollow fiber membrane modules for humidification/dehumidification, membrane modules for air purification, desi

  4. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange in mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Acter, Thamina; Zherebker, Alexander; Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-03-30

    The isotopic exchange approach is in use since the first observation of such reactions in 1933 by Lewis. This approach allows the investigation of the pathways of chemical and biochemical reactions, determination of structure, composition, and conformation of molecules. Mass spectrometry has now become one of the most important analytical tools for the monitoring of the isotopic exchange reactions. Investigation of conformational dynamics of proteins, quantitative measurements, obtaining chemical, and structural information about individual compounds of the complex natural mixtures are mainly based on the use of isotope exchange in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry. The most important reaction is the Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange, which is mainly performed in the solution. Recently we have developed the approach allowing performing of the Hydrogen/Deuterium reaction on-line directly in the ionization source under atmospheric pressure. Such approach simplifies the sample preparation and can accelerate the exchange reaction so that certain hydrogens that are considered as non-labile will also participate in the exchange. The use of in-ionization source H/D exchange in modern mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of molecules serves as the basic theme in this review. We will focus on the mechanisms of the isotopic exchange reactions and on the application of in-ESI, in-APCI, and in-APPI source Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange for the investigation of petroleum, natural organic matter, oligosaccharides, and proteins including protein-protein complexes. The simple scenario for adaptation of H/D exchange reactions into mass spectrometric method is also highlighted along with a couple of examples collected from previous studies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Program Integration for International Technology Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, New Mexico, supports the International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) through the integration of all international activities conducted within the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  6. The IAEA's role in international information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittinger, M.T.M.; Selling, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency strives to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information in the transport safety area through a dual work programme covering the development and maintenance of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, on the one hand, and their implementation, on the other. Under the implementation aspect of its transport safety programme the IAEA takes advantage of the increased availability of mass storage media and the equipment to access them to use databases for information exchange. Information is collected on the identification of national competent authorities, package approval certificates, events in radioactive material transport, research and development, shipments, and exposure data. Data on national competent authorities and the package approval certificates that they issue is updated and disseminated annually to all Member States. Research in progress is described in a document that is published every two years. Databases on events, shipments and radiation exposure are in the development phase. Member States experience difficulty in obtaining the appropriate information and thus, the reporting periods for these subject areas are extended. Information gathered through these activities serve as regulatory aids to the national competent authorities responsible in the Member States for the transport of radioactive material, both internationally and nationally. In addition, it is useful in support of the continuous review and revision process of the transport Regulations and their supporting documents. (J.P.N.)

  7. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) international research exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ITS applications address surface transportation challenges in safety, mobility, and : sustainability that are similar in cause and impact worldwide. International ITS : exchange allows cooperating nations to benefit from each others pre-competitiv...

  8. Foreign Exchange Risk in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Olivia Balu

    2007-03-01

    In this article we will focus on forward and futures contracts for managing foreign exchange risk. A forward is a contract to buy or sell currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at a specific date in the future. Futures are similar to forwards except that they’re traded on exchanges which specify settlement dates. Also we make some recommendations related to the foreign exchange risk-management practices that are useful for companies involved in international trade and for financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to these companies.

  9. Incentives and Information Exchange in International Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The exchange of taxpayer-specific information between national tax authorities has recently emerged as a key and controversial topic in international tax policy discussions, most notably with the OECD s harmful tax practices project and the EU s savings tax initiative.This paper analyses the effects

  10. Health information exchange: national and international approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R

    2012-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE), the process of electronically moving patient-level information between different organizations, is viewed as a solution to the fragmentation of data in health care. This review provides a description of the current state of HIE in seven nations, as well was three international HIE efforts, with a particular focus on the relation of exchange efforts to national health care systems, common challenges, and the implications of cross-border information sharing. National and international efforts highlighted in English language informatics journals, professional associations, and government reports are described. Fully functioning HIE is not yet a common phenomenon worldwide. However, multiple nations see the potential benefits of HIE and that has led to national and international efforts of varying scope, scale, and purview. National efforts continue to work to overcome the challenges of interoperability, record linking, insufficient infrastructures, governance, and interorganizational relationships, but have created architectural strategies, oversight agencies, and incentives to foster exchange. The three international HIE efforts reviewed represent very different approaches to the same problem of ensuring the availability of health information across borders. The potential of HIE to address many cost and quality issues will ensure HIE remains on many national agendas. In many instances, health care executives and leaders have opportunities to work within national programs to help shape local exchange governance and decide technology partners. Furthermore, HIE raises policy questions concerning the role of centralized planning, national identifiers, standards, and types of information exchanged, each of which are vital issues to individual health organizations and worthy of their attention.

  11. Foreign Exchange Risk in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Olivia Balu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Every international business is affected by the ever-changing value of the currencies implied in contracts. While many of us consider this unpredictability a nuisance, the volatility of currencies around the world can mean the difference between success and failure for many exporters/importers. Exchange rates between one currency and another can change dramatically in a short period of time, leaving the unprepared business exposed to potentially crippling losses. The efficient management of this risk is essential for the survival of a company and any business that is exposed to such a risk should ensure that it is fully prepared to manage it. Old standbys and recent breakthroughs in the area of financial risk management can remove much of the risk from currency rate movements. The range of such products is huge, with increasingly sophisticated techniques constantly being added. Among the most modern methods for managing exchange risk there are four major classes of derivative products like: forwards, futures, options, and swaps. Beyond the four main types of risk management instruments, there are a number of other products including "swaptions" (options on swaps; avenging options; yield curve swaps; futures on spreads; and options on portfolios. Sophisticated mathematical tools and high-speed computers are needed to calculate the price of these instruments and to determine their overall effect on the company. In this article we will focus on forward and futures contracts for managing foreign exchange risk. A forward is a contract to buy or sell currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at a specific date in the future. Futures are similar to forwards except that they're traded on exchanges which specify settlement dates. Also we make some recommendations related to the foreign exchange risk-management practices that are useful for companies involved in international trade and for financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to

  12. International Technology Exchange Division: 1993 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) was established to ensure that reliable and acceptable technologies are available for implementation at DOE sites and that a technically trained work force is available to complete the EM mission by 2019. OTD established the International Technology Exchange Staff (ITES) to identify, evaluate, and acquire international technologies which can accelerate US DOE cleanup operations. ITES`s goal is to pursue international collaboration among government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify world-wide needs and available technologies that will meet US environmental needs in general, and EM cleanup needs in particular; and establish mechanisms by which US government ER/WM technologies will be transferred to the US private sector for commercialization and export to international markets. ITES has developed the following strategic objectives to implement its international goals: develop and implement EM`s policy for international programs in accordance with DOE and US Government policies and regulations; establish efficient and predictable international technology transfer mechanisms; assist the US private sector in the commercialization and deployment of federally funded EM technologies and related knowledge in international markets; leverage US and non-US resources to accelerate international development and regulatory acceptance of EM technologies; contribute to the improvement of EM`s training of US students, scientists, and managers on international environmental issues. A summary and descriptions of program activities and accomplishments are given for 17 programs which comprise the four main areas of the ITES program: Activities with the Former Soviet Union, International Technology Transfer, International Cooperation, and Information Systems and Publications. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. International Technology Exchange Division: 1993 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) was established to ensure that reliable and acceptable technologies are available for implementation at DOE sites and that a technically trained work force is available to complete the EM mission by 2019. OTD established the International Technology Exchange Staff (ITES) to identify, evaluate, and acquire international technologies which can accelerate US DOE cleanup operations. ITES's goal is to pursue international collaboration among government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify world-wide needs and available technologies that will meet US environmental needs in general, and EM cleanup needs in particular; and establish mechanisms by which US government ER/WM technologies will be transferred to the US private sector for commercialization and export to international markets. ITES has developed the following strategic objectives to implement its international goals: develop and implement EM's policy for international programs in accordance with DOE and US Government policies and regulations; establish efficient and predictable international technology transfer mechanisms; assist the US private sector in the commercialization and deployment of federally funded EM technologies and related knowledge in international markets; leverage US and non-US resources to accelerate international development and regulatory acceptance of EM technologies; contribute to the improvement of EM's training of US students, scientists, and managers on international environmental issues. A summary and descriptions of program activities and accomplishments are given for 17 programs which comprise the four main areas of the ITES program: Activities with the Former Soviet Union, International Technology Transfer, International Cooperation, and Information Systems and Publications. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  14. Exchange rate volatility and international trade: The option approach

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter

    1986-01-01

    Usually it is argued that an increase in exchange rate volatility reduces the volume of international trade since trading firms are risk averse. This paper shows for risk neutral firms that the expected international trade volume in standardized commodities grows with exchange rate volatility. The firms adjust their trade volume to the exchange rate level. The more favorable the exchange rate is, the higher is the export volume. If the rate drops below some level, exports are stopped. Thus in...

  15. Microchannel laminated mass exchanger and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Matson, Dean W.; Stewart, Donald C.; Drost, Monte K.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Perez, Joseph M.; Feng, Xiangdong; Liu, Jun

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a microchannel mass exchanger having a first plurality of inner thin sheets and a second plurality of outer thin sheets. The inner thin sheets each have a solid margin around a circumference, the solid margin defining a slot through the inner thin sheet thickness. The outer thin sheets each have at least two header holes on opposite ends and when sandwiching an inner thin sheet. The outer thin sheets further have a mass exchange medium. The assembly forms a closed flow channel assembly wherein fluid enters through one of the header holes into the slot and exits through another of the header holes after contacting the mass exchange medium.

  16. CYLINDER OF THE DISPOSABLE MASS EXCHANGE DEVICE FOR HEMOSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Kazakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Hemocarboperfusion, previously widely used in our country, can universally pass out of use due to the lack of industrial production of disposable mass exchange devices.MATERIAl AND METHODS. Physicochemical properties of materials and design features of the body samples elements of various sizes have been studied.RESULTS. The elements and materials properties of the hemosorption mass exchanger cylinder have been studied. Hydrodynamic parameters of manipulation using the developed cylinders at different perfusion rates have been studied in bench experiments.CONCLUSION. The original cylinder of the disposable mass exchange device for hemosorption, which meets the current clinical needs, has been developed. 

  17. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  18. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  19. Determinants of International Outsourcing and Performance: A Relational Exchange Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl E. Dresden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prescriptive discussions regarding international outsourcing abound, but there are few previously proposed models of the antecedents leading to such sourcing. This empirical study utilizes the relational exchange framework proposed by Dwyer, Schurr and Oh (1987 and builds a conceptual model of the firm's use of international outsourcing within the context of relational exchange. The model concentrates on the aspects of relational exchange that are crucial antecedents to successful international outsourcing and empirically demonstrates how both economic and social factors have their influence. The resulting model demonstrates how cooperation, rather than competition, leads to successful international outsourcing.

  20. International information exchange in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Formal and informal agreements exist between the US and several other countries, assuring the unrestricted exchange of magnetic fusion information. The Fusion Energy Library at Oak Ridge National Laboratory uses the US Department of Energy standard distribution system and exchange agreements to ensure the receipt of current reports. Selective dissemination of information, computer networks, and exchange programs are additional means for information gathering. The importance of these means as they relate to the fusion program in the US and specifically at ORNL is discussed

  1. International trade and exchange rate volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractFor currencies with well developed forward markets several papers have investigated the conjectured negative relationship between trade and short term exchange rate volatility, without being very successful. A theoretical explanation for the empirical anomalies is provided by solving

  2. 75 FR 32977 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed... Permit Opening Transactions by Market Makers To Accommodate Closing Transactions of Other Market... International Securities Exchange, LLC (``Exchange'' or ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  3. International exchange of safety and licensing information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, J.D. Jr.; Hauber, R.D.; Chenier, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A network of formal and informal bilateral arrangements for the exchange of nuclear safety information is being established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. For developing countries, such arrangements can provide ready access to the extensive, fully documented safety analyses and safety research results that NRC has accumulated. NRC has been receiving foreign visitors at a rate of about 500 per year, largely for discussions of safety and licensing questions related to light water reactors. Exchanges also are taking place on the safety of advanced reactors. A special interest of the NRC is in providing for reciprocal communicaion, at the earliest possible time, of important problems, decisions and other actions on nuclear safety matters. For example, it is essential that a newly-discovered problem in a nuclear reactor be brought immediately to the attention of other governments which are responsible for the safety of similar reactors. Definite progress has been made in the U.S. Freedom of Information Act. Certain exchanges have taken place on this basis. Experience in the establishment and operation of NRC's bilateral exchange arrangements is summarized. A typical exchange with the regulatory authority of country building its first power reactor is described

  4. International exchange of safety and licensing information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, J.D. Jr.; Hauber, R.D.; Chenier, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A network of formal and informal bilateral arrangements for the exchange of nuclear safety information is being established by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. For developing countries such arrangements can provide ready access to the extensive, fully documented safety analyses and safety research results that USNRC has accumulated. USNRC has been receiving foreign visitors at a rate of about 500 per year, largely for discussions of safety and licensing questions related to light water reactors. Exchanges also are taking place on the safety of advanced reactors. A special interest of the USNRC is in providing for reciprocal communication, at the earliest possible time, of important problems, decisions and other actions on nuclear safety matters. For example, it is essential that a newly discovered problem in a nuclear reactor be brought immediately to the attention of other governments that are responsible for the safety of similar reactors. Definite progress has been made in the USA in defining categories of information that USNRC can receive in confidence from foreign countries, and can protect from disclosure under the US Freedom of Information Act. Certain exchanges have taken place on this basis. Experience in the establishment and operation of USNRC's bilateral exchange arrangements is summarized. A typical exchange with the regulatory authority of a country building its first power reactor is described. (author)

  5. Social Representation of Intercultural Exchange in an International University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an interpretive investigation into the social representation of intercultural exchange at one of the newly established international universities in Japan. The author conducted quasi-structured interviews with 5 staff members and 22 students to gain insight into their perceptions of intercultural exchange and interactions. The…

  6. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  7. Hydraulic Validation of the LHC Cold Mass Heat Exchanger Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Provenaz, P

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of the helium mass flow vs. the fraction of the tube wetted by the liquid helium II in the heat exchanger is a crucial input parameter for the heat exchange since the heat flux is direct ly proportional to the wetted surface. In the range of liquid and gas velocities inside the heat exchanger, the liquid flow behaves like in an open channel. Looking at the flow equations for such a s ituation, the velocity depends on the fluid properties only by the friction factor which is a function of the Reynolds number. Thus it was decided to build an experiment with water in order to check t he open channel equations in the heat exchanger geometry. This paper shows the results for water and gives the extrapolation for helium.

  8. The international educational exchanges: history and modern value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L S Astafeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In article the history, a current state and prospects of development of the international educational exchanges is considered. Influence world processes of globalisation and internationalisation on educational processes of multinational high schools is shown.

  9. 77 FR 24752 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; International Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Securities Holdings, Inc. (``ISE Holdings'') to a newly formed Swiss corporation, Eurex Global Derivatives AG... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66834; File Nos. SR-EDGA-2012-08; SR-EDGX-2012....; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Corporate...

  10. Exchange Rate Effects on International Commercial Trade Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant to be an evaluation sustained by theoretical and empirical considerations of the exchange rate impact on international commercial trade competitiveness. In this respect, the study aims to find how the exchange rate influences Romanian competitiveness through assessing the effects generated on exports and imports. The main purpose of the study is to assess the complex action of the exchange rate on international commercial trade competitiveness in contemporaneity and the connections between these variables. The empirical part contains a regression analysis where exports and imports are dependent variables influenced by a series of determinants.

  11. Performance analysis of an organic Rankine cycle with internal heat exchanger having zeotropic working fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranis Deethayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performance of a 50 kW organic Rankine cycle (ORC with internal heat exchanger (IHE having R245fa/R152a zeotropic refrigerant with various compositions was investigated. The IHE could reduce heat rate at the ORC evaporator and better cycle efficiency could be obtained. The zeotropic mixture could reduce the irreversibilities during the heat exchanges at the ORC evaporator and the ORC condenser due to its gliding temperature; thus the cycle working temperatures came closer to the temperatures of the heat source and the heat sink. In this paper, effects of evaporating temperature, mass fraction of R152a and effectiveness of internal heat exchanger on the ORC performances for the first law and the second law of thermodynamics were considered. The simulated results showed that reduction of R245fa composition could reduce the irreversibilities at the evaporator and the condenser. The suitable composition of R245fa was around 80% mass fraction and below this the irreversibilities were nearly steady. Higher evaporating temperature and higher internal heat exchanger effectiveness also increased the first law and second law efficiencies. A set of correlations to estimate the first and the second law efficiencies with the mass fraction of R245fa, the internal heat exchanger effectiveness and the evaporating temperature were also developed.

  12. Radiocarbon detection by ion charge exchange mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkis, Michael; Wei, Tao

    2007-01-01

    A method for detection of radiocarbon at low levels is described and the results of tests are presented. We refer to this method as ion charge exchange mass spectrometry (ICE-MS). The ICE-MS instrument is a two stage mass spectrometer. In the first stage, molecular interferences which would otherwise affect radiocarbon detection at mass 14 are eliminated by producing high charge state ions directly in the ion source (charge state ≥2). 14 N interference is eliminated in the second stage by converting the beam to negative ions in a charge exchange cell. The beam is mass-analysed at each stage. We have built a test apparatus consisting of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a pair of analysing magnets with a charge exchange cell in between, followed by an electrostatic analyser to improve the signal to background ratio. With this apparatus we have measured charge exchange probabilities for (C n+ → C - ) from 4.5 to 40.5 keV (n = 1-3). We have studied the sources of background including assessment of limits for nitrogen interference by searching for negative ions from charge exchange of 14 N ions. Our system has been used to detect 14 C in enriched samples of CO 2 gas with 14 C/ 12 C isotopic ratio down to the 10 -9 level. Combined with a measured sample consumption rate of 4 ng/s, this corresponds to a capability to detect transient signals containing only a few μBq of 14 C activity, such as may be obtained from chromatographic separation. The method will require further development to match the sensitivity of AMS with a gas ion source; however, even in its present state its sensitivity is well suited to tracer studies in biomedical research and drug development

  13. Empirical Correction for Differences in Chemical Exchange Rates in Hydrogen Exchange-Mass Spectrometry Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Ronald T; Mills, Brittney J; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Esfandiary, Reza; Bishop, Steven M; Middaugh, C Russell; Volkin, David B; Weis, David D

    2017-09-05

    A barrier to the use of hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry (HX-MS) in many contexts, especially analytical characterization of various protein therapeutic candidates, is that differences in temperature, pH, ionic strength, buffering agent, or other additives can alter chemical exchange rates, making HX data gathered under differing solution conditions difficult to compare. Here, we present data demonstrating that HX chemical exchange rates can be substantially altered not only by the well-established variables of temperature and pH but also by additives including arginine, guanidine, methionine, and thiocyanate. To compensate for these additive effects, we have developed an empirical method to correct the hydrogen-exchange data for these differences. First, differences in chemical exchange rates are measured by use of an unstructured reporter peptide, YPI. An empirical chemical exchange correction factor, determined by use of the HX data from the reporter peptide, is then applied to the HX measurements obtained from a protein of interest under different solution conditions. We demonstrate that the correction is experimentally sound through simulation and in a proof-of-concept experiment using unstructured peptides under slow-exchange conditions (pD 4.5 at ambient temperature). To illustrate its utility, we applied the correction to HX-MS excipient screening data collected for a pharmaceutically relevant IgG4 mAb being characterized to determine the effects of different formulations on backbone dynamics.

  14. Exchange Rate and International Trade: Case From Indonesian Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anung Yoga Anindhita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate fluctuation in Floating Exchange Rate Regime is considered to Exchange rate fluctuation in Floating Exchange Rate Regime is considered to have impacts on the international trade through its adjustment to the price and its volatility to the trade risk. This paper is aimed at estimating those impacts on the international trade of manufacturing sector in Indonesia for period 2007 to 2014. To conduct estimation, it uses multiple regression analysis on two models: First, the import of raw-and-auxiliary materials; Second, the export of manufacturing sector. The results show that the exchange rate impacts both work significantly on the import of raw-and-auxiliary materials. The finding implies that, through the import of raw-and-auxiliary materials, manufacturing sector is very susceptible to the shock caused by exchange rate changes. Meanwhile, the export of manufacturing sector is not able to take advantage of the depreciation of the exchange rate due to the lack of competitiveness.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i2.5210

  15. Minimizing Back Exchange in the Hydrogen Exchange-Mass Spectrometry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Benjamin T.; Ricciuti, Alec; Mayne, Leland; Englander, S. Walter

    2012-12-01

    The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to the hydrogen exchange (HX) proteolytic fragmentation experiment extends powerful HX methodology to the study of large biologically important proteins. A persistent problem is the degradation of HX information due to back exchange of deuterium label during the fragmentation-separation process needed to prepare samples for MS measurement. This paper reports a systematic analysis of the factors that influence back exchange (solution pH, ionic strength, desolvation temperature, LC column interaction, flow rates, system volume). The many peptides exhibit a range of back exchange due to intrinsic amino acid HX rate differences. Accordingly, large back exchange leads to large variability in D-recovery from one residue to another as well as one peptide to another that cannot be corrected for by reference to any single peptide-level measurement. The usual effort to limit back exchange by limiting LC time provides little gain. Shortening the LC elution gradient by 3-fold only reduced back exchange by ~2 %, while sacrificing S/N and peptide count. An unexpected dependence of back exchange on ionic strength as well as pH suggests a strategy in which solution conditions are changed during sample preparation. Higher salt should be used in the first stage of sample preparation (proteolysis and trapping) and lower salt (<20 mM) and pH in the second stage before electrospray injection. Adjustment of these and other factors together with recent advances in peptide fragment detection yields hundreds of peptide fragments with D-label recovery of 90 % ± 5 %.

  16. Minimizing back exchange in the hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Benjamin T; Ricciuti, Alec; Mayne, Leland; Englander, S Walter

    2012-12-01

    The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to the hydrogen exchange (HX) proteolytic fragmentation experiment extends powerful HX methodology to the study of large biologically important proteins. A persistent problem is the degradation of HX information due to back exchange of deuterium label during the fragmentation-separation process needed to prepare samples for MS measurement. This paper reports a systematic analysis of the factors that influence back exchange (solution pH, ionic strength, desolvation temperature, LC column interaction, flow rates, system volume). The many peptides exhibit a range of back exchange due to intrinsic amino acid HX rate differences. Accordingly, large back exchange leads to large variability in D-recovery from one residue to another as well as one peptide to another that cannot be corrected for by reference to any single peptide-level measurement. The usual effort to limit back exchange by limiting LC time provides little gain. Shortening the LC elution gradient by 3-fold only reduced back exchange by ~2%, while sacrificing S/N and peptide count. An unexpected dependence of back exchange on ionic strength as well as pH suggests a strategy in which solution conditions are changed during sample preparation. Higher salt should be used in the first stage of sample preparation (proteolysis and trapping) and lower salt (<20 mM) and pH in the second stage before electrospray injection. Adjustment of these and other factors together with recent advances in peptide fragment detection yields hundreds of peptide fragments with D-label recovery of 90% ± 5%.

  17. Educational Exchanges in Public Diplomacy: Russian and International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Dolinkiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education exchanges are a key element of public diplomacy for most countries that considered effective in that domain of foreign policy activities. Education exchanges are attributed an important role in the post-war peace settlement between Germany and France and in determining the outcome of the Cold war. Relevant aspects of public diplomacy remain key elements of foreign policy instruments of the US, Germany and many other countries. Russia has been increasingly active in public diplomacy in the past decade and the role of education exchanges has been increasing which is also demonstrated by a growing number of expert publications on the subject. However the strategy, the quality of organization and the use of modern technologies remain at a relatively low level which leads to an inefficient use of resources. Priority issues that can be a core of Russia's public diplomacy (and foreign policy in general. Moreover, systemic work would be required to evaluate efficiency of current and complete projects which would allow determine effectiveness of programs and appropriateness of resources used. Education exchanges need to be targeted at both bringing international students to Russia and assisting Russian students to study internationally and professors to teach abroad. Finally, international best practices show that there is a need to maintain connections with international exchanges alumni and assist them to maintain connections with each other including with the use of modern technologies.

  18. THE IMPLICATIONS OF VARYING EXCHANGE RATES FOR THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of international trade is a more efficient employment of the productive forces of the world. (John Stuart Mill The exchange rate is a primary factor that influences economy. This instrument is used by some countries in order to improve the lack of balance caused as a result of the financial crisis felt in many countries considered by then infallible. The negative effects of the financial crisis can also be found in the decreased volume of commodities involved in international trade exchanges, as a consequence of modified prices and decreased offer. The globalizing trend leads to a constant expansion of exchanges between countries and to the consolidation of international cooperation. Except that economic interdependence generates an increased risk under the influence of economic, financial, monetary or political factors. The currency risk can generate either a gain or loss during foreign trade operations. The long period of RON depreciation made possible the entry of Romanian products on the international markets due to their prices. Sheltered by the gain generated by the evolution of the exchange rate, most of the exporters were not concerned by the increase of product competitiveness or by avoiding the currency risk. The fact that, for many years, the evolution of the exchange rate generated substantial losses for the exporters shows that risk coverage in Romania is, in most cases, a purely theoretical concept.

  19. Segmentation across International Equity, Bond, and Foreign Exchange Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Ning; Stephen Sapp

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the integration of international financial markets. The integration of financial markets across countries and across asset classes is assumed to hold in most empirical studies, but has only been tested for certain countries and certain asset classes. We test for the integration of international equity, bond and foreign exchange markets. Our results indicate that the three classes of assets are segmented. Investigating potential explanations for this segmentation, we ...

  20. International exchange training in genetic counseling: an exploration of the value in exchange experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Chelsea K A; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Lian, Fengqin; LeRoy, Bonnie S

    2013-12-01

    International exchange training in genetic counseling is increasing, but research examining these experiences is lacking. In this study 309 genetic counseling students and genetic counselors completed an anonymous survey investigating six major research questions: (1) How prevalent are international genetic counseling experiences? (2) What types are pursued and why? (3) What supports and barriers exist? 3) What are the demographic characteristics of individuals accruing international experience? (5) Does international experience promote professional development? and (6) Do genetic counseling students and professionals perceive international experiences as beneficial? Most respondents were Caucasian females born in one of 25 countries. The most prevalent experiences involved either clinical observation or clinical training. Common motivations for pursuing international experience were personal growth, exposure to a different healthcare system, and travel opportunities. Outcomes included professionally-relevant experience and personal growth. Barriers included finances, limited availability of opportunities, and for those without international experience, family responsibilities. Additional findings, practice and training implications, and research recommendations are provided.

  1. Student experiences with an international public health exchange project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Kim A; Richardson, Eileen; Aarts, Clara; Campbell, Barbara; Hemmingway, Ann; Koskinen, Liisa; Mitchell, Maureen P; Nordstrom, Pam

    2009-01-01

    With growing interconnectivity of healthcare systems worldwide and increased immigration, inappropriate cultural and role assumptions are often seen when cultures clash within a country or when there is practice across country boundaries in times of disaster and during international travel. To increase students' multicultural awareness and work experiences abroad, the authors describe a 7-school, 5-country international student exchange project. The authors also share the students' evaluations of their experiences as they are challenged to erase boundaries and embrace nursing across countries. Participating faculty describe the process, challenges, and keys to success found in creating and living this international project. Students involved in the exchange process evaluate the learning opportunities and challenges and the joy of coming together as newfound colleagues and friends.

  2. Mass-independent isotope effects in chemical exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kazushige

    2000-01-01

    Isotope effects of some elements in chemical exchange reaction were investigated by use of liquid-liquid extraction, liquid membrane or chromatographic separation. Cyclic polyether was used for every method. All polyethers used in a series of the studies were made clear that they distinguished the isotopes not only by their nuclear masses but also by their nuclear sizes and shapes. Chromium isotopes, for example, were recognized to have enrichment factors being proportional to δ 2 > which is a parameter to show field shift or the nuclear size and shape of the isotope. It follows that the chromium isotopes are separated not by their masses but by their field shift effects. Nuclear spin also played a great role to separate odd mass number isotopes from even mass number isotopes in even atomic number elements. Contribution of the nuclear spin (I=3/2) of 53 Cr to total enrichment factor, ε 53/52 = -0.00028, for 53 Cr to 52 Cr was observed to be, ε spin = -0.0025. (author)

  3. The American Nuclear Society's international student exchange program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornstein, I.

    1988-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society's (ANS's) International Student Exchange Program sponsors bilateral exchanges of students form graduate schools in American universities with students from graduate schools in France, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), and Japan. The program, now in its 12th year, was initiated in response to an inquiry to Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) from the director of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay proposing to send French nuclear engineering students to the United States for summer jobs. The laboratory was asked to accept two students to work on some nuclear technology activity and ANS was invited to send American students to France on an exchange basis. To date, 200 students have taken part in the program. It has been a maturing and enriching experience for them, and many strong and enduring friendships have been fostered among the participants, many of whom will become future leaders in their countries

  4. Improved protein hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry platform with fully automated data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongqi; Zhang, Aming; Xiao, Gang

    2012-06-05

    Protein hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) followed by protease digestion and mass spectrometric (MS) analysis is accepted as a standard method for studying protein conformation and conformational dynamics. In this article, an improved HDX MS platform with fully automated data processing is described. The platform significantly reduces systematic and random errors in the measurement by introducing two types of corrections in HDX data analysis. First, a mixture of short peptides with fast HDX rates is introduced as internal standards to adjust the variations in the extent of back exchange from run to run. Second, a designed unique peptide (PPPI) with slow intrinsic HDX rate is employed as another internal standard to reflect the possible differences in protein intrinsic HDX rates when protein conformations at different solution conditions are compared. HDX data processing is achieved with a comprehensive HDX model to simulate the deuterium labeling and back exchange process. The HDX model is implemented into the in-house developed software MassAnalyzer and enables fully unattended analysis of the entire protein HDX MS data set starting from ion detection and peptide identification to final processed HDX output, typically within 1 day. The final output of the automated data processing is a set (or the average) of the most possible protection factors for each backbone amide hydrogen. The utility of the HDX MS platform is demonstrated by exploring the conformational transition of a monoclonal antibody by increasing concentrations of guanidine.

  5. Atmospheric pressure photo ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry--a method to differentiate isomers by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-12-01

    In this report, a method for in-source hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange at atmospheric pressure is reported. The method was named atmospheric pressure photo ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (APPI HDX MS). H/D exchange was performed by mixing samples dissolved in toluene with CH3OD solvent and analyzing the mixture using atmospheric pressure photo ionization mass spectrometry (APPI-MS). The APPI HDX spectra obtained with contact times between the analyte solution and methanol-OD (CH3OD) of atmospheric pressure. H/D exchange can be performed in any laboratory with a mass spectrometer and a commercial APPI source. Using this method, multiple H/D exchanges of aromatic hydrogen and/or H/D exchange of active hydrogen were observed. These results demonstrated that H/D exchange can be used to distinguish between isomers containing primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, as well as pyridine and pyrrole functional groups.

  6. 77 FR 34436 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Temporarily... International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... Clearing and Outsourcing Solutions, Inc. (``Apex Clearing'') as an ISE member organization, subject to Apex...

  7. The Influence of International Parity on the Exchange Rate: Purchasing Power Parity and International Fisher Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Mionel

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of the inflation and interest rates on the exchange rates. The analysis tests the relation between the inflation rate and the exchange rate by applying the Purchasing Power Parity Theory, while the relation between the interest rate and the inflation rate is tested by applying the International Fisher Effect Theory. In order to test the Purchasing Power Parity the study takes into account the period of time between 1990 – 2009, and the following countries – th...

  8. An international integration history of the Zagreb Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Sikic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate stock market co-movements among the Croatian and several other markets (in the US, UK, Germany, Austria, Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary in the period from 3 September 1997 to 19 August 2016 with dynamic correlation coefficient models. This allows us to analyse long-term trends of the international financial integration of the Zagreb Stock Exchange in the last two decades as well as the separate impacts of major events that influenced financial markets during that period. Our results imply a relatively low level of international financial integration of the Croatian stock market, but some convergence in co-movement with the analysed markets over time is present. The strongest market co-movement is related to the subprime mortgage crisis, and EU accession seems to have made Croatian international integration less segmented.

  9. Comparative research of international exchange of plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known events which had taken place in our country over the period 1989-2001 provoked adverse effects on foreign trade exchange of the total economy, agriculture and commodities of plant origin. These effects and changes were analyzed using corresponding indices for the sub periods 1989-1992 and 1998-2001. The foreign trade exchange balance was substantially negative in both sub periods over the analyzed period showing an aggravating trend. Export covering import declined from 78.09% to only 47.71%. The positive balance of exchange of agricultural, especially commodities of plant origin in the first four years was turned into a negative balance of exchange in the second four years. Export covering import at the agricultural level declined from 164.79% to 78.58% and at the level of commodities of plant origin from 201,76% to 87.35%. There was a significant disturbance of commodity and regional structure exchange. The share of agriculture in the total export of the country was raised from 13.82% to 18.16%. The share of plant originating commodities in the total export of agriculture was raised from 71,96% to 86,34%. Basic agricultural products predominated in the export. In addition, in the domestic export the share of developed countries decreased which contributed to poor export results and increased the import dependence of the country. Considering the above said, the need arises to increase substantially agricultural production, i.e. commodities of plant origin. The structure and output of these productions should meet the needs of both domestic and foreign markets. International standards need to be applied in order to take hold of new foreign markets, exporting high technology processed products, using intensive and efficient promotive activities. Subsequently, greater investments and a planned production are needed, liberalization and especially the system of import control in foreign trade exchange of agricultural products, i

  10. 75 FR 7299 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... to the U.S. Exchange Holdings, Inc. Corporate Documents and International Securities Exchange Trust... change relating to the U.S. Exchange Holdings, Inc. (``U.S. Exchange Holdings'') Corporate Documents (as... Holdings purchased an ownership interest in Direct Edge by contributing cash and the marketplace then...

  11. 75 FR 66410 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to the Sales Value Fee October 22, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b... hereby given that, on October 14, 2010, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or...

  12. 76 FR 47627 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Two Market Data Feeds August 1, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... on August 1, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed...

  13. 76 FR 51075 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Approval to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Approval to a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Appointments to Competitive Market Makers August 11, 2011. I. Introduction On June 10, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed with the Securities...

  14. 77 FR 37722 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Eliminate the Rules and Fees Related to the Second Market June 18, 2012. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on June 6, 2012, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange...

  15. 78 FR 24271 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Market Maker Plus Rebate Program April 18, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1... hereby given that on April 10, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the...

  16. 78 FR 17988 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Regarding Market Maker Quoting Requirements March 19, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of... given that on March 5, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE...

  17. 78 FR 45580 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change to Amend Certain Market Maker Fees July 23, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... hereby given that on July 11, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the...

  18. 76 FR 32382 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Second Market Fees May 27, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities..., 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed with the...

  19. 76 FR 56832 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a New Market Data Feed September 8, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... on August 31, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE...

  20. 76 FR 37863 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Appointments to Competitive Market Makers June 22, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities... that on June 10, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE...

  1. 76 FR 64980 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65548; File No. SR-ISE-2011-39] Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Complex Orders October 13, 2011. I. Introduction On July 1, 2011, the International Securities Exchange...

  2. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy Conv - 09. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on Convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( Conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

  3. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy conv - 09. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

  4. People's Republic of China in the International Technology Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Igorevich Salitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the current state of the S&T in China in the context of its historical development and national policy in the sphere. The evaluation of the Chinese scientific and technological potential is based on some indicators of foreign trade as well as patent activity - in international comparisons. The trends in Chinese S&T sector and its role in the international technology transfers are viewed in the context of internationalization of the global economy. Today’s globally recognized achievements of China in trade in technology-intensive goods and services are based on a long history of rational state policy in acquisition and diffusion of foreign technology and expertise. This policy have resulted in the build-up of S&T system - which is already remarkably productive and keeps growing. One important and specific feature of China’s role in international exchange of high-tech goods and knowledge-intensive services is a growing self-capacity, and a lowering dependence on foreign sources (in relative terms.

  5. INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT, DEMONSTRATION, DEPLOYMENT AND EXCHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy C. Herndon

    2001-02-28

    Cooperative Agreement (DE-FC21-95EW55101) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Florida State University's Institute for International Cooperative Environmental Research (IICER) was designed to facilitate a number of joint programmatic goals of both the DOE and the IICER related to international technology identification, development, demonstration and deployment using a variety of mechanisms to accomplish these goals. These mechanisms included: laboratory and field research; technology demonstrations; international training and technical exchanges; data collection, synthesis and evaluation; the conduct of conferences, symposia and high-level meetings; and other appropriate and effective approaches. The DOE utilized the expertise and facilities of the IICER at Florida State University to accomplish its goals related to this cooperative agreement. The IICER has unique and demonstrated capabilities that have been utilized to conduct the tasks for this cooperative agreement. The IICER conducted activities related to technology identification, development, evaluation, demonstration and deployment through its joint centers which link the capabilities at Florida State University with collaborating academic and leading research institutions in the major countries of Central and Eastern Europe (e.g., Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland) and Russia. The activities and accomplishments for this five-year cooperative agreement are summarized in this Final Technical Report.

  6. Internal humidifying of PEM [Proton Exchange Membrane] fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staschewski, D [Karlsruhe Research Center (FZK), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technics

    1996-12-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells (FC) for vehicular traction should stand out for a car-specific lightweight design. As regards PEMFC systems containing proton exchange membranes, this quality can be considerably improved by introducing porous bipolar plates which are conditioned by a water loop and deliver hot humidifying water to the adjacent membrane-electrode assembly (MEA). According to the principle of internal humidification here indicated special fuel cells based on sintered fiber and powder graphite were manufactured at FZK on a semi-technical scale. Self-made Pt/C electrodes hotpressed onto Nafion resulted in currents up to 200 A with pure oxygen as oxidant, providing the precondition for detailed studies of turnover and drainage rates within a monocell test arrangement. (author)

  7. The Influence of International Parity on the Exchange Rate: Purchasing Power Parity and International Fisher Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mionel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the impact of the inflationand interest rates on the exchange rates.The analysis tests the relation between the inflation rate and the exchange rate by applying thePurchasing Power Parity Theory, while the relationbetween the interest rate and the inflation rate istested by applying the International Fisher EffectTheory. In order to test the Purchasing Power Paritythe study takes into account the period of time between 1990 – 2009, and the following countries –the USA, Germany, the UK, Switzerland, Canada, Japan and China. As for testing the InternationalFisher Effect Theory the period of time is the same, 1990 – 2009, but a few countries are different –the USA, Germany, the UK, Switzerland, Canada, Australia and New Zeeland. Thus, both theoriesanalyse the USA as home country.

  8. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and Solar Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Childress, Amy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hiibel, Sage [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Kim, Kwang [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Park, Chanwoo [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Wirtz, Richard [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Northern Nevada has abundant geothermal and solar energy resources, and these renewable energy sources provide an ample opportunity to produce economically viable power. Heat/mass exchangers are essential components to any energy conversion system. Improvements in the heat/mass exchange process will lead to smaller, less costly (more efficient) systems. There is an emerging heat transfer technology, based on micro/nano/molecular-scale surface science that can be applied to heat/mass exchanger design. The objective is to develop and characterize unique coating materials, surface configurations and membranes capable of accommodating a 10-fold increase in heat/mass exchanger performance via phase change processes (boiling, condensation, etc.) and single phase convective heat/mass transfer.

  9. The thermodynamics of heat- and mass exchange in chemical engineering. Vol. 1. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matz, G.

    1979-01-01

    The second and completely revised edition of the approved textbook 'The thermodynamics of heat- and mass exchange in chemical engineering' is devoted to students of technical and natural science disciplines as well as to practicians and scientists, which are confronted with thermodynamical problems of chemical engineering. Starting from the different phases and properties of matter, the first and the second law of thermodynamics are discussed together with many applications. After an introduction of the equilibrium state, the general principle of similarity for heat- and mass exchange is discussed, considering in particular the heat- and mass exchange in the counter flow between two phases. In a final chapter, the heat- and mass exchange between the vapor- and liquid phase is discussed, with special emphasis on problems as evaporation and drying. (orig./HK) [de

  10. International finance, Lévy distributions, and the econophysics of exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul; Gleria, Iram; Figueiredo, Annibal; Rathie, Pushpa

    2005-06-01

    This paper surveys the developments in the field of international finance, in particular the research of economists on foreign exchange rates. That might be of interest to physicists working on the econophysics of exchange rates. We show how the econophysics agenda might follow naturally from the economists' research. We also present our own work on the econophysics of exchange rates.

  11. 78 FR 6155 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... virtually impossible for any exchange to identify, and thus assess fees such as an ORF on, each executing... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68711; File No. SR-MIAX-2013-01] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

  12. OPDE-The international pipe failure data exchange project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydell, Bengt [OPDE Clearinghouse, 16917 S. Orchid Flower Trail, Vail, AZ 85641-2701 (United States)], E-mail: boylydell@msn.com; Riznic, Jovica [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Operational Engineering Assessment Division, PO Box 1046, Station B, Ottawa, Ont. K1P 5S9 (Canada)], E-mail: jovica.riznic@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca

    2008-08-15

    Certain member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and development (OECD) in 2002 established the OECD pipe failure data exchange project (OPDE) to produce an international database on the piping service experience applicable to commercial nuclear power plants. OPDE is operated under the umbrella of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). The Project collects pipe failure data including service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall crack, pinhole leak, leak, and rupture/severance (i.e., events involving large through-wall flow rates up to and beyond the make-up capacity of engineered safeguards systems). The part through-wall events include degradation in excess of design code allowable for pipe wall thinning or crack depth. OPDE also addresses such degradation that could have generic implications regarding the reliability of in-service inspection. Currently the OPDE database includes approximately 3,700 records on pipe failure affecting ASME Code Class 1 through 3 and non-safety-related (non-Code) piping. This paper presents the motivations and objectives behind the establishment of the OPDE project. The paper also summarizes the unique data quality considerations that are associated with the reporting and recording of piping component degradation and failure. An overview of the database content is included to place it in perspective relative to past efforts to systematically collect and evaluate service experience data on piping performance. Finally, a brief summary is given of current database application studies.

  13. OPDE-The international pipe failure data exchange project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydell, Bengt; Riznic, Jovica

    2008-01-01

    Certain member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and development (OECD) in 2002 established the OECD pipe failure data exchange project (OPDE) to produce an international database on the piping service experience applicable to commercial nuclear power plants. OPDE is operated under the umbrella of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). The Project collects pipe failure data including service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall crack, pinhole leak, leak, and rupture/severance (i.e., events involving large through-wall flow rates up to and beyond the make-up capacity of engineered safeguards systems). The part through-wall events include degradation in excess of design code allowable for pipe wall thinning or crack depth. OPDE also addresses such degradation that could have generic implications regarding the reliability of in-service inspection. Currently the OPDE database includes approximately 3,700 records on pipe failure affecting ASME Code Class 1 through 3 and non-safety-related (non-Code) piping. This paper presents the motivations and objectives behind the establishment of the OPDE project. The paper also summarizes the unique data quality considerations that are associated with the reporting and recording of piping component degradation and failure. An overview of the database content is included to place it in perspective relative to past efforts to systematically collect and evaluate service experience data on piping performance. Finally, a brief summary is given of current database application studies

  14. A Fraught Exchange? U.S. Media on Chinese International Undergraduates and the American University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelmann, Nancy; Kang, Jiyeon

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the U.S. media discourse on Chinese international undergraduate students, the largest international student group since 2009. The discourse describes a market "exchange", but reveals a struggle between: on the one hand, "a fair exchange"--between excellent Chinese students and world-class American…

  15. 77 FR 1757 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Market Maker Incentive Plan for Foreign Currency Options January 5, 2012...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 28, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the...

  16. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2730-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  17. 77 FR 31680 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Qualification Standards for Market Makers To Receive a Rebate May 22, 2012...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 15, 2012, the International Securities Exchange...

  18. 75 FR 42812 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Market Maker Incentive Plan for Foreign Currency Options July 15, 2010..., \\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 30, 2010, International Securities Exchange, LLC (``ISE'' or...

  19. 76 FR 64417 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Competitive Market Maker Trading Rights October 12, 2011. Pursuant to Section...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 3, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the...

  20. 75 FR 2915 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-61317; File No. SR-ISE-2009-103] Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Market Data Fees January 8, 2010. I. Introduction On November 25, 2009, the International...

  1. 77 FR 4852 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66234; File No. SR-ISE-2011-82] Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Legging Orders January 25, 2012. I. Introduction On November 29, 2011, the International Securities...

  2. Transport and mass exchange processes in sand and gravel aquifers (v.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltyaner, G.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this conference were to exchange information on promising field measurement techniques used for the characterization of spatial variability of geologic formations and on new methods used for quantifying the effect of spatial variability on groundwater flow and transport of materials; to discuss novel developments in the theory of transport processes and simulation methods; and to present views and opinions on future initiatives and directions in the design of large-scale field tracer experiments and the development of conceptual and mathematical models of transport and mass exchange processes. The 46 papers presented in these proceedings are divided into six sections: field studies of transport processes; groundwater tracers and novel field measurement techniques; promising methods and field measurement techniques for quantifying the effect of geological heterogeneities on groundwater flow and transport; novel developments in the theory of transport processes; numerical modelling of transport and mass exchange processes; and field and modelling studies of mass exchange processes. (L.L.)

  3. Language, culture and international exchange of virtual patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Valentin; Calinici, Tudor; Tigan, Stefan; Fors, Uno G H

    2013-02-11

    Language and cultural differences could be a limiting factor for the international exchange of Virtual Patients (VPs), especially for small countries and languages of limited circulation. Our research evaluated whether it would be feasible to develop a VP based educational program in our Romanian institution, with cases in English and developed in a non-Romanian setting. The participants in the research comprised 4th year Romanian medical students from the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with previous training exclusively in Romanian, good English proficiency and no experience with VPs. The students worked on eight VPs in two identical versions, Romanian and English. The first group (2010) of 136 students worked with four VPs developed in Cluj and the second group (2011) of 144 students with four VPs originally developed at an US University. Every student was randomly assigned two different VPs, one in Romanian and another in English. Student activity throughout the case, the diagnosis, therapeutic plan and diagnosis justification were recorded. We also compared student performance on the two VPs versions, Romanian and English and the student performance on the two sets of cases, originally developed in Romania, respectively USA. We found no significant differences between the students' performance on the Romanian vs. English version of VPs. Regarding the students' performance on the two sets of cases, in those originally developed in Romania, respectively in the USA, we found a number of statistically significant differences in the students' activity through the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in the students' ability to reach the correct diagnosis and therapeutic plan. The development of our program with VPs in English would be feasible, cost-effective and in accordance with the globalization of medical education.

  4. Language, culture and international exchange of virtual patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntean Valentin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Language and cultural differences could be a limiting factor for the international exchange of Virtual Patients (VPs, especially for small countries and languages of limited circulation. Our research evaluated whether it would be feasible to develop a VP based educational program in our Romanian institution, with cases in English and developed in a non-Romanian setting. Method The participants in the research comprised 4th year Romanian medical students from the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with previous training exclusively in Romanian, good English proficiency and no experience with VPs. The students worked on eight VPs in two identical versions, Romanian and English. The first group (2010 of 136 students worked with four VPs developed in Cluj and the second group (2011 of 144 students with four VPs originally developed at an US University. Every student was randomly assigned two different VPs, one in Romanian and another in English. Student activity throughout the case, the diagnosis, therapeutic plan and diagnosis justification were recorded. We also compared student performance on the two VPs versions, Romanian and English and the student performance on the two sets of cases, originally developed in Romania, respectively USA. Results We found no significant differences between the students’ performance on the Romanian vs. English version of VPs. Regarding the students’ performance on the two sets of cases, in those originally developed in Romania, respectively in the USA, we found a number of statistically significant differences in the students’ activity through the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in the students’ ability to reach the correct diagnosis and therapeutic plan. Conclusion The development of our program with VPs in English would be feasible, cost-effective and in accordance with the globalization of medical education.

  5. Chaplygin sleigh with periodically oscillating internal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizyaev, Ivan A.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuznetsov, Sergey P.

    2017-09-01

    We consider the movement of Chaplygin sleigh on a plane that is a solid body with imposed nonholonomic constraint, which excludes the possibility of motions transversal to the constraint element (“knife-edge”), and complement the model with an attached mass, periodically oscillating relatively to the main platform of the sleigh. Numerical simulations indicate the occurrence of either unrestricted acceleration of the sleigh, or motions with bounded velocities and momenta, depending on parameters. We note the presence of phenomena characteristic to nonholonomic systems with complex dynamics; in particular, attractors occur responsible for chaotic motions. In addition, quasiperiodic regimes take place similar to those observed in conservative nonlinear dynamics.

  6. 13th International Mass Spectrometry Conference. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection contains abstracts of several hundred papers presented at the international conference on new research and development results and applications of mass spectrometry. Abstracts falling into the INIS scope were indexed separately in the INIS database. (Roboz, P.)

  7. Internal Mass Motion for Spacecraft Dynamics and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Christopher D

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the application of a noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation to the modeling, analysis, and simulation of the dynamics of gyrostat spacecraft with internal mass motion...

  8. 13th International Mass Spectrometry Conference. Book of Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The collection contains abstracts of several hundred papers presented at the international conference on new research and development results and applications of mass spectrometry. Abstracts falling into the INIS scope were indexed separately in the INIS database. (Roboz, P.).

  9. Time evolution of the mass exchange in grazing heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastrukov, S.I.; Deak, F.; Kiss, A.; Seres, Z.

    1989-10-01

    On the basis of a macroscopical approach to the description of two interpenetrating quantum objects, the equations of two-fluid hydrodynamics for the cohesion stage of deeply inelastic heavy-ion collisions are formulated. The elasticity of the ions is analyzed in peripheral mass exchange reactions at intermediate energies. The system of closed equations of Newtonian mechanics, which simultaneously describes the motion of the ions along classical trajectories as well as the mass time evolution during the interaction period are derived and solved. The role of mass exchange in the friction force is discussed. (author) 22 refs.; 2 figs

  10. On line determination of deuterium in hydrogen water exchange reaction by mass spectrometry. IRP-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, J.D.; Alphonse, K.P.; Mishra, Sushama; Prabhu, S.A.; Mohan, Sadhana; Tangri, V.K.

    2007-01-01

    The Deuterium (D)/Hydrogen (H) analysis at low Concentration is generally carried out by Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometer is specially designed for the measurement of Mass 2 and 3 ratio. The Deuterium analysis of water and hydrogen in concentration range of a few ppm to about 1% plays an important role in the Heavy Water Production Plants. For the enrichment of the Deuterium concentration in H 2 O by H 2 - H 2 O exchange a catalyst is essential as reaction is relatively slow. Heavy Water Division has developed in house Platinum based catalyst for the isotopic exchange of Hydrogen and Water

  11. International exchange of radiological information in emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, M.; De Vries, G.; Breitenbach, L.; Fraser, G.; Vade, S.

    1998-01-01

    Description of the current system, experience gained, and expected future developments is given for the ECURIE system and, in particular, the EURDEP European-wide radiological information exchange system. It is concluded that the existing situation continues to be inhomogeneous. Although EURDEP foresees a common format for data exchange, which has been successfully implemented in 9 European countries, and regular exercises for data have been performed for a few years, important efforts will still have to be made to come to a more homogeneous and consistent European system for radiological information exchange. (P.A.)

  12. International portfolio flows and exchange rate volatility for emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Ali, Faek Menla; Spagnolo, Fabio; Spagnolo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of equity and bond portfolio inflows on exchange rate volatility, using monthly bilateral data for the US vis-a-vis eight Asian developing and emerging countries (India, Indonesia, South Korea, Pakistan, Hong Kong, Thailand, the Philippines, and Taiwan) over the period 1993:01-2012:11, and estimating a time-varying transition probability Markov-switching model. We find that net equity (bond) inflows drive the exchange rate to a high (low) volatility state. ...

  13. Intracellular water exchange for measuring the dry mass, water mass and changes in chemical composition of living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Feijó Delgado

    Full Text Available We present a method for direct non-optical quantification of dry mass, dry density and water mass of single living cells in suspension. Dry mass and dry density are obtained simultaneously by measuring a cell's buoyant mass sequentially in an H2O-based fluid and a D2O-based fluid. Rapid exchange of intracellular H2O for D2O renders the cell's water content neutrally buoyant in both measurements, and thus the paired measurements yield the mass and density of the cell's dry material alone. Utilizing this same property of rapid water exchange, we also demonstrate the quantification of intracellular water mass. In a population of E. coli, we paired these measurements to estimate the percent dry weight by mass and volume. We then focused on cellular dry density - the average density of all cellular biomolecules, weighted by their relative abundances. Given that densities vary across biomolecule types (RNA, DNA, protein, we investigated whether we could detect changes in biomolecular composition in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells. In E. coli, and S. cerevisiae, dry density increases from stationary to exponential phase, consistent with previously known increases in the RNA/protein ratio from up-regulated ribosome production. For mammalian cells, changes in growth conditions cause substantial shifts in dry density, suggesting concurrent changes in the protein, nucleic acid and lipid content of the cell.

  14. Intracellular Water Exchange for Measuring the Dry Mass, Water Mass and Changes in Chemical Composition of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Vivian C.; Son, Sungmin; Li, Yingzhong; Knudsen, Scott M.; Olcum, Selim; Higgins, John M.; Chen, Jianzhu; Grover, William H.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for direct non-optical quantification of dry mass, dry density and water mass of single living cells in suspension. Dry mass and dry density are obtained simultaneously by measuring a cell’s buoyant mass sequentially in an H2O-based fluid and a D2O-based fluid. Rapid exchange of intracellular H2O for D2O renders the cell’s water content neutrally buoyant in both measurements, and thus the paired measurements yield the mass and density of the cell’s dry material alone. Utilizing this same property of rapid water exchange, we also demonstrate the quantification of intracellular water mass. In a population of E. coli, we paired these measurements to estimate the percent dry weight by mass and volume. We then focused on cellular dry density – the average density of all cellular biomolecules, weighted by their relative abundances. Given that densities vary across biomolecule types (RNA, DNA, protein), we investigated whether we could detect changes in biomolecular composition in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells. In E. coli, and S. cerevisiae, dry density increases from stationary to exponential phase, consistent with previously known increases in the RNA/protein ratio from up-regulated ribosome production. For mammalian cells, changes in growth conditions cause substantial shifts in dry density, suggesting concurrent changes in the protein, nucleic acid and lipid content of the cell. PMID:23844039

  15. International exchange of radiological information in the event of a nuclear accident - future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Cort, M.; De-Vries, G.; Breitenbach, L.; Leeb, H.; Weiss, W.

    1996-01-01

    Immediately after the Chernobyl accident most European countries established or enhanced their national radioactivity monitoring and information systems. The large transboundary effect of the radioactive release also triggered the need for bilateral and international agreements on the exchange of radiological information in case of a nuclear accident. Based on the experiences gained from existing bi- and multilateral data exchange the Commission of the European Communities has made provision for and is developing technical systems to exchange information of common interest. Firstly the existing national systems and systems based on bilateral agreements are summarized. The objectives and technical realizations of the EC international information exchange systems ECURIE and EURDEP, are described. The experiences gained over the past few years and the concepts for the future, in which central and eastern European countries will be included, are discussed. The benefits that would result from improving the international exchange of radiological information in the event of a future nuclear accident are further being described

  16. Exchange rate pass-through and the role of international distribution channels

    OpenAIRE

    Desiraju, Ramarao; Shrikhande, Milind

    1996-01-01

    Manufacturers selling in foreign markets often do not completely pass on the effects of fluctuations in exchange rates to the prices of their products. Our paper addresses this puzzle and studies the effects of the international distribution channel on exchange rate pass-through. We develop an exchange rate pass-through model that takes into account the role of an intermediary between a domestic manufacturer and its consumers in a foreign market. We find that the magnitude of the pass-through...

  17. International exchange of emergency phase information and assessments: an aid to inter/national decision makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    plots via Internet web sites and interactively dialogue via web-based two-way televideo conferencing technology [LLNL/JAERI report]. While, in principle, the results were functional, the linkups proved to be rudimentary and somewhat unstable for combined video, voice and whiteboard interaction. JAERI (WSPEEDI) and LLNL (NARAC) did successfully exploit this project during two separate radiological accidents in Tokai, Japan. In 1999 the EU/RODOS project expressed an interest to join in this effort. In 2002 the USA renewed interest in this project and subsequently Russia/FEERC joined. Since 1999 there has been substantial improvement in Internet bandwidth, efficient and versatile data exchange protocols (e.g., XML) and televideo conferencing technology. Implementation of data exchange protocols (user ID and password protected) at those four major centers/projects in combination with a multi-party televideo conferencing capability provides the mechanism for the exchange of key information in near realtime, and examination and comparison of calculated assessments in a quasi-peer review mode. This capability provides the opportunity to detect missed input data as well as deficiencies in meteorology, resolution, topography, etc., thus leading to refinement, consensus and 'harmonization' in real time prior to the release of assessments to decision makers. Such a system should be a benefit to all the inter/national agencies involved in advising and protecting impacted citizens by reducing some of the information challenges they (the decision makers) face and, hopefully, resulting in consistent and presumably the best advice. We expect that with successful demonstration and experience with this system, in the future it could provide a tool to non-nuclear countries and international agencies such as the IAEA and WHO. (author)

  18. Internal dust recirculation system for a fluidized bed heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Robert L.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided in a heat exchange relation to the bed and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the bed and a tube bank extending between the steam drum and a water drum. The tube bank is located in the path of the effluent gases exiting from the bed and a baffle system is provided to separate the solid particulate matter from the effluent gases. The particulate matter is collected and injected back into the fluidized bed.

  19. 77 FR 15417 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66566; File No. SR-ISE-2012-21] Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a... Ownership Interest in ISE Holdings, Inc. to a Newly Formed Swiss Corporation, Eurex Global Derivatives AG...

  20. Stochastic Discount Factor Approach to International Risk-Sharing: Evidence from Fixed Exchange Rate Episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadzi-Vaskov, M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the stochastic discount factor approach to international risk-sharing applied to fixed exchange rate regimes. We calculate risk-sharing indices for two episodes of fixed or very rigid exchange rates: the Eurozone before and after the introduction of the Euro, and

  1. 75 FR 42801 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed... at or under the threshold are charged the constituent's prescribed execution fee. This waiver applies... members to execute large-sized FX options orders on the Exchange in a manner that is cost effective. The...

  2. Rapid Conformational Analysis of Protein Drugs in Formulation by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmail Nazari, Zeinab; van de Weert, Marco; Bou-Assaf, George

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange coupled to Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS) has become an established method for analysis of protein higher-order structure. Here, we use HDX-MS methodology based on manual Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) to allow fast and simplified conformational analysis of proteins under...... pharmaceutically relevant formulation conditions. Of significant practical utility, the methodology allows global HDX-MS analyses to be performed without refrigeration or external cooling of the setup. In Mode 1, we used DMSO-containing solvents for SPE, allowing the HDX-MS analysis to be performed at acceptable...... in formulation, using an internal HDX reference peptide (P7I) to control for any sample-to-sample variations in back exchange. Advantages of the methodology include low sample use, optimized excipient removal using multiple solvents, and fast data acquisition. Our results indicate that the SPE-HDX-MS system can...

  3. Further explorations of Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mass formulas. VIII. Role of Coulomb exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Pearson, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Following suggestions that the energy associated with Coulomb correlations and a possible charge-symmetry breaking of nuclear forces might largely cancel the Coulomb-exchange term, we refit the HFB-14 mass model without the Coulomb-exchange term to essentially all the mass data. The resulting mass model, HFB-15, gives a better fit to the 2149 mass data, σ rms falling from 0.729 to 0.678 MeV. The improvement in the energy differences between mirror nuclei is particularly striking: the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly, which is strong for HFB-14, is essentially eliminated. As for the extrapolation to highly neutron-rich nuclei, the HFB-15 model differs significantly from HFB-14, with up to 15 MeV less binding being predicted. However, the differences in the predicted values of differential quantities such as the neutron-separation energies, β-decay energies and fission barriers are very much smaller

  4. Mathematical model development of heat and mass exchange processes in the outdoor swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Shaptala; D. E. Shaptala

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Currently exploitation of outdoor swimming pools is often not cost-effective and, despite of their relevance, such pools are closed in large quantities. At this time there is no the whole mathematical model which would allow assessing qualitatively the effect of energy-saving measures. The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes for calculating basic heat and mass losses that occur during its exploitation. Methodology. The m...

  5. Mass transfer in liquid phase catalytic exchange column of trickle bed type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Iwai, Yasunori; Okuno, Kenji

    1995-09-01

    The mechanism of mass transfer in a liquid phase catalytic exchange column was discussed for a trickle bed type. A new model has been proposed on the basis of this mass transfer mechanism; and several problems for the previous reported models were pointed out in the derivation of the model. An overall rate equation was first derived from the vapor-hydrogen exchange in the model. The mass transfer for the vapor-hydrogen exchange was decomposed to the following three steps: the mass transfer in a gas boundary layer on a catalyst particle; the mass transfer within the pores in the catalyst; and the chemical reaction on the surface of the catalyst. The water-vapor scrubbing process was considered as a series of the mass transfers in gas and liquid boundary layers on the wetted surfaces of the catalyst and packings or wall of the column. Significant subjects to be studied were proposed from the viewpoint of the validity of the model and the optimization of the column. (author)

  6. The mass balance of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloud, S.; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Wan Ramli Wan Daud

    2006-01-01

    A Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), operating at low temperature uses a simple chemical process to combine hydrogen and oxygen into water, producing electric current and heat during the electrochemical reaction. This work concern on the theoretical consideration of the mass balance has been evaluated to predict the mass flow rate of the both gases (hydrogen/oxygen), the water mass balance, and the heat transfer in order to design a single cell PEMFC stack with a better flow field distributor on the performance of Polymer Electrolyte membrane fuel cells

  7. Non-conservative mass exchange and origin of X-ray close binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, D.; Miyaji, S.

    1980-01-01

    There are two distinct types of XCBS. The Type I XCBS consists of an X-ray star and an early type star more massive than about 12 solar masses. On the contrary, the Type II XCBS consists of an X-ray star and a star less massive than about 2 solar masses. The aim of the present paper lies in interpreting the origin of these types of XCBS on the bases of the conditions for the formation of a neutron star and of mass exchange in close binary systems. (Auth.)

  8. Non-equilibrium mass transfer absorption model for the design of boron isotopes chemical exchange column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Peng; Fan, Kaigong; Guo, Xianghai; Zhang, Haocui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a non-equilibrium mass transfer absorption model instead of a distillation equilibrium model to calculate boron isotopes separation. • We apply the model to calculate the needed column height to meet prescribed separation requirements. - Abstract: To interpret the phenomenon of chemical exchange in boron isotopes separation accurately, the process is specified as an absorption–reaction–desorption hybrid process instead of a distillation equilibrium model, the non-equilibrium mass transfer absorption model is put forward and a mass transfer enhancement factor E is introduced to find the packing height needed to meet the specified separation requirements with MATLAB.

  9. 75 FR 62900 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Market Maker Incentive Plan for Foreign Currency Options... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on October 4, 2010, International Securities...

  10. 77 FR 37944 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Allow Competitive Market Makers To Use Their Membership Points To Enter Multiple Quotes in an Options Class June 19... 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 6, 2012, the International Securities...

  11. 76 FR 1488 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Market Maker Incentive Plan for Foreign Currency Options... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 28, 2010, the International...

  12. 75 FR 2913 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Market Maker Incentive Plan for Foreign Currency Options...\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 31, 2009, the International...

  13. SAIDE: A Semi-Automated Interface for Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Maria T; Miller, Danny E; Fenton, Aron W; Artigues, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Deuterium/hydrogen exchange in combination with mass spectrometry (DH MS) is a sensitive technique for detection of changes in protein conformation and dynamics. Since temperature, pH and timing control are the key elements for reliable and efficient measurement of hydrogen/deuterium content in proteins and peptides, we have developed a small, semiautomatic interface for deuterium exchange that interfaces the HPLC pumps with a mass spectrometer. This interface is relatively inexpensive to build, and provides efficient temperature and timing control in all stages of enzyme digestion, HPLC separation and mass analysis of the resulting peptides. We have tested this system with a series of standard tryptic peptides reconstituted in a solvent containing increasing concentration of deuterium. Our results demonstrate the use of this interface results in minimal loss of deuterium due to back exchange during HPLC desalting and separation. For peptides reconstituted in a buffer containing 100% deuterium, and assuming that all amide linkages have exchanged hydrogen with deuterium, the maximum loss of deuterium content is only 17% of the label, indicating the loss of only one deuterium molecule per peptide.

  14. Ion mobility spectrometry-hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry of anions: part 1. Peptides to proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Gregory C; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Valentine, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled with hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX)-mass spectrometry (MS) has been used to study the conformations of negatively-charged peptide and protein ions. Results are presented for ion conformers of angiotensin 1, a synthetic peptide (SP), bovine insulin, ubiquitin, and equine cytochrome c. In general, the SP ion conformers demonstrate a greater level of HDX efficiency as a greater proportion of the sites undergo HDX. Additionally, these ions exhibit the fastest rates of exchange. Comparatively, the angiotensin 1 ions exhibit a lower rate of exchange and HDX level presumably because of decreased accessibility of exchange sites by charge sites. The latter are likely confined to the peptide termini. Insulin ions show dramatically reduced HDX levels and exchange rates, which can be attributed to decreased conformational flexibility resulting from the disulfide bonds. For the larger ubiquitin and protein ions, increased HDX is observed for larger ions of higher charge state. For ubiquitin, a conformational transition from compact to more elongated species (from lower to higher charge states) is reflected by an increase in HDX levels. These results can be explained by a combination of interior site protection by compact conformers as well as decreased access by charge sites. The elongated cytochrome c ions provide the largest HDX levels where higher values correlate with charge state. These results are consistent with increased exchange site accessibility by additional charge sites. The data from these enhanced IMS-HDX experiments are described in terms of charge site location, conformer rigidity, and interior site protection.

  15. Dynamic mass exchange in doubly degenerate binaries. I - 0.9 and 1.2 solar mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, W.; Cameron, A.G.W.; Press, W.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic mass exchange process in doubly degenerate binaries was investigated using a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the evolution of a doubly degenerate binary system in which the primary is a 1.2-solar-mass white dwarf and the Roche lobe filling secondary is a 0.9-solar-mass dwarf. The results show that, in a little more than two orbital periods, the secondary is completely destroyed and transformed into a thick disk orbiting about the primary. Since only a very small fraction of the mass (0.0063 solar mass) escapes the system, the evolution of the binary results in the formation of a massive object. This object is composed of three parts, the initial white dwarf primary, a very hot pressure-supported spherical envelope, and a rotationally supported outer disk. The evolution of the system can be understood in terms of a simple analytical model where it is shown that the angular momentum carried by the mass during the transfer and stored in the disk determines the evolution of the system. 34 refs

  16. Mechanisms for international technology exchange, privatization, and transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayfield, T.

    1993-01-01

    An environmental technology transfer business assistance program is needed to encourage collaboration and technology transfer within the international community. This program helped to find appropriate mechanisms to facilitate the transfer of these technologies for use by DOE environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) programs while assisting U.S. private industry (especially small and medium size business) in commercializing the technologies nationally and abroad

  17. Enhancement of combined heat and mass transfer in a vertical-tube heat and mass exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.L.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies enhancement of heat and mass transfer between a countercurrent, gravity-drained water film and air flowing in a vertical tube. The enhancement technique employed is spaced, transverse wires placed in the air boundary layer, near the air--water interface. Heat transfer correlations for turbulent, single-phase heat transfer in pipes having wall-attached spaced ribs are used to select the preferred wire diameter, and to predict the gas phase heat and mass transfer coefficients. Tests were run with two different radial placements of the rib roughness: (1) at the free surface of the liquid film, and (2) the base of the roughness displaced 0.51 mm into the air flow. The authors hypothesize that the best heat/mass transfer and friction performance will be obtained with the roughness at the surface of the water film. Experiments conducted with both roughness placements show that the authors' hypothesis is correct. The measured heat/mass transfer enhancement agreed very closely with the predicted values. A unique feature of the enhancement concept is that it does not require surface wetting of the enhancement device to provide enhancement

  18. International Energy Prices(Exchange Rate and PPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Han; Yoo, Dong Heon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Energy is to be specially important to the Korean economy. In the past the major purpose of Korea's energy policies was to ensure that the energy was supplied at the low cost to encourage and sustain economic development and growth. Therefore, energy prices are distorted by government intervention. And this was the cause of inefficiency in usage of energy. In order to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of energy consumption, new energy pricing should be needed to the energy industry and the Korean economy. It is necessary to compare the domestic energy prices with other countries to improve the energy pricing system including tax, the relative structure of energy price, etc. In order to compare the domestic energy prices to those of other countries, the exchange rate, purchasing power parity and Big Mac index are used for calculation of common currency. We select 12 countries, which are Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Mexico and England. The oil products(gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil and light fuel oil), natural gas and electricity are selected to compare the price. (author). 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  19. Mass transfer model liquid phase catalytic exchange column simulation applicable to any column composition profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busigin, A. [NITEK USA Inc., Ocala, FL (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) is a key technology used in water detritiation systems. Rigorous simulation of LPCE is complicated when a column may have both hydrogen and deuterium present in significant concentrations in different sections of the column. This paper presents a general mass transfer model for a homogenous packed bed LPCE column as a set of differential equations describing composition change, and equilibrium equations to define the mass transfer driving force within the column. The model is used to show the effect of deuterium buildup in the bottom of an LPCE column from non-negligible D atom fraction in the bottom feed gas to the column. These types of calculations are important in the design of CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) water detritiation systems.

  20. Time-resolved pulsed hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry probes gaseous proteins structural kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) method has been developed for rapid monitoring of the exchange kinetics of protein ions with D2O a few milliseconds after electrospray ionization (ESI). The stepwise gradual evolution of HDX of multiply charged protein ions was monitored using the pulsed HDX mass spectrometry technique. Upon introducing a very short pulse of D2O (in the μs to ms time scale) into the linear ion trap (LIT) of a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer, bimodal distributions were detected for the ions of cytochrome c and ubiquitin. Mechanistic details of HDX reactions for ubiquitin and cytochrome c in the gas phase were uncovered and the structural transitions were followed by analyzing the kinetics of HDX.

  1. The flushing and exchange of the South China Sea derived from salt and mass conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Bye, John A. T.; You, Yuzhu; Bao, Xianwen; Wu, Dexing

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we use two kinds of hydrographic data, historical cruise data, Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) float data, and atmospheric data to study the water exchange between the South China Sea (SCS) and the Pacific Ocean through the Luzon Strait. The annual mean distributions of temperature and salinity at five different levels in the SCS and the adjacent Pacific Ocean are presented, which indicate the occurrence of active water exchange through the Luzon Strait. The flushing and exchange of the SCS are then determined by the application of salt and mass conservation in a multi-layered thermohaline system, using an estimate of the net rainfall obtained from reanalysis data. The results show that the annual mean flushing time is 44±8 months with an inflow rate of 11±2 Sv (1 Sv=10 6 m 3 s -1), part of which recirculates at a deeper level through the Luzon Strait, the remainder (6±2 Sv) forming the SCS throughflow. The diffusive influx of salt is also estimated and accounts for about 10% of the total influx, and hence advection dominates over diffusion in the water exchange through the Luzon Strait. The seasonal cycle of exchange shows a maximum in autumn and winter of about twice the annual mean rate.

  2. Recent initiative in information exchange throughout the international nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Two key systems essential to the gathering and dissemination of operating experience, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and NUCLEAR NOTEPAD are described. The NPRDS is a collection of detailed engineering data on systems and components important to nuclear plant safety and productivity. NUCLEAR NOTEPAD is an international telecommunications network which provides a mechanism for the rapid, widespread dissemination of information pertinent to the design, licensing, safe and reliable operation of nuclear plants. Both systems have been managed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations since 1982 and are used extensively by 84 organizations in 14 countries. (U.K.)

  3. The Impact of the Applied Exchange Rate Regimes on the Internal Balance of Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujanić Vlado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the key goals of the economic policy makers of every country is to achieve internal and external balance. An unavoidable segment of the analysis concerning the achievement of internal and external balance is certainly the influence of the exchange rate regime applied in a country. European transition countries, despite their similar initial problems and final objectives, applied different exchange rate regimes adapted to the economic circumstances and needs of the country. The paper aims to examine and demonstrate the impact of the applied exchange rate regime on the internal balance of the transition countries. The research encompasses 10 representative transition countries, in the period from 2000-2014. The results of the research, from the aspect of internal balance, confirmed the justification of the application of the floating exchange rate regime in more developed, but not in less-developed, European transition countries. The application of floating exchange rate regimes in less-developed transition countries is associated with a considerably higher average inflation rate, which may be explained by the higher import dependence of lessdeveloped countries and by the consequent transfer of depreciation to price growth.

  4. On the vertical exchange of heat, mass and momentum over complex, mountainous terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Walter Rotach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL in the atmosphere-climate system is the exchange of heat, mass and momentum between ‘the earth’s surface’ and the atmosphere. Traditionally, it is understood that turbulent transport is responsible for this exchange and hence the understanding and physical description of the turbulence structure of the boundary layer is key to assess the effectiveness of earth-atmosphere exchange. This understanding is rooted in the (implicit assumption of a scale separation or spectral gap between turbulence and mean atmospheric motions, which in turn leads to the assumption of a horizontally homogeneous and flat (HHF surface as a reference, for which both physical understanding and model parameterizations have successfully been developed over the years. Over mountainous terrain, however, the ABL is generically inhomogeneous due to both thermal (radiative and dynamic forcing. This inhomogeneity leads to meso-scale and even sub-meso-scale flows such as slope and valley winds or wake effects. It is argued here that these (submeso-scale motions can significantly contribute to the vertical structure of the boundary layer and hence vertical exchange of heat and mass between the surface and the atmosphere. If model grid resolution is not high enough the latter will have to be parameterized (in a similar fashion as gravity wave drag parameterizations take into account the momentum transport due to gravity waves in large-scale models. In this contribution we summarize the available evidence of the contribution of (submeso-scale motions to vertical exchange in mountainous terrain from observational and numerical modeling studies. In particular, a number of recent simulation studies using idealized topography will be summarized and put into perspective – so as to identify possible limitations and areas of necessary future research.

  5. Mathematical model development of heat and mass exchange processes in the outdoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shaptala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently exploitation of outdoor swimming pools is often not cost-effective and, despite of their relevance, such pools are closed in large quantities. At this time there is no the whole mathematical model which would allow assessing qualitatively the effect of energy-saving measures. The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes for calculating basic heat and mass losses that occur during its exploitation. Methodology. The method for determination of heat and mass loses based on the theory of similarity criteria equations is used. Findings. The main types of heat and mass losses of outdoor pool were analyzed. The most significant types were allocated and mathematically described. Namely: by evaporation of water from the surface of the pool, by natural and forced convection, by radiation to the environment, heat consumption for water heating. Originality. The mathematical model of heat and mass exchange process of the outdoor swimming pool was developed, which allows calculating the basic heat and mass loses that occur during its exploitation. Practical value. The method of determining heat and mass loses of outdoor swimming pool as a software system was developed and implemented. It is based on the mathematical model proposed by the authors. This method can be used for the conceptual design of energy-efficient structures of outdoor pools, to assess their use of energy-intensive and selecting the optimum energy-saving measures. A further step in research in this area is the experimental validation of the method of calculation of heat losses in outdoor swimming pools with its use as an example the pool of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan. The outdoor pool, with water heating- up from the boiler room of the university, is operated year-round.

  6. International Symposium for the Promotion of APEC Environmental Technology Exchange; APEC kankyo gijutsu koryu sokushin symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-11

    The International Symposium for the Promotion of APEC Environmental Technology Exchange was held under the theme `The function and role expected of the APEC Virtual Center,` with the objectives of clarifying the need for future intra-regional environmental technological exchange, defining the types of information and personnel exchange, and promoting the use of interactive character of the APEC Virtual Center for Environmental Technology Exchange by encouraging access to and participation in the Virtual Center project. It was held in the period of 11th and 12th, November in 1996, at the venue of Rinku International Convention Center in Osaka. The symposium was attended by 477 persons from nine countries, i.e., Australia, Canada, China, Indonesia, Korea, Philippines, Thailand, the US, and Japan, comprising staff members of intra-regional environment-related organizations. After the keynote speech, `Current status and tasks of environmental technology exchange`, and `Expected roles of the Virtual Center for Environmental Technology Exchange` were discussed. During the plenary session, the chairman summarized the symposium. This summary was carried on the Virtual Center homepage of the Internet

  7. Cross-correlations between RMB exchange rate and international commodity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinsheng; Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Yubo

    2017-11-01

    This paper employs multifractal detrended analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) to study cross-correlation behaviors between China's RMB exchange rate market and four international commodity markets, using a comprehensive set of data covering the period from 22 July 2005 to 15 March 2016. Our empirical results from MF-DFA indicate that the RMB exchange rate is the most inefficient among the 4 selected markets. The results from quantitative analysis have testified the existence of cross-correlations and the result from MF-DCCA have further confirmed a strong multifractal behavior between RMB exchange rate and international commodity markets. We also demonstrate that the recent financial crisis has significant impact on the cross-correlated behavior. Through the rolling window analysis, we find that the RMB exchange rates and international commodity prices are anti-persistent cross-correlated. The main sources of multifractality in the cross-correlations are long-range correlations between RMB exchange rate and the aggregate commodity, energy and metals index.

  8. Probing protein interactions with hydrogen/deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, Andrew J.; Rey, Martial; Burns, Kyle M.; Schriemer, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Protein chemistry generates mass shifts useful for structure–function studies. ► H/DX supports a powerful mass shift method for protein interaction analysis. ► H/DX mass shifts are useful for determining binding data (K d , off-rates). ► Improved H/DX–MS workflows can accommodate complex protein systems. - Abstract: Assessing the functional outcome of protein interactions in structural terms is a goal of structural biology, however most techniques have a limited capacity for making structure–function determinations with both high resolution and high throughput. Mass spectrometry can be applied as a reader of protein chemistries in order to fill this void, and enable methodologies whereby protein structure–function determinations may be made on a proteome-wide level. Protein hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/DX) offers a chemical labeling strategy suitable for tracking changes in “dynamic topography” and thus represents a powerful means of monitoring protein structure–function relationships. This review presents the exchange method in the context of interaction analysis. Applications involving interface detection, quantitation of binding, and conformational responses to ligation are discussed, and commentary on recent analytical developments is provided.

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Non-Fickian Diffusional Mass Exchange of Radioactive Contaminants in Geological Disposal Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Suzuki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes consist of both engineered and natural geologic barriers to isolate the radioactive material from the human environment. Inappropriate repositories of nuclear waste would cause severe contamination to nearby aquifers. In this complex environment, mass transport of radioactive contaminants displays anomalous behaviors and often produces power-law tails in breakthrough curves due to spatial heterogeneities in fractured rocks, velocity dispersion, adsorption, and decay of contaminants, which requires more sophisticated models beyond the typical advection-dispersion equation. In this paper, accounting for the mass exchange between a fracture and a porous matrix of complex geometry, the universal equation of mass transport within a fracture is derived. This equation represents the generalization of the previously used models and accounts for anomalous mass exchange between a fracture and porous blocks through the introduction of the integral term of convolution type and fractional derivatives. This equation can be applied for the variety of processes taking place in the complex fractured porous medium, including the transport of radioactive elements. The Laplace transform method was used to obtain the solution of the fractional diffusion equation with a time-dependent source of radioactive contaminant.

  10. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Functional Membrane-bound Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Seena S.; Eyles, Stephen J.; Weis, Robert M.; Thompson, Lynmarie K.

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane signaling mechanism of bacterial chemotaxis receptors is thought to involve changes in receptor conformation and dynamics. The receptors function in ternary complexes with two other proteins, CheA and CheW, that form extended membrane-bound arrays. Previous studies have shown that attractant binding induces a small (~2 Å) piston displacement of one helix of the periplasmic and transmembrane domains towards the cytoplasm, but it is not clear how this signal propagates through the cytoplasmic domain to control the kinase activity of the CheA bound at the membrane-distal tip, nearly 200 Å away. The cytoplasmic domain has been shown to be highly dynamic, which raises the question of how a small piston motion could propagate through a dynamic domain to control CheA kinase activity. To address this, we have developed a method for measuring dynamics of the receptor cytoplasmic fragment (CF) in functional complexes with CheA and CheW. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) measurements of global exchange of CF demonstrate that CF exhibits significantly slower exchange in functional complexes than in solution. Since the exchange rates in functional complexes are comparable to that of other proteins of similar structure, the CF appears to be a well-structured protein within these complexes, which is compatible with its role in propagating a signal that appears to be a tiny conformational change in the periplasmic and transmembrane domains of the receptor. We also demonstrate the feasibility of this protocol for local exchange measurements, by incorporating a pepsin digest step to produce peptides with 87% sequence coverage and only 20% back exchange. This method extends HDX-MS to membrane-bound functional complexes without detergents that may perturb the stability or structure of the system. PMID:24274333

  11. Taxpayers' confidentiality and privacy rights in the international exchange of tax information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of tax information is a distinctive feature of international tax cooperation processes. The trend of intensive communication between the national tax administrations has been a political priority in economically developed countries. This area of international tax law has been subject to significant changes in the past few years. Countries are prompted to pursue the automatic exchange of tax information by entering into multilateral treaties on the exchange of tax information rather than engage in international exchange of tax information upon request by entering into bilateral agreements. These processes are promptly expedited owing to the incredible development of information and communication technologies. These developments are basically aimed at preventing different forms of international tax fraud which generate significant financial losses in the circumstances of current economic crisis. Such efforts may be justifiable regarding the interests of the countries of residence; but, what about the legal status of ordinary taxpayers who are now subject to a comprehensive and far-reaching control? The new concept may be appropriate for tracking tax fraud or embezzlement but what are its implications for law-abiding taxpayers? The national legislatures are obliged to provide for the protection of confidentiality of exchanged tax information but many states have not fully recognized the importance of providing adequate legal protection of sensitive personal and financial data. There are only a few countries whose legislations explicitly prescribe the taxpayers' right to be informed, the right to consult tax administration and the right to seek tax administration intervention as a form of legal protection in international exchange of tax information. The Serbian tax legislation does not envisage the obligation of tax authorities to notify the taxpayers about the request submitted by foreign tax authorities to provide some tax

  12. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON A VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE BY ADDING INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asmail Eleiwi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thispaper presents practical study to improve the indication COP of a vaporcompression refrigeration cycle in instrumented automobile air conditioner bydesigning internal heat exchanger and installing it in the vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle.  Two cases of  vapor compression refrigeration cycle were takenin this paper:  the first case is thatthe vapor compression refrigeration cycle without internal heat exchanger andin  the second case the vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle with heat exchanger ; in these two cases, the temperatureat each point of  a vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle, the low and the high pressure ,the indoor temperature andthe outdoor temperature were measured at each time at compressor speed 1450 rpmand 2900 rpm for each blower speed 1, blower speed 2 and blower speed 3.Therefrigerant fluid was used in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle withoutIHE and with IHE is R134a..

  13. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry in biopharmaceutical discovery and development – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Bin, E-mail: dengbin@yorku.ca [Chemistry Department, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); The Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J1P3 (Canada); Lento, Cristina, E-mail: clento@yorku.ca [Chemistry Department, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); The Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J1P3 (Canada); Wilson, Derek J., E-mail: dkwilson@yorku.ca [Chemistry Department, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); The Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J1P3 (Canada)

    2016-10-12

    Protein therapeutics have emerged as a major class of biopharmaceuticals over the past several decades, a trend that has motivated the advancement of bioanalytical technologies for protein therapeutic characterization. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a powerful and sensitive technique that can probe the higher order structure of proteins and has been used in the assessment and development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and biosimilar antibodies. It has also been used to quantify protein-ligand, protein-receptor and other protein-protein interactions involved in signaling pathways. In manufacturing and development, HDX-MS can validate storage formulations and manufacturing processes for various biotherapeutics. Currently, HDX-MS is being refined to provide additional coverage, sensitivity and structural specificity and implemented on the millisecond timescale to reveal residual structure and dynamics in disordered domains and intrinsically disordered proteins. - Highlights: • The pharmaceuticals industry is increasingly shifting to protein therapeutics. • Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry is uniquely well suited to support biopharmaceutical development. • Applications for hydrogen deuterium exchange span drug discovery, development and manufacturing. • Future developments will allow improved sensitivity, structural resolution and a broader range of dynamics to be monitored.

  14. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry in biopharmaceutical discovery and development – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Bin; Lento, Cristina; Wilson, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Protein therapeutics have emerged as a major class of biopharmaceuticals over the past several decades, a trend that has motivated the advancement of bioanalytical technologies for protein therapeutic characterization. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a powerful and sensitive technique that can probe the higher order structure of proteins and has been used in the assessment and development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and biosimilar antibodies. It has also been used to quantify protein-ligand, protein-receptor and other protein-protein interactions involved in signaling pathways. In manufacturing and development, HDX-MS can validate storage formulations and manufacturing processes for various biotherapeutics. Currently, HDX-MS is being refined to provide additional coverage, sensitivity and structural specificity and implemented on the millisecond timescale to reveal residual structure and dynamics in disordered domains and intrinsically disordered proteins. - Highlights: • The pharmaceuticals industry is increasingly shifting to protein therapeutics. • Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry is uniquely well suited to support biopharmaceutical development. • Applications for hydrogen deuterium exchange span drug discovery, development and manufacturing. • Future developments will allow improved sensitivity, structural resolution and a broader range of dynamics to be monitored.

  15. Evaluating Academic Programs Abroad: The CIEE Project. CIEE Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Irwin; Heller, Francis H.

    The evaluation of overseas educational programs for U.S. students by the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE) is discussed. The history of the CIEE is reviewed from its beginnings in 1947 when its members were national programming agencies concerned with making travel arrangements for summer programs. As the CIEE grew in…

  16. Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

  17. Internationally Safeguarded Atomic Fuel Exchange Center for the Asian Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaduray, G.; Anderson, R.N.; Goldstein, M.K.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of an Internationally Safeguarded Atomic Fuel Exchange Center (ISAFE) for the Asia-Pacific Basin is examined. The geography and nuclear capabilitiy of the countries that comprise the Asia-Pacific Basin is described in full length. The incentives and the limitations for the establishment of the ISAFE center in the Asia-Pacific Basin are discussed in detail. 34 refs

  18. Thoughts on the International Cooperation and Exchanges of Chinese Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiang-bin

    2009-01-01

    More prominent in the 21st century than ever are the internationalization of the competition for talents, the globalization of their mobility, and the diversity of the demand for them. This article analyzes the major features and content of the international cooperation and exchanges, and further discusses their tactics and measures in the process…

  19. Web-based international knowledge exchange tool on urban resilience and climate proofing cities : climatescan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Tipping, Jonathan; Muthanna, T.; Duffy, A.; Bendall, Barry; Kluck, Jeroen

    There is a wide diversity of projects undertaken to address urban resillience and climate proofing in the world. International knowledge exchange tools are evaluated with result: stakeholders demand tools that are interactive, open source and provide more detailed information (location, free photo

  20. Analysis of Critical Success Factors of Online International Learning Exchange of Korean School Pupils with English-Speaking Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Yeon; Park, Sanghoon

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies the factors influencing the success of online international learning exchange (ILE) among Korean school pupils who partnered with American and Australian pupils. In particular, it examined the effects of self-efficacy (SE), exchange infrastructure (EI) and quality of exchange activities (QEA) on the students' learning…

  1. Electrochemical reduction of disulfide-containing proteins for hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Salbo, Rune; Ploug, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of disulfide bond-containing proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) requires reduction of the disulfide bonds under acidic and cold conditions, where the amide hydrogen exchange reaction is quenched (pH 2.5, 0 °C). The reduction typically...... of TCEP. In the present study, we explore the feasibility of using electrochemical reduction as a substitute for TCEP in HDX-MS analyses. Our results demonstrate that efficient disulfide bond reduction is readily achieved by implementing an electrochemical cell into the HDX-MS workflow. We also identify...... some challenges in using electrochemical reduction in HDX-MS analyses and provide possible conditions to attenuate these limitations. For example, high salt concentrations hamper disulfide bond reduction, necessitating additional dilution of the sample with aqueous acidic solution at quench conditions....

  2. Aberrant internal carotid artery presenting as a retrotympanic vascular mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolay, Simon; De Foer, Bert; Bernaerts, Anja; Van Dinther, Joost; Parizel, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a young woman with an aberrant right internal carotid artery (ICA) presenting as a retrotympanic reddish mass. This variant of the ICA represents the collateral pathway that is formed as a result of an embryological agenesis of the cervical segment of the ICA. The embryonic inferior tympanic artery is recruited to bypass the absent carotid segment. This hypertrophied vessel may be seen otoscopically and wrongfully considered to be a vascular middle ear tumor. Informing the otorhinolaryngologist of this important vascular variant not only obviates biopsy but also helps in careful preoperative planning of eventual middle ear procedures

  3. Iodine-Containing Mass-Defect-Tuned Dendrimers for Use as Internal Mass Spectrometry Calibrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Joseph A.; Diament, Benjamin J.; Grayson, Scott M.

    2018-03-01

    Calibrants based on synthetic dendrimers have been recently proposed as a versatile alternative to peptides and proteins for both MALDI and ESI mass spectrometry calibration. Because of their modular synthetic platform, dendrimer calibrants are particularly amenable to tailoring for specific applications. Utilizing this versatility, a set of dendrimers has been designed as an internal calibrant with a tailored mass defect to differentiate them from the majority of natural peptide analytes. This was achieved by incorporating a tris-iodinated aromatic core as an initiator for the dendrimer synthesis, thereby affording multiple calibration points ( m/z range 600-2300) with an optimized mass-defect offset relative to all peptides composed of the 20 most common proteinogenic amino acids. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. The impact of risk management on internal and sustainable growth rate: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Vakili Fard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative risk of firms has been an open discussion among researchers. There are many studies on learning how leverage may influence on growth of the firms. This article reviews the relationship between risk management, internal and sustainable growth of accepted companies in Tehran stock exchange. The survey considers three types of risks including operating, financial and compound and investigates their relationships with internal growth rate as well as sustainable growth rate. Using some regression techniques, the study has determined negative and meaningful relationships between different types of leverage on side and internal as well as sustainable growth on the other side.

  5. International technology exchange in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    The nearly completed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Savannah River Site that is designed to immobilize defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification in borosilicate glass and containment in stainless steel canisters suitable for storage in the future DOE HLW repository. The DWPF is expected to start cold operation later this year (1990), and will be the first full scale vitrification facility operating in the United States, and the largest in the world. The DOE has been coordinating technology transfer and exchange on issues relating to HLW treatment and disposal through bi-lateral agreements with several nations. For the nearly fifteen years of the vitrification program at Savannah River Laboratory, over two hundred exchanges have been conducted with a dozen international agencies involving about five-hundred foreign national specialists. These international exchanges have been beneficial to the DOE's waste management efforts through confirmation of the choice of the waste form, enhanced understanding of melter operating phenomena, support for paths forward in political/regulatory arenas, confirmation of costs for waste form compliance programs, and establishing the need for enhancements of melter facility designs. This paper will compare designs and schedules of the international vitrification programs, and will discuss technical areas where the exchanges have provided data that have confirmed and aided US research and development efforts, impacted the design of the DWPF and guided the planning for regulatory interaction and product acceptance

  6. Mathematical modeling of water mass balance for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jaafar Sahari; Nik Suhaimi Mat Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Gas and water management are key to achieving good performance from a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. Water plays a critical role in PEMFC. The proton conductivity is increase with the water content. In order to achieve enough hydration, water is normally introduced into the cell externally by a variety of methods such as liquid injection, steam introduction, and humidification of reactants by passing them through humidifiers before entering the cell. In this paper, mathematical modeling of water mass balance for PEMFC at anode and cathode side are proposed by using external humidification and assume that steady state, constant pressure, constant temperature and gases distribution are uniform

  7. Protein hydrogen exchange measured at single-residue resolution by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Zehl, Martin; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2009-01-01

    Because of unparalleled sensitivity and tolerance to protein size, mass spectrometry (MS) has become a popular method for measuring the solution hydrogen (1H/2H) exchange (HX) of biologically relevant protein states. While incorporated deuterium can be localized to different regions by pepsin....... The deuterium labeling pattern of beta2-microglobulin is retained in the gaseous fragment ions by employing mild declustering conditions for electrospray ionization. A recently developed model peptide is used to arrive at such ion source declustering conditions that prevent the occurrence of intramolecular gas...

  8. Developing additional capacity for wilderness management: An international exchange program between South Africa and United States wilderness rangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre van den Berg; Ralph Swain

    2007-01-01

    Wilderness managers have limited time to initiate international exchanges. Additionally, the benefits to developing capacity for wilderness management around the globe are not significant enough to make the effort cost-effective. International assistance, including wilderness management exchange programs, is critical to protecting wild areas around the globe. Former...

  9. Spatially resolved protein hydrogen exchange measured by subzero-cooled chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amon, Sabine; Trelle, Morten B; Jensen, Ole N

    2012-01-01

    . After a given period of deuteration, the exchange reaction is quenched by acidification (pH 2.5) and cooling (0 °C) and the deuterated protein (or a digest thereof) is analyzed by mass spectrometry. The unavoidable loss of deuterium (back-exchange) that occurs under quench conditions is undesired...... as it leads to loss of information. Here we describe the successful application of a chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry top-down fragmentation approach based on cooling to subzero temperature (-15 °C) which reduces the back-exchange at quench conditions to very low levels. For example...

  10. Real-time hydrogen/deuterium exchange kinetics via supercharged electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Harry J; Williams, Evan R

    2010-11-01

    Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) rate constants of bovine ubiquitin in an ammonium acetate solution containing 1% of the electrospray ionization (ESI) "supercharging" reagent m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) were obtained using top-down, electron transfer dissociation (ETD) tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The supercharging reagent replaces the acid and temperature "quench" step in the conventional MS approach to HDX experiments by causing rapid protein denaturation to occur in the ESI droplet. The higher charge state ions that are produced with m-NBA are more unfolded, as measured by ion mobility, and result in higher fragmentation efficiency and higher sequence coverage with ETD. Single amino acid resolution was obtained for 44 of 72 exchangeable amide sites, and summed kinetic data were obtained for regions of the protein where adjacent fragment ions were not observed, resulting in an overall spatial resolution of 1.3 residues. Comparison of these results with previous values from NMR indicates that the supercharging reagent does not cause significant structural changes to the protein in the initial ESI solution and that scrambling or back-exchange is minimal. This new method for top-down HDX-MS enables real-time kinetic data measurements under physiological conditions, similar to those obtained using NMR, with comparable spatial resolution and significantly better sensitivity.

  11. Proceedings of the third international steam generator and heat exchanger conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Third International Steam Generator and Heat Exchanger conference had the objective to present the state of knowledge of steam generator performance and life management, and also heat exchanger technology. As this conference followed on from the previous conferences held in Toronto in 1990 and 1994, the emphasis was on recent developments, particularly those of the last 4 years. The conference provided an opportunity to operators, designers and researchers in the field of steam generation associated with electricity generation by nuclear energy to present their findings and exchange ideas. The conference endeavoured to do this over the widest possible range of subject areas, including: general operating experience, life management and fitness for service strategies, maintenance and inspection, thermalhydraulics, vibration, fretting and fatigue, materials, chemistry and corrosion and the regulatory issues

  12. Proceedings of the third international steam generator and heat exchanger conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Third International Steam Generator and Heat Exchanger conference had the objective to present the state of knowledge of steam generator performance and life management, and also heat exchanger technology. As this conference followed on from the previous conferences held in Toronto in 1990 and 1994, the emphasis was on recent developments, particularly those of the last 4 years. The conference provided an opportunity to operators, designers and researchers in the field of steam generation associated with electricity generation by nuclear energy to present their findings and exchange ideas. The conference endeavoured to do this over the widest possible range of subject areas,including: general operating experience, life management and fitness for service strategies, maintenance and inspection, thermalhydraulics, vibration, fretting and fatigue, materials, chemistry and corrosion and the regulatory issues.

  13. Improving mass measurement accuracy in mass spectrometry based proteomics by combining open source tools for chromatographic alignment and internal calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Dalebout, Hans; Derks, Rico J E; Schoenmaker, Bart; Deelder, André M

    2009-05-02

    Accurate mass determination enhances peptide identification in mass spectrometry based proteomics. We here describe the combination of two previously published open source software tools to improve mass measurement accuracy in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). The first program, msalign, aligns one MS/MS dataset with one FTICRMS dataset. The second software, recal2, uses peptides identified from the MS/MS data for automated internal calibration of the FTICR spectra, resulting in sub-ppm mass measurement errors.

  14. Conformational analysis of g protein-coupled receptor signaling by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Lee, Su Youn; Chung, Ka Young

    2015-01-01

    Conformational change and protein-protein interactions are two major mechanisms of membrane protein signal transduction, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Upon agonist binding, GPCRs change conformation, resulting in interaction with downstream signaling molecules such as G proteins. To understand the precise signaling mechanism, studies have investigated the structural mechanism of GPCR signaling using X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or electron paramagnetic resonance. In addition to these techniques, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has recently been used in GPCR studies. HDX-MS measures the rate at which peptide amide hydrogens exchange with deuterium in the solvent. Exposed or flexible regions have higher exchange rates and excluded or ordered regions have lower exchange rates. Therefore, HDX-MS is a useful tool for studying protein-protein interfaces and conformational changes after protein activation or protein-protein interactions. Although HDX-MS does not give high-resolution structures, it analyzes protein conformations that are difficult to study with X-ray crystallography or NMR. Furthermore, conformational information from HDX-MS can help in the crystallization of X-ray crystallography by suggesting highly flexible regions. Interactions between GPCRs and downstream signaling molecules are not easily analyzed by X-ray crystallography or NMR because of the large size of the GPCR-signaling molecule complexes, hydrophobicity, and flexibility of GPCRs. HDX-MS could be useful for analyzing the conformational mechanism of GPCR signaling. In this chapter, we discuss details of HDX-MS for analyzing GPCRs using the β2AR-G protein complex as a model system. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Research on the trend of Yen exchange rate and international crude oil price fluctuation affected by Japan’s earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Whether this earthquake would become a turning point of the high oil price and whether it would have big impact on yen exchange rate are two issues to be discussed in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: To analyze deeply the internal relations between changes in yen exchange rate caused by Japan’s earthquake and price fluctuation of international crude oil, this research chooses middle rate of yen exchange rate during the 45 days around Japan’s earthquake and price data of international crude oil to do an empirical study, uses VAR model and HP trend decomposition to estimate the mutual effect of yen exchange rate change and price fluctuation of international crude oil in this period.Findings: It has been found in the empirical study with VAR model and HP filter decomposition model on the yen exchange rate and the international crude oil price fluctuation during 45 days around Japan’s earthquake that: the fluctuation of yen exchange rate around the earthquake is one of the main reasons for the drastic fluctuation of international crude oil price in that period. The fluctuation of international crude oil price directly triggered by yen exchange rate occupies 13.54% of its total variance. There is a long-term interactive relationship between yen exchange rate and international crude oil price. The upward trend of international crude oil price after the earthquake was obvious, while yen exchange rate remained relatively stable after the earthquake.Originality/value: As economic globalization goes deeper, the influence of natural disasters on international financial market and world economy will become more and more obvious. It has a great revelatory meaning to studying further each kind of natural disaster’s impacts on international financial market and world economics.

  16. Promoting medical competencies through international exchange programs: benefits on communication and effective doctor-patient relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Fabian; Stegmann, Karsten; Siebeck, Matthias

    2014-03-04

    Universities are increasingly organizing international exchange programs to meet the requirements of growing globalisation in the field of health care. Analyses based on the programs' fundamental theoretical background are needed to confirm the learning value for participants. This study investigated the extent of sociocultural learning in an exchange program and how sociocultural learning affects the acquisition of domain-specific competencies. Sociocultural learning theories were applied to study the learning effect for German medical students from the LMU Munich, Munich, Germany, of participation in the medical exchange program with Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. First, we performed a qualitative study consisting of interviews with five of the first program participants. The results were used to develop a questionnaire for the subsequent, quantitative study, in which 29 program participants and 23 matched controls performed self-assessments of competencies as defined in the Tuning Project for Health Professionals. The two interrelated studies were combined to answer three different research questions. The participants rated their competence significantly higher than the control group in the fields of doctor-patient relationships and communication in a medical context. Participant responses in the two interrelated studies supported the link between the findings and the suggested theoretical background. Overall, we found that the exchange program affected the areas of doctor-patient relationships and effective communication in a medical context. Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory contributed to explaining the learning mechanisms of the exchange program.

  17. Social Media and Population Health Virtual Exchange for Senior Nursing Students: An International Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Paula M; Brixey, Juliana J; Honey, Michelle L L; Todhunter, Fern

    2016-01-01

    The authors have all engaged in using social media with students as a means for collaboration across national and international boundaries for various educational purposes. Following the explosion of big data in health the authors are now moving this concept forward within undergraduate and postgraduate nursing curricula for the development of population health virtual exchanges. Nursing has a global presence and yet it appears as though students have little knowledge of the health and social care needs and provision outside their local environment. This development will allow for explorative exchange amongst students in three countries, enhancing their understanding of their own and the selected international population health needs and solutions through asking and responding to questions amongst the learning community involved. The connection of the students will be recorded for their use in reflection; of particular interest will be the use of information included by the students to answer questions about their locality.

  18. Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric Determination of Myo-inositol in Humans Utilizing a Deuterated Internal Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Larsen, Elfinn; Harbo, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The isotopic dilution technique was used for determining the content of myo-inositol in human urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocyte samples. A deuterated myo-inositol, synthesized from inosose-2 by base-catalysed exchange of hydrogens by deuterium, followed by reduction of the inosose with 2H2......, was added as internal standard to the samples at an early stage in the analytical procedure. After separation and derivatization to the hexa-acetate, the gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis was carried out. A 25 m fused silica capillary column coated with methyl silicone was used, and the ions...... selected for monitoring were m/z 210 and m/z 214, which are characteristic and abundant fragment ions from unlabelled and hexadeuterated myo-inositolhexa-acetate, respectively. Calibration curves from water, urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocytes show parallel, linear responses in the ratio between...

  19. The mass transfer dynamics of gaseous methyl-iodide adsorption by silver-exchanged sodium mordenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1994-12-01

    The adsorption of methyl iodide onto hydrogen-reduced silver-exchange mordenite was studied. The removal of organic iodides from off-gas streams is an important step in controlling the release of radioactive iodine to the environment during the treatment of radioactive wastes or the processing of some irradiated materials. Nine well accepted mass transfer models were evaluated for their ability to adequately explain the observed CH 3 I uptake behavior onto the Ag-Z. Linear and multidimensional regression techniques were utilized in the estimation of the diffusion constants and other model parameters which then permitted the selection of an appropriate mass transfer model. To date, only bulk loading data exist for the adsorption of CH 3 I onto Ag-Z. Hence this is believed to be the first study to quantify the controlling mass transfer mechanisms of this process. It can be concluded from the analysis of the experimental data obtained by the single-pellet type experiments and for the process conditions used in this study that the overall mass transfer rate associated with the adsorption of CH 3 I onto Ag-Z is affected by both micropore and macropore diffusion. The macropore diffusion rate was significantly faster than the micropore diffusion, resulting in a two-step adsorption behavior which was adequately modeled by a bimodal pore distribution model. The micropore diffusivity was determined to be on the order of 2 x 10 -14 cm 2 /s. The system was also shown to be isothermal under all conditions of this study. Two other conclusions were also obtained. First, the gas film resistance to mass transfer for the 1/16 and 1/8-in.-diam Ag-Z pellets can be ignored under the conditions used in this study. Finally, it was shown that by decreasing the water vapor content of the feed gas, the chemical reaction rate appeared to become the initial rate-limiting factor for the mass transfer. 75 refs

  20. Influence of concentration and hydrodynamic factors in sorption of iodine by anion-exchangers of the mass-transfer rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Smirnov, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the joint influence of hydrodynamic and concentration factors in sorption of iodine by AV-17-8 and anion exchange resins on the mass-transfer coefficient is the subject of this report. The method of central composite rotatable experimental design was used for quantitative assessment and derivation of the appropriate equations. The investigation yielded the necessary regression equations satisfactorily describing the influence of all the factors in the mass-transfer coefficient. the optimal mass-transfer conditions were determined. On the basis of the values obtained, recommendations are made on the optimal hydrodynamic conditions of operation of equipment with pneumatic circulation of the ion-exchanger

  1. Platform dependencies in bottom-up hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kyle M; Rey, Martial; Baker, Charles A H; Schriemer, David C

    2013-02-01

    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry is an important method for protein structure-function analysis. The bottom-up approach uses protein digestion to localize deuteration to higher resolution, and the essential measurement involves centroid mass determinations on a very large set of peptides. In the course of evaluating systems for various projects, we established two (HDX-MS) platforms that consisted of a FT-MS and a high-resolution QTOF mass spectrometer, each with matched front-end fluidic systems. Digests of proteins spanning a 20-110 kDa range were deuterated to equilibrium, and figures-of-merit for a typical bottom-up (HDX-MS) experiment were compared for each platform. The Orbitrap Velos identified 64% more peptides than the 5600 QTOF, with a 42% overlap between the two systems, independent of protein size. Precision in deuterium measurements using the Orbitrap marginally exceeded that of the QTOF, depending on the Orbitrap resolution setting. However, the unique nature of FT-MS data generates situations where deuteration measurements can be inaccurate, because of destructive interference arising from mismatches in elemental mass defects. This is shown through the analysis of the peptides common to both platforms, where deuteration values can be as low as 35% of the expected values, depending on FT-MS resolution, peptide length and charge state. These findings are supported by simulations of Orbitrap transients, and highlight that caution should be exercised in deriving centroid mass values from FT transients that do not support baseline separation of the full isotopic composition.

  2. Achievement of the charge exchange work diminishing of an internal combustion engine in part load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines, used for driving of different cars, occurs not only at full load, but mostly at the part load. The relative load exchange work at the full (nominal engine load is significantly low. At the part load of the IC engine its energy efficiency ηe is significantly lower than in the optimal (nominal field range of the performance parameters. One of the numerous reasons of this effect is regular growing of the relative load exchange work of the IC engine. It is directly connected with the quantitative regulation method commonly used in the IC engines. From the thermodynamic point of view - the main reason of this effect is the throttling process (causing exergy losses occurring in the inlet and outlet channels. The known proposals for solving of this problem are based on applying of the fully electronic control of the motion of inlet, outlet valves and new reference cycles.The idea presented in the paper leads to diminishing the charge exchange work of the IC engines. The problem can be solved using presented in the paper a new concept of the reference cycle (called as eco-cycle of IC engine. The work of the engine basing on the eco-cycle occurs in two 3-stroke stages; the fresh air is delivered only once for both stages, but in range of each stage a new portion of fuel is burned. Normally the charge exchange occurs once during each engine cycle realized. Elaborated proposition bases on the elimination of chosen charge exchange processes and through this the dropping of the charge exchange work can be achieved.

  3. Development to term of sheep embryos reconstructed after inner cell mass/trophoblast exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Pasqualino; Galli, Cesare; Lazzari, Giovanna; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fulka, Josef; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2018-04-13

    Here we report in vitro and term development of sheep embryos after the inner cell mass (ICM) from one set of sheep blastocysts were injected into the trophoblast vesicles of another set. We also observed successful in vitro development of chimeric blastocysts made from sheep trophoblast vesicles injected with bovine ICM. First, we dissected ICMs from 35 sheep blastocysts using a stainless steel microblade and injected them into 29 re-expanded sheep trophoblastic vesicles. Of the 25 successfully micromanipulated trophoblastic vesicles, 15 (51.7%) re-expanded normally and showed proper ICM integration. The seven most well reconstructed embryos were transferred for development to term. Three ewes receiving manipulated blastocysts were pregnant at day 45 (42.8%), and all delivered normal offspring (singletons, two females and one male, average weight: 3.54 ± 0.358 kg). Next, we monitored in vitro development of sheep trophoblasts injected with bovine ICMs. Of 17 injected trophoblastic vesicles, 10 (58.8%) re-expanded after 4 h in culture, and four (40%) exhibited integrated bovine ICM. Our results indicate that ICM/trophoblast exchange is feasible, allowing full term development with satisfactory lambing rate. Therefore, ICM exchange is a promising approach for endangered species conservation.

  4. Conformational Assessment of Adnectin and Adnectin-Drug Conjugate by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Richard Y.-C.; O'Neil, Steven R.; Lipovšek, Daša; Chen, Guodong

    2018-05-01

    Higher-order structure (HOS) characterization of therapeutic protein-drug conjugates for comprehensive assessment of conjugation-induced protein conformational changes is an important consideration in the biopharmaceutical industry to ensure proper behavior of protein therapeutics. In this study, conformational dynamics of a small therapeutic protein, adnectin 1, together with its drug conjugate were characterized by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) with different spatial resolutions. Top-down HDX allows detailed assessment of the residue-level deuterium content in the payload conjugation region. HDX-MS dataset revealed the ability of peptide-based payload/linker to retain deuterium in HDX experiments. Combined results from intact, top-down, and bottom-up HDX indicated no significant conformational changes of adnectin 1 upon payload conjugation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Dynamics of urokinase receptor interaction with Peptide antagonists studied by amide hydrogen exchange and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Danø, Keld

    2004-01-01

    Using amide hydrogen exchange combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we have in this study determined the number of amide hydrogens on several peptides that become solvent-inaccessible as a result of their high-affinity interaction with the urokinase-type plasminogen activator...... receptor (uPAR). These experiments reveal that at least six out of eight amide hydrogens in a synthetic nine-mer peptide antagonist (AE105) become sequestered upon engagement in uPAR binding. Various uPAR mutants with decreased affinity for this peptide antagonist gave similar results, thereby indicating...... that deletion of the favorable interactions involving the side chains of these residues in uPAR does not affect the number of hydrogen bonds established by the main chain of the peptide ligand. The isolated growth factor-like domain (GFD) of the cognate serine protease ligand for uPAR showed 11 protected amide...

  6. International exchange of emergency phase information and assessments: An aid to national/international decision makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Chino, M.; Ehrhardt, J.; Shershakov, V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a collaborative project (1) to demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of a system seeking early review, in a 'quasi peer review' mode, of nuclear accident plume and dose assessment predictions by four major international nuclear accident emergency response systems before release of calculations to respective national authorities followed by (2) sharing these results with responsible national/international authorities, (3) development of an affordable/accessible system to distribute results to countries without prediction capabilities and (4) utilisation for exercises and collaboration studies. The project exploits Internet browser technology and low-cost PC hardware, incorporates an Internet node, with access control, for depositing a minimal set of XML-based graphics files for presentation in an identical map format. Side-by-side viewing and tele-video conferencing will permit rapid evaluation, data elaboration and recalculation (if necessary) and should produce strong consensus among decision makers. Successful completion affords easy utilisation by national/international organisations and non-nuclear states at risk of trans-boundary incursion. (authors)

  7. Observational signatures of past mass-exchange episodes in massive binaries: the case of LSS 3074

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucq, F.; Gosset, E.; Rauw, G.; Manfroid, J.; Mahy, L.; Mennekens, N.; Vanbeveren, D.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The role of mass and momentum exchanges in close massive binaries is very important in the subsequent evolution of the components. Such exchanges produce several observational signatures such as asynchronous rotation and altered chemical compositions, that remain after the stars detach again. Aims: We investigated these effects for the close O-star binary LSS 3074 (O4 f + O6-7:(f):), which is a good candidate for a past Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) episode because of its very short orbital period, P = 2.185 days, and the luminosity classes of both components. Methods: We determined a new orbital solution for the system. We studied the photometric light curves to determine the inclination of the orbit and Roche lobe filling factors of both stars. Using phase-resolved spectroscopy, we performed the disentangling of the optical spectra of the two stars. We then analysed the reconstructed primary and secondary spectra with the CMFGEN model atmosphere code to determine stellar parameters, such as the effective temperatures and surface gravities, and to constrain the chemical composition of the components. Results: We confirm the apparent low stellar masses and radii reported in previous studies. We also find a strong overabundance in nitrogen and a strong carbon and oxygen depletion in both primary and secondary atmospheres, together with a strong enrichment in helium of the primary star. Conclusions: We propose several possible evolutionary pathways through a RLOF process to explain the current parameters of the system. We confirm that the system is apparently in overcontact configuration and has lost a significant portion of its mass to its surroundings. We suggest that some of the discrepancies between the spectroscopic and photometric properties of LSS 3074 could stem from the impact of a strong radiation pressure of the primary. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) and the Cerro Tololo Inter

  8. Enhancement of international cooperation and experience exchange: international and regional cooperation in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will explore methods that have been effective in accomplishing broad-based technology transfer relationships between international commercial nuclear organizations, and have enhanced the benefits from such relationships through mutual participation in the development of new technology. The factors involved in accomplishing technology transfer will be examined based on the 25 years of Westinghouse experience in establishing successful nuclear technology relationships with over 20 different associates world-wide. This will include information pertaining to organization, training, consultation, technical information transmission, and other important aspects of technology transfer. Additionally, the methodology of enhancing and increasing the benefits of technology transfer through cooperative development programs as produced and promoted by Weatinghouse with its associates will be examined. This will include reviews of several significant copperative programs, such as the programs for the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor and the Integrated Protection and Control Systems for future plants. (author)

  9. Enhancement of international cooperation and experience exchange - international and regional cooperation in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper will explore methods that have been effective in accomplishing broad-based technology transfer relationships between international commercial nuclear organizations, and have enhanced the benefits from such relationships through mutual participation in the development of new technology. The factors involved in accomplishing technology transfer will be examined based on the 25 years of Westinghouse experience in establishing successful nuclear technology relationships with over 20 different associates world-wide. This will include information pertaining to organization, training, consultation, technical information transmission, and other important aspects of technology transfer. Additionally, the methodology of enhancing and increasing the benefits of technology transfer through cooperative development programs as produced and promoted by Westinghouse with its associates will be examined. This will include reviews of several significant cooperative programs, such as the programs for the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor and the Integrated Protection and Control Systems for future plants

  10. A global probe into dental student perceptions about philanthropy, global dentistry and international student exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Yaneva, Krassimira; Luan, Diana; Andonov, Bogomil; Kumar, Reena R; Agnihotry, Anirudha; Ivanoff, Athena E; Emmanouil, Dimitrios; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Koneski, Filip; Muratovska, Ilijana; Al-Shehri, Huda A; Al-Taweel, Sara M; Daly, Michele

    2017-04-01

    Training culturally competent graduates who can practice effectively in a multicultural environment is a goal of contemporary dental education. The Global Oral Health Initiative is a network of dental schools seeking to promote global dentistry as a component of cultural competency training. Before initiating international student exchanges, a survey was conducted to assess students' awareness of global dentistry and interest in cross-national clerkships. A 22-question, YES/NO survey was distributed to 3,487 dental students at eight schools in seven countries. The questions probed students about their school's commitment to enhance their education by promoting global dentistry, volunteerism and philanthropy. The data were analysed using Vassarstats statistical software. In total, 2,371 students (67.9%) completed the survey. Cultural diversity was seen as an important component of dental education by 72.8% of the students, with two-thirds (66.9%) acknowledging that their training provided preparation for understanding the oral health care needs of disparate peoples. A high proportion (87.9%) agreed that volunteerism and philanthropy are important qualities of a well-rounded dentist, but only about one-third felt that their school supported these behaviours (36.2%) or demonstrated a commitment to promote global dentistry (35.5%). In addition, 87.4% felt that dental schools are morally bound to improve oral health care in marginalised global communities and should provide students with international exchange missions (91%), which would enhance their cultural competency (88.9%) and encourage their participation in charitable missions after graduation (67.6%). The study suggests that dental students would value international exchanges, which may enhance students' knowledge and self-awareness related to cultural competence. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  11. Superconducting spin switch with infinite magnetoresistance induced by an internal exchange field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Roschewsky, Niklas; Assaf, Badih A; Eich, Marius; Epstein-Martin, Marguerite; Heiman, Don; Münzenberg, Markus; Moodera, Jagadeesh S

    2013-03-01

    A theoretical prediction by de Gennes suggests that the resistance in a FI/S/FI (where FI is a ferromagnetic insulator, and S is a superconductor) structure will depend on the magnetization direction of the two FI layers. We report a magnetotransport measurement in a EuS/Al/EuS structure, showing that an infinite magnetoresistance can be produced by tuning the internal exchange field at the FI/S interface. This proximity effect at the interface can be suppressed by an Al(2)O(3) barrier as thin as 0.3 nm, showing the extreme confinement of the interaction to the interface giving rise to the demonstrated phenomena.

  12. for the internal rotation evolution of low-mass stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinçon Charly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler, noteworthy breakthroughs have been made in our understanding of stellar evolution, and in particular about the angular momentum redistribution in stellar interiors. Indeed, the high-precision seismic data provide with the measurement of the mean core rotation rate for thousands of low-mass stars from the subgiant branch to the red giant branch. All these observations exhibit much lower core rotation rates than expected by current stellar evolution codes and they emphasize the need for an additional transport process. In this framework, internal gravity waves (herefater, IGW could play a signifivative role since they are known to be able to transport angular momentum. In this work, we estimate the effciency of the transport by the IGW that are generated by penetrative convection at the interface between the convective and the radiative regions. As a first step, this study is based on the comparison between the timescale for the waves to modify a given rotation profile and the contraction/expansion timescale throughout the radiative zone of 1.3M⊙ stellar models. We show that IGW, on their own, are ineffcient to slow down the core rotation of stars on the red giant branch, where the radiative damping becomes strong enough and prevent the IGW from reaching the innermost layers. However, we find that IGW generated by penetrative convection could effciently modify the core rotation of subgiant stars as soon as the amplitude of the radial differential rotation between the core and the base of the convective zone is high enough, with typical values close to the observed rotation rates in these stars. This result argues for the necessity to account for IGW generated by penetrative convection in stellar modeling and in the angular momentum redistribution issue.

  13. Recent insights from the international common-cause failure data exchange project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuser, Albert [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Cologne (Germany); Johanson, Gunner [AF Industry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    Common-cause failure (CCF) events can significantly impact the availability of safety systems of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the International Common Cause Data Exchange (ICDE) project was initiated by several countries in 1994. Since 1997 it has been operated within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) framework and has successfully been operated over six consecutive terms (the current term being 2015–2017). The ICDE project allows multiple countries to collaborate and exchange CCF data to enhance the quality of risk analyses, which include CCF modeling. As CCF events are typically rare, most countries do not experience enough CCF events to perform meaningful analyses. Data combined from several countries, however, have yielded sufficient data for more rigorous analyses. The ICDE project has meanwhile published 11 reports on the collection and analysis of CCF events of specific component types (centrifugal pumps, emergency diesel generators, motor operated valves, safety and relief valves, check valves, circuit breakers, level measurement, control rod drive assemblies, and heat exchangers) and two topical reports. This paper presents recent activities and lessons learnt from the data collection and the results of topical analysis on emergency diesel generator CCF impacting entire exposed population.

  14. Recent Insights from the International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Kreuser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Common-cause failure (CCF events can significantly impact the availability of safety systems of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the International Common Cause Data Exchange (ICDE project was initiated by several countries in 1994. Since 1997 it has been operated within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA framework and has successfully been operated over six consecutive terms (the current term being 2015–2017. The ICDE project allows multiple countries to collaborate and exchange CCF data to enhance the quality of risk analyses, which include CCF modeling. As CCF events are typically rare, most countries do not experience enough CCF events to perform meaningful analyses. Data combined from several countries, however, have yielded sufficient data for more rigorous analyses. The ICDE project has meanwhile published 11 reports on the collection and analysis of CCF events of specific component types (centrifugal pumps, emergency diesel generators, motor operated valves, safety and relief valves, check valves, circuit breakers, level measurement, control rod drive assemblies, and heat exchangers and two topical reports. This paper presents recent activities and lessons learnt from the data collection and the results of topical analysis on emergency diesel generator CCF impacting entire exposed population.

  15. Evidence of mass exchange between inside and outside of sonoluminescing bubble in aqueous solution of terbium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jinfu, E-mail: liang.shi2007@163.com [School of Physics and Electronic Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Chen, Weizhong, E-mail: wzchen@nju.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Xun; Yang, Jing; Chen, Zhan [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-12-16

    Highlights: • Time-resolved spectra of SBSL were obtained for Tb{sup 3+} ions emission lines. • Mass exchange between inside and outside of SL bubble was probed via Tb{sup 3+} ions lines. • The argon rectification hypothesis was tested by time-resolved spectra of SBSL. • The rate of mass exchange inside an SBSL bubble increases with increasing sound pressure. - Abstract: Spectra of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) were obtained for Tb{sup 3+} ions emission lines from bubbles in an aqueous solution of terbium chloride (TbCl{sub 3}). The spectra provide experimental evidence to prove that an air bubble driven by strong ultrasound will not eventually become a rectified pure argon bubble, which is not as predicted by the argon rectification hypothesis. The time-resolved spectra of SBSL show a mass exchange of material such as Tb{sup 3+} ions between the inside and outside of the bubble. With increasing sound pressure, the rate of mass exchange and the SBSL intensity increases.

  16. Marine Language Exchange Program: A 21st Century International and Interdisciplinary Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.; Nichols-Pecceu, M.

    2001-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world\\'{}s oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even rarer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences who address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including Eckerd College (Florida), University of Washington (Washington), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their Marine Sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad including marine sciences specialization for full academic credit. This session will review the Marine Language Exchange program activities since 2000 and will discuss the ideological and practical aspects of the program. The program successes, difficulties and future directions will also be presented. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies. Based on this case study, other universities could initiate their own international and interdisciplinary

  17. Academic performance and personal experience of local, international, and collaborative exchange students enrolled in an Australian pharmacy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Andrew K; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2013-09-12

    To assess the academic performance and experiences of local, international, and collaborative exchange students enrolled in a 4-year Australian bachelor of pharmacy degree program. Survey instruments exploring the demographics, background, and academic and cultural experiences of students during the program were administered in 2005 to students in all 4 years. Additionally, grades from each semester of the program for students (406 local, 70 international, 155 exchange) who graduated between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. The main differences found in the survey responses among the 3 groups were in students' motivations for choosing the degree program and school, with international and collaborative exchange students having put more thought into these decisions than local students. The average grades over the duration of the program were similar in all 3 demographic groups. However, local students slightly outperformed international students, particularly at the start of the year, whereas collaborative exchange students' grades mirrored those of local students during the 2 years prior to leaving their home country of Malaysia but more closely mirrored those of international students in the final 2 years after arriving on campus in Australia. Despite differences in academic backgrounds and culture, international and exchange students can perform well compared to local students in a bachelor of pharmacy program and were actually more satisfied than local students with the overall experience. Studying in a foreign country can negatively influence academic grades to a small extent and this is probably related to adjusting to the new environment.

  18. Air mass exchange across the polar vortex edge during a simulated major stratospheric warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Günther

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the polar vortex in winter and spring play an important role in explaining observed low ozone values. A quantification of physical and chemical processes is necessary to obtain information about natural and anthropogenic causes of fluctuations of ozone. This paper aims to contribute to answering the question of how permeable the polar vortex is. The transport into and out of the vortex ("degree of isolation" remains the subject of considerable debate. Based on the results of a three-dimensional mechanistic model of the middle atmosphere, the possibility of exchange of air masses across the polar vortex edge is investigated. Additionally the horizontal and vertical structure of the polar vortex is examined. The model simulation used for this study is related to the major stratospheric warming observed in February 1989. The model results show fair agreement with observed features of the major warming of 1989. Complex structures of the simulated polar vortex are illustrated by horizontal and vertical cross sections of potential vorticity and inert tracer. A three-dimensional view of the polar vortex enables a description of the vortex as a whole. During the simulation two vortices and an anticyclone, grouped together in a very stable tripolar structure, and a weaker, more amorphous anticyclone are formed. This leads to the generation of small-scale features. The results also indicate that the permeability of the vortex edges is low because the interior of the vortices remain isolated during the simulation.

  19. Air mass exchange across the polar vortex edge during a simulated major stratospheric warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Günther

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the polar vortex in winter and spring play an important role in explaining observed low ozone values. A quantification of physical and chemical processes is necessary to obtain information about natural and anthropogenic causes of fluctuations of ozone. This paper aims to contribute to answering the question of how permeable the polar vortex is. The transport into and out of the vortex ("degree of isolation" remains the subject of considerable debate. Based on the results of a three-dimensional mechanistic model of the middle atmosphere, the possibility of exchange of air masses across the polar vortex edge is investigated. Additionally the horizontal and vertical structure of the polar vortex is examined. The model simulation used for this study is related to the major stratospheric warming observed in February 1989. The model results show fair agreement with observed features of the major warming of 1989. Complex structures of the simulated polar vortex are illustrated by horizontal and vertical cross sections of potential vorticity and inert tracer. A three-dimensional view of the polar vortex enables a description of the vortex as a whole. During the simulation two vortices and an anticyclone, grouped together in a very stable tripolar structure, and a weaker, more amorphous anticyclone are formed. This leads to the generation of small-scale features. The results also indicate that the permeability of the vortex edges is low because the interior of the vortices remain isolated during the simulation.

  20. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. qcML: An Exchange Format for Quality Control Metrics from Mass Spectrometry Experiments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W. P.; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A.; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  2. Probing Conformational Dynamics of Tau Protein by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Richard Y.-C.; Iacob, Roxana E.; Sankaranarayanan, Sethu; Yang, Ling; Ahlijanian, Michael; Tao, Li; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Chen, Guodong

    2018-01-01

    Fibrillization of the microtubule-associated protein tau has been recognized as one of the signature pathologies of the nervous system in Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and other tauopathies. The conformational transition of tau in the fibrillization process, tau monomer to soluble aggregates to fibrils in particular, remains unclear. Here we report on the use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) in combination with other biochemical approaches, including Thioflavin S fluorescence measurements, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blotting to understand the heparin-induced tau's fibrillization. HDX-MS studies including anti-tau antibody epitope mapping experiments provided molecular level details of the full-length tau's conformational dynamics and its regional solvent accessibility upon soluble aggregates formation. The results demonstrate that R3 region in the full-length tau's microtubule binding repeat region (MTBR) is stabilized in the aggregation process, leaving both N and C terminal regions to be solvent exposed in the soluble aggregates and fibrils. The findings also illustrate the practical utility of orthogonal analytical methodologies for the characterization of protein higher order structure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer to air from a compact heat exchanger with water spray precooling and surface deluge cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feini; Bock, Jessica; Jacobi, Anthony M.; Wu, Hailing

    2014-01-01

    Various methods are available to enhance heat exchanger performance with evaporative cooling. In this study, evaporative mist precooling, deluge cooling, and combined cooling schemes are examined experimentally and compared to model predictions. A flexible model of a compact, finned-tube heat exchanger with a wetted surface is developed by applying the governing conservation and rate equations and invoking the heat and mass transfer analogy. The model is applicable for dry, partially wet, or fully wet surface conditions and capable of predicting local heat/mass transfer, wetness condition, and pressure drop of the heat exchanger. Experimental data are obtained from wind tunnel experiments using a louver-fin flat-tube heat exchanger with single-phase tube-side flow. Total capacity, pressure drop, and water drainage behavior under various water usage rates and air face velocities are analyzed and compared to data for dry-surface conditions. A heat exchanger partitioning method for evaporative cooling is introduced to study partially wet surface conditions, as part of a consistent and general method for interpreting wet-surface performance data. The heat exchanger is partitioned into dry and wet portions by introducing a wet surface factor. For the wet part, the enthalpy potential method is used to determine the air-side sensible heat transfer coefficient. Thermal and hydraulic performance is compared to empirical correlations. Total capacity predictions from the model agree with the experimental results with an average deviation of 12.6%. The model is also exercised for four water augmentation schemes; results support operating under a combined mist precooling and deluge cooling scheme. -- Highlights: • A new spray-cooled heat exchanger model is presented and is validated with data. • Heat duty is shown to be asymptotic with spray flow rate. • Meaningful heat transfer coefficients for partially wet conditions are obtained. • Colburn j wet is lower than j dry

  4. Slow Histidine H/D Exchange Protocol for Thermodynamic Analysis of Protein Folding and Stability using Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Duc T.; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Alayash, Abdu I.; Crumbliss, Alvin L.; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Described here is a mass spectrometry based protocol to study the thermodynamic stability of proteins and protein-ligand complexes using the slow H/D exchange reaction of the imidazole C2 proton in histidine side chains. The protocol, which involves evaluating the denaturant dependence of this slow H/D exchange reaction in proteins, allows the global and/or subglobal unfolding/refolding properties of proteins and protein-ligand complexes to be probed. The protocol is developed using several m...

  5. [International legal aspects of responsibility of states and international organizations for the spread of epidemics, pandemics and mass disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, I V; Sazonova, K L

    2015-08-01

    The present article deals with international legal issues that arise in case when various mass diseases go beyond any national jurisdiction. The emphasis is made on the problem of international responsibility, which different actors have to bear in such cases. The authors also examine the implementation of responsibility mechanism, including the indentication of the relevant international court, authorized to establish such liability and identify the specific forms of its realization.

  6. International petroleum enviromental conference (IPEC) offers opportunity for exchange of ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Spiric, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Oil and gas are produced in many parts of the world. Persons working in the petroleum industry can learn much by communicating with colleagues in other countries, but the opportunities for engineers and scientists to come together and discuss petroleum environmental control practices, technologies, and regulations with representatives of other countries are limited. This paper describes the very useful International Petroleum Environmental Conference (IPEC) which completed its seventh meeting in November 2000 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The 7th IPEC attracted 350 participants, including 26 participants from countries other than the United States. The 7th IPEC emphasized international issues and included more than 20 papers by international authors or on international topics. The conference covered all aspects of petroleum environmental issues and featured speakers from many disciplines. The conference included technical sessions on the following topics: Legal and Regulatory Issues in the Oil and Gas Industry; Pollution Prevention, Waste Management, and Waste Minimization; Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons; Characterization and Remediation of Brine-Impacted Soils; Biotreatment and Bioremediation; International Issues in the Oil and Gas Industry; Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons; Treatment and Management of Produced Water; Forensic Geochemistry and Site Characterization/Technology Transfer; Environmentall Acceptable Endpoints; Desulfurization of Fuels and Waste Streams; Control of Air Emissions; MTBE/Phytoremediation and Natural Attenuation; and Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons. The last day of the conference was devoted to a special symposium on 'Innovative Technologies for Subsurface Characterization and Remediation.' The authors recommend this conference as a forum for industry, government, and academia to freely exchange ideas and information

  7. Corporate Characteristics and Internal Control Information Disclosure- Evidence from Annual Reports in 2009 of Listed Companies in Shenzhen Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowen, Song

    Under the research framework of internal control disclosure and combined the current economic situation, the paper empirically analyzes the relationship between corporate characteristics and internal control information disclosure. The paper selects 647 A share companies listed in Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in 2009 as a sample. The results show: (1) the companies with excellent performance and high liquidity tend to disclose more internal control information; (2) the companies with the high leverage and also issued B shares are not willing to disclosure internal control information; (3) the companies sizes and companies which have hired Four-big accounting firms have no significant effects on internal control disclosure.

  8. [Verification of ballast water exchange for international ships anchored in Xiamen Port by CDOM tracer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yan-po; Guo, Wei-dong; Zhu, Yue; Xu, Jing; Deng, Xun

    2010-09-01

    Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) and absorption spectroscopy were applied to study the optical properties of 29 CDOM samples collected from different ballast tanks of nine international route vessels anchored in Xiamen Port between October 2007 and April 2008. The purpose was to examine the feasibility of these spectral properties as a tracer to verify if these vessels follow the mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) regulation. Using parallel factor analysis, four fluorescent components were identified, including two humic-like components (C1: 245, 300/386 nm; C2: 250, 345/458 nm) and two protein-like components (C3: 220, 275/306 nm; C4: 235, 290/345 nm), of which C2 component was the suitable fluorescence verification indicator. The vertical distribution of all fluorescent components in ballast tank was nearly similar indicating that profile-mixing sampling was preferable. Combined use of C2 component, spectral slope ratio (SR) of absorption spectroscopy and salinity may provide reasonable verification if BWE carried out by these nine ships. The results suggested that the combined use of multiple parameters (fluorescence, absorption and salinity) would be much reliable to determine the origin of ballast water, and to provide the technical guarantee for fast examination of ballast water exchange in Chinese ports.

  9. Assessment of exchange of crop in view of change climate and International Treaties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Pedapati, Annitaa; Manibhushan

    2015-01-01

    To meet the UN millennium development goal of reducing the number of hungry people to half by 2015, there is utmost need to breed potentially high yielding varieties to match up the requirement along with corrective measures to bridge the gap between the potential yield and yield harvested by farmers. The scenario has changed from free access to limited access of plant genetic resources (PGR) and therefore, it is important to understand the issues in view of national and international agreements, intellectual property rights (IPR'S), climate change conditions and expanded scope of breeders and farmers rights for developed genotypes. For efficient management of PGR, developing countries need to understand the implications of PGR related IPR'S as stronger IPR'S in developed countries could have harmful effects by reduced exchange of genetic resources from developed countries. Keeping in view the existing realities every possible effort should be taken for enrichment of crop gene pool by introducing them from each and every corner of the globe. Keeping these facts in view this paper describes the priorities for introduction and exchange of important crop groups/crops along with some of their potential wild and weedy relatives and thrust has been given to generate awareness among the workers engaged in the breeders/crop improvement works. Information provided in this presentation can be utilized by prospective crop improvement works to plan to meet out the nationalfood security.

  10. 77 FR 37082 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... its market share in these products. The Exchange believes this proposed rule change will also serve to... differentiation that exists today at other option exchanges. The Exchange believes it remains an attractive venue... for similar trading strategies. The Exchange operates in a highly competitive market in which market...

  11. 78 FR 77178 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Members that achieve Tier 2 or higher as shown in the table below. \\4\\ The Exchange offers a rebate in... higher as shown in the table below. \\5\\ The Exchange offers a rebate in Standard and Mini Options for... orders, which are similar to the Exchange's taker rates described above. The Exchange is proposing to...

  12. Protein structural dynamics at the gas/water interface examined by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yiming; Konermann, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Gas/water interfaces (such as air bubbles or foam) are detrimental to the stability of proteins, often causing aggregation. This represents a potential problem for industrial processes, for example, the production and handling of protein drugs. Proteins possess surfactant-like properties, resulting in a high affinity for gas/water interfaces. The tendency of previously buried nonpolar residues to maximize contact with the gas phase can cause significant structural distortion. Most earlier studies in this area employed spectroscopic tools that could only provide limited information. Here we use hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) for probing the conformational dynamics of the model protein myoglobin (Mb) in the presence of N(2) bubbles. HDX/MS relies on the principle that unfolded and/or highly dynamic regions undergo faster deuteration than tightly folded segments. In bubble-free solution Mb displays EX2 behavior, reflecting the occurrence of short-lived excursions to partially unfolded conformers. A dramatically different behavior is seen in the presence of N(2) bubbles; EX2 dynamics still take place, but in addition the protein shows EX1 behavior. The latter results from interconversion of the native state with conformers that are globally unfolded and long-lived. These unfolded species likely correspond to Mb that is adsorbed to the surface of gas bubbles. N(2) sparging also induces aggregation. To explain the observed behavior we propose a simple model, that is, "semi-unfolded" ↔ "native" ↔ "globally unfolded" → "aggregated". This model quantitatively reproduces the experimentally observed kinetics. To the best of our knowledge, the current study marks the first exploration of surface denaturation phenomena by HDX/MS. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  13. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry of bacteriorhodopsin reveals light-induced changes in the structural dynamics of a biomolecular machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan; Brown, Leonid; Konermann, Lars

    2011-12-21

    Many proteins act as molecular machines that are fuelled by a nonthermal energy source. Examples include transmembrane pumps and stator-rotor complexes. These systems undergo cyclic motions (CMs) that are being driven along a well-defined conformational trajectory. Superimposed on these CMs are thermal fluctuations (TFs) that are coupled to stochastic motions of the solvent. Here we explore whether the TFs of a molecular machine are affected by the occurrence of CMs. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a light-driven proton pump that serves as a model system in this study. The function of BR is based on a photocycle that involves trans/cis isomerization of a retinal chromophore, as well as motions of transmembrane helices. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry was used to monitor the TFs of BR, focusing on the monomeric form of the protein. Comparative HDX studies were conducted under illumination and in the dark. The HDX kinetics of BR are dramatically accelerated in the presence of light. The isotope exchange rates and the number of backbone amides involved in EX2 opening transitions increase roughly 2-fold upon illumination. In contrast, light/dark control experiments on retinal-free protein produced no discernible differences. It can be concluded that the extent of TFs in BR strongly depends on photon-driven CMs. The light-induced differences in HDX behavior are ascribed to protein destabilization. Specifically, the thermodynamic stability of the dark-adapted protein is estimated to be 5.5 kJ mol(-1) under the conditions of our work. This value represents the free energy difference between the folded state F and a significantly unfolded conformer U. Illumination reduces the stability of F by 2.2 kJ mol(-1). Mechanical agitation caused by isomerization of the chromophore is transferred to the surrounding protein scaffold, and subsequently, the energy dissipates into the solvent. Light-induced retinal motions therefore act analogously to an internal heat

  14. Multi-layer membrane model for mass transport in a direct ethanol fuel cell using an alkaline anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hafez; Faghri, Amir

    2012-11-01

    A one-dimensional, isothermal, single-phase model is presented to investigate the mass transport in a direct ethanol fuel cell incorporating an alkaline anion exchange membrane. The electrochemistry is analytically solved and the closed-form solution is provided for two limiting cases assuming Tafel expressions for both oxygen reduction and ethanol oxidation. A multi-layer membrane model is proposed to properly account for the diffusive and electroosmotic transport of ethanol through the membrane. The fundamental differences in fuel crossover for positive and negative electroosmotic drag coefficients are discussed. It is found that ethanol crossover is significantly reduced upon using an alkaline anion exchange membrane instead of a proton exchange membrane, especially at current densities higher than 500 A m

  15. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization H/D-exchange Mass Spectrometry for Speciation of Sulfur-containing Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acter, Thamina; Kim, Donghwi; Ahmed, Arif; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-08-01

    Herein we report the observation of atmospheric pressure in-source hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) of thiol group for the first time. The HDX for thiol group was optimized for positive atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) mass spectrometry (MS). The optimized HDX-MS was applied for 31 model compounds (thiols, thiophenes, and sulfides) to demonstrate that exchanged peaks were observed only for thiols. The optimized method has been successfully applied to the isolated fractions of sulfur-rich oil samples. The exchange of one and two thiol hydrogens with deuterium was observed in the thiol fraction; no HDX was observed in the other fractions. Thus, the results presented in this study demonstrate that the HDX-MS method using APPI ionization source can be effective for speciation of sulfur compounds. This method has the potential to be used to access corrosion problems caused by thiol-containing compounds. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  16. Probing the Binding Interfaces of Protein Complexes Using Gas-Phase H/D Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mistarz, Ulrik H; Brown, Jeffery M; Haselmann, Kim F

    2016-01-01

    Fast gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange mediated by ND3 gas and measured by mass spectrometry (gas-phase HDX-MS) is a largely unharnessed, fast, and sensitive method for probing primary- and higher-order polypeptide structure. Labeling of heteroatom-bound non-amide hydrogens in a sub-milliseco......Fast gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange mediated by ND3 gas and measured by mass spectrometry (gas-phase HDX-MS) is a largely unharnessed, fast, and sensitive method for probing primary- and higher-order polypeptide structure. Labeling of heteroatom-bound non-amide hydrogens in a sub......-millisecond time span after electrospray ionization by ND3 gas can provide structural insights into protein conformers present in solution. Here, we have explored the use of gas-phase HDX-MS for probing the higher-order structure and binding interfaces of protein complexes originating from native solution...

  17. Gas-phase fragmentation of peptides to increase the spatial resolution of the Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    are produced after precursor ion selection and thus do not add complexity to the LC-MS analysis. The key to obtaining optimal spatial resolution in a hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) experiment is the fragmentation efficiency. This chapter discusses common fragmentation techniques like collision....../D scrambling, thus making them suitable for HX applications. By combining the classic bottom-up HX-MS workflow with gas-phase fragmentation by ETD, detailed information on protein HX can be obtained....

  18. Numerical study of a novel counter-flow heat and mass exchanger for dew point evaporative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.; Riffat, S.B. [School of the Built Environment, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Li, J.M. [Department of Thermal Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-10-15

    The paper presents numerical investigation of a novel counter-flow heat and mass exchanger used in the indirect evaporative dew point cooling systems, a potential alternative to the conventional mechanical compression air conditioning systems. Numeric simulation was carried out to optimise the geometrical sizes and operating conditions of the exchanger in order to enhance the cooling (dew point and wet bulb) effectiveness of the exchanger and maximise the energy efficiency of the dew point cooling system. The results of the simulations indicated that cooling (dew point and wet bulb) effectiveness and energy efficiency are largely dependent on the dimensions of the airflow passages, air velocity and working-to-intake-air ratio, and less dependent on the temperature of the feed water. It is recommended that exchanger intake air velocity should be controlled to a value below 0.3-0.5 m/s; height of air passage (channel) should be set to 6 mm or below and the length of the passage should be 200 time the height; the working-to-intake-air ratio should be around 0.4. Under the UK summer design condition, i.e., 28{sup o}C of dry bulb temperature, 20{sup o}C of wet bulb temperature and 16{sup o}C of dew point temperature, the exchanger can achieve wet-bulb effectiveness of up to 1.3 and dew-point effectiveness of up to 0.9. (author)

  19. Calcium isotope effects in ion exchange electromigration and calcium isotope analysis by thermo-ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Hoshi, J.; Iwamoto, H.; Okamoto, M.; Kakihana, H.

    1985-01-01

    Calcium ions were made to electromigrate along a cation exchange membrane. The abundance ratios of the calcium isotopes (Ca-40, 42, 43, 44, 48) in the migrated bands were measured by thermo-ionization mass spectrometry. The lighter isotopes were enriched in the front part of the migrated band. The increments in the isotope abundance ratios were found to be proportional to the mass difference of the isotopes. The observed epsilon-values per unit mass difference (epsilon/ΔM) were 1.26 x 10 -4 (at 20 0 C), 1.85 x 10 -4 (at 25 0 C) and 2.4 x 10 -4 (at 40 0 C). The mass spectrometry was improved by using a low temperature for the evaporation of CaI 2 . (orig.)

  20. Site-Specific Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Propane: Mass spectrometric methods, equilibrium temperature dependence, and kinetics of exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; Ponton, C.; Kitchen, N.; Lloyd, M. K.; Lawson, M.; Formolo, M. J.; Eiler, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Intramolecular isotope ordering can constrain temperatures of synthesis, mechanisms of formation, and/or source substrates of organic compounds. Here we explore site-specific hydrogen isotope variations of propane. Statistical thermodynamic models predict that at equilibrium methylene hydrogen (-CH2-) in propane will be 10's of per mil higher in D/H ratio than methyl hydrogen (-CH3) at geologically relevant temperatures, and that this difference is highly temperature dependent ( 0.5-1 ‰/°C). Chemical-kinetic controls on site-specific D/H in propane could constrain the mechanisms, conditions and extents of propane synthesis or destruction. We have developed a method for measuring the difference in D/H ratio between methylene and methyl hydrogen in propane by gas source mass spectrometry. The data were measured using the Thermo Fisher Double Focusing Sector high resolution mass spectrometer (DFS), and involve comparison of the D/H ratios of molecular ion (C3H8+) and the ethyl fragmental ion (C2H5+). We demonstrate the accuracy and precision of this method through analysis of D-labeled and independently analyzed propanes. In the exchange experiments, propane was heated (100-200 oC) either alone or in the presence of D-enriched water (δD=1,1419 ‰ SMOW), with or without one of several potentially catalytic substrates for hours to weeks. Propane was found to exchange hydrogen with water vigorously at 200 °C in the presence of metal catalysts. In the presence of Ni catalyst, methylene hydrogen exchanges 2.5 times faster than methyl hydrogen. Hydrogen exchange in the presence of Pd catalyst is more effective and can equilibrate hydrogen isotope distribution on propane on the order of 7 days. Isotopic exchange in the presence of natural materials have also been tested, but is only measurable in the methylene group at 200 °C. High catalytic activity of Pd permits attainment of a bracketed, time-invariant equilibrium state that we use to calibrate the site

  1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LOCAL HYDRODYNAMICS AND MASS EXCHANGE PROCESSES OF COOLANT IN FUEL ASSEMBLIES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dmitriev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of local hydrodynamics and mass exchange of coolant flow behind spacer and mixing grids of different structural versions that were developed for fuel assemblies of domestic and foreign nuclear reactors are presented in the article. In order to carry out the study the models of the following fuel assemblies have been fabricated: FA for VVER and VBER, FA-KVADRAT for PWR-reactor and FA for KLT-40C reactor. All the models have been fabricated with a full geometrical similarity with full-scale fuel assemblies. The study was carried out by simulating the flow of coolant in a core by air on an aerodynamic test rig. In order to measure local hydrodynamic characteristics of coolant flow five-channel Pitot probes were used that enable to measure the velocity vector in a point by its three components. The tracerpropane method was used for studying mass transfer processes. Flow hydrodynamics was studied by measuring cross-section velocities of coolant flow and coolant rates according to the model cells. The investigation of mass exchange processes consisted of a study of concentration distribution for tracer in experimental model, in determination of attenuation lengths of mass transfer processes behind mixing grids, in calculating of inter-cellar mass exchange coefficient. The database on coolant flow in fuel assemblies for different types of reactors had been accumulated that formed the basis of the engineering substantiation of reactor cores designs. The recommendations on choice of optimal versions of mixing grids have been taken into consideration by implementers of the JSC “OKBM Afrikantov” when creating commissioned fuel assemblies. The results of the study are used for verification of CFD-codes and CFD programs of detailed cell-by-cell calculation of reactor cores in order to decrease conservatism for substantiation of thermal-mechanical reliability.

  2. 78 FR 17259 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Gold Trust (``GLD''), Google Inc. (``GOOG'') and Amazon.com Inc. (``AMZN''). The Exchange notes that... the proposed rule change is also available on the Exchange's Web site at http://www.miaxoptions.com...

  3. OECD/NEA International Common Cause Failure Data Exchange (ICDE) project - insights and lessons learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, G.; Kreuser, A.; Pyy, P.; Rasmuson, D.; Werner, W.

    2006-01-01

    Events initiated by common-cause-failure (CCF) can significantly affect the availability and reliability of nuclear power plant safety systems. In recognition of this, CCF data are systematically collected and analysed in the International Common-Cause Data Exchange (ICDE) Project, which was initiated in August 1994. Since April 1998, the NEA has formally operated the project. Currently eleven countries participate in the project. The ICDE collects all events where two or more identical, redundant components of a group, fulfilling the same function, have failed or were impaired due to a shared cause (ICDE events). Complete CCFs, i. e. failure of all identical, redundant components in the group due to a shared cause are an important subset of the collected data. Currently, data exchange and analysis covers the following components: centrifugal pumps, diesel generators, motor-operated valves, safety and relief valves, check valves, reactor protection system components (level measurement, control rod drives, etc), circuit breakers, and batteries. The main findings of the ICDE reports issued by 2005 show averaged over all components that about two thirds of all complete CCF events involve faulty actions by plant personnel and contractors. The single largest contribution is from faulty testing and maintenance work due to deficient and/or incomplete procedures. Other important causes are insufficient testing and requalification of components or systems after maintenance, repair, modifications or backfitting work, as well as operator errors of commission. The probability that a reported ICDE event is a complete CCF decreases strongly with increasing number of redundant components, demonstrating the effectiveness of redundancy as a powerful defence against CCFs. However, complete CCFs cannot be completely prevented by high redundancy only. (orig.)

  4. 77 FR 16304 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... pricing that reduces rates for ISE Market Makers based on the level of business they bring to the Exchange.\\15\\ This proposed rule change targets a particular segment in which the Exchange seeks to attract... specific FX Options which has its own pricing. See ISE Schedule of Fees. \\15\\ The Exchange currently has a...

  5. 77 FR 33543 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... risk management strategies and decisions. However, due to limitations imposed by ISE's rules, the... risk management purposes. 2. Statutory Basis The Exchange believes that the proposed rule change is... strategies on the Exchange. The Exchange believes that this precision is increasingly necessary, and in fact...

  6. 76 FR 20754 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... members for potential participation and/or price improvement. \\9\\ A Complex Order is defined in Exchange...\\ An order means a commitment to buy or sell securities as defined in Exchange Rule 715. The proposed... applies.\\20\\ Both the Phlx and the CBOE fees are in essence fees charged by those exchanges for services...

  7. 78 FR 23806 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... participants the ability to utilize an order type that does not route to other exchanges. Specifically, the Do... Exchange is proposing to charge the same rate for transactions in Mini Options, $0.004 per contract, since..., the Exchange feels that it is appropriate to charge the ORF at the same rate as the standard option...

  8. 78 FR 56253 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... number of strike prices being opened above and below the value of the underlying security at about the... the Exchange Act. To the contrary, the Exchange believes the proposal is pro-competitive. In this... the same manner as other exchanges.\\12\\ In sum, the proposed rule change presents no novel issues, and...

  9. 75 FR 1674 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... excessive. The proposed rule change reflects a competitive pricing structure designed to incent market...) (SR-ISE-2009-24). To adjust DECN's pricing model to be more consistent with other exchanges (even though DECN is not an exchange),\\7\\ the Exchange is now proposing to de-link the pricing structures of...

  10. 78 FR 45590 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... recently increased as a result of the Exchange's changing the way Priority Customer and Professional... Exchange recently increased as a result of the Exchange's changing the way Priority Customer and..., and all written communications relating to the proposed rule change between the Commission and any...

  11. 78 FR 62901 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... per contract from its prior rate of $0.05 per contract. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69768... similar products.\\13\\ \\13\\ At least one other exchange currently trades foreign currency options. While... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70647; File No. SR-ISE-2013-50] Self-Regulatory...

  12. Dynamic characterization of external and internal mass transport in heterotrophic biofilms from microsensors measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimerà, Xavier; Dorado, Antonio David; Bonsfills, Anna; Gabriel, Gemma; Gabriel, David; Gamisans, Xavier

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge of mass transport mechanisms in biofilm-based technologies such as biofilters is essential to improve bioreactors performance by preventing mass transport limitation. External and internal mass transport in biofilms was characterized in heterotrophic biofilms grown on a flat plate bioreactor. Mass transport resistance through the liquid-biofilm interphase and diffusion within biofilms were quantified by in situ measurements using microsensors with a high spatial resolution (mass transport coefficients. The sensitivity of external and internal mass transport resistances to flow conditions within the range of typical fluid velocities over biofilms (Reynolds numbers between 0.5 and 7) was assessed. Estimated external mass transfer coefficients at different liquid phase flow velocities showed discrepancies with studies considering laminar conditions in the diffusive boundary layer near the liquid-biofilm interphase. The correlation of effective diffusivity with flow velocities showed that the heterogeneous structure of biofilms defines the transport mechanisms inside biofilms. Internal mass transport was driven by diffusion through cell clusters and aggregates at Re below 2.8. Conversely, mass transport was driven by advection within pores, voids and water channels at Re above 5.6. Between both flow velocities, mass transport occurred by a combination of advection and diffusion. Effective diffusivities estimated at different biofilm densities showed a linear increase of mass transport resistance due to a porosity decrease up to biofilm densities of 50 g VSS·L(-1). Mass transport was strongly limited at higher biofilm densities. Internal mass transport results were used to propose an empirical correlation to assess the effective diffusivity within biofilms considering the influence of hydrodynamics and biofilm density. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. I was expecting her to be a fanatic Catholic, but she was not. How International Exchange Programmes Reduce Prejudice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leix, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2013), s. 205-216 ISSN 1732-6729 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Keywords : international exchange programmes * Lifelong Learning Programmes * Erasmus generation Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.149, year: 2012

  14. 75 FR 57385 - Internal Control Over Financial Reporting in Exchange Act Periodic Reports of Non-Accelerated Filers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... attestation report of its registered public accounting firm on internal control over financial reporting in... definition of either an ``accelerated filer'' or a ``large accelerated filer'' under Exchange Act Rule 12b-2..., for both definitions, the issuer needs to have been subject to reporting requirements for at least...

  15. Labyrinthine Artery Aneurysm as an Internal Auditory Canal Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Rodney C.; Konia, Thomas; Brunberg, James

    2013-01-01

    We present the first case report of a labyrinthine artery aneurysm masquerading as an internal auditory canal tumor. A 72-year-old woman presented with sudden onset right facial paralysis, facial pain, hearing loss, and vertigo. She demonstrated dense right-sided facial paralysis involving all branches of the facial nerve, left beating horizontal nystagmus, and anacusis of the right ear. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast demonstrated a 6 × 7 mm peripherally enhancing lesion with lack o...

  16. Thermal performance analysis of heat exchanger for closed wet cooling tower using heat and mass transfer analogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seong Yeon; Han, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Jin Hyuck

    2010-01-01

    In closed wet cooling towers, the heat transfer between the air and external tube surfaces can be composed of the sensible heat transfer and the latent heat transfer. The heat transfer coefficient can be obtained from the equation for external heat transfer of tube banks. According to experimental data, the mass transfer coefficient was affected by the air velocity and spray water flow rate. This study provides the correlation equation for mass transfer coefficient based on the analogy of the heat and mass transfer and the experimental data. The results from this correlation equation showed fairly good agreement with experimental data. The cooling capacity and thermal efficiency of the closed wet cooling tower were calculated from the correlation equation to analyze the performance of heat exchanger for the tower

  17. Abstracts of international symposium on heat and mass transfer under plasma conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The international symposium on heat and mass transfer under plasma conditions was held on 4-8 July 1994 in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey. The spesialists discussed heat and mass transfer in the field of plasma processing at the meeting. More than 70 papers were presented in the meeting

  18. Abstracts of international symposium on heat and mass transfer under plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The international symposium on heat and mass transfer under plasma conditions was held on 4-8 July 1994 in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey. The spesialists discussed heat and mass transfer in the field of plasma processing at the meeting. More than 70 papers were presented in the meeting.

  19. EduGeoPark: international students exchanges for promoting Earth Science knowledge and Geoheritage awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Dellarole, Edoardo; Kiuttu, Mikko

    2015-04-01

    Geoparks are the ideal destination for international study tours based on the sustainable tourism concept, in which the travel is conceived as an opportunity for sharing both scientific knowledge and intangible and tangible culture. Equally, they are the appropriate places for testing and practicing innovative educational strategies, shareable in an international context. The innovative idea of EduGeoPark project is to involve students and teachers in research activities in Geoparks, including sampling and digital mapping: practical field and laboratory activities for stimulating the geological interpretation of an unknown territory. An approach devoted to improve teamwork and problem solving competences. By means of a partnerships between the Rokua (Finland) and the Sesia-Val Grande (Italy) Geoparks, an exchange program for Secondary School's students started during 2014 (Vaala High School; I.I.S. Luigi Cobianchi High School in Verbania). The study and the visit of both territories was an opportunity for students to observe some relevant geological elements and processes that do not exist in their own country. Moreover, the hosting in families allowed them to feel the culture of the area. Teachers and staff of the Geoparks led field trips to the main geological and cultural attractions of both areas. During the activities, students used mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) and GPS to track field trips, to catch and gather georeferenced data and pictures. They acted as researchers, by using both digital and traditional tools: they observed, asked questions, gathered data, and made hypothesis. By sharing ideas, together with the local guides, they reconstructed the cultural and geological history of the area. Students appreciated the experience: not only they had the opportunity of visiting a different country, but also of deepening the geological awareness on their own territory. EduGeoPark project is opening the participation to other Geoparks, in order to

  20. Efficiencies of subcritical and transcritical CO2 inverse cycles with and without an internal heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.Z.; Jiang, P.X.; Lin, Y.S.; Zhang, Y.W.

    2011-01-01

    An internal heat exchanger (IHX) is often used to improve the coefficient of performance (COP) of CO 2 inverse cycles. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the IHX's effect in CO 2 inverse cycles and finds suitable operating conditions for the IHX from a thermodynamic performance point of view. The results indicate that the COP is slightly reduced by an IHX in a CO 2 subcritical inverse cycle, so an IHX is not justified. However, for transcritical CO 2 inverse cycles, the compressor discharge pressures and CO 2 gas cooler outlet temperatures both have significant impacts on system performance. The analysis results for transcritical CO 2 inverse cycles show that a transition discharge pressure and a transition CO 2 gas cooler outlet temperature are objective existence above which the IHX improves the cycle performance. - Research highlights: → Find suitable operating conditions for the IHX. → Above transition CO2 gas cooler outlet temperature IHX improves cycle performance. → The IHX is not very useful for optimized space heating and refrigerating cycles.

  1. The international dosimetry exchange for BNCT. A basis for pooling and collectively analyzing clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, K.J.; Binns, P.J.; Harling, O.K.; Kiger, W.S. III; Seppaelae, T.; Savolainen, S.; Moss, R.; Marek, M.; Rezaei, A.

    2006-01-01

    An international collaboration was organized by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to undertake a dosimetry exchange for the eventual purpose of combining results from various clinical centers that employ different methods for measuring and prescribing absorbed dose in the mixed radiation fields used for neutron capture therapy. Treatment plans calculated at NCT centers in the Czech Republic, Finland, The Netherlands and Sweden were normalized to corresponding measurements performed by the MIT dosimetry group in each beam. More than half of the normalizations for individual absorbed dose components (photon, fast neutron, thermal neutron and boron) determined by comparing MIT measurements to the dose specified in treatment plans from the different centers were statistically significant and ranged from 8 to 400%. Each facility had at least one dose component that would require normalization for the specified doses to be accurately compared. These normalizations establish a technical basis to begin collectively analyzing treatment plans between the European and US centers. Simple but pertinent treatment parameters such as the maximum dose to brain can now be properly compared, once the clinical data is available. This could held to more precisely and quickly determine various dose-response relationships as for example those related to adverse events. Future efforts to determine dose normalization at other centers performing human studies as well as more sophisticated analyses using combined data from several centers should be guided by clearly defined clinical objectives with active participation from clinical BNCT experts. (author)

  2. U/Th dating by SHRIMP RG ion-microprobe mass spectrometry using single ion-exchange beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Wooden, J.; Murphy, F.; Williams, Ross W.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new analytical method for U-series isotopes using the SHRIMP RG (Sensitive High mass Resolution Ion MicroProbe) mass spectrometer that utilizes the preconcentration of the U-series isotopes from a sample onto a single ion-exchange bead. Ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is capable of producing Th ionization efficiencies in excess of 2%. Analytical precision is typically better than alpha spectroscopy, but not as good as thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS) and inductively coupled plasma multicollector mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Like TIMS and ICP-MS the method allows analysis of small samples sizes, but also adds the advantage of rapidity of analysis. A major advantage of ion-microprobe analysis is that U and Th isotopes are analyzed in the same bead, simplifying the process of chemical separation. Analytical time on the instrument is ???60 min per sample, and a single instrument-loading can accommodate 15-20 samples to be analyzed in a 24-h day. An additional advantage is that the method allows multiple reanalyses of the same bead and that samples can be archived for reanalysis at a later time. Because the ion beam excavates a pit only a few ??m deep, the mount can later be repolished and reanalyzed numerous times. The method described of preconcentrating a low concentration sample onto a small conductive substrate to allow ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is potentially applicable to many other systems. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Investigating the Interaction between the Neonatal Fc Receptor and Monoclonal Antibody Variants by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Larraillet, Vincent; Schlothauer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    The recycling of immunoglobulins by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is of crucial importance in the maintenance of antibody levels in plasma and is responsible for the long half-lives of endogenous and recombinant monoclonal antibodies. From a therapeutic point of view there is great interest...... in understanding and modulating the IgG-FcRn interaction to optimize antibody pharmacokinetics and ultimately improve efficacy and safety. Here we studied the interaction between a full-length human IgG1 and human FcRn via hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and targeted electron transfer dissociation...... to map sites perturbed by binding on both partners of the IgG-FcRn complex. Several regions in the antibody Fc region and the FcRn were protected from exchange upon complex formation, in good agreement with previous crystallographic studies of FcRn in complex with the Fc fragment. Interestingly, we found...

  4. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  5. Challenges of implementating a doctoral program in an international exchange in Cuba through the lens of Kanter's empowerment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Judith M; Abdul Hernandéz, C

    2014-08-01

    The literature in international education focuses primarily on the experiences of western students in developing countries, international students in western universities, the development of an educational program in a developing country, or internationalization of curricula in western universities. There is little in the literature that addresses the challenges students and participating faculty face when implementing a graduate program in a developing country. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the challenges of implementing a doctoral program in an international exchange through the lens of Kanter's theory of empowerment. Recommendations to address these challenges will be made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass and Heat Transfer in Ion-Exchange Membranes Applicable to Solid Polymer Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otteroey, M

    1996-04-01

    In this doctoral thesis, an improved emf method for determination of transference numbers of two counter ions in ion-exchange membranes is presented. Transference numbers were obtained as a continuous function of the composition. The method avoids problems with diffusion by using a stack of membranes. Water transference coefficients in ion-exchange membranes is discussed and reversible and irreversible water transfer is studied by emf methods. Efforts were made to get data relevant to the solid polymer fuel cell. The results support the findings of other researchers that the reversible water transfer is lower than earlier predicted. A chapter on the conductivity of ion-exchange membranes establishes a method to separate the very thin liquid layers surrounding the membranes in a stack. Using the method it was found that the conductivity is obtained with high accuracy and that the liquid layer in a membrane stack can contribute significantly to the total measured resistance. A four point impedance method was tested to measure the conductivity of membranes under fuel cell conditions. Finally, there is a discussion of reversible heat effects and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes. 155 refs., 45 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Cross-border data exchange - a case study on international collaboration gone wrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko-Hombach, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The subject of ethics in science has become a hot topic recently (Gleick, 2011). As publication pressure on researchers increases and use of the internet allows faster turn-around, the quality of the peer review process has suffered. This presentation describes one case of scientific ethics violation in which the editors of a high-ranking scientific journal improperly permitted publication of a paper that was based upon unethical acquisition of data and failed to acknowledge scientific collaboration and exchange of intellectual property. We will present "Case description" and "Ethical issues" with a hope that our experience draws attention to important ethical issues in international collaborative research, and prevents such misconduct in the future. Since international research involves cooperation and coordination among many people in different disciplines and institutions across national borders, ethical standards should promote values that are essential to integrity and collaborative work, including trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness. One lesson to be learned is not to engage in collaboration without a written agreement stating clearly who is responsible for what and how the results of collaborative research are to be shared. This is especially important in cases of international collaborations, particularly those involving smaller or developing nations who often do not have the high-tech facilities of developed nations. There is also need to establish clear regulations regarding co-authorship on papers in which intellectual property and significant financial investment was made to allow the research to proceed. As such, a system of ethics to guide the practice of science from data collection to publication and beyond is timely and much needed to protect the integrity of scientific collaboration. It will keep science moving forward by validating research findings and confirming or raising questions about results. References Benos, D. J., Fabres

  8. 76 FR 39143 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... possibility for disruption of the options market itself, especially in illiquid options classes. See... illegal trading activity. In addition, routine oversight inspections of the Exchange's regulatory programs...

  9. Simulated North Atlantic-Nordic Seas water mass exchanges in an isopycnic coordinate OGCM

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Jan Even Øie; Gao, Yongqi; Drange, Helge; Furevik, Tore; Bentsen, Mats

    2003-01-01

    The variability in the volume exchanges between the North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas during the last 50 years is investigated using a synoptic forced, global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM). The simulated volume fluxes agree with the existing observations. The net volume flux across the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC) is positively correlated with the net flux through the Denmark Strait (DS; R = 0.74 for 3 years low pass filtering), but negatively correlated with ...

  10. Numerical investigation of the energy performance of a guideless irregular heat and mass exchanger with corrugated heat transfer surface for dew point cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Xiaoli; Diallo, Thierno M.O.; Zhao, Xudong; Fancey, Kevin; Li, Deying; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation into the energy performance of a novel irregular heat and mass exchanger for dew point cooling which, compared to the existing flat-plate heat exchangers, removed the use of the channel supporting guides and implemented the corrugated heat transfer surface, thus expecting to achieve the reduced air flow resistance, increased heat transfer area, and improved energy efficiency (i.e. Coefficient of Performance (COP)) of the air cooling process. CFD simulation was carried out to determine the flow resistance (K) factors of various elements within the dry and wet channels of the exchanger, while the ‘finite-element’ based ‘Newton-iteration’ numerical simulation was undertaken to investigate its cooling capacity, cooling effectiveness and COP at various geometrical and operational conditions. Compared to the existing flat-plate heat and mass exchangers with the same geometrical dimensions and operational conditions, the new irregular exchanger could achieve 32.9%–37% higher cooling capacity, dew-point and wet-bulb effectiveness, 29.7%–33.3% higher COP, and 55.8%–56.2% lower pressure drop. While undertaking dew point air cooling, the irregular heat and mass exchanger had the optimum air velocity of 1 m/s within the flow channels and working-to-intake air ratio of 0.3, which allowed the highest cooling capacity and COP to be achieved. In terms of the exchanger dimensions, the optimum height of the channel was 5 mm while its length was in the range 1–2 m. Overall, the proposed irregular heat and mass exchanger could lead to significant enhanced energy performance compared to the existing flat-plate dew point cooling heat exchanger of the same geometrical dimensions. To achieve the same amount cooling output, the irregular heat and mass exchanger had the reduced size and cost against the flat-plate ones. - Highlights: • Numerical investigation of an irregular heat and mass exchanger was undertaken. • A

  11. 76 FR 77279 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... orders; \\7\\ and tiered pricing that reduces rates for market makers based on the level of business they bring to the Exchange.\\8\\ This proposed rule change targets a particular segment in which the Exchange... place for certain specific FX Options which has its own pricing. See ISE Schedule of Fees. \\8\\ The...

  12. 77 FR 3295 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... PHLX, Inc. (``PHLX'') and Nasdaq Options Market (``NOM'') Update Pricing Effective January 3, 2012... pricing that reduces rates for market makers based on the level of business they bring to the Exchange.\\11\\ This proposed rule change targets a particular segment in which the Exchange seeks to garnish greater...

  13. 76 FR 50783 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... lower fees (or no fees) for customer orders; \\6\\ and tiered pricing that reduces rates for market makers based on the level of business they bring to the Exchange.\\7\\ This proposed rule change targets yet... pricing. See ISE Schedule of Fees. \\7\\ The Exchange currently has a sliding scale fee structure that...

  14. 78 FR 38424 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... years, Managed Data Access Distributors have improved the technical delivery and monitoring capabilities... restricting the data flow and monitoring the delivery. The Exchange will maintain contracts with Managed Data... customers. The Exchange has witnessed competitors creating new products and innovative pricing in this space...

  15. 78 FR 17958 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... quotes on a daily basis, nor will it prohibit the Exchange from taking disciplinary action against a PLMM... disciplinary action for single or multiple failures to comply with the continuous quoting requirement during... will it prohibit the Exchange from taking disciplinary action against an LMM or RMM for failing to meet...

  16. 77 FR 48180 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Rule Change To Expose Non-Customer Orders Subject to Automatic Rejection to Its Members for Potential... better price on another exchange or placing the order on the book would lock or cross another market. The... Exchange place an order on its book that would cause the ISE best bid or offer to lock or cross another...

  17. 75 FR 42802 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... under the Exchange's maker/taker pricing program. The text of the proposed rule change is available on... maker/taker pricing program. The Exchange recently adopted transaction fees and rebates for adding and... National Best Offer 80% of the time for series trading between $0.03 and $5.00 in premium in each of the...

  18. 75 FR 34499 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... maker/taker pricing program. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web... qualification standards for market makers to receive a rebate under the Exchange's maker/taker pricing program... trading month for series trading between $0.03 and $5.00 in premium. \\8\\ The concept of incenting market...

  19. 77 FR 16883 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ...) (noting that the Chicago Mercantile Exchange moved the S&P 500[supreg] futures contract's settlement value... related market disruptions during that period in connection with the dual a.m./p.m.-settlement.\\18..., routine oversight inspections of the Exchange's regulatory programs by the Commission have not uncovered...

  20. 78 FR 13717 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Index than if traditional trading increments are used because options on the individual foreign currency... trading on the Exchange of options on a foreign currency index, the Dow Jones FXCM Dollar Index. The... the Dow Jones FXCM Dollar Index will be settled in the same manner as the Exchange's foreign currency...

  1. 77 FR 31411 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... program related to an incentive plan for certain Foreign Currency (``FX'') options traded on the Exchange... Rule Change to Terminate a Pilot Program Related to an Incentive Plan for Certain Foreign Currency Options Traded on the Exchange and To Make a Technical Change to the Schedule of Fees May 21, 2012...

  2. 75 FR 14646 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... 6753 (February 10, 2010) (SR-ISE-2009-106). Under current Rule 502(h), only Exchange-Traded Fund Shares, or ETFs, that are traded on a national securities exchange and are defined as an ``NMS'' stock under... specified non-U.S. currency or currencies deposited with the trust when aggregated in some specified minimum...

  3. 75 FR 44995 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... options on the following FX option currencies traded on the Exchange: New Zealand dollar, Mexican peso.../dealer and is not a Priority Customer. For all other FX option currencies traded on the Exchange, this... Rule Change Relating to Foreign Currency Options Orders Fee Discount for Market Makers and Non-ISE...

  4. 75 FR 29381 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... compelling need to attract order flow, imposed significant competitive pressure on that exchange's need to... competitive pressures on the ISE Order Feed and ISE's compelling need to attract order flow impose significant competitive pressure on the Exchange to act equitably, fairly, and reasonably in setting its fees. B. Self...

  5. 77 FR 10016 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... for complex orders in two of the most actively-traded index option products, the NASDAQ 100 Index... makers to enter quotations for complex order strategies in the Complex Order Book,\\8\\ the Exchange... because they are consistent with price differentiation that exists today at other option exchanges. The...

  6. 77 FR 76334 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... the Exchange deems it necessary to maintain an orderly market, to meet customer demand, or when... to better manage their risk exposure with additional in the money series. While the four additional... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend ISE Rule 504(f) To Permit the Exchange To List Additional Strike...

  7. 78 FR 24273 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... process for exposure is being moved from Supplementary Material .02 to Rule 803 to Supplementary Material... outbound ISO is being routed. The Exchange states that this proposed provision has no impact on customer... cancel orders being routed to another exchange [[Page 24275

  8. 78 FR 66798 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Instituting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Exchange expresses its view that manipulation of the Index would be very difficult, particularly around the...'' to mean an index designed to be representative of a stock market as a whole or of a range of... market manipulation. The Exchange believes that the same reasoning applies to options on the Index since...

  9. 77 FR 28914 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... stock's previous trading day's last sale price was greater than $100) in premium in each of the front... greater than $100) in premium across all expiration months in order to receive the rebate. The Exchange... quotations for complex order strategies in the complex order book.\\11\\ The Exchange has adopted maker fees...

  10. 77 FR 16287 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... of the Proposed Rule Change The ISE is proposing to amend its API or login fees. The text of the... Exchange's API or login fees. ISE currently charges its Members a fee for each login that a Member uses for... sessions. The Exchange now proposes to lower the quote allowance for each login session from 1.8 million...

  11. 78 FR 36812 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... charge fees for regular orders in mini options at a rate that is \\1/10\\th the rate of fees the Exchange... believes that charging Non-ISE Market Maker orders a higher rate than the fee charged to Market Maker, Firm... discriminatory to assess a higher transaction fee to Non-ISE Market Makers because the Exchange incurs costs...

  12. 76 FR 12778 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... FX Options only. See ISE Rule 2213. \\8\\ A FXCMM is a competitive market maker selected by the... rule change will further the Exchange's goal of promoting trading of its FX options through competitive pricing. 2. Statutory Basis The Exchange believes that the proposed rule change is consistent with the...

  13. 77 FR 42036 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Exchange is not proposing any change to the ``taker'' fees for Non-ISE Market Maker and Priority Customer... respect to the proposed rule change that are filed with the Commission, and all written communications... Rule Change To Amend Fees and Rebates for Certain Complex Orders Executed on the Exchange July 11, 2012...

  14. 75 FR 19449 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Proposed Rule Change Relating to Fees and Rebates for Adding and Removing Liquidity April 7, 2010. Pursuant... transactions that take and remove liquidity in the above symbols. The Exchange also proposes to offer... increase liquidity and attract order flow in QQQQ, BAC and C options on the Exchange.\\5\\ \\5\\ The fees...

  15. 75 FR 61795 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63017; File No. SR-ISE-2010-95] Self-Regulatory...\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(3)(A). \\4\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4(f)(6). I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of... Exchange, and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of...

  16. 78 FR 38416 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ..., without limitation, options, equities, futures, derivatives, indexes, exchange traded funds, exchange...., equity and ETF, index, derivatives, futures, foreign currency, and even commodities products... low as $0.05).\\13\\ \\13\\ As an example, per the CME Web site, strike prices for options on futures may...

  17. Mass exchange and angular distribution in a dynamical treatment of heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.; Hofmann, H.

    1977-01-01

    One presents a first numerical computation of the absolute value of the double differential cross section as a function of mass asymmetry and detection angle including a dynamical coupling between relative motion and mass asymmetry. One applies it to the 63 Cu+ 197 Au experiment at two different energies. The equation of motion used is a Fokker-Planck equation for distribution function in classical phase space. The coefficients needed are those known from classical model calculations, besides a friction coefficient introduced for the mass asymmetry degree. Encouraging agreement between the calculated and experimental curves is found

  18. International common-cause failure data exchange. ICDE general coding guidelines - Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Gunnar; Werner, Wolfgang; Concepcion Capote, Marina; Kreuser, Albert; Rasmuson, Dale; Jonsson, Esther; Pereira Pagan, Begona; Tirira, Jorge; Morris, Ian; Morales, Rosa; Oxberry, Anna; Kreuser, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Several Member countries of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) have established the International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange Project (ICDE Project) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to Common-Cause Failure (CCF) events. The objectives of the ICDE Project are to: a) Collect and analyse CCF events over the long term so as to better understand such events, their causes, and their prevention; b) Generate qualitative insights into the root causes of CCF events which can then be used to derive approaches or mechanisms for their prevention or for mitigating their consequences; c) Establish a mechanism for the efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with CCF phenomena, including the development of defences against their occurrence, such as indicators for risk based inspections; and d) Record event attributes to facilitate quantification of CCF frequencies when so decided by the Project Working Group. The ICDE Project is envisaged to comprise all possible events of interest, including both complete and partial ICDE events. The ICDE Project will cover the key components of the main safety systems. Presently, the components listed below are included in the ICDE Project. Data have been collected for the six first components in the list: Centrifugal pumps, Diesel generators, Motor operated valves, Safety relief valves/power operated relief valves, Check valves, Batteries, Level measurement, Breakers, Control rod drive assemblies. Others will be added to this list later on. In this component coding guidelines, explanations on the ICDE General coding format are given. The guide reflects present experience with the data format and with the collected data. Further interpretations and clarifications will be added, should they become necessary. For each component analysed in the ICDE project, separate coding guidance is provided in the appendices

  19. Projects for People: An International Exchange Focused on Drinking Water Quality in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, T. S.; Tarazona Vasquez, F.; Bailey, E.; Duong, V.; Gonzales Vera, R.; LaPorte, D.; Rojas Cala, B.; Torres Atencia, S.; Vasquez Auqui, J.

    2016-12-01

    The integration of human-centered design with technical engineering in a classroom setting can be challenging but immensely rewarding if coupled with a community-focused experience. Undergraduate students participated in an international exchange to address drinking water quality in the community of Huamancaca, located in the Junin region of Peru. Technical research and experimentation often comes easily to students in undergraduate engineering programs, however, implementation within a community requires a social license to operate. The objectives of this study were to address the technical challenges of designing a sustainable and effective water filtration system while also ensuring community support and education, coupled with user ownership of the process. In tandem with filter media experimentation with biochar and activated carbon produced using locally available agricultural waste from potatoes and carrots, we visited the people of Huamancaca to understand their needs and concerns. This direct communication with the community was invaluable; we observed that many of the residents' water quality problems could be solved with education. For example, proper sanitation techniques and appropriate addition of bleach or sufficient boiling time may make up for inconsistent water quality provided by the local distribution system. An education plan may also be developed for water treatment plant operators covering chlorine dosage for effective residual treatment within the distribution network in addition to filtration. Upon site visitation and sample collection, we realized that open communication with city officials, operators, business owners, and residents in both technical and social settings is essential for continued collaboration within this community. Solving a tangible problem or designing a product that can be effectively adopted is not a concept that is rigorously addressed in undergraduate education, however the setbacks, challenges, and triumphs

  20. International Common Cause Failure Data Exchange (ICDE). General Coding Guidelines - Updated Version, October 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Gunnar; Werner, Wolfgang; Capote, Marina Concepcion; Kreuser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Several OECD/NEA member countries have established the International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange Project ('ICDE Project') to encourage multilateral cooperation in the collection and analysis of data relating to Common-Cause Failure (CCF) events. The objectives of the ICDE Project are to: a) Collect and analyse CCF events over the long term so as to better understand such events, their causes, and their prevention. b) Generate qualitative insights into the root causes of CCF events which can then be used to derive approaches or mechanisms for their prevention or for mitigating their consequences. c) Establish a mechanism for the efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with CCF phenomena, including the development of defenses against their occurrence, such as indicators for risk based inspections. d) Record event attributes to facilitate quantification of CCF frequencies when so decided by the Project Working Group. The ICDE Project is envisaged to comprise all possible events of interest, including both complete and partial ICDE events. The ICDE Project will cover the key components of the main safety systems. Presently, the components listed below are included in the ICDE Project. Data have been collected for the six first components in the list: Centrifugal pumps, Diesel generators, Motor operated valves, Safety relief valves/power operated relief valves, Check valves, Batteries, Level measurement, Breakers, Control rod drive assemblies. Others will be added to this list later on. In this component coding guidelines, explanations on the ICDE general coding format are given. The guide reflects present experience with the data format and with the collected data. Further interpretations and clarifications will be added, should they become necessary. For each component analysed in the ICDE project, separate coding guidance is provided in the appendices ICDECG 01-06, specifying details relevant to the respective components

  1. Dynamics of internal waves on the Southeast Florida shelf: Implications for cross-shelf exchange and turbulent mixing on a barrier reef system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristen Alexis

    The dynamics of internal waves shoaling on the Southeast Florida shelf and the resulting stratified turbulence in the shelf bottom boundary layer are investigated using observational studies completed during the summers of 2003-2005. This work is driven by a desire to understand the effects of internal wave-driven flow and the shoreward transport of cool, nutrient-rich water masses on cross-shelf exchange, vertical mixing, and mass transfer to benthic reef organisms. Shelf sea internal wave fields are typically highly variable and dominated by wind and tidal forces. However, this is not necessarily true for outer shelf regions or very narrow shelves where remote physical processes originating over the slope or deep ocean may exert a strong influence on the internal wave climate. During the summers of 2003 and 2004 observational studies were conducted to examine the effects of a western boundary current (the Florida Current), tides, and wind on the mean currents and internal wave field on the outer Southeast Florida shelf. We present evidence that suggests that the Florida Current plays as large a role in the determination of the high frequency internal wave field as tidal forces. These observations and analyses show that it is necessary to include the forcing from the Florida Current meanders and instabilities in order to predict accurately the episodic nature of the internal wave field on the Southeast Florida shelf. Deep ocean and continental shelf processes intersect at the shelf edge and influence the exchange of water masses and their associated characteristics including heat, nutrients, sediment, and larvae across the shelf. Thus, the dynamics of cross-shelf circulation have important consequences for organisms living on the shelf. In the second phase of this work, we investigate physical mechanisms controlling the exchange of water masses during the summer season across the Southeast Florida shelf. A time series of cross-shelf transport from May to August

  2. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. International study exchange project; 1999 nendo kokusai kenkyu koryru jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Exchange with overseas researchers and research organizations has important significance in promoting research and development toward creating new research areas and structuring new technological systems intended for solving global environment problems. In cooperation with RITE and RITE researchers and relevant learned societies, researchers were invited or dispatched to international conferences and international symposiums with regard to global environment related technologies. In addition to interaction with major overseas research institutions and universities, medium and long-term dispatch and invitation have been performed that are considered to play an important role in future research exchange activities based on the achievements of short-term invitations and dispatches and examinations with potential research exchanges. As a result, domestic and overseas interactions on the latest researches were performed, while basic and applied researches related to global environment technologies are being proceeded also in various areas of studies outside the country. It was identified that these exchange activities have close relationship with research and development of industrial technologies serving for global environment preservation, which are being promoted by RITE. (NEDO)

  3. CFD simulation of an internal spin-filter: evidence of lateral migration and exchange flow through the mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo-Cardero, Alvio; Chico, Ernesto; Castilho, Leda R; Medronho, Ricardo A

    2009-11-01

    In the present work Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to study the flow field and particle dynamics in an internal spin-filter (SF) bioreactor system. Evidence of a radial exchange flow through the filter mesh was detected, with a magnitude up to 130-fold higher than the perfusion flow, thus significantly contributing to radial drag. The exchange flow magnitude was significantly influenced by the filter rotation rate, but not by the perfusion flow, within the ranges evaluated. Previous reports had only given indirect evidences of this exchange flow phenomenon in spin-filters, but the current simulations were able to quantify and explain it. Flow pattern inside the spin-filter bioreactor resembled a typical Taylor-Couette flow, with vortices being formed in the annular gap and eventually penetrating the internal volume of the filter, thus being the probable reason for the significant exchange flow observed. The simulations also showed that cells become depleted in the vicinity of the mesh due to lateral particle migration. Cell concentration near the filter was approximately 50% of the bulk concentration, explaining why cell separation achieved in SFs is not solely due to size exclusion. The results presented indicate the power of CFD techniques to study and better understand spin-filter systems, aiming at the establishment of effective design, operation and scale-up criteria.

  4. Proceedings of the twenty ninth ISMAS international symposium on mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Pranaw Kumar; Jaison, P.G.; Sarkar, Arnab; Telmore, Vijay M.

    2015-02-01

    Mass spectrometry is a truly multi-disciplinary science and has emerged as an indispensable analytical tool due to its high sensitivity, specificity and universality. It is playing a key role in variety of scientific disciplines of chemistry, physics, biology, archaeology, material science etc. Progress in the field of mass spectrometry in the last two decades has led to the advent of new ion sources, improvements in existing mass analyzers and introduction of hybrid mass analyzers. As the technique continues to advance, many new applications have emerged particularly in health sciences and for forensic applications. The current world scenario demands determination at single atom and single molecule with high specificity. The vendors in the international mass spectrometric instrumentation market are guided by these requirements as well as the inputs from mass spectrometrists around the world engaged in new developments. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. Would Current International Space Station (ISS) Recycling Life Support Systems Save Mass on a Mars Transit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen and water are recycled on the International Space Station (ISS) to save the cost of launching their mass into orbit. Usually recycling systems are justified by showing that their launch mass would be much lower than the mass of the oxygen or water they produce. Short missions such as Apollo or space shuttle directly provide stored oxygen and water, since the needed total mass of oxygen and water is much less than that of there cycling equipment. Ten year or longer missions such as the ISS or a future moon base easily save mass by recycling while short missions of days or weeks do not. Mars transit and long Mars surface missions have an intermediate duration, typically one to one and a half years. Some of the current ISS recycling systems would save mass if used on a Mars transit but others would not.

  6. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS IN DESIGN EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF AN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN COURSE IN JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dundar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss role of international exchange programs in design education based on experiences and outputs of the summer school course ICSA (Inter-Cultural Study of Architecture held in Japan with the participation of Japanese and Turkish students for 50 days under the collaboration of Mukogawa Women’s University (MWU, Japan and Bahcesehir University (BSU, Turkey. After the introduction, chapter One will compare educational methods used in architectural design courses. Chapter Two will mainly provide general observations of ICSA in Japan summer school course. In chapter Three, contributions of international exchange programs to design education will be discussed in terms of two different approaches. Finally, chapter Four will outline the main arguments discussed in this paper.

  7. Inclusion of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes as a source of higher plant mineral nutrition in BTLSS mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Anischenko, Olesya; Trifonov, Sergey V.

    Human exometabolites inclusion into an intrasystem mass exchange will allow increasing of a closure level of a biological-technical life support system (BTLSS). Previously at the IBP SB RAS it was shown that human mineralized exometabolites could be incorporated in the BTLSS mass exchange as a mineral nutrition source for higher plants. However, it is not known how that combined use of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes in the capacity of nutrient medium, being a part of the BTLSS consumer wastes, will affect the plant productivity. Several wheat vegetations were grown in an uneven-aged conveyor on a neutral substrate. A mixture of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes was used as a nutrient solution in the experiment treatment and human mineralized exometabolites were used in the control. Consequently, a high wheat yield in the experiment treatment practically equal to the control yield was obtained. Thus, mineralized fish wastes can be an additional source of macro-and micronutrients for plants, and use of such wastes for the plant mineral nutrition allows increasing of BTLSS closure level.

  8. Internal calibration on adjacent samples (InCAS) with Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, P B; Costello, C E

    2000-12-15

    Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MAL DI) on a trapped ion mass spectrometer such as a Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS) allows accumulation of ions in the cell from multiple laser shots prior to detection. If ions from separate MALDI samples are accumulated simultaneously in the cell, ions from one sample can be used to calibrate ions from the other sample. Since the ions are detected simultaneously in the cell, this is, in effect, internal calibration, but there are no selective desorption effects in the MALDI source. This method of internal calibration with adjacent samples is demonstrated here on cesium iodide clusters, peptides, oligosaccharides, poly(propylene glycol), and fullerenes and provides typical FTMS internal calibration mass accuracy of < 1 ppm.

  9. Online Simultaneous Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange of Multitarget Gas-Phase Molecules by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Sook; Cha, Eunju; Cha, Sangwon; Kim, Sunghwan; Oh, Han Bin; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2017-11-21

    In this study, a hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange method using gas chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (GC-ESI/MS) was first investigated as a novel tool for online H/D exchange of multitarget analytes. The GC and ESI source were combined with a homemade heated column transfer line. GC-ESI/MS-based H/D exchange occurs in an atmospheric pressure ion source as a result of reacting the gas-phase analyte eluted from GC with charged droplets of deuterium oxide infused as the ESI spray solvent. The consumption of the deuterated solvent at a flow rate of 2 μL min -1 was more economical than that in online H/D exchange methods reported to date. In-ESI-source H/D exchange by GC-ESI/MS was applied to 11 stimulants with secondary amino or hydroxyl groups. After H/D exchange, the spectra of the stimulants showed unexchanged, partially exchanged, and fully exchanged ions showing various degrees of exchange. The relative abundances corrected for naturally occurring isotopes of the fully exchanged ions of stimulants, except for etamivan, were in the range 24.3-85.5%. Methylephedrine and cyclazodone showed low H/D exchange efficiency under acidic, neutral, and basic spray solvent conditions and nonexchange for etamivan with an acidic phenolic OH group. The in-ESI-source H/D exchange efficiency by GC-ESI/MS was sufficient to determine the number of hydrogen by elucidation of fragmentation from the spectrum. Therefore, this online H/D exchange technique using GC-ESI/MS has potential as an alternative method for simultaneous H/D exchange of multitarget analytes.

  10. Characterization of oligosaccharides with capillary high performance anion exchange chromatography hyphenated to pulsed amperometric detection and ion trap mass spectrometry : application to the analysis of human lysosomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Cornelis

    The development of a capillary ion chromatograph is described together with a matching desalter. This desalter made it possible to use on-line a mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer enables partly to characterize carbohydrates eluting from the anion exchange column. This separation technology is

  11. Probing conserved helical modules of portal complexes by mass spectrometry-based hydrogen/deuterium exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sebyung; Poliakov, Anton; Sexton, Jennifer; Renfrow, Matthew B; Prevelige, Peter E

    2008-09-05

    The Double-stranded DNA bacteriophage P22 has a ring-shaped dodecameric complex composed of the 84 kDa portal protein subunit that forms the central channel of the phage DNA packaging motor. The overall morphology of the P22 portal complex is similar to that of the portal complexes of Phi29, SPP1, T3, T7 phages and herpes simplex virus. Secondary structure prediction of P22 portal protein and its threading onto the crystal structure of the Phi29 portal complexes suggested that the P22 portal protein complex shares conserved helical modules that were found in the dodecameric interfaces of the Phi29 portal complex. To identify the amino acids involved in intersubunit contacts in the P22 portal ring complexes and validate the threading model, we performed comparative hydrogen/deuterium exchange analysis of monomeric and in vitro assembled portal proteins of P22 and the dodecameric Phi29 portal. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments provided evidence of intersubunit interactions in the P22 portal complex similar to those in the Phi29 portal that map to the regions predicted to be conserved helical modules.

  12. Coulomb drag in electron-hole bilayer: Mass-asymmetry and exchange correlation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Priya; Singh, Gurvinder; Moudgil, R. K.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment by Zheng et al. [App. Phys. Lett. 108, 062102 (2016)] on coulomb drag in electron-hole and hole-hole bilayers based on GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor heterostructure, we investigate theoretically the influence of mass-asymmetry and temperature-dependence of correlations on the drag rate. The correlation effects are dealt with using the Vignale-Singwi effective inter-layer interaction model which includes correlations through local-field corrections to the bare coulomb interactions. However, in this work, we have incorporated only the intra-layer correlations using the temperature-dependent Hubbard approximation. Our results display a reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. However, it is crucial to include both the electron-hole mass-asymmetry and temperature-dependence of correlations. Mass-asymmetry and correlations are found to result in a substantial enhancement of drag resistivity.

  13. 76 FR 2174 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... traders additional opportunities and strategies to hedge high priced securities. Currently, Exchange Rule... example if Apple, Inc. (``AAPL'') would trade at $310 \\6\\ with approximately two months remaining until...

  14. 75 FR 39597 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... closely tailor their investment and risk management strategies and decisions to the movement of the... additional strikes for investment, trading, and risk management purposes. 2. Statutory Basis The Exchange...

  15. THE NORMALIZATION OF FINANCIAL DATA EXCHANGE OVER THE INTERNET: ADOPTING INTERNATIONAL STANDARD XBRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Georgel Tudor

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of a common syntax for EDI (Electronic Data Interchange, XML (eXtensible Markup Language, opened new formalization perspectives for interorganizational data exchanges over the Internet. Many of the organizations involved in the normaliza

  16. 78 FR 21657 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange LLC; Order Approving, on an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... market during Limit States and Straddle States. Given the Exchange's recognition of the potential for... affected, each dataset will include, among other information: stock symbol, option symbol, time at the...

  17. 78 FR 22017 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... NBBO in the options market during Limit States and Straddle States. Given the Exchange's recognition of... include, among other information: stock symbol, option symbol, time at the start of the Limit State or...

  18. 75 FR 26830 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... & Gold, Inc. (``FCX''), Cisco Systems, Inc. (``CSCO''), Diamonds Trust, Series 1 (``DIA''), Amazon.com... change is available on the Exchange's Web site ( http://www.ise.com ), at the principal office of the...

  19. 78 FR 75629 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... away from larger competitors by adopting an innovative pricing strategy. The Exchange notes that if the...-Makers) is, and has been, commonly practiced in the options markets. As such, marketing fee programs,\\7...

  20. 78 FR 42138 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... innovative pricing strategy. The Exchange notes that if the rebate program resulted in a modest percentage...-Makers) is, and has been, commonly practiced in the options markets. As such, marketing fee programs,\\6...

  1. 78 FR 56762 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... innovative pricing strategy. The Exchange notes that if the proposal results in a modest percentage increase... may apply to Market Makers including marketing fees, Options Regulatory Fees, market data, and...

  2. 76 FR 5225 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... informational advantages that could place an affiliated member of an exchange at a competitive advantage vis... Tang, Assistant General Counsel, ISE, to Michael Gaw, Assistant Director, Division of Trading and...

  3. 78 FR 17729 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... securities: SPDR S&P 500 ETF (``SPY''), Apple Inc. (``AAPL''), SPDR Gold Trust (``GLD''), Google Inc. (``GOOG... related to Mini Options traded on the Exchange. Mini Options overlie 10 equity or ETF shares, rather than...

  4. 75 FR 6760 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... excessive. The proposed rule change reflects a competitive pricing structure designed to incent market... competitive reasons, the Exchange is now seeking to re-introduce an Ultra Tier rebate of $0.0031 per share. \\4...

  5. 78 FR 79721 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... of participants in mergers or with intentions to merge that have been announced or cancelled; and (f... contracts. Accordingly, the Exchange is proposing to amend the definition of QCC Order to clarify that an...

  6. Meson exchange second class currents and the neutrino mass in the muon capture by light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katkhat, Ch.L.

    1988-01-01

    Influence of the Kubodera-Delorme-Rho model parameters (ζ and ξ), the scalar form factor (F s ) and the muonic neutrino rest mass (m νμ ) on the asymmetry coefficient (α μν ) of neutrino emission with respect to the muon spin orientation in the muon capture by light nuclei is analyzed. It is shown, that the mass m νμ , the parameters of ζ and ξ, and the form factor F s may be estimated by studying the coefficient α μν in O -> O, Gamov-Teller, and mixed transitions, respectively

  7. Effective Removal of Nonionic Detergents in Protein Mass Spectrometry, Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange, and Proteomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rey, M.; Mrázek, H.; Pompach, Petr; Novák, P.; Pelosi, L.; Brandolin, G.; Forest, E.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Man, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 12 (2010), s. 5107-5116 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500200612; GA MŠk LC545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mass spectrometry * proteomics * peptides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  8. qcML : an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31093205X; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/244219087; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data

  9. A Coupled Korteweg-de Vries System and Mass Exchanges among Solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, P. D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2000-01-01

    V and the solution of a linear equation with nonconstant coefficients. The coupled KdV system may be viewed as a phenomenological model for the sharing of mass among interacting solitons of the (one-component) KdV equation. Results for the scattering theory of solutions of the nonconstant coefficient linear equation...

  10. Simultaneous measurement of proline and related compounds in oak leaves by high-performance ligand-exchange chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for environmental stress studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufir, Mouhssin; Schulz, Nadine; Sha Vallikhan, Patan Shaik; Wilhelm, Eva; Burg, Kornel; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Hoffmann, Lucien; Guignard, Cedric

    2009-02-13

    A mass spectrometer was coupled to high-performance ligand-exchange liquid chromatography (HPLEC) for simultaneous analysis of stress associated solutes such as proline, hydroxyproline, methylproline, glycine betaine and trigonelline extracted from leaves of drought stressed oaks and an internal standard namely N-acetylproline. Methanol/chloroform/water extracts were analyzed using an Aminex HPX-87C column and specifically quantified by the positive ion mode of an electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery of N-acetyl proline added to oak leaf extracts ranged from 85.2 to 122.1% for an intra-day study. Standard calibration curves showed good linearity in the measured range from 0.3125 to 10micromolL(-1) with the lowest correlation coefficient of 0.99961 for trigonelline. The advantages of this alternative procedure, compared to previously published methods using fluorescence or amperometric detections, are the simultaneous and direct detection of osmoprotectants in a single chromatographic run, a minimal sample preparation, a good specificity and reduced limits of quantification, ranging from 0.1 to 0.6micromolL(-1). Fifty-six days of water deficit exposure resulted in increased foliar free proline levels (2.4-fold, P<0.001, 155micromolg(-1) FW) and glycine betaine contents (2.5-fold, P<0.05, 175micromolg(-1) FW) of drought stressed oak compared to control.

  11. An algorithm for mass matrix calculation of internally constrained molecular geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, Masoud; Dhanda, Abhishek; Pitsch, Heinz

    2008-01-28

    Dynamic models for molecular systems require the determination of corresponding mass matrix. For constrained geometries, these computations are often not trivial but need special considerations. Here, assembling the mass matrix of internally constrained molecular structures is formulated as an optimization problem. Analytical expressions are derived for the solution of the different possible cases depending on the rank of the constraint matrix. Geometrical interpretations are further used to enhance the solution concept. As an application, we evaluate the mass matrix for a constrained molecule undergoing an electron-transfer reaction. The preexponential factor for this reaction is computed based on the harmonic model.

  12. An algorithm for mass matrix calculation of internally constrained molecular geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanpour, Masoud; Dhanda, Abhishek; Pitsch, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic models for molecular systems require the determination of corresponding mass matrix. For constrained geometries, these computations are often not trivial but need special considerations. Here, assembling the mass matrix of internally constrained molecular structures is formulated as an optimization problem. Analytical expressions are derived for the solution of the different possible cases depending on the rank of the constraint matrix. Geometrical interpretations are further used to enhance the solution concept. As an application, we evaluate the mass matrix for a constrained molecule undergoing an electron-transfer reaction. The preexponential factor for this reaction is computed based on the harmonic model

  13. Estimation of air-water gas exchange coefficient in a shallow lagoon based on 222Rn mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockenpot, S; Claude, C; Radakovitch, O

    2015-05-01

    The radon-222 mass balance is now commonly used to quantify water fluxes due to Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) in coastal areas. One of the main loss terms of this mass balance, the radon evasion to the atmosphere, is based on empirical equations. This term is generally estimated using one among the many empirical equations describing the gas transfer velocity as a function of wind speed that have been proposed in the literature. These equations were, however, mainly obtained from areas of deep water and may be less appropriate for shallow areas. Here, we calculate the radon mass balance for a windy shallow coastal lagoon (mean depth of 6m and surface area of 1.55*10(8) m(2)) and use these data to estimate the radon loss to the atmosphere and the corresponding gas transfer velocity. We present new equations, adapted to our shallow water body, to express the gas transfer velocity as a function of wind speed at 10 m height (wind range from 2 to 12.5 m/s). When compared with those from the literature, these equations fit particularly well with the one of Kremer et al. (2003). Finally, we emphasize that some gas transfer exchange may always occur, even for conditions without wind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the Merits of International Service-Learning in Developing Professionalism in Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Phillip; Sturgill, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This project assessed how an international service-learning course affected mass communication students' knowledge of professionalism. Using written reflections and focus group transcripts from four courses that took place in Central America, we observed that placing students in immersive environments, where they are able to work on authentic…

  15. Using Monte Carlo Simulation To Improve Cargo Mass Estimates For International Space Station Commercial Resupply Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Challenges of ISS Resupply .......................................... 23 F. THE IMPORTANCE OF MASS PROPERTIES IN SPACECRAFT AND MISSION DESIGN...Transportation System TBA trundle bearing assembly VLC verification loads cycle xv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Resupplying the International Space Station...management priorities. This study addresses those challenges by developing Monte Carlo simulations based on over 13 years of as- flownSS resupply

  16. Hydrothermal alteration and mass exchange in the hornblende latite porphyry, Rico, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, P.B.; Cunningham, C.G.; Naeser, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Rico paleothermal anomaly, southwestern Colorado, records the effects of a large hydrothermal system that was active at 4 Ma. This hydrothermal system produced the deep Silver Creek stockwork Mo deposit, which formed above the anomaly's heat source, and shallower base and precious-metal vein and replacement deposits. A 65 Ma hornblende latite porphyry is present as widespread sills throughout the area and provided a homogenous material that recorded the effects of the hydrothermal system up to 8 km from the center. Hydrothermal alteration in the latite can be divided into a proximal facies which consists of two assemblages, quartz-illite-calcite and chlorite-epidote, and a distal facies which consists of a distinct propylitic assemblage. Temperatures were gradational vertically and laterally in the anomaly, and decreased away from the centra heat source. A convective hydrothermal plume, 3 km wide and at least 2 km high, was present above the stock-work molybdenum deposit and consisted of upwelling, high-temperature fluids that produced the proximal alteration facies. Distal facies alteration was produced by shallower cooler fluids. The most important shallow base and precious-metal vein deposits in the Rico district are at or close to the boundary of the thermal plume. Latite within the plume had a large loss of Na2O, large addition of CaO, and variable SiO2 exchante. Distal propylitized latite samples lost small amounts of Na2O and CaO and exchanged minor variable amounts of SiO2. The edge of the plume is marked by steep Na2O exchange gradients. Na2O exchange throughout the paleothermal anomaly was controlled by the reaction of the albite components in primary plagioclase and alkali feldspars. Initial feldspar alteration in the distal facies was dominated by reaction of the plagioclase, and the initial molar ratio of reactants (alkali feldspar albite component to plagioclase albite component) was 0.35. This ratio of the moles of plagioclase to alkali feldspar

  17. Experimental study of heat and mass transfer in a buoyant countercurrent exchange flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Timothy Allan

    Buoyant Countercurrent Exchange Flow occurs in a vertical vent through which two miscible fluids communicate, the higher-density fluid, residing above the lower-density fluid, separated by the vented partition. The buoyancy- driven zero net volumetric flow through the vent transports any passive scalars, such as heat and toxic fumes, between the two compartments as the fluids seek thermodynamic and gravitational equilibrium. The plume rising from the vent into the top compartment resembles a pool fire plume. In some circumstances both countercurrent flows and pool fires can ``puff'' periodically, with distinct frequencies. One experimental test section containing fresh water in the top compartment and brine (NaCl solution) in the bottom compartment provided a convenient, idealized flow for study. This brine flow decayed in time as the concentrations approached equilibrium. A second test section contained fresh water that was cooled by heat exchangers above and heated by electrical elements below and operated steadily, allowing more time for data acquisition. Brine transport was reduced to a buoyancy- scaled flow coefficient, Q*, and heat transfer was reduced to an analogous coefficient, H*. Results for vent diameter D = 5.08 cm were consistent between test sections and with the literature. Some results for D = 2.54 cm were inconsistent, suggesting viscosity and/or molecular diffusion of heat become important at smaller scales. Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure velocity fields in both test sections, and in thermal flow a small thermocouple measured temperature simultaneously with velocity. Measurement fields were restricted to the plume base region, above the vent proper. In baseline periodic flow, instantaneous velocity and temperature were ensemble averaged, producing a movie of the average variation of each measure during a puffing flow cycle. The temperature movie revealed the previously unknown cold core of the puff during its early development. The

  18. Supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with in-source atmospheric pressure ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for compound speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunju; Choi, Man-Ho; Kim, Byungjoo; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-04-29

    An experimental setup for the speciation of compounds by hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) with atmospheric pressure ionization while performing chromatographic separation is presented. The proposed experimental setup combines the high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system that can be readily used as an inlet for mass spectrometry (MS) and atmospheric pressure photo ionization (APPI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) HDX. This combination overcomes the limitation of an approach using conventional liquid chromatography (LC) by minimizing the amount of deuterium solvents used for separation. In the SFC separation, supercritical CO2 was used as a major component of the mobile phase, and methanol was used as a minor co-solvent. By using deuterated methanol (CH3OD), AP HDX was achieved during SFC separation. To prove the concept, thirty one nitrogen- and/or oxygen-containing standard compounds were analyzed by SFC-AP HDX MS. The compounds were successfully speciated from the obtained SFC-MS spectra. The exchange ions were observed with as low as 1% of CH3OD in the mobile phase, and separation could be performed within approximately 20min using approximately 0.24 mL of CH3OD. The results showed that SFC separation and APPI/APCI HDX could be successfully performed using the suggested method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of the mass and energy resolution of the E parallel B charge exchange analyzer for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Medley, S.S.

    1979-09-01

    The charge exchange diagnostic for TFTR requires simultaneous multispecie (H + , D + , γ + ) analysis of particles in the energy range of 0.5 - 150 keV. The analyzer design chosen to provide this capability employs a wide gap semi-circular region of superimposed parallel electric and magnetic fields to accomplish mass and energy resolution, respectively. Combined with a large area, multi-anode microchannel plate detector, this arrangement will enable the energy distributions of protons, deuterions, and tritons to be measured concurrently as a function of time during each discharge. A computer simulation program for calculating ion trajectories through the analyzer was written that includes a realistic model of the magnetic and electrostatic fringe fields. This report presents the results of a study of the proposed E parallel B analyzer, and it reveals that the fringe fields are not detrimental to the performance of the analyzer

  20. KRAS G12C Drug Development: Discrimination between Switch II Pocket Configurations Using Hydrogen/Deuterium-Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jia; Harrison, Rane A.; Li, Lianbo; Zeng, Mei; Gondi, Sudershan; Scott, David; Gray, Nathanael S.; Engen, John R.; Westover, Kenneth D. (NEU); (DFCI); (UTSMC); (Harvard-Med)

    2017-09-01

    KRAS G12C, the most common RAS mutation found in non-small-cell lung cancer, has been the subject of multiple recent covalent small-molecule inhibitor campaigns including efforts directed at the guanine nucleotide pocket and separate work focused on an inducible pocket adjacent to the switch motifs. Multiple conformations of switch II have been observed, suggesting that switch II pocket (SIIP) binders may be capable of engaging a range of KRAS conformations. Here we report the use of hydrogen/deuterium-exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS) to discriminate between conformations of switch II induced by two chemical classes of SIIP binders. We investigated the structural basis for differences in HDX MS using X-ray crystallography and discovered a new SIIP configuration in response to binding of a quinazoline chemotype. These results have implications for structure-guided drug design targeting the RAS SIIP.

  1. Analysis of two-phase flow inter-subchannel mass and momentum exchanges by the two-fluid model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninokata, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Deguchi, A. [ENO Mathematical Analysis, Tokyo (Japan); Kawahara, A. [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    A new void drift model for the subchannel analysis method is presented for the thermohydraulics calculation of two-phase flows in rod bundles where the flow model uses a two-fluid formulation for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A void drift model is constructed based on the experimental data obtained in a geometrically simple inter-connected two circular channel test sections using air-water as working fluids. The void drift force is assumed to be an origin of void drift velocity components of the two-phase cross-flow in a gap area between two adjacent rods and to overcome the momentum exchanges at the phase interface and wall-fluid interface. This void drift force is implemented in the cross flow momentum equations. Computational results have been successfully compared to experimental data available including 3x3 rod bundle data.

  2. INFX GUIDE: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BILATERAL AGREEMENTS FOR COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (INFX: INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION EXCHANGE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, K. M.; Lakey, L. T.; Leigh, I. W.; Jeffs, A. G.

    1985-07-01

    As the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have increased the magnitude and scope of their cooperative activities with other nations in the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management field, a need has developed for ready sources of information concerning foreign waste management programs, DOE technology exchange policies, bilateral fuel cycle and waste management agreements and plans and activities to implement those agreements. The INFX (International InLormation E~change) Guide is one of a series of documents that have been prepared to provide that information. The INFX Guide has been compiled under the charter of PNL's International Support Office (IPSO) to maintain for DOE a center to collect, organize, evaluate and disseminate information on foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. Because the information in this document is constantly subject to change, the document is assembled in loose-leaf form to accommodate frequent updates.

  3. Internal hydraulic control in the Little Belt, Denmark - observations of flow configurations and water mass formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtegaard Nielsen, Morten; Vang, Torben; Chresten Lund-Hansen, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Internal hydraulic control, which occurs when stratified water masses are forced through an abrupt constriction, plays an enormous role in nature on both large and regional scales with respect to dynamics, circulation, and water mass formation. Despite a growing literature on this subject surprisingly few direct observations have been made that conclusively show the existence of and the circumstances related to internal hydraulic control in nature. In this study we present observations from the Little Belt, Denmark, one of three narrow straits connecting the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. The observations (comprised primarily of along-strait, detailed transects of salinity and temperature; continuous observations of flow velocity, salinity, and temperature at a permanent station; and numerous vertical profiles of salinity, temperature, fluorescence, and flow velocity in various locations) show that internal hydraulic control is a frequently occurring phenomenon in the Little Belt. The observations, which are limited to south-going flows of approximately two-layered water masses, show that internal hydraulic control may take either of two configurations, i.e. the lower or the upper layer being the active, accelerating one. This is connected to the depth of the pycnocline on the upstream side and the topography, which is both deepening and contracting toward the narrow part of the Little Belt. The existence of two possible flow configurations is known from theoretical and laboratory studies, but we believe that this has never been observed in nature and reported before. The water masses formed by the intense mixing, which is tightly connected with the presence of control, may be found far downstream of the point of control. The observations show that these particular water masses are associated with chlorophyll concentrations that are considerably higher than in adjacent water masses, showing that control has a considerable influence on the primary production and

  4. Energy performance of an innovative liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a counter-flow heat and mass exchanger using potassium formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jradi, Muhyiddine; Riffat, Saffa

    2014-01-01

    An innovative micro-scale liquid desiccant dehumidification system is numerically investigated. The liquid desiccant dehumidification unit employs a counter-flow low-cost and efficient heat and mass exchange core, improving the thermal performance and eliminating desiccant carryover...... that the dehumidifier effectiveness is directly proportional to the intake air temperature, intake air relative humidity and liquid desiccant flow rate where the effectiveness is inversely proportional to the intake air velocity and the heat exchanger air channel height....

  5. Syntheses of deuterated leu-enkephalins and their use as internal standards for the quantification of leu-enkephalin by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfenati, E. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo (Italy) Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan (Italy)); Icardi, G.; Chen, S. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo (Italy)); Fanelli, R. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan (Italy))

    1990-04-01

    We have developed a synthetic method for the preparation of di- and pentadeuterated leu-enkephalin (LE), Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu, by proton-deuterium exchange using CF[sub 3]COOO[sup 2]H. Four to six deuterium atoms are introduced using a reaction temperature of 120[sup o]C and if 5% of [sup 2]H[sub 2]O is added the di-deuterated LE is obtained. These deuterated compounds are used as internal standards to plot calibration curves of LE using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. (author).

  6. 77 FR 38869 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site www.ise.com , at the principal... where the bid price is $0.00. Series of options quoted zero bid are usually deep out-of- the-money... additional criteria and clarifying language to the current rule. Specifically, under the revised rule, trades...

  7. 76 FR 65555 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... fees) for customer orders; \\7\\ and tiered pricing that reduces rates for market makers based on the level of business they bring to the Exchange.\\8\\ This proposed rule change targets a particular segment... place for certain specific FX Options which has its own pricing. See ISE Schedule of Fees. \\8\\ The...

  8. 76 FR 21087 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... developed an enhanced technology trading platform (the ``Optimise platform''). To assure a smooth transition... Optimise trading platform and will continue to do so up to the launch of the new technology and during the... tested and is available for the launch. The Exchange believes that it will be less disruptive to members...

  9. 78 FR 23321 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... following currencies: euro, British pound, Japanese yen, and Australian dollar. \\5\\ The term ``modified...'s existing surveillance system architecture and processes. Additionally, the Exchange will have... basket of four highly liquid currencies (the euro, British pound, Japanese yen, and the Australian dollar...

  10. 76 FR 61438 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... clarify that 2102(e) applies to trading halts in new derivative securities, so as to not be confused with... derivative securities products when a temporary interruption occurs in the calculation or wide dissemination... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65425; File No. SR-ISE-2011-61] Self-Regulatory...

  11. 77 FR 40136 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... trading day's last sale price was greater than $100) in premium in each of the front two expiration months... options whose underlying stock's previous trading day's last sale price was greater than $100) in premium... to the following additional two symbols: GLD and VXX.\\12\\ The Exchange proposes to expand the pricing...

  12. 77 FR 16295 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... trading day's last sale price was greater than $100) in premium in each of the front two expiration months... options whose underlying stock's previous trading day's last sale price was greater than $100) in premium... employing similar pricing schemes and in some cases, is lower that the fees assessed by other exchanges. For...

  13. 77 FR 42026 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... greater than $100) in premium in each of the front two expiration months and 80% of the time for series... previous trading day's last sale price was greater than $100) in premium across all expiration months in... by other exchanges employing similar pricing schemes. For example, NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. (``PHLX...

  14. 77 FR 71850 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... relational database and are maintained by the registered end-user through the Spread Crawler Web site where... Exchange will provide certain marketing, first line technical support, accounting and contract... manipulative acts and practices, to promote just and equitable principles of trade, to foster cooperation and...

  15. Proceedings of the 4th international conference on heat exchangers boilers and pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The conference discusses the following issues: pollution control for thermal units in the Egyptian industry; burnup calculations for ETRR-1 and ETRR-2 reactors; environmental impacts; heat exchangers; determination of economic life of marine power plant; psa study of ETRR-2 gadolinium injection system

  16. 78 FR 48742 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... exchanges allow an LMM (or similar position) to have access to the marketing fee funds generated from a... LMMs be treated similar to non-directed orders and the marketing fee be allocated to the PLMM's ``pool... LMMs similar to non-directed order and allocate any applicable marketing fees to the PLMM's ``pool...

  17. 78 FR 17266 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... rebates to market participants that add or remove liquidity from the Exchange (``maker/taker fees and.... (``ESI''), E*Trade Financial Corp. (``ETFC''), iShares MSCI Mexico Investable Market (``EWW''), F5...''), Southwestern Energy Co. (``SWN''), Symantec Corp. (``SYMC''), Target Corp. (``TGT''), Tiffany & Co. (``TIF...

  18. 77 FR 10579 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-106). The Exchange now proposes to extend the fees for complex orders adopted in SR-ISE-2011-81 to the... the fees adopted in SR-ISE-2011-81, is to maintain the attractive and competitive economics for...

  19. 76 FR 65247 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... premier global venue for capital raising, with a truly global franchise and presence in many of the world... management and the premier global venue for capital raising, with a truly global franchise and presence in... three NYSE Exchanges--NYSE, NYSE Arca and NYSE Amex--which provide marketplaces where investors buy and...

  20. 75 FR 41247 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ...-19). Under current Rule 502(h), only Exchange-Traded Fund Shares, or ETFs, that are traded on a...) represent interests in a trust that holds a specified non-U.S. currency or currencies deposited with the... owner to receive the specified non-U.S. currency or currencies and pays the beneficial owner interest...

  1. 78 FR 75439 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... current Rule 402, only Exchange-Traded Fund Shares (``ETFs'') that (1) represent interests in registered... or similar entity that holds a specified non-U.S. currency or currencies deposited with the trust... by the beneficial owner to receive the specified non-U.S. currency or currencies and pays the...

  2. 75 FR 23314 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Rule 502(h), only Exchange-Traded Fund Shares, or ETFs, that are traded on a national securities... that holds a specified non-U.S. currency or currencies deposited with the trust when aggregated in some... non-U.S. currency or currencies and pays the beneficial owner interest and other distributions on the...

  3. 75 FR 33867 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... dependent on the OCC Hub to route orders to markets at the NBBO. The Exchange was aware that such dependence... Commission's Internet comment form ( http://www.sec.gov/rules/sro.shtml ); or Send an e-mail to rule-comments... post all comments on the Commission's Internet Web site ( http://www.sec.gov/rules/sro.shtml ). Copies...

  4. 78 FR 69468 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... provide that in situations of a regulatory halt, trading pause or market-wide trading halt, a Post-Halt... situation of a halt pursuant to Rule 504(a), just as today, the Post-Halt Notification will continue to be..., Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090. All submissions should refer...

  5. 75 FR 71475 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... from a range of possible, and equally reasonable, pricing strategies as the means of recovering total... for accessing posted liquidity. Other platforms may choose a strategy of paying lower rebates (or no... proprietary data and strict pricing discipline for the proprietary products themselves. Numerous exchanges...

  6. 78 FR 17733 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ...''), SPDR Gold Trust (``GLD''), Google Inc. (``GOOG'') and Amazon.com Inc. (``AMZN'').\\3\\ Whereas standard... site www.ise.com , at the principal office of the Exchange, and at the Commission's Public Reference... orders that seek to achieve legitimate investment strategies are afforded certain benefits. Particularly...

  7. 78 FR 16338 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... makers (i.e., Electronic Access Members),\\12\\ and whether a trade is adjusted or busted also differs.\\13... Exchange nullifies obvious error transactions unless all parties to the trade are ISE market makers, in... is an equally valid opposing view because adjustments can result in retail customer orders being...

  8. 78 FR 47041 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ..., ISE believes that this should dispel any concerns regarding market manipulation. By extension, ISE... Agreement, dated June 20, 1994. The members of the ISG include all of the U.S. registered stock and options..., Inc., Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, NASDAQ Stock Market LLC...

  9. 78 FR 45588 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change to Delay the Operative Date of a Recent Change to Exchange Rule 514 July... filing a proposal to delay the operative date of a recent change to Rule 514. There are no proposed..._RC_2013_31.pdf . The purpose of this rule filing is to delay the operative date of the change to Rule...

  10. 78 FR 45586 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change to Delay the Operative Date of a Recent Change to Exchange Rule 506 July... filing a proposal to delay the operative date of a recent change to Rule 506. There are no proposed... delay the operative date of the change to Rule 506 in rule filing SR-MIAX-2013-18 until MIAX has...

  11. 75 FR 70337 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... significantly affect the protection of investors or the public interest, does not impose any significant burden... change is to modify the Exchange's rules to expand the $0.50 Strike Program in order to provide investors... market participants, such as traders and retail investors, and thereby enhance their ability to tailor...

  12. 78 FR 69923 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Straddle State.\\9\\ Such un-priced orders include market orders and stop orders, which become market orders... different from the time when these orders were first sent to the Exchange for execution. As noted above... is designed to promote just and equitable principles of trade, to remove impediments to and perfect...

  13. 78 FR 60348 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... market participants. The Program will similarly reward the liquidity providers that provide this... perfect the mechanisms of a free and open market and a national market system and, in general, to protect... the Exchange, or the transaction is subject to a fee cap. The Program is designed to reward...

  14. 78 FR 47457 - Self-Regulatory Organizations: Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... innovative pricing strategy. The Exchange notes that if the extension of the fee waiver results in a modest... to Market Makers including marketing fees, Options Regulatory Fees, market data, and membership... may apply to Market Makers including marketing fees, Options Regulatory Fees, market data, and...

  15. 78 FR 35349 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... by adopting an innovative pricing strategy. The Exchange notes that if the fee waiver resulted in a... apply to Market Makers including marketing fees, Options Regulatory Fees, market data, and membership... Market Makers including marketing fees, Options Regulatory Fees, market data, and membership application...

  16. 75 FR 79433 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Fees and Rebates for Adding and Removing Liquidity December 13, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act''),\\1\\ and Rule... and rebates for adding and removing liquidity. The text of the proposed rule change is available on...

  17. 76 FR 56844 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Rule Change Relating to Fees and Rebates for Adding and Removing Liquidity September 8, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2... transaction fees and rebates for adding and removing liquidity. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  18. 75 FR 78288 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Fees and Rebates for Adding and Removing Liquidity December 9, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act''),\\1\\ and Rule... proposed rule change, as described in Items I and II, and below, which items have been prepared by the self...

  19. 76 FR 21934 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Rule Change Relating to Fees and Rebates for Adding and Removing Liquidity April 13, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2... transaction fees and rebates for adding and removing liquidity. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  20. 75 FR 70059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Fees and Rebates for Adding and Removing Liquidity November 9, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act''),\\1\\ and Rule... amend its transaction fees and rebates for adding and removing liquidity. The text of the proposed rule...

  1. 77 FR 74905 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... classes that the Market Maker has the general obligation to attract order flow to the Exchange. MIAX will... accordance with instructions received from the applicable Primary Lead Market Maker ``PLMM'' or Lead Market... order that was routed. Regulatory Fees A. Sales Value Fee The Sales Value Fee \\7\\ is assessed by the...

  2. Wine Is for Drinking, Water Is for Washing: Student Opinions about International Exchange Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Verbeeten, Marja J.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a study done among students who participated in student exchange programs, both in the United States and other parts of the world, between January 2001 and May 2003. Issues such as why students decide to study abroad, why they select a certain institution, how their home institution compares to a partner institution abroad,…

  3. 77 FR 19399 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... corporate structure of the Exchange, which will promote just and equitable principles of trade and help to... governance documents of Alpha Beta Netherlands Holding N.V., a holding company organized under the laws of... to prevent fraudulent and manipulative acts and practices, to promote just and equitable principles...

  4. 77 FR 49049 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... previous trading day's last sale price was greater than $100) in premium in each of the front two... than $100) in premium across all expiration months in order to receive the rebate. The Exchange... strategies in the complex order book.\\10\\ Given this enhancement to the complex order functionality, and in...

  5. 76 FR 20752 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the... whole number, resulting in an implied number of users based on quotes. Market makers are invoiced on a... number of implied users based on quotes. \\5\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 56721 (October 30, 2007), 72 FR...

  6. 76 FR 77881 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the... million and rounded up to the nearest whole number, resulting in an implied number of users based on... that logged into the system, or (b) the number of implied users based on quotes. \\5\\ See Exchange Act...

  7. 77 FR 24547 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Mini Options listed: Apple, Inc., (AAPL), SPDR Gold Trust (GLD), Google, Inc. (GOOG), Amazon, Inc... equity and ETF options, including exercise style. All existing Exchange rules applicable to options on... had a minor decline in price. The same trading rules applicable to existing equity and ETF options...

  8. 76 FR 16464 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    .... An IXMM license, by itself, would not allow the holder thereof to trade in equity or ETF options... listing of all equity (including ETF) and index option products traded on the Exchange. \\10\\ See new ISE... Gas (FUM); ISE Water (HHO); ISE Homeland Security (HSX); ISE Long Gold (HVY); ISE 250 (IXZ); ISE U.S...

  9. 77 FR 39545 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... proposes to list Mini Options on SPDR S&P 500 (``SPY''), Apple, Inc. (``AAPL''), SPDR Gold Trust (``GLD... regular-sized equity and ETF options, including exercise style. All existing Exchange rules applicable to... same trading rules applicable to existing equity and ETF options will apply to Mini Options. The...

  10. 75 FR 6237 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... additional one hour after the decision making cut off time of 5:30 p.m. to submit a CEA to the various.... The Exchange will continue to enforce the 5:30 p.m. decision making requirement, while also allowing..., processing information with respect to, and facilitating transactions in securities, to remove impediments to...

  11. 75 FR 6767 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... excessive. The proposed rule change reflects a competitive pricing structure designed to incent market... competitive reasons, the Exchange is now seeking to re-introduce an Ultra Tier rebate of $0.0031 per share. \\4... to the Fee Schedule Effective January 1, 2010,\\5\\ DECN adjusted its pricing model to be more...

  12. 75 FR 30095 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Rule Change Relating to Professional Customer Fees May 21, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... the Commission, and all written communications relating to the proposed rule change between the... with the Securities and Exchange Commission the proposed rule change, as described in Items I, II, and...

  13. 77 FR 3307 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Rule Change Relating to Fees and Rebates for Adding and Removing Liquidity January 17, 2012. Pursuant... transaction fees and rebates for adding and removing liquidity. The text of the proposed rule change is... to market participants that add or remove liquidity from the Exchange (``maker/taker fees'') in 103...

  14. 77 FR 3308 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Rule Change Relating to Fees and Rebates for Adding and Removing Liquidity January 18, 2012. Pursuant... transaction fees and rebates for adding and removing liquidity. The text of the proposed rule change is... and rebates to market participants that add or remove liquidity from the Exchange (``maker/taker fees...

  15. 76 FR 22425 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Rule Change Relating to Fees and Rebates for Adding and Removing Liquidity April 15, 2011. Pursuant to... rebates for adding and removing liquidity. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the... or remove liquidity from the Exchange (``maker/taker fees'') in 100 options classes (the ``Select...

  16. 76 FR 47279 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Rule Change Relating to Fees and Rebates for Adding and Removing Liquidity July 29, 2011. Pursuant to... rebates for adding and removing liquidity. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the... participants that add or remove liquidity from the Exchange (``maker/taker fees'') in 99 options classes (the...

  17. 78 FR 70382 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., with respect to index options, restrictions on exercise may be in effect until the opening of business... security of an option contract that is scheduled to be released just after the close on the business day... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70900; File No. SR-ISE-2013-58] Self-Regulatory...

  18. 78 FR 7470 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Exchange to align its Board structure in accordance with corporate governance best practices guidelines... nonetheless believes that the adherence to the aforementioned corporate governance best practices guidelines... Employee Director in accordance with corporate governance best practices guidelines would ensure that the...

  19. 78 FR 17727 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Exchange to align its Board structure in accordance with corporate governance best practices guidelines... nonetheless stated its belief that adherence to the aforementioned corporate governance best practices... Services Proxy Voting Guidelines, the CalPERS Core Principles of Accountable Corporate Governance, the TIAA...

  20. 76 FR 77275 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65900; File No. SR-ISE-2011-82] Self-Regulatory... text of these statements may be examined at the places specified in Item IV below. The self-regulatory... such statements. A. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for...

  1. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for a Regenerative Heat Exchanger in the International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the system dynamics was created using Excel. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  2. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for an International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the systems dynamics was created using an Excel Spreadsheet. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  3. Speciation of eight arsenic compounds in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection using antimonate for internal chromatographic standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Pritzl, G.; Hansen, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    Four anionic and four cationic arsenic compounds in urine were separated by anion- and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at m/z 75. The species were the anions arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate...... and dimethylarsinate and the cations arsenobetaine, trimethylarsine oxide, arsenocholine and the tetramethylarsonium ion. Hexahydroxyantimonate(III) was co-chromatographed with the arsenic anions but detected at m/z 121 and used as an internal standard for their qualitative analysis. Arsenite was prone to oxidation....... The argon chloride interference at m/z 75 was eliminated by chromatographic separation of the chloride present in the sample from the arsenic analytes. The ClO+ ion detected at m/z 51 and 53 was used to monitor the retention time of chloride in the anion-exchange system. The chloride eluted about 100 s...

  4. Computation of fluid flow in distending tunnels with mass, momentum and energy exchange with the walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maw, J R [AWRE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1970-05-01

    When calculating the effects of an underground explosion it may be useful to be able to calculate the flow of the very hot gaseous products along pipes or tunnels. For example it might be possible to treat a fault in the surrounding rock as an idealised pipe forced open by the high pressure generated by the explosion. Another possibility might be the use of a specially constructed tunnel to channel the energy released in some preferred direction. In such cases the gas flow is complicated by several phenomena. The cross section of the pipe may vary with axial distance and also distend with time. Heat will be lost to the walls of the pipe which may be ablated leading to entrainment of wall material into the gas flow. In addition wall friction will tend to retard the flow. This paper describes a simple computer program, HAT, which was written to calculate such flows. The flow is assumed to be quasi-one-dimensional in that flow quantities such as pressure density and axial velocity do not vary across the pipe. However the radius of the pipe may vary both with axial distance and with time. Sources, or sinks of mass, momentum and energy are included in the governing equations which allow simulation of the phenomena described above. The governing equations are derived in Eulerian form and approximated using an extension of the finite difference scheme of Lax. A brief outline of the computational procedure is given. To demonstrate the capabilities and assess the accuracy of the program two simple problems are calculated using HAT (i) The motion of a shock along a converging pipe. (ii) The effect of mass addition through the walls on the motion of a shock along a uniform pipe. In both cases results obtained using HAT are compared with theoretical analyses of the motion.

  5. Two-step ion-exchange chromatographic purification combined with reversed-phase chromatography to isolate C-peptide for mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabytaev, Kuanysh; Durairaj, Anita; Shin, Dmitriy; Rohlfing, Curt L; Connolly, Shawn; Little, Randie R; Stoyanov, Alexander V

    2016-02-01

    A liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry on-line platform that includes the orthogonal techniques of ion exchange and reversed phase chromatography is applied for C-peptide analysis. Additional improvement is achieved by the subsequent application of cation- and anion-exchange purification steps that allow for isolating components that have their isoelectric points in a narrow pH range before final reversed-phase mass spectrometry analysis. The utility of this approach for isolating fractions in the desired "pI window" for profiling complex mixtures is discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Time resolved investigations on biogenic trace gases exchanges using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, T.

    2000-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from vegetation, including wound-induced VOCs, can have important effects on atmospheric chemistry. The analytical methods for measuring wound-induced VOCs, especially the hexenal family of VOCs (hexenals, hexenols and hexenyl esters) but also compounds like acetaldehyde, are complicated by their chemical instability and the transient nature of their formation after leaf and stem wounding. The goal of this thesis was to assess, quantify and complement our understanding on the origin of tropospheric VOCs. This thesis demonstrates that formation and emission of hexenal family compounds can be monitored on-line using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), avoiding the need for preconcentration or chromatography. These measurements revealed the rapid emission of the parent compound, (Z)-3-hexenal, within 1-2 seconds of wounding of leaves from various woody and nonwoody plants, and its metabolites including (E)-2-hexenal, hexenols and hexenyl acetates. Emission of (Z)-3-hexenal from detached, drying leaves averaged 500 μg (gram dry weight)-1. PTR-MS showed to be a useful tool for the analysis of VOC emissions resulting from grazing, herbivory, harvesting and senescing leaves. The release of reactive VOCs during lawn mowing was observed in on-line ambient air measurements in July and August 1998 in the outskirts of Innsbruck. Also obtained were data on emission rates of reactive aldehydes (hexenyl compounds) and other abundant VOCs such as methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone from drying grass in various chamber experiments. Fluxes were measured after cutting of grass using eddy covariance measurements and the micrometeorological gradient method (Obhukov-Similarity-Method). Comparison of data obtained by these different methods showed satisfactory agreement. The highest fluxes for methanol during drying were 5 mg/m2h, for (Z)-3-hexenal 1.5 mg/m2h. Experiments conducted on the Sonnblick Observatory in Fall and Winter

  7. Determination of external and internal mass transfer limitation in nitrifying microbial aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilén, Britt-Marie; Gapes, Daniel; Keller, Jürg

    2004-05-20

    In this article we present a study of the effects of external and internal mass transfer limitation of oxygen in a nitrifying system. The oxygen uptake rates (OUR) were measured on both a macro-scale with a respirometric reactor using off-gas analysis (Titrimetric and Off-Gas Analysis (TOGA) sensor) and on a micro-scale with microsensors. These two methods provide independent, accurate measurements of the reaction rates and concentration profiles around and in the granules. The TOGA sensor and microsensor measurements showed a significant external mass transfer effect at low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the bulk liquid while it was insignificant at higher DO concentrations. The oxygen distribution with anaerobic or anoxic conditions in the center clearly shows major mass transfer limitation in the aggregate interior. The large drop in DO concentration of 22-80% between the bulk liquid and aggregate surface demonstrates that the external mass transfer resistance is also highly important. The maximum OUR even for floccular biomass was only attained at much higher DO concentrations (approximately 8 mg/L) than typically used in such systems. For granules, the DO required for maximal activity was estimated to be >20 mg/L, clearly indicating the effects of the major external and internal mass transfer limitations on the overall biomass activity. Smaller aggregates had a larger volumetric OUR indicating that the granules may have a lower activity in the interior part of the aggregate. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Internal Carotid Artery Ectasia: The Value of Imaging Studies Prior to Biopsy of a Retropharyngeal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of retropharyngeal tissue mass often raises the suspicion of malignancy, especially in elderly patients. This prompts urgent biopsy to investigate tissue histology. We discuss a case where this is contraindicated as the retropharyngeal mass was illustrated by CT scanning and confirmed with MRI to be a tortuous coursing internal carotid artery. An awareness of this unusual anatomical variation and a careful interpretation of imaging studies both at the stage of differential diagnosis and pre-operative screening are essential to avoid damage to important structures, causing unnecessary complications.

  9. Numerical analysis of the heat and mass transfer processes in selected M-Cycle heat exchangers for the dew point evaporative cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandelidis, Demis; Anisimov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The comparative numerical study of the eight M-Cycle heat exchangers was presented. • The mathematical model is compared against the experimental data. • The results show, that the original M-Cycle heat and mass exchanger can be improved. • The effectiveness of the heat and mass exchangers depends strongly on the inlet air parameters. - Abstract: This paper investigates a mathematical simulation of heat and mass transfer in eight different types of the Maisotsenko Cycle (M-Cycle) heat and mass exchangers (HMXs) used for indirect evaporative air cooling. A two-dimensional heat and mass transfer model is developed to perform the thermal calculations of the indirect evaporative cooling process and quantifying the overall performance. The mathematical model was validated against experimental data. A numerical simulation reveals many unique features of the considered HMXs, enabling an accurate prediction of their performance. Results of the model allow for comparison of the analyzed devices in order to improve the performance of the original HMX

  10. 78 FR 1901 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Direct Edge ECN LLC (``DE ECN''), DE ECN is no longer a facility of the Exchange, and ISE (including its...-reference number in paragraph (a), as well as to add non-substantive words to correct the sentence structure..., competition, and capital formation. See 15 U.S.C. 78c(f). At any time within 60 days of the filing of the...

  11. Alternatives in international diversification for investment portfolios focused in stocks of Lima Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ames Santillán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an estimation of efficient frontiers for investment portfolios, they include stocks from Lima Stock Exchange General Index, Dow Jones Industrial Average, Gold, Cooper, Fixed Income Instruments of Peruvian government and savings in Peruvian financial institutions. The paper concludes that risk of investment in local portfolio reduces as a consequence of diversification, gold is an important asset and contributes to reduce portfolio risk.

  12. Alternatives in international diversification for investment portfolios focused in stocks of Lima Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Ames Santillán, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an estimation of efficient frontiers for investment portfolios, they include stocks from Lima Stock Exchange General Index, Dow Jones Industrial Average, Gold, Cooper, Fixed Income Instruments of Peruvian government and savings in Peruvian financial institutions. The paper concludes that risk of investment in local portfolio reduces as a consequence of diversification, gold is an important asset and contributes to reduce portfolio risk. El presente trabajo estima la fronte...

  13. Alternatives in international diversification for investment portfolios focused in stocks of Lima Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Ames Santillán

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an estimation of efficient frontiers for investment portfolios, they include stocks from Lima Stock Exchange General Index, Dow Jones Industrial Average, Gold, Cooper, Fixed Income Instruments of Peruvian government and savings in Peruvian financial institutions. The paper concludes that risk of investment in local portfolio reduces as a consequence of diversification, gold is an important asset and contributes to reduce portfolio risk.

  14. International portfolio flows and exchange rate volatility in emerging Asian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Menla Ali, Faek; Spagnolo, Fabio; Spagnolo, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of equity and bond portfolio inflows on exchange rate volatility using monthly bilateral data for the US vis-a-vis seven Asian developing and emerging countries (India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand) over the period 1993:01-2015:11. GARCH models and Markov switching specifications with time-varying transition probabilities are estimated in addition to a benchmark linear model. The evidence suggests that high (low) ex...

  15. Analysis of transient and hysteresis behavior of cross-flow heat exchangers under variable fluid mass flow rate for data center cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Tianyi; Murray, Bruce; Sammakia, Bahgat

    2015-01-01

    Effective thermal management of data centers is an important aspect of reducing the energy required for the reliable operation of data processing and communications equipment. Liquid and hybrid (air/liquid) cooling approaches are becoming more widely used in today's large and complex data center facilities. Examples of these approaches include rear door heat exchangers, in-row and overhead coolers and direct liquid cooled servers. Heat exchangers are primary components of liquid and hybrid cooling systems, and the effectiveness of a heat exchanger strongly influences the thermal performance of a cooling system. Characterizing and modeling the dynamic behavior of heat exchangers is important for the design of cooling systems, especially for control strategies to improve energy efficiency. In this study, a dynamic thermal model is solved numerically in order to predict the transient response of an unmixed–unmixed crossflow heat exchanger, of the type that is widely used in data center cooling equipment. The transient response to step and ramp changes in the mass flow rate of both the hot and cold fluid is investigated. Five model parameters are varied over specific ranges to characterize the transient performance. The parameter range investigated is based on available heat exchanger data. The thermal response to the magnitude, time period and initial and final conditions of the transient input functions is studied in detail. Also, the hysteresis associated with the fluid mass flow rate variation is investigated. The modeling results and performance data are used to analyze specific dynamic performance of heat exchangers used in practical data center cooling applications. - Highlights: • The transient performance of a crossflow heat exchanger was modeled and studied. • This study provides design information for data center thermal management. • The time constant metric was used to study the impacts of many variable inputs. • The hysteresis behavior

  16. CAKES (Cultural Awareness and Knowledge Exchange Scheme): A Holistic and Inclusive Approach to Supporting International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jane; O'Neill, Deborah; Petrakieva, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Transition support for international students has traditionally adopted deficit models which attempt to "fix" assumed academic literacy problems. This study explores a more culturally inclusive initiative which supported international students at a UK university in a holistic and developmental way. The initiative was delivered across an…

  17. Impacts of Firms’ Internal Information Environment on Tax Avoidance (Case Study: Companies Listed in Tehran’s Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Ghafoori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of firms’ internal information environment on tax avoidance. The research method includes a data panel and is generally of semi-experimental fashion. The population of research is consisted of the entire companies and firms listed in Tehran’s stock exchange as 496 firms from the beginning of 2007 until the end of financial year of 2014. Among the population, a number of 86 firms were selected as the sample through systematic omitting method. For the purpose of data analysis, the tests of T and multivariate linear regression were incorporated into the study. Results indicate that impact of quality of internal information on tax avoidance is higher in those companies in which information play a more important role. Firms which operate under geographic dispersion make more use of the quality of their internal information, because this information helps them towards reduced tax avoidance. High quality of internal information and commercial dispersion force these firms towards avoiding larger taxes. In addition, quality of internal information is not effective on firms which are under reconstruction status.

  18. Impacts of Firms’ Internal Information Environment on Tax Avoidance (Case Study: Companies Listed In Tehran’s Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Ghafoori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of firms’ internal information environment on tax avoidance. The research method includes a data panel and is generally of semi-experimental fashion. The population of research is consisted of the entire companies and firms listed in Tehran’s stock exchange as 496 firms from the beginning of 2007 until the end of financial year of 2014. Among the population, a number of 86 firms were selected as the sample through systematic omitting method. For the purpose of data analysis, the tests of T and multivariate linear regression were incorporated into the study. Results indicate that impact of quality of internal information on tax avoidance is higher in those companies in which information play a more important role. Firms which operate under geographic dispersion make more use of the quality of their internal information, because this information helps them towards reduced tax avoidance. High quality of internal information and commercial dispersion force these firms towards avoiding larger taxes. In addition, quality of internal information is not effective on firms which are under reconstruction status.

  19. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Broyan, James L.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas; Casteel, Michael; Callahan, Michael; Carrier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project (UPA PPP), multiple technologies were explored to prevent CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum) precipitation during the on-orbit distillation process. Gypsum precipitation currently limits the water recovery rate onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to 70% versus the planned 85% target water recovery rate. Due to its ability to remove calcium cations in pretreated augmented urine (PTAU), ion exchange was selected as one of the technologies for further development by the PPP team. A total of 13 ion exchange resins were evaluated in various equilibrium and dynamic column tests with solutions of dissolved gypsum, urine ersatz, PTAU, and PTAU brine at 85% water recovery. While initial evaluations indicated that the Purolite SST60 resin had the highest calcium capacity in PTAU (0.30 meq/mL average), later tests showed that the Dowex G26 and Amberlite FPC12H resins had the highest capacity (0.5 meq/mL average). Testing at the Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) integrates the ion exchange technology with a UPA ground article under flight-like pulsed flow conditions with PTAU. To date, no gypsum precipitation has taken place in any of the initial evaluations.

  20. Project to promote exchange of international information on environmental technologies; Kankyo gijutsu kokusai joho koryu sokushin jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Mutual information exchange at international levels is important for practical application of global environment preservation technologies, whereas the APEC Virtual Center was established in fiscal 1997. Fiscal 1998 has discussed the future functions of the Virtual Center, and carried out the following matters to improve the functions and achieve its stable operation. Discussions were given on common use with the centers of other countries and regions of the specifications of classification systems for information areas and provided information that are provided by the Virtual Center. Visits were made to sub-managing countries and regions for smooth operation of the study groups, and opinions were exchanged. Visits were made to coordinators and contact points established in each country and region when the Center was founded in fiscal 1997. A visit was made to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to exchange opinions on coordination measures with the Cleaner Production Strategy of the U.S.A. being a project similar to the subject project. In order to strengthen the Japan's Center, attempts were made to expand the linking information to wider scope. Special pages publishing concentratedly the items of information that the users are interested were prepared as part of the information provision. (NEDO)

  1. The effects of exchange rate volatility on international trade fl ows: evidence from panel data analysis and fuzzy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Kunst

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of exchange rate volatility on international trade flows by using two different approaches, the panel data analysis and fuzzy logic, and to compare the results. To a panel with the crosssection dimension of 91 pairs of EU15 countries and with time ranging from 1964 to 2003, an extended gravity model of trade is applied in order to determine theeffects of exchange rate volatility on bilateral trade flows of EU15 countries. The estimated impact is clearly negative, which indicates that exchange rate volatility has a negative influence on bilateral trade flows. Then, this traditional panel approach is contrasted with an alternative investigation based on fuzzy logic. The key elements of the fuzzy approach are to set fuzzy decision rules and to assignmembership functions to the fuzzy sets intuitively based on experience. Both approaches yield very similar results and fuzzy approach is recommended to be used as a complement to statistical methods.

  2. Electromechanical phase transition of a dielectric elastomer tube under internal pressure of constant mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Che

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The electromechanical phase transition for a dielectric elastomer (DE tube has been demonstrated in recent experiments, where it is found that the unbulged phase gradually changed into bulged phase. Previous theoretical works only studied the transition process under pressure control condition, which is not consistent with the real experimental condition. This paper focuses on more complex features of the electromechanical phase transition under internal pressure of constant mass. We derive the equilibrium equations and the condition for coexistent states for a DE tube under an internal pressure, a voltage through the thickness and an axial force. We find that under mass control condition the voltage needed to maintain the phase transition increases as the process proceeds. We analyze the entire process of electromechanical phase transition and find that the evolution of configurations is also different from that for pressure control condition.

  3. Towards a Theory of Tropical/Midlatitude Mass Exchange from the Earth's Surface through the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Dana

    1998-01-01

    The main findings of this research project have been the following: (1) there is a significant feedback from the stratosphere on tropospheric dynamics, and (2) a detailed analysis of the interaction between tropical and polar wave breaking in controlling stratospheric mixing. Two papers are were written and are included. The first paper is titled, "A New Perspective on the Dynamical Link Between the Stratosphere and Troposphere." Atmospheric processes of tropospheric origin can perturb the stratosphere, but direct feedback in the opposite direction is usually assumed to be negligible, despite the troposphere's sensitivity to changes in the release of wave activity into the stratosphere. Here, however, we present evidence that such a feedback exists and can be significant. We find that if the wintertime Arctic polar stratospheric vortex is distorted, either by waves propagating upward from the troposphere or by eastward-travelling stratospheric waves, then there is a concomitant redistribution of stratospheric potential vorticity that induces perturbations in key meteorological fields in the upper troposphere. The feedback is large despite the much greater mass of the troposphere: it can account for up to half of the geopotential height anomaly at the tropopause. Although the relative strength of the feedback is partly due to a cancellation between contributions to these anomalies from lower altitudes, our results imply that stratospheric dynamics and its feedback on the troposphere are more significant for climate modelling and data assimilation than was previously assumed. The second article is titled "Diagnosing the Polar Excitation of Subtropical Waves in the Stratosphere". The poleward migration of planetary scale tongues of subtropical air has often been associated with intense polar vortex disturbances in the stratosphere. This question of vortex influence is reexamined from a potential vorticity (PV) perspective. Anomalous geopotential height and wind fields

  4. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry reveal the pH-dependent conformational changes of diphtheria toxin T domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Rodnin, Mykola V; Ladokhin, Alexey S; Gross, Michael L

    2014-11-04

    The translocation (T) domain of diphtheria toxin plays a critical role in moving the catalytic domain across the endosomal membrane. Translocation/insertion is triggered by a decrease in pH in the endosome where conformational changes of T domain occur through several kinetic intermediates to yield a final trans-membrane form. High-resolution structural studies are only applicable to the static T-domain structure at physiological pH, and studies of the T-domain translocation pathway are hindered by the simultaneous presence of multiple conformations. Here, we report the application of hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) for the study of the pH-dependent conformational changes of the T domain in solution. Effects of pH on intrinsic HDX rates were deconvolved by converting the on-exchange times at low pH into times under our "standard condition" (pH 7.5). pH-Dependent HDX kinetic analysis of T domain clearly reveals the conformational transition from the native state (W-state) to a membrane-competent state (W(+)-state). The initial transition occurs at pH 6 and includes the destabilization of N-terminal helices accompanied by the separation between N- and C-terminal segments. The structural rearrangements accompanying the formation of the membrane-competent state expose a hydrophobic hairpin (TH8-9) to solvent, prepare it to insert into the membrane. At pH 5.5, the transition is complete, and the protein further unfolds, resulting in the exposure of its C-terminal hydrophobic TH8-9, leading to subsequent aggregation in the absence of membranes. This solution-based study complements high resolution crystal structures and provides a detailed understanding of the pH-dependent structural rearrangement and acid-induced oligomerization of T domain.

  5. Hydrogen–Deuterium Exchange and Mass Spectrometry Reveal the pH-Dependent Conformational Changes of Diphtheria Toxin T Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The translocation (T) domain of diphtheria toxin plays a critical role in moving the catalytic domain across the endosomal membrane. Translocation/insertion is triggered by a decrease in pH in the endosome where conformational changes of T domain occur through several kinetic intermediates to yield a final trans-membrane form. High-resolution structural studies are only applicable to the static T-domain structure at physiological pH, and studies of the T-domain translocation pathway are hindered by the simultaneous presence of multiple conformations. Here, we report the application of hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) for the study of the pH-dependent conformational changes of the T domain in solution. Effects of pH on intrinsic HDX rates were deconvolved by converting the on-exchange times at low pH into times under our “standard condition” (pH 7.5). pH-Dependent HDX kinetic analysis of T domain clearly reveals the conformational transition from the native state (W-state) to a membrane-competent state (W+-state). The initial transition occurs at pH 6 and includes the destabilization of N-terminal helices accompanied by the separation between N- and C-terminal segments. The structural rearrangements accompanying the formation of the membrane-competent state expose a hydrophobic hairpin (TH8–9) to solvent, prepare it to insert into the membrane. At pH 5.5, the transition is complete, and the protein further unfolds, resulting in the exposure of its C-terminal hydrophobic TH8–9, leading to subsequent aggregation in the absence of membranes. This solution-based study complements high resolution crystal structures and provides a detailed understanding of the pH-dependent structural rearrangement and acid-induced oligomerization of T domain. PMID:25290210

  6. Modelling the Growth and Volatility in Daily International Mass Tourism to Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Angelo Divino; Michael McAleer

    2009-01-01

    Peru is a South American country that is divided into two parts by the Andes Mountains. The rich historical, cultural and geographic diversity has led to the inclusion of ten Peruvian sites on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. For the potential negative impacts of mass tourism on the environment, and hence on future international tourism demand, to be managed appropriately require modelling growth rates and volatility adequately. The paper models the growth rate and volatility (or the variability...

  7. Development and application of out-of-focus imaging in order to characterize heat and mass exchanges in two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, P.; Porcheron, E.; Marchand, D.; Nuboer, A.; Bouilloux, L.; Vendel, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the capacity of the out-of-focus imaging in order to measure droplets size in presence of heat and mass exchanges. It is supported with optical simulations first based on geometrical optics, and then with the Lorenz-Mie theory. Finally, this technique is applied in presence of heat and mass transfers in the TOSQAN experiment. (authors)

  8. Application of secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS) in studies of internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Ademir; Galle, Pierre; Colas-Linhart, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) permits the detection of stable and radioactive nuclides. Based on the ablation of specimens by ion bombardment this mass spectrometry method allows a rapid assessment of trace elements in biological samples. Its resolving mass power provides an efficient analytical method and, in particular, it makes possible accurate isotopic ratio determination. In this work, the application of SIMS has been investigated in studies of internal contamination. In vivo studies were carried out using duodenal tissue sections from rats contaminated with cerium. Tests were performed to localize this element as a result of the contamination. In this report, analytical procedures and the potential of SIMS in biological research are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Influence of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in cyclone heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothilal, T.; Pitchandi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Present work elaborates the effect of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in a cyclone heat exchanger. The RNG k-ε turbulence model was adopted for modeling high turbulence flow and Discrete phase model (DPM) to track solid particles in a cyclone heat exchanger by ANSYS FLUENT software. The effect of inlet air velocity (5 to 25 m/s) and inlet solid particle feed rate of (0.2 to 2.5 g/s) at different particle diameter (300 to 500 μm) on holdup mass and heat transfer rate in cyclone heat exchanger was studied at air inlet temperature of 473 K. Results show that holdup mass and heat transfer rate increase with increase in inlet air velocity and inlet solid particle feed rate. Influence of solid particle feed rate on holdup mass has more significance. Experimental setup was built for high efficiency cyclone. Good agreement was found between experimental and simulation pressure drop. Empirical correlation was derived for dimensionless holdup mass and Nusselt number based on CFD data by regression technique. Correlation predicts dimensional holdup mass with +5% to -8% errors of experimental data and Nusselt number with +9% to -3%

  10. Influence of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in cyclone heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothilal, T. [T. J. S. Engineering College, Gummidipoond (India); Pitchandi, K. [Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur (India)

    2015-10-15

    Present work elaborates the effect of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in a cyclone heat exchanger. The RNG k-ε turbulence model was adopted for modeling high turbulence flow and Discrete phase model (DPM) to track solid particles in a cyclone heat exchanger by ANSYS FLUENT software. The effect of inlet air velocity (5 to 25 m/s) and inlet solid particle feed rate of (0.2 to 2.5 g/s) at different particle diameter (300 to 500 μm) on holdup mass and heat transfer rate in cyclone heat exchanger was studied at air inlet temperature of 473 K. Results show that holdup mass and heat transfer rate increase with increase in inlet air velocity and inlet solid particle feed rate. Influence of solid particle feed rate on holdup mass has more significance. Experimental setup was built for high efficiency cyclone. Good agreement was found between experimental and simulation pressure drop. Empirical correlation was derived for dimensionless holdup mass and Nusselt number based on CFD data by regression technique. Correlation predicts dimensional holdup mass with +5% to -8% errors of experimental data and Nusselt number with +9% to -3%.

  11. Radiative corrections to Expt. 416. Backward πN charge exchange. Internal report No. 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.

    The importance of radiative corrections in elastic hadronic reactions has been reported recently. This report describes the computational techniques and results of applying the radiative corrections to a backward charge-exchange scattering experiment. The particular reaction considered is π - p → π 0 + n + γ Evaluation of the Schwinger term, evaluation of the numerical integration term, evaluation of the region in which the photon is detected and a check of the unitarity condition are considered. Appendixes contain listings of computer codes written to calculate radiative corrections. (19 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  12. Prospects for a deuterium internal target, tensor polarized by optical pumping: spin exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) appropriate for nuclear physics studies in medium and high energy particle storage rings are discussed. Using the technique of electron spin exchange with an optically pumped sodium (or potassium) vapor, we hope to polarize deuterium at a rate approx. 10 17 atoms/sec. Predictions for the deuterium polarization for a particular target cell design will be presented leading to the identification of the required optical pumping power and cell wall depolarization probability to attain optimum performance. The technical obstacles to be surmounted in such a target design will also be discussed

  13. 75 FR 50015 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ...''), Halliburton Company (``HAL''), International Business Machines Corporation (``IBM''), The Coca-Cola [[Page...Shares Russell 2000 (``IWM''), Financial Select Sector SPDR (``XLF''), Apple, Inc. (``AAPL''), General... Company (``F''), Direxion Shares Financial Bull (``FAS''), Direxion Shares Financial Bear (``FAZ''), First...

  14. 75 FR 6421 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Broadcom Corp. BTU Peabody Energy Corp. BX Blackstone Group LP. CAL Continental Airlines Inc. CF CF... Inc. HON Honeywell International Inc. JOYG Joy Global Inc. JWN Nordstrom Inc. KFT Kraft Foods Inc...

  15. International instruments and information exchange on incidents falling within the ITDB scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The responsibility for nuclear security rests entirely with each individual state. However,states need to work together to enhance collective nuclear security. There are international legal instruments that provide a strategic framework and a common platform for such cooperation. Among such legally binding security related instruments are: Convention on the physical protection of Nuclear materials, Convention on the early notification of nuclear accident and the International convention for the Suppression of acts of Nuclear Terrorism.

  16. Selection of greenery plants' group tolerant to mineralized human wastes for their inclusion into intrasystem mass exchange of BTLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kalacheva, Galina; Ushakova, Sofya; Trifonov, Sergey V.; Pavlova, Anastasiya

    2016-07-01

    A possible way solving the inclusion problem of the human liquid wastes containing sodium chloride into intrasystem mass exchange of bio-technical life support system (BTLSS) is selection of such species of greenery plants that can utilize sodium chloride, be edible for a human and have rather a high productivity. Our previous works showed that salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea L. was a promising candidate for sodium chloride inclusion into BTLSS mass exchange. However, with the aim of creation of more various human diet possibilities a set of greenery plants cultivated by the water culture method was estimated. Based on preliminary experiments the plants Brassica juncea L., Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Lepidium sativum angustifolia L. and Salicornia europaea L. were chosen as the investigation objects. The nutrient solution for greenery plant's cultivation was obtained after harvesting the wheat plants grown on the solution with mineralized human wastes' addition. The results of the first stage of the investigations carried out showed that plants of Brassica juncea and Lepidium sativum angustifolia are unpromising for their inclusion into BTLSS because of a set of physiological characteristics. On the next stage of investigations, an experimental model of closed ecosystem was created. For that purpose the plants of Salicornia europaea and Nasturtium officinale were introduced in the phototroph unit structure. It was determined that there was deficiency of main macronutrients for Salicornia europaea and Nasturtium officinale including sodium for Salicornia europaea. The deficiency had an effect on plants productivity and on carry-over of sodium from solution by Salicornia europaea. Thus in the future experiment it is necessary to carry out desalinization of solution by Salicornia europaea plants. Nasturtium officinale, that is rich in essential fatty acids and contributes into variety of human vegetable diet is planned to be cultivated by the

  17. The origins of enhanced activity in factor VIIa analogs and the interplay between key allosteric sites revealed by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Andersen, Mette D; Olsen, Ole H

    2008-01-01

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to invest......Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry...... to investigate the conformational effects of site-directed mutagenesis at key positions in FVIIa and the origins of enhanced intrinsic activity of FVIIa analogs. The differences in hydrogen exchange of two highly active variants, FVIIa(DVQ) and FVIIa(VEAY), imply that enhanced catalytic efficiency was attained...

  18. PIME '89 (Public Information Materials Exchange): International workshop on public information problems of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Presentations included in this proceedings are describing the following; Mass media and public information on nuclear energy and radiation: striving for two-way confidence and understanding; case studies of different countries having developed nuclear programs, problems of communication between nuclear promoters and/or operators and its adversaries; public attitude concerning nuclear power; different attitudes of men and women

  19. PIME '89 (Public Information Materials Exchange): International workshop on public information problems of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Presentations included in this proceedings are describing the following; Mass media and public information on nuclear energy and radiation: striving for two-way confidence and understanding; case studies of different countries having developed nuclear programs, problems of communication between nuclear promoters and/or operators and its adversaries; public attitude concerning nuclear power; different attitudes of men and women.

  20. Quantification of genetically modified soya using strong anion exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Chih; Reddy, P Muralidhar; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2014-09-01

    Stable-isotope dimethyl labeling was applied to the quantification of genetically modified (GM) soya. The herbicide-resistant gene-related protein 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) was labeled using a dimethyl labeling reagent, formaldehyde-H2 or -D2. The identification and quantification of CP4 EPSPS was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The CP4 EPSPS protein was separated from high abundance proteins using strong anion exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Then, the tryptic peptides from the samples and reference were labeled with formaldehyde-H2 and formaldehyde-D2, respectively. The two labeled pools were mixed and analyzed using MALDI-MS. The data showed a good correlation between the peak ratio of the H- and D-labeled peptides and the GM soya percentages at 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 %, with R (2) of 0.99. The labeling reagents are readily available. The labeling experiments and the detection procedures are simple. The approach is useful for the quantification of GM soya at a level as low as 0.5 %.

  1. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Gas-Phase Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange for Metabolomics Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Hossein; Karanji, Ahmad K.; Majuta, Sandra; Maurer, Megan M.; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2018-02-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) in combination with gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) is evaluated as an analytical method for small-molecule standard and mixture characterization. Experiments show that compound ions exhibit unique HDX reactivities that can be used to distinguish different species. Additionally, it is shown that gas-phase HDX kinetics can be exploited to provide even further distinguishing capabilities by using different partial pressures of reagent gas. The relative HDX reactivity of a wide variety of molecules is discussed in light of the various molecular structures. Additionally, hydrogen accessibility scoring (HAS) and HDX kinetics modeling of candidate ( in silico) ion structures is utilized to estimate the relative ion conformer populations giving rise to specific HDX behavior. These data interpretation methods are discussed with a focus on developing predictive tools for HDX behavior. Finally, an example is provided in which ion mobility information is supplemented with HDX reactivity data to aid identification efforts of compounds in a metabolite extract.

  2. Hexicon 2: automated processing of hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry data with improved deuteration distribution estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Robert; Lou, Xinghua; Reinstein, Jochen; Shoeman, Robert L; Hamprecht, Fred A; Winkler, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) provide information about the dynamics and the solvent accessibility of protein backbone amide hydrogen atoms. Continuous improvement of MS instrumentation has contributed to the increasing popularity of this method; however, comprehensive automated data analysis is only beginning to mature. We present Hexicon 2, an automated pipeline for data analysis and visualization based on the previously published program Hexicon (Lou et al. 2010). Hexicon 2 employs the sensitive NITPICK peak detection algorithm of its predecessor in a divide-and-conquer strategy and adds new features, such as chromatogram alignment and improved peptide sequence assignment. The unique feature of deuteration distribution estimation was retained in Hexicon 2 and improved using an iterative deconvolution algorithm that is robust even to noisy data. In addition, Hexicon 2 provides a data browser that facilitates quality control and provides convenient access to common data visualization tasks. Analysis of a benchmark dataset demonstrates superior performance of Hexicon 2 compared with its predecessor in terms of deuteration centroid recovery and deuteration distribution estimation. Hexicon 2 greatly reduces data analysis time compared with manual analysis, whereas the increased number of peptides provides redundant coverage of the entire protein sequence. Hexicon 2 is a standalone application available free of charge under http://hx2.mpimf-heidelberg.mpg.de.

  3. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Anions: Part 2. Assessing Charge Site Location and Isotope Scrambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Donohoe, Gregory C.; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled with gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX)-mass spectrometry (MS) and molecular dynamic simulations (MDS) has been used for structural investigation of anions produced by electrospraying a sample containing a synthetic peptide having the sequence KKDDDDDIIKIIK. In these experiments the potential of the analytical method for locating charge sites on ions as well as for utilizing collision-induced dissociation (CID) to reveal the degree of deuterium uptake within specific amino acid residues has been assessed. For diffuse (i.e., more elongated) [M - 2H]2- ions, decreased deuterium content along with MDS data suggest that the D4 and D6 residues are charge sites, whereas for the more diffuse [M - 3H]3- ions, the data suggest that the D4, D7, and the C-terminus are deprotonated. Fragmentation of mobility-selected, diffuse [M - 2H]2- ions to determine deuterium uptake at individual amino acid residues reveals a degree of deuterium retention at incorporation sites. Although the diffuse [M - 3H]3- ions may show more HD scrambling, it is not possible to clearly distinguish HD scrambling from the expected deuterium uptake based on a hydrogen accessibility model. The capability of the IMS-HDX-MS/MS approach to provide relevant details about ion structure is discussed. Additionally, the ability to extend the approach for locating protonation sites on positively-charged ions is presented.

  4. Hexicon 2: Automated Processing of Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Data with Improved Deuteration Distribution Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Robert; Lou, Xinghua; Reinstein, Jochen; Shoeman, Robert L.; Hamprecht, Fred A.; Winkler, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) provide information about the dynamics and the solvent accessibility of protein backbone amide hydrogen atoms. Continuous improvement of MS instrumentation has contributed to the increasing popularity of this method; however, comprehensive automated data analysis is only beginning to mature. We present Hexicon 2, an automated pipeline for data analysis and visualization based on the previously published program Hexicon (Lou et al. 2010). Hexicon 2 employs the sensitive NITPICK peak detection algorithm of its predecessor in a divide-and-conquer strategy and adds new features, such as chromatogram alignment and improved peptide sequence assignment. The unique feature of deuteration distribution estimation was retained in Hexicon 2 and improved using an iterative deconvolution algorithm that is robust even to noisy data. In addition, Hexicon 2 provides a data browser that facilitates quality control and provides convenient access to common data visualization tasks. Analysis of a benchmark dataset demonstrates superior performance of Hexicon 2 compared with its predecessor in terms of deuteration centroid recovery and deuteration distribution estimation. Hexicon 2 greatly reduces data analysis time compared with manual analysis, whereas the increased number of peptides provides redundant coverage of the entire protein sequence. Hexicon 2 is a standalone application available free of charge under http://hx2.mpimf-heidelberg.mpg.de.

  5. Internal heat exchange in an ejector-compression solar refrigeration system with R142b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Joge I; Estrada, Claudio A; Best, Roberto [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Dorantes Ruben, J [Departamento de Energia, UNAM Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    One way to use more efficiently the actual energy transfer in the ejector-compression system, is the use of heat exchangers between some of the components. The inclusion of two heat exchangers, preheater and precooler, is considered in a basic ejector-compression refrigeration system with refrigerant 142b. This study accounts for the energy and exergy efficiencies. COP and {epsilon}, according to parameter variations such as ejector efficiency, generation temperature with different superheating, condensation temperature and heat exchangers effectiveness. As known, the most important parameters in ejector-compression system analysis are the entrain-ment ratio U and system efficiencies COP and {epsilon}. The highest system COP and {epsilon}, as the entrainment ratio U, correspond to the highest exchangers effectiveness, highest superheating generator temperatures, highest ejector efficiency and lowest condenser temperature. For the COP and {epsilon} ratios, their maxima correspond to the same independent variables aforementioned for one of the higher superheating generator temperatures. In this case, this result indicates that the exergy efficiency {epsilon} does not contradict the information given by energy efficiency COP. So, to select correctly and optimum design condition, is enough to employ the COP ratio, which maximum value for the data shown corresponds to a superheating generator temperature of about 110 Celsius degrees, that can only be reached by evacuated tubular collectors or CPC solar concentrators. [Spanish] Una forma de usar mas eficientemente la transferencia real de energia en el sistema eyector-compresion es el uso de intercambiadores de calor entre algunos de los componentes. La inclusion de dos intercambiadores de calor precalentador y pre-enfriador se considera en un sistema de refrigeracion eyector-compresion con refrigerante 142b. Este estudio toma en cuenta las eficiencias de energia y exergia, COP y {epsilon}, de acuerdo con las variaciones

  6. In-situ Monitoring of Internal Local Temperature and Voltage of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yuan Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of temperature and voltage of a fuel cell are key factors that influence performance. Conventional sensors are normally large, and are also useful only for making external measurements of fuel cells. Centimeter-scale sensors for making invasive measurements are frequently unable to accurately measure the interior changes of a fuel cell. This work focuses mainly on fabricating flexible multi-functional microsensors (for temperature and voltage to measure variations in the local temperature and voltage of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC that are based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS. The power density at 0.5 V without a sensor is 450 mW/cm2, and that with a sensor is 426 mW/cm2. Since the reaction area of a fuel cell with a sensor is approximately 12% smaller than that without a sensor, but the performance of the former is only 5% worse.

  7. In-situ monitoring of internal local temperature and voltage of proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Hsieh, Wei-Jung

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of temperature and voltage of a fuel cell are key factors that influence performance. Conventional sensors are normally large, and are also useful only for making external measurements of fuel cells. Centimeter-scale sensors for making invasive measurements are frequently unable to accurately measure the interior changes of a fuel cell. This work focuses mainly on fabricating flexible multi-functional microsensors (for temperature and voltage) to measure variations in the local temperature and voltage of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) that are based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The power density at 0.5 V without a sensor is 450 mW/cm(2), and that with a sensor is 426 mW/cm(2). Since the reaction area of a fuel cell with a sensor is approximately 12% smaller than that without a sensor, but the performance of the former is only 5% worse.

  8. International data- and information exchange for off-site emergency management - Where to go?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoebler, C.; Hable, K.; Baig, S.; Zaehringer, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Communication and exchange of views and opinions between decision makers and their advisers is crucial for coherent crisis management. As a vision, the concept of a 'Virtual Round Table' is proposed. It stands for the dedication of all accountable authorities to cross border cooperation and should provide a comprehensive technical infrastructure enabling decision makers and experts to communicate with their colleagues in neighbouring countries as if they were sitting at the same table. Organisational arrangements must be in place for coordinating decisions. The technical infrastructure should comprise modern communication technologies such as video conferencing and a 'Common Information Board', which presents all relevant information and documents in a structured way, manages alerting, decision journaling, data distribution and access control. In order to achieve this goal in an evolutionary approach, existing procedures of good practice are analysed and helpful features are identified. (authors)

  9. 75 FR 42809 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...''), International Business Machines Corporation (``IBM''), The Coca-Cola Company (``KO''), Las Vegas Sands Corp...Shares Russell 2000 (``IWM''), Financial Select Sector SPDR (``XLF''), Apple, Inc. (``AAPL''), General... Company (``F''), Direxion Shares Financial Bull (``FAS''), Direxion Shares Financial Bear (``FAZ''), First...

  10. GAS LOSS BY RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING AND INTERNAL FEEDBACK FROM LOW-MASS MILKY WAY SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerick, Andrew; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Grcevich, Jana [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); Gatto, Andrea [Max-Planck-Institute für Astrophysik, Garching, bei München (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of dwarf satellites in the Milky Way (MW) is affected by a combination of ram pressure stripping (RPS), tidal stripping, and internal feedback from massive stars. We investigate gas loss processes in the smallest satellites of the MW using three-dimensional, high-resolution, idealized wind tunnel simulations, accounting for gas loss through both ram pressure stripping and expulsion by supernova feedback. Using initial conditions appropriate for a dwarf galaxy like Leo T, we investigate whether or not environmental gas stripping and internal feedback can quench these low-mass galaxies on the expected timescales, shorter than 2 Gyr. We find that supernova feedback contributes negligibly to the stripping rate for these low star formation rate galaxies. However, we also find that RPS is less efficient than expected in the stripping scenarios we consider. Our work suggests that although RPS can eventually completely strip these galaxies, other physics is likely at play to reconcile our computed stripping times with the rapid quenching timescales deduced from observations of low-mass MW dwarf galaxies. We discuss the roles additional physics may play in this scenario, including host-satellite tidal interactions, cored versus cuspy dark matter profiles, reionization, and satellite preprocessing. We conclude that a proper accounting of these physics together is necessary to understand the quenching of low-mass MW satellites.

  11. Small renal mass biopsy--how, what and when: report from an international consensus panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivian, Matvey; Rampersaud, Edward N; del Pilar Laguna Pes, Maria; Joniau, Steven; Leveillee, Raymond J; Shingleton, William B; Aron, Monish; Kim, Charles Y; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Desai, Mihir M; Meler, James D; Donovan, James F; Klingler, Hans Christoph; Sopko, David R; Madden, John F; Marberger, Michael; Ferrandino, Michael N; Polascik, Thomas J

    2014-06-01

    To discuss the use of renal mass biopsy (RMB) for small renal masses (SRMs), formulate technical aspects, outline potential pitfalls and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. The meeting was conducted as an informal consensus process and no scoring system was used to measure the levels of agreement on the different topics. A moderated general discussion was used as the basis for consensus and arising issues were resolved at this point. A consensus was established and lack of agreement to topics or specific items was noted at this point. Recommended biopsy technique: at least two cores, sampling different tumour regions with ultrasonography being the preferred method of image guidance. Pathological interpretation: 'non-diagnostic samples' should refer to insufficient material, inconclusive and normal renal parenchyma. For non-diagnostic samples, a repeat biopsy is recommended. Fine-needle aspiration may provide additional information but cannot substitute for core biopsy. Indications for RMB: biopsy is recommended in most cases except in patients with imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology (syndromes, imaging characteristics) and cases whereby conservative management is not contemplated. RMB is recommended for active surveillance but not for watchful-waiting candidates. We report the results of an international consensus meeting on the use of RMB for SRMs, defining the technique, pathological interpretation and indications. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  12. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  13. Evaluation of the Internal and Borehole Resistances during Thermal Response Tests and Impact on Ground Heat Exchanger Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lamarche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main parameters evaluated with a conventional thermal response test (TRT are the subsurface thermal conductivity surrounding the borehole and the effective borehole thermal resistance, when averaging the inlet and outlet temperature of a ground heat exchanger with the arithmetic mean. This effective resistance depends on two resistances: the 2D borehole resistance (Rb and the 2D internal resistance (Ra which is associated to the short-circuit effect between pipes in the borehole. This paper presents a field method to evaluate these two components separately. Two approaches are proposed. In the first case, the temperature at the bottom of the borehole is measured at the same time as the inlet and outlet temperatures as done in a conventional TRT. In the second case, different flow rates are used during the experiment to infer the internal resistance. Both approaches assumed a predefined temperature profile inside the borehole. The methods were applied to real experimental tests and compared with numerical simulations. Interesting results were found by comparison with theoretical resistances calculated with the multipole method. The motivation for this work is evidenced by analyzing the impact of the internal resistance on a typical geothermal system design. It is shown to be important to know both resistance components to predict the variation of the effective resistance when the flow rate and the height of the boreholes are changed during the design process.

  14. Aggregation, Heterogeneous Autoregression and Volatility of Daily International Tourist Arrivals and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTourism is a major source of service receipts for many countries, including Taiwan. The two leading tourism countries for Taiwan, comprising a high proportion of world tourist arrivals to Taiwan, are Japan and USA, which are sources of short and long haul tourism, respectively. As it is well known that a strong domestic currency can have adverse effects on international tourist arrivals, daily data from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2008 are used to model the world price and US$ /...

  15. Post - Crisis Resilience and Trends in the International Service Exchanges by Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucretia Mariana Constantinescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available International transactions that occur with non-tangible goods (also-called �invisible� trade represent more than a third of the world trade, recording a higher dynamics than that of the trade with tangible goods, whose rhythm goes over the dynamics of the global industrial production. The production globalization and the tendency of liberalization of the trade with merchandises, in the spirit of the European Union, have extended to the trade with non-tangible goods as well, and the demand for services has increased, massively contributing to the extension of the array of tradable services and the internationalization, at a fast pace, of the invisible trade. The international transactions with services represent, today, a major component of the international flow of values. In our work, we would like to briefly analyze the evolution of Romania�s services flows in terms of volume (as value and dynamics in the crisis and post-crisis years, to highlight a series of particularities suggesting �a decoupling of Romania�s trade with services from the evolutions that took place on the global and European level� and the fact that the year 2013 is equivalent to the vigorous relaunch of the Romanian trade with services, being a sure sign that these flows have regained their vigor after the crisis and we will also delineate some essential aspects such as the dynamic expansion of the business trade services, proving Romania�s increased attractiveness as a destination country for relocated services.

  16. International hedging under concurrent risks of input/output prices and exchange rate : The case of Korean oil refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W C; Kim, S D [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    This study develops an international hedging model which accounts for the multiple risks of input and output prices and exchange rates. Considering a fixed production technology, we formulize simultaneous minimum variance hedge ratios, which reflects inter correlations among prices. To utilize the dynamic nature of prices, time-varying conditional procedures are specified to estimate the relevant variance and covariance matrix. The time-varying representations of the variance and covariance matrix are statistically appropriate, in general. The separate hedge ratios are similar to the simultaneous hedge ratios for alternative procedures. The ex post hedging effectiveness indicate that there are substantial reduction in the variance of returns for all the procedures. The contribution of foreign currency futures is minimal due to the low correlation between commodities and exchange rates. Based on the traditional definition of hedging effectiveness, the time-varying conditional procedure provide little gain to the hedgers over a constant procedure in terms of the mean and the variance reduction. However, the performance of conditional procedures could be improved by accounting for the potential problems: mis specification problem, inappropriate definition of hedging effectiveness, and conflicts between theoretical derivation and estimation of hedge ratios. (author). 39 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Internal energy deposition with silicon nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SPALDI) mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Shai; Hua, Yimin; Boday, Dylan J.; Somogyi, Arpad; Wysocki, Ronald J.; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2009-06-01

    The use of silicon nanoparticles for laser desorption/ionization (LDI) is a new appealing matrix-less approach for the selective and sensitive mass spectrometry of small molecules in MALDI instruments. Chemically modified silicon nanoparticles (30 nm) were previously found to require very low laser fluence in order to induce efficient LDI, which raised the question of internal energy deposition processes in that system. Here we report a comparative study of internal energy deposition from silicon nanoparticles to previously explored benzylpyridinium (BP) model compounds during LDI experiments. The internal energy deposition in silicon nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SPALDI) with different fluorinated linear chain modifiers (decyl, hexyl and propyl) was compared to LDI from untreated silicon nanoparticles and from the organic matrix, [alpha]-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). The energy deposition to internal vibrational modes was evaluated by molecular ion survival curves and indicated that the ions produced by SPALDI have an internal energy threshold of 2.8-3.7 eV. This is slightly lower than the internal energy induced using the organic CHCA matrix, with similar molecular survival curves as previously reported for LDI off silicon nanowires. However, the internal energy associated with desorption/ionization from the silicon nanoparticles is significantly lower than that reported for desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS). The measured survival yields in SPALDI gradually decrease with increasing laser fluence, contrary to reported results for silicon nanowires. The effect of modification of the silicon particle surface with semifluorinated linear chain silanes, including fluorinated decyl (C10), fluorinated hexyl (C6) and fluorinated propyl (C3) was explored too. The internal energy deposited increased with a decrease in the length of the modifier alkyl chain. Unmodified silicon particles exhibited the highest analyte internal energy

  18. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  19. Metallic materials for heat exchanger components and highly stressed internal of HTR reactors for nuclear process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The programme was aimed at the development and improvement of materials for the high-temperature heat exchanger components of a process steam HTR. The materials must have high resistance to corrosion, i.e. carburisation and internal oxidation, and high long-term toughness over a wide range of temperatures. They must also meet the requirements set in the nuclear licensing procedure, i.e. resistance to cyclic stress and irradiation, non-destructive testing, etc. Initially, it was only intended to improve and qualify commercial alloys. Later on an alloy development programme was initiated in which new, non-commercial alloys were produced and modified for use in a nuclear process heat facility. Separate abstracts were prepared for 19 pays of this volume. (orig./IHOE) [de

  20. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of internal heat exchanger influence on CO{sub 2} trans-critical cycle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigola, Joaquim; Ablanque, Nicolas; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Oliva, Assensi [Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, C. Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    The present paper is a numerical and experimental comparative study of the whole vapour compression refrigerating cycle in general, and reciprocating compressors in particular, with the aim of showing the possibilities that CO{sub 2} offers for commercial refrigeration, considering a single-stage trans-critical cycle using semi-hermetic reciprocating compressors under small cooling capacity systems. The present work is focussed on the influence of using an internal heat exchanger (IHX) in order to improve the cycle performance under real working conditions. In order to validate the numerical results, an experimental unit specially designed and built to analyze trans-critical refrigerating equipments considering IHX has been built. Both numerical results and experimental data show reasonable good agreement, while the comparative global values conclude the improvement of cooling capacity and COP when IHX is considered in the CO{sub 2} trans-critical cycle. (author)

  1. Evaluation and Certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in Activated Carbon Ion Exchange Filters for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Cox, Trey; Larner, Katherine; Carter, Donald; Kouba, Coy

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the infiltration of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) and other organosilicon containing species through the Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds), an alternate activated carbon was found to replace the obsolete Barnabey Cheney 580-26 activated carbon. The carbon that removed the most organosilicon compounds in testing1 was a synthetic activated carbon named Schunk 4652 which later became Ambersorb 4652. Since activated carbon has a large capacity for iodine (I2), and is used in the Activated Carbon Ion Exchange (ACTEX) filters on the International Space Station (ISS), testing was performed on the Ambersorb 4652 carbon to determine the effectiveness of the material for use in ACTEX filters to remove iodine. This work summarizes the testing and the certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in the ACTEX filters for the ISS.

  2. Automatic Generation of Object Models for Process Planning and Control Purposes using an International standard for Information Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Falkman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a formal mapping between static information models and dynamic models is presented. The static information models are given according to an international standard for product, process and resource information exchange, (ISO 10303-214. The dynamic models are described as Discrete Event Systems. The product, process and resource information is automatically converted into product routes and used for simulation, controller synthesis and verification. A high level language, combining Petri nets and process algebra, is presented and used for speci- fication of desired routes. A main implication of the presented method is that it enables the reuse of process information when creating dynamic models for process control. This method also enables simulation and verification to be conducted early in the development chain.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  4. Error analysis of isotope dilution mass spectrometry method with internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizhinskii, M.W.; Vitinskii, M.Y.

    1989-02-01

    The computation algorithms of the normalized isotopic ratios and element concentration by isotope dilution mass spectrometry with internal standard are presented. A procedure based on the Monte-Carlo calculation is proposed for predicting the magnitude of the errors to be expected. The estimation of systematic and random errors is carried out in the case of the certification of uranium and plutonium reference materials as well as for the use of those reference materials in the analysis of irradiated nuclear fuels. 4 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  5. The Children's Body Image Scale: reliability and use with international standards for body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Helen; Paxton, Susan J

    2008-03-01

    To test the reliability of the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS) and assess its usefulness in the context of new body size charts for children. Participants were 281 primary schoolchildren with 50% being retested after 3 weeks. The CBIS figure scale was compared with a range of international body mass index (BMI) reference standards. Children had a high degree of body image dissatisfaction. The test-retest reliability of the CBIS was supported. The CBIS is a useful tool for assessing body image in children with sound scale properties. It can also be used to identify the body size of children, which lies outside the healthy weight range of BMI.

  6. Assessment of the uncertainties in air mass and pollutants transboundary exchange over the continental part of the EANET region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey S.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the uncertainties in air mass exchange in the lower troposphere across two regions of the Russian border in Eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East in 2000-2015. We use meteorological data from long-term air sound data (ASD) on mean layer winds [1] and from the ERA INTERIM re-analysis (EIR) project [2]. Using a transboundary exchange model, we estimate the total and net amounts of air crossing the boundary segments around Irkutsk (IR) and Vladivostok (VL) aerological stations. We compare transport terms derived (i) from the long-term wind statistics based on both ASD and EIR data, and (ii) from integrating 6h meteorological winds from EIR directly over the border segments cells. We find similar wind direction statistics in both meteorological datasets, however EIR favours stronger westerly winds at VL in summer, which results in more often air export from China to Russia in the Far East. There is less agreement on the wind strengths than wind directions between the datasets, with EIR often providing slower wind speeds. The resulting climatic (ASD) and directly (from EIR 6h terms) calculated non-equilibrium (net) transport terms are comparable in orders (tens of million km3/month), however may differ substantially in temporal evolution or/and magnitude. Thus, EIR net transport over the IR segment has similar annual dynamics but is higher by a factor of ˜ 4 (maxima of 3.6 vs. 12 of 106 km3/month in December, respectively). An opposite ratio is derived for the VL segment (average ˜ 6 vs. 13 of 106 km3/month), with a distinct seasonality in the ASD but not in the EIR data. We attribute this discrepancy to the variations in wind direction with altitude, which cannot be resolved in the model fed with the ASD data. Calculated transport in the boundary layer (BL, provided by the EIR) supports this inference. Thus, the BL net transport temporal dynamics differ substantially from that within the 3 km layer, owing to the BL diurnal

  7. The study on water ingress mass in the steam generator heat-exchange tube rupture accident of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Shi Lei; Li Fu; Zheng Yanhua

    2012-01-01

    The steam generator heat-exchange tube rupture (SGTR) accident is an important and particular accident which will result in water ingress to the primary loop of reactor. Water ingress will result in chemical reaction of graphite fuel and structure with water, which may cause overpressure due to generation of explosive gaseous in large quantity. The study on the water ingress accident is significant for the verification of the inherent characteristics of high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The previous research shows that the amount of water ingress mass is the dominant key factor on the severity of the accident consequence. The 200 MWe high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-PM), which is the first modular pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor in China designed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, is selected to be analyzed in this paper. The different DBA accident scenarios of double-ended break of single heat-exchange tube are simulated respectively by the thermal-hydraulic analysis code RETRAN-02. The results show the water ingress mass through the broken heat-exchange tube is related to the break location. The amount of water ingress mass is affected obviously by the capacity of the emptier system. With the balance of safety and economical efficiency, the amount of water ingress mass from the secondary side of steam generator into the primary coolant loop will be reduced by increasing properly the diameter of the draining lines. (authors)

  8. "One and the Same the World Over": The International Culture of Surgical Exchange in an Age of Globalization, 1870-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlich, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the international exchange in surgery in the decades before World War I, a period of growing globalization in communication and transport. Focusing on Europe and North America, it looks first at the various means of exchange, especially surgical travel and the culture emerging around it and follows specific directions of exchange, from France and Britain, first to the German-speaking countries and finally to North America. Subsequently, the account turns to international organizations as an important means of exchange in this time period. The International Society of Surgery, in particular, provided a forum for a vivid internationalist discourse, which, however, stood in tension with simultaneous nationalist tendencies leading up to World War I. The paper finally discusses how the international exchange and communication at the time can be seen as an instance of modern surgeons claiming-and simultaneously trying to create-the global universality of surgical knowledge and practices, making sure that surgery is the same the world over. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. “One and the Same the World Over”: The International Culture of Surgical Exchange in an Age of Globalization, 1870–1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlich, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the international exchange in surgery in the decades before World War I, a period of growing globalization in communication and transport. Focusing on Europe and North America, it looks first at the various means of exchange, especially surgical travel and the culture emerging around it and follows specific directions of exchange, from France and Britain, first to the German-speaking countries and finally to North America. Subsequently, the account turns to international organizations as an important means of exchange in this time period. The International Society of Surgery, in particular, provided a forum for a vivid internationalist discourse, which, however, stood in tension with simultaneous nationalist tendencies leading up to World War I. The paper finally discusses how the international exchange and communication at the time can be seen as an instance of modern surgeons claiming—and simultaneously trying to create—the global universality of surgical knowledge and practices, making sure that surgery is the same the world over. PMID:26888942

  10. Evapotranspiration: A process driving mass transport and energy exchange in the soil-plant-atmosphere-climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katul, Gabriel G.; Oren, Ram; Manzoni, Stefano; Higgins, Chad; Parlange, Marc B.

    2012-09-01

    The role of evapotranspiration (ET) in the global, continental, regional, and local water cycles is reviewed. Elevated atmospheric CO2, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit (D), turbulent transport, radiative transfer, and reduced soil moisture all impact biotic and abiotic processes controlling ET that must be extrapolated to large scales. Suggesting a blueprint to achieve this link is the main compass of this review. Leaf-scale transpiration (fe) as governed by the plant biochemical demand for CO2 is first considered. When this biochemical demand is combined with mass transfer formulations, the problem remains mathematically intractable, requiring additional assumptions. A mathematical "closure" that assumes stomatal aperture is autonomously regulated so as to maximize the leaf carbon gain while minimizing water loss is proposed, which leads to analytical expressions for leaf-scale transpiration. This formulation predicts well the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and increases in D on fe. The case of soil moisture stress is then considered using extensive gas exchange measurements collected in drought studies. Upscaling the fe to the canopy is then discussed at multiple time scales. The impact of limited soil water availability within the rooting zone on the upscaled ET as well as some plant strategies to cope with prolonged soil moisture stress are briefly presented. Moving further up in direction and scale, the soil-plant system is then embedded within the atmospheric boundary layer, where the influence of soil moisture on rainfall is outlined. The review concludes by discussing outstanding challenges and how to tackle them by means of novel theoretical, numerical, and experimental approaches.

  11. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Reveals Calcium Binding Properties and Allosteric Regulation of Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator (DREAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jing; Craig, Theodore A; Kumar, Rajiv; Gross, Michael L

    2017-07-18

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) is an EF-hand Ca 2+ -binding protein that also binds to a specific DNA sequence, downstream regulatory elements (DRE), and thereby regulates transcription in a calcium-dependent fashion. DREAM binds to DRE in the absence of Ca 2+ but detaches from DRE under Ca 2+ stimulation, allowing gene expression. The Ca 2+ binding properties of DREAM and the consequences of the binding on protein structure are key to understanding the function of DREAM. Here we describe the application of hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the Ca 2+ binding properties and the subsequent conformational changes of full-length DREAM. We demonstrate that all EF-hands undergo large conformation changes upon calcium binding even though the EF-1 hand is not capable of binding to Ca 2+ . Moreover, EF-2 is a lower-affinity site compared to EF-3 and -4 hands. Comparison of HDX profiles between wild-type DREAM and two EF-1 mutated constructs illustrates that the conformational changes in the EF-1 hand are induced by long-range structural interactions. HDX analyses also reveal a conformational change in an N-terminal leucine-charged residue-rich domain (LCD) remote from Ca 2+ -binding EF-hands. This LCD domain is responsible for the direct interaction between DREAM and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and regulates the recruitment of the co-activator, CREB-binding protein. These long-range interactions strongly suggest how conformational changes transmit the Ca 2+ signal to CREB-mediated gene transcription.

  12. Effective Application of Bicelles for Conformational Analysis of G Protein-Coupled Receptors by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Minh; Du, Yang; Thorsen, Thor S.; Lee, Su Youn; Zhang, Cheng; Kato, Hideaki; Kobilka, Brian K.; Chung, Ka Young

    2015-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important roles in physiology and pathology, and 40% of drugs currently on the market target GPCRs for the treatment of various diseases. Because of their therapeutic importance, the structural mechanism of GPCR signaling is of great interest in the field of drug discovery. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a useful tool for analyzing ligand binding sites, the protein-protein interaction interface, and conformational changes of proteins. However, its application to GPCRs has been limited for various reasons, including the hydrophobic nature of GPCRs and the use of detergents in their preparation. In the present study, we tested the application of bicelles as a means of solubilizing GPCRs for HDX-MS studies. GPCRs (e.g., β2-adrenergic receptor [β2AR], μ-opioid receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1) solubilized in bicelles produced better sequence coverage (greater than 90%) than GPCRs solubilized in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM), suggesting that bicelles are a more effective method of solubilization for HDX-MS studies. The HDX-MS profile of β2AR in bicelles showed that transmembrane domains (TMs) undergo lower deuterium uptake than intracellular or extracellular regions, which is consistent with the fact that the TMs are highly ordered and embedded in bicelles. The overall HDX-MS profiles of β2AR solubilized in bicelles and in DDM were similar except for intracellular loop 3. Interestingly, we detected EX1 kinetics, an important phenomenon in protein dynamics, at the C-terminus of TM6 in β2AR. In conclusion, we suggest the application of bicelles as a useful method for solubilizing GPCRs for conformational analysis by HDX-MS.

  13. Development of internal manifold heat exchanger (IMHEX reg-sign) molten carbonate fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marianowski, L.G.; Ong, E.T.; Petri, R.J.; Remick, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has been in the forefront of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) development for over 25 years. Numerous cell designs have been tested and extensive tests have been performed on a variety of gas manifolding alternatives for cells and stacks. Based upon the results of these performance tests, IGT's development efforts started focusing on an internal gas manifolding concept. This work, initiated in 1988, is known today as the IMHEX reg-sign concept. MCP has developed a comprehensive commercialization program loading to the sale of commercial units in 1996. MCP's role is in the manufacture of stack components, stack assembly, MCFC subsystem testing, and the design, marketing and construction of MCFC power plants. Numerous subscale (1 ft 2 ) stacks have been operated containing between 3 and 70 cells. These tests verified and demonstrated the viability of internal manifolding from technical (no carbonate pumping), engineering (relaxed part dimensional tolerance requirements), and operational (good gas sealing) aspects. Simplified fabrication, ease of assembly, the elimination of external manifolds and all associated clamping requirements has significantly lowered anticipated stack costs. Ongoing 1 ft 2 stack testing is generating performance and endurance characteristics as a function of system specified operating conditions. Commercial-sized, full-area stacks (10 ft 2 ) are in the process of being assembled and will be tested in November. This paper will review the recent developments the MCFC scale-up and manufacture work of MCP, and the research and development efforts of IGT which support those efforts. 17 figs

  14. Bulk derivatization and cation exchange restricted access media-based trap-and-elute liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of trace estrogens in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beinhauer, Jana; Bian, Liangqiao; Fan, Hui; Šebela, Marek; Kukula, Maciej; Barrera, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of estrogens in small volume samples at low parts-per-trillion concentration. • Charged bulk derivatization facilitates on-line ion exchange sample preparation. • On-line WCX restricted access media traps analytes, but not proteins and lipids. • Complete preparation and LC–MS/MS analysis completed in 30 min/sample. - Abstract: Estrone (E1), estradiols (α/β-E2), and estriol (E3) are four major metabolically active estrogens exerting strong biological activities at very low circulating concentrations. This paper reports a sensitive and efficient method with automated, on-line clean-up and detection to determine trace estrogens in a small volume of serum samples using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry directly, without off-line liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction pretreatments. Serum aliquots (charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum, 100 μL) were spiked with four estrogen standards and their corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards, then bulk derivatized with 2-fluoro-1-methyl-pyridium p-toluenesulfonate (2-FMP) to establish the calibration curves and perform method validation. Calibration was established in the concentration ranges of 5–1000 pg mL −1 , and demonstrated good linearity of R 2 from 0.9944 to 0.9997 for the four derivatized estrogens. The lower detection limits obtained were 3–7 pg mL −1 . Good accuracy and precision in the range of 86–112% and 2.3–11.9%, respectively, were observed for the quality control (QC) samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels. The stability tests showed that the derivatized serum samples were stable 8 h after derivatization at room temperature and at least to 48 h if stored at −20 °C. The method was applied to measure trace estrogens in real human and bovine serum samples, and three of four estrogen compounds studied were observed and quantified

  15. Development of internal manifold heat exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marianowski, L.G.; Ong, E.T.; Petri, R.J.; Remick, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has been in the forefront of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) development for over 25 years. Numerous cell designs have been tested and extensive tests have been performed on a variety of gas manifolding alternatives for cells and stacks. Based upon the results of these performance tests, IGT's development efforts started focusing on an internal gas manifolding concept. This work, initiated in 1988, is known today as the IMHEX{reg sign} concept. MCP has developed a comprehensive commercialization program loading to the sale of commercial units in 1996. MCP's role is in the manufacture of stack components, stack assembly, MCFC subsystem testing, and the design, marketing and construction of MCFC power plants. Numerous subscale (1 ft{sup 2}) stacks have been operated containing between 3 and 70 cells. These tests verified and demonstrated the viability of internal manifolding from technical (no carbonate pumping), engineering (relaxed part dimensional tolerance requirements), and operational (good gas sealing) aspects. Simplified fabrication, ease of assembly, the elimination of external manifolds and all associated clamping requirements has significantly lowered anticipated stack costs. Ongoing 1 ft{sup 2} stack testing is generating performance and endurance characteristics as a function of system specified operating conditions. Commercial-sized, full-area stacks (10 ft{sup 2}) are in the process of being assembled and will be tested in November. This paper will review the recent developments the MCFC scale-up and manufacture work of MCP, and the research and development efforts of IGT which support those efforts. 17 figs.

  16. Simultaneous determination of 13 carbohydrates using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Feng, Feng; Yuan, Fei; Su, Jin; Cheng, Yan; Wu, Hanqiu; Song, Kun; Nie, Bo; Yu, Lian; Zhang, Feng

    2017-04-01

    A simple, accurate, and highly sensitive method was developed for the determination of 13 carbohydrates in polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis based on high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted with deionized water using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were optimized by Box-Behnken design. Then the extracted polysaccharide was hydrolyzed by adding 1 mol/L trifluoroacetic acid before determination by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection and confirmed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection method was performed on a CarboPac PA20 column by gradient elution using deionized water, 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution, and 0.4 mol/L sodium acetate solution. Excellent linearity was observed in the range of 0.05-10 mg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 80.7 to 121.7%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for 13 carbohydrates were 0.02-0.10 and 0.2-1.2  μg/kg, respectively. The developed method has been successfully applied to ambient samples, and the results indicated that high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometry could provide a rapid and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of carbohydrates. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Probing the Conformational and Functional Consequences of Disulfide Bond Engineering in Growth Hormone by Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Coupled to Electron Transfer Dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Signe T; Breinholt, Jens; Faber, Johan H

    2015-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH), and its receptor interaction, is essential for cell growth. To stabilize a flexible loop between helices 3 and 4, while retaining affinity for the hGH receptor, we have engineered a new hGH variant (Q84C/Y143C). Here, we employ hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrom......Human growth hormone (hGH), and its receptor interaction, is essential for cell growth. To stabilize a flexible loop between helices 3 and 4, while retaining affinity for the hGH receptor, we have engineered a new hGH variant (Q84C/Y143C). Here, we employ hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass...

  18. Review of the international symposium, sister chromatid exchanges: twenty-five years of experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tice, R.R.; Lambert, B.; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Hollaender, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to honor initial research at Brookhaven by bringing internationally recognized leaders in the fields of genetics, cytogenetics, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, radiation biology, toxicology, and environmental health together into an open forum to present and discuss: (1) current knowledge of the induction and formation of SCEs and their relationship to other biological endpoints, including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, transformation, clastogenesis, DNA damage and repair, and cellular toxicity; (2) the optimal strategies for the utilization of SCEs in genetic toxicology testing schemes involving in vitro and in vivo exposure situations; (3) the most valid statistical methods for analyzing SCE data obtained from cells in culture, from cells in intact organisms, and from cells in humans; (4) the relevance of SCEs as an indicator of human disease states, both inherited and acquired, and of progress in disease treatment; and (5) the use of SCEs as an indicator of human exposure to genotoxic agents and their relevance as a prognosticator of future adverse health outcomes. This report summarizes the presentations. 7 references

  19. Review of the international symposium, sister chromatid exchanges: twenty-five years of experimental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R.R.; Lambert, B.; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Hollaender, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to honor initial research at Brookhaven by bringing internationally recognized leaders in the fields of genetics, cytogenetics, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, radiation biology, toxicology, and environmental health together into an open forum to present and discuss: (1) current knowledge of the induction and formation of SCEs and their relationship to other biological endpoints, including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, transformation, clastogenesis, DNA damage and repair, and cellular toxicity; (2) the optimal strategies for the utilization of SCEs in genetic toxicology testing schemes involving in vitro and in vivo exposure situations; (3) the most valid statistical methods for analyzing SCE data obtained from cells in culture, from cells in intact organisms, and from cells in humans; (4) the relevance of SCEs as an indicator of human disease states, both inherited and acquired, and of progress in disease treatment; and (5) the use of SCEs as an indicator of human exposure to genotoxic agents and their relevance as a prognosticator of future adverse health outcomes. This report summarizes the presentations. 7 references. (ACR)

  20. The guideline implementability research and application network (GIRAnet: an international collaborative to support knowledge exchange: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Anna R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modifying the format and content of guidelines may facilitate their use and lead to improved quality of care. We reviewed the medical literature to identify features desired by different users and associated with guideline use to develop a framework of implementability and found that most guidelines do not contain these elements. Further research is needed to develop and evaluate implementability tools. Methods We are launching the Guideline Implementability Research and Application Network (GIRAnet to enable the development and testing of implementability tools in three domains: Resource Implications, Implementation, and Evaluation. Partners include the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N and its member guideline developers, implementers, and researchers. In phase one, international guidelines will be examined to identify and describe exemplar tools. Indication-specific and generic tools will populate a searchable repository. In phase two, qualitative analysis of cognitive interviews will be used to understand how developers can best integrate implementability tools in guidelines and how health professionals use them for interpreting and applying guidelines. In phase three, a small-scale pilot test will assess the impact of implementability tools based on quantitative analysis of chart-based behavioural outcomes and qualitative analysis of interviews with participants. The findings will be used to plan a more comprehensive future evaluation of implementability tools. Discussion Infrastructure funding to establish GIRAnet will be leveraged with the in-kind contributions of collaborating national and international guideline developers to advance our knowledge of implementation practice and science. Needs assessment and evaluation of GIRAnet will provide a greater understanding of how to develop and sustain such knowledge-exchange networks. Ultimately, by facilitating use of guidelines, this research may lead to improved

  1. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  2. Presentations of the GeoExchange 2005 international conference and trade show

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, L. (comp.) [GeoExchange BC, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This international conference provided a forum to discuss the status of geoexchange technology and industry. Advances in geoexchange system innovations have provided a sustainable option for space heating, cooling and hot water heating for buildings at typically less than 50 per cent of the cost of conventional gas and electric heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Major constraints on North American gas production were reviewed to provide a strong case for a sustainable geoexchange industry. Geoexchange systems offer the largest greenhouse gas mitigation opportunity worldwide. In addition to lasting for years, they require minimum maintenance. The unique environment of the Pacific West Coast provides the geoexchange industry with new opportunities to promote a sustainable energy plan for the 2010 Winter Olympics Athletes Village. Some presentations outlined professional design guidelines for evaluating geoexchange proposals, conducting site evaluations and completing proper designs for successful installations. Program developers from CANMET Energy Technology Centre presented the latest version of the RETScreen Ground Source Heat Pump Project model for evaluating the design of geoexchange proposals. An overview of the new refrigeration action program for buildings was also presented. The conference featured 32 presentations in various sessions that focused on system performance, monitoring and innovations in design and technology; issues associated with geoexchange and aquifer/open loop system characteristics, performance and design; earth heat fundamentals, HVAC designs and LEED points; market potential for geoexchange and financial considerations; innovative deployment of geoexchange systems and technology; deep sea and wastewater design applications for geoexchange technology; case studies of innovations in design for commercial and institutional geoexchange system installations; and, the business potential for geoexchange. tabs., figs.

  3. Structure and Dynamics of NBD1 from CFTR Characterized Using Crystallography and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, H.A.; Wang, C.; Zhao, X.; Hamuro, Y.; Conners, K.; Kearins, M.C.; Lu, F.; Sauder, J.M.; Molnar, K.S.; Coales, S.J.; Maloney, P.C.; Guggino, W.B.; Wetmore, D.R.; Weber, P.C.; Hunt, J.F. (SGX); (ExSAR); (Cystic); (JHU-MED); (Columbia)

    2012-04-30

    The {Delta}F508 mutation in nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the predominant cause of cystic fibrosis. Previous biophysical studies on human F508 and {Delta}F508 domains showed only local structural changes restricted to residues 509-511 and only minor differences in folding rate and stability. These results were remarkable because {Delta}F508 was widely assumed to perturb domain folding based on the fact that it prevents trafficking of CFTR out of the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the previously reported crystal structures did not come from matched F508 and {Delta}F508 constructs, and the {Delta}F508 structure contained additional mutations that were required to obtain sufficient protein solubility. In this article, we present additional biophysical studies of NBD1 designed to address these ambiguities. Mass spectral measurements of backbone amide {sup 1}H/{sup 2}H exchange rates in matched F508 and {Delta}F508 constructs reveal that {Delta}F508 increases backbone dynamics at residues 509-511 and the adjacent protein segments but not elsewhere in NBD1. These measurements also confirm a high level of flexibility in the protein segments exhibiting variable conformations in the crystal structures. We additionally present crystal structures of a broader set of human NBD1 constructs, including one harboring the native F508 residue and others harboring the {Delta}F508 mutation in the presence of fewer and different solubilizing mutations. The only consistent conformational difference is observed at residues 509-511. The side chain of residue V510 in this loop is mostly buried in all non-{Delta}F508 structures but completely solvent exposed in all {Delta}F508 structures. These results reinforce the importance of the perturbation {Delta}F508 causes in the surface topography of NBD1 in a region likely to mediate contact with the transmembrane domains of CFTR. However, they also suggest that increased

  4. Closure of mass exchange under use of a vegetable conveyer cultivated on a neutral and soil-like substrates as applied to BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velitchko, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander; Ushakova, Sofya

    To increase a closure level of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) including a human a technology of plants cultivation on a soil-like substrate (SLS) consisting in a gradual decomposition of inedible plants biomass under its addition in the SLS was developed at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Russia). In the given work the effect of periodical introduction of inedible plant biomass in the SLS on plants photosynthetic productivity and on the closure of mass exchange has been analyzed. Thereupon CO2 gas exchange and the certain vegetables' productivity under their cultivation in a conveyor regime on the SLS and on a neutral substrate with reference to the closure of mass exchange processes in BLSS have been studied in this work. The vegetables Raphanus sativus L., Brassica caulorapa L. Daucus carota L. and Beta vulgaris L. being prospective plantsrepresentatives of the BLSS phototrophic unit were taken as the research objects. The SLS was taken as an experiment substrate and an expanded clay aggregate as the control. The changeable Knop solution was used for the control, and an irrigation solution with the SLS extract was used for the experiment. Rapidity dynamics of CO2 consumption showed sharp distinctions of the ‘plants-SLS' system from the ‘plantsexpanded clay aggregate' system connected with the oxidation processes coursing in the SLS. The intensity of CO2 evolution from the SLS on average was 70% of the total plants conveyor's respiration. Thus a balance between the system's respiration and photosynthesis was often determined by the processes coursing in the SLS. Here the sharp CO2 evolution was recorded after introduction of the plants inedible biomass in the SLS. That peak was gradually coming down during 10-14 days after the beginning of every cycle of plants cultivation that was connected with intensification of plants photosynthesis and drop of decomposition intensity of the biomass introduced. Comparative

  5. Carbon source/sink function of a subtropical, eutrophic lake determined from an overall mass balance and a gas exchange and carbon burial balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Xing Yangping; Xie Ping; Ni Leyi; Rong Kewen

    2008-01-01

    Although studies on carbon burial in lake sediments have shown that lakes are disproportionately important carbon sinks, many studies on gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface have demonstrated that lakes are supersaturated with CO 2 and CH 4 causing a net release of CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In order to more accurately estimate the net carbon source/sink function of lake ecosystems, a more comprehensive carbon budget is needed, especially for gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface. Using two methods, overall mass balance and gas exchange and carbon burial balance, we assessed the carbon source/sink function of Lake Donghu, a subtropical, eutrophic lake, from April 2003 to March 2004. With the overall mass balance calculations, total carbon input was 14 905 t, total carbon output was 4950 t, and net carbon budget was +9955 t, suggesting that Lake Donghu was a great carbon sink. For the gas exchange and carbon burial balance, gaseous carbon (CO 2 and CH 4 ) emission across the water-air interface totaled 752 t while carbon burial in the lake sediment was 9477 t. The ratio of carbon emission into the atmosphere to carbon burial into the sediment was only 0.08. This low ratio indicates that Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink. Results showed good agreement between the two methods with both showing Lake Donghu to be a great carbon sink. This results from the high primary production of Lake Donghu, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic activity. Gaseous carbon emission accounted for about 15% of the total carbon output, indicating that the total output would be underestimated without including gaseous carbon exchange. - Due to high primary production, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic acitivity, subtropical, eutrophic Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink

  6. Temperature- and body mass-related variation in cyclic gas exchange characteristics and metabolic rate of seven weevil species: Broader implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, C J; Chown, S L

    2005-07-01

    The influence of temperature on metabolic rate and characteristics of the gas exchange patterns of flightless, sub-Antarctic Ectemnorhinus-group species from Heard and Marion islands was investigated. All of the species showed cyclic gas exchange with no Flutter period, indicating that these species are not characterized by discontinuous gas exchange cycles. Metabolic rate estimates were substantially lower in this study than in a previous one of a subset of the species, demonstrating that open-system respirometry methods provide more representative estimates of standard metabolic rate than do many closed-system methods. We recommend that the latter, and especially constant-pressure methods, either be abandoned for estimates of standard metabolic rate in insects, or have their outputs subject to careful scrutiny, given the wide availability of the former. V(.)CO(2) increase with an increase in temperature (range: 0-15 degrees C) was modulated by an increase in cycle frequency, but typically not by an increase in burst volume. Previous investigations of temperature-related changes in cyclic gas exchange (both cyclic and discontinuous) in several other insect species were therefore substantiated. Interspecific mass-scaling of metabolic rate (ca. 0.466-0.573, excluding and including phylogenetic non-independence, respectively) produced an exponent lower than 0.75 (but not distinguishable from it or from 0.67). The increase of metabolic rate with mass was modulated by an increase in burst volume and not by a change in cycle frequency, in keeping with investigations of species showing discontinuous gas exchange. These findings are discussed in the context of the emerging macrophysiological metabolic theory of ecology.

  7. Market Risk in Demutualised Self-Listed Stock Exchanges: An International Analysis of Selected Time-Varying Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Worthington; Helen Higgs

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines market risk in four demutualised and self-listed stock exchanges: the Australian Stock Exchange, the Deutsche Börse, the London Stock Exchange and the Singapore Stock Exchange. Daily company and MSCI index returns provide the respective asset and market portfolio data. A bivariate MA-GARCH model is used to estimate time-varying betas for each exchange from listing until 7 June 2005. While the results indicate significant beta volatility, unit root tests show the betas to b...

  8. International exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998. Overseas workshop; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The international exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998, the 'Overseas workshop' has performed exchange in technologies with Australian coal mine engineers. The project refers to the Australian technological levels and needs in coal production, safety control and environment, as well as transfer of the Japanese coal mine technologies. This report summarizes the result of a survey on the engineer exchange project in the coal mine technology area and the possibility of joint researches. The 'overseas workshop' was held in November 1998 for two days in Brisbane City in QLD Province as the 'Japan-Australia coal technology workshop'. The 'Japan-Australia coal technology workshop' gave lectures in five sessions (the basic lecture, Japan-Australia high-speed excavation project, coal mine gas control project, exploration and resources, and development and experience of Japan). It also discussed two themes (mine safety management and rules, and greenhouse effect gases and coal mining). Two coal mines were visited thereafter to deepen the exchange with the Australian coal mine engineers. (NEDO)

  9. International exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998. Overseas workshop; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The international exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998, the 'Overseas workshop' has performed exchange in technologies with Australian coal mine engineers. The project refers to the Australian technological levels and needs in coal production, safety control and environment, as well as transfer of the Japanese coal mine technologies. This report summarizes the result of a survey on the engineer exchange project in the coal mine technology area and the possibility of joint researches. The 'overseas workshop' was held in November 1998 for two days in Brisbane City in QLD Province as the 'Japan-Australia coal technology workshop'. The 'Japan-Australia coal technology workshop' gave lectures in five sessions (the basic lecture, Japan-Australia high-speed excavation project, coal mine gas control project, exploration and resources, and development and experience of Japan). It also discussed two themes (mine safety management and rules, and greenhouse effect gases and coal mining). Two coal mines were visited thereafter to deepen the exchange with the Australian coal mine engineers. (NEDO)

  10. Determination of Equine Cytochrome c Backbone Amide Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Rates by Mass Spectrometry Using a Wider Time Window and Isotope Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuro, Yoshitomo

    2017-03-01

    A new strategy to analyze amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) data is proposed, utilizing a wider time window and isotope envelope analysis of each peptide. While most current scientific reports present HDX-MS data as a set of time-dependent deuteration levels of peptides, the ideal HDX-MS data presentation is a complete set of backbone amide hydrogen exchange rates. The ideal data set can provide single amide resolution, coverage of all exchange events, and the open/close ratio of each amide hydrogen in EX2 mechanism. Toward this goal, a typical HDX-MS protocol was modified in two aspects: measurement of a wider time window in HDX-MS experiments and deconvolution of isotope envelope of each peptide. Measurement of a wider time window enabled the observation of deuterium incorporation of most backbone amide hydrogens. Analysis of the isotope envelope instead of centroid value provides the deuterium distribution instead of the sum of deuteration levels in each peptide. A one-step, global-fitting algorithm optimized exchange rate and deuterium retention during the analysis of each amide hydrogen by fitting the deuterated isotope envelopes at all time points of all peptides in a region. Application of this strategy to cytochrome c yielded 97 out of 100 amide hydrogen exchange rates. A set of exchange rates determined by this approach is more appropriate for a patent or regulatory filing of a biopharmaceutical than a set of peptide deuteration levels obtained by a typical protocol. A wider time window of this method also eliminates false negatives in protein-ligand binding site identification. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Pre-emptive Defence against International Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Reasoned Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gamarra Chopo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The 9-11 terrorist attacks had serious repercussions on the world stage, giving rise, among other effects, to a protracted debate on the conditions in which the use of force to fight against terrorism might be justified or not under international law. In the UnitedStates, there were those who advocated in favour of pre-emptive action against the terrorists, and those who were protecting and harbouring them, within the framework of a large scale ‘war’ against terrorism. This gave rise to the ‘Bush doctrine’ of the ‘pre-emptive attack’ to fight against international terrorism and those who possessed weapons of mass destruction that might be used against opponents or for terrorist purposes. Although some people feltthat this version of ‘pre-emption’ in the unilateral use of force strayed from the traditional parameters of self-defence, others considered it to be an adaptation of these parameters to the new needs arising from the threat posed by terrorist groups and outlaw states.

  12. Development of an Internal Real-Time Wireless Diagnostic Tool for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tsai, Chao-Hsuan; Wang, Yu-Syuan

    2018-01-13

    To prolong the operating time of unmanned aerial vehicles which use proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), the performance of PEMFC is the key. However, a long-term operation can make the Pt particles of the catalyst layer and the pollutants in the feedstock gas bond together (e.g., CO), so that the catalyst loses reaction activity. The performance decay and aging of PEMFC will be influenced by operating conditions, temperature, flow and CO concentration. Therefore, this study proposes the development of an internal real-time wireless diagnostic tool for PEMFC, and uses micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to develop a wireless and thin (PEMFC; (5) customized design and development. The flexible integrated microsensor is embedded in the PEMFC, three important physical quantities in the PEMFC, which are the temperature, flow and CO, can be measured simultaneously and instantly, so as to obtain the authentic and complete reaction in the PEMFC to enhance the performance of PEMFC and to prolong the service life.

  13. Development of an Internal Real-Time Wireless Diagnostic Tool for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yuan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To prolong the operating time of unmanned aerial vehicles which use proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC, the performance of PEMFC is the key. However, a long-term operation can make the Pt particles of the catalyst layer and the pollutants in the feedstock gas bond together (e.g., CO, so that the catalyst loses reaction activity. The performance decay and aging of PEMFC will be influenced by operating conditions, temperature, flow and CO concentration. Therefore, this study proposes the development of an internal real-time wireless diagnostic tool for PEMFC, and uses micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology to develop a wireless and thin (<50 μm flexible integrated (temperature, flow and CO microsensor. The technical advantages are (1 compactness and three wireless measurement functions; (2 elastic measurement position and accurate embedding; (3 high accuracy and sensitivity and quick response; (4 real-time wireless monitoring of dynamic performance of PEMFC; (5 customized design and development. The flexible integrated microsensor is embedded in the PEMFC, three important physical quantities in the PEMFC, which are the temperature, flow and CO, can be measured simultaneously and instantly, so as to obtain the authentic and complete reaction in the PEMFC to enhance the performance of PEMFC and to prolong the service life.

  14. Affinity capture of biotinylated proteins at acidic conditions to facilitate hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analysis of multimeric protein complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Koefoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of conformational and dynamic changes associated with protein interactions can be done by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) by comparing the deuterium uptake in the bound and unbound state of the proteins. Investigation of local hydrogen/deuterium exchange...... in heteromultimeric protein complexes poses a challenge for the method due to the increased complexity of the mixture of peptides originating from all interaction partners in the complex. Previously, interference of peptides from one interaction partner has been removed by immobilizing the intact protein on beads...... complexes without interference of peptides originating from other interaction partners in the complex. The biotin-streptavidin strategy has been successfully implemented in a model system with two recombinant monoclonal antibodies that target nonoverlapping epitopes on the human epidermal growth factor...

  15. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of branches in dextran using high-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin; Ouyang, Yilan; Sun, Xue; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2015-12-04

    Dextran, a family of natural polysaccharides, consists of an α (1→6) linked-glucose main (backbone) chain having a number of branches. The determination of the types and the quantities of branches in dextran is important in understanding its various biological roles. In this study, a hyphenated method using high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) in parallel with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of dextran branches. A rotary cation-exchange cartridge array desalter was used for removal of salt from the HPAEC eluent making it MS compatible. MS and MS/MS were used to provide structural information on the enzymatically prepared dextran oligosaccharides. PAD provides quantitative data on the ratio of enzyme-resistant, branched dextran oligosaccharides. Both the types and degree of branching found in a variety of dextrans could be simultaneously determined online using this method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid Screening for Potential Epitopes Reactive with a Polycolonal Antibody by Solution-Phase H/D Exchange Monitored by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Noble, Kyle A.; Mao, Yuan; Young, Nicolas L.; Sathe, Shridhar K.; Roux, Kenneth H.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2013-07-01

    The potential epitopes of a recombinant food allergen protein, cashew Ana o 2, reactive to polyclonal antibodies, were mapped by solution-phase amide backbone H/D exchange (HDX) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Ana o 2 polyclonal antibodies were purified in the serum from a goat immunized with cashew nut extract. Antibodies were incubated with recombinant Ana o 2 (rAna o 2) to form antigen:polyclonal antibody (Ag:pAb) complexes. Complexed and uncomplexed (free) rAna o 2 were then subjected to HDX-MS analysis. Four regions protected from H/D exchange upon pAb binding are identified as potential epitopes and mapped onto a homologous model.

  17. Charge symmetry breaking via Δ I = 1 group theory or by the u-d quark mass difference and direct photon exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coon, S.A.; Scadron, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the strong N N interaction is believed to have its origins at the quark level. However, the meson-exchange potentials which successfully describe the empirical CSB utilize instead values of the Δ I = 1 π η and ρ ω mixing obtained with the aid of group theory from a hadronic tadpole Hamiltonian introduced by Coleman and Glashow to describe electromagnetic mass splitting in hadronic isospin multiplets. We review i) the CSB N N potentials so constructed and their nuclear charge asymmetry effects, i i) the universal scale of the Coleman-Glashow tadpole, and i i i) the quark loop evaluation of both meson mass differences and meson mixing. The latter quark loop calculations, which use chiral symmetry to evaluate the integrals, demonstrate clearly that the u-d constituent quark mass difference, long suspected as the origin of CSB, does quantitatively yield the universal Coleman-Glashow tadpole scale which underlies the successful meson-exchange description of CSB in nuclear physics. (Author) 38 refs., 3 figs

  18. Bulk derivatization and cation exchange restricted access media-based trap-and-elute liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of trace estrogens in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beinhauer, Jana [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Bian, Liangqiao [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Fan, Hui [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Šebela, Marek [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kukula, Maciej [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Barrera, Jose A. [Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); and others

    2015-02-09

    Highlights: • Analysis of estrogens in small volume samples at low parts-per-trillion concentration. • Charged bulk derivatization facilitates on-line ion exchange sample preparation. • On-line WCX restricted access media traps analytes, but not proteins and lipids. • Complete preparation and LC–MS/MS analysis completed in 30 min/sample. - Abstract: Estrone (E1), estradiols (α/β-E2), and estriol (E3) are four major metabolically active estrogens exerting strong biological activities at very low circulating concentrations. This paper reports a sensitive and efficient method with automated, on-line clean-up and detection to determine trace estrogens in a small volume of serum samples using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry directly, without off-line liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction pretreatments. Serum aliquots (charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum, 100 μL) were spiked with four estrogen standards and their corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards, then bulk derivatized with 2-fluoro-1-methyl-pyridium p-toluenesulfonate (2-FMP) to establish the calibration curves and perform method validation. Calibration was established in the concentration ranges of 5–1000 pg mL{sup −1}, and demonstrated good linearity of R{sup 2} from 0.9944 to 0.9997 for the four derivatized estrogens. The lower detection limits obtained were 3–7 pg mL{sup −1}. Good accuracy and precision in the range of 86–112% and 2.3–11.9%, respectively, were observed for the quality control (QC) samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels. The stability tests showed that the derivatized serum samples were stable 8 h after derivatization at room temperature and at least to 48 h if stored at −20 °C. The method was applied to measure trace estrogens in real human and bovine serum samples, and three of four estrogen compounds studied were observed and quantified.

  19. EFFECT OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARD ON CORPORATE PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED BANKS LISTED ON NIGERIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. ELOSIUBA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the light of globalisation where foreign investment has become trendy, comparability of financial reports of Nigerian firms and those of other firms across the world has become a concern. Nigerian firms has been mandated to adopt the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS is their financial reporting.  This study has examined the effect of the IFRS adoption on the reported performance of Nigerian banks listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Eight (8 out of the fourteen (14 quoted banks were selected for the study. Four indices of performance employed in the study are profitability using the Return on Equity, Liquidity using total deposit to total loan, loan grants and then market value measured by Price earnings ratio for the period (2011 and 2012. 2011 represented GAAP era while 2012 stands for IFRS adoption. A comparability index for the banks were computed using the Excel Spreadsheet for each of the banks on each variable. Then the One Sample Test was employed for the analyses. The mean was used to answer the research question while the t-statistics tested the hypotheses. The results showed that mean values for profitability, liquidity and market value are greater in the GAAP era (2011 than in the IFRS period (2012, while loan grant has higher for IFRS period (2012. The t-tested indicated none of the variables had significant effect.  Thus the study concluded that IFRS adopted does not have significant effect on bank performance reported in 2011 and 2012. The use of IFRS for all firms as well as incorporation of IFRS guideline in professional training are recommended by this study.

  20. Joint Thesaurus. Part I (A-L) + Part II (M-Z)[International Nuclear Information System. Energy Technology Data Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This is the 1st revision of the INIS/ETDE Joint Thesaurus. It contains 20 953 valid descriptors and 8 600 forbidden terms. It was last updated in December 2003. The Joint Thesaurus contains the controlled terminology for indexing all information within the subject scope of both INIS (International Nuclear Information System) and ETDE (Energy Technology Data Exchange) information systems. The terminology is intended for use in subject description for input or retrieval of information in those systems. The thesaurus is a terminological control device used in translating from the natural language of documents, indexers or users into a more constrained system language It is also a controlled and dynamic vocabulary of semantically and generically related terms which covers a specific domain of knowledge. The domain of knowledge covered by this Thesaurus includes physics (in particular, plasma physics, atomic and molecular physics, and especially nuclear and high-energy physics), chemistry, materials, earth sciences, radiation biology, radioisotope effects and kinetics, applied life sciences, radiology and nuclear medicine, isotope and radiation source technology, radiation protection, radiation applications, engineering, instrumentation, fossil fuels, synthetic fuels, renewable energy sources, advanced energy systems, fission and fusion reactor technology, safeguards and inspection, waste management, environmental aspects of the production and consumption of energy from nuclear and non-nuclear sources, energy efficiency and energy conservation, economics and sociology of energy production and use, energy policy, and nuclear law. The terms in the Thesaurus are listed alphabetically, and with each alphabetic entry a word block containing the terms associated with the particular entry is displayed. In the word block, terms that have a hierarchical relationship to the entry are identified by the symbols BT and NT, for Broader Term and Narrower Term. Those with an affinitive

  1. Invariant mass spectroscopy of {sup 19,17}C and {sup 14}B using proton inelastic and charge-exchange reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satou, Y., E-mail: satou@phya.snu.ac.k [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Fukuda, N. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Saitama (Japan); Sugimoto, T.; Kondo, Y.; Matsui, N.; Hashimoto, Y.; Nakabayashi, T.; Okumura, Y.; Shinohara, M. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Motobayashi, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Aoi, N.; Takeuchi, S.; Gomi, T.; Togano, Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Saitama (Japan); Kawai, S. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Tokyo (Japan); Sakurai, H. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Saitama (Japan); Ong, H.J.; Onishi, T.K. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    The neutron-rich carbon isotopes {sup 19,17}C and the boron isotope {sup 14}B have been investigated, respectively, by the proton inelastic and charge-exchange reactions on a liquid hydrogen target at around 70 MeV/nucleon. The invariant mass method in inverse kinematics was employed to map the energy spectrum above the neutron decay threshold of the residual nuclei. New states on carbon isotopes are reported. An experimental capability of extracting beta-decay strengths via forward angle (p,n) cross sections on unstable nuclei is shown.

  2. 8. International conference on atomic masses and fundamental constants (AMCO-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.; Barber, R.C.; Cohen, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    The current recommended values of the fundamental physical constants are base on an adjustment carried out in 1986. Physics, however, has not stood still. New measurements have been reported for the Rydberg constant and the gas constant. Improved calculations and measurements of the electron magnetic moment anomaly, a e have provided an improved value for the fine structure constant α = μ 0 ce 2 /2h. The decision to establish uniform international representation of the volts and ohms in terms of the Josephson effect and the quantized Hall resistance, respectively, stimulated new measurements of 2e/h and e/h 2 . These new data have significantly changed the error-space of the adjustment of the physical constants. In the 1986 adjustments, the one-standard deviation uncertainty in α was 0.045 ppm; the university of Washington measurements of a e and the final results of Kinoshita's 20-year program of numerical evaluation of the eight order QED diagrams yield a new value with an uncertainty of 0.0069 ppm. Combined with the Rydberg constant and the proton-electron mass ratio this means that N Λ h = M p α 2 c/(2(m p /m e )R ∞ ) is defined with an uncertainty of 0.025 ppm

  3. Electron spray ionization mass spectrometry and 2D 31P NMR for monitoring 18O/16O isotope exchange and turnover rates of metabolic oligophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemutlu, Emirhan; Juranic, Nenad; Macura, Slobodan; Zhang, Song; Terzic, Andre; Dzeja, Petras P.; Ward, Lawrence E.; Dutta, Tumpa; Nair, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    A new method was here developed for the determination of 18 O-labeling ratios in metabolic oligophosphates, such as ATP, at different phosphoryl moieties (α-, β-, and γ-ATP) using sensitive and rapid electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The ESI-MS-based method for monitoring of 18 O/ 16 O exchange was validated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 2D 31 P NMR correlation spectroscopy, the current standard methods in labeling studies. Significant correlation was found between isotopomer selective 2D 31 P NMR spectroscopy and isotopomer less selective ESI-MS method. Results demonstrate that ESI-MS provides a robust analytical platform for simultaneous determination of levels, 18 O-labeling kinetics and turnover rates of α-, β-, and γ-phosphoryls in ATP molecule. Such method is advantageous for large scale dynamic phosphometabolomic profiling of metabolic networks and acquiring information on the status of probed cellular energetic system. (orig.)

  4. Impurity profiling of liothyronine sodium by means of reversed phase HPLC, high resolution mass spectrometry, on-line H/D exchange and UV/Vis absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggenthaler, M; Grass, J; Schuh, W; Huber, C G; Reischl, R J

    2017-09-05

    For the first time, a comprehensive investigation of the impurity profile of the synthetic thyroid API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) liothyronine sodium (LT 3 Na) was performed by using reversed phase HPLC and advanced structural elucidation techniques including high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) and on-line hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange. Overall, 39 compounds were characterized and 25 of these related substances were previously unknown to literature. The impurity classification system recently developed for the closely related API levothyroxine sodium (LT 4 Na) could be applied to the newly characterized liothyronine sodium impurities resulting in a wholistic thyroid API impurity classification system. Furthermore, the mass-spectrometric CID-fragmentation of specific related substances was discussed and rationalized by detailed fragmentation pathways. Moreover, the UV/Vis absorption characteristics of the API and selected impurities were investigated to corroborate chemical structure assignments derived from MS data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous determination of platinum group elements and rhenium in rock samples using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after cation exchange separation followed by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinotsuka, Kazunori; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    A simple and precise determination method for platinum group elements (PGEs) and Re in rock samples was developed using isotope dilution coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). Cation exchange separation was employed for simplicity, because it is applicable to group separation and simultaneous isotopic measurement in contrast with the widely used anion exchange separation which entails separate elution. However, its application to ID-ICP-MS has been limited due to spectral interferences from impurities retained in the PGE fraction even after ion chromatography. To overcome this limitation, solvent extraction using N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) in chloroform was successfully applied for further purification. After the examination of optimum experimental parameters in cation exchange separation and solvent extraction using synthetic PGE solution, the established procedure was applied to the determination of PGEs and Re in some geochemical reference materials. The obtained results agreed well with the literature data determined using the different digestion methods (NiS fire assay and the use of a high-pressure asher) within the analytical uncertainties of each other. Significant difference in reproducibility between Ru, Ir, Pt and Os group, and Pd and Re group was observed in the results for BHVO-2 and JA-2. By considering the error factors affecting analytical reproducibility, we concluded that the difference is ascribed to the sample heterogeneity of minor minerals enriched in Ru, Ir, Pt and Os

  6. Academic, Personal, Social and Vocational Needs of International and Exchange Students at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel A Villafañe-Santiago; Carol Y Irizarry-Robles; Robinson A Vázquez-Ramos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the needs of a sample of the international and exchange students staying at the North Tower Residence of the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus. Social and demographic data, as well as the academic, vocational, and social/personal needs were explored with the purpose of gathering relevant information and submitting recommendations to universities serving this student population. Findings revealed particular needs in the academic, voc...

  7. Confirmation of synthetic glucocorticoids with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: Organization and results of an international interlaboratory comparison test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwe, O. van den; Campbell, K.; Crooks, S.R.H.; Schilt, R.; Peteghem, C.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a European Union (EU) research project entitled "Food Safety Screening: Synthetic Glucocorticoids (QLK1-1999-00122)," an international interlaboratory ring test was organized to compare and evaluate different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) confirmatory

  8. Optimization and application of atmospheric pressure chemical and photoionization hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for speciation of oxygen-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acter, Thamina; Kim, Donghwi; Ahmed, Arif; Jin, Jang Mi; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the feasibility of optimized positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) MS coupled to hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) for structural assignment of diverse oxygen-containing compounds. The important parameters for optimization of HDX MS were characterized. The optimized techniques employed in the positive and negative modes showed satisfactory HDX product ions for the model compounds when dichloromethane and toluene were employed as a co-solvent in APCI- and APPI-HDX, respectively. The evaluation of the mass spectra obtained from 38 oxygen-containing compounds demonstrated that the extent of the HDX of the ions was structure-dependent. The combination of information provided by different ionization techniques could be used for better speciation of oxygen-containing compounds. For example, (+) APPI-HDX is sensitive to compounds with alcohol, ketone, or aldehyde substituents, while (-) APPI-HDX is sensitive to compounds with carboxylic functional groups. In addition, the compounds with alcohol can be distinguished from other compounds by the presence of exchanged peaks. The combined information was applied to study chemical compositions of degraded oils. The HDX pattern, double bond equivalent (DBE) distribution, and previously reported oxidation products were combined to predict structures of the compounds produced from oxidation of oil. Overall, this study shows that APCI- and APPI-HDX MS are useful experimental techniques that can be applied for the structural analysis of oxygen-containing compounds.

  9. Proceedings of the twelfth ISMAS triennial international conference on mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jaison, P.G.; Telmore, V.M.

    2013-03-01

    These Workshops are aimed at introducing the subject of Mass Spectrometry to novices, updating the Mass Spectrometrists with the latest developments in the field, exposing the participants to innumerable applications of Mass Spectrometry and providing a common forum for discussing the day-to-day problems when working with a Mass Spectrometer. The programme of these Workshops consists of Tutorials, Panel Discussions, Research Scholars' Presentations, Poster Presentations and Invited Lectures. The lectures include fundamentals of Mass Spectrometry, qualitative and quantitative aspects and data interpretation, maintenance of Mass Spectrometers, selection of a mass spectrometer, applications in various branches of science as well as recent advances in Mass Spectrometry. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  10. Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on heat exchangers, boilers and pressure vessels (HEB-97). Vol.1 (Research Papers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This conference was held on 5-6 Apr 1997 in Alexandria. the specialists discussed heat exchangers, boilers and pressure vessels. more than 200 papers were presented in the meetings. it contains of data, figures and tables

  11. Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on heat exchangers, boilers and pressure vessels (HEB-97). Vol.1 (Research Papers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This conference was held on 5-6 Apr 1997 in Alexandria. the specialists discussed heat exchangers, boilers and pressure vessels. more than 200 papers were presented in the meetings. it contains of data, figures and tables.

  12. Using positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and H/D exchange study phosphoryl group transfer reactions involved in amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Mei-Juan; Zhang, He; Liao, Chao; Qiu, Ying-Kun; Fang, Hua; Zheng, Zhen-Yu; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Wu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESI-MS n , HRMS and H/D exchange were used. • The fragmentation pathways of NPAAE-BFA in ESI-MS n were described. • Fragment ions involved in phosphorus group’s rearrangement reactions were observed. • Two rearrangement mechanisms about phosphorylation–dephosphorylation were proposed. - Abstract: As mini-chemical models, amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A (compounds 2a–2d) were synthesized and investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in combination with H/D exchange. To further confirm the fragments’s structures, off-line Fourier transform resonance tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS/MS) was also performed. The fragmentation rules of compounds 2a–2d have been summarized and the plausible schemes for the fragmentation pathways were proposed. In this study, one dephosphorylated ion and two phosphorylated ions were observed in ESI-MS 2 spectra of [M + Na] + ions for compounds 2a–2d. The possible mechanisms about phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were proposed and confirmed by H/D exchange. For the “dephosphorylation” rearrangement, a nitrogen atom was migrated from the phosphoryl group to the carbon atom of Brefeldin A’s backbone with losing a molecule of C 3 H 7 PO 3 (122 Da). For the “phosphorylation” rearrangement, an oxygen atom of one phosphoryl group attacked the sideward phosphorus atom to form a nine-member ring intermediate, then two steps of C-H covalent bond cleavage with consecutive migration of hydrogen atom to lose a molecule of C 16 H 20 O 2 (244 Da). The two proposed rearrangement mechanisms about phosphoryl group transfer might be valuable for the structure analysis of other analogs and provide insights into elucidating the dynamic process of the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation of proteins

  13. Using positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and H/D exchange study phosphoryl group transfer reactions involved in amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Mei-Juan; Zhang, He; Liao, Chao; Qiu, Ying-Kun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); Fang, Hua [The Third Institute of Oceanography of the State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Yu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Gao, Xiang [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); Zhao, Yu-Fen [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wu, Zhen, E-mail: wuzhen@xmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESI-MS{sup n}, HRMS and H/D exchange were used. • The fragmentation pathways of NPAAE-BFA in ESI-MS{sup n} were described. • Fragment ions involved in phosphorus group’s rearrangement reactions were observed. • Two rearrangement mechanisms about phosphorylation–dephosphorylation were proposed. - Abstract: As mini-chemical models, amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A (compounds 2a–2d) were synthesized and investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in combination with H/D exchange. To further confirm the fragments’s structures, off-line Fourier transform resonance tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS/MS) was also performed. The fragmentation rules of compounds 2a–2d have been summarized and the plausible schemes for the fragmentation pathways were proposed. In this study, one dephosphorylated ion and two phosphorylated ions were observed in ESI-MS{sup 2} spectra of [M + Na]{sup +} ions for compounds 2a–2d. The possible mechanisms about phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were proposed and confirmed by H/D exchange. For the “dephosphorylation” rearrangement, a nitrogen atom was migrated from the phosphoryl group to the carbon atom of Brefeldin A’s backbone with losing a molecule of C{sub 3}H{sub 7}PO{sub 3} (122 Da). For the “phosphorylation” rearrangement, an oxygen atom of one phosphoryl group attacked the sideward phosphorus atom to form a nine-member ring intermediate, then two steps of C-H covalent bond cleavage with consecutive migration of hydrogen atom to lose a molecule of C{sub 16}H{sub 20}O{sub 2} (244 Da). The two proposed rearrangement mechanisms about phosphoryl group transfer might be valuable for the structure analysis of other analogs and provide insights into elucidating the dynamic process of the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation of proteins.

  14. The Effects of Real Exchange Rates and Income on International Tourism Demand for the USA from Some European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Ongan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of real exchange rates and income on inbound tourism demand (tourist arrivals from Germany, France, the UK, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, and Sweden to the USA over the period 1996Q3–2015Q1. To achieve this aim, the Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices (HICP for Restaurants and Hotels was used for the first time—instead of using the general Consumer Price Index (CPI—to transform the nominal exchange rate into the real exchange rate as an independent variable in tourism demand analysis models. Panel co-integration analysis under the cross-sectional dependence (CD test and common correlated effects (CCE approach was applied. Empirical results show that tourists visiting the USA are more sensitive to changes in the real exchange rate than changes in GDP. While French tourists respond highly to the GDP, British tourists respond highly to the real exchange rate. It should also be noted that the UK, having the highest responsiveness to the real exchange rate, is a country outside the Eurozone and also intends to leave the European Union.

  15. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  16. Joint thesaurus Part I (A-L) + II (M-Z)[International Nuclear Information System. Energy Technology Data Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This is the second revision of the ETDE/INIS Joint Thesaurus, including all updates up to September 2006. It contains 21 147 valid descriptors and 9 114 forbidden terms. The Joint Thesaurus contains the controlled terminology for indexing all information within the subject scopes of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). The terminology is intended for use in subject descriptions for input or retrieval of information in these systems. The thesaurus is a terminological control device used in translating from the natural language of documents, indexers or users into a more constrained system language It is also a controlled and dynamic vocabulary of semantically and generically related terms which covers a specific domain of knowledge. The basic terminology in this thesaurus goes back to the 1969 edition of the EURATOM Thesaurus. The structure subsequently given to that terminology was the result of a systematic study performed by INIS subject specialists. Further expansion of the thesaurus terminology was done by ETDE to incorporate information on all forms of energy. The ETDE/INIS Joint Thesaurus is the result of continued editing, carried out in parallel to the processing of the INIS and ETDE databases. The domain of knowledge covered by the Joint Thesaurus includes physics (in particular, plasma physics, atomic and molecular physics, and especially nuclear and high-energy physics), chemistry, materials science, earth sciences, radiation biology, radioisotope effects and kinetics, applied life sciences, radiology and nuclear medicine, isotope and radiation source technology, radiation protection, radiation applications, engineering, instrumentation, fossil fuels, synthetic fuels, renewable energy sources, advanced energy systems, fission and fusion reactor technology, safeguards and inspection, waste management, environmental aspects of the production and consumption of energy from nuclear and non

  17. Changes in water mass exchange between the NW shelf areas and the North Atlantic and their impact on nutrient/carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Matthias; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Segschneider, Joachim; Sein, Dimitry

    2010-05-01

    Despite their comparatively small extension on a global scale, shelf areas are of interest for several economic reasons and climatic processes related to nutrient cycling, sea food supply, and biological productivity. Moreover, they constitute an important interface for nutrients, pollutants and freshwater on their pathway from the continents to the open ocean. This modelling study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of water mass exchange between the North Atlantic and the NW European shelf and their impact on nutrient/carbon cycling and biological productivity. For this, a new modeling approach has been set up which bridges the gap between pure shelf models where water mass transports across the model domain too strongly depend on the formulation of open boundaries and global models suffering under their too coarse resolution in shelf regions. The new model consists of the global ocean and carbon cycle model MPIOM/HAMOCC with strongly increased resolution in the North Sea and the North Atlantic coupled to the regional atmosphere model REMO. The model takes the full luni-solar tides into account. It includes further a 12 layer sediment module with the relevant pore water chemistry. The main focus lies on the governing mechanisms of water mass exchange across the shelf break and the imprint on shelf biogeochemistry. For this, artificial tracers with a prescribed decay rate have been implemented to distinguish waters arriving from polar and shelf regions and those that originate from the tropics. Experiments were carried out for the years 1948 - 2007. The relationship to larger scale circulation patterns like the position and variability of the subtropical and subpolar gyres is analyzed. The water mass exchange is analyzed with respect to the nutrient concentration and productivity on the European shelf areas. The implementation of tides leads to an enhanced vertical mixing which causes lower sea surface temperatures compared to simulations

  18. Internal rotation of 13 low-mass low-luminosity red giants in the Kepler field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, S. A.; Corsaro, E.; De Ridder, J.; Bonanno, A.; Pérez Hernández, F.; García, R. A.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The Kepler space telescope has provided time series of red giants of such unprecedented quality that a detailed asteroseismic analysis becomes possible. For a limited set of about a dozen red giants, the observed oscillation frequencies obtained by peak-bagging together with the most recent pulsation codes allowed us to reliably determine the core/envelope rotation ratio. The results so far show that the current models are unable to reproduce the rotation ratios, predicting higher values than what is observed and thus indicating that an efficient angular momentum transport mechanism should be at work. Here we provide an asteroseismic analysis of a sample of 13 low-luminosity low-mass red giant stars observed by Kepler during its first nominal mission. These targets form a subsample of the 19 red giants studied previously, which not only have a large number of extracted oscillation frequencies, but also unambiguous mode identifications. Aims: We aim to extend the sample of red giants for which internal rotation ratios obtained by theoretical modeling of peak-bagged frequencies are available. We also derive the rotation ratios using different methods, and compare the results of these methods with each other. Methods: We built seismic models using a grid search combined with a Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm and obtained rotation averages employing Bayesian inference and inversion methods. We compared these averages with those obtained using a previously developed model-independent method. Results: We find that the cores of the red giants in this sample are rotating 5 to 10 times faster than their envelopes, which is consistent with earlier results. The rotation rates computed from the different methods show good agreement for some targets, while some discrepancies exist for others.

  19. Quantization of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data using external and internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaser, H.

    1983-01-01

    Some aspects of multi-dimensional characterization of solids by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are given. A theoretical part discusses methods for the quantization of SIMS data and the most prominent effects of ion-solid interactions as related to SIMS. After a description of the instrument used for experiments (a quadrupole-equipped ion microprobe featuring a liquid metal ion source in addition to the standard duoplasmatron gas ion source) the first experimental section is devoted to the determination of practical sensitivities and relative sensitivity factors for selected pure elements, binary and treary alloys and multicomponent systems. For 23 pure elements practical sensitivities under O + 2 bombardment also have been compared to those under In + -bombardment; it was shown that on oxygen saturated surfaces yields under In + -bombardment are higher, this making feasible use of submicron In-beams for surface analysis. In the second experimental section boron implants in silicon have been used for studying depth profiling capabilities of the instrument. Sputtering yields of Si and degrees of ionization of both B and Si have been measured. It has been shown that implantation profiles may deviate considerably from Gaussian but can be described by means of mathematical distribution functions. In the third experimental section depth resolution of the erosion process has been studied by profiling a Ni/Cr multilayer sample (100 A single layer) and been found to be approximately constant over the depth range investigated. Quantization of depth profiles, usually distorted by matrix effects, has been attempted using the primary beam species (In) as internal implantation standard. Some problems in connection with the conversion of secondary ion micrographs to concentration maps are discussed. Elemental detection limits in multidimensional SIMS analysis are given in dependence of primary beam size and total eroded depth. (Author)

  20. Volcanic instability: the effects of internal pressurisation and consideration of rock mass properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M.; Petford, N.; Bromhead, E. N.

    2003-04-01

    Since the events at mount St Helens during May 1980, there has been considerable attention focused on the mechanisms and consequences of volcanic edifice collapse. As a result catastrophic edifice failure is now recognised as perhaps the most socially devastating natural disaster associated with volcanic activity. The tendency of volcanic edifices to fail appears ubiquitous behaviour, and a number of failure precursors and more importantly triggers have been suggested, of which magmagenic (e.g. thermal and mechanical pore pressure increases) and seismogenic (e.g. tectonic or volcanic earthquakes) are common. Despite the increased interest in this field, large-scale, deep seated catastrophic edifice failure has still only be successfully modelled in the most extreme of cases, which does not account for the volume of field evidence of edifice collapse. One possible reason for this is the way that pore pressures are considered. For pore fluids that are entering the system from the surface (e.g. rain water) there is a set volume and therefore a set pressure that the system can accommodate, as once the edifice becomes saturated, any new fluids to fall on the surface of the edifice simply run off. If we consider internal pore fluid pressurisation from magmatic gasses, then the pressurising fluid is already in the system and the only limit to how much pressure can be accommodated is the strength of the edifice itself. The failure to fully consider the strength and deformability of a rock mass compared to an intact laboratory sample of a volcanic rock may result in a misleading assessment of edifice strength. An intact laboratory sample of basalt may yield a strength of 100--350 MPa (from uniaxial compression tests), a volcanic edifice however is not an intact rock, and is cut through by many discontinuities, including; faults, fractures and layering from discrete lava flows. A better approximation of the true strength can be determined from the rock mass rating (RMR

  1. Wherever I may roam: Processes of self-esteem development from adolescence to emerging adulthood in the context of international student exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutteman, Roos; Nestler, Steffen; Wagner, Jenny; Egloff, Boris; Back, Mitja D

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies on self-esteem development show substantial changes as well as interindividual differences in change from adolescence to young adulthood. However, the processes underlying these developmental trajectories are still not well understood. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the macro- and microprocesses of self-esteem development. We investigated a sample of 876 German high school students (M = 16.0 years at Time 1) participating in an international exchange year. Exchange students provided 3 waves of trait self-esteem data (shortly before they departed, immediately after return, and 1 year later), as well as 9 monthly state measures of self-esteem and social inclusion during their stay abroad. In addition, a control group of high school students who stayed in Germany (N = 714) provided 2 waves of trait self-esteem data. From a macroperspective, results showed an effect of student exchange on trait self-esteem development: Exchange students showed a steeper mean-level increase and a lower rank-order stability compared with control students. Zooming in on the microprocesses underlying these developmental patterns, we found trait changes in exchange students to be mediated by state changes in self-esteem during their exchange. These fluctuations in state self-esteem were found to be predicted by feelings of social inclusion in the host country, and vice versa, providing support for both sociometer and self-broadcasting perspectives on self-esteem dynamics. In sum, our findings emphasize the importance of incorporating a microanalytical approach when investigating self-esteem development by showing that the environment triggers changes in this relatively stable personality trait through changes in states. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Television Traffic: A One-Way Street? A Survey and Analysis of the International Flow of Television Programme Material. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstreng, Kaarle; Varis, Tapio

    An international inventory was made to determine the composition of television programs, particularly from the point of view of program material exported to a country outside. A survey was also made of the international networks for sales and exchanges of program material for broadcast. A report of these studies includes the scope and methods of…

  3. Measuring the hydrogen/deuterium exchange of proteins at high spatial resolution by mass spectrometry: overcoming gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium scrambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Kasper D; Zehl, Martin; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2014-10-21

    Proteins are dynamic molecules that exhibit conformational flexibility to function properly. Well-known examples of this are allosteric regulation of protein activity and ligand-induced conformational changes in protein receptors. Detailed knowledge of the conformational properties of proteins is therefore pertinent to both basic and applied research, including drug development, since the majority of drugs target protein receptors and a growing number of drugs introduced to the market are therapeutic peptides or proteins. X-ray crystallography provides a static picture at atomic resolution of the lowest-energy structure of the native ensemble. There is a growing need for sensitive analytical tools to explore all of the significant molecular structures in the conformational landscape of proteins. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has recently emerged as a powerful method for characterizing protein conformational dynamics. The basis of this method is the fact that backbone amides in stable hydrogen-bonded structures (e.g., α-helices and β-sheets) are protected against exchange with the aqueous solvent. All protein structures are dynamic, however, and eventually all of the protecting hydrogen bonds will transiently break as the protein--according to thermodynamic principles--cycles through partially unfolded states that correspond to excited free energy levels. As a result, all of the backbone amides will eventually become temporarily solvent-exposed and exchange-competent over time. Consequently, a folded protein in D2O will gradually incorporate deuterium into its backbone amides, and the kinetics of the process can be readily monitored by mass spectrometry. The deuterium uptake kinetics for the intact protein (global exchange kinetics) represents the sum of the exchange kinetics for the individual backbone amides. Local exchange kinetics is typically achieved by using pepsin digestion under quench conditions (i.e., under cold

  4. Heat and mass exchange within the soil - plant canopy-atmosphere system : a theroretical approach and its validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Kilani, R.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Heat, mass and momentum transfer between the canopy air layer and the layer of air above has a very intermittent nature. This intermittent nature is due to the passage at the canopy top of coherent structures which have a length scale at least as large as the canopy height. The periodic

  5. Recombinant immobilized rhizopuspepsin as a new tool for protein digestion in hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rey, M.; Man, Petr; Brandolin, G.; Forest, E.; Pelosi, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 21 (2009), s. 3431-3438 ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mass spectrometry * recombinant immobilized rhizopuspepsin * protease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2009

  6. Protein Internal Dynamics Associated With Pre-System Glass Transition Temperature Endothermic Events: Investigation of Insulin and Human Growth Hormone by Solid State Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Grobelny, Pawel J; Bogner, Robin H; Pikal, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Lyophilized proteins are generally stored below their glass transition temperature (T g ) to maintain long-term stability. Some proteins in the (pure) solid state showed a distinct endotherm at a temperature well below the glass transition, designated as a pre-T g endotherm. The pre-T g endothermic event has been linked with a transition in protein internal mobility. The aim of this study was to investigate the internal dynamics of 2 proteins, insulin and human growth hormone (hGH), both of which exhibit the pre-T g endothermic event with onsets at 50°C-60°C. Solid state hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of both proteins was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy over a temperature range from 30°C to 80°C. A distinct sigmoidal transition in the extent of H/D exchange had a midpoint of 56.1 ± 1.2°C for insulin and 61.7 ± 0.9°C for hGH, suggesting a transition to greater mobility in the protein molecules at these temperatures. The data support the hypothesis that the pre-T g event is related to a transition in internal protein mobility associated with the protein dynamical temperature. Exceeding the protein dynamical temperature is expected to activate protein internal motion and therefore may have stability consequences. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Significance of amnioinfusion and amniotic fluid exchange under continuous internal fetal heart rate monitoring for management of fetal distress during labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Ai, L; Zhang, H

    2000-01-01

    To discuss the significance of amnioinfusion and amniotic fluid exchange under continuous internal fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring for management of fetal distress during labor. 136 cases with frequent variable deceleration (VD) and meconium stained amniotic fluid during labor were divided into two groups: the study group (68 cases) and the control group (68 cases). The former were treated by amnioinfusion and amniotic fluid exchange, while oxygen inhalation, change of body position, and intravenous infusion for the control group. In the study group, VD disappeared or relieved in 62 cases obviously, and the efficacy rate reached 91.2% (62/68). 48 cases with II degree meconium stained amniotic fluid were treated by amniotic fluid exchange, amniotic fluid became clear or turned to I degree stained in 39 cases. In the control group, VD relieved in 20 cases, the efficacy rate was 19.4%, significantly lower than that of the study group (P 0.05). Amnioinfusion and AF exchange during labor are one of the effective treatment methods for fetal distress and prevention for MAS.

  8. One dimensional transient numerical study of the mass heat and charge transfer in a proton exchange membrane for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Djamel; Benmoussa, Hocine [Laboratory (LESEI), Faculty of Engineering, University of Batna (Algeria); Bourmada, Noureddine; Oulmi, Kafia [Laboratory LCCE, Faculty of Science, University of Batna (Algeria); Mahmah, Bouziane; Belhamel, Maiouf [CDER, BP, 62 Avenue-Observatoire, Bouzareah, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-06-15

    The objective of our study is to quantify the mass water transferred by various modes: diffusion, convection and migration. For the water transfer, the principal forces considered in the model are, the convection force, the osmotic force (i.e. diffusion) and the electric force (migration). The first of these forces results from a pressure gradient, the second of a concentration gradient and the third of a protons' migration from the anode to the cathode, which has an effect on the dipole of the water molecules (resistance force to the advancement). The numerical tool used to solve the equations' system is the finite element method. The results obtained numerically considering this method are concentration profiles and concentration variation with time and membrane thickness. These results illustrate the contribution of each mass transfer mode. (author)

  9. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula; Mathieson, John; Judd, Laurie; Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana

    2013-01-01

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and

  10. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula [Cogentus Consulting (United States); Mathieson, John [NDA United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Judd, Laurie [NuVision Engineering, Inc. (United States); Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana [US DOE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and

  11. Formation of the black-hole binary M33 X-7 through mass exchange in a tight massive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Francesca; Glebbeek, Evert; Farr, Will M; Fragos, Tassos; Willems, Bart; Orosz, Jerome A; Liu, Jifeng; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2010-11-04

    The X-ray source M33 X-7 in the nearby galaxy Messier 33 is among the most massive X-ray binary stellar systems known, hosting a rapidly spinning, 15.65M(⊙) black hole orbiting an underluminous, 70M(⊙) main-sequence companion in a slightly eccentric 3.45-day orbit (M(⊙), solar mass). Although post-main-sequence mass transfer explains the masses and tight orbit, it leaves unexplained the observed X-ray luminosity, the star's underluminosity, the black hole's spin and the orbital eccentricity. A common envelope phase, or rotational mixing, could explain the orbit, but the former would lead to a merger and the latter to an overluminous companion. A merger would also ensue if mass transfer to the black hole were invoked for its spin-up. Here we report simulations of evolutionary tracks which reveal that if M33 X-7 started as a primary body of 85M(⊙)-99M(⊙) and a secondary body of 28M(⊙)-32M(⊙), in a 2.8-3.1-d orbit, its observed properties can be consistently explained. In this model, the main-sequence primary transfers part of its envelope to the secondary and loses the rest in a wind; it ends its life as a ∼16M(⊙) helium star with an iron-nickel core that collapses to a black hole (with or without an accompanying supernova). The release of binding energy, and possibly collapse asymmetries, 'kick' the nascent black hole into an eccentric orbit. Wind accretion explains the X-ray luminosity, and the black-hole spin can be natal.

  12. STUDY ON DISCLOSURE LEVEL OF COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: THE CASE OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA GORGAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic globalization, the need for high quality financial information has become a desiderate. Accounting met such needs through a set of high quality standards, the International Financial Reporting Standards. Their global imposing, either through adoption or convergence, make its contribution to proper functioning of capital markets and even of the entire economy. The quality of financial reporting, however, is the result of how they are applied in each country or company. The objective of our study is to analyze the disclosure level of companies listed at Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE in compliance with the presentation requirements of the international accounting standard IAS 38 “Intangible assets”. The empirical study revealed a significant level of non-compliance. In order to determine the degree of compliance with international accounting referential we built a disclosure index. Four hypothesis were tested in order to identify the factors that influence the disclosure level.

  13. Endocytic pathway rapidly delivers internalized molecules to lysosomes: an analysis of vesicle trafficking, clustering and mass transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangarkar, Chinmay; Dinh, Anh-Tuan; Mitragotri, Samir

    2012-08-20

    Lysosomes play a critical role in intracellular drug delivery. For enzyme-based therapies, they represent a potential target site whereas for nucleic acid or many protein drugs, they represent the potential degradation site. Either way, understanding the mechanisms and processes involved in routing of materials to lysosomes after cellular entry is of high interest to the field of drug delivery. Most therapeutic cargoes other than small hydrophobic molecules enter the cells through endocytosis. Endocytosed cargoes are routed to lysosomes via microtubule-based transport and are ultimately shared by various lysosomes via tethering and clustering of endocytic vesicles followed by exchange of their contents. Using a combined experimental and numerical approach, here we studied the rates of mass transfer into and among the endocytic vesicles in a model cell line, 3T3 fibroblasts. In order to understand the relationship of mass transfer with microtubular transport and vesicle clustering, we varied both properties through various pharmacological agents. At the same time, microtubular transport and vesicle clustering were modeled through diffusion-advection equations and the Smoluchowski equations, respectively. Our analysis revealed that the rate of mass transfer is optimally related to microtubular transport and clustering properties of vesicles. Further, the rate of mass transfer is highest in the innate state of the cell. Any perturbation to either microtubular transport or vesicle aggregation led to reduced mass transfer to lysosome. These results suggest that in the absence of an external intervention the endocytic pathway appears to maximize molecular delivery to lysosomes. Strategies are discussed to reduce mass transfer to lysosomes so as to extend the residence time of molecules in endosomes or late endosomes, thus potentially increasing the likelihood of their escape before disposition in the lysosomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effects of Shoaling Internal Tides on Benthic Exchange Events and Near-Boundary Mixing Along the Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    BLANK xv LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS PISCO Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans ISW Internal Solitary Waves ITB ...shows how shoaling internal waves are also a vital instrument for transporting nutrients to inner shelf kelp ecosystems. As Internal Tidal Bores ( ITBs ...an internal tidal bore. As the ITB continues to propagate shoreward, the subsequent flood tide will assists in the propagation process. Under

  15. Mass Customization as Innovation Driver of International Competitiveness in Peripheral Regional SME Subcontractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taps, Stig B.; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    practices that can be exploited as competitive capabilities. This paper suggests that an open network structure demands a transformation of peripheral-located SME subcontractor from traditional customized producer to mass customized producer. Mass customization as an instrument for the transformation...

  16. Small renal mass biopsy - how, what and when: report from an international consensus panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsivian, Matvey; Rampersaud, Edward N.; del Pilar Laguna Pes, Maria; Joniau, Steven; Leveillee, Raymond J.; Shingleton, William B.; Aron, Monish; Kim, Charles Y.; DeMarzo, Angelo M.; Desai, Mihir M.; Meler, James D.; Donovan, James F.; Klingler, Hans Christoph; Sopko, David R.; Madden, John F.; Marberger, Michael; Ferrandino, Michael N.; Polascik, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    To discuss the use of renal mass biopsy (RMB) for small renal masses (SRMs), formulate technical aspects, outline potential pitfalls and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. The meeting was conducted as an informal consensus process and no scoring system was used to measure the

  17. 78 FR 79530 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... its By-Laws to correspond with an Equity Rights Program (``ERP'') recently established by the Exchange... No. 10-207). The filing corresponds with the recently implemented ERP, pursuant to which units... to the extent necessary to incorporate rights to participating Members in an ERP to appoint...

  18. 78 FR 18637 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... instant proposed rule change is intended to adopt MIAX rules that address the trading of options overlying... verifiable disruption or malfunction of an Exchange execution, dissemination, or communication system, as... execution, dissemination, or communication system, and thus proposed Rule 530(j) will not include [[Page...

  19. Determination of ethephon residues in water by gas chromatography with cubic mass spectrometry after ion-exchange purification and derivatisation with N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A; Laporte, F; Bouchonnet, S; Communal, P-Y

    2006-03-03

    An analytical method has been developed for the determination of residues of ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) in drinking and surface water. The procedure is based on de-ionisation with an anion/cation-exchange resin, solid phase extraction by means of anion-exchange polystyrene-divinylbenzene extraction disks, elution with a mixture of methanol and 10 M hydrochloric acid (98/2, v/v), redisolution into acetonitrile after evaporation and silylation with N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). Quantification is performed by gas chromatography with ion-trap cubic mass spectrometric detection in the electron impact mode (GC-EI-MS3). Method validation was conducted using samples of mineral, tap, and river water that were fortified with ethephon at concentration levels ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 microg/L. The mean recovery from all the fortified samples (n = 36) amounted to 88% with a relative standard deviation of 17%. The method, therefore, was shown to allow accurate determination of ethephon residues in drinking and surface water with a limit of quantification of 0.1 microg/L.

  20. Determination of Histidine pKa Values in the Propeptides of Furin and Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Using Histidine Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferich, Johannes; Williamson, Danielle M; David, Larry L; Shinde, Ujwal

    2015-08-04

    Propeptides of proprotein convertases regulate activation of their protease domains by sensing the organellar pH within the secretory pathway. Earlier experimental work highlighted the importance of a conserved histidine residue within the propeptide of a widely studied member, furin. A subsequent evolutionary analysis found an increase in histidine content within propeptides of secreted eukaryotic proteases compared with their prokaryotic orthologs. However, furin activates in the trans-golgi network at a pH of 6.5 while a paralog, proprotein convertase 1/3, activates in secretory vesicles at a pH of 5.5. It is unclear how a conserved histidine can mediate activation at two different pH values. In this manuscript, we measured the pKa values of histidines within the propeptides of furin and proprotein convertase 1/3 using a histidine hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry approach. The high density of histidine residues combined with an abundance of basic residues provided challenges for generation of peptide ions with unique histidine residues, which were overcome by employing ETD fragmentation. During this analysis, we found slow hydrogen-deuterium exchange in residues other than histidine at basic pH. Finally, we demonstrate that the pKa of the conserved histidine in proprotein convertase 1/3 is acid-shifted compared with furin and is consistent with its lower pH of activation.