WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal energy flow

  1. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  2. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.

  3. Piezoelectric energy harvesting in internal fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim

    2015-10-14

    We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph's clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.

  4. Beam Flutter and Energy Harvesting in Internal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim; Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae

    2017-11-01

    Aeroelastic flutter, largely studied for causing engineering failures, has more recently been used as a means of extracting energy from the flow. Particularly, flutter of a cantilever or an elastically mounted plate in a converging-diverging flow passage has shown promise as an energy harvesting concept for internal flow applications. The instability onset is observed as a function of throat velocity, internal wall geometry, fluid and structure material properties. To enable these devices, our work explores features of the fluid-structure coupled dynamics as a function of relevant nondimensional parameters. The flutter boundary is examined through stability analysis of a reduced order model, and corroborated with numerical simulations at low Reynolds number. Experiments for an energy harvester design are qualitatively compared to results from analytical and numerical work, suggesting a robust limit cycle ensues due to a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Bosch Corporation.

  5. SGS Modeling of the Internal Energy Equation in LES of Supersonic Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sriram; Brereton, Giles

    2011-11-01

    DNS of fully-developed turbulent supersonic channel flows (Reτ = 190) at up to Mach 3 indicate that the turbulent heat fluxes depend only weakly on Mach number, while the viscous dissipation and pressure dilatation do so strongly. Moreover, pressure dilatation makes a significant contribution to the internal energy budget at Mach 3 and higher. The balance between these terms is critical to determining the temperature (and so molecular viscosity) from the internal energy equation and so, in LES of these flows, it is essential to use accurate SGS models for the viscous dissipation and the pressure dilatation. In this talk, we present LES results for supersonic channel flow, using SGS models for these terms that are based on the resolved-scale dilatation, an inverse timescale, and SGS momentum fluxes, which intrinsically represent this Mach number effect.

  6. Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model for internal energy excitation and dissociation in hypersonic flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafò, A; Panesi, M; Magin, T E

    2014-02-01

    A Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model is proposed to reduce a detailed kinetic mechanism database developed at NASA Ames Research Center for internal energy transfer and dissociation in N(2)-N interactions. The coarse-grained model is constructed by lumping the rovibrational energy levels of the N(2) molecule into energy bins. The population of the levels within each bin is assumed to follow a Boltzmann distribution at the local translational temperature. Excitation and dissociation rate coefficients for the energy bins are obtained by averaging the elementary rate coefficients. The energy bins are treated as separate species, thus allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. The proposed coarse-grained model is applied to the study of nonequilibrium flows behind normal shock waves and within converging-diverging nozzles. In both cases, the flow is assumed inviscid and steady. Computational results are compared with those obtained by direct solution of the master equation for the rovibrational collisional model and a more conventional multitemperature model. It is found that the proposed coarse-grained model is able to accurately resolve the nonequilibrium dynamics of internal energy excitation and dissociation-recombination processes with only 20 energy bins. Furthermore, the proposed coarse-grained model provides a superior description of the nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in shock heated and nozzle flows when compared with the conventional multitemperature models.

  7. Energy efficiency analyses of active flow aftertreatment systems for lean burn internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ming; Reader, Graham T.

    2004-01-01

    The use of three way catalytic converters in stoichiometric burn reciprocating internal combustion engine systems has proved to be an effective and efficient method for reducing the level of criteria pollutants. However, such passive systems have not been as successful in emission amelioration when combined with lean burn engines. This is because of the thermochemical nature of the exhaust gases generated by such engines. The high content of exhaust oxygen largely negates the effectiveness of three way catalytic converters, and the comparatively low temperature of the combusted gases means that supplemental energy has to be added to these gases to enable the converter to function correctly. This requirement severely reduces the energy efficiency of conventional passive aftertreatment systems. However, initial empirical studies have indicated that a possible means of improving the performance of aftertreatment devices when used with lean burn engine systems is to use active flow control of the exhaust gases. These results are reported in this paper. This concept has been further investigated by developing an energy efficiency analysis that enables the effects on aftertreatment performance of different gas flow rates, flow reversal frequencies and monolith solid properties to be investigated. Simulation results indicate that through active thermal management, the supplemental energy consumption can be drastically reduced

  8. Scattering of inhomogeneous circularly polarized optical field and mechanical manifestation of the internal energy flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekshaev, A. Ya; Angelsky, O. V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    between the forward- and backward-scattered momentum fluxes in the Rayleigh scattering regime appears due to the spin part of the internal energy flow in the incident beam. The transverse ponderomotive forces exerted on dielectric and conducting particles of different sizes are calculated and special......Based on the Mie theory and on the incident beam model via superposition of two plane waves, we analyze numerically the momentum flux of the field scattered by a spherical, nonmagnetic microparticle placed within the spatially inhomogeneous circularly polarized paraxial light beam. The asymmetry...

  9. A neural network approach to the study of internal energy flow in molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumpter, B.G.; Getino, C.; Noid, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Neural networks are used to develop a new technique for efficient analysis of data obtained from molecular-dynamics calculations and is applied to the study of mode energy flow in molecular systems. The methodology is based on teaching an appropriate neural network the relationship between phase-space points along a classical trajectory and mode energies for stretch, bend, and torsion vibrations. Results are discussed for reactive and nonreactive classical trajectories of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on a semiempirical potential-energy surface. The neural-network approach is shown to produce reasonably accurate values for the mode energies, with average errors between 1% and 12%, and is applicable to any region within the 24-dimensional phase space of H 2 O 2 . In addition, the generic knowledge learned by the neural network allows calculations to be made for other molecular systems. Results are discussed for a series of tetratomic molecules: H 2 X 2 , X=C, N, O, Si, S, or Se, and preliminary results are given for energy flow predictions in macromolecules

  10. International energy outlook 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  11. International energy outlook 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA's projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA's World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts' knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs

  12. International energy outlook, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2035, : prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, including outlooks : for major energy fuels and associated carbon dioxide emissions. The International Energy Outlook 2010 (...

  13. International energy financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedavalli, Rangaswamy

    1994-01-01

    Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK)

  14. Orbital rotation without orbital angular momentum: mechanical action of the spin part of the internal energy flow in light beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    flow upon tight focusing of the beam, usually applied for energy flow detection by means of the mechanical action upon probe particles. We propose a two-beam interference technique that results in an appreciable level of spin flow in moderately focused beams and detection of the orbital motion of probe...... particles within a field where the transverse energy circulation is associated exclusively with the spin flow. This result can be treated as the first demonstration of mechanical action of the spin flow of a light field....

  15. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  16. Flow energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective hydropower system called here Flow Energy Converter was developed, patented, manufactured and tested for water pumping, electricity generation and other purposes especially useful for the rural communities. The system consists of water-driven turbine with plane-surface blades, power transmission means and pump and/or generator. Working sample of the Flow Energy Converter was designed and manufactured at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics

  17. International energy outlook, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. This and other EIA reports are provided as a statistical service for use by managers and international energy analysts, not as a Government energy plan. Current US Government policies and foreign government policies are assumed to hold over the projection interval, which extends to the year 2010

  18. The Flow of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znidarsic, F.; Robertson, G. A.

    In this paper, the flow of energy in materials is presented as mechanical waves with a distinct velocity or speed of transition. This speed of transition came about through the observations of cold fusion experiments, i.e., Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) and superconductor gravity experiments, both assumed speculative by mainstream science. In consideration of superconductor junctions, the LENR experiments have a similar speed of transition, which seems to imply that the reactions in the LENR experiment are discrete quantized reactions (energy - burst vs. continuous). Here an attempt is made to quantify this new condition as it applies to electrons; toward the progression of quantized energy flows (discrete energy burst) as a new source of clean energy and force mechanisms (i.e, propulsion).

  19. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  20. ECAL Energy Flow Calibration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    My talk will be covering my work as a whole over the course of the semester. The focus will be on using energy flow calibration in ECAL to check the precision of the corrections made by the light monitoring system used to account for transparency loss within ECAL crystals due to radiation damage over time.

  1. International energy outlook, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. The historic political and economic changes occurring in Easter Europe and the former Soviet Union will, no doubt, transform regional markets and world trade. This report pays particular attention to energy markets and resources in those countries that were once a part of the Centrally Planned Economies (CPE's) and how prospective changes in these countries might influence the energy outlook for the rest of the world. Several major EIA estimates determine, in large part, the resulting energy projections presented here. These include estimates of the energy intensity of economic activity; oil and natural gas production capacities; nuclear and hydroelectric generation capacities; international coal trade; and the rate of incremental energy requirements met by alternatives to oil

  2. Industrial energy-flow management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampret, Marko; Bukovec, Venceslav; Paternost, Andrej; Krizman, Srecko; Lojk, Vito; Golobic, Iztok

    2007-01-01

    Deregulation of the energy market has created new opportunities for the development of new energy-management methods based on energy assets, risk management, energy efficiency and sustainable development. Industrial energy-flow management in pharmaceutical systems, with a responsible approach to sustainable development, is a complex task. For this reason, an energy-information centre, with over 14,000 online measured data/nodes, was implemented. This paper presents the energy-flow rate, exergy-flow rate and cost-flow rate diagrams, with emphasis on cost-flow rate per energy unit or exergy unit of complex pharmaceutical systems

  3. International energy outlook 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  4. The internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The briefs compile the results of the studies the Commission worked out on the subject on the basis of experiences gained on its own part, on the part of the government and on the part of the market. The briefs are based on the schematic inventory annexed which for each energy sector points out the different existing or potential obstacles to a common energy market the most comprehensive and transparent way possible. Step by step part one and part two discuss the general problems connected with the integration of energy into the internal market, priorities which according to the Commission should be investigated into, and guidelines for such investigations. (orig./UA) [de

  5. International energy annual, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  6. International energy annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports for primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude petroleum and petroleum products in selected countries. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed with respect to primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources and from United States Embassy personnel in foreign posts. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values familiar to the American public

  7. International energy outlook 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year's report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs

  8. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  9. International energy outlook 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  10. International energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  11. International energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided

  12. International nuclear energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning current technical and economical events in the nuclear field. Twelve papers have been abstracted and input to the data base. The ''international nuclear energy guide'' gives a general directory of the name, the address and the telephone number of the companies and bodies quoted in this guide; a chronology of the main events 1982. The administrative and professional organization, the nuclear courses and research centers in France are presented, as also the organization of protection and safety, and of nuclear fuel cycle. The firms concerned by the design and the construction of NSSS and the allied nuclear firms are also presented. The last part of this guide deals with the nuclear energy in the world: descriptive list of international organizations, and, the nuclear activities throughout the world (alphabetical order by countries) [fr

  13. International energy indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, E. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Data are tabulated and graphically represented on international energy indicators. The following are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October, 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1975 to October, 1981; summary of US merchandise trade, 1977 to October, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio

  14. Energy data flow control within the deregulated internal energy market. Harmonization of data formats and designations; Energiedatenfluesse in Europa. Harmonisierung von Datenformaten und Bezeichnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanzetta, J. [RWE Net AC, Brauweiler (Germany)

    2003-05-05

    The functions and the co-ordination of activities of transmission utilities and transmission network users (power resellers, industrial users and power plants operators) in the deregulated internal energy market are explained referring in particular to the rapidly increasing volume of data interchange and its growing complexity. For improving the situation in the current power supply and trading environment within the EU, a major task is to achieve interoperability of the systems, while maintaining the present level of systems reliability. (orig./CB) [German] Die Aufgaben und das Zusammenwirken von Uebertragungsnetzbetreibern (UeNB) und Netznutzern (Haendlern, Stromabnehmern und Kraftwerken) im liberalisierten Strommarkt werden beschrieben mit Fokus auf den fuer die Systemfuehrung benoetigten Datenaustausch, der durch die Schaffung des europaweiten Elektrizitaetsbinnenmarktes mit unterschiedlichen nationalen Auspraegungen wesentlich komplexer und umfangreicher geworden ist. Die Bewaeltigung dieser wachsenden Anforderungen an die Datenstroeme traegt wesentlich dazu bei, dass der europaeische Elektrizitaetsmarkt weiter entwickelt werden kann, ohne dass dies zu Einschraenkungen der Systemzuverlaessigkeit fuehrt. (orig.)

  15. Energy banking flowing well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, John Edward

    2003-01-01

    Russia and LNG are themes for the coming year. Despite many hot spots globally, these two topics have been huge drivers of our business in the past year and we believe will continue to be so for the coming future. We will also briefly touch on the environment, as this is a topic gaining significant attention and investment by all stakeholders in the industry. During 2003, energy bankers have been busy, although perhaps not as busy as several years ago. While there have been some notable deals in the M and A, capital markets, and lending parts of the business, overall business has been slower than a few years ago. However, Energy bankers are busier than their colleagues in other sectors, and the outlook is favourable. Particularly, energy lending activities should remain robust

  16. International Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doringoni, S.; Pontoni, F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes recent market trends in the oil and natural gas sector. For the latter, a focus on the European gas market is then presented, whose consumption has grown considerably in these last ten years. As for the oil sector this paper investigates the key elements that have shaped its market in these years. As for oil consumption, we show that in these last 15 years China, India and the Middle East are the main responsible for the increase in World consumption. On the other hand, European OECD Countries have consistently reduced (almost 9%) their oil demand. This is due both to the dematerialization of their economy and their significant improvements in energy efficiency. As for energy intensity, in fact, Europe by far is the most efficient region in the World. On the other hand, OPEC has drastically raised its share of total production: at present the cartel accounts for more than 40% of overall production. OPEC members were the only producers to meet World's needs as oil demand expanded. The difficulties of other producers to keep up with the demand originated in the nineties, when no investment in new production capacity was brought about due to low oil prices. In the end of 2008, anyway, recession has eased the situation: for the first time in fifteen years, demand has not grown, compared to 2007 consumption. Recession has also shrunk prices, which, as soon as the demand started decreasing, have collapsed by almost 70%. As for the gas sector, the paper focuses on the European market where, after ten years from the beginning of the liberalization process, competition is still missing. In particular, the paper discusses whether LNG can bring about the competition so desperately needed. Unlike investments in pipelines, those in the LNG chain present a much lower degree of specificity, since the importer is not physically tied with the producer; moreover, it is getting increasingly common that part of the plant capacity is made available for spot

  17. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  18. Energy flows of the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    Mankind consumes more than 90% of the animal production of the world. The locking of a significant part of the biosphere energy flow onto the anthropogenic chain leads to the dislodging of natural forms of organisms of the biosphere, change of its functioning and self-regulation. For the maintenance of stable existence of a small set of cultivated plants and domestic animals not forming the complete set indispensable for reaction to the change of natural conditions, man is compelled to follow the path of auxiliary investments of energy and to compensate for the destruction of closed circulations of food substances by the flow of fertilizers extracted from natural deposits. Energy assessments show the lack of realism of many projects for increasing the global energy flow in the anthropogenic channel by increasing the full flow of energy of the biosphere. To obtain the net production of the contemporary plowed field in hotbed on the basis of hydroponics there is required 2 x 10/sup 14/ watts of additional energy. To provide for the inflow of such an amount of energy (and also vast volumes of fresh water) presents extremely complicated problems. According to the author's calculations, in a provisional conversion of all production of green plants, all gas and petroleum and edible food with an efficiency equal to 1%, it is possible to provide food reserves equal to one annual harvest of the plowed fields of the world of 2 x 10/sup 9/ tons.

  19. International energy annual, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production, consumption, reserves, trade, and prices for five primary energy sources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear electricity. It also presents information on petroleum products. Since the early 1980's the world's total output of primary energy has increased steadily. The annual average growth rate of energy production during the decade was 1.9 percent. Throughout the 1980's, petroleum was the world's most heavily used type of energy. In 1989, three countries--the United States, the USSR, and China--were the leading producers and consumers of world energy. Together, these countries consumed and produced almost 50 percent of the world's total energy. Global production and consumption of crude oil and natural gas liquids increased during the 1980's, despite a decline in total production and demand in the early part of the decade. World production of dry natural gas continued to rise steadily in the 1980's. For the last several years, China has been the leading producer of coal, followed by the United States. In 1989, hydroelectricity supply declined slightly from the upward trend of the last 10 years. Nuclear power generation rose slightly from the 1988 level, compared with the marked growth in earlier years. Prices for major crude oils all increased between 1988 and 1989, but remained well below the price levels at the beginning of the decade. 26 figs., 36 tabs

  20. Internal and external axial corner flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutler, P.; Shankar, V.; Anderson, D. A.; Sorenson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The inviscid, internal, and external axial corner flows generated by two intersecting wedges traveling supersonically are obtained by use of a second-order shock-capturing, finite-difference approach. The governing equations are solved iteratively in conical coordinates to yield the complicated wave structure of the internal corner and the simple peripheral shock of the external corner. The numerical results for the internal flows compare favorably with existing experimental data.

  1. 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume collects various contributions from the 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows (ICJWSF2015) that took place in Stockholm during June 2015. Researchers from all around the world presented their latest results concerning fundamental and applied aspects of fluid dynamics. With its general character, the conference embraced many aspects of fluid dynamics, such as shear flows, multiphase flows and vortex flows, for instance. The structure of the present book reflects the variety of topics treated within the conference i.e. Jets, Wakes, Separated flows, Vehicle aerodynamics, Wall-bounded and confined flows, Noise, Turbomachinery flows, Multiphase and reacting flows, Vortex dynamics, Energy-related flows and a section dedicated to Numerical analyses.

  2. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  3. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  4. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  5. International availability of energy minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, N A [Norman White Associates, London (UK)

    1979-06-01

    Whereas the ultimate world supply of energy minerals - defined as fossil fuels and fissile minerals - is controlled by geological factors, the actual supply at any particular time is controlled by economic feasibility, technological innovations and/or political decisions. This paper identifies and discusses the principal uncertainties surrounding the international availability of energy minerals from now until the end of the century. A brief comparison is also made between energy and non-energy minerals.

  6. Fluid flow nozzle energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey [1] identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.

  7. International energy indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoi, E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented under the following headings: world crude oil production, OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels; and oil consumption in the OECD countries. The USSR crude oil production and exports; free world and US nuclear electricity generation; US domestic oil supply; US gross imports of crude oil and products; landed cost of Saudi crude, current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade; US natural gas trade; summary of US merchandise trade; and energy/GNP ratio data are also included.

  8. International energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.; Westrus, I.

    2001-01-01

    The industry, and later on households as well, are free to choose which company will be their energy supplier. The chances that it is going to be a foreign company are high. Many Dutch production companies were taken over by a foreign company. American companies, e.g. Reliant, Enron and TXU, Electrabel from Belgium and E.On from Germany all want a part of the Dutch industrial market. It is going to be a crowded market place and each company has it's own strategy to survive

  9. International nuclear energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this French-English bilingual Guide is to present a synthesis embracing all the aspects and all the implications of the development of nuclear energy by situating it both within the French administrative and professional framework and in the world context. Special attention has been paid to the protection of man and the environment and to safety and security problems; most of the other questions -technological, economic, industrial- which arise at all points in the nuclear cycle. Teaching and research are outlined and a special appendix is devoted to nuclear information [fr

  10. Energy research, national and international

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhijn, A.A.T. van

    1976-01-01

    The Dutch Energy Research Programme inaugurated by the National Steering Group for Energy Research (LSEO) is discussed. Three types of criteria to be borne in mind in the selection of new directions in development are considered: the setting of targets for energy policy: the general central social and economic aims of the country; and the scientific, financial and organisational possibilities. International aspects are reviewed with reference to the IEA, CERN, Euratom, ELDO and ESRO. (D.J.B.)

  11. Thermodilution-determined Internal Jugular Venous Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Widmer, Mario; Hilty, Matthias P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases ~20% during whole body exercise although a Kety-Schmidt-determined CBF is reported to remain stable; a discrepancy that could reflect evaluation of arterial vs. internal jugular venous (IJV) flow and/or that CBF is influenced by posture. Here we test...

  12. Boundary element method for internal axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhman Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an accurate fast method for the computation of potential internal axisymmetric flow based on the boundary element technique. We prove that the computed velocity field asymptotically satisfies reasonable boundary conditions at infinity for various types of inlet/exit. Computation of internal axisymmetric potential flow is an essential ingredient in the three-dimensional problem of computation of velocity fields in turbomachines. We include the results of a practical application of the method to the computation of flow in turbomachines of Kaplan and Francis types.

  13. DTU International Energy Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to solve some of the challenges introduced by the broader integration of renewable sources. Closer integration and coordination of energy infrastructures might also lead to a more cost-effective energy system with a lower impact on the environment and climate. The DTU International Energy Report 2015......One of the challenges in the transition to a non-fossil energy system with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources is to secure a well-functioning and stable electricity infrastructure. Today, conventional generation is responsible for providing many of the power system services needed...... for stable and reliable electricity infrastructure operation. When fluctuating renewable energy sources are taking over, the heating, cooling, gas, and transport infrastructures may be able to provide some of the flexibility needed. Closer integration of the various energy infrastructures is thus a means...

  14. DTU International Energy Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to make this possible. This energy report addresses energy storage from a broad perspective: It analyses smaller stores that can be used locally in for example heat storage in the individual home or vehicle, such as electric cars or hydrogen cars. The report also addresses decentralized storage...... as flywheels and batteries linked to decentralized energy systems. In addition it addresses large central storages as pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage and analyse this in connection with international transmission and trading over long distances. The report addresses electrical storage...

  15. International energy-promotion-activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.

  16. Energy flow during disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paley, J.I.; Andrew, P.; Cowley, S.C.; Fundamenski, W.; Huber, A.

    2005-01-01

    Disruptions place severe limitations on the materials selected for plasma facing components in fusion devices. In a disruption, the plasma stored thermal and magnetic energy is dissipated leading to predicted power loadings in the current quench of up to 10 MW m -2 in JET. In the thermal quench very high power loads of up to 10 G Wm -2 would be expected if all the power flowed to the steady state strike points, however this is not observed. In this paper the energy balance associated with both events is investigated. The magnetic energy is found to balance well with radiated energy. Circumstantial evidence for limiter interaction during the thermal quench of plasmas in divertor configuration is presented and a possible mechanism for limiter interaction in disruptions resulting from the collapse of an internal transport barrier is discussed

  17. Virtual Seafloor Reduces Internal Wave Generation by Tidal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likun; Swinney, Harry L.

    2014-03-01

    Our numerical simulations of tidal flow of a stratified fluid over periodic knife-edge ridges and random topography reveal that the time-averaged tidal energy converted into internal gravity wave radiation arises only from the section of a ridge above a virtual seafloor. The average radiated power is approximated by the power predicted by linear theory if the height of the ridge is measured relative to the virtual floor. The concept of a virtual floor can extend the applicability of linear theory to global predictions of the conversion of tidal energy into internal wave energy in the oceans.

  18. Internal Flow of Contra-Rotating Small Hydroturbine at Off- Design Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIGEMITSU, Toru; TAKESHIMA, Yasutoshi; OGAWA, Yuya; FUKUTOMI, Junichiro

    2016-11-01

    Small hydropower generation is one of important alternative energy, and enormous potential lie in the small hydropower. However, efficiency of small hydroturbines is lower than that of large one. Then, there are demands for small hydroturbines to keep high performance in wide flow rate range. Therefore, we adopted contra-rotating rotors, which can be expected to achieve high performance. In this research, performance of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine with 60mm casing diameter was investigated by an experiment and numerical analysis. Efficiency of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine was high in pico-hydroturbine and high efficiency could be kept in wide flow rate range, however the performance of a rear rotor decreased significantly in partial flow rates. Then, internal flow condition, which was difficult to measure experimentally, was investigated by the numerical flow analysis. Then, a relation between the performance and internal flow condition was considered by the numerical analysis result.

  19. International availability of energy minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, N A

    1978-09-01

    Whereas the ultimate world supply of energy minerals--defined as fossil fuels and fissile materials--is controlled by geological factors, the actual supply at any particular time is controlled by economic feasibility, technological innovations and/or political decisions. This paper identifies and discusses the principal uncertainties surrounding the international availability of energy minerals from now until the end of the century. Genuine shortages of energy minerals are now of a very long-term nature, whereas artificial ones may occur at any time and have a serious effect on the world economy due to the dependence of most OECD countries on imports of energy minerals. This paper argues that events over the last decade will progressively lead to a major, long-lasting transformation of the energy scene worldwide. This transformation will encompass demand, in terms of conservation and efficiency, the supply mix of the various energy minerals, the supply system and the structure of the different energy industries. It is already affecting the role of governments and reaching into the question of national sovereignty, thereby making energy minerals a key area of international relations. In all these respects, this paper concludes that we have entered an era that is quite different from those we have experienced in the past. As well as requiring many new technological innovations, more importantly, attention must be focused on the development of new approaches to meeting the energy industries' capital requirements in the decades ahead--first, because of the changing character of the energy industries and the magnitude of their financial requirements; secondly, because of the nature of the uncertainties with which they are faced; and thirdly, because of the constantly shifting and increasingly complex world capital market conditions.

  20. 2nd International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF '95

    CERN Document Server

    Fukano, T; Bataille, Jean

    1995-01-01

    There is increasing world-wide interest in obtaining an understanding of various multiphase flow phenomena and problems in terms of a common language of multiphase flow. This volume contains state-of-the-art papers which have been contributed from all over the world by experts working on all aspects of multiphase flows. The volume also highlights international technology-sharing in the fields of energy, environment and public health, in order to create a brighter and sustainable future for man and for all life in the next century. It is intended that this volume will serve as a major source of

  1. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  2. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  3. Nuclear energy and international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, B.

    1975-01-01

    The historical perspectives of the international organizations' role concerning the development and spreading of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, taking into account the national interests within and towards these organizations, are portrayed. The difference in political status between the so-called nuclear and non-nuclear States, lodged in Articles I and II of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is an important factor. The effects so far of these differences in status on the interest of nuclear States to participate in organizations and on factors which might possibly lead to conflict between these two groups are presented. The author skirts the cooperation between organizations (international bureaucracies, group-formation of states). (HP/LN) [de

  4. Internal energy relaxation in shock wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josyula, Eswar; Suchyta, Casimir J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Vedula, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    The Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation is numerically integrated to characterize the internal structure of Mach 3 and Mach 5 shock waves in a gas with excitation in the internal energy states for the treatment of inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are modeled with the hard sphere collision model and the transition rates for the inelastic collisions modified appropriately using probabilities based on relative velocities of the colliding particles. The collision integral is evaluated by the conservative discrete ordinate method [F. Tcheremissine, “Solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation for high-speed flows,” Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 46, 315–329 (2006); F. Cheremisin, “Solution of the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation,” Dokl. Phys. 47, 487–490 (2002)] developed for the Boltzmann equation. For the treatment of the diatomic molecules, the internal energy modes in the Boltzmann equation are described quantum mechanically given by the WCU equation. As a first step in the treatment of the inelastic collisions by the WCU equation, a two- and three-quantum system is considered to study the effect of the varying of (1) the inelastic cross section and (2) the energy gap between the quantum energy states. An alternative method, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, is used for the Mach 3 shock wave to ensure the consistency of implementation in the two methods and there is an excellent agreement between the two methods. The results from the WCU implementation showed consistent trends for the Mach 3 and Mach5 standing shock waves simulations. Inelastic contributions change the downstream equilibrium state and allow the flow to transition to the equilibrium state further upstream

  5. RISKS AND CONTRADICTORY OF INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL FLOWS IN BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shevchenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The content of the international capital flows are studied, its contradictor influence on global and national processes. Some theoretical approaches on contradictory impact of capital flows. The major risks of international capital flows in banking sector are determined including financial, currency, assets value decrease, credit rating etc. The capital flows reversal flows are explained. The modern changes of international capital flows to banking sector of Ukraine are discovered.

  6. Malaysia commercial energy flow: status and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Aisya Raihan Abdul Kadir; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Azlinda Aziz; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim

    2008-08-01

    With further growth of Malaysia economy, future development of the energy sector in Malaysia is vital to ensure targeted growth. Commercial Energy continues to play a major role in ensuring a balanced energy mix for power generation due to a potential increase in energy demand from various sectors, especially the industrial sector. This paper presents the status and structure of Malaysia Commercial Energy Flow, which gives an overview of the flow of all types of energy sources from primary energy supply to final energy use, and also the potential for nuclear power in electricity generation in Malaysia. (Author)

  7. Measuring Gravity in International Trade Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of income levels of countries, and in trade of most manThe purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of

  8. Flow Energy Piezoelectric Bimorph Nozzle Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Walkemeyer, Phillip E. (Inventor); Hall, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Colonius, Tim (Inventor); Tosi, Phillipe (Inventor); Kim, Namhyo (Inventor); Sun, Kai (Inventor); Corbett, Thomas Gary (Inventor); Arrazola, Alvaro Jose (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A flow energy harvesting device having a harvester pipe includes a flow inlet that receives flow from a primary pipe, a flow outlet that returns the flow into the primary pipe, and a flow diverter within the harvester pipe having an inlet section coupled to the flow inlet, a flow constriction section coupled to the inlet section and positioned at a midpoint of the harvester pipe and having a spline shape with a substantially reduced flow opening size at a constriction point along the spline shape, and an outlet section coupled to the constriction section. The harvester pipe may further include a piezoelectric structure extending from the inlet section through the constriction section and point such that the fluid flow past the constriction point results in oscillatory pressure amplitude inducing vibrations in the piezoelectric structure sufficient to cause a direct piezoelectric effect and to generate electrical power for harvesting.

  9. Prospects of the international energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    The findings of two studies on the international prospects of energy development are discussed: 1) Energy: Global Prospects 1985-2000. Report of the Workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies (WAES) and 2) World Energy Outlook, a recent OECD energy study which is a supplement to the Energy prospects to 1985 study, which was completed in 1974. (UA) [de

  10. National and international graduate migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Irene; Wright, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the nature of national and international graduate migration flows in the UK. Migration equations are estimated with microdata from a matched dataset of Students and Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education, information collected by the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The probability of migrating is related to a set of observable characteristics using multinomial logit regression. The analysis suggests that migration is a selective process with graduates with certain characteristics having considerably higher probabilities of migrating, both to other regions of the UK and abroad.

  11. CFD investigation of flow through internally riffled boiler tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian; Houbak, Niels; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we show how to model the swirling flow in an internally riffled boiler tube. The flow field is visualized and the results are compared with measurements.......In this paper we show how to model the swirling flow in an internally riffled boiler tube. The flow field is visualized and the results are compared with measurements....

  12. The Determinants of International News Flow: A Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmo; Barnett, George A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the structure of international news flow and its determinants. Reveals inequality of international news flow between core and periphery, with Western industrialized countries at the center. Finds that the news flow network is structured into eight geographic-linguistic groups. Indicates flow is influenced by a country's economic…

  13. Energy - politics - history. National and international energy politics since 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohensee, J.; Salewski, M.

    1993-01-01

    All articles focus on historical aspects of the development of energy politics in the Federal Republic of Germany (energy enconomy and industry, hard coal, nuclear energy). Some articles also look at international developments (oil boycott, Saudia Arabias's oil policies, International Energy Agency). (UA) [de

  14. The International Energy Agency's world energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, S.

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 edition of the World Energy Outlook to 2010 was reviewed. An overview of the energy projections was provided based on assumptions about economic growth and energy prices, geological potential, technological developments, the availability of traditional fuels outside the OECD and the future preferences of energy users. Demand vs. price movements were modelled, based on 'capacity constraints' and 'energy saving ' scenarios. Three major conclusions derived from the projections were: (1) world primary energy demand will grow steadily as it has over the past two decades, (2) fossil fuels will account for 90 per cent of total primary energy demand in 2010, and (3) a structural shift in the shares of different regions in world energy demand is likely to occur, i.e., the OECD share will fall in favor of the share of the ROW (rest of the world). 4 tabs., 9 figs

  15. Energy and environment policies. International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is made of how energy policies can be adapted to environmental concerns. The efficiency of measures solving environmental problems is investigated, in particular measures substituting energy carriers, improving energy efficiency rates, postfitting pollution control devices, and applying clean energy technologies. In connection with methods of state control the report deals with questions of taxation and regularization which are to induce the private sector to actively to something for the protection of the environment. (orig.) [de

  16. International and national organizations within nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, S.

    1975-03-01

    A survey is given of the organization, objective and action of international and national organizations working with nuclear energy. Five types of organizations are treated: international governmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, international organizations dealing with ionizing radiation, nordic organizations, and Swedish organizations. Special attention is payed to the Swedish participation in the different organizations. (K.K)

  17. International Atomic Energy Agency and Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rahim Mohd Nor

    1985-01-01

    A review on IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and its relation with Malaysia is given. This article also discusses the background history of IAEA, its organization and functions in the field of nuclear energy

  18. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The International Energy Agency: Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations that record and index information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of INIS. Nuclear information prepared for INIS by ETDE member countries is included in the ETDE Energy Database, which contains the online equivalent of the printed INIS Atomindex. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects thscope of international energy research, development, and technological programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as ``Energy Science & Technology`` by DIALOG Information Services, ``Energy`` by STN International and the ``ETDE Energy Database`` by SilverPlatter. It is also the thesaurus for the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) online databases of the US Department of Energy.

  19. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  20. Field Flows of Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahn, Robert N.; de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.

    2008-07-08

    Scalar field dark energy evolving from a long radiation- or matter-dominated epoch has characteristic dynamics. While slow-roll approximations are invalid, a well defined field expansion captures the key aspects of the dark energy evolution during much of the matter-dominated epoch. Since this behavior is determined, it is not faithfully represented if priors for dynamical quantities are chosen at random. We demonstrate these features for both thawing and freezing fields, and for some modified gravity models, and unify several special cases in the literature.

  1. International study on energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A study, presented in September 2004 at the world energy council congress of Sydney (Australia) by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) evaluates the energy efficiency policies and their impact in 63 countries, and in particular in the developing countries. It has permitted to identify the five most efficient measures about which case studies have been given to subject specialists for thorough analysis. Completed in July 2004, this triennial report has been carried out by the Ademe and the World energy council with the joint collaboration of the Latin American energy organization (Olade) and the Asia Pacific energy research centre (Aperc) under the coordination of Enerdata agency. This short article makes a brief summary of this presentation: energy efficiency at the global scale, transport sector, world power consumption and CO 2 emissions, evaluation of energy efficiency policies and measures (institutions and programmes, efficiency labels and standards for household appliances, innovative financing means, local information centers). (J.S.)

  2. Energy, entropy, and the flow of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Thomas F

    2018-01-01

    A fresh and unified exploration of the laws that govern natural change, examining the historical roots and meaning of the concepts of energy and entropy. All natural processes--mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, and biological--are viewed as a flow across free energy gradients that interact with one another.

  3. 76 FR 69714 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA... Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will be held at the headquarters of... of Switzerland --Questionnaire Response of The Netherlands 5. Emergency Response Exercises...

  4. Optimal energy growth in a stably stratified shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sharath; Roy, Anubhab; Bale, Rahul; Iyer, Krithika; Govindarajan, Rama

    2018-02-01

    Transient growth of perturbations by a linear non-modal evolution is studied here in a stably stratified bounded Couette flow. The density stratification is linear. Classical inviscid stability theory states that a parallel shear flow is stable to exponentially growing disturbances if the Richardson number (Ri) is greater than 1/4 everywhere in the flow. Experiments and numerical simulations at higher Ri show however that algebraically growing disturbances can lead to transient amplification. The complexity of a stably stratified shear flow stems from its ability to combine this transient amplification with propagating internal gravity waves (IGWs). The optimal perturbations associated with maximum energy amplification are numerically obtained at intermediate Reynolds numbers. It is shown that in this wall-bounded flow, the three-dimensional optimal perturbations are oblique, unlike in unstratified flow. A partitioning of energy into kinetic and potential helps in understanding the exchange of energies and how it modifies the transient growth. We show that the apportionment between potential and kinetic energy depends, in an interesting manner, on the Richardson number, and on time, as the transient growth proceeds from an optimal perturbation. The oft-quoted stabilizing role of stratification is also probed in the non-diffusive limit in the context of disturbance energy amplification.

  5. California energy flow in 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1995-04-01

    Energy consumption in the state of California decreased about 3% in 1993 reflecting continuation of the recession that was manifest in a moribund construction industry and a high state unemployment that ran counter to national recovery trends. Residential/commercial use decreased slightly reflecting a mild winter in the populous southern portion of the state, a decrease that was offset to some extent by an increase in the state population. Industrial consumption of purchased energy declined substantially as did production of self-generated electricity for in-house use. Consumption in the transportation sector decreased slightly. The amount of power transmitted by the utilities was at 1992 levels; however a smaller proportion was produced by the utilities themselves. Generation of electricity by nonutilities, primarily cogenerators and small power producers, was the largest of any state in the US. The growth in the number of private power producers combined with increased amounts of electricity sold to the public utilities set the stage for the sweeping proposals before the California Public Utility Commission to permit direct sales from the nonutilities to retail customers. California production of both oil and natural gas declined; however, to meet demand only the imports of natural gas increased. A break in the decade-long drought during the 1992--1993 season resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of hydroelectricity generated during the year. Geothermal energy`s contribution increased substantially because of the development of new resources by small power producers. Decline in steam production continued at The Geysers, the state`s largest field, principally owned and managed by a public utility. Increases in windpower constituted 1--1/2% of the total electric supply--up slightly from 1992. Several solar photo voltaic demonstration plants were in operation, but their contribution remained small.

  6. The International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.

    2000-01-01

    A system of international safeguards has been established to provide assurance that nuclear materials in civilian use are not diverted from their peaceful purpose. The safeguards system is administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency/Department of Safeguards and devolves from treaties and other international agreements. Inspectors from the Agency verify reports from States about nuclear facilities by audits, observation, and measurements. (author)

  7. International nuclear energy law - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    International nuclear energy law, as discussed in this article, is the law relating to the global, peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. The position of nuclear law in the wide realm of law itself as well as the present status of nuclear legislation is assessed. This article also covers the development of international nuclear energy law, from the first nuclear law - the New Zealand Atomic Energy Act of 1945-, the present and the future. National and international organizations concerned with nuclear energy and their contribribution to nuclear law are reviewed

  8. California energy flow in 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. K.; Borg, I. Y.

    1981-03-01

    Energy use in California during 1979 differed significantly from 1978. Overall use of natural gas in the state increased substantially (14.3%) due principally to greater use for electrical power production; 4% more gas was used for electrical power generation in 1979 than in 1978 and 21% more than in 1977. Use of fuel oil for electrical generation remained at the 1978 level but below the high 1977 level, which reflected substitution of oil for hydroelectric power during the 1976 to 1977 drought. Together, oil and gas accounted for 80% of the fuels used to generate electricity. Crude-oil imports principally from Indonesia fell substantially; however, use of Alaskan North Slope oil increased so that the net increase in crude oil use was up about 4%. The transportation end-use sector consumed about as much as in 1978 despite shortages in early 1979 associated with the Iranian revolution. While sales fell slightly, sales of high-sulfur residual oils (Bunker C) increased markedly. Transportation represents 38% of total energy consumption in California.

  9. The internal flow pattern analysis of a tidal power turbine operating on bidirectional generation-pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y Y; Xiao, Y X; Wang, Z W

    2013-01-01

    Using tidal energy can reduce environment pollution, save conventional energy and improve energy structure, hence it presents great advantage and is developing potential. Influenced by flood tide and low tide, a fully functional tidal power station needs to experience six operating modes, including bidirectional generation, pumping and sluice; the internal unsteady flow pattern and dynamic characters are very complicated. Based on a bidirectional tidal generator unit, three-dimensional unsteady flows in the flow path were calculated for four typical operating conditions with the pressure pulsation characteristics analyzed. According to the numerical results, the internal flow characteristics in the flow path were discussed. The influence of gravity to the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics were analysed. The results provide a theoretical analysis method of the hydraulic optimization design of the same type unit as well as a direction for stable operation and optimal scheduling of existing tidal power unit

  10. International Energy and Environmental Congress: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information presented at the International Energy and Environmental Congress `93 proceedings. Symposiums included demand-side management strategic directions; federal energy management; corporate energy management; and pollution control technologies. Individual reports from the symposiums are processed separately for the data bases.

  11. Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical investigations of energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides made of line defects and branching points are presented. It is shown that vortices of energy flow may occur, and the net energy flow along: the line defect is described via the effective propagation velocity....... Single-mode and multimode operations are studied, and dispersion relations are computed for different waveguide widths. Both strong positive, strong negative, and zero dispersion an possible. It is shown that geometric parameters such as the nature of the lattice, the line defect orientation, the defect...... width, and the branching-point geometry have a significant influence on the electrodynamics. These are important issues for the fabrication of photonic crystal structures....

  12. Proceedings of V International Conference of Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education. CIER 2007. International Workshop of Eolic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    The CD-ROM presents papers submitted to the International Conference of Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education. CIER 2007, held in Havana, Cuba, on May 22-25, 2007. The purpose of the CIER 2007 are to offer an opportunity to engineers, investigators, academic, makers and specialists in the energy topic from all over the world to exchange experiences, to share their successes and to discuss their focuses to future in the topic of the energy renewable, the energy saving, the energy efficiency and the energy education. The objective of the International Workshop of Eolic Energy is in advancing in the dialogue international on the systems in question and their applications around the world, you they analyzed the perspectives of possible programs of cooperation in this field and their use in Cuba

  13. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  14. Rovibrational internal energy transfer and dissociation of N2(1Σg+)-N(4S(u)) system in hypersonic flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesi, Marco; Jaffe, Richard L; Schwenke, David W; Magin, Thierry E

    2013-01-28

    A rovibrational collisional model is developed to study energy transfer and dissociation of N(2)((1)Σ(g)(+)) molecules interacting with N((4)S(u)) atoms in an ideal isochoric and isothermal chemical reactor. The system examined is a mixture of molecular nitrogen and a small amount of atomic nitrogen. This mixture, initially at room temperature, is heated by several thousands of degrees Kelvin, driving the system toward a strong non-equilibrium condition. The evolution of the population densities of each individual rovibrational level is explicitly determined via the numerical solution of the master equation for temperatures ranging from 5000 to 50,000 K. The reaction rate coefficients are taken from an ab initio database developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The macroscopic relaxation times, energy transfer rates, and dissociation rate coefficients are extracted from the solution of the master equation. The computed rotational-translational (RT) and vibrational-translational (VT) relaxation times are different at low heat bath temperatures (e.g., RT is about two orders of magnitude faster than VT at T = 5000 K), but they converge to a common limiting value at high temperature. This is contrary to the conventional interpretation of thermal relaxation in which translational and rotational relaxation timescales are assumed comparable with vibrational relaxation being considerable slower. Thus, this assumption is questionable under high temperature non-equilibrium conditions. The exchange reaction plays a very significant role in determining the dynamics of the population densities. The macroscopic energy transfer and dissociation rates are found to be slower when exchange processes are neglected. A macroscopic dissociation rate coefficient based on the quasi-stationary distribution, exhibits excellent agreement with experimental data of Appleton et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 48, 599-608 (1968)]. However, at higher temperatures, only about 50% of dissociation is found to

  15. DTU International Energy Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This Report addresses a selection of scientific and technical issues relevant to further increase the share of wind power in the global electricity mix. It covers the assessment and forecasting of wind resources, the development of wind energy technologies, the integration of large amounts...

  16. Are international fund flows pro- or counter-cyclical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert; Yang, Haizhen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether international fund flows are pro-or counter-cyclical by employing a concordance index. International fund flows are investments in bond and equity markets by institutional investors, such as mutual funds, exchange traded funds, closed-end funds and hedge funds. We find that

  17. Energy problem and harmony in international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Akira

    1975-01-01

    Energy problems and harmony in international relation are closely related with world politics. Oil is destined to remain as the primary energy source for the time being. The situation of oil has different implications to the U.S. and U.S.S.R., oil producing countries, and consumer countries. The hasty attitude in the past to attain energy sufficiency must be avoided by all means. Congenial harmony is to be established in international relation to meet world energy requirement. This also applies to the case of nuclear power in future. (Mori, K.)

  18. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  19. Internal flow measurement in transonic compressor by PIV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongqing; Wu, Huaiyu; Liu, Yin

    2001-11-01

    The paper presents some research works conducted in National Key Laboratory of Aircraft Engine of China on the shock containing supersonic flow measurement as well as the internal flow measurement of transoijc compressor by PIC technique. A kind of oil particles in diameter about 0.3 micrometers containing in the flow was discovered to be a very good seed for the PIV measurement of supersonic jet flow. The PIV measurement in over-expanded supersonic free jet and in the flow over wages show a very clear shock wave structure. In the PIV internal flow measurement of transonic compressor a kind of liquid particle of glycol was successful to be used as the seed. An illumination periscope with sheet forming optics was designed and manufactured, it leaded the laser shot generated from an integrate dual- cavity Nd:YAG laser of TSI PIV results of internal flow of an advanced low aspect ratio transonic compressor were shown and discussed briefly.

  20. 6th International Workshop on Model Reduction in Reactive Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    reduction in reacting flow . Registration DateRegistration TypeFirst Name Middle NameLast Name Affiliation US State /Canadian ProvinceState/Province/R gion...Report: 6th International Workshop on Model Reduction in Reactive Flow The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the...Agreement Number: W911NF-17-1-0121 Organization: Princeton University Title: 6th International Workshop on Model Reduction in Reactive Flow Report Term

  1. A Galloping Energy Harvester with Attached Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenko, Petr; Khovanov, Igor; Tucker-Harvey, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Aeroelastic energy harvesters are a promising technology for the operation of wireless sensors and microelectromechanical systems, as well as providing the possibility of harvesting wind energy in applications were conventional wind turbines are ineffective, such as in highly turbulent flows, or unreliable, such as in harsh environmental conditions. The development of aeroelastic energy harvesters to date has focused on the flutter of airfoils, the galloping of prismatic structures, and the vortex induced vibrations. We present a novel type of galloping energy harvester with the flow becoming attached when the oscillation amplitude is high enough. With the flow attached, the harvester blade acts closer to an aerofoil than a bluff body, which results in a higher efficiency. The dynamics of a prototype device has been characterised experimentally with the use of a motion tracking system. The flow structure in the vicinity of the device has been studied using smoke visualisation and PIV measurements. A lumped parameter mathematical model has been developed and related to the experimental results.

  2. International nuclear low and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouinet, Nejib

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to put points on the codification of international law of nuclear energy and its uses in military and peaceful in the first part. The second part was devoted for the imperfection of the law of international nuclear.

  3. An integrated internal flow analysis for ramjet propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shih-Yang

    An integrated numerical analysis has been conducted to study the ramjet internal flowfield. Emphasis is placed on the establishment of a unified numerical scheme and accurate representation of the internal flow development. The theoretical model is based on the complete conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species concentration, with consideration of finite-rate chemical reactions and variable properties. Turbulence closure is achieved using a low-Reynolds number k-epsilon two-equation model. A new computation procedure capable of treating time-accurate, chemically reacting flows over a wide range of Mach number was developed. This numerical scheme allows for a unified treatment of the entire flowfield in a ramjet engine, including both the supersonic inlet and the combustion chamber. The algorithm is based on scaling the pressure terms in the momentum equations and preconditioning the conservation equations to circumvent numerical difficulties at low Mach numbers. The resulting equations are solved using the lower-upper (LU) factorization method in a fully-coupled manner, with the incorporation of a flux-differencing upwind TVD scheme to achieve high-order spatial accuracy. The transient behavior of the modeled system is preserved through implementation of the dual time-stepping integration technique. Calculations have been carried out for the flowfield in a typical ramjet engine consisting of an axisymmetric mixed-compression supersonic inlet and a coaxial dump combustor. Distinguished shock structures in the forward section of the inlet were clearly captured. The boundary layer thickening and flow separation behind the terminal shock due to shock/boundary-layer interactions and inlet configuration were observed. The mutual coupling between the inlet and combustor was carefully examined. In particular, strong vortices arising from the inlet shock/acoustic and shock/boundary-layer interactions may convect downstream and affect the combustion

  4. The prepossession of international institutions for energy. The example International Energy Agency (IEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the fact that large international energy agencies, which are advisory active in energy questions active, affect the world-wide policy. In particular, these are the International Atomic Energy Authority in Vienna (Austria) and the International Energy Agency in Paris (France). The International Energy Agency is considered world-wide as the most important institution for all energy questions. Nearly annually, it publishes the World Energy Outlook by summarizing the most important current energy data of the world, prognoses the future power supply and makes future energy prices. The reality of the International Energy Agency looks completely differently: It performs no own sciences, but consists of statisticians, who gather only statistical data without scientific analysis. The author of this contribution summarizes the work of the International Energy Agency in three points: (a) Promotion of the interests of companies in mineral oil, natural gas, coal and atomic energy; (b) Hindering the world-wide conversion of renewable energy; (c) Endangerment of the world economy and prevention of an effective climate protection. The International Energy Agency does not justice to its own goal of a reliable, economical and pollution free power supply

  5. Energy flow around a moving dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, H; Kirchner, H O K

    2009-01-01

    A dislocation moving in a lattice emits lattice waves. We study the energy flow accompanying the lattice wave emission in a molecular dynamics situation. About two thirds of the static free energy are emitted as lattice waves from the moving dislocation. Work done by the region around the dislocation helps to initiate the motion from the unstable equilibrium state under a small applied stress, or to compensate the energy emitted as lattice waves when the dislocation makes a long distance motion under a larger stress.

  6. Energy and material flows of megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christopher A; Stewart, Iain; Facchini, Angelo; Cersosimo, Igor; Mele, Renata; Chen, Bin; Uda, Mariko; Kansal, Arun; Chiu, Anthony; Kim, Kwi-Gon; Dubeux, Carolina; Lebre La Rovere, Emilio; Cunha, Bruno; Pincetl, Stephanie; Keirstead, James; Barles, Sabine; Pusaka, Semerdanta; Gunawan, Juniati; Adegbile, Michael; Nazariha, Mehrdad; Hoque, Shamsul; Marcotullio, Peter J; González Otharán, Florencia; Genena, Tarek; Ibrahim, Nadine; Farooqui, Rizwan; Cervantes, Gemma; Sahin, Ahmet Duran

    2015-05-12

    Understanding the drivers of energy and material flows of cities is important for addressing global environmental challenges. Accessing, sharing, and managing energy and material resources is particularly critical for megacities, which face enormous social stresses because of their sheer size and complexity. Here we quantify the energy and material flows through the world's 27 megacities with populations greater than 10 million people as of 2010. Collectively the resource flows through megacities are largely consistent with scaling laws established in the emerging science of cities. Correlations are established for electricity consumption, heating and industrial fuel use, ground transportation energy use, water consumption, waste generation, and steel production in terms of heating-degree-days, urban form, economic activity, and population growth. The results help identify megacities exhibiting high and low levels of consumption and those making efficient use of resources. The correlation between per capita electricity use and urbanized area per capita is shown to be a consequence of gross building floor area per capita, which is found to increase for lower-density cities. Many of the megacities are growing rapidly in population but are growing even faster in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and energy use. In the decade from 2001-2011, electricity use and ground transportation fuel use in megacities grew at approximately half the rate of GDP growth.

  7. Redistribution of Kinetic Energy in Turbulent Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Pumir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In statistically homogeneous turbulent flows, pressure forces provide the main mechanism to redistribute kinetic energy among fluid elements, without net contribution to the overall energy budget. This holds true in both two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D flows, which show fundamentally different physics. As we demonstrate here, pressure forces act on fluid elements very differently in these two cases. We find in numerical simulations that in 3D pressure forces strongly accelerate the fastest fluid elements, and that in 2D this effect is absent. In 3D turbulence, our findings put forward a mechanism for a possibly singular buildup of energy, and thus may shed new light on the smoothness problem of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation in 3D.

  8. Energy Cascade Analysis: from Subscale Eddies to Mean Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis; Chen, James

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the energy transfer between eddies and mean flow can provide insights into the energy cascade process. Much work has been done to investigate the energy cascade at the level of the smallest eddies using different numerical techniques derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. These methodologies, however, prove to be computationally inefficient when producing energy spectra for a wide range of length scales. In this regard, Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) resolves the length-scales issues by assuming the fluid continuum to be composed of inner structures that play the role of subscale eddies. The current study show- cases the capabilities of MCT in capturing the dynamics of energy cascade at the level of subscale eddies, through a supersonic turbulent flow of Mach 2.93 over an 8× compression ramp. Analysis of the results using statistical averaging procedure shows the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding rotational kinetic energy of the subscale eddies, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. The results show that MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.

  9. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvements can save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness...... and increase consumer welfare. Thus, it is natural for DTU International Energy Report 2012 to take up this issue and analyze the global, regional and national challenges in exploiting energy efficiency and promote research and development in energy efficiency....

  10. Energy Prices and Internal Costs in Croatian Energy System Restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V. , Magdic, M.

    1995-01-01

    After social and political changes in 1990, energy prices in Croatia have been getting closer to the West European averages, faster than in the most European countries in transition. The energy prices for industry are almost at the West European level, while the energy prices of electricity and natural gas for households and those of the gasoline are well behind. If the population purchasing power parity (PPP) is taken into account, these relations change. While the internalization of external energy costs is under way in the developed world, it has not practically started yet in Croatia. The Croatian energy system restructuring shall require gradual adjustment of energy prices, together with multistage internalization of external energy costs. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  11. International energy: Research organizations, 1986--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. (eds.) (USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The International Energy: Research Organizations publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases Energy Science Technology'' on DIALOG and Energy'' on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 34,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1986 to 1990 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  12. International energy technology collaboration: benefits and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The IEA Energy Technology Collaboration Programme facilitates international collaboration on energy technology research, development and deployment. More than 30 countries are involved in Europe, America, Asia, Australasia and Africa. The aim is to accelerate the development and deployment of new energy technologies to meet energy security, environmental and economic development goals. Costs and resources are shared among participating governments, utilities, corporations and universities. By co-operating, they avoid unproductive duplication and maximize the benefits from research budgets. The IEA Programme results every year in hundreds of publications which disseminate information about the latest energy technology developments and their commercial utilisation. The IEA Energy Technology Collaboration Programme operates through a series of agreements among governments. This report details the activities and achievements of all 41 agreements, covering energy technology information centres and Research and Development projects in fossil fuels, renewable energy efficient end-use, and nuclear fusion technologies. (authors). 58 refs., 9 tabs

  13. Study on Gas-liquid Falling Film Flow in Internal Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong

    2017-10-01

    Gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow with nonlinear characteristics, study on gas liquid falling film flow regulation control law, can reduce emissions of the distillation column, and it can improve the quality of products. According to the distribution of gas-liquid mass balance internally heat integrated distillation column independent region, distribution model of heat transfer coefficient of building internal heat integrated distillation tower is obtained liquid distillation falling film flow in the saturated vapour pressure of liquid water balance, using heat transfer equation and energy equation to balance the relationship between the circulating iterative gas-liquid falling film flow area, flow parameter information, at a given temperature, pressure conditions, gas-liquid flow falling film theory makes the optimal parameters to achieve the best fitting value with the measured values. The results show that the geometric gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow heat exchange area and import column thermostat, the average temperature has significant. The positive correlation between the heat exchanger tube entrance due to temperature difference between inside and outside, the heat flux is larger, with the increase of internal heat integrated distillation column temperature, the slope decreases its temperature rise, which accurately describes the internal gas-liquid heat integrated distillation tower falling film flow regularity, take appropriate measures to promote the enhancement of heat transfer. It can enhance the overall efficiency of the heat exchanger.

  14. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  15. Energy flow and mineral cycling mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of energy flow patterns and mineral cycling mechanisms provides a first step in identifying major transport pathways away from waste management areas. A preliminary food web pattern is described using results from ongoing and completed food habit studies. Biota possessing the greatest potential for introducing radionuclides into food chains leading to man include deer, rabbits, hares, waterfowl, honeybees and upland game birds and are discussed separately

  16. Energy supply, nuclear power, and the international energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierer, H. von

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has greatly intensified the readiness for international cooperation on problems of reactor safety and for exchanges of operating experience. That accident was more than a regional event. If all psychological and political consequences are taken into account, its international significance is apparent. In principle, it demonstrated not the lack of safety of nuclear power plants generally, but rather that of the Soviet RBMK reactor line, which would not have been licensed in any Western country because of its inherent unsafety. In the long run, the worldwide acceptance of nuclear power can be regained and stabilized only by an open dialog and by international exchanges of experience. The pronounced growth of the world's population requires energy policy to think beyond national frontiers. The rising energy requirement permits of no other decision than to exploit all technically feasible and economically viable as well as ecologically tolerable sources of energy. This includes nuclear power as well as solar energy. (orig.) [de

  17. Flow energy piezoelectric bimorph nozzle harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Colonius, Tim; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Arrazola, Alvaro; Kim, Namhyo; Sun, Kai; Corbett, Gary

    2014-04-01

    There is a need for a long-life power generation scheme that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce 1 Watt average power. There are a variety of existing or proposed energy harvesting schemes that could be used in this environment but each of these has its own limitations. The vibrating piezoelectric structure is in principle capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades) thereby possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. In order to determine the feasibility of using piezoelectrics to produce suitable flow energy harvesting, we surveyed experimentally a variety of nozzle configurations that could be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to enable conversion of flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. These included reed structures, spring mass-structures, drag and lift bluff bodies and a variety of nozzles with varying flow profiles. Although not an exhaustive survey we identified a spline nozzle/piezoelectric bimorph system that experimentally produced up to 3.4 mW per bimorph. This paper will discuss these results and present our initial analyses of the device using dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical modeling. The analysis suggests that an order-of-magnitude improvement in power generation from the current design is possible.

  18. International energy outlook 1995, May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1995 (IEO95) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the international energy market outlook through 2010. The report is an extension of the EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95), which was prepared using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). US projections appearing in the IEO95 are consistent with those published in the AEO95. IEO95 is provided as a statistical service to energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. The projects are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Department of energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 295(c). The IEO95 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1994. IEO95 displays projections according to six basic country groupings. The regionalization has changed since last year`s report. Mexico has been added to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and a more detailed regionalization has been incorporated for the remainder of the world, including the following subgroups: non-OECD Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China is included in non-OECD Asia. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are combined in the EE/FSU subgroup.

  19. Mathematics of flexible risers including pressure and internal flow affects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyed, F.B. (John Brown Engineers and Constructors Ltd., London (GB)); Patel, M.H. (University Coll., London (GB). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Derivations are presented for calculation of pressure and internal flow induced forces on flexible risers and other curved pipes using a mathematically rigorous approach. Approximate and exact methods are presented for calculation of pressure forces on straight and curved pipes in two dimensions. The mathematical identity of these equations with those for effective tension is illustrated. The force arising from the flow of an internal fluid of constant density is then calculated and combined with those for pressure forces in derivation of the catenary equations including pressure and internal flow terms. It is shown that internal flow contributes a new term to the expression for effective tension. These governing equations are then reduced for the specific cases of simple catenary, steep-S, lazy-S, steep-wave and lazy-wave risers. In each case, the solution method has been presented and the governing equilibrium and geometric compatability conditions cited. (author).

  20. Performance and internal flow characteristics of a cross-flow turbine by guide vane angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z M; Choi, Y D

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the performance and internal flow characteristics of a cross-flow turbine by guide vane angle. In order to improve the performance of a cross flow turbine, the paper presents a numerical investigation of the turbine with air supply and discusses the influence of variable guide vane angle on the internal flow. A newly developed air supply from air suction Hole is adopted. To investigate the performance and internal flow of the cross-flow turbine, the CFD software based on the two-phase flow model is utilized. The numerical grids are made in two-dimensional geometry in order to shorten the time of two-phase calculations. Then a series of CFD analysis has been conducted in the range of different guide vane angle. Moreover, local output power is divided at different stages and the effect of air layer in each stage is examined

  1. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome

    and experimentally. This thesis addressed mainly the cooling case. From the steady-state numerical analysis and the full-scale experiments, it has been observed that the difference between the two types of terminals is mainly due to changes in the ventilation losses (or gains). At low air-change rates (below 0.5 ACH...... been evaluated both theoretically and numerically, and no discomfort has been observed for normal cooling needs. Besides this comparative study of different terminals, the relation between cooling system and internal convective flow has also been investigated experimentally. The comparison...... with existing models pointed out the specificity of existing correlations and the limitation of their range of application. Because of differences in the air jet trajectory, existing correlations tend to overestimate the convective flow, especially at the ceiling. Two approaches have thus been tested to better...

  2. Globalisation of water resources: International virtual water flows in relation to international crop trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Hung, P.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The water that is used in the production process of a commodity is called the ‘virtual water’ contained in the commodity. International trade of commodities brings along international flows of virtual water. The objective of this paper is to quantify the volumes of virtual water flows between

  3. On the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, S [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1963-07-15

    The main concepts motivating the decision to establish an international agency for peaceful uses of atomic energy are presented in the paper. They consists of: 1) co-ordination in the fields of safety field, legal liability and safeguards; 2) ensuring that scientific and technical data are made freely accessible on a worldwide scale and 3) assisting the developing countries in benefiting from this new science and technology and use the atomic energy for economic and social development

  4. International Cooperation and Energy/Environment crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    2009-01-01

    A combination of old and new tensions led to a new energy crisis. This crisis is very difficult to solve due to the multiple interests and the global and sovranational nature of its interdependent dimensions (economic, political and environmental). In a deep global economic crisis context, the challenges posed to the modern world by energy and the environment have to be faced with the international cooperation and dialogue, as it was in the past. [it

  5. The International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzutti, A.A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The origens, functions and objectives of the IAEA are analysed. The application of safeguards to avoid military uses of nuclear energy is discussed. In the final section the agrement between Brazil and Germany regarding IAEA safeguards, as well as the competence for executing the brazilian program are explained. It is, then, an informative study dealing with nuclear energy and its peaceful path, the creation of International Fuel Cycle Evaluation and nonproliferation [pt

  6. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  7. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-07-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  8. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-01-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  9. Proceedings of VIII International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Several workshops were carried out within the framework of the conference for example 4th International Wind Energy Workshop, 2nd International Workshop of Hydrogen as an alternative fuel, 1st International Workshop of Photovoltaic Solar Energy. It was an excellent occasion to share experiences and promote synergies oriented towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture.

  10. Energy use in Denmark: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Howarth, R.; Andersson, B.; Price, L.

    1992-08-01

    This report analyzes the evolution use in Denmark since the early 1970s in order to shed light on the future path of energy use in Denmark, with particular emphasis on the role of energy efficiency. The authors found that improvements in end-use energy efficiency reduced primary energy requirements in Denmark by 22% between 1972 and 1988. Focusing on developments in six individual sectors of the Danish economy (residential, manufacturing, other industry, service, travel, and freight), they found that the residential, manufacturing, and service sectors have led the improvements in efficiency. Travel showed few significant improvements and the efficiency of freight transportation worsened. The international comparisons showed that the structure of energy use in Denmark is less energy-intensive than that of most high-income OECD countries, with the exception of Japan. Overall, they concluded that most of the energy savings achieved in Denmark were brought about through improvements in technology. They also found that an important stimulus for improved efficiency was higher energy prices, led in no small part by significant taxes imposed on small consumers of heating oil, electricity, and motor fuels. Energy-efficiency programs accelerated energy savings in homes and commercial buildings. The rate of improvement of energy efficiency in Denmark has slowed down significantly since 1984, consistent with trends observed in other major countries. While many of the energy-efficiency goals stated or implied in Denmark`s Energi 2000 are achievable over a very long period, present trends do not point towards achievement of these goals by 2010 or even 2020. Strong measures will have to be developed by both public and private authorities if energy efficiency is to make a key contributions to reducing environmental problems associated with energy use in Denmark.

  11. Material and energy flows in rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting of ferronickel alloy with energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Baokuan; Cheung, Sherman C.P.; Wu, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Establish the synergy relationship of material and energy in key RKEF processes. • Develop an analysis model to study energy saving with internal cycling of energy. • Analyze material and energy flow parameters and assess its associated synergy effect. • A methodology to evaluate the synergy and design indices of RKEF processes. - Abstract: An energy saving strategy with two energy saving measures has been proposed for reducing energy loss in the rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) for the smelting of ferronickel alloy. One of the measures is to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas from the rotary kiln for preheating and dehydrating the wet laterite ores in the rotary dryer. Another measure is to recycle the furnace gas from the electric furnace into the rotary kiln as fuel. Based on the mass conservation and energy conservation laws, an analysis model of material and energy flows has been developed to understand the potential energy saving with the internal cycling of material and energy in the RKEF process. The analysis model not only considers the energy efficiency but also assess the synergy degree of system. Furthermore, the model also predicts the ratio of raw materials and the energy flow distribution to investigate residual heat and energy and analyze the effects of nickel content on energy flow. Finally, the evaluation methodology of synergy and the technic indices are also presented. Through the investigation of the synergy effect, the performance of the RKEF process can be evaluated and quantified for performance optimization in future.

  12. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1991-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1991. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency: Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, A.

    1992-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1992. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  14. 77 FR 61583 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ...) will meet on October 17 and 18, 2012, at the headquarters of the IEA in Paris, France in connection... the International Energy Agency (IEA) will be held at the headquarters of the IEA, 9, rue de la F... October 18. The purpose of this notice is to permit attendance by representatives of U.S. company members...

  15. International Conference SES 2006. Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The International Conference SES 2006 (Secure Energy Supply, Bezpecna dodavka energie) was realised in Bratislava, during September 26 - 29, 2006 in the hotel Crowne Plaza and deals with most important problems of world and Slovak energetics. In work of Conference took part 108 slovak and 33 foreign participant from 11 countries of the world. Negotiations were realised in five sessions. First two days were devoted to lectures and second two days were visits of selected slovak energetic equipment. On the Conference has resounded matter of fact, that secure energy supply is extremely important subject for economy, but also for population

  16. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  17. Architected squirt-flow materials for energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tal; Kurzeja, Patrick; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we explore material architectures that lead to enhanced dissipation properties by taking advantage of squirt-flow - a local flow mechanism triggered by heterogeneities at the pore level. While squirt-flow is a known dominant source of dissipation and seismic attenuation in fluid saturated geological materials, we study its untapped potential to be incorporated in highly deformable elastic materials with embedded fluid-filled cavities for future engineering applications. An analytical investigation, that isolates the squirt-flow mechanism from other potential dissipation mechanisms and considers an idealized setting, predicts high theoretical levels of dissipation achievable by squirt-flow and establishes a set of guidelines for optimal dissipation design. Particular architectures are then investigated via numerical simulations showing that a careful design of the internal voids can lead to an increase of dissipation levels by an order of magnitude, compared with equivalent homogeneous void distributions. Therefore, we suggest squirt-flow as a promising mechanism to be incorporated in future architected materials to effectively and reversibly dissipate energy.

  18. South Korea's Experience with International Capital Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Noland

    2005-01-01

    South Korea%u2019s experience is unparalleled in its combination of sustained prosperity, capital controls, and financial crisis. Over several decades, South Korea experienced rapid sustained growth in the presence of capital controls. These controls and the de-linking of domestic and international financial markets were an essential component of the country's state-led development strategy. As the country developed, opportunities for easy technological catch-up eroded, requiring more sophist...

  19. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.

    2014-10-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  20. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.; Parker, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  1. Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, M. C.; Wilmoth, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, was developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/ external flows. The VNAP2 program solves the two dimensional, time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack Scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented.

  2. Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, M.C.; Wilmoth, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, has been developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/external flows. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented

  3. The international magnetic fusion energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1988-10-06

    In May of 1988, the long tradition of international cooperation in magnetic fusion energy research culminated in the initiation of design work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). If eventually constructed in the 1990s, ITER would be the world's first magnetic fusion reactor. This paper discusses the background events that led to ITER and the present status of the ITER activity. This paper presents a brief summary of the technical, political, and organizational activities that have led to the creation of the ITER design activity. The ITER activity is now the main focus of international cooperation in magnetic fusion research and one of the largest international cooperative efforts in all of science. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  4. The international magnetic fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1988, the long tradition of international cooperation in magnetic fusion energy research culminated in the initiation of design work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). If eventually constructed in the 1990s, ITER would be the world's first magnetic fusion reactor. This paper discusses the background events that led to ITER and the present status of the ITER activity. This paper presents a brief summary of the technical, political, and organizational activities that have led to the creation of the ITER design activity. The ITER activity is now the main focus of international cooperation in magnetic fusion research and one of the largest international cooperative efforts in all of science. 2 refs., 12 figs

  5. Internal flow of acoustically levitated drops undergoing sectorial oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J.; Yan, Z.L.; Wei, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the experimental observation and theoretical analysis of fluid flow in acoustically levitated water drop undergoing sectorial oscillations. The fluid always flows between the extended sections and the compressed sections. The magnitude of fluid velocity decreases from the equatorial fringe to the centre of levitated drop. The maximum fluid velocity is 60-160 mm/s and the Reynolds number of the oscillations is estimated to be 137-367. The internal flow of the drop is analyzed as potential flow, and the fluid velocity is found to be horizontal. In the equatorial plane, the calculated stream lines and velocity profiles agree well with the experimental observations.

  6. Mathematical model for the calculation of internal turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, V. de P.; Valle Pereira Filho, H. do

    1981-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes and the turbulent kinetic energy equations for the incompressible, turbulent and fully developed pipe flow, were solved by a finite difference procedure. The distributions of the mean velocity, turbulent shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy were obtained at different Reynolds numbers. Those numerical results were compared with experimental data and the agreement was good in whole cross section of the flow. (Author) [pt

  7. Northeast International Committee on Energy. Comite international du nord-est sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The annual Conference of the New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers was established in 1973 to deal with such common questions as energy, agriculture, transportation, tourism, economic development, and the environment. As a result of this conference, the Northeast International Committee on Energy was established in 1978. This annual report gives a summary of the year's activities, which included an international roundtable on energy choices and the environment, energy education, and a compendium of biomass facilities. New activities to be undertaken in the coming year include the convening of an international roundtable on energy in the spring of 1990 in Halifax, Nova Scotia; a review of recycling efforts in the region; and a review of regulatory procedures at the national, state and provincial levels for across-the-border energy transactions.

  8. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.

  9. Nuclear energy: exit or revival? International aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    This colloquium took place less than 1 year after the decision of the US of revival of their nuclear program. Thus the international context has changed, even if nuclear contestation remains as strong as in the past. Among governments, some positions preach the banishment of nuclear energy while others consider the nuclear option as the only solution to meet the growing up energy demand and the future environmental and economical stakes. This report makes a synthesis of the different talks given by the participants during the 3 round tables of the colloquium on the future of nuclear energy: the ecological stake, the democratic stake, and the energy policy stake. Four talks of French government representatives open and conclude the debates of the different round tables. (J.S.)

  10. The International Energy Agency collaboration in wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, H.J.M.; Pershagen, B.

    1991-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) wind energy agreements have provided a useful framework for international cooperative efforts during more than thirteen years. Nine comprehensive research Tasks have been successfully completed and three Tasks are currently in progress. The sharing of research and information has clearly contributed to the development of wind technology, has eliminated unnecessary redundancy in national programmes, has encouraged utilization of the most efficient approaches to solve common problems, and has created a cooperative spirit among the professional groups that seems to be unique. After a brief introduction on the activities of the IEA on wind energy an overview is given of the ongoing tasks and other current activities with regard to the subject. 1 fig., 5 tabs., 9 refs

  11. Dark Energy Domination In The Virgocentric Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gene; Chernin, A. D.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

    2011-04-01

    Dark energy (DE) was first observationally detected at large Gpc distances. If it is a vacuum energy formulated as Einstein's cosmological constant, Λ, DE should also have dynamical effects at much smaller scales. Previously, we found its effects on much smaller Mpc scales in our Local Group (LG) as well as in other nearby groups. We used new HST observations of member 3D distances from the group centers and Doppler shifts. We find each group's gravity dominates a bound central system of galaxies but DE antigravity results in a radial recession increasing with distance from the group center of the outer members. Here we focus on the much larger (but still cosmologically local) Virgo Cluster and systems around it using new observations of velocities and distances. We propose an analytic model whose key parameter is the zero-gravity radius (ZGR) from the cluster center where gravity and DE antigravity balance. DE brings regularity to the Virgocentric flow. Beyond Virgo's 10 Mpc ZGR, the flow curves to approach a linear global Hubble law at larger distances. The Virgo cluster and its outer flow are similar to the Local Group and its local outflow with a scaling factor of about 10; the ZGR for Virgo is 10 times larger than that of the LG. The similarity of the two systems on the scales of 1 to 30 Mpc suggests that a quasi-stationary bound central component and an expanding outflow applies to a wide range of groups and clusters due to small scale action of DE as well as gravity. Chernin, et al 2009 Astronomy and Astrophysics 507, 1271 http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.0066 http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.0555

  12. Numerical simulation of internal flow in mixed-flow waterjet propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T T; Pan, Z Y; Zhang, D Q; Jia, Y Y

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the internal flow characteristic of a mixed-flow waterjet propulsion, a mixed-flow waterjet propulsion under different conditions was simulated based on multi-reference frame(MRF), the standard k − ε turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The relationship between pump performance instability and internal flow was obtained. The numerical results showed that characteristic instability occurred at 0.65-0.67Q BEP , the reason is that the backflow on the vaned diffuser hub-side blocks the downstream flow from the impeller. Therefore, the flow separates on the pressure surface of the impeller outlet and a strong vortex is generated, then the characteristic instability appeared due to the instability of internal flow. Backflow was found in diffuser passage at 0.65 Q BEP and 0.85 Q BEP , as flow rate decreases, the backflow region and velocity increases. Pressure fluctuation at diffuser inlet and diffuser passages was severe at at 0.65 Q BEP . According to the numerical simulation, the mixed-flow waterjet propulsion has characteristic instability at partial flow rate condition.

  13. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  14. Increase of internal energy due to measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daboul, J.

    1991-01-01

    We argue that the internal energy E=(H) of a macroscopic system in thermal equilibrium must increase, if we measure an observable A which does not commute with the Hamiltonian H. We derive an expression for calculating a lower bound for this increase in E. We then generalize the above result, and show that under certain conditions the expectation value (C) of an observable C should increase by the measurement of another observable A, if A and C do not commute. (author)

  15. World energy resources. International Geohydroscience and Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    World Energy Resources is an explanatory energy survey of the countries and major regions of the world, their geographic and economic settings, and significant inter-relationships. This book attempts to combine several interacting energy themes that encompass a historical development, energy issues and forecasts, economic geography, environmental programs, and world energy use. The main thrust of this book -World Energy Resources - is based on principles of energy science, applied geology, geophysics, and other environmental sciences as they relate to the exploration, exploitation, and production of resources in this country and throughout the world. This work is an analysis of the United States (USA) and world oil, gas, coal, and alternative energy resources and their associated issues, forecasts, and related policy. This book could not have been attempted without a broad geological exposure and international geographic awareness. Much information is scattered among federal and state agencies, schools, and other institutions, and this book has attempted to combine some of the vast information base. This attempt can only skim the information surface at best, but its regional and topical coverage is broad in scope. Part I introduces conventional energy resources and their historical developments, and includes chapters 1 to 7. The basic concepts and supporting facts on energy sources are presented here for the general education of energy analysts, policy makers, and scientists that desire a brief review of advanced technologies and history. Part II includes chapters 8 to 14 and provides discussions of the renewable energy sources and the available alternative energy sources and technologies to oil, gas, coal, and nuclear sources. Part III includes chapters 15 to 20 and provides an analysis of United States energy markets and forecasts through the first quarter of the 21st century, while including some world energy data. Widely-used energy forecasting models are

  16. ''Neighbourhood'' as an international energy policy concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Pierre; Campaner, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    Since 2002, the concept of ''neighbourhood'' has been central to the EU thinking about the emergence of a European foreign and security policy. The relations between the EU and the countries that share - or could share in the future - a border with it, but have little or no prospects for full membership, are supposed to be structured by the emerging ''European Neighbourhood Policy'' (ENP). On the receiving end of this policy proposal are a number of countries on the Eastern edge of the Union, in the South Caucasus, East and South of the Mediterranean. The ENP is very much a ''transformationist'' agenda, with very ambitious goals of bringing about long term political and economic reforms in the neighbour countries. The ultimate goal is to promote stability and prosperity on the edges of the Union. The means for that is to exchange gradual integration into the EU common market and direct economic aid against verifiable commitments of political and economic reforms. Many neighbour countries are of great significance as energy producers, energy exporters, or transit countries to the EU. Hence the following two questions: 1) Is there an explicit energy security component - or energy motive - in the ENP. If yes, how is it structured. 2) What are the potential energy security implications of the ENP. In other words: To what extent, and through which mechanisms, would EU energy security be served by a process of economic and political reforms in the neighbour countries. It's worth extending the questioning to the study of the ''neighbourhood'' dimension in the existing EU international energy policy. It appears that the energy security thinking of the EU Commission has long been structured by the concept of ''neighbourhood''. It is then of some importance to study how the development of this policy will be affected by the implementation of the ENP. Beyond that, we develop a critical assessment of ''neighbourhood'' as a concept for energy security policies. Based on a

  17. Analysis of diabatic flow modification in the internal boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer is control......Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer...

  18. Spontaneous generation and reversals of mean flows in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, Louis-Alexandre; Lecoanet, Daniel; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We investigate via direct numerical simulations the spontaneous generation and reversals of mean zonal flows in a stably-stratified fluid layer lying above a turbulent convective fluid. Contrary to the leading idealized theories of mean flow generation by self-interacting internal waves, the emergence of a mean flow in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field is not always possible because nonlinear interactions of waves of different frequencies can disrupt the mean flow generation mechanism. Strong mean flows thus emerge when the divergence of the Reynolds stress resulting from the nonlinear interactions of internal waves produces a strong enough anti-diffusive acceleration for the mean flow, which, as we will demonstrate, is the case when the Prandtl number is sufficiently low, or when the energy input into the internal wavefield by the convection and density stratification are sufficiently large. Implications for mean zonal flow production as observed in the equatorial stratospheres of the Earth, Saturn and Jupiter, and possibly occurring in other geophysical systems such as planetary and stellar interiors will be briefly discussed. Funding provided by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program through Grant Agreement No. 681835-FLUDYCO-ERC-2015-CoG.

  19. Energy flow modeling and optimal operation analysis of the micro energy grid based on energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tengfei; Wu, Junyong; Hao, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design a novel architecture for energy hub integrating power hub, cooling hub and heating hub. • The micro energy grid based on energy hub is introduced and its advantages are discussed. • Propose a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid. • Propose an optimal operation model for micro energy grid with considering demand response. • The roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. - Abstract: The energy security and environmental problems impel people to explore a more efficient, environment friendly and economical energy utilization pattern. In this paper, the coordinated operation and optimal dispatch strategies for multiple energy system are studied at the whole Micro Energy Grid level. To augment the operation flexibility of energy hub, the innovation sub-energy hub structure including power hub, heating hub and cooling hub is put forward. Basing on it, a generic energy hub architecture integrating renewable energy, combined cooling heating and power, and energy storage devices is developed. Moreover, a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid is proposed. To minimize the daily operation cost, a day-ahead dynamic optimal operation model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem with considering the demand response. Case studies are undertaken on a community Micro Energy Grid in four different scenarios on a typical summer day and the roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed energy flow modeling and optimal operation method are universal and effective over the entire energy dispatching horizon.

  20. Energy embodied in the international trade of China. An energy input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongtao; Xi, Youmin; Guo, Ju'e; Li, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Growing international trade has not only positively affected the People's Republic of China's (China's) economic development, but also expanded the exportation of energy embodied in goods during their production. This energy flow out will pose risks to China's rational utilization of natural resources as well as environmental protection. In this paper, we evaluate the energy embodied in goods produced in China during 1992-2005 and use input-output structural decomposition analysis to identify five key factors causing the changes of energy embodied in exports. (Direct primary energy efficiency, primary energy consumption structure, structure of intermediate inputs, structure of exports, and scale of exports.) For the three sub-periods of 1992-1997, 1997-2002, and 2002-2005, results show that China is a net exporter of energy, and the energy embodied in exports tends to increase over time. The expanding total volume of exports and increasing exports of energy-intensive goods tend to enlarge the energy embodied in exports within all three sub-periods, but these driving forces were offset by a considerable improvement of energy efficiency and changes in primary energy consumption structure from 1992 to 2002 and the effects of structure of intermediate input only in the sub-period from 1992 to 1997. From 2002 to 2005, the sharp augmentation of energy embodied in exports was driven by all the five factors. Our research has practical implications for the Chinese economy. Results of this study suggest that the energy embodied in trade should receive special attentions in energy policies design to limit the energy resource out-flow and pollution generation. (author)

  1. Deuterons and flow: At intermediate AGS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, D.E.; Pang, Y.; Kahana, S.H.

    1996-06-01

    A quantitative model, based on hadronic physics and Monte Carlo cascading is applied to heavy ion collisions at BNL-AGS and BEVALAC energies. The model was found to be in excellent agreement with particle spectra where data previously existed, for Si beams, and was able to successfully predict the spectra where data was initially absent, for Au beams. For Si + Au collisions baryon densities of three or four times the normal nuclear matter density (ρ 0 ) are seen in the theory, while for Au + Au collisions, matter at densities up to 10 ρ 0 is anticipated. The possibility that unusual states of matter may be created in the Au beams and potential signatures for its observation, in particular deuterons and collective flow, are considered

  2. International Conference on Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Soria, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the outcome of the international meeting on instability, control and noise generated by massive flow separation that was organized at the Monash Center, in Prato, Italy, September 4-6, 2013. The meeting served as the final review of the EU-FP7 Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows Marie Curie travel grant and was supported by the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development. Fifty leading specialists from twelve countries reviewed the progress made since the 50s of the last century and discussed modern analysis techniques, advanced experimental flow diagnostics, and recent developments in active flow control techniques from the incompressible to the hypersonic regime. Applications involving massive flow separation and associated instability and noise generation mechanisms of interest to the aeronautical, naval and automotive industries have been addressed from a theoretical, numerical or experimental point of view, making this book a unique source containing the stat...

  3. Numerical Investigation of the Internal Flow in a Banki Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús De Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the numerical analysis of the internal flow in a hydraulic cross-flow turbine type Banki. A 3D-CFD steady state flow simulation has been performed using ANSYS CFX codes. The simulation includes nozzle, runner, shaft, and casing. The turbine has a specific speed of 63 (metric units, an outside runner diameter of 294 mm. Simulations were carried out using a water-air free surface model and k-ε turbulence model. The objectives of this study were to analyze the velocity and pressure fields of the cross-flow within the runner and to characterize its performance for different runner speeds. Absolute flow velocity angles are obtained at runner entrance for simulations with and without the runner. Flow recirculation in the runner interblade passages and shocks of the internal cross-flow cause considerable hydraulic losses by which the efficiency of the turbine decreases significantly. The CFD simulations results were compared with experimental data and were consistent with global performance parameters.

  4. Hybrid continuum–molecular modelling of multiscale internal gas flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patronis, Alexander; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Borg, Matthew K.; Reese, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    We develop and apply an efficient multiscale method for simulating a large class of low-speed internal rarefied gas flows. The method is an extension of the hybrid atomistic–continuum approach proposed by Borg et al. (2013) [28] for the simulation of micro/nano flows of high-aspect ratio. The major new extensions are: (1) incorporation of fluid compressibility; (2) implementation using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for dilute rarefied gas flows, and (3) application to a broader range of geometries, including periodic, non-periodic, pressure-driven, gravity-driven and shear-driven internal flows. The multiscale method is applied to micro-scale gas flows through a periodic converging–diverging channel (driven by an external acceleration) and a non-periodic channel with a bend (driven by a pressure difference), as well as the flow between two eccentric cylinders (with the inner rotating relative to the outer). In all these cases there exists a wide variation of Knudsen number within the geometries, as well as substantial compressibility despite the Mach number being very low. For validation purposes, our multiscale simulation results are compared to those obtained from full-scale DSMC simulations: very close agreement is obtained in all cases for all flow variables considered. Our multiscale simulation is an order of magnitude more computationally efficient than the full-scale DSMC for the first and second test cases, and two orders of magnitude more efficient for the third case

  5. One-dimensional energy flow model for poroelastic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Kang, Yeon June

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional energy flow model to investigate the energy behavior for poroelastic media coupled with acoustical media. The proposed energy flow model is expressed by an independent energy governing equation that is classified into each wave component propagating in poroelastic media. The energy governing equation is derived using the General Energetic Method (GEM). To facilitate a comparison with the classical solution based on the conventional displacement-base formulation, approximate solutions of energy density and intensity are obtained. Furthermore, the limitations and usability of the proposed energy flow model for poroelastic media are described.

  6. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  7. Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community, International Atomic Energy Agency, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed legislative instruments, Adopted legislative instruments, Non-legislative instruments, Other activities (meetings). International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: The Russian Federation to join the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; Participation by the regulatory authorities of India and the United Arab Emirates in the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP); NEA International Workshop on Crisis Communication, 9-10 May 2012; International School of Nuclear Law: 2013; Next NEA International Nuclear Law Essentials Course

  8. International energy workshop: overview of poll responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Minkoff, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Workshop is an informally organized group. Its general aim is to compare the most up-to-date long-term energy projections available throughout the world, and to obtain a better understanding of the reasons for their differences. The current edition of the IEW poll supersedes all previous ones, and contains only those poll responses bearing publication dates of 1984-1986. Altogether, this edition of the poll contains 192 individual responses received from 71 participating organizations. The poll covers the period 1980-2010. Appendix I contains frequency distributions for each of the eight standard IEW regions: (1) USSR and Eastern Europe, (2) China, (3) Centrally Planned Economies, Subtotal, (4) OECD, (5) OPEC, (6) Non-OPEC Developing Countries, (7) Market Economies, Subtotal, and (8) World, Total. In addition, frequency distributions are provided for four individual countries/regions: Canada, Japan, OECD Europe, and USA. Poll items 3-16 refer to individual fuel types: oil, gas, coal, hydroelectric, nuclear, solar and other renewables. To ensure international comparability, these are expressed in terms of commercial primary energy consumption, production and net trade (exports minus imports). (Author)

  9. International fund flows: surges, sudden stops, and cyclicality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao

    2017-01-01

    International fund flows are cross-border investments in domestic equity and bond markets by global investment funds. They have increased dramatically since the 1990s and played an increasingly important role in the transmission of shocks. In this thesis, we examine the drivers of large changes in

  10. Particle flow calorimetry at the international linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Particle flow calorimetry at the international linear ... It is widely believed that the most promising strategy for achieving a jet ... this level of performance for two main reasons. Firstly ... (i) Tracking: For the studies presented in this paper, the track pattern ... that particles propagating outward from the interaction region will cross ...

  11. Flow Cells for Scalable Energy Conversion and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    This project is a response to current flow systems that are V-aqueous and not cost effective. It will hopefully enable high energy/ power density flow cells through rational materials and system design.

  12. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in

  13. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in

  14. Report to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, U.

    1986-07-01

    The results of research done under the International Atomic Energy Agency Contract no 4121/RB: 'Measurement of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section on small samples' at the Institut of Nuclear Physics during the period from July 1, 1985 to June 30, 1986 are presented. The research was based on the Plexiglass thermal neutron diffusion parameters and on the method of preparation of the rock samples for the measurements according to the INP method. Three rock samples delivered by the IAEA: Ottawa Sand, Royer Dolomite and Dunite Sand have been measured. (author)

  15. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 ...

  16. Asymmetric energy flow in liquid alkylbenzenes: A computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, David M.; Pandey, Hari Datt

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast IR-Raman experiments on substituted benzenes [B. C. Pein et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 10898–10904 (2013)] reveal that energy can flow more efficiently in one direction along a molecule than in others. We carry out a computational study of energy flow in the three alkyl benzenes, toluene, isopropylbenzene, and t-butylbenzene, studied in these experiments, and find an asymmetry in the flow of vibrational energy between the two chemical groups of the molecule due to quantum mechanical vibrational relaxation bottlenecks, which give rise to a preferred direction of energy flow. We compare energy flow computed for all modes of the three alkylbenzenes over the relaxation time into the liquid with energy flow through the subset of modes monitored in the time-resolved Raman experiments and find qualitatively similar results when using the subset compared to all the modes

  17. International biomass. International markets of biomass-energy - Public synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardette, Yves-Marie; Dieckhoff, Lea; Lorne, Daphne; Postec, Gwenael; Cherisey, Hugues de; RANTIEN, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at analysing the present and future place of wood-energy in the European Union as the main renewable resource used to produce heat and electricity. This study comprised an analysis of European markets of solid biomass and of regulation, case studies on wood-energy producer markets (North America, Eastern Europe, Brazil and Africa), a study of preparation modes (shredding, granulation, roasting) and biomass transport. This study is based on bibliographical searches in national and European sources, and on field data collected by the various bodies involved in this study. This synthesis notably discusses the following issues: solid biomass is the main renewable resource for the EU and has many applications; European objectives for solid biomass by 2020 are very ambitious; markets are becoming international to face the EU's increasing demand; pellet production in North America is strongly increasing; in Europe, eastern European countries are the main exporters; Brazil has an export potential which is still to be confirmed; the African trade with Europe is still in its infancy. Finally, the development perspectives of roasted wood trade are discussed

  18. 3. International Energy Symposium. Contrasts and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, A.

    2001-12-01

    The contributions made by the speakers of the 3 rd International Energy Symposium in Ossiach have clearly shown the dichotomies that exist in energy supply and have stated unequivocally what is expected from political decision-makers. One of the request has been that the political system provide the framework conditions for so-called flexible instruments to be employed in climate policy. These should allow efficient measures to be taken to reduce emissions not just in Austria but abroad as well. The technological questions of energy supply have been answered to a large extent by engineers. However, what remains to be solved are the issues of distribution and financing of sufficient and ecologically optimized systems. This requires ingenuity and problem solving capacity on part of politicians and bank experts so that scientific and technological developments will be followed by their translation into practice. The change in awareness has already taken place. However, its actual implementation will determine the success or failure of the energy concepts for a better future. (Giljum, H.H.)

  19. International migration flows. Framework for understanding and current features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colectivo IOÉ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to outline a framework for the understanding of the present international migratory flows as well as to outline their main traits. In order to do this, we first group together the different migratory flows produced since the sixteenth century up to the mid seventies in the twentieth  century, stopping then for a closer look at the present situation which register the impact of economic globalization, translating it into an increase of said flows and, above all, to their enormous diversification. To end, we make a brief balance of the present period and a critical evaluation on the meaning of one of the flows which attracts most attention, economic migrations south-north, because these are the ones which have the most impact on developed countries.

  20. FOREWORD: International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and

  1. International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and

  2. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VI. International agreement profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on world energy. The international agreement profiles in WENDS are all energy-related and are organized by energy technology. These are: coal; conservation; fusion; geothermal; nuclear fission; oil, gas, and shale; solar, wind, and ocean thermal; and other (cooperation in electrical power equipment acquisition, energy, energy research, etc.). The agreement profiles are accessible by energy technology and alphabetically by country.

  3. Prediction of strongly-heated internal gas flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.; Shehata, A.M.; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    1997-01-01

    The purposes of the present article are to remind practitioners why the usual textbook approaches may not be appropriate for treating gas flows heated from the surface with large heat fluxes and to review the successes of some recent applications of turbulence models to this case. Simulations from various turbulence models have been assessed by comparison to the measurements of internal mean velocity and temperature distributions by Shehata for turbulent, laminarizing and intermediate flows with significant gas property variation. Of about fifteen models considered, five were judged to provide adequate predictions

  4. International energy indicators, October-November 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E., Jr.

    Detailed data are presented for energy indicators in tables and graphs. Specific international data are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to July 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 through the first half of 1981; oil consumption in OFCD countries, 1975 through the first half of 1981; USSR crude oil production, 1975 through July 1981; and free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 through September 1981 and current capacity. Data presented for energy indicators in the US are: US domestic oil supply and crude oil production, 1977 through March 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 through August 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude oil in current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 through July 1981; US natural gas trade, 1975 through August 1981; summary of US merchandise trade, 1977 through the first half of 1981; and the energy/gross national product ratio from 1974 through the first half of 1981.

  5. Proceedings of VI International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The CD-ROM presents papers submitted to the International Conference of Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education. CIER 2009, held in Havana, Cuba, on Jun 9-13, 2009 May. The purpose of the CIER 2009 are to offer an opportunity to engineers, investigators, academic, makers and specialists in the energy topic from all over the world to exchange experiences, to share their successes and to discuss their focuses to future in the topic of the energy renewable, the energy saving, the energy efficiency and the energy education

  6. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N.; Suurs, Roald A.A.; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2005-01-01

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonne dry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJ HHV ) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonne dry or 2.1 euros/GJ HHV ; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MW HHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJ HHV , when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJ primary /MJ delivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss

  7. International Energy Agency 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The IEA Executive Director’s Annual Report 2012 is the first of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It is presented to the IEA Governing Board and released publicly to ensure transparency and also to take stock of the organisation’s activities from a strategic perspective. 2012 was a transitional year for the IEA, given fundamental changes in the global energy economy as well as internal management and budget issues. At the same time demand for IEA products set new records, and the public and political impact of IEA work through effective communication was measured as high.

  8. Proceedings of IX International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The Study Centre for Renewable Energy Technologies (CETER) located at the Technological University of Havana Jose Antonio Echeverria (CUJAE) Cuba hosted the IX International Renewable Energy Conference, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2017). The current focus on Cuba's renewable energy sector is ambitious with the Government proposing to boost investment by USD 3.5 billion in order to reach its goal of generating 24 per cent of its power from renewable energy by 2030. CIER 2017 brought together hundreds of scientist, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users and other specialists from across the entire international renewable energy spectrum to exchange knowledge, debate and analyze the global efforts currently being carried out in the field. This is all with the objective of intensifying the introduction of renewable energy technologies and promoting the sustainable energetic development in Cuba and the Caribe.

  9. Holographic aids for internal combustion engine flow studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Worldwide interest in improving the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (I.C.) engines has sparked research efforts designed to learn more about the flow processes of these engines. The flow fields must be understood prior to fuel injection in order to design efficient valves, piston geometries, and fuel injectors. Knowledge of the flow field is also necessary to determine the heat transfer to combustion chamber surfaces. Computational codes can predict velocity and turbulence patterns, but experimental verification is mandatory to justify their basic assumptions. Due to their nonintrusive nature, optical methods are ideally suited to provide the necessary velocity verification data. Optical sytems such as Schlieren photography, laser velocimetry, and illuminated particle visualization are used in I.C. engines, and now their versatility is improved by employing holography. These holographically enhanced optical techniques are described with emphasis on their applications in I.C. engines.

  10. Global flow of glasma in high energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guangyao; Fries, Rainer J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2013-06-25

    We discuss the energy flow of the classical gluon fields created in collisions of heavy nuclei at collider energies. We show how the Yang–Mills analog of Faraday's Law and Gauss' Law predicts the initial gluon flux tubes to expand or bend. The resulting transverse and longitudinal structure of the Poynting vector field has a rich phenomenology. Besides the well-known radial and elliptic flow in transverse direction, classical quantum chromodynamics predicts a rapidity-odd transverse flow that tilts the fireball for non-central collisions, and it implies a characteristic flow pattern for collisions of non-symmetric systems A+B. The rapidity-odd transverse flow translates into a directed particle flow v{sub 1} which has been observed at RHIC and LHC. The global flow fields in heavy ion collisions could be a powerful check for the validity of classical Yang–Mills dynamics in high energy collisions.

  11. Electromagnetic energy flow lines as possible paths of photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovic, M [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Sanz, A S; Miret-Artes, S [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Arsenovic, D; Bozic, M [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail: milena@grf.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: asanz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: arsenovic@phy.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: bozic@phy.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: s.miret@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2009-07-15

    Motivated by recent experiments where interference patterns behind a grating are obtained by accumulating single photon events, we provide here an electromagnetic energy flow-line description to explain the emergence of such patterns. We find and discuss an analogy between the equation describing these energy flow lines and the equation of Bohmian trajectories used to describe the motion of massive particles.

  12. Tail dependence and information flow: Evidence from international equity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahahleh, Naseem; Bhatti, M. Ishaq; Adeinat, Iman

    2017-05-01

    Bhatti and Nguyen (2012) used the copula approach to measure the tail dependence between a number of international markets. They observed that some country pairs exhibit only left-tail dependence whereas others show only right-tail. However, the flow of information from uni-dimensional (one-tail) to bi-dimensional (two-tails) between various markets was not accounted for. In this study, we address the flow of information of this nature by using the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC-GARCH) model. More specifically, we use various versions of the DCC models to explain the nexus between the information flow of international equity and to explain the stochastic forward vs. backward dynamics of financial markets based on data for a 15-year period comprising 3,782 observations. We observed that the information flow between the US and Hong Kong markets and between the US and Australian markets are bi-directional. We also observed that the DCC model captures a wider co-movement structure and inter-connectedness compared to the symmetric Joe-Clayton copula.

  13. 4th international renewable energy storage conference (IRES 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 4th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference of The European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) and The World Council for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 24th and 25 November, 2009, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The World Wind Energy Association (A. Kane); (2) The contribution of wind power to the energy supply of tomorrow (H. Albers); (3) Intelligent energy systems for the integration of renewable energies (A.-C. Agricola); (4) 100% Renewable energies: From fossil baseload plants to renewable plants for basic supply (M. Willenbacher); (5) High-performance Li-ion technology for stationary and mobile applications (A. Gutsch); (6) Energy storage in geological underground - Competition of use at storage formations (L. Dietrich); (7) E-mobility concepts for model region ''Rhein-Ruhr'' in North Rhine Westphalia (G.-U. Funk); (8) Photovoltaic energy storage for a better energy management in residential buildings (S. Pincemin); (9) Self-consuming photovoltaic energy in Germany - Impact on energy flows, business cases, and the distribution grid (M. Braun); (10) Local energy systems -optimized for local consumption of self-produced electricity (B. Wille-Haussmann); (11) Assessing the economics of distributed storage systems at the end consumer level (K.-H. Ahlert); (12) A new transportation system for heat on a wide temperature range (S. Gschwander); (13) Latent heat storage media for cooling applications (C. Doetsch); (14) Numerical and experimental analysis of latent heat storage systems for mobile application (F. Roesler); (15) CO{sub 2}-free heat supply from waste heat (H.-W. Etzkorn); (16) Stationary Li-Ion-technology applications for dispatchable power (C. Kolligs); (17) Redox-flow batteries - Electric storage systems for renewable energy (T. Smolinka); (18) Energy storage by means of flywheels (H. Kielsein); (19

  14. Flow effects due to valve and piston motion in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semlitsch, Bernhard; Wang, Yue; Mihăescu, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow regime identification depending on the valve lift during the exhaust stroke. • Analysis of the valve motion effect onto the flow development in the exhaust port. • Physical interpretation of commonly used discharge and flow coefficient formulations. • Illustration of flow effects in junction regions with pulsatile flow. - Abstract: Performance optimization regarding e.g. exhaust valve strategies in an internal combustion engine is often performed based on one-dimensional simulation investigation. Commonly, a discharge coefficient is used to describe the flow behavior in complex geometries, such as the exhaust port. This discharge coefficient for an exhaust port is obtained by laboratory experiments at fixed valve lifts, room temperatures, and low total pressure drops. The present study investigates the consequences of the valve and piston motion onto the energy losses and the discharge coefficient. Therefore, Large Eddy Simulations are performed in a realistic internal combustion geometry using three different modeling strategies, i.e. fixed valve lift and fixed piston, moving piston and fixed valve lift, and moving piston and moving valve, to estimate the energy losses. The differences in the flow field development with the different modeling approaches is delineated and the dynamic effects onto the primary quantities, e.g. discharge coefficient, are quantified. Considering the motion of piston and valves leads to negative total pressure losses during the exhaust cycle, which cannot be observed at fixed valve lifts. Additionally, the induced flow structures develop differently when valve motion is taken into consideration, which leads to a significant disparity of mass flow rates evolving through the two individual valve ports. However, accounting for piston motion and limited valve motion, leads to a minor discharge coefficient alteration of about one to two percent

  15. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  16. Novel simplified hourly energy flow models for photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an energy flow model for standalone PV system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/wind system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/diesel system using MATLAB line code. - Abstract: This paper presents simplified energy flow models for photovoltaic (PV) power systems using MATLAB. Three types of PV power system are taken into consideration namely standalone PV systems, hybrid PV/wind systems and hybrid PV/diesel systems. The logic of the energy flow for each PV power system is discussed first and then the MATLAB line codes for these models are provided and explained. The results prove the accuracy of the proposed models. Such models help modeling and sizing PV systems

  17. Energy flow theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Jing Tang

    2015-01-01

    This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing’s oscillator, Van der Pol’s equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as ...

  18. Proceedings; 4th Tsuruga international energy forum. Energy policy and international cooperation of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The forum was opened at Tsuruga City in Japan from 26 to 27 in April, 2004. It initially discussed Japan's energy policy with the central focus based on the fundamental law of energy, presenting energy policies of each country and the position and future prospects of nuclear energy from these policies. Considering that the forum took place in Tsuruga City (where the FBR 'Monju' is located), expectations on 'Monju' and demands for its international utilization was discussed by researches from abroad, universities in Japan, and the possibility of its realization with views on firm implementation measures was exchanged. Keynote speech was 'Energy policy in the 21st century', special presentation 'importance of science and technology development and cultivation of improvement'. The forum consisted of three sessions: the session I 'energy policy and the role of each country in the 21st century', session II 'international utilization of Monju for FR development' and III 'regional technology development by utilizing nuclear related technology and facilities in Fukui pref.'. There were three panel discussions. 24 members composed speaker and panelists from USA, Turkey, France, UK, China, Switzerland, Korea, Russia and Japan. (S.Y.)

  19. ARE INTERNATIONAL TRADE FLOWS A VECTOR OF GLOBALIZATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian-Florian ENEA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International commerce and regional integration have long been considered key determinants of national development. The purpose of the present paper is to answer the question whether international trade flows are a vector of globalization and economic growth. In order to achieve this, we have conducted panel data analysis on a sample consisting of members from regional economic structures, such as the E.U., NAFTA, MERCOSUR and ASEAN, and covering a time span of 24 years, from 1990 to 2013. The results of the study underline the fact that, on average and taking into account the heterogeneity of the sample, international commerce counts from around 50 % of the annual economic growth. The future research direction will aim to conduct a more thorough analysis, by focusing more on the regional perspective.

  20. Flow effects due to pulsation in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semlitsch, Bernhard; Wang, Yue; Mihăescu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using POD analysis to identify large coherent flow structures in a complex geometry. • Flow field alters significant for constant and pulsating boundary conditions. • The discharge coefficient of the exhaust port decreases 2% with flow pulsation. • Pulsation causes a pumping mechanism due to a phase shift of pressure and momentum. - Abstract: In an internal combustion engine, the residual energy remaining after combustion in the exhaust gasses can be partially recovered by a downstream arranged device. The exhaust port represents the passage guiding the exhaust gasses from the combustion chamber to the energy recovering device, e.g. a turbocharger. Thus, energy losses in the course of transmission shall be reduced as much as possible. However, in one-dimensional engine models used for engine design, the exhaust port is reduced to its discharge coefficient, which is commonly measured under constant inflow conditions neglecting engine-like flow pulsation. In this present study, the influence of different boundary conditions on the energy losses and flow development during the exhaust stroke are analyzed numerically regarding two cases, i.e. using simple constant and pulsating boundary conditions. The compressible flow in an exhaust port geometry of a truck engine is investigated using three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The results contrast the importance of applying engine-like boundary conditions in order to estimate accurately the flow induced losses and the discharge coefficient of the exhaust port. The instantaneous flow field alters significantly when pulsating boundary conditions are applied. Thus, the induced losses by the unsteady flow motion and the secondary flow motion are increased with inflow pulsations. The discharge coefficient decreased about 2% with flow pulsation. A modal flow decomposition method, i.e. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), is used to analyze the coherent structures induced with the particular

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  2. Thermally radiative three-dimensional flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with internal heat generation and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Abdullah, Z. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2016-01-01

    This research work addresses the three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles. Flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. The effects of thermal radiation and internal heat generation are encountered in energy expressions. More realistic convective boundary conditions at the surface are employed instead of constant surface temperature and mass species conditions. Boundary layer assumptions lead to the governing non-linear mathematical model. Resulting equations through momentum, energy and mass species are made dimensionless using suitable variables. The solution expressions of dimensionless velocities, temperature and nanoparticle concentration have been computed for the convergent series solutions. The impacts of interesting parameters on the dimensionless quantities are displayed and interpreted. The values of physical quantities are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid is considered. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are encountered. • Heat transfer analysis is performed with thermal radiation. • Results are plotted and visualized.

  3. Energy technologies at the cutting edge: international energy technology collaboration IEA Implementing Agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottinger, C. (ed.)

    2007-05-15

    Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change issues in a cost-effective way are the main challenges of energy policies and in the longer term will be solved only through technology cooperation. To encourage collaborative efforts to meet these energy challenges, the IEA created a legal contract - Implementing Agreement - and a system of standard rules and regulations. This allows interested member and non-member governments or other organisations to pool resources and to foster the research, development and deployment of particular technologies. For more than 30 years, this international technology collaboration has been a fundamental building block in facilitating progress of new or improved energy technologies. There are now 41 Implementing Agreements. This is the third in the series of publications highlighting the recent results and achievements of the IEA Implementing Agreements. This document is arranged in the following sections: Cross-cutting activities (sub-sectioned: Climate technology initiative; Energy Technology Data Eexchange; and Energy technology systems analysis programme); End-use technologies (sub-sectioned: Buildings; Electricity; Industry; and Transport; Fossil fuels (sub-sectioned: Clean Coal Centre; Enhanced oil recovery Fluidized bed conversion; Greenhouse Gas R & D; Multiphase flow sciences); Fusion power; Renewable energies and hydrogen; and For more information (including detail on the IEA energy technology network; IEA Secretariat Implementing Agreement support; and IEA framework. Addresses are given for the Implementing Agreements. The publication is based on core input from the Implementing Agreement Executive Committee.

  4. International Atomic Energy Agency activities in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenweaver, D W.; )

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been addressing the safety and technical issues of decommissioning for over 20 years, but their focus has been primarily on planning. Up to know, the activities have been on an ad hoc basis and sometimes, important issues have been missed. A new Action Plan on the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities has recently been approved by the Agency's board of Governors which will focus the Agency's efforts and ensure that our Member States' concerns are addressed. The new initiatives associated with this Action Plan will help ensure that decommissioning activities in the future are performed in a safe and coherent manner. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been preparing safety and technical documents concerning decommissioning since the mid-1980's. There have been over 30 documents prepared that provide safety requirements, guidance and supporting technical information. Many of these documents are over 10 years old and need updating. The main focus in the past has been on planning for decommissioning. During the past five years, a set of Safety Standards have been prepared and issued to provide safety requirements and guidance to Member States. However, decommissioning was never a real priority with the Agency, but was something that had to be addressed. To illustrate this point, the first requirements documents on decommissioning were issued as part of a Safety Requirements [1] on pre-disposal management of radioactive waste. It was felt that decommissioning did not deserve its own document because it was just part of the normal waste management process. The focus was mostly on waste management. The Agency has assisted Member States with the planning process for decommissioning. Most of these activities have been focused on nuclear power plants and research reactors. Now, support for the decommissioning of other types of facilities is being requested. The Agency is currently providing technical

  5. Effect of material flows on energy intensity in process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liru; Aye, Lu [International Technologies Center (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Lu, Zhongwu [Institute of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Peihong [Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Architecture University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2006-09-15

    Many energy-intensive process industries have complex material flows, which have a strong effect on the overall energy intensity of the final product (OEIF). This problem, however, has only been recognised qualitatively due to the lack of quantitative analysis methods. This paper presents an in-depth quantitative analysis of the effect of material flows on energy intensity in process industries. Based on the concept of a standard material flow diagram (SMFD), as used in steel manufacturing, the SMFD for a generic process industry was first developed. Then material flow scenarios were addressed in a practical material flow diagram (PMFD) using the characteristics of practical process industries. The effect of each material flow deviating from a SMFD on the OEIF was analysed. The steps involved in analysing the effect of material flows in a PMFD on its energy intensity are also discussed in detail. Finally, using 1999 statistical data from the Chinese Zhenzhou alumina refinery plant, the PMFD and SMFD for this plant were constructed as a case study. The effect of material flows on the overall energy intensity of alumina (OEIA) was thus analysed quantitatively. To decrease OEIA, the process variations which decrease the product ratios could be employed in all except in multi-supplied fraction cases. In these cases, the fractions from the stream with lower energy intensities should be increased. (author)

  6. Internal wave energy flux from density perturbations in nonlinear stratifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank M.; Allshouse, Michael R.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.

    2017-11-01

    Tidal flow over the topography at the bottom of the ocean, whose density varies with depth, generates internal gravity waves that have a significant impact on the energy budget of the ocean. Thus, understanding the energy flux (J = p v) is important, but it is difficult to measure simultaneously the pressure and velocity perturbation fields, p and v . In a previous work, a Green's-function-based method was developed to calculate the instantaneous p, v , and thus J , given a density perturbation field for a constant buoyancy frequency N. Here we extend the previous analytic Green's function work to include nonuniform N profiles, namely the tanh-shaped and linear cases, because background density stratifications that occur in the ocean and some experiments are nonlinear. In addition, we present a finite-difference method for the general case where N has an arbitrary profile. Each method is validated against numerical simulations. The methods we present can be applied to measured density perturbation data by using our MATLAB graphical user interface EnergyFlux. PJM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-FG05-80ET-53088. HLS and MRA were supported by ONR Grant No. N000141110701.

  7. Stability of boundary layer flow based on energy gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hua-Shu; Xu, Wenqian; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2018-05-01

    The flow of the laminar boundary layer on a flat plate is studied with the simulation of Navier-Stokes equations. The mechanisms of flow instability at external edge of the boundary layer and near the wall are analyzed using the energy gradient theory. The simulation results show that there is an overshoot on the velocity profile at the external edge of the boundary layer. At this overshoot, the energy gradient function is very large which results in instability according to the energy gradient theory. It is found that the transverse gradient of the total mechanical energy is responsible for the instability at the external edge of the boundary layer, which induces the entrainment of external flow into the boundary layer. Within the boundary layer, there is a maximum of the energy gradient function near the wall, which leads to intensive flow instability near the wall and contributes to the generation of turbulence.

  8. International Data Base for the U.S. Renewable Energy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1986-05-01

    The International Data Base for the US Renewable Energy Industry was developed to provide the US renewable energy industry with background data for identifying and analyzing promising foreign market opportunities for their products and services. Specifically, the data base provides the following information for 161 developed and developing countries: (1) General Country Data--consisting of general energy indicators; (2) Energy Demand Data--covering commercial primary energy consumption; (3) Energy Resource Data--identifying annual average insolation, wind power, and river flow data; (4) Power System Data--indicating a wide range of electrical parameters; and (5) Business Data--including currency and credit worthiness data.

  9. Effects of variable specific heat on energy transfer in a high-temperature supersonic channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaopeng; Dou, Hua-Shu; Zhu, Zuchao

    2018-05-01

    An energy transfer mechanism in high-temperature supersonic turbulent flow for variable specific heat (VSH) condition through turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), mean kinetic energy (MKE), turbulent internal energy (TIE) and mean internal energy (MIE) is proposed. The similarities of energy budgets between VSH and constant specific heat (CSH) conditions are investigated by introducing a vibrational energy excited degree and considering the effects of fluctuating specific heat. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of temporally evolving high-temperature supersonic turbulent channel flow is conducted at Mach number 3.0 and Reynolds number 4800 combined with a constant dimensional wall temperature 1192.60 K for VSH and CSH conditions to validate the proposed energy transfer mechanism. The differences between the terms in the two kinetic energy budgets for VSH and CSH conditions are small; however, the magnitude of molecular diffusion term for VSH condition is significantly smaller than that for CSH condition. The non-negligible energy transfer is obtained after neglecting several small terms of diffusion, dissipation and compressibility related. The non-negligible energy transfer involving TIE includes three processes, in which energy can be gained from TKE and MIE and lost to MIE. The same non-negligible energy transfer through TKE, MKE and MIE is observed for both the conditions.

  10. Upper internals of PWR with coolant flow separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevereau, G.; Heuze, A.

    1989-01-01

    The upper internals for a PWR has a collecting volume for the coolant merging from the core and an apparatus for separating the flow of coolant. This apparatus has a guide for the control rods, a lower plate perforated to allow the coolant through from the core, an upper plate also perforated to allow the coolant through to the collecting volume and a peripheral binding ring joining the two plates. Each guide comprises an envelope without holes and joined perceptibly tight to the plates [fr

  11. International bilateral and multilateral arrangements in energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This document, the second report in the series, outlines current DOE international commitments under bilateral and multilateral arrangements, as of January 1, 1978. Included are bilateral agreements for cooperation in the civil uses of atomic energy with countries and international organizations, bilateral and multilateral technical exchanges in all energy technology areas, and multilateral agreements under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In addition to outlining the terms, scope, and status of these agreements, this document describes DOE's participation in the work of the major international energy organizations. IEA, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Future reports will update the status of ongoing cooperative projects and provide information on new energy R and D activities

  12. Nuclear energy, environmental protection and international conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke-Glueckert, P.

    1975-01-01

    Some general and some critical remarks on: nuclear energy as an image for politics; nuclear energy as a model for research planning; nuclear controversy; the principle of precaution in nuclear and radiation protection law; reactor safety on probation; advantages and economy of nuclear energy; communication difficulties; the special role of nuclear energy; the need for European site planning; supervision of fissionable materials; the world's energy household in danger; global structure politics and nuclear energy; nuclear energy with a capacity for social innovations. (HP/LN) [de

  13. Radial, sideward and elliptic flow at AGS energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the sideward flow, the elliptic flow and the radial transverse mass distribution of protons data at. AGS energies. In order to ... data on both sideward and elliptic flow, NL3 model is better at 2 A¡GeV, while NL23 model is at 4–8. A¡GeV. ... port approach RBUU which is based on a coupled set of covariant transport equations for.

  14. India's energy needs and areas of international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazir, S. N.

    1980-03-15

    India's energy position is poor because of relatively large imports of oil, and poor reserves. In the impending energy crisis, developing countries will suffer (whether or not it is oil-rich) unless international cooperation is forthcoming. Energy consumption patterns in India are shown in tables. Energy reserves are also analyzed, including nonconventional sources (geothermal, solar, etc.). Possible areas for international cooperation are explored. (DLC)

  15. A mean flow acoustic engine capable of wind energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daming; Xu Ya; Chen Haijun; Wu, Ke; Liu Kaikai; Yu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A mean flow acoustic engine for wind energy harvesting is designed and manufactured. ► Stable standing wave acoustic field is established at specific flow velocity. ► Experimental and computational results reveal the acoustic field characteristics. ► Acoustic field has monofrequency characteristic and remarkable energy density. - Abstract: Based on the mean flow induced acoustic oscillation effect, a mean flow acoustic engine (MFAE) converts wind energy and fluid energy in pipeline into acoustic energy which can be used to drive thermoacoustic refrigerators and generators without any mechanical moving parts. With natural wind simulated by a centrifugal air fan, a MFAE with a cross-junction configuration was designed and manufactured for experimental study. Stable standing wave acoustic fields were established in specific ranges of air flow velocity. Experimental and computational results reveal the acoustic field distribution in the engine and show the effect of the mean flow velocity and the Strouhal number on the acoustic field characteristics. With a mean flow velocity of 50.52 m/s and a mean pressure of 106.19 kPa, the maximum pressure amplitude of 6.20 kPa was achieved, which was about 5.8% of the mean pressure. It has laid a good foundation for driving power generation devices and thermoacoustic refrigerators by a MFAE.

  16. Low energy consumption vortex wave flow membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Weilong; Hu, Xiaohong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Tao; Sun, Youshan

    2017-11-01

    In order to reduce the energy consumption and membrane fouling of the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), a kind of low energy consumption vortex wave flow MBR was exploited based on the combination of biofilm process and membrane filtration process, as well as the vortex wave flow technique. The experimental results showed that the vortex wave flow state in the membrane module could be formed when the Reynolds number (Re) of liquid was adjusted between 450 and 1,050, and the membrane flux declined more slowly in the vortex wave flow state than those in the laminar flow state and turbulent flow state. The MBR system was used to treat domestic wastewater under the condition of vortex wave flow state for 30 days. The results showed that the removal efficiency for CODcr and NH 3 -N was 82% and 98% respectively, and the permeate quality met the requirement of 'Water quality standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption (GB/T 18920-2002)'. Analysis of the energy consumption of the MBR showed that the average energy consumption was 1.90 ± 0.55 kWh/m 3 (permeate), which was only two thirds of conventional MBR energy consumption.

  17. Energy distribution and transfer in flowing hydrogen microwave plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is an experimental investigation of the physical and chemical properties of a hydrogen discharge in a flowing microwave plasma system. The plasma system is the mechanisms utilized in an electrothermal propulsion concept to convert electromagnetic energy into the kinetic energy of flowing hydrogen gas. The plasmas are generated inside a 20-cm ID resonant cavity at a driving frequency of 2.45 GHz. The flowing gas is contained in a coaxially positioned 22-mm ID quartz discharge tube. The physical and chemical properties are examined for absorbed powers of 20-100 W, pressures of 0.5-10 torr, and flow rates of 0-10,000 μ-moles/sec. A calorimetry system enclosing the plasma system to accurately measure the energy inputs and outputs has been developed. The rate of energy that is transferred to the hydrogen gas as it flows through the plasma system is determined as a function of absorbed power, pressure, and flow rate to +/-1.8 W from an energy balance around the system. The percentage of power that is transferred to the gas is found to increase with increasing flow rate, decrease with increasing pressure, and to be independent of absorbed power

  18. International environment, enterprise environment and energy environment giving different look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shunsuke

    1987-04-01

    0he international environment, enterprise environment and energy environment surrounding Japan are changing their looks. In such situation, what Japan should do for the development of the world was discussed. Internationally, in the Western Pacific economical block including Japan and Asian NICs, Japan promotes the international exchange of materials, capital, technology, information and people, and creates various international public properties. Enterprisers should have global mind, and cope with the internationalization, technical innovation and information orientation which are in progress at present through international exchange, interindustrial exchange, industry-university-government exchange and so on. In the aspect of energy environment, Japan carries out the technical development of energy conservation, energy, creation and the exploration of energy resources, in this way, contributes to the stabilization of energy in the world. (3 figs, 1 tab)

  19. Nutrient flows in international trade: Ecology and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, Ulrike; Craswell, Eric; Vlek, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Impacts of increasing population pressure on food demand and land resources has sparked interest in nutrient balances and flows at a range of scales. West Asia/North Africa, China, and sub-Saharan Africa are net importers of NPK in agricultural commodities. These imported nutrients do not, however, redress the widely recognized declines in fertility in sub-Saharan African soils, because the nutrients imported are commonly concentrated in the cities, creating waste disposal problems rather than alleviating deficiencies in rural soils. Countries with a net loss of NPK in agricultural commodities are the major food exporting countries-the United States, Australia, and some Latin American countries. In the case of the United States, exports of NPK will increase from 3.1 Tg in 1997 to 4.8 Tg in 2020. The results suggest that between 1997 and 2020, total international net flows of NPK in traded agricultural commodities will double to 8.8 million tonnes. Against this background, the paper analyses the impact of different policy measures on nutrient flows and balances. This includes not only the effects of agricultural trade liberalization and the reduction of subsidies, but also the more direct environmental policies like nutrient accounting schemes, eco-labeling, and nutrient trading. It finally stresses the need for environmental costs to be factored into the debate on nutrient management and advocates more inter-disciplinary research on these important problems

  20. LES of Internal Combustion Engine Flows Using Cartesian Overset Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkenstein Tobias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate computations of turbulent flows using the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES technique with an appropriate SubFilter Scale (SFS model require low artificial dissipation such that the physical energy cascade process is not perturbed by numerical artifacts. To realize this in practical simulations, energy-conserving numerical schemes and high-quality computational grids are needed. If unstructured meshes are used, the latter requirement often makes grid generation for complex geometries very difficult. Structured Cartesian grids offer the advantage that uncertainties in mesh quality are reduced to choosing appropriate resolution. However, two intrinsic challenges of the structured approach are local mesh refinement and representation of complex geometries. In this work, the effectiveness of numerical methods which can be expected to reduce both drawbacks is assessed in engine flows, using a multi-physics inhouse code. The overset grid approach is utilized to arbitrarily combine grid patches of different spacing to a flow domain of complex shape during mesh generation. Walls are handled by an Immersed Boundary (IB method, which is combined with a wall function to treat underresolved boundary layers. A statistically stationary Spark Ignition (SI engine port flow is simulated at Reynolds numbers typical for engine operation. Good agreement of computed and measured integral flow quantities like overall pressure loss and tumble number is found. A comparison of simulated velocity fields to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurement data concludes the validation of the enhanced numerical framework for both mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations. The performance of two SFS models, the dynamic Smagorinsky model with Lagrangian averaging along pathlines and the coherent structure model, is tested on different grids. Sensitivity of pressure loss and tumble ratio to the wall treatment and mesh refinement is presented. It is shown that increased wall

  1. International energy options: an agenda for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempest, P [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Selected papers from the conference are presented under section headings on: global dilemma; government response to the energy crisis; world power politics; capital constraints and opportunities; productivity and employment; energy demand; energy supply; risks and the need for contingency planning; and international energy policies.

  2. Analysis of changing hidden energy flow in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Anh Tuyet; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption in production process is changing especially in developing countries by substituting technology. Input-output analysis for energy flows has been developing and is one of the best solutions for investigating macroscopic exchanges of both economy and energy. Since each element in the Leontief inverse contains both direct and indirect effects of any change in final demand, to separate those direct and indirect effects, the power series expansion is available. In this work, the changes of embodied energy intensity in Vietnam from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed using the structural decomposition and its power series expansion. By illustrating the change of causal relationship between direct energy consumption and embodied energy consumption, the change of hidden energy flow, which indicates how the changing embodied energy builds up the change of direct energy consumption in every sector, can be seen. In the case study, the rice processing sector, which is one of the important food processing sectors in Vietnam, is focused. By drawing a diagrammatic map for the change of hidden energy flow, it is clarified that in the case of raising embodied energy intensity, cultivation sector and trade and repaired service sector are the main contributors, and, on the contrary, in the case of reducing embodied energy intensity, paper pulp sector is the main contributor

  3. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  4. A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, William W.-W.

    1992-01-01

    A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.

  5. Sleep Management on Multiple Machines for Energy and Flow Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Sze-Hang; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei

    2011-01-01

    In large data centers, determining the right number of operating machines is often non-trivial, especially when the workload is unpredictable. Using too many machines would waste energy, while using too few would affect the performance. This paper extends the traditional study of online flow-time...... scheduling on multiple machines to take sleep management and energy into consideration. Specifically, we study online algorithms that can determine dynamically when and which subset of machines should wake up (or sleep), and how jobs are dispatched and scheduled. We consider schedules whose objective...... is to minimize the sum of flow time and energy, and obtain O(1)-competitive algorithms for two settings: one assumes machines running at a fixed speed, and the other allows dynamic speed scaling to further optimize energy usage. Like the previous work on the tradeoff between flow time and energy, the analysis...

  6. Evaluation of the carotid artery stenosis based on minimization of mechanical energy loss of the blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Sheau Fung; Zhao, Xihai; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yu; Chong, Winston; He, Le; Chen, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Internal carotid artery stenosis requires an accurate risk assessment for the prevention of stroke. Although the internal carotid artery area stenosis ratio at the common carotid artery bifurcation can be used as one of the diagnostic methods of internal carotid artery stenosis, the accuracy of results would still depend on the measurement techniques. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel method to estimate the effect of internal carotid artery stenosis on the blood flow based on the concept of minimization of energy loss. Eight internal carotid arteries from different medical centers were diagnosed as stenosed internal carotid arteries, as plaques were found at different locations on the vessel. A computational fluid dynamics solver was developed based on an open-source code (OpenFOAM) to test the flow ratio and energy loss of those stenosed internal carotid arteries. For comparison, a healthy internal carotid artery and an idealized internal carotid artery model have also been tested and compared with stenosed internal carotid artery in terms of flow ratio and energy loss. We found that at a given common carotid artery bifurcation, there must be a certain flow distribution in the internal carotid artery and external carotid artery, for which the total energy loss at the bifurcation is at a minimum; for a given common carotid artery flow rate, an irregular shaped plaque at the bifurcation constantly resulted in a large value of minimization of energy loss. Thus, minimization of energy loss can be used as an indicator for the estimation of internal carotid artery stenosis.

  7. Analysis of natural convection heat transfer and flows in internally heated stratified liquid pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubaidullin, A.A. Jr.; Dinh, T.N.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, natural convection flows and heat transfer in a liquid pool, with two superposed immiscible fluid layers, are analyzed. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of interfacial hydrodynamics and to develop a method which enables energy splitting to be evaluated in a stratified liquid pool. The thermal convection, with and without an internal heat source, in a rectangular cavity with different pairs of fluids was numerically simulated by a CFD code FLOW-3D. It was found that the code performs very well for prediction of heat transfer coefficients for different conditions. The hydrodynamic coupling between immiscible layers was found to have minor, if any, impact on the natural convection heat transfer for the conditions examined. Calculated results were used to develop, and validate, a new correlation for energy splitting and for heat transfer in stratified liquid pools

  8. Biotrade1: international trade in renewable energy from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, A.E.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses international trade in renewable energy from biomass. Main objective is to compare options for international trade in energy from biomass and to compare these options with non-trade options like domestic use of biomass and afforestation. Aspects that are taken into account are

  9. A biomass energy flow chart for Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senelwa, K.A.; Hall, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    Terrestrial (above ground) biomass production and its utilization in Kenya was analyzed for the 1980s. Total biomass energy production was estimated at 2574 x 10 6 GJ per year, most of which (86.7%) is produced on land classified as agricultural. Of the total production, agriculture and forrestry operations resulted in the harvesting of 1138 x 10 6 GJ (44.2% of total production), half of which (602 x 10 6 GJ) was harvested for use as fuel. Only 80 x 10 6 GJ was harvested for food and 63 x 10 6 GJ for industrial (agricultural and forestry) plus other miscellaneous purposes. About 85% of Kenya's energy is from biomass, with a per capita consumption of 18.6 GJ (0.44 toe, tonne oil equivalent) compared to less than 0.1 toe of commercial energy. Use of the biomass resource was found to be extensive involving bulk harvesting but with low utilization efficiencies; as a result the overall losses were quite high. Only 534 x 10 6 GJ (46.9% of harvested biomass) was useful energy. 480 x 10 6 GJ was left unused, as residues and dung, all which was either burnt or left to decompose in the fields. 124 x 10 6 GJ was lost during charcoal manufacture. Intensified use of the harvested biomass at higher efficiencies in order to minimize wastes would decrease the stress on the biomass resource base. (Author)

  10. Energy fluxes and spectra for turbulent and laminar flows

    KAUST Repository

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-05-14

    Two well-known turbulence models to describe the inertial and dissipative ranges simultaneously are by Pao~[Phys. Fluids {\\\\bf 8}, 1063 (1965)] and Pope~[{\\\\em Turbulent Flows.} Cambridge University Press, 2000]. In this paper, we compute energy spectrum $E(k)$ and energy flux $\\\\Pi(k)$ using spectral simulations on grids up to $4096^3$, and show consistency between the numerical results and predictions by the aforementioned models. We also construct a model for laminar flows that predicts $E(k)$ and $\\\\Pi(k)$ to be of the form $\\\\exp(-k)$, and verify the model predictions using numerical simulations. The shell-to-shell energy transfers for the turbulent flows are {\\\\em forward and local} for both inertial and dissipative range, but those for the laminar flows are {\\\\em forward and nonlocal}.

  11. Industrial energy economy, national and international aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    VDI-report 1061 contains the papers given on the Conference of the same name in Essen on the 22 and 23.6.1993. German industry suffers not only from high wage and on-cost but high, energy costs as well. Waste disposal problems and impending taxes on wages are the cause of these difficulties. The EC believes that competition between energy supplies may help to reduce energy costs. This report deals with cost-efficient energy supply for the German industry and books at the background of this scenario. This industry puts forward its wishes and demands to politicians and energy economy. Representatives of energy suppliers discuss energy supplies, demand, availability, safety of supplies, competitiveness, quality and environmental aspects. The influence of energy costs and environmental taxation on the industrial and economic future of Germany and the situation in the Eastern States of Germany are a further subject of discussion. The views of the EC commission, the industry and the energy suppliers on energy transports across the EC are discussed as well. (orig./UA) [de

  12. Modeling international trends in energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, David I.

    2012-01-01

    I use a stochastic production frontier to model energy efficiency trends in 85 countries over a 37-year period. Differences in energy efficiency across countries are modeled as a stochastic function of explanatory variables and I estimate the model using the cross-section of time-averaged data, so that no structure is imposed on technological change over time. Energy efficiency is measured using a new energy distance function approach. The country using the least energy per unit output, given its mix of outputs and inputs, defines the global production frontier. A country's relative energy efficiency is given by its distance from the frontier—the ratio of its actual energy use to the minimum required energy use, ceteris paribus. Energy efficiency is higher in countries with, inter alia, higher total factor productivity, undervalued currencies, and smaller fossil fuel reserves and it converges over time across countries. Globally, technological change was the most important factor counteracting the energy-use and carbon-emissions increasing effects of economic growth.

  13. Direct observation of vibrational energy flow in cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoki; Mizuno, Misao; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2011-11-10

    Vibrational energy flow in ferric cytochrome c has been examined by picosecond time-resolved anti-Stokes ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) measurements. By taking advantage of the extremely short nonradiative excited state lifetime of heme in the protein (energy of 20000-25000 cm(-1) was optically deposited selectively at the heme site. Subsequent energy relaxation in the protein moiety was investigated by monitoring the anti-Stokes UVRR intensities of the Trp59 residue, which is a single tryptophan residue involved in the protein that is located close to the heme group. It was found from temporal changes of the anti-Stokes UVRR intensities that the energy flow from the heme to Trp59 and the energy release from Trp59 took place with the time constants of 1-3 and ~8 ps, respectively. These data are consistent with the time constants for the vibrational relaxation of the heme and heating of water reported for hemeproteins. The kinetics of the energy flow were not affected by the amount of excess energy deposited at the heme group. These results demonstrate that the present technique is a powerful tool for studying the vibrational energy flow in proteins.

  14. Aquifer thermal energy storage. International symposium: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Aquifers have been used to store large quantities of thermal energy to supply process cooling, space cooling, space heating, and ventilation air preheating, and can be used with or without heat pumps. Aquifers are used as energy sinks and sources when supply and demand for energy do not coincide. Aquifer thermal energy storage may be used on a short-term or long-term basis; as the sole source of energy or as a partial storage; at a temperature useful for direct application or needing upgrade. The sources of energy used for aquifer storage are ambient air, usually cold winter air; waste or by-product energy; and renewable energy such as solar. The present technical, financial and environmental status of ATES is promising. Numerous projects are operating and under development in several countries. These projects are listed and results from Canada and elsewhere are used to illustrate the present status of ATES. Technical obstacles have been addressed and have largely been overcome. Cold storage in aquifers can be seen as a standard design option in the near future as it presently is in some countries. The cost-effectiveness of aquifer thermal energy storage is based on the capital cost avoidance of conventional chilling equipment and energy savings. ATES is one of many developments in energy efficient building technology and its success depends on relating it to important building market and environmental trends. This paper attempts to provide guidance for the future implementation of ATES. Individual projects have been processed separately for entry onto the Department of Energy databases.

  15. High energy density redox flow device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  16. The future of the international energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.

    1980-01-01

    Are we heading for a world energy cisis. There is not really a need or a disastrous culmination of the world energy supply situation to occur because, globally speakng, a large reservoir of energy resources is available. The problem rather lies in the structure of consumption in the industrialized countries, which is bound to lead to difficulties of supply soon, if the consumption of energy continues to rise. Changes in structure must be effected both on the supply and on the demand sides. (orig.) [de

  17. INDRA-GSI: Collective flow from Fermi to relativistic energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukasik, J.; Trautmann, W.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Bittiger, R.; Gourio, D.; Le Fevre, A.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Orth, H.; Sfienti, C.; Schwarz, C.; Turzo, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Auger, G.; Bouriquet, B.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D.; Hudan, S.; Lopez, O. [GANIL, CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Borderie, B.; Galichet, E.; Lavaud, F.; Plagnol, E. [Paris-11 Univ., Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Bellaize, N.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Hurst, B.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Caen Univ., LPC (IN2P3-CNRS/ENSI), 14 - Caen (France); Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M. [INFN, Univ. Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Sezione, Napoli (Italy); Saija, A. [Universita and INFN I, Dipartimento di Fisica dell' , Catania (Italy); Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B. [A. Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Lukasik, J. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Galichet, E. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Directed flow for the {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au reactions at incident energies between 40 and 150 A*MeV has been measured using the 4{pi} multi-detector INDRA at the GSI facility. In particular, the bombarding energy at which the elliptic flow switches from in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement has been determined to be around 100 A*MeV in good agreement with the result obtained by the FOPI Collaboration. The new data allows also to extend the experimental excitation function of v{sub 2} to lower energies. (authors)

  18. INDRA-GSI: Collective flow from Fermi to relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasik, J.; Trautmann, W.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Bittiger, R.; Gourio, D.; Le Fevre, A.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Orth, H.; Sfienti, C.; Schwarz, C.; Turzo, K.; Auger, G.; Bouriquet, B.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D.; Hudan, S.; Lopez, O.; Borderie, B.; Galichet, E.; Lavaud, F.; Plagnol, E.; Bellaize, N.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Hurst, B.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M.; Saija, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B.; Lukasik, J.; Galichet, E.

    2003-01-01

    Directed flow for the 197 Au + 197 Au reactions at incident energies between 40 and 150 A*MeV has been measured using the 4π multi-detector INDRA at the GSI facility. In particular, the bombarding energy at which the elliptic flow switches from in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement has been determined to be around 100 A*MeV in good agreement with the result obtained by the FOPI Collaboration. The new data allows also to extend the experimental excitation function of v 2 to lower energies. (authors)

  19. Microfluidic energy conversion by application of two phase flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the energy conversion performance by the streaming potential using totally different approaches. By introducing gas bubbles, which can be considered as perfect insulators, the internal electrical resistance of the system can be increased, decreasing the conduction current. Following

  20. Energy use in Norway: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unander, F.F.; Alm, L.K.; Schipper, L.

    1997-06-01

    The report examines the evolution of the structure and intensity of energy use in the main sectors of the Norwegian economy such as manufacturing, residential sector, services, and transport. The development in Norway is contrasted and compared to that in nine other countries such as Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, U.K., France, Italy, United States, and Japan. The results show that Norway per capita energy use (excluding energy use in petroleum production) in 1992, after USA and Finland, was the highest of the 10 OECD countries being studied. Together with Finland, Norway showed the strongest growth in energy use per capita from 1973 to 1992. Some of the increased energy use in Norway can be attributed to more energy intensive structure and higher activity levels in the Norwegian economy. If the effect from changes in these two factors is excluded by holding the activity and structure in each sector constant at its 1973-level and only vary sub-sectorial energy intensities, Norway is still the country with the least reduction in energy intensities over the period from 1973 to 1992. Important underlying reasons in the same period are caused by increased indoor comfort level and the availability of both low-cost hydro power and biomass resources partly sheltering Norway from the impact of higher oil prices. 12 refs., 47 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. International Conference SES 2009: Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: Opening addresses; (I) Energy policy; (II) Environment, Renewable sources and NPPs; (III) Secure energy supply - New nuclear units. Verbal 21 presentations have been inputted into INIS, all in the form of the full authors' presentations.

  2. The map of energy flow in HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lombard, Luis; Ortiz, Jose; Maestre, Ismael R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Discussion of the four stages in the 'HVAC systems energy chain'. → Examination of HVAC systems as energy conversion devices. → Analysis of HVAC Sankey diagrams. → Discussion of HVAC loads and HVAC energy losses. -- Abstract: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are the most energy consuming building services representing approximately half of the final energy use in the building sector and between one tenth and one fifth of the energy consumption in developed countries. Despite their significant energy use, there is a lack of a consistent and homogeneous framework to efficiently guide research and energy policies, mainly due to the complexity and variety of HVAC systems but also to insufficient rigour in their energy analysis. This paper reviews energy related aspects of HVAC systems with the aim of establishing a common ground for the analysis of their energy efficiency. The paper focuses on the map of energy flow to deliver thermal comfort: the HVAC energy chain. Our approach deals first with thermal comfort as the final service delivered to building occupants. Secondly, conditioned spaces are examined as the systems where useful heat (or coolth) is degraded to provide comfort. This is followed by the analysis of HVAC systems as complex energy conversion devices where energy carriers are transformed into useful heat and coolth, and finally, the impact of HVAC energy consumption on energy resources is discussed.

  3. Energy: The coin of international understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, A.

    1989-01-01

    Energy and agriculture have been the technological hallmarks of civilization from its dimmest beginnings. The myth of fire stolen from the gods recounts the first ever technology transfer activity, and it quite rightly focuses on energy. Even that myth foreshadows the ambivalence mankind has always exhibited toward fire. There is a price to pay for the possession of fire. Fire, the good servant and evil master. Don't play with fire. How deeply energy is engraved in human consciousness. Now, with a world of five billion souls and heading for double that number, energy commands center stage. Everybody uses, mistrusts, needs, wants, loves, hates, and fears some aspect of energy. Rich poor, north and south, capitalist and ancialist, humanist and fundamentalist---all deal with energy in most intimate way. The price of oil has an immediate effect on the economy of the West, it can start stop development in the third world, it leads to wars, it determines the size of cars in Japan, and create bizarre cities on stilts in the hostile North Sea. Energy is the great benefactor: it relieves drudgery, it makes agriculture productive, it gives us light and heat. The great dream of every young person in the US is to own that certain car. The same dream that informs the citizens of the third world, that leads to impenetrable traffic jams in Mexico City, in Nairobi, in Shanghai, but not yet in Moscow or Riev. No doubt the unsuspecting Russian will judge perestroika to have been successful when there is gridlock on Pushkin Street. Energy is the great polluter: smog, carbon dioxide, acid rain, islands of heat, melting permafrost, a nuclear waste. Indirectly energy fuels all the other forms of pollution: agricultural waste, pesticides, little bits of polystyrene, the huge amounts of just plain trash in search of a final resting place. Aspects of energy that characterize its uses by society are discussed

  4. Optimal Power Flow in Microgrids with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levron, Yoash; Guerrero, Josep M.; Beck, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage may improve power management in microgrids that include renewable energy sources. The storage devices match energy generation to consumption, facilitating a smooth and robust energy balance within the microgrid. This paper addresses the optimal control of the microgrid’s energy...... storage devices. Stored energy is controlled to balance power generation of renewable sources to optimize overall power consumption at the microgrid point of common coupling. Recent works emphasize constraints imposed by the storage device itself, such as limited capacity and internal losses. However...

  5. Energy flow in angularly dispersive optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, M.; Dibble, W. E.; Glasgow, S. A.; Peatross, J.

    2001-01-01

    Light-pulse propagation in angularly dispersive systems is explored in the context of a center-of-mass definition of energy arrival time. In this context the time of travel is given by a superposition of group delays weighted by the spectral content of the pulse. With this description the time of travel from one point to the next for a pulse is found to be completely determined by the spectral content, independent of the state of chirp. The effect of sensor orientation on arrival time is also considered. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  6. Internal and vorticity waves in decaying stratified flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulka, A.; Cano, D.

    2009-04-01

    Most predictive models fail when forcing at the Rossby deformation Radius is important and a large range of scales have to be taken into account. When mixing of reactants or pollutants has to be accounted, the range of scales spans from hundreds of Kilometers to the Bachelor or Kolmogorov sub milimiter scales. We present some theoretical arguments to describe the flow in terms of the three dimensional vorticity equations, using a lengthscale related to the vorticity (or enstrophy ) transport. Effect of intermittent eddies and non-homogeneity of diffusion are also key issues in the environment because both stratification and rotation body forces are important and cause anisotropy/non-homogeneity. These problems need further theoretical, numerical and observational work and one approach is to try to maximize the relevant geometrical information in order to understand and therefore predict these complex environmental dispersive flows. The importance of the study of turbulence structure and its relevance in diffusion of contaminants in environmental flows is clear when we see the effect of environmental disasters such as the Prestige oil spill or the Chernobil radioactive cloud spread in the atmosphere. A series of Experiments have been performed on a strongly stratified two layer fluid consisting of Brine in the bottom and freshwater above in a 1 square meter tank. The evolution of the vortices after the passage of a grid is video recorded and Particle tracking is applied on small pliolite particles floating at the interface. The combination of internal waves and vertical vorticity produces two separate time scales that may produce resonances. The vorticity is seen to oscilate in a complex way, where the frecuency decreases with time.

  7. Dark energy and the quietness of the local Hubble flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axenides, M.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2002-01-01

    The linearity and quietness of the local ( X (t 0 ) of dark energy obeying the time independent equation of state p X =wρ X . We find that dark energy can indeed cool the LHF. However the dark energy parameter values required to make the predicted velocity dispersion consistent with the observed value v rms ≅40 km/s have been ruled out by other observational tests constraining the dark energy parameters w and Ω X . Therefore despite the claims of recent qualitative studies, dark energy with time independent equation of state cannot by itself explain the quietness and linearity of the local Hubble flow

  8. 4th international conference in sustainability in energy and buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Höjer, Mattias; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings, SEB12, held in Stockholm, Sweden, and is organised by KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden in partnership with KES International. The International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings focuses on a broad range of topics relating to sustainability in buildings but also encompassing energy sustainability more widely. Following the success of earlier events in the series, the 2012 conference includes the themes Sustainability, Energy, and Buildings and Information and Communication Technology, ICT. The SEB’12 proceedings includes invited participation and paper submissions across a broad range of renewable energy and sustainability-related topics relevant to the main theme of Sustainability in Energy and Buildings. Applicable areas include technology for renewable energy and sustainability in the built environment, optimisation and modeling techniques, informati...

  9. Proceedings of the 6. international green energy conference IGEC-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakoc, T.H.; Midilli, A.; Turan, O.; Orman, E.; Tunca, F.; Yazar, I. (eds.) [School of Civil Aviation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    The 6th International Green Energy Conference (IGEC) took place in Eskisehir, Turkey, from June 5 to June 9, 2011 and was organized by the International Association for Green Energy and Anadolu University. The IGEC is a multi-disciplinary international conference on the use of energy with reduced environmental impacts. Around 150 experts from all over the world attended and presentations were given on energy diversity, energy localization, energy security and sustainable development. The conference provided these experts with an opportunity to hear about studies done by their peers, gather and discuss the latest technical information and research results, and to debate future directions and priorities in sustainable development and energy security. All 124 papers presented during the conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  10. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  11. DTU international energy report 2013. Energy storage options for future sustainable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidtfeldt Larsen, H.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    One of the great challenges in the transition to a non-fossil energy system with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources such as solar and wind is to align consumption and production in an economically satisfactory manner. Energy storage could provide the necessary balancing power to make this possible. This energy report addresses energy storage from a broad perspective: It analyses smaller stores that can be used locally in for example heat storage in the individual home or vehicle, such as electric cars or hydrogen cars. The report also addresses decentralized storage as flywheels and batteries linked to decentralized energy systems. In addition it addresses large central storages as pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage and analyse this in connection with international transmission and trading over long distances. The report addresses electrical storage, thermal storage and other forms of energy storage, for example conversion of biomass to liquid fuel and conversion of solar energy directly into hydrogen, as well as storage in transmission, grid storage etc. Finally, the report covers research, innovation and the future prospects and addresses the societal challenges and benefits of the use of energy storage. (Author)

  12. Initial angular momentum and flow in high energy nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Rainer J.; Chen, Guangyao; Somanathan, Sidharth

    2018-03-01

    We study the transfer of angular momentum in high energy nuclear collisions from the colliding nuclei to the region around midrapidity, using the classical approximation of the color glass condensate (CGC) picture. We find that the angular momentum shortly after the collision (up to times ˜1 /Qs , where Qs is the saturation scale) is carried by the "β -type" flow of the initial classical gluon field, introduced by some of us earlier. βi˜μ1∇iμ2-μ2∇iμ1 (i =1 ,2 ) describes the rapidity-odd transverse energy flow and emerges from Gauss's law for gluon fields. Here μ1 and μ2 are the averaged color charge fluctuation densities in the two nuclei, respectively. Interestingly, strong coupling calculations using anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) techniques also find an energy flow term featuring this particular combination of nuclear densities. In classical CGC the order of magnitude of the initial angular momentum per rapidity in the reaction plane, at a time 1 /Qs , is |d L2/d η |≈ RAQs-3ɛ¯0/2 at midrapidity, where RA is the nuclear radius, and ɛ¯0 is the average initial energy density. This result emerges as a cancellation between a vortex of energy flow in the reaction plane aligned with the total angular momentum, and energy shear flow opposed to it. We discuss in detail the process of matching classical Yang-Mills results to fluid dynamics. We will argue that dissipative corrections should not be discarded to ensure that macroscopic conservation laws, e.g., for angular momentum, hold. Viscous fluid dynamics tends to dissipate the shear flow contribution that carries angular momentum in boost-invariant fluid systems. This leads to small residual angular momentum around midrapidity at late times for collisions at high energies.

  13. International trends on sustainable energy Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2007-01-01

    At the U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), the role of nuclear power for a carbon free emission supply of energy is now being recognized although with certain reticence or opposition. Such recognition is taking place at the current cycle of discussions devoted to sustainable energy, industrial development, atmospheric pollution and climate change issues. This paper focuses on the arguments and facts provided during CSD deliberations for considering nuclear energy as a valid option: all available energy sources will need to be considered for an adjustment to a world that requires much less carbon liberation to the environment; in the transportation sector, actions need to be urgently implemented for promoting cleaner fuels and more efficient vehicles; massive reduction of greenhouse gas emissions must be urgently implemented in order to mitigate the impacts of global warming; sustainable energy solutions for developed economies are not always adequate in developing countries; the development evolution requires specifically tailored solutions to conditions of large annual growth-rates of energy demand. Consequently, nuclear power will provide the answer to many of these problems. (Author)

  14. International program activities in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The following areas of our international activities in magnetic fusion are briefly described: (1) policy; (2) background; (3) strategy; (4) strategic considerations and concerns; (5) domestic program inplications, and (6) implementation. The current US activities are reviewed. Some of our present program needs are outlined

  15. Sound attenuation of a finite length dissipative flow duct silencer with internal mean flow in the absorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, A.; Chang, I.-J.

    1988-11-01

    Internal mean flow within the pores of a bulk-reacting porous acoustic absorbent, driven by mean static pressure gradients, is shown here to be an important feature of the acoustics of dissipative silencers in flow ducts, particularly in the case of internal combustion engine exhaust silencers. Theoretical treatments are presented here, both to describe the effect of internal flow on the bulk acoustic perties of the porous medium and to find the effect of the absorbent in situ, in the form of the sound transmission loss of the silencer. The measured transmission loss of an experimental silencer is compared to predicted data and good agreement between the two is obtained. The effects of mean fluid flow in the central passage and internal flow in the absorbent are separately demonstrated.

  16. Using Free Flow Energy Cumulation in Wind and Hydro Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Ktitorov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When approaching a conventional wind turbine, the air flow is slowed down and widened. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power as effectively as possible, it was suggested that the turbine should be placed inside a shroud, which consists of 4 wing-shaped surfaces. Two internal airfoils improve the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades, two external wings create a field of low pressure behind the turbine, thus, helping to draw more mass flow to the turbine and avoid the loss of efficiency due to flow deceleration.  The system accumulates kinetic energy of the flow in a small volume where the smaller (and, therefore, cheaper turbine can be installed. A smaller system can be installed inside the bigger one, which would help to accumulate even more kinetic energy on the turbine. We call this method the kinetic energy summation with local flow redistribution. Both experiments and CFD simulations demonstrate a significant increase in velocity and generated mechanical power in comparison of those for a bare turbine.

  17. Radiation energy devaluation in diffusion combusting flows of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhanlall, Deodat; Munda, Josiah L.; Jiang, Peixue

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) is used to evaluate the thermodynamic second-law effects of thermal radiation in turbulent diffusion natural gas flames. Radiative heat transfer processes in gas and at solid walls are identified as important causes of energy devaluation in the combusting flows. The thermodynamic role of thermal radiation cannot be neglected when compared to that of heat conduction and convection, mass diffusion, chemical reactions, and viscous dissipation. An energy devaluation number is also defined, with which the optimum fuel–air equivalence for combusting flows can be determined. The optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio for a natural gas flame is determined to be 0.7. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic effects of thermal radiation in combusting flows analyzed. • General equation for second-law analyses of combusting flows extended. • Optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio determined for natural gas flame

  18. Natural Regulation of Energy Flow in a Green Quantum Photocell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Trevor B; Barlas, Yafis; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M

    2016-12-14

    Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light energy harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light-harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we compare the theoretical minimum energy fluctuations in nanoscale quantum heat engine photocells that incorporate one or two photon-absorbing channels and show that fluctuations are naturally suppressed in the two-channel photocell. This intrinsic suppression acts as a passive regulation mechanism that enables the efficient conversion of varying incident solar power into a steady output for absorption over a broad range of the solar spectrum on Earth. Remarkably, absorption in the green portion of the spectrum provides no inherent regulatory benefit, indicating that green light should be rejected in a photocell whose primary role is the regulation of energy flow.

  19. Gazprom: internal structure, management principles and financial flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, Valery; Moe, Arild.

    1996-01-01

    Gazprom is responsible for over 95% of total Russian natural gas production and is one of the largest companies in the world. As well as being of major importance in the Russian domestic energy balance, it is also the largest gas trader in the world, supplying about half the gas imported into western and east-central Europe. The scale of these external activities means that the terms on which it supplies gas to its customers will have an impact on business beyond the gas industry. This study investigates the roots of the company and analyses its current organisation, management structure and financial flows. The main topics covered are: the Russian gas industry in the Soviet era; the organisational structure of Gazprom after privatisation; pricing policy; the company's financial position; Gazprom in relation to the domestic economy and the outside world. (9 figures; 7 tables). (author)

  20. Energy transformation and flow topology in an elbow draft tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan D.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a computational study of energy transformation in two geometrical configurations of Kaplan turbine elbow draft tube. Pressure recovery, hydraulic efficiency and loss coefficient are evaluated for a series of flow rates and swirl numbers corresponding to operating regimes of the turbine. These integral characteristics are then correlated with local flow field properties identified by extraction of topological features. Main focus is to find the reasons for hydraulic efficiency drop of the elbow draft tube.

  1. The electron energy distribution function of noble gases with flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karditsas, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The treatment of the Boltzmann equation by several investigators, for the determination of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in noble gases was restricted to static discharges. It is of great interest to magnetoplasmadynamic power generation to develop the Boltzmann equation to account for the effect of the bulk fluid flow on the EEDF. The two term expansion of the Boltzmann equation, as given, results in additional terms introduced to the equations due to the bulk fluid flow, with velocity u

  2. Smart grids, information flows and emerging domestic energy practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Joeri; Spaargaren, Gert; Vliet, Bas J.M. van; Horst, Hilje M. van der

    2014-01-01

    Smart energy grids and smart meters are commonly expected to promote more sustainable ways of living. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysing the different ways in which smart grid developments shape – and are shaped by – the everyday lives of residents. Drawing upon theories of social practices and the concept of informational governance, the framework discerns three categories of ‘information flows’: flows between household-members, flows between households and energy service providers, and flows between local and distant households. Based on interviews with Dutch stakeholders and observations at workshops we examine, for all three information flows, the changes in domestic energy practices and the social relations they help to create. The analysis reveals that new information flows may not produce more sustainable practices in linear and predictable ways. Instead, changes are contextual and emergent. Second, new possibilities for information sharing between households open up a terrain for new practices. Third, information flows affect social relationships in ways as illustrated by the debates on consumer privacy in the Netherlands. An exclusive focus on privacy, however, deviates attention from opportunities for information disclosure by energy providers, and from the significance of transparency issues in redefining relationships both within and between households. - Highlights: • Smart grids generate three key new information flows that affect social relations. • Practice theory can reveal the ways in which households handle/govern information. • Householders show ambivalence about the workings of the different information flows. • Policies should account for the ‘bright’ as well as the ‘dark’ sides of information

  3. Epistemic uncertainty propagation in energy flows between structural vibrating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Menghui; Du, Xiaoping; Qiu, Zhiping; Wang, Chong

    2016-03-01

    A dimension-wise method for predicting fuzzy energy flows between structural vibrating systems coupled by joints with epistemic uncertainties is established. Based on its Legendre polynomial approximation at α=0, both the minimum and maximum point vectors of the energy flow of interest are calculated dimension by dimension within the space spanned by the interval parameters determined by fuzzy those at α=0 and the resulted interval bounds are used to assemble the concerned fuzzy energy flows. Besides the proposed method, vertex method as well as two current methods is also applied. Comparisons among results by different methods are accomplished by two numerical examples and the accuracy of all methods is simultaneously verified by Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. International Energy Agency 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    The IEA Executive Director's Annual Report 2013 is the second of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It was presented to the IEA Governing Board and is also released publicly to ensure transparency and to take stock of the organisation's activities from a strategic perspective. 2013 was a banner year for the IEA, given continued changes in the global energy economy as well as the IEA Ministerial meeting in November which brought together Energy Ministers from all 28 IEA member countries, accession countries Chile and Estonia, seven key partner countries - Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa - as well as more that 30 top-level executives from the energy industry. Key Ministerial outcomes included the first IEA Ministers' Joint Statement on Climate Change and a declaration of association by six key partner countries to build multilateral cooperation with the IEA.

  5. Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Frank [The Open University, Faculty of Maths, Computing and Technology, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)

  6. Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)

  7. German nuclear energy development and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuster, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The author gives a brief survey on the short, but relatively successful story of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Like many other countries, FRG had to go through a very difficult period of political indecision and violent opposition from antinuclear groups, supported by large parts of the media. The licensing procedures have been streamlined, nuclear power plants are being built without major interference, and the FRG is making good progress in closing the fuel cycle. This means that nuclear power will play an important role in the energy supply system, although on a lower level than originally anticipated

  8. Scaling of anisotropy flows in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Yan, T.Z.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Guo, W.; Liu, G.H.; Ma, C.W.; Ma, E.J.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, Y.; Su, Q.M.; Tian, W.D.; Wang, H.W.; Wang, K.

    2007-01-01

    Anisotropic flows (v 1 , v 2 and v 4 ) of light nuclear clusters are studied by a nucleonic transport model in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. The number-of-nucleon scalings of the directed flow (v 1 ) and elliptic flow (v 2 ) are demonstrated for light nuclear clusters. Moreover, the ratios of v 4 /v 2 2 of nuclear clusters show a constant value of 1/2 regardless of the transverse momentum. The above phenomena can be understood by the coalescence mechanism in nucleonic level and are worthy to be explored in experiments

  9. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders; Jónsdottir, Kristjana Y; Gjedde, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Brain energy metabolism is held to reflect energy demanding processes in neuropil related to the density and activity of synapses. There is recent evidence that men have higher density of synapses in temporal cortex than women. One consequence of these differences would be different rates of cortical energy turnover and blood flow in men and women. To test the hypotheses that rates of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) and cerebral blood flow are higher in men than in women in regions of cerebral cortex, and that the differences persist with aging, we used positron emission tomography to determine cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity.

  10. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Fabian F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nielsen, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bunnik, Tim [MARIN (Netherlands); Touzon, Imanol [Tecnalia (Spain); Nam, Bo Woo [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Kim, Jeong Seok [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Janson, Carl Erik [Chalmers University (Sweden); Jakobsen, Ken-Robert [EDRMedeso (Norway); Crowley, Sarah [WavEC (Portugal); Vega, Luis [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Rajagopalan, Krishnakimar [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Mathai, Thomas [Glosten (United States); Greaves, Deborah [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Ransley, Edward [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Lamont-Kane, Paul [Queen' s University Belfast (United Kingdom); Sheng, Wanan [University College Cork (Ireland); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Thomas, Sarah [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Heras, Pilar [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Bingham, Harry [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Kurniawan, Adi [Aalborg University (Denmark); Kramer, Morten Mejlhede [Aalborg University (Denmark); Ogden, David [INNOSEA (France); Girardin, Samuel [INNOSEA (France); Babarit, Aurelien [EC Nantes (France); Wuillaume, Pierre-Yves [EC Nantes (France); Steinke, Dean [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Roy, Andre [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Beatty, Scott [Cascadia Coast Research (Canada); Schofield, Paul [ANSYS (United States); Kim, Kyong-Hwan [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Jansson, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); BCAM (Spain); Hoffman, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-10-16

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 was proposed by Bob Thresher (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) in 2015 and approved by the OES Executive Committee EXCO in 2016. The kickoff workshop took place in September 2016, wherein the initial baseline task was defined. Experience from similar offshore wind validation/verification projects (OC3-OC5 conducted within the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30) [1], [2] showed that a simple test case would help the initial cooperation to present results in a comparable way. A heaving sphere was chosen as the first test case. The team of project participants simulated different numerical experiments, such as heave decay tests and regular and irregular wave cases. The simulation results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  11. Energy Based Clutter Filtering for Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Jensen, Jonas; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    for obtaining vector flow measurements, since the spectra overlaps at high beam-to-flow angles. In this work a distinct approach is proposed, where the energy of the velocity spectrum is used to differentiate among the two signals. The energy based method is applied by limiting the amplitude of the velocity...... spectrum function to a predetermined threshold. The effect of the clutter filtering is evaluated on a plane wave (PW) scan sequence in combination with transverse oscillation (TO) and directional beamforming (DB) for velocity estimation. The performance of the filter is assessed by comparison...

  12. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  13. Flow dynamics and energy efficiency of flow in the left ventricle during myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Vivek; Low, Adriel Jia Jun; Annamalai, Sarayu Parimal; Sampath, Smita; Poh, Kian Keong; Totman, Teresa; Mazlan, Muhammad; Croft, Grace; Richards, A Mark; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Chin, Chih-Liang; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2017-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, where myocardial infarction (MI) is a major category. After infarction, the heart has difficulty providing sufficient energy for circulation, and thus, understanding the heart's energy efficiency is important. We induced MI in a porcine animal model via circumflex ligation and acquired multiple-slice cine magnetic resonance (MR) images in a longitudinal manner-before infarction, and 1 week (acute) and 4 weeks (chronic) after infarction. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed based on MR images to obtain detailed fluid dynamics and energy dynamics of the left ventricles. Results showed that energy efficiency flow through the heart decreased at the acute time point. Since the heart was observed to experience changes in heart rate, stroke volume and chamber size over the two post-infarction time points, simulations were performed to test the effect of each of the three parameters. Increasing heart rate and stroke volume were found to significantly decrease flow energy efficiency, but the effect of chamber size was inconsistent. Strong complex interplay was observed between the three parameters, necessitating the use of non-dimensional parameterization to characterize flow energy efficiency. The ratio of Reynolds to Strouhal number, which is a form of Womersley number, was found to be the most effective non-dimensional parameter to represent energy efficiency of flow in the heart. We believe that this non-dimensional number can be computed for clinical cases via ultrasound and hypothesize that it can serve as a biomarker for clinical evaluations.

  14. 78 FR 16665 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... this notice is to permit attendance by representatives of U.S. company members of the IAB at a meeting... meeting among company representatives at the same location at 8:30 a.m. on March 26. The agenda for this... Refining Crisis 8. Middle East Energy Exports and the Arab Spring 9. The Turmoil in North Africa and the...

  15. 75 FR 67711 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    .... Opening Session Address. 3. Introduction to IEA Emergency Response Policies and Objectives. 4. How the Global Oil Market Works. 5. Natural Gas Market. 6. IEA Energy Statistics and Oil Data Systems. 7. The.... Discussion (Plenary). Day 2 6. Introduction (Plenary). 7. Simulation (Breakout Groups). 8. Discussion...

  16. 77 FR 69613 - International Energy Agency Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6272(c)(1)(A)(i)) (EPCA), the following notice of meeting is... the IEA 2. IEA Emergency Response Policies, Market Assessment, Industry Perspective 3. IEA Oil Data...)(A)(ii) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6272(c)(1)(A)(ii)), the meeting of the...

  17. 76 FR 14003 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Hub? 9. Workshop Scene Setter --Commodity Derivatives Market and Recent Regulatory Trends 10. Other... Financial Market Participants on Energy Futures Markets 1. How do the investment strategies of financial... the Oil Market (SOM) on March 22; and on March 23 and March 24 in connection with a meeting of the SEQ...

  18. Analysis of energy flow during playground surface impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter L; Wilson, Suzanne J; Chalmers, David J; Wilson, Barry D; Eager, David; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2013-10-01

    The amount of energy dissipated away from or returned to a child falling onto a surface will influence fracture risk but is not considered in current standards for playground impact-attenuating surfaces. A two-mass rheological computer simulation was used to model energy flow within the wrist and surface during hand impact with playground surfaces, and the potential of this approach to provide insights into such impacts and predict injury risk examined. Acceleration data collected on-site from typical playground surfaces and previously obtained data from children performing an exercise involving freefalling with a fully extended arm provided input. The model identified differences in energy flow properties between playground surfaces and two potentially harmful surface characteristics: more energy was absorbed by (work done on) the wrist during both impact and rebound on rubber surfaces than on bark, and rubber surfaces started to rebound (return energy to the wrist) while the upper limb was still moving downward. Energy flow analysis thus provides information on playground surface characteristics and the impact process, and has the potential to identify fracture risks, inform the development of safer impact-attenuating surfaces, and contribute to development of new energy-based arm fracture injury criteria and tests for use in conjunction with current methods.

  19. Investigation of international energy economics. [Use of econometric model EXPLOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Clement, M.; Foley, T.J.; Rao, S.A.

    1977-03-01

    The Division of International Affairs of the Energy Research and Development Administration is assessing the long-range economic effects of energy research and development programs in the U.S. and other countries, particularly members of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In support of this effort, a program was designed to coordinate the capabilities of five research groups--Rand, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The program could evaluate the international economics of proposed or anticipated sources of energy. This program is designed to be general, flexible, and capable of evaluating a diverse collection of potential energy (nuclear and nonnuclear) related problems. For example, the newly developed methodology could evaluate the international and domestic economic impact of nuclear-related energy sources, but also existing nonnuclear and potential energy sources such as solar, geothermal, wind, etc. Major items to be included would be the cost of exploration, cost of production, prices, profit, market penetration, investment requirements and investment goods, economic growth, change in balance of payments, etc. In addition, the changes in cost of producing all goods and services would be identified for each new energy source. PNL developed (1) a means of estimating the demands for major forms of energy by country, and (2) a means of identifying results or impacts on each country. The results for each country were then to be compared to assess relative advantages. PNL relied on its existing general econometric model, EXPLOR, to forecast the demand for energy by country. (MCW)

  20. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepeau, John; Mcllroy, Hugh M. Jr.; McEligot, Donald M.; Condie, Keith G.; McCreery, Glenn; Clarsean, Randy; Brodkey, Robert S.; Guezennec, Yann G.

    2002-01-01

    The report describes innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated

  1. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Crepeau; Hugh M. Mcllroy,Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Keith G. Condie; Glenn McCreery; Randy Clarsean; Robert S. Brodkey; Yann G. Guezennec

    2002-01-31

    The report descries innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated.

  2. Internal-external flow integration for a thin ejector-flapped wing section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolard, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    Thin airfoil theories of an ejector flapped wing section are reviewed. The global matching of the external airfoil flow with the ejector internal flow and the overall ejector flapped wing section aerodynamic performance are examined. Mathematical models of the external and internal flows are presented. The delineation of the suction flow coefficient characteristics are discussed. The idealized lift performance of an ejector flapped wing relative to a jet augmented flapped wing are compared.

  3. Development of Non-Conservative Joints in Beam Networks for Vibration Energy Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Hun Song

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aims to find a general solution for the vibrational energy flow through a plane network of beams on the basis of an energy flow analysis. A joint between two semi-infinite beams are modeled by three sets of springs and dashpots. Thus, the results can incorporate the case of complaint and non-conservative in all the three degrees of freedom. In the cases of finite coupled structures connected at a certain angle, the derived non-conservative joints and developed wave energy equation were applied. The joint properties, the frequency, the coupling angle, and the internal loss factor were changed to evaluate the proposed methods for predicting medium-to-high frequency vibrational energy and intensity distributions.

  4. Project finance and international energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollio, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the preference for and the features unique to project finance, one of the favoured vehicles for funding energy development. Our main focus is on the interests of project sponsors, commercial banks and host governments. Inclusion of the latter reflects the fact host governments are often leading participants in primary energy and energy-related projects; more recently, they have come to use limited recourse structures to finance local infrastructure development. Traditional analyses, whilst providing useful insights into the interests of leading project participants, are incapable of isolation a single motive or set of motives that can comprehensively account for all of the features common to this form of debt. Within an options-theoretic framework, most of these ambiguities are resolved. Risk management, long recognised as one of the primary reasons for choosing project finance over rival debt structures, is affirmed as a key explanatory factor. One the other hand, options pricing theory provides a radically different perspective on how to project finance contributes to the realisation of these objectives. (author)

  5. International Energy Agency 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    The IEA Executive Director's Annual Report 2013 is the second of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It was presented to the IEA Governing Board and is also released publicly to ensure transparency and to take stock of the organisation's activities from a strategic perspective. 2013 was a banner year for the IEA, given continued changes in the global energy economy as well as the IEA Ministerial meeting in November which brought together Energy Ministers from all 28 IEA member countries, accession countries Chile and Estonia, seven key partner countries - Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa - as well as more that 30 top-level executives from the energy industry. Key Ministerial outcomes included the first IEA Ministers' Joint Statement on Climate Change and a declaration of association by six key partner countries to build multilateral cooperation with the IEA.

  6. Homogeneous internal wave turbulence driven by tidal flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Reun, Thomas; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael; Erc Fludyco Team

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel investigation of the stability of strongly stratified planetary fluid layers undergoing periodic tidal distortion in the limit where rotational effects are negligible compared to buoyancy. With the help of a local model focusing on a small fluid area compared to the global layer, we find that periodic tidal distortion drives a parametric subharmonic resonance of internal. This instability saturates into an homogeneous internal wave turbulence pervading the whole fluid interior: the energy is injected in the unstable waves which then feed a succession of triadic resonances also generating small spatial scales. As the timescale separation between the forcing and Brunt-Väisälä is increased, the temporal spectrum of this turbulence displays a -2 power law reminiscent of the Garrett and Munk spectrum measured in the oceans (Garett & Munk 1979). Moreover, in this state consisting of a superposition of waves in weak non-linear interaction, the mixing efficiency is increased compared to classical, Kolmogorov-like stratified turbulence. This study is of wide interest in geophysical fluid dynamics ranging from oceanic turbulence and tidal heating in icy satellites to dynamo action in partially stratified planetary cores as it could be the case in the Earth. We acknowledge support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant Agreement No. 681835-FLUDYCO-ERC-2015-CoG).

  7. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediavilla, F.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  8. Inauguration of the international Institute of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    On June 27, 2011 was inaugurated in Saclay (France) the I2EN (international Institute of the nuclear energy) and the Jannus platform. The I2EN has to particularly centralize and relay, at the international scale, the French formations offer in the field of nuclear energy. On the other hand, the Jannus platform is an example of cooperation between research organisms and universities. (O.M.)

  9. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, etc. The model built is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends

  10. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, ect. The model build is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil and natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends

  11. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  12. Natural Regulation of Energy Flow in a Green Quantum Photocell

    OpenAIRE

    Arp, Trevor B.; Barlas, Yafis; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we show that regulation against these fluctuations arises naturally within a tw...

  13. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  14. Performance and Internal Flow of a Dental Air Turbine Handpiece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An air turbine handpiece is a dental abrasive device that rotates at high speed and uses compressed air as the driving force. It is characterized by its small size, light weight, and painless abrading due to its high-speed rotation, but its torque is small and noise level is high. Thus, to improve the performance of the air turbine handpiece, we conducted a performance test of an actual handpiece and a numerical analysis that modeled the whole handpiece; we also analyzed the internal flow of the handpiece. Results show that experimental and calculated values were consistent for a constant speed load method with the descending speed of 1 mm/min for torque and turbine output. When the tip of the blade was at the center of the nozzle, the torque was at its highest. This is likely because the jet from the nozzle entered the tip of the blade from a close distance that would not reduce the speed and exited along the blade.

  15. Data on flow cell optimization for membrane-based electrokinetic energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nicolas Østedgaard-Munck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on the design and optimization of a specialized flow cell for the measurement of direct conversion of pressure into electrical energy (Electrokinetic Energy Conversion, EKEC which has been presented in Østedgaard-Munck et al. (2017 [1]. Two main flow cell parameters have been monitored and optimized: A the hydraulic pressure profile on each side of the membrane introduced by pumps recirculating the electrolyte solution through the flow fields and B the electrical resistance between the current collectors across the combined flow cell. The latter parameter has been measured using four-point Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS for different flow rates and concentrations. The total cell resistance consists of contributions from different components: the membrane (Rmem, anode charge transfer (RA, cathode charge transfer (RC, and ion diffusion in the porous electrodes (RD.The intrinsic membrane properties of Nafion 117 has been investigated experimentally in LiI/I2 solutions with concentrations ranging between 0.06 and 0.96 M and used to identify the preferred LiI/I2 solution concentration. This was achieved by measuring the solution uptake, internal solution concentration and ion exchange capacity. The membrane properties were further used to calculate the transport coefficients and electrokinetic Figure of merit in terms of the Uniform potential and Space charge models. Special attention has been put on the streaming potential coefficient which is an intrinsic property. Keywords: Electrokinetic energy conversion, Electrochemical flow cell, Conversion efficiency

  16. Near-surface energy transfers from internal tide beams to smaller vertical scale motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, S.; Staquet, C.; Carter, G. S.; Luther, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical energy capable of causing diapycnal mixing in the ocean is transferred to the internal wave field when barotropic tides pass over underwater topography and generate internal tides. The resulting internal tide energy is confined in vertically limited structures, or beams. As internal tide beams (ITBs) propagate through regions of non-uniform stratification in the upper ocean, wave energy can be scattered through multiple reflections and refractions, be vertically trapped, or transferred to non-tidal frequencies through different nonlinear processes. Various observations have shown that ITBs are no longer detectable in horizontal kinetic energy beyond the first surface reflection. Importantly, this implies that some of the internal tide energy no longer propagates in to the abyssal ocean and consequently will not be available to maintain the density stratification. Using the NHM, a nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model based on the MITgcm, simulations of an ITB propagating up to the sea surface are examined in order to quantify the transformation of ITB energy to other motions. We compare and contrast the transformations enabled by idealized, smoothly-varying stratification with transformations enabled by realistic stratification containing a broad-band vertical wavenumber spectrum of variations. Preliminary two-dimensional results show that scattering due to small-scale structure in realistic stratification profiles from Hawaii can lead to energy being vertically trapped near the surface. Idealized simulations of "locally" generated internal solitary waves are analyzed in terms of energy flux transfers from the ITB to solitary waves, higher harmonics, and mean flow. The amount of internal tide energy which propagates back down after near-surface reflection of the ITB in different environments is quantified.

  17. International energy indicators, February - March 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E., Jr.

    Data are compiled and graphs are presented for: world crude oil production, 1974 to 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels; 1975 to 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973-currrent capacity; US domestic oil supply, 1977 to 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to 1981; US natural gas trade, 1975 to 1981; summary of US merchandise trade, 1977 to 1981; and energy/gross national product ratio.

  18. Minimum Energy Dissipation under Cocurrent Flow in Packed Beds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akramov, T.A.; Stavárek, Petr; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Staněk, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 18 (2011), s. 10824-10832 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0880 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : energy dissipation * current flow * packed bed Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.237, year: 2011

  19. Energy fluxes and spectra for turbulent and laminar flows

    KAUST Repository

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, Praveen; Barman, Satyajit; Chatterjee, Anando G.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    spectrum $E(k)$ and energy flux $\\Pi(k)$ using spectral simulations on grids up to $4096^3$, and show consistency between the numerical results and predictions by the aforementioned models. We also construct a model for laminar flows that predicts $E(k

  20. Evaluating Internal Technological Capabilities in Energy Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingook Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As global competition increases, technological capability must be evaluated objectively as one of the most important factors for predominance in technological competition and to ensure sustainable business excellence. Most existing capability evaluation models utilize either quantitative methods, such as patent analysis, or qualitative methods, such as expert panels. Accordingly, they may be in danger of reflecting only fragmentary aspects of technological capabilities, and produce inconsistent results when different models are used. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a comprehensive framework for evaluating technological capabilities in energy companies by considering the complex properties of technological knowledge. For this purpose, we first explored various factors affecting technological capabilities and divided the factors into three categories: individual, organizational, and technology competitiveness. Second, we identified appropriate evaluation items for each category to measure the technological capability. Finally, by using a hybrid approach of qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed an evaluation method for each item and suggested a method to combine the results. The proposed framework was then verified with an energy generation and supply company to investigate its practicality. As one of the earliest attempts to evaluate multi-faceted technological capabilities, the suggested model can support technology and strategic planning.

  1. Energy - politics - history. National and international energy politics since 1945; Energie - Politik - Geschichte. Nationale und internationle Energiepolitik seit 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohensee, J. [ed.; Salewski, M. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    All articles focus on historical aspects of the development of energy politics in the Federal Republic of Germany (energy enconomy and industry, hard coal, nuclear energy). Some articles also look at international developments (oil boycott, Saudia Arabias`s oil policies, International Energy Agency). (UA) [Deutsch] Im Vordergrund der Beitraege stehen historische Aspekte der Entwicklung der Energiepolitik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Energiewirtschaft, Steinkohle, Kernenergie), einige Arbeiten werfen auch einen Blick auf internationale Entwicklungen (Oelboykott, Erdoelpolitik Saudi-Arabiens, Internationale Energie-Agentur). (UA)

  2. Energy Demodulation Algorithm for Flow Velocity Measurement of Oil-Gas-Water Three-Phase Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow velocity measurement was an important research of oil-gas-water three-phase flow parameter measurements. In order to satisfy the increasing demands for flow detection technology, the paper presented a gas-liquid phase flow velocity measurement method which was based on energy demodulation algorithm combing with time delay estimation technology. First, a gas-liquid phase separation method of oil-gas-water three-phase flow based on energy demodulation algorithm and blind signal separation technology was proposed. The separation of oil-gas-water three-phase signals which were sampled by conductance sensor performed well, so the gas-phase signal and the liquid-phase signal were obtained. Second, we used the time delay estimation technology to get the delay time of gas-phase signals and liquid-phase signals, respectively, and the gas-phase velocity and the liquid-phase velocity were derived. At last, the experiment was performed at oil-gas-water three-phase flow loop, and the results indicated that the measurement errors met the need of velocity measurement. So it provided a feasible method for gas-liquid phase velocity measurement of the oil-gas-water three-phase flow.

  3. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson Hans-Uno

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.

  4. The 25th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osztrovszki, Gy.

    1982-01-01

    The leader of the Hungarian delegation at the 26th General Assembly of the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) held in Vienna in September, 1982, on the occasion of the IAEA's 25th anniversary, presented a short review of the IAEA's activities during its existence, the Hungarian participation in them and Hungary's efforts in the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy. (A.L.)

  5. Annual report 2001[International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2001. The report outlines the IAEA activities in the following fields: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management technology, comparative assessment for sustainable energy development; food and agriculture, human health, marine environment and water resources, applications of physical and chemical sciences, nuclear safety, radiation safety, radioactive waste safety, co-ordination of safety activities, safeguards, security of material, verification in Iraq pursuant to UNSC resolutions, management of technical co-operation for development, policy-making, management and support.

  6. Proceedings of the 10. international conference on energy - the new energy infrastructures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The main focus of this international conference was on reform and deregulation of the electrical industry and how these will impact on energy markets around the world. Energy source development, power project financing in developing countries, integration of energy market and partnering in the energy projects development in a global context, were some of the individual topics that received considerable attention. tabs., figs

  7. Control of energy flow in residential buildings; Energieflussregelung in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Energy systems in residential buildings are changing from monovalent, combustion based systems to multivalent systems containing technologies such as solar collectors, pellet boilers, heat pumps, CHP and multiple storages. Multivalent heat and electricity generation and additional storages raise the number of possible control signals in the system. This creates additional degrees of freedom regarding the choice of the energy converter and the instant of time for energy conversion. New functionality of controllers such as prioritisation of energy producers, optimization of electric self consumption and control of storages and energy feed-in are required. Within the scope of this thesis, new approaches for demand-driven optimal control of energy flows in multivalent building energy systems are developed and evaluated. The approaches are evaluated by means of system energy costs and operating emissions. For parametrisation of the controllers an easily understandable operating concept is developed. The energy flow controllers are implemented as a multi agent system (MAS) and a nonlinear model predictive controller (MPC). Proper functionality and stability are demonstrated in simulations of two example energy systems. In both example systems the MPC controller achieves less energy costs and operating emissions due to system wide global optimization and the more detailed system model within the controller. The multi agent approach turns out to perform better for systems with a huge number of components, e.g. in home automation and energy management systems. Due to the good performance of the reference control strategies, a significant reduction of energy costs and operating emissions is only possible with limitations. Systems for heat generation show only an especially low potential for optimization because of marginal variation ins heat production costs. The adaptation of the operation mode to user priorities, changing utilization characteristics and dynamic energy

  8. Role of International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, A.

    1986-01-01

    About 10 years ago, the IAEA formulated guidelines for mutual emergency assistance in case of accidents. These guidelines have been revised periodically and updated, with the latest revision prepared in 1984. As a response to Chernobyl, two new conventions have been produced: (1) the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, and (2) the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. It is important to emphasize that points of contact and a focal point within the IAEA shall be available continuously for the implementation of the Conventions. A total of 58 and 57 Member States have signed Conventions 1 and 2, respectively, as of October 27, 1987. It is expected that these numbers will increase significantly in the near future. According to the INSAG Summary Report, the following areas have been recommended as top priority: epidemiology study; problems of skin lesions, problem of biological dosimetry in selected cohorts of the population; and medical literature. The IAEA has been designated to take the lead in these areas in close collaboration with WHO and other international organizations

  9. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chinhao Chong; Weidou Ni; Linwei Ma; Pei Liu; Zheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate t...

  10. Proceedings of the 4. international green energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Wang, X.Q.; Hao, Y.Z.; Zhu, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    This multi-disciplinary international conference was organized for the development and promotion of the non-polluting, renewable and sustainable energy known as green energy. It was attended by researchers, scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers from around the world to discuss the future direction, strategies and priorities in the field of green energy, including energy diversity with local energy resources such as solar, hydro, biomass, wind, geothermal and other renewable sources of energy. Green energy technologies have the potential to meet future energy needs while reducing environmental impact and strengthening the economy. The 3 main conference topics were: (1) renewable and green energy resources and technologies such as fuel cells, hydrogen energy, alternative fuels and green building development, (2) advanced energy systems, including power generation, distributed energy systems, energy efficiency and exergy optimization, and (3) energy, environment and sustainable development with particular focus on energy economics, greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, and energy security issues. All 135 presentations from the conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Nuclear power issue as seen by the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, P.

    1976-01-01

    An account is given of the work of the International Energy Agency towards reducing the dependence of member states on imported oil. Forecasts of energy consumption are discussed, and the contributions that could be made by various energy sources, and by energy conservation, are examined. It is concluded that nuclear power is essential to a reduced dependence policy. The constraints on full realization of national nuclear programmes are stated as follows: licensing delays, waste disposal, financing, uranium supply, and fuel services. Ways in which these could be overcome by national and international action are suggested. Reference is made to the work of other atomic energy agencies: IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  12. Energy policy under the aspect of international economic interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    A few introductory remarks on the status of and on prospects fo the world energy economy as well as on reasons given for the necessity of a world-wide coordination of energy policy and economic policy are followed by an explanation of the policy led by oil extracting countries and of the endeavour of western industrialized countries to reduce oil imports. Even if the state of utilizing nuclear energy does not yet present a sufficient alternative, the international nuclear energy continues to be directed towards this goal. Seen from an international viewpoint, relieving contributions are to be expected from energy-conservation-actions and from the development of regenerative energy sources. (UA) [de

  13. International responsibility of using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouenat, N.

    2008-01-01

    Although the stability of the idea of international responsibility in public international law, the international jurisprudence has not settled on a definition. The concept of international responsibility is no longer limited to the legal effects or consequences under international law to violate its provisions. The states recognized that the customary principles governing the international responsibility in public international law does not take into account the specificities of nuclear dangers, this sought to conclude a number of international conventions include a special system of nuclear liability not based on the wrongful act, but on the principle of keeping things, and it requires the existence of an international regime for nuclear liability in order to establish measures and procedures to achieve the implementation of the provisions for compensation unhindered by national legal systems. There is no doubt that the use of nuclear energy in time of peace falls within the scope of internationally prohibited acts. Atomic activities undertaken by the State within its borders for peaceful purposes are considered legitimate activities as long as they have taken necessary measures to avoid damage to neighboring countries. States has tended to conclude international agreements under which disputes that may result from the use of nuclear energy can be solved. The existing international legal framework on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage consists of three major interrelated agreements: Paris Convention on civil liability in the field of nuclear energy, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for civil damages and the Brussels Convention on Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Materials.

  14. Management of Energy Flows in Low-temperature Separation Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishyn F.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available . The aim of this work is to study the effect of medium and low power ultrasound on the crystallization and separation processes. A thesis about the importance of using thermal energy converters in separation units has been suggested. The prospects of desalination freezing units and ways of their improvement have been justified. Based on the system analysis, the energy flows in an ice recycling facility have been considered. For the first time, the overall energy efficiency estimation technique based on the hypothesis of direct and reverse energy flows has been proposed. The new results on the effect of ultrasonic fields on the separation and crystallization process have been obtained. It has been proved that the use of ultrasonic field is effective in controlling the energy flows during block freezing. It has been established that the salt content in the ice block is reduced by 2-3 times. The relationship between the ice block separation kinetics and the power and frequency has been determined. The similarity theory methods have been used to summarize the experimental data obtained. The criterion models have been presented to calculate the block porosity and the filtration rate. It has been established that the Euler wavenumber modified by the authors successfully generalizes the databases of the experimental findings. Using the numerical simulation methods, the thermal field in the block which depends on its porosity has been established. The results of the simulation have been presented in the form of a nomogram.

  15. Evolution of energy labelling: analysis of international dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandrino, Ornella; Roca, Emmanuele

    2005-01-01

    Currently there are large variety of tools that play a very important role in providing benchmarks for sustainability performance of products and guidance for consumers. The present paper analyses the most important programme related to energy labelling, a market based instrument mainly addressed to consumers, certifying that a specific product is energy efficient. Particular attention has been given to International and European Union Labels of the consumption of energy and other resources by household appliances, to the energy efficient labelling programmes for office equipment and the certification schemes of energy performance of buildings

  16. INORE: The International Network on Offshore Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Michele; De Andrén, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The International Network on Offshore Renewable Energy (INORE) is a non-profit organization run by volunteers. INORE was born to support early stage researchers in the offshore renewable energy field. Today, INORE has more than 1200 members from more than 70 different countries. The aim of this organization is to facilitate networking and information exchange between young researchers and professionals. This is achieved by arranging symposia, workshops, networking events and issuing scholarships. Three main knowledge areas are currently within INORE’s dedication: sea wave energy, tidal current energy and offshore wind energy.

  17. International human cooperation in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Koreyuki; Kaieda, Keisuke; Makuuchi, Keizo; Takada, Kazuo; Nomura, Masayuki

    1997-01-01

    Rearing of talented persons in the area of nuclear energy is one of the important works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the present situations and future schedules of international human cooperation in this area wsere summarized. First, the recent activities of International Nuclear Technology Center were outlined in respect of international human cooperation. A study and training course which was started in cooperation with JICA and IAEA from the middle of eighties and the international nuclear safety seminar aiming at advancing the nuclear safety level of the world are now being put into practice. In addition, a study and training for rearing talented persons was started from 1996 to improve the nuclear safety level of the neighbouring countries. The activities of the nuclear research interchange system by Science and Technology Agency established in 1985 and Bilateral Co-operation Agreement from 1984 were explained and also various difficulties in the international cooperation were pointed out. (M.N.)

  18. Energy policy of the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. General review of the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a general review on energy policy leaded by Members countries of International Energy Agency (IEA) during the year 1990. This book describes also the trends and the recent events which have affected energy demand, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy supply and energy source development. This annual review gives the IEA energy forecasting for the next years, till year 2001. A detailed study of energy policy in Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland and Japan is given. The policy of fifteen another Members countries, which have been analyzed the previous years, is recapitulated and briefly brought up to date

  19. Internal wave energy radiated from a turbulent mixed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munroe, James R., E-mail: jmunroe@mun.ca [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X7 (Canada); Sutherland, Bruce R., E-mail: bsuther@ualberta.ca [Departments of Physics and Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    We examine mixed-layer deepening and the generation of internal waves in stratified fluid resulting from turbulence that develops in response to an applied surface stress. In laboratory experiments the stress is applied over the breadth of a finite-length tank by a moving roughened conveyor belt. The turbulence in the shear layer is characterized using particle image velocimetry to measure the kinetic energy density. The internal waves are measured using synthetic schlieren to determine their amplitudes, frequencies, and energy density. We also perform fully nonlinear numerical simulations restricted to two dimensions but in a horizontally periodic domain. These clearly demonstrate that internal waves are generated by transient eddies at the integral length scale of turbulence and which translate with the background shear along the base of the mixed layer. In both experiments and simulations we find that the energy density of the generated waves is 1%–3% of the turbulent kinetic energy density of the turbulent layer.

  20. International energy: Research organizations, 1988--1992. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. [eds.] [USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the US DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear organization names recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries are also included in the ETDE Energy Database. Therefore, these organization names are cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases ``Energy Science & Technology`` on DIALOG and ``Energy`` on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 31,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1988 to 1992 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  1. Energy flow of electric dipole radiation in between parallel mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhangjin; Arnoldus, Henk F.

    2017-11-01

    We have studied the energy flow patterns of the radiation emitted by an electric dipole located in between parallel mirrors. It appears that the field lines of the Poynting vector (the flow lines of energy) can have very intricate structures, including many singularities and vortices. The flow line patterns depend on the distance between the mirrors, the distance of the dipole to one of the mirrors and the angle of oscillation of the dipole moment with respect to the normal of the mirror surfaces. Already for the simplest case of a dipole moment oscillating perpendicular to the mirrors, singularities appear at regular intervals along the direction of propagation (parallel to the mirrors). For a parallel dipole, vortices appear in the neighbourhood of the dipole. For a dipole oscillating under a finite angle with the surface normal, the radiating tends to swirl around the dipole before travelling off parallel to the mirrors. For relatively large mirror separations, vortices appear in the pattern. When the dipole is off-centred with respect to the midway point between the mirrors, the flow line structure becomes even more complicated, with numerous vortices in the pattern, and tiny loops near the dipole. We have also investigated the locations of the vortices and singularities, and these can be found without any specific knowledge about the flow lines. This provides an independent means of studying the propagation of dipole radiation between mirrors.

  2. Annual report 2003[International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 9, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2003. The introductory chapter, seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Additional information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Co-operation Report. This material is also available on the Agency's WorldAtom web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2003/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Material Technologies; Analysis for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to safety discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Security of Material. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate chapter is devoted to Management of Technical Cooperation for Development.

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three pillars of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2006-2007 (GC(49)/2). The introductory chapter seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2006 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2006/. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to technology are: nuclear power; nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies; capacity building and nuclear knowledge maintenance for sustainable energy development; nuclear science; food and agriculture; human health; water resources; assessment and management of marine and terrestrial environments; radioisotope production and radiation technology; safety and security; incident and emergency preparedness and response; safety of nuclear installations; radiation and transport safety; management of radioactive waste; nuclear security

  4. Eight energy and material flow characteristics of urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuemei

    2016-11-01

    Recent decades have seen an expanding literature exploring urban energy and material flows, loosely branded as urban metabolism analysis. However, this has occurred largely in parallel to the mainstream studies of cities as ecosystems. This paper aims to conceptually bridge these two distinctive fields of research, by (a) identifying the common aspects between them; (b) identifying key characteristics of urban ecosystems that can be derived from energy and material flow analysis, namely energy and material budget and pathways; flow intensity; energy and material efficiency; rate of resource depletion, accumulation and transformation; self-sufficiency or external dependency; intra-system heterogeneity; intersystem and temporal variation; and regulating mechanism and governing capacity. I argue that significant ecological insight can be, or has the potential to be, drawn from the rich and rapidly growing empirical findings of urban metabolism studies to understand the behaviour of cities as human-dominated, complex systems. A closer intellectual linkage and cross pollination between urban metabolism and urban ecosystem studies will advance our scientific understanding and better inform urban policy and management practices.

  5. The Flow of International Students from a Macro Perspective: A Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, George A.; Lee, Moosung; Jiang, Ke; Park, Han Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a network analysis of the international flow of students among 210 countries and the factors determining the structure of this flow. Among these factors, bilateral hyperlink connections between countries and the number of telephone minutes (communication variables) are the most important predictors of the flow's structure,…

  6. Environmental protection and international law: the case of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagicour, F.

    2002-03-01

    Given the very hazardous nature of its activity, the nuclear industry has often been considered to be without a future. Concerns over climate change and increasing international energy needs have, however, shone a new light on the positive aspects of nuclear energy. As the only clean, stable and inexpensive energy source, available, nuclear energy promises a constant supply of electricity while protecting the atmosphere. This new relationship between the environment and nuclear energy calls for an analysis of the international regulation of the risks posed by nuclear energy production. Since the beginning of the nuclear age, the long term, unknown, and large geographic scope of the risks and effects of this activity have led to the adoption of a set of normative rules outside of the scope of international environmental law. The norms that now regulate this new, ultra-hazardous activity resulted in a set of rules aimed at protecting the environment in the face of high risk activities that now form the heart of international environmental law. Unwilling relinquish national sovereignty, States adopted a system of non-binding regulation to protect the environment and promote the nuclear industry. The Chernobyl accident later pointed to the weakness of this approach. Despite this weakness, the adoption of a soft law approach has led to progress in environmental protection in an area where States have been loathe to give up their sovereignty. (author)

  7. Coronal Flux Rope Catastrophe Associated With Internal Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Youqiu; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Shen, Chenglong

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic energy during the catastrophe was predominantly studied by the previous catastrophe works since it is believed to be the main energy supplier for the solar eruptions. However, the contribution of other types of energies during the catastrophe cannot be neglected. This paper studies the catastrophe of the coronal flux rope system in the solar wind background, with emphasis on the transformation of different types of energies during the catastrophe. The coronal flux rope is characterized by its axial and poloidal magnetic fluxes and total mass. It is shown that a catastrophe can be triggered by not only an increase but also a decrease of the axial magnetic flux. Moreover, the internal energy of the rope is found to be released during the catastrophe so as to provide energy for the upward eruption of the flux rope. As far as the magnetic energy is concerned, it provides only part of the energy release, or even increases during the catastrophe, so the internal energy may act as the dominant or even the unique energy supplier during the catastrophe.

  8. Exploring propositions about perceptions of energy security: An international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Valentine, Scott Victor; Jain Bambawale, Malavika; Brown, Marilyn A.; Fátima Cardoso, Terezinha de; Nurbek, Sayasat; Suleimenova, Gulimzhan; Li Jinke; Xu Yang; Jain, Anil; Alhajji, A.F.; Zubiri, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how energy users from government, industry, civil society, and academia perceive of energy security challenges. It also analyzes how demographic characteristics influence such perceptions, and how geography, economic structure, modes of domestic energy production, and culture shape energy security priorities. Its primary source of data is a four-part survey distributed in seven languages (English, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, German, and Japanese) to 2167 respondents in Brazil, China, Germany, India, Kazakhstan, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and the United States. These countries were selected because they represent a mix of urban and rural populations, developed and developing economies, import- and export-oriented energy trading flows, communist and capitalist societies, liberalized and state-owned energy markets, and small and large geographic sizes. The survey results are used to test four propositions about energy security related to the education, age, occupation, and gender of respondents, as well five propositions about national energy priorities and the interconnected attributes of security of supply, energy efficiency, energy research and development, energy trade, diversification and decentralization, affordability, environmental quality, climate change, and energy governance.

  9. Turbulent kinetic energy spectrum in very anisothermal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Sylvain; Toutant, Adrien; Bataille, Françoise; Zhou, Ye

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, we find that the Kolmogorov scaling law is no longer valid when the flow is submitted to strong dilatational effects caused by high temperature gradients. As a result, in addition to the nonlinear time scale, there is a much shorter “temperature gradients” time scale. We propose a model that estimates the time scale of the triple decorrelation incorporating the influences of the temperature gradient. The model agrees with the results from the thermal large-eddy simulations of different Reynolds numbers and temperature gradients. This Letter provides a better understanding of the very anisothermal turbulent flow. -- Highlights: ► Turbulent flows subject to high temperature gradients are considered. ► The new “temperature gradients” time scale is determined. ► A generalized energy spectrum is developed to incorporate the effects of temperature gradient.

  10. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders

    2017-01-01

    cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral...... cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy...... turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity....

  11. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  12. International comparison of energy price using a purchasing power parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Hun; Jo, Sung Han [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    The price control of government results in price distortion as well as lowering efficiency of energy market and distortion of allocating resources. Consequently, such a price policy leads to energy overconsumption and has negative influences on other policies trying to reduce environmental burden resulted from energy consumption. When the energy price does not reflect the market price properly, it results in inefficiency of energy industry and it makes very difficult to supply investment funds. Therefore, the government is planning to implement liberalization of energy price step by step. The purpose of this study is to provide basic materials for establishing a reasonable energy price policy through the international comparison among OECD countries on major products price focusing on petroleum products. To overcome problems of exchange rate, a purchasing power indicator from OECD was used for comparative analysis with OECD countries. 11 refs. 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  13. German atomic energy law in the international framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1992-01-01

    The regional conference was devoted to the legal problems that ensue from German reunification against the background of the integration of German atomic energy law within international law. The elements of national atomic energy legislation required by international law and recent developments in international nuclear liability law were discussed from different perspectives. The particular problems of the application of the German Atomic Energy Act in the 5 new Laender (the territories of the former GDR) were presented and discussed, namely: The continued validity of old licences issued by the GDR; practical legal problems connected with the construction of nuclear power plants in the 5 new Laender; the legal issues connected with the final repository for radioactive wastes at Morsleben; and the new developments in radiation protection law following from the Unification Treaty and the new ICRP recommendations. All 14 lectures have been abstracted and indexed individually. (orig.) [de

  14. Internal and external 2-d boundary layer flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M. E.; Kays, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Computer program computes general two dimensional turbulent boundary-layer flow using finite-difference techniques. Structure allows for user modification to accommodate unique problems. Program should prove useful in many applications where accurate boundary-layer flow calculations are required.

  15. Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygnanski, I.

    2010-01-01

    Exploiting instabilities rather than forcing the flow is advantageous. Simple 2D concepts may not always work. Nonlinear effects may result in first order effect. Interaction between spanwise and streamwise vortices may have a paramount effect on the mean flow, but this interaction may not always be beneficial.

  16. Energy and ancillary service dispatch through dynamic optimal power flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.L.; Costa, A. Simoes

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach based on dynamic optimal power flow (DOPF) to clear both energy and spinning reserve day-ahead markets. A competitive environment is assumed, where agents can offer active power for both demand supply and ancillary services. The DOPF jointly determines the optimal solutions for both energy dispatch and reserve allocation. A non-linear representation for the electrical network is employed, which is able to take transmission losses and power flow limits into account. An attractive feature of the proposed approach is that the final optimal solution will automatically meet physical constraints such as generating limits and ramp rate restrictions. In addition, the proposed framework allows the definition of multiple zones in the network for each time interval, in order to ensure a more adequate distribution of reserves throughout the power system. (author)

  17. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  18. Free surface profiles in river flows: Can standard energy-based gradually-varied flow computations be pursued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Garcia-Marín, Amanda; Ayuso, José Luis; Dey, Subhasish

    2015-10-01

    Is the energy equation for gradually-varied flow the best approximation for the free surface profile computations in river flows? Determination of flood inundation in rivers and natural waterways is based on the hydraulic computation of flow profiles. This is usually done using energy-based gradually-varied flow models, like HEC-RAS, that adopts a vertical division method for discharge prediction in compound channel sections. However, this discharge prediction method is not so accurate in the context of advancements over the last three decades. This paper firstly presents a study of the impact of discharge prediction on the gradually-varied flow computations by comparing thirteen different methods for compound channels, where both energy and momentum equations are applied. The discharge, velocity distribution coefficients, specific energy, momentum and flow profiles are determined. After the study of gradually-varied flow predictions, a new theory is developed to produce higher-order energy and momentum equations for rapidly-varied flow in compound channels. These generalized equations enable to describe the flow profiles with more generality than the gradually-varied flow computations. As an outcome, results of gradually-varied flow provide realistic conclusions for computations of flow in compound channels, showing that momentum-based models are in general more accurate; whereas the new theory developed for rapidly-varied flow opens a new research direction, so far not investigated in flows through compound channels.

  19. Assuring nuclear energy's future through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upson, P.

    1999-01-01

    It is invited lecture as the introduction to the sixt international meeting entitled Nuclear Energy in Central Europe. Good commercial operation, public information and education are needed to win the confidence of the public, and to attract young people to take over the industry's founding generation. Stimulating international co-operation and transfer of best practices can assure this happens across the whole of the Europian nuclear industry

  20. China's conception of energy security : sources and international impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, C.

    2005-01-01

    The unique challenges and opportunities associated with China's rapid economic growth were discussed with reference to the potential risk of political disruption or destabilizing international markets. The author notes that two common mistakes are typically made when assessing the evolution of China's energy policy. The first is that China's future path is assimilated with that of developed countries, thereby dismissing evidence that might point toward a different relationship with energy. Second, analysts tend to focus on the external expression of China's energy needs, its oil imports, while overlooking other energy-related issues such as insufficient electricity supplies or environmental degradation. The author argues that Chinese leadership is redefining its understanding of what constitutes energy security for the country. This report assesses the international impacts of such a redefinition along with the international aspects of a business-as-usual scenario in which China pursues its traditional model of energy security. It was emphasized that two different views of energy security lead to different sets of challenges and opportunities for western governments and businesses. 101 refs., 2 figs

  1. The international framework for safeguarding peaceful nuclear energy programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazer, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    International law, in response to the need for safeguard assurances, has provided a framework which can be utilized by supplier and recipient states. Multilateral treaties have created the International Atomic Energy Agency which can serve a vital role in the establishment and supervision of safeguard agreements for nuclear energy programs. The Non-Proliferation Treaty has created definite obligations on nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear weapon states to alleviate some possibilities of proliferation and has rejuvenated the function of the IAEA in providing safeguards, especially to non-nuclear-weapon states which are parties to the Non-Proliferation treaty. States which are not parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty may receive nuclear energy co-operation subject to IAEA safeguards. States like Canada, have insisted through the bilateral nuclear energy co-operation agreements that either individual or joint agreement be reached with the IAEA for the application of safeguards. Trilateral treaties among Canada, the recipient state and the IAEA have been employed and can provide the necessary assurances against the diversion of peaceful nuclear energy programs to military or non-peaceful uses. The advent of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and its guidlines has definitely advanced the cause of ensuring peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The ultimate objective should be the creation of an international structure incorporating the application of the most comprehensive safeguards which will be applied universally to all nuclear energy programs

  2. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from flow-induced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D-A; Ko, H-H

    2010-01-01

    A new piezoelectric energy harvester for harnessing energy from flow-induced vibration is developed. It converts flow energy into electrical energy by piezoelectric conversion with oscillation of a piezoelectric film. A finite element model is developed in order to estimate the generated voltage of the piezoelectric laminate subjected to a distributed load. Prototypes of the energy harvester are fabricated and tested. Experimental results show that an open circuit output voltage of 2.2 V pp and an instantaneous output power of 0.2 µW are generated when the excitation pressure oscillates with an amplitude of 1.196 kPa and a frequency of about 26 Hz. The solution of the generated voltage based on the finite element model agrees well with the experiments. Based on the finite element model, the effects of the piezoelectric film dimensions, the fluid pressure applied to the harvester and types of piezoelectric layer on the output voltage of the harvester can be investigated.

  3. Energy Flows in Low-Entropy Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature’s many complex systems—physical, biological, and cultural—are islands of low-entropy order within increasingly disordered seas of surrounding, high-entropy chaos. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of all such systems in the expanding Universe, including galaxies, stars, planets, life, society, and machines. A large amount of empirical evidence—relating neither entropy nor information, rather energy—suggests that an underlying simplicity guides the emergence and growth of complexity among many known, highly varied systems in the 14-billion-year-old Universe, from big bang to humankind. Energy flows are as centrally important to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, the quantity energy rate density—the rate of energy flow per unit mass—can be used to explicate in a consistent, uniform, and unifying way a huge collection of diverse complex systems observed throughout Nature. Operationally, those systems able to utilize optimal amounts of energy tend to survive and those that cannot are non-randomly eliminated.

  4. Energy from sea wave thrust and flow of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The area adjacent to the tidal rivers, irrigational canal, drain and also the seashore may be energized harnessing the energy from the flow/wave thrust by simply converting it into unidirectional rotating force to drive the generator for power generation. The existing plants are big in size and also fixed in place. A plant which will be a small/portable type is described. 7 refs., figs

  5. The pressure, internal energy, and conductivity of tantalum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, E.M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Department of Computational Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-15

    The pressure, internal energy, and conductivity of a tantalum plasma were calculated at the temperatures 10-100 kK and densities less than 3 g/cm{sup 3}. The plasma composition, pressure, and internal energy were obtained by means of the corresponding system of the coupled mass action law equations. We have considered atom ionization up to +3. The conductivity was calculated within the relaxation time approximation. Comparisons of our results with available measurements and calculation data show good agreement in the area of correct applicability of the present model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Provisions relating to Nuclear Energy. II - International Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book published by the Portuguese Junta de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Energy Commission) reproduces in Portuguese and in the original language (English or French), texts of a series of international conventions in the nuclear field and the Statutes of international nuclear organisations and undertakings. The following are among the texts included: the Statutes of the IAEA, NEA, Eurochemic; the Euratom Treaty; the Tlatelolco Treaty; the co-operation agreement between Portugal and the United States on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. (NEA) [fr

  7. Cultural Factors in the Flow of International News: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Takuya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review of the literature of international news flow, and surveys how the previous studies have attempted to capture “cultural factors” influencing the flow. The factors are grouped into four types of variables: language, former colonial tie, ethnicity, and geographical proximity. This paper argues that cultural factors cannot be significant without economic interests in the era of post-Cold War, that the structure of international news is imbalanced because a few powerful countries dominate the international news market, and that international news reduces cultural varieties to the singular international realities disseminated by the media of such countries.

  8. Crossing the phantom divide: Dark energy internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Dark energy constraints have forced viable alternatives that differ substantially from a cosmological constant Λ to have an equation of state w that evolves across the phantom divide set by Λ. Naively, crossing this divide makes the dark energy gravitationally unstable, a problem that is typically finessed by unphysically ignoring the perturbations. While this procedure does not affect constraints near the favored cosmological constant model it can artificially enhance the confidence with which alternative models are rejected. Similar to the general problem of stability for w<0, the solution lies in the internal degrees of freedom in the dark energy sector. We explicitly show how to construct a two scalar field model that crosses the phantom divide and mimics the single field behavior on either side to substantially better than 1% in all observables. It is representative of models where the internal degrees of freedom keep the dark energy smooth out to the horizon scale independently of the equation of state

  9. Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flows in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaeizadeh, Araz

    The two-phase compressible scalar filtered mass density function (FMDF) model is further developed and employed for large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines. In this model, the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in a generalized curvilinear coordinate system with high-order, multi-block, compact differencing schemes for the turbulent velocity and pressure. However, turbulent mixing and combustion are computed with a new two-phase compressible scalar FMDF model. The spray and droplet dispersion/evaporation are modeled with a Lagrangian method. A new Lagrangian-Eulerian-Lagrangian computational method is employed for solving the flow, spray and scalar equation. The pressure effect in the energy equation, as needed in compressible flows, is included in the FMDF formulation. The performance of the new compressible LES/FMDF model is assessed by simulating the flow field and scalar mixing in a rapid compression machine (RCM), in a shock tube and in a supersonic co-axial jet. Consistency of temperatures predicted by the Eulerian finite-difference (FD) and Lagrangian Monte Carlo (MC) parts of the LES/FMDF model are established by including the pressure on the FMDF. It is shown that the LES/FMDF model is able to correctly capture the scalar mixing in both compressible subsonic and supersonic flows. Using the new two-phase LES/FMDF model, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, spray and combustion in the RCM with flat and crevice piston are studied. It is shown that the temperature distribution in the RCM with crevice piston is more uniform than the RCM with flat piston. The fuel spray characteristics and the spray parameters affecting the fuel mixing inside the RCM in reacting and non-reacting flows are also studied. The predicted liquid penetration and flame lift-off lengths for respectively non-reacting and reacting sprays are found to compare well with the available experimental data. Temperatures and

  10. Tracing China's energy flow and carbon dioxide flow based on Sankey diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyin; Wang, Pengtao; Xu, Xiaomeng; Dong, Lihui; Xue, Honglai; Fu, Shuai [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory for Precise Mining of Intergrown Energy and Resources, Beijing (China); China University of Mining and Technology, Faculty of Resources and Safety Engineering, Beijing (China); Ji, Yingxu [State Grid Jibei Electric Power Company Limited, Langfang Power Supply Company, Langfang (China)

    2017-10-15

    China has promised to optimize its energy structure and reduce its CO{sub 2} emission in the 13th Five-Year Plan. To track the energy structure, the conversions, efficiencies, end consumptions of total energy and coal and the whole CO{sub 2} emission status, the energy flow, coal flow and CO{sub 2} flow in 2015 were, respectively, drawn at the national level based on Sankey diagrams. Besides, each provincial fossil fuel structure, CO{sub 2} structure and CO{sub 2} intensity were calculated and plotted. It is mainly found that China's energy structure consisted of 69.2% of coal, 19.9% of oil, 6.3% of natural gas and 4.7% of non-fossil energy, where 45.5% of energy was consumed by industry and 23.9% by losses and statistical difference; coal was distributed to industry (55.6%), etc., with a utilization rate of 70.1%; and CO{sub 2} were derived from coal (84.7%), oil (11.1%) and natural gas (4.2%), of which 39.0% was released through the process of thermal power generation and 19.4% by industry. The structures of fossil fuels and their CO{sub 2} emissions together with the evolution of CO{sub 2} intensity at the provincial level and the regional level were also given. Besides, two pieces of policy implications were proposed to provide the government with reference. (orig.)

  11. Energy, environment and technological innovation: Rome 2nd international congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    From the three volumes containing the proceedings of the October 12-16, 1992 2nd International Congress on Energy, Environment and Technological Innovation held at the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', separate abstracts were prepared for 41 papers. The selection of papers included recent developments and research trends in the following high-tech areas: biomass plantations, wind turbines, photovoltaic power plants, solar architecture, building energy management, global warming, automobile air pollution abatement, district heating with cogeneration, and hydrogen fuels for transportation

  12. Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2017-07-05

    The Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2015) was held in the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego from August 23-27, 2015. This meeting was the fifth in a series which began in 2008 in conjunction with the April meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). The main goal of this conference has been to bring together researchers from all fields of High Energy Density Science (HEDS) into one, unified meeting.

  13. International cooperation for rational use of energy in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Papers discussed the experiences of OLADE, IEA and EEC member countries in the field of rational use of energy in a number of industrial sectors, such as textiles; generation, transmission and distribution of electricity; iron and steel; non-ferrous metals; cement; and sugar. Instruments and technologies for rational use of energy in industry were also discussed as well as possibilities for international cooperation in this field.

  14. 1st International Symposium on Energy System Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fichtner, Wolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Leibfried, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume address diverse challenges in energy systems, ranging from operational to investment planning problems, from market economics to technical and environmental considerations, from distribution grids to transmission grids and from theoretical considerations to data provision concerns and applied case studies. The International Symposium on Energy System Optimization (ISESO) was held on November 9th and 10th 2015 at the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) and was organized by HITS, Heidelberg University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.

  15. International Conference on Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, L; Dash, Subhransu; Panigrahi, Bijaya

    2015-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in Proceedings of International Conference on Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems (ICPERES 2014) held at Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of Power Electronics and Renewable Energy. The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  16. Acceleration of coupled granular flow and fluid flow simulations in pebble bed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanheng; Ji, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fast simulation of coupled pebble flow and coolant flow in PBR systems is studied. ► Dimension reduction based on axisymmetric geometry shows significant speedup. ► Relaxation of coupling frequency is investigated and an optimal range is determined. ► A total of 80% efficiency increase is achieved by the two fast strategies. ► Fast strategies can be applied to simulating other general fluidized bed systems. -- Abstract: Fast and accurate approaches to simulating the coupled particle flow and fluid flow are of importance to the analysis of large particle-fluid systems. This is especially needed when one tries to simulate pebble flow and coolant flow in Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) energy systems on a routine basis. As one of the Generation IV designs, the PBR design is a promising nuclear energy system with high fuel performance and inherent safety. A typical PBR core can be modeled as a particle-fluid system with strong interactions among pebbles, coolants and reactor walls. In previous works, the coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM)-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach has been investigated and applied to modeling PBR systems. However, the DEM-CFD approach is computationally expensive due to large amounts of pebbles in PBR systems. This greatly restricts the PBR analysis for the real time prediction and inclusion of more physics. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry and the slow motion characteristics of the pebble flow, two acceleration strategies are proposed. First, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical and annular geometries. Second, based on the slow motion of pebble flow, the impact of the coupling frequency on the computation accuracy and efficiency is

  17. Acceleration of coupled granular flow and fluid flow simulations in pebble bed energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanheng, E-mail: liy19@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States); Ji, Wei, E-mail: jiw2@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Fast simulation of coupled pebble flow and coolant flow in PBR systems is studied. ► Dimension reduction based on axisymmetric geometry shows significant speedup. ► Relaxation of coupling frequency is investigated and an optimal range is determined. ► A total of 80% efficiency increase is achieved by the two fast strategies. ► Fast strategies can be applied to simulating other general fluidized bed systems. -- Abstract: Fast and accurate approaches to simulating the coupled particle flow and fluid flow are of importance to the analysis of large particle-fluid systems. This is especially needed when one tries to simulate pebble flow and coolant flow in Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) energy systems on a routine basis. As one of the Generation IV designs, the PBR design is a promising nuclear energy system with high fuel performance and inherent safety. A typical PBR core can be modeled as a particle-fluid system with strong interactions among pebbles, coolants and reactor walls. In previous works, the coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM)-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach has been investigated and applied to modeling PBR systems. However, the DEM-CFD approach is computationally expensive due to large amounts of pebbles in PBR systems. This greatly restricts the PBR analysis for the real time prediction and inclusion of more physics. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry and the slow motion characteristics of the pebble flow, two acceleration strategies are proposed. First, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical and annular geometries. Second, based on the slow motion of pebble flow, the impact of the coupling frequency on the computation accuracy and efficiency is

  18. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, μ-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session

  19. Energy recovery from air flow in underground railway systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrone, B.; Mariani, A. [Seconda Univ. degli studi di Napoli, Aversa (Italy). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering; Costanzo, M.L. [Tecnosistem spa, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The 20-20-20 energy policy of the European Union commits members to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by 20 per cent by 2020, and stipulates that 20 per cent of final-use energy is to be supplied by renewable energy sources. This paper proposed the concept of recovering energy from underground trains by using the air flow inside tunnels to drive energy conversion systems such as turbines to generate electricity. Underground trains use much of their power to overcome the aerodynamic resistance moving the air in front of the train, creating a piston effect when travelling inside tunnels at relatively low speed. Numerical simulations were used in this study to determine how much electricity could be produced. A one-dimensional numerical analysis of a specific subway train track was used to evaluate the air flow magnitude inside the tunnel. Once the air flow features were detected, the potential electricity production was evaluated by considering the characteristics of a Wells turbine. Two types of 3-dimensional models of the tunnel and train were presented. One considered a long straight tunnel with a train running in it, and a small portion of a bypass tunnel. The other considered a large part of an opposite tunnel connected to the main one through the by-pass tunnel. Both the 3D models revealed a maximum flow rate of 2.5 x 105 m{sup 3}/h, while the 1D model showed an air flow of 1.5 x 105 m{sup 3}/h. The difference was due primarily to the presence of fans in the 1D Model and different modelling assumptions. It was concluded that one single Wells type turbine placed in a by-pass tunnel can produce 32.6 kWh per day, or about 10 MWh per year, resulting in a CO{sub 2} savings of about 5.5 tons per year. 8 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  20. International symposium on cavitation and multiphase flow noise - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.E.A.; Billet, M.L.; Blake, W.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on multiphase flow and cavitation. Topics considered at the conference included the development of a cavitation-free sodium pump for a breeder reactor, the stochastic behavior (randomness) of acoustic pressure pulses in the near-subcavitating range, cavitation monitoring of two axial-flow hydroturbines, and noise generated by cavitation in orifice plates with some gaseous effects

  1. Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.

  2. The Conceptualization of Energy Security: the International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzychenko Mykola V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews and analyzes existing interpretations of the term of «energy security», which are used by international organizations, individual countries, and foreign scientists. As result of a generalization of the numerous existing conceptual-methodical and substantive approaches to the definition of energy security, its main components and possible ways of its ensuring, it has been found that the concept of energy security includes many multifactor components that are interconnected by numerous functional linkages, including economic, political, social, and ecological aspects. The issues related to geology, geography, and time factor have impact on interpretation of energy security. But in general, energy security can be seen in a one-aspect dimension that is largely based on the security of energy supplies (availability of energy resources and in a multi-aspect dimension which, in addition to the security of energy supplies, also takes into consideration a number of other important interrelated aspects of energy security, particularly in the areas of accessibility of energy resources, energy efficiency, and environmental safety.

  3. Internal and External Flow over Laser-Textured Superhydrophobic Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, K M Tanvir; Patience, Christian; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2016-10-12

    In this work, internal and external flows over superhydrophobic (SH) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were studied. The SH surface was fabricated by a one-step femtosecond laser micromachining process. The drag reduction ability of the textured surface was studied experimentally both in microscale and macroscale internal flows. The slip length, which indicates drag reduction in fluid flow, was determined in microscale fluid flow with a cone-and-plate rheometer, whereas a pressure channel setup was used for macroscale flow experiments. The textured PTFE surface reduced drag in both experiments yielding comparable slip lengths. Moreover, the experimentally obtained slip lengths correspond well to the result obtained applying a semianalytical model, which considers the solid fraction of the textured surface. In addition to the internal flow studies, we fabricated SH PTFE spheres to test their drag reduction abilities in an external flow experiment, where the terminal velocities of the falling spheres were measured. These experiments were conducted at three different Reynolds numbers in both viscous and inertial flow regimes with pure glycerol, a 30% glycerol solution, and water. Surprisingly, the drag on the SH spheres was higher than the measured drag on the non-SH spheres. We hypothesize that the increase in form drag outweighs the decrease in friction drag on the SH sphere. Thus, the overall drag increased. These experiments demonstrate that a superhydrophobic surface that reduces drag in internal flow might not reduce drag in external flow.

  4. Energy density, stopping and flow in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorge, H.; von Keitz, A.; Mattiello, R.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1990-01-01

    The Lorentz invariant molecular dynamics approach (RQMD) is employed to investigate the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions at energies (E kin = 10AGeV hor-ellipsis 200AGeV). The calculations for various nucleus nucleus reactions show a high degree of stopping power. The importance of secondary rescattering at these beam energies is demonstrated. The computed nucleon rapidity distributions are compared to available experimental data. It is demonstrated that nonlinear, collective effects like full stopping of target and projectile and matter flow could be expected for heavy projectiles only. For nuclear collisions in the Booster era at BNL and for the lead beam at CERN SPS the authors predict a stimulating future: then a nearly equilibrated, long lived (8 fm/c) macroscopic volume of very high energy density (> 1 GeV/fm 3 ) and baryon density (> 5 times ground state density) is produced

  5. Energy flow characteristics of vector X-Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The vector form of X-Waves is obtained as a superposition of transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized field components. It is shown that the signs of all components of the Poynting vector can be locally changed using carefully chosen complex amplitudes of the transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization components. Negative energy flux density in the longitudinal direction can be observed in a bounded region around the centroid; in this region the local behavior of the wave field is similar to that of wave field with negative energy flow. This peculiar energy flux phenomenon is of essential importance for electromagnetic and optical traps and tweezers, where the location and momenta of microand nanoparticles are manipulated by changing the Poynting vector, and in detection of invisibility cloaks. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  6. Environment. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The catalogue lists all publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment issued during the period 1980-1993. The major subjects covered include: effect of agrochemical residues on soils and aquatic ecosystems, application of radioisotopes in conservation of the environment, siting of nuclear power plants, environmental isotope data and environmental contamination due to nuclear accidents

  7. Radiation therapy. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Radiation Therapy, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  8. Environment. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  9. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1986-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1986 up to the end of 1999 and still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered important have also been included. The catalogue is in CD-ROM format

  10. International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. J.

    This trip was undertaken to participate in and represent the United States Industry at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) Task 14 Workshop. The meeting took place at the A1 Bani Hotel in Rome Italy.

  11. Tomorrow's Mores. The International System, Geopolitical Changes and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogeveen, F.; Perlot, W.

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an analysis of key geopolitical changes in the international system, with particular attention for energy issues and the EU, and on the basis of this analysis define possible energy futures up until 2020. Four sub-objectives have been identified: (1) to understand the international system and the main actors shaping it; (2) to understand an actor's energy policy and how energy policy is determined; (3) to identify the most important developments within the energy system; and (4) to understand the EU's position in the changing geopolitical landscape. Chapter 2 describes the theoretical and analytical framework used for the study. In this chapter important theoretical notions and assumptions are explained. It starts with a quadrants model combining two axes of uncertainty (multilateral-uni/bilateral and politics-economy). It continues with the foundation, consisting of key factors of analysis and assumptions about an actor's energy policy, underlying the analysis and the positioning of actors in the quadrants. It also contains a section on scenario studies. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the developments in the energy sector, with a focus on challenges, risks and problems with relevance to foreign policy and geopolitics. The chapter is based on the information on energy carriers, EU energy policy and important energy issues that is discussed in further detail in Annex A, B and C, respectively. Chapter 4 analyses the geopolitical landscape, starting with a description of the international system prior to 1989. It contains an analysis of the present situation and presents three possible energy futures towards 2020. Past, present and future are analysed on the basis of the quadrants model. The chapter includes a description of the most important actors. In Chapter 5 the analysis of chapter 4 is used to look at the case of the European Union. The current place and role of the EU is discussed. The implications for the EU of a

  12. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Renewable Energy: Environment Protection and Energy Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The International Symposium and Exhibition on Renewable Energy 2003 organized by the Malaysian Institute of Energy (INTEM), the Malaysia Energy centre (PTM), Islamic Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), World Renewable Energy Network (WREN), Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia, and the Ministry of Education, Malaysia has the following objectives (a) highlighting the role of renewable in meeting the energy demand particularly of developing countries (b) encouraging the effective transfer and efficient application of economic renewable energy technologies (c) assisting in the promotion of the environmental benefits of renewable energy (d) promoting business opportunities for renewable energy projects and their successful implementation (e) enhancing improved information, knowledge and education on renewable energy (f) providing a technical exhibition where manufacturers, suppliers and others can display their products and services and finally (h) providing a focal points for international networking. The topics covered are Solar Materials, Solar Thermal Applications, Photovoltaic technology, Biomass Conversion, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Wind Energy, Hydro Energy, Climate and the Environment, Low Energy Architecture, related Topics (Energy Management; Economics, Policy and Financing; Sustainable Energy Business Practices, Carbon tax and trading, Gender and Poverty Reduction). A total of 97 papers have been received from countries such as Malaysia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Armenia, Romania, Denmark, Bahrain, Iraq, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Australia, Brunei, Belgium, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Iran, Russia, and Turkey

  13. Variational energy principle for compressible, baroclinic flow. 2: Free-energy form of Hamilton's principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The first and second variations are calculated for the irreducible form of Hamilton's Principle that involves the minimum number of dependent variables necessary to describe the kinetmatics and thermodynamics of inviscid, compressible, baroclinic flow in a specified gravitational field. The form of the second variation shows that, in the neighborhood of a stationary point that corresponds to physically stable flow, the action integral is a complex saddle surface in parameter space. There exists a form of Hamilton's Principle for which a direct solution of a flow problem is possible. This second form is related to the first by a Friedrichs transformation of the thermodynamic variables. This introduces an extra dependent variable, but the first and second variations are shown to have direct physical significance, namely they are equal to the free energy of fluctuations about the equilibrium flow that satisfies the equations of motion. If this equilibrium flow is physically stable, and if a very weak second order integral constraint on the correlation between the fluctuations of otherwise independent variables is satisfied, then the second variation of the action integral for this free energy form of Hamilton's Principle is positive-definite, so the action integral is a minimum, and can serve as the basis for a direct trail and error solution. The second order integral constraint states that the unavailable energy must be maximum at equilibrium, i.e. the fluctuations must be so correlated as to produce a second order decrease in the total unavailable energy.

  14. Kinetic energy budget for electroconvective flows near ion selective membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Karen; Mani, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Electroconvection occurs when ions are driven from a bulk fluid through an ion-selective surface. When the driving voltage is beyond a threshold, this process undergoes a hydrodynamic instability called electroconvection, which can become chaotic due to nonlinear coupling between ion-transport, fluid flow, and electrostatic forces. Electroconvection significantly enhances ion transport and plays an important role in a wide range of electrochemical applications. We investigate this phenomenon by considering a canonical geometry consisting of a symmetric binary electrolyte between an ion-selective membrane and a reservoir using 2D direct numerical simulation (DNS). Our simulations reveal that for most practical regimes, DNS of electroconvection is expensive. Thus, a plan towards development of reduced-order models is necessary to facilitate the adoption of analysis of this phenomenon in industry. Here we use DNS to analyze the kinetic energy budget to shed light into the mechanisms sustaining flow and mixing in electroconvective flows. Our analysis reveals the relative dominance of kinetic energy sources, dissipation, and transport mechanisms sustaining electroconvection at different distances from the interface and over a wide range of input parameters. Karen Wang was supported by the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG). Ali Mani was supported by the National Science Foundation Award.

  15. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  16. Asymmetric impacts of international energy shocks on macroeconomic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Fang-Yu; Hu, Jin-Li; Lin, Cheng-Hsun

    2012-01-01

    While limited by its scarcity of natural resources, the impacts of energy price changes on Taiwan's economic activities have been an important issue for social public and government authorities. This study applies the multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. By separating energy price changes into the so-called decrease and increase regimes, we can realize different impacts of energy price changes and their shocks on economic output. The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for the energy-output nexus. The optimal threshold levels are exactly where the oil price change is at 2.48%, the natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and the coal price change is at 0.25%. The impulse response analysis suggests that oil price and natural gas shocks have a delayed negative impact on macroeconomic activities. - Highlights: ► This study applies multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. ► The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for energy-output nexus. ► The optimal threshold levels are exactly found where oil price change is at 2.48%, natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and coal price change is at 0.25%.

  17. Beam energy dependence of elliptic flow in heavy-ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otuka, Naohiko; Isse, Masatsugu; Ohnishi, Akira; Pradip Kumar Sahu; Nara, Yasushi

    2002-01-01

    We study radial flow and elliptic flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies from GSI-SIS to BNL-RHIC energies using hadronic cascade model JAM. The excitation function of radial flow shows the softening of hadronic matter from BNL-AGS to CERN-SPS energies. JAM model reproduces transverse mass spectra at BNL-AGS, CERN-SPS at BNL-RHIC energies as well as elliptic flow upto CERN-SPS. For elliptic flow at BNL-RHIC energy (√s=130 GeV), while JAM gives the enough flow at fragment region, it fails at mid rapidity. (author)

  18. Characteristics Air Flow in Room Chamber Test Refrigerator Household Energy Consumption with Inlet Flow Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Edy; Idrus Alhamid, M.; Nasruddin; Budihardjo

    2018-03-01

    Room Chamber is the most important in making a good Testing Laboratory. In this study, the 2-D modeling conducted to assess the effect placed the inlet on designing a test chamber room energy consumption of household refrigerators. Where the geometry room chamber is rectangular and approaching the enclosure conditions. Inlet varied over the side parallel to the outlet and compared to the inlet where the bottom is made. The purpose of this study was to determine and define the characteristics of the airflow in the room chamber using CFD simulation. CFD method is used to obtain flow characteristics in detail, in the form of vector flow velocity and temperature distribution inside the chamber room. The result found that the position of the inlet parallel to the outlet causes air flow cannot move freely to the side of the floor, even flow of air moves up toward the outlet. While by making the inlet is below, the air can move freely from the bottom up to the side of the chamber room wall as well as to help uniform flow.

  19. South Africa and nuclear energy - national and international legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article gives an exposition of the national and international legal aspects of what appears to be a technological triumph for South Africa. The nuclear policy, facilities, aims and capabilities of the country are described, as well as its nuclear energy program and development. When the Nuclear Energy Act 92 of 1982 was promulgated, a new internal legal dispensation commenced. The main objects of the act, powers and functions of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd and the Council for Nuclear Safety are stated. South Africa's official viewpoint and attitude regarding the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the advantages and obstades to South Africa's signature and ratification of the Treaty are discussed

  20. Bio-fuels energy policy and grain transportation flows : implications for inland waterways and short sea shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    This project develops a foundation for analysis of the effects of U.S. biofuel energy policy on domestic : and international grain flows and patterns. The primary deliverable of this project is an updated and : expanded spatial equilibrium model of w...

  1. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak

    This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite......, should the mesh resolution, numerical discretization scheme, time averaging period, and domain size be chosen wisely. A thorough investigation of the wind turbine wake interactions is also conducted and the simulations are validated against available experimental data from external sources. The effect...... Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number...

  2. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangi, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Ancona, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  3. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinhao Chong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate that Malaysia’s energy use depends heavily on fossil fuels, including oil, gas and coal. In the past 30 years, Malaysia has successfully diversified its energy structure by introducing more natural gas and coal into its power generation. To sustainably feed the rapidly growing energy demand in end-use sectors with the challenge of global climate change, Malaysia must pay more attention to the development of renewable energy, green technology and energy conservation in the future.

  4. Energy and Carbon Embodied in the International Trade of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmasquim, M.T.; Machado, G.

    2003-01-01

    Shifting the economic structure of a country towards energy-intensive industries may lead to significant effect on the environment. One of the major environmental impacts associated to such changes is the increase of the Carbon Dioxide emissions - the main factor behind the greenhouse effect. In the last decades, structural changes in the Brazilian economy were close related to changes in the country's trade specialization. This paper analyzes to what extent energy use and its associated CO2 emissions of Brazil in the 90's may be overloaded by changes in the country's trade specialization towards a more energy-intensive mix. This study finds that Brazil exported, in net terms, significant amounts of energy and carbon (C) embodied in goods traded with the rest of the world in the 90's. In fact, some 6.6% of the final energy used by the industrial sector and around 7.1% of its C emissions are prompted by international trade. By overloading the country's energy use and its associated environmental damage (both local and global), this situation seems to contribute to increase not only local but also global environmental damage, since C leakage from non-Annex I countries due to international trade may lead to higher C concentration in the atmosphere

  5. Internal defibrillation: pain perception of low energy shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, David M; Cardinal, Debbie S; Mongeon, Luc; Musley, Shailesh Kumar; Foley, Laura; Corrigan, Susie

    2002-07-01

    Recently, device-based low energy cardoversion shocks have been used as therapy for AF. However, discomfort from internal low energy electrical shocks is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate pain perception with low energy internal discharges. Eighteen patients with ICD devices for malignant ventricular arrhythmias were recruited to receive shocks of 0.4 and 2 J in the nonsedated state. Discharges were delivered in a blinded, random order and questionnaires were used to determine discomfort levels and tolerability. Patients perceived discharges at these energies as relatively uncomfortable, averaging a score of 7.3 on a discomfort scale of 0-10, and could not distinguish 0.4-J shocks from 2-J shocks. Second shocks were perceived as more uncomfortable than initial discharges, regardless of the order in which the shocks were delivered. Despite the perceived discomfort, 83% of patients stated that they would tolerate discharges of this magnitude once per month, and 44% would tolerate weekly discharges. Patients perceive low energy discharges as painful and cannot distinguish between shocks of 0.4 and 2 J. The results suggest that ICD systems developed to treat atrial tachyarrhythmias should minimize the number of shocks delivered to terminate an atrial tachyarrhythmia episode. The majority of the patients tolerated low energy shocks provided the discharges are infrequent (once per month).

  6. Brussels' new energy package. Focus on the internal market proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeper, F.W.J.H.N.

    2007-01-01

    January 10, 2007, the European Commission presented its proposals for an integrated climate change and energy package. The proposals set out in the 'Energy Policy for Europe' document follow the Green Paper on a European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy, a consultation document launched in March 2006 by the Commission. The ideas put forward in the Green Paper have been developed and translated into a proposal for an action plan with respect to the three main objectives of a European Energy Policy: security of supply, combating climate change and the completion of the internal market for electricity and gas. This ardcle will briefly discuss the main elements of the Energy Policy for Europe proposals. The article will then focus on some aspects of the proposals for the internal energy market. In doing so it will concentrate on matters related to the natural gas market. Special attention will be given to the proposals with respect to unbundling and improved regulation of network access and the possible trade-off between the degree of unbundling and the level of regulatory involvement

  7. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  8. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIEKHOVA L. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the presented research is to explore the potential of international energy management standards to increase competitiveness of industrial enterprises under conditions of Ukrainian transitional economy. The study had the following objectives: to trace the evolution of fundamental energy efficiency standards; to discuss experience in their use in various countries; to identify factors that are key to achieving competitive advantage under the implementation ISO 50001. Methodology. This article presents a historical overview of the standardisation of principles and approaches for the purpose of the energy-efficient management. The research was carried out by studying the international documents, voluntary standards and national practices in the field of energy efficiency. Conclusions. The study examines the experiences of different countries in the field of energy management systems. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the ISO 50001 with the other basic standards for the organisation of management. The system approach enables to identify the main factors and their impact on capacity to achieve competitive advantages, which are possible to obtain after certification to ISO 50001. Originality. The study reviewed and analysed the energy management penetration within its dynamics at time and country level. After analysing the statistical data and the results of the interviews, the authors identified 20 key factors affecting the competitiveness of enterprises that are certified to ISO 50001. All of these factors were divided into four groups, two groups represent external environment – opportunities and threats, and two groups – internal capacity – strengths and weaknesses of enterprises. Practical value. The proposed system of factors may be useful for the planning of actions towards strengthening the capacity of energy management systems in the context of the formation competitive advantages on the industrial

  9. Brain energy metabolism and blood flow differences in healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors......, and in the temporal cortex. Because of the inverse relation between OEF and capillary oxygen tension, increased OEF can compromise oxygen delivery to neurons, with possible perturbation of energy turnover. The results establish a possible mechanism of progression from healthy to unhealthy brain aging, as the regions...

  10. Nuclear energy and non proliferation. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.; Rauf, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the prevention of the spread of nuclear weapons. The IAEA verifies States compliance with their non-proliferation commitments through the application of safeguards on their civilian nuclear programmes to ensure that they are being used solely for peaceful purposes. The IAEA safeguards have evolved in the course of five decades and have become an integral part of the international non-proliferation regime and the global security system. To continue to serve the international community, they need to continue to move with the times, especially in light of the renewed interest in nuclear energy. (Author)

  11. Report of the International Consultative Group on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The International Consultative Groups on Nuclear Energy adopted as its working premise the proposition that nuclear power will play a significant part in meeting future energy needs in an increasing number of countries. The Group's concern has been to examine the international political and economic conditions under which civil nuclear activities may be conducted safely, rationally, and in a manner generally acceptable to the world community. The views are presented in sections entitled: Energy and Nuclear Power; Establishing Nuclear Options; Nuclear Safety and the Public Interest; Nuclear Trade and Nuclear Proliferation; Conditions for the Future in which five conditions are summarized. The Group believes that if nuclear power is to be available to meet an increasing fraction of the world's future energy needs, nuclear power must, despite the difficulty of the sort-term climate, be systematically developed, without interruption or undue delay; earn and retain public acceptance; present technologies for using uranium more efficiently and be developed and tested as soon as possible, with both the coming decades and the 21st century in mind; be less feared; and convince countries depending on nuclear technology, services, or materials of continued international access to them under safeguards, on acceptable terms

  12. Darcy-Forchheimer flow of Maxwell nanofluid flow with nonlinear thermal radiation and activation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sajid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article is about the study of Darcy-Forchheimer flow of Maxwell nanofluid over a linear stretching surface. Effects like variable thermal conductivity, activation energy, nonlinear thermal radiation is also incorporated for the analysis of heat and mass transfer. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs with convective boundary conditions are first converted into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs with the help of similarity transformation, and then the resulting nonlinear ODEs are solved with the help of shooting method and MATLAB built-in bvp4c solver. The impact of different physical parameters like Brownian motion, thermophoresis parameter, Reynolds number, magnetic parameter, nonlinear radiative heat flux, Prandtl number, Lewis number, reaction rate constant, activation energy and Biot number on Nusselt number, velocity, temperature and concentration profile has been discussed. It is viewed that both thermophoresis parameter and activation energy parameter has ascending effect on the concentration profile.

  13. Global Trends of International Mergers and Acquisitions in the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Galperina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores conditions, factors and results of mergers and acquisitions in international business with the example of the energy industry. The directions of world energy market transformation in the framework of PESTLE analysis have been determined by the factors influencing the efficiency and future of the companies that have effected mergers and acquisitions. The transformation of the global energy market is associated with changes in the main market parameters that affect the sectoral and regional structure of international mergers and acquisitions. Including: growing demand for energy from the growing population of the planet, including due to an increase in the middle class share; fluctuation of world oil market prices; the growth of supply of shale oil changing the transnational flows of trade in primary petroleum products; rising demand for renewable energy as a result of cheapening technologies and diversification policies; the growth of renewable energy sources supply; increase in demand for atomic energy; improvement of energy infrastructure; introduction of energy efficient and low carbon technologies; introduction of safe technologies by energy companies; reduction of transaction costs in power grids due to optimization of modes at application of Smart Grid at all levels (local, on-site, regional, national, international; the expansion of the world-leading countries in the primary energy markets; demonopolization of national energy markets and liberalization of energy markets of the EU, USA, Japan, South Korea, Australia, etc. The world market of mergers and acquisitions has been characterized with the definition of key features of its development. International mergers and acquisitions in the energy sector are analysed on the basis of regional and industry characteristics. The international mergers and acquisitions in the energy sector has been analysed, taking into account the main scenarios for the development of the

  14. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  15. Analysis of forecasting methods of cargo flows in International transportation by land transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomareva, N.

    2005-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the existing forecasting methods of cargo flows are presented. The improvement of cargo flows forecasting method in international transportation by land transport is considered on the basis of a interregional balance model to get more correct and fuller forecast.

  16. A semi-elliptic analysis of internal viscous flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghia, U.; Ramamurti, R.; Ghia, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    The increased demands placed presently on the performance of compressors and turbines of gas-turbine engines have, for some time, pointed the need for accurate analysis of viscous flows in turbomachinery. With the recent developments of advanced computational facilities, much effort has been made to respond to this need. Various mathematical formulations, grid systems and numerical techniques have been developed for the numerical solution of the viscous flow equations (Refs. 1-4). The full Navier-Stokes equations as well as their corresponding thin-layer approximate form have been employed in H- as well as C-grids, using explicit or implicit methods, including convergence enhancement techniques based on multi-grid methodology. Nevertheless, obtaining converged solutions for general geometries on acceptably refined grids remains a computationally demanding task. The present paper discusses a reduced form on the governing equations which can capture much of the physics, while requiring less computer resources than the full Navier-Stokes equations

  17. Numerical simulation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow with internal heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokade, Vipin; Bhandarkar, U.V.; Bodi, Kowsik

    2016-01-01

    A strong magnetic field is used to confine the plasma in a fusion reactor. This magnetic field also affects the flow of Lead-Lithium (breeder/coolant) in the breeding blanket. So it is important to study MHD flow of Lead-Lithium (Pb-Li). Open-source toolbox, OpenFOAM, is used to study single phase behaviour of Pb-Li. As the induced magnetic field is very small, Ni et al. electric potential algorithm is employed in OpenFOAM and validated with analytical results. This solver can also solve the temperature field with heat source term. Simulations are carried out in 2D straight channel for various values of Hartmann Number ranging from 100 to 5000 and velocity profile, temperature, current density and pressure drop are studied. (author)

  18. International institutions for nuclear energy: issues of assessment and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Among the more attractive of candidate institutions and rules-of-trade for advanced fuel cycles are: extension of full-scope International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards as a condition of fuel assurances or technology transfer; international jurisdiction over spent fuel (custody or ownership); an IAEA remote near-real-time verification system for spent fuel remaining under national management; a convention on uniform nuclear fuel identification (tagging) designed to assist safeguards planners, trace diversionary pathways, assign liability, and enhance the credibility of fuel-cycle sanctions; international nuclear service centers for bulk processing operations (heavy water production, enrichment and reprocessing); and fuel-cycle specific regulations. Some risk-reduction measures, for example on internationally managed, remote shutdown and restart-delay system for bulk processing facilities, raise questions of acceptability. Despite uncertainties about international acceptability and hazards of enrichment technology transfer later in this century, it appears feasible to reduce proliferation risks associated with nuclear fuel cycles - existing ones and those under review within the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). 6 refereces

  19. High energy electron disinfection of sewage wastewater in flow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, T; Arai, H; Hosono, M; Tokunaga, O; Machi, S [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kondoh, M; Minemura, T; Nakao, A; Seike, Y [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-01-01

    The disinfection of effluent municipal wastewaters by high-energy electrons in flow systems was studied using an experimental apparatus which has the maximum treatment capacity of 10.8 m{sup 3}/h. An electron accelerator with an accelerating voltage of 2 MV was used. The electron beam current was controlled to deliver the desired doses ranging from 0.05 to 1 kGy. Treatment times were in the range from 0.0022 to 0.051 s. Preliminary experiments with batch system using Petri dish of 100 ml showed that the effectiveness of electron irradiation on inactivation of coliforms was not influenced significantly by factors such as pH, SS, COD, DO and irradiation temperature. The dose required to produce 99.9% kill in the total population presented in wastewater were markedly affected by the thickness of water exposure to electron irradiation; that is, 0.39, 0.4 and 0.44 kGy for the depth of 5, 6 and 7 mm, respectively. The data obtained after a suitable correction for the doses due to the depth dose distribution showed no deviation from an experimental survival curve. Experiments with flow system indicated no measureable effect of the flow rate of wastewaters on the efficiency of disinfection in the range from 0.5 to 3.5 m/s. (author).

  20. International Energy Outlook 2016 With Projections to 2040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, John [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels Analysis; Holtberg, Paul [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Analysis Integration Team; Diefenderfer, Jim [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis; LaRose, Angelina [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Integrated and International Energy Analysis; Turnure, James T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis; Westfall, Lynn [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Markets and Financial Analysis

    2016-05-01

    The International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) presents an assessment by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2040. U.S. projections appearing in IEO2016 are consistent with those published in EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2015 (AEO2015). IEO2016 is provided as a service to energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. The projections are used by international agencies, federal and state governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO2016 energy consumption projections are divided according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development members (OECD) and nonmembers (non-OECD). OECD members are divided into three basic country groupings: OECD Americas (United States, Canada, and Mexico/Chile), OECD Europe, and OECD Asia (Japan, South Korea, and Australia/New Zealand). Non-OECD countries are divided into five separate regional subgroups: non-OECD Europe and Eurasia (which includes Russia); non-OECD Asia (which includes China and India); Middle East; Africa; and non-OECD Americas (which includes Brazil). In some instances, the IEO2016 energy production models have different regional aggregations to reflect important production sources (for example, Middle East OPEC is a key region in the projections for liquids production). Complete regional definitions are listed in Appendix M. IEO2016 focuses exclusively on marketed energy. Nonmarketed energy sources, which continue to play an important role in some developing countries, are not included in the estimates. The IEO2016 projections are based on existing U.S. and foreign government laws and regulations. In general, IEO2016 reflects the effects of current policies—often stated through regulations—within the projections. EIA analysts attempt to interpret the

  1. Perspectives of nuclear energy peaceful uses. International conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, K.; Adil, G.; Dinara, A.

    2010-11-01

    Full text : The scientists from following countries (Usa, Pakistan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Spain, Uzbekistan, Iran) took part at the International Conference devoted to Perspectives of Nuclear Energy Peaceful Uses. The activity was conducted in five sections : Section 1 was devoted to perspectives and statuses on nuclear energy; Section 2 was devoted to radiation impact on the environment : radioecology situation, radiation security, existing problems and their solutions; Section 3 was devoted to radiation materiology (radiation chemistry, radiation physics, radiation effects in solid states). Section 4 was devoted to existing problems of nuclear and radiation security in our Azerbaijan Republic. Section 5 was devoted to radioecology situation, its problems and the ways on their.

  2. Perspectives of nuclear energy peaceful uses. International conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, Mahmud; Garibov, Adil

    2010-11-01

    Full text: The scientists from following countries (Usa, Pakistan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Spain, Uzbekistan, Iran) took part at the International Conference devoted to Perspectives of Nuclear Energy Peaceful Uses. The activity was conducted in five sections : Section 1 was devoted to perspectives and statuses on nuclear energy; Section 2 was devoted to radiation impact on the environment : radioecology situation, radiation security, existing problems and their solutions; Section 3 was devoted to radiation materiology (radiation chemistry, radiation physics, radiation effects in solid states). Section 4 was devoted to existing problems of nuclear and radiation security in our Azerbaijan Republic. Section 5 was devoted to radioecology situation, its problems and the ways of their solutions.

  3. Energy confinement scaling from the international stellarator database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, U [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Murakami, M; Dory, R A; Yamada, H; Okamura, S; Sano, F; Obiki, T

    1995-09-01

    An international stellarator database on global energy confinement is presented comprising data from the ATF, CHS and Heliotron E heliotron/torsatrons and the W7-A and W7-AS shearless stellarators. Regression expressions for the energy confinement time are given for the individual devices and the combined dataset. A comparison with tokamak L mode confinement is discussed on the basis of various scaling expressions. In order to make this database available to interested colleagues, the structure of the database and the parameter list are explained in detail. More recent confinement results incorporating data from enhanced confinement regimes such as H mode are reported elsewhere. (author).

  4. The origins of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, International Relations (France)

    1977-08-15

    On 23 October 1956 in New York, 81 member countries of the United Nations Organization or of its specialized agencies adopted the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was to go into formal operation before the end of 1957. A major step towards world-wide control of nuclear energy thus came to be taken more than ten years after the idea of establishing such control had been launched - the first tentative efforts, from 1946 to 1948, having ended in failure. The account follows in an attempt to retrace this 'prehistory' of the IAEA.

  5. The origins of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1977-01-01

    On 23 October 1956 in New York, 81 member countries of the United Nations Organization or of its specialized agencies adopted the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was to go into formal operation before the end of 1957. A major step towards world-wide control of nuclear energy thus came to be taken more than ten years after the idea of establishing such control had been launched - the first tentative efforts, from 1946 to 1948, having ended in failure. The account follows in an attempt to retrace this 'prehistory' of the IAEA

  6. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, K.D.; Filios, P.G.; Gullickson, R.L.; Hebert, M.P.; Rowley, J.E.; Schneider, R.F.; Summa, W.J.; Vitkovski, I.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs

  7. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, K D; Filios, P G; Gullickson, R L; Hebert, M P; Rowley, J E; Schneider, R F; Summa, W J [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States); Vitkovski, I M [Logicon RDA, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs.

  8. A role for NGOs in international renewable energy project development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholf, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    An NGO is an international term for non-government organizations, often it is used in connection with non-profit, community-based and/or voluntary business activities. To be successful in supporting energy projects, these organizations generally exhibit certain characteristics: they are familiar with the end-use requirements; they are typically neutral to the technology; they emphasize training; they do not carry a large bureacratic structure, at home or in the field; they typically can adapt to do numerous functions; they can often attract other support. The author discusses several examples of such organizations who have been highly successful. The author sees a continuing role for such groups in developing renewable energy sources in the rural setting to include: continued development of new activity in rural areas; development of institutional framework for future market activity; an increased role in managing international development activities; more direct involvement with for-profit technical and financial organizations.

  9. Environment, 1986-1997. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Environment and issued during the period of 1986-1997. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  10. Earth sciences. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 31 May 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. This is noted as A for Arabic, C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish before the relevant ISBN number

  11. Analytical quality control services of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency provides quality control services to analytical laboratories. These services which include the provision of reference materials and the organisation of intercomparisons are rendered for the purpose of assisting laboratories in determining the accuracy of their analytical work. The following classes of materials are presently available: nuclear materials, environmental materials, animal and plant materials, materials for biomedical studies and materials of marine origin. (orig.) [de

  12. Current radiation protection activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program of the Radiation Safety Section is described in this paper. The Section has two main components: (1) the development of consensus safety documentation and (2) the use of that documentation as the basis for assisting countries to deal safely with their applications of radiation and radioactivity. Main activities of the section are listed for each of these components. Activities include documentation, coordinated research programs, and assistance to developing countries. 14 tabs

  13. Breaking down the silos to decrease internal diversions and patient flow delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Molly; Tobis, Kristen; Gurka, David; Serafin, Frederick; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals strive to admit patients to the units where caregiver competencies align with the patient's condition. When the hospital's census peaks, internal diversions and the associated risks increase, which are intensified when silos exist, as segregated care negatively impacts collaboration and patient safety. In this study, a 600+-bed academic, tertiary care specialty hospital experienced an increase in internal diversions. Within the neuroscience service line, emergent neuroscience transfers from outside hospitals had been declined or internally diverted because of capacity limitations. Formalized processes for improving collaboration between health care providers related to capacity issues were required to decrease internal diversions and improve patient flow and patient safety. A pilot project was conducted on neuroscience units during a process improvement initiative. A hospital-wide internal diversion plan was developed, identifying primary and secondary placement options for all patients requiring hospitalization to support patient flow and patient safety. Forecasting tools were developed to provide units' leadership with current information on expected admissions. Daily capacity huddles were instituted to increase collaboration between patient care units. The interventions trialed during the pilot decreased internal diversions and improved patient flow. The improved collaboration resulted in an 80% decrease in declinations of emergent intensive care unit transfers from outside hospitals due to capacity limitations and a 50% decrease in the number of these patients being internally diverted to alternate intensive care units. The interventions implemented minimized internal diversions and improved patient flow. The transparency of the patient placement process led to an increased collaboration between all participants.

  14. Linked migration systems: immigration and internal labor flows in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Walker; M. Ellis; R. Barff

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between immigration and internal labor movements in the US. Wedding the literatures on immigration and internal migration, we develop a mobility model linking these various flows on the basis of occupational status of worker, producction and institutional relations in the economy, and economic restructuring.

  15. The International Energy Workshop: results of the 1997 poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrattenholzer, L.

    1998-01-01

    The International Energy Workshop consists of a network of analysts from across the world concerned with international energy issues. Since 1981, the IEW has been organising an annual poll of projections of crude oil prices, economic growth, primary energy consumption and production, the energy trade and, beginning in the early 1990s, energy-related carbon emissions. Submitted projections are for 1990-2020 in ten-year steps; recently, 2050 and 2100 have been added, to cater for climate change scenarios. The IEW poll encourages the submission of responses for five world regions. This paper presents a summary of findings in the 1997 poll. Highlights include the following. The poll medians for 1997 suggest a crude oil price, in 1990 purchasing power, of $20/b in 2000, $27/b in 2010 and $28/b in 2020. Unlike for 2000 and 2010, the 2020 figure diverges considerably from that of the 1996 poll, which registered $39/b. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are not expected to be major global oil exporters until 2010 at least, while China will become a net importer in 2000. OPEC will meet about half global demand by 2020. World primary energy consumption is expected to increase from 8,500 mtoe in 1990 to 13,000 mtoe in 2020. In this period, oil will lose almost seven percentage points of market share, while natural gas will almost double its absolute contribution. OPEC's natural gas exports are projected to rise from 55 mtoe in 1990 to 300 mtoe in 2020. Finally, the paper compares different projections for decarbonisation, that is, the decline rates of the carbon intensity of GDP and of primary energy supply. It notes that, according to business-as-usual projections, the OECD is way off target in meeting the emissions-reductions goals of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  16. Degassing of primordial hydrogen and helium as the major energy source for internal terrestrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Lev Gilat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Examples of the mightiest energy releases by great earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and hypotheses providing explanations for them are analyzed along with the results of some recently published researches and visualizations. The emerging conclusions are that the mechanism of the strong earthquake is a chemical explosion; that volcanic eruption is a special type of earthquake wherein the hypocenter rises to the earth-surface; and that there is an association between the seismic-volcanic processes and mantle “fluids” and the lack of energy for mantle plumes. A conceptual system of hypotheses is put forward to explain the conservation of energy during Earth’s accretion, its quasi-stable release by primordial H- and He-degassing and of the crucial role of the energy of degassing-comprising-reactions in endogenic processes. Specific mechanisms and chemical processes are proposed for the gas-liquid mantle plumes melting through the solid mantle using heat-energy released in reactions of their metamorphic and chemical transformation under gradual decrease of pressure and temperature; volcanic gases are put forward as energy carriers. 3He performance as a unique measuring transformer correlative to the internal heat flow was used for calculation of energy release by degassing; it equals to 5.12 × 1020 J/yr, an amount of energy five-fold greater than the entire energy loss involved in earthquake and volcanic activity. The hypotheses proposed are objectively testable.

  17. Performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump with splitter blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigemitsu, T; Fukutomi, J; Kaji, K; Wada, T

    2012-01-01

    Mini centrifugal pumps having a diameter smaller than 100mm are employed in many fields. But the design method for the mini centrifugal pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machines is not clarified and conventional theory is not suitable for small-sized pumps. Therefore, mini centrifugal pumps with simple structure were investigated by this research. Splitter blades were adopted in this research to improve the performance and the internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump which had large blade outlet angle. The original impeller without the splitter blades and the impeller with the splitter blades were prepared for an experiment. The performance tests are conducted with these rotors in order to investigate the effect of the splitter blades on performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump. On the other hand, a three dimensional steady numerical flow analysis is conducted with the commercial code (ANSYS-CFX) to investigate the internal flow condition in detail. It is clarified from the experimental results that the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is improved by the effect of the splitter blades. The blade-to-blade low velocity regions are suppressed in the case with the splitter blades and the total pressure loss regions are decreased. The effects of the splitter blades on the performance and the internal flow condition are discussed in this paper.

  18. Internal Flow of a High Specific-Speed Diagonal-Flow Fan (Rotor Outlet Flow Fields with Rotating Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Shiomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.

  19. International energy R and D spillovers and the economics of greenhouse gas atmospheric stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; Massetti, Emanuele; Tavoni, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that technological change will play a substantial role in reducing GHG emissions without compromising economic growth; hence, any better understanding of the process of technological innovation is likely to increase our knowledge of mitigation possibilities and costs. This paper explores how international knowledge flows affect the dynamics of the domestic R and D sector and the main economic and environmental variables. The analysis is performed using WITCH, a dynamic regional model of the world economy, in which energy-related technological change is endogenous. The focus is on disembodied energy R and D international spillovers. The knowledge pool from which regions draw foreign ideas differs between High Income and Low Income countries. Absorption capacity is also endogenous in the model. The basic questions are as follows. Do knowledge spillovers enhance energy-related technological innovation in different regions of the world? Does the speed of innovation increase? Or do free-riding incentives prevail and international spillovers crowd out domestic R and D efforts? What is the role of domestic absorption capacity and of policies designed to enhance it? Do greenhouse gas stabilization costs drop in the presence of international technological spillovers? The new specification of the WITCH model presented in this paper enables us to answer these questions. Our analysis shows that international knowledge spillovers tend to increase free-riding incentives and decrease the investments in energy R and D. The strongest cuts in energy R and D investments are recorded among High Income countries, where international knowledge flows crowd out domestic R and D efforts. The overall domestic pool of knowledge, and thus total net GHG stabilization costs, remain largely unaffected. International spillovers, however, are also an important policy channel. We therefore analyze the implication of a policy-mix in which climate policy is combined with a

  20. 11th International Conference on Numerical Modeling of Space Plasma Flows: ASTRONUM-2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    PREFACEThe Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) and Maison de la Simulation at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat a l’energie atomique et aux energies alternatives, CEA) organized the 11th annual International Conference on Numerical Modeling of Space Plasma Flows (ASTRONUM-2016) on June 6—10, 2016 in Monterey, California, USA.The Program Committee consisted of Tahar Amari (CNRS Ecole Polytechnique, France), Edouard Audit (CEA/CNRS Maison de la Simulation, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, co-chair), Amitava Bhattacharjee (Princeton University, USA), Phillip Colella (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA), Anthony Mezzacappa (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA), Ewald Müller (Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, Germany), Nikolai Pogorelov (University of Alabama in Huntsville/CSPAR, USA, chair), Kazunari Shibata (Kyoto University, Japan), James Stone (Princeton University, USA), Jon Linker (Predictive Science, Inc., USA), and Gary P. Zank (University of Alabama in Huntsville, USA).The conference attracted 92 scientists representing different branches of the plasma simulation community. The distinctive feature of this conference is a combination of diverse research topics, all of which are essential for performing high-resolution, continuum mechanics and particle, simulations of physical phenomena in space physics and astrophysics. Among such topics were software packages for modeling and analyzing plasma flows; advanced numerical methods for space and astrophysical flows; large-scale fluid-based, kinetic, and hybrid simulations; turbulence and cosmic ray transport; and magnetohydrodynamics. The applications discussed included cosmology and galaxy formation, supernova explosions, physics of the Sun-heliosphere-magnetosphere environments, the interstellar medium and star formation, stellar physics, experimental plasma physics, astrophysical

  1. Bibliometric Analysis of International Collaboration in Wind and Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Sakata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern technology is increasingly complex and demands an ever-widening range of knowledge and skills. No single country will possess all the knowledge and skills required for addressing global issues such as climate change. Technology collaboration between leading countries is important to promptly and efficiently address the problem. Previous studies have shown that a high level of collaboration is correlated with high paper productivity. This paper first aims to use objective data and create maps that enable us to see both the distribution of worldwide research competency and the relationship of international collaboration in clean energy research. In the international research network of wind power and solar cell, 4,189 institutions located in 121 countries and 6,600 institutions located in 125 countries are included respectively. This paper discusses various factors that would have an impact on research capability and support strong international relationships. With respect to research capability, governmental policies, stability of governmental commitment, natural conditions and historical and institutional differences have a significant impact on it. For research collaborations, factors such as geographical proximity, international science and technology policy, and developmental stage of technology have been brought to attention. This study demonstrates that bibliometrics is a methodology that is capable of providing a knowledge base that is useful in the development of the international science and technology policy and technological management strategy.

  2. Mode pattern of internal flow in a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun; Lim, Hee-Chang

    2015-06-04

    The objective of this study is to understand the mode pattern of the internal flow in a water droplet placed on a hydrophobic surface that periodically and vertically vibrates. As a result, a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface has a typical shape that depends on each resonance mode, and, additionally, we observed a diversified lobe size and internal flows in the water droplet. The size of each lobe at the resonance frequency was relatively greater than that at the neighboring frequencies, and the internal flow of the nth order mode was also observed in the flow visualization. In general, large symmetrical flow streams were generated along the vertical axis in each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top, and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In contrast, modes 2 and 4 generated a Y-shaped flow pattern, in which the flow moved to the node point in the lower part of the droplet, but modes 6 and 8 had similar patterns, with only a little difference. In addition, as a result of the PIV measurement, while the flow velocity of mode 4 was faster than that of model 2, those of modes 6 and 8 were almost similar.

  3. Integrating global energy and climate governance: The changing role of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubaum, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long-recognized interlinkages between global energy consumption and climate change, there has historically been only limited policy interaction, let alone integration, between the two fields. This compartmentalization is mirrored in scholarship, where much research has focused on the fragmentation of, respectively, global energy and global climate governance, but only little has been said about how these fields might be integrated. Our analysis of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) changing activities in recent years shows that governance integration – both within global energy governance and between global energy and climate governance – is now happening. The IEA has broadened its portfolio to embrace the full spectrum of energy issues, including renewable energy and climate change; it has built and is expanding key partnerships with both the UN climate convention and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA); and it has become an authoritative advocate for the inter-related goals of a low-carbon transition and climate change mitigation. We show that these developments are not the result of a top-down plan, but have rather emerged through the Agency’s various efforts to pursue its energy-centric mandate in a fast-changing global policy environment. - Highlights: • Assesses integration between global energy and global climate governance. • Analyzes organizational change in the IEA and its impact on governance integration. • Discusses recent activities and advocacy by the IEA in relation to climate change.

  4. Scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of FFTF reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Mahoney, J.J.

    1980-10-01

    Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed for flow-induced vibrational characteristics under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup as an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program. The Hydraulic Core Mockup was an 0.285 geometric scale model of the Fast Test Reactor internals designed to simulate prototype vibrational and hydraulic characteristics. Using water to simulate sodium coolant, vibrational characteristics were measured and determined for selected model components over the scaled flow range of 36 to 110%. Additionally, in-situ shaker tests were conducted on selected Hydraulic Core Mockup outlet plenum components to establish modal characteristics. Most components exhibited resonant response at all test flow rates; however, the measured dynamic response was neither abnormal nor anomalously flow-rate dependent, and the predicted prototype components' response were deemed acceptable

  5. Exploring Low Internal Reorganization Energies for Silicene Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo-Pedro, Ricardo; Lopez-Rios, Hector; Mendoza-Cortes, Jose-L.; Kong, Jing; Fomine, Serguei; Van Voorhis, Troy; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. High-performance materials rely on small reorganization energies to facilitate both charge separation and charge transport. Here, we perform density-functional-theory calculations to predict small reorganization energies of rectangular silicene nanoclusters with hydrogen-passivated edges denoted by H-SiNC. We observe that across all geometries, H-SiNCs feature large electron affinities and highly stabilized anionic states, indicating their potential as n -type materials. Our findings suggest that fine-tuning the size of H-SiNCs along the "zigzag" and "armchair" directions may permit the design of novel n -type electronic materials and spintronics devices that incorporate both high electron affinities and very low internal reorganization energies.

  6. Exploring Low Internal Reorganization Energies for Silicene Nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Pablo-Pedro, Ricardo

    2017-08-17

    High-performance materials rely on small reorganization energies to facilitate both charge separation and charge transport. Here, we performed DFT calculations to predict small reorganization energies of rectangular silicene nanoclusters with hydrogen-passivated edges denoted by H-SiNC. We observe that across all geometries, H-SiNCs feature large electron affinities and highly stabilized anionic states, indicating their potential as n-type materials. Our findings suggest that fine-tuning the size of H-SiNCs along the zigzag and armchair directions may permit the design of novel n-type electronic materials and spinctronics devices that incorporate both high electron affinities and very low internal reorganization energies.

  7. Starpower: the US and the international quest for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This report, requested by the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology and endorsed by the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, reviews the status of magnetic-confinement fusion research and compares its progress with the requirements for development of a useful energy technology. The report does not analyze inertial-confinement fusion research, which is overseen by the House and Senate Armed Services Committees. Contents include: Executive Summary; Introduction and overview; History of fusion research; Fusion science and technology; Fusion as an energy program; Fusion as a research program; Fusion as an international program; Future paths for the magnetic-fusion program; Appendixes--(Non-electric applications for fusion, Other approaches to fusion, Data for figures, List of acronyms and glossary)

  8. TELESCON 2000 - The 3. international telecommunications energy special conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J. (comp.) [Deutsche Telekom AG, Bonn (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Dresden has been chosen, because all discussions with present experts on the Berlin and Budapest conferences have shown that this beautiful town can be an international meeting point for all people from east and west to come together to discuss important topics such as the future of power supply and energy conservation within the field of telecommunications. The plenary session includes well known names from Europe, North America, Japan and the Central European region. The programme is an excellent blend of presentation, application and discussions on energy technologies that will offer new insights into powering today's rapidly changing communications and data networks. The exhibition will be an excellent meeting place for suppliers and customers of energy systems. (orig.)

  9. International and European regulations in the energy law: selected issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, F.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with four selected legal aspects or issues in the energy sector, which are mainly located in the international, European and at the interface to national law. The first question is 'The status of the investor to the Energy Charter' and addresses issues regarding the investor position and their characteristics according to the Energy Charter Treaty. The second question is 'aspects of energy competence under the Treaty of Lisbon' and deals among others questions with the new energy expertise offense, as well as direct investment. The third issue, titled 'The admissibility of ownership unbundling' illuminates terms of a proposal, which plan a full ownership unbundling of transmission system operators, in more detail. The fourth issue is 'aspects for the implementation of directive 2006/32/EC' and deals with aspects of the implementation of this directive in Austria. This work is making an attempt to shed light on these questions and their issues in more detail by also taking into account the Austrian perspectives. In my view the energy sector is an economically important and politically embossed area that always has a current relevance to daily life and will raise more legal questions in future. (kancsar) [de

  10. International Nuclear Information System. 1988-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications and products of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 31 July 2002. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. This is noted as E for English, F for French, G for German, R for Russian and S for Spanish before the relevant ISBN number. Some INIS Reference Series publications are available in electronic form from the INIS Clearinghouse. For more details on the INIS publications programme, please visit the INIS web site mentioned above

  11. Oil substitution and energy saving - A research and development strategy of the International Energy Agency /IEA/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath-Nagel, S.

    1981-03-01

    Systems analyses were carried out by the International Energy Agency for the participating 15 countries in order to work out strategies and scenarios for lessening the dependence on imported oil and for developing new energy technologies. MARKAL model computations show the technology and energy mixes necessary for achieving a reduction of oil imports by two thirds over the next 40 years. The scenario 'high social security' examines the projected rise in energy consumption, the development of oil substitutes, the increase in alternative heating sources, the development of markets for liquid energy products, the demand for gas, and the relative usage of various energy generation methods. The recommended strategy involves as the most important points an increase in coal consumption, greater nuclear energy reliance and development of alternative technologies.

  12. A biomass energy flow chart for Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoo-Gottfried, K.; Hall, D.O.

    1999-01-01

    Terrestrial above-ground biomass production and utilisation in Sierra Leone was analysed for the years 1984/5 to 1990/1. The total production of biomass energy was estimated at an annual average of 131 PJ (39% from agriculture, 51% from forestry and 10% from livestock). Of the 117 PJ produced from agricultural and forestry operations, 37 PJ was harvested as firewood and burnt (10.9 GJ or 0.72 t wood per capita per year, supplying 80% of the country's energy), 12 PJ was harvested for food, 66 PJ was unutilised crop and forestry residues, 3 PJ was harvested crop residues for use directly as fuel, and 2 PJ was harvested and used for industrial purposes and not for fuel. Livestock produced wastes with an energy content of 13 PJ of which only 0.1 PJ was collected and used for fuel. Thus 54 PJ (41%) of the 131 PJ of biomass energy produced annually was actually utilised while 49 PJ remained as unused agricultural residues and dung, and a further 27 PJ was unused forestry residues. The total amount of biomass (fuelwood, residues and dung) used directly to provide energy, mostly in households, was estimated at 40 PJ (11.8 GJ per capita per year of 0.79 t fuelwood equivalent). Direct biomass energy utilisation in agroindustry (0.4 PJ) was negligible in comparison. Two assessments of Sierra Leone's biomass standing stock and MAI (mean annual increment) were examined in order to assess the sustainability of various biomass use scenarios. Large differences were found between the MAI of the two assessments, making it difficult to predict sustainability of biomass production and use. The estimation of total standing stock varied between 227 and 366 Mt and the estimation of MAI varied between 15 and 70 Mt. Analysis of the availability and use of the biomass resource is crucial if biomass energy is to be used on a sustainable basis. A software package has been developed and is available to draft biomass flow charts but further work is needed to incorporate social and economic

  13. New international economic order and flow of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojko, B

    1979-12-01

    The role of science and technology in creating a new international economic order based on manpower and raw materials is examined. The traditional linkage of science and politics should end and emphasis be given to increasing productivity in order to expand employment opportunities and raise the world living standard. An indigenous research and development capability is seen as essential to counteract the effects of the time factor when technology is introduced into developing countries. Other considerations are risk of an illusory self-reliance, allocation of development sites in terms of labor substitution, ruthlessness of labor competition during modernization, variations of labor quality, and relationship of demography and unemployment. Competition between the capitalist and socialist countries is being redirected into cooperation in the area of technology transfer. 7 references. (DCK)

  14. The international pressures on the energy market in Iberian America and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavos Coimbra, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses Brazilian nuclear energy history, and addresses recent events, such as the international political pressures, the International Atomic Energy Agency/IAEA position, the new facts about nuclear energy in the world, the international energy market and the Iberian-America, the news about the Brazilian nuclear energy area, the best opportunities of good business in the Brazilian nuclear sector, the Brazilian Government and the Brazilian public position, in relation to International Law. (author)

  15. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Puria, Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  16. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations

  17. The International Atomic Energy Agency: activities and relationship with Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abud Osuna, Javier.

    1987-01-01

    Legal and political studies on the activities of the IAEA infer that the pacific uses of nuclear energy become more significant every day in the ambit of international relationships. The studies analyze as a whole relationships among member states. The first part is divided into four chapters, starting with the background and creation of the agency, its structure, statutes, amendments and the performance of its main organisms. It continues to describe mechanisms and programmes carried out, including cooperation agreements between the IAEA and other specialized organizations in the United Nations. It ends up with the IAEA performance resulting from different treaties. The second part examines Mexican norms on nuclear matter as well as relationships between Mexico and the IAEA. It demonstrates that achievements in the Agency have been possible because of the establishment of an international cooperation basis, which avoids duplicity of actions. The conclusions recommend joint efforts from both the developed and the developing countries in the following: a) to imbue public opinion with the goodness of nuclear energy; b) to discourage the construction and operation of nuclear installations; c) to unify national standards on nuclear safety and control; d) to decrease export restrictions, based on safeguards; e) to promote internal nuclear research in Mexico or throught regional integration agreements, with technical assistance and support from the IAEA. (author)

  18. Optimal power flow management for distributed energy resources with batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazvinga, Henerica; Zhu, Bing; Xia, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A PV-diesel-battery hybrid system is proposed. • Model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs. • Power flows are analysed in a 24-h period. • Results provide a practical platform for decision making. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimal energy management model of a solar photovoltaic-diesel-battery hybrid power supply system for off-grid applications. The aim is to meet the load demand completely while satisfying the system constraints. The proposed model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs and finds the optimal power flow, taking into account photovoltaic power availability, battery bank state of charge and load power demand. The optimal solutions are compared for cases when the objectives are weighted equally and when a larger weight is assigned to battery wear. A considerable increase in system operational cost is observed in the latter case owing to the increased usage of the diesel generator. The results are important for decision makers, as they depict the optimal decisions considered in the presence of trade-offs between conflicting objectives

  19. International Nuclear Information System 1983-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). INIS was established in 1969 to announced the scientific literature published worldwide on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. All books are published in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 21 x 30 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated. In addition all books in this catalogue, except for the INIS Input Training Kit, are available on microfiche. For information on the microfiche versions, contact the INIS Clearinghouse of the IAEA

  20. Minnowbrook VI: 2009 Workshop on Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGraff, John E.; Povinelli, Louis A.; Gostelow, J. Paul; Glauser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Topics covered include: Flow Physics and control for Internal and External Aerodynamics (not in TOC...starts on pg13); Breaking CFD Bottlenecks in Gas-Turbine Flow-Path Design; Streamwise Vortices on the Convex Surfaces of Circular Cylinders and Turbomachinery Blading; DNS and Embedded DNS as Tools for Investigating Unsteady Heat Transfer Phenomena in Turbines; Cavitation, Flow Structure and Turbulence in the Tip Region of a Rotor Blade; Development and Application of Plasma Actuators for Active Control of High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flows; Active Flow Control of Lifting Surface With Flap-Current Activities and Future Directions; Closed-Loop Control of Vortex Formation in Separated Flows; Global Instability on Laminar Separation Bubbles-Revisited; Very Large-Scale Motions in Smooth and Rough Wall Boundary Layers; Instability of a Supersonic Boundary-Layer With Localized Roughness; Active Control of Open Cavities; Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control; U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Need for Flow Physics and Control With Applications Involving Aero-Optics and Weapon Bay Cavities; Some Issues Related to Integrating Active Flow Control With Flight Control; Active Flow Control Strategies Using Surface Pressure Measurements; Reduction of Unsteady Forcing in a Vaned, Contra-Rotating Transonic Turbine Configuration; Active Flow Control Stator With Coanda Surface; Controlling Separation in Turbomachines; Flow Control on Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoils Using Vortex Generator Jets; Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows; Study and Control of Flow Past Disk, and Circular and Rectangular Cylinders Aligned in the Flow; Periodic Forcing of a Turbulent Axisymmetric Wake; Control of Vortex Breakdown in Critical Swirl Regime Using Azimuthal Forcing; External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group; Boundary Layers, Transitions and Separation; Efficiency Considerations in Low Pressure Turbines; Summary of Conference; and Final Plenary Session

  1. The European internal market and Nordic energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.; Hoier Nielsen, H.; Soerensen, H.

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to attempt to clarify the immediate consequences, and potentials for energy policy, for the authorities and supply companies in the Nordic countries in relation to the establishment of the Single Market. Potentials for the development of coordinated electricity supply and natural gas markets, and for cooperative Nordic research and initiatives are examined. Descriptions of conditions in other lands are given. It is stated that decisions on investments must now be taken within an open capital market with other traditions. There is a need for faster technology transfer. It is concluded that it will be difficult to develope trade related to natural gas between all the Nordic countries, but it should increase (also with regard to electricity) between the Nordic countries and their neighbour countries. Regarding electricity supply, lifting of existing rights of monopoly will result in weaker connections between producer and consumer and supply reliability will decrease. Natural gas supply reliability will be strengthened but producers will shoulder more market risks. Fusions will increase but a greater variation of company types and organization forms will develope. Competition will be sharper and prices for electric power could rise. Nordic energy policy will have a more international character, especially with regard to environmental protection. Long-term investment will be encouraged. The Nordic Council of Ministers will need to concentrate on information dissemination related to energy system analyses as a basis for decision-making. Export of Scandinavian hydroelectric power will contribute to international goals for environmental protection. (AB) (45 refs.)

  2. Bohm's quantum potential as an internal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Glen, E-mail: gdennis502@gmail.com [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Gosson, Maurice A. de, E-mail: maurice.de.gosson@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Mathematics, NuHAG, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hiley, Basil J., E-mail: b.hiley@bbk.ac.uk [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-26

    Highlights: • The quantum potential is seen as internal energy associated with a phase space region. • Fermi's trick shows that Bohm's particle is an extended structure in phase space. • We associate Bohm's quantum potential with a context-dependent energy redistribution. • A physically motivated derivation of Schrodinger's equation is provided. • We show the Fermi set associated with a 3-D coherent state contains a quantum blob. - Abstract: We pursue our discussion of Fermi's surface initiated by Dennis, de Gosson and Hiley and show that Bohm's quantum potential can be viewed as an internal energy of a quantum system, giving further insight into its role in stationary states. This implies that the ‘particle’ referred to in Bohm's theory is not a classical point-like object but rather has an extended structure in phase space which can be linked to the notion of a symplectic capacity, a topological feature of the underlying symplectic geometry. This structure provides us with a new, physically motivated derivation of Schrödinger's equation provided we interpret Gleason's theorem as a derivation of the Born rule from fundamental assumptions about quantum probabilities.

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities. September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the most important activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency during the period September 1992 - September 1993, in particular in the following areas: (i) nuclear power; (ii) nuclear fuel cycle; (iii) radioactive waste management; (iv) comparative assessment of energy sources; (v) IAEA laboratory activities; (vi) nuclear applications in the food industry and in agriculture; (vii) human health applications of nuclear techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of diseases and in the analysis of health problems related to the environment; (viii) industry and earth sciences; (ix) physical and chemical sciences; (x) radiation protection; (xi) safety of nuclear installations; (xii) safeguards and non-proliferation activities; (xiii) activities in the area of public and technical information such as the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and other IAEA computerized databases and reference systems, the publication Nuclear Fusion, a monthly scientific journal of articles on thermonuclear fusion research and development, and the organization of meetings on atomic energy; and (xiv) a description of the Agency's technical assistance activities, including financial data

  4. Measures of International Manufacturing and Trade of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Sandor, Debbie; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret

    2017-05-25

    The technologies that produce clean energy, such as solar photovoltaic panels and lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, are globally manufactured and traded. As demand and deployment of these technologies grows exponentially, the innovation to reach significant economies of scale and drive down energy production costs becomes less in the technology and more in the manufacturing of the technology. Manufacturing innovations and other manufacturing decisions can reduce costs of labor, materials, equipment, operating costs, and transportation, across all the links in the supply chain. To better understand the manufacturing aspect of the clean energy economy, we have developed key metrics for systematically measuring and benchmarking international manufacturing of clean energy technologies. The metrics are: trade, market size, manufacturing value-added, and manufacturing capacity and production. These metrics were applied to twelve global economies and four representative technologies: wind turbine components, crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic modules, vehicle lithium ion battery cells, and light emitting diode packages for efficient lighting and other consumer products. The results indicated that clean energy technologies are being developed via complex, dynamic, and global supply chains, with individual economies benefiting from different technologies and links in the supply chain, through both domestic manufacturing and global trade.

  5. Mongolia's potential in international cooperation in the Asian energy space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Sereeter; Stennikov, Valery; Bat-Erdene, Bayar; Erdenebaatar, Altay

    2018-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the issues of interstate electric power interconnections to be created in the countries of Northeast Asia. The conditions are formulated, the problems are stated, and solutions for Mongolia's entry into the Asian energy space are proposed. The electricity consumption rates are growing, however, the Northeast Asia countries differ considerably in available energy resources to cope with this growth. Therefore, the need to build international electric power interconnections that take into account climatic features, seasonal peak load differences and other factors in order to rationally match power demand and supply is getting increasingly more obvious. Mongolia can take an active part in this process, as the country is rich in energy resources and interested in their development to meet their domestic needs and exchange with neighboring countries. The establishment of interstate power interconnections in the Northeast Asia countries represents a topical task whose solution will make it possible to meet the demand of this region for electricity on mutually beneficial terms. Mongolia has a good spatial position, energy resources and is interested in ensuring domestic energy balance. Therefore, the country can be an active participant in such an integration process.

  6. Proceedings of VI International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this work scientists, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users and other specialists present their professional experiences and commercial samples with view to reach common objectives in a climate of friendship and solidarity. Within the conference's framework there will be multiple workshops in Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education and related fields. CIER provides an excellent platform to share experiences and promote synergies towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture

  7. Proceedings of VII International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this work scientists, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users, businessmen and other specialists present their professional experiences and commercial samples with view to reach common objectives in a climate of friendship and solidarity. Within the conference's framework there will be multiple workshops in Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education and related fields. CIER provides an excellent platform to share experiences and promote synergies towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture

  8. Ruthenium based redox flow battery for solar energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Mohammed Harun; Roberts, Edward Pelham Lindfield; Bae, Chulheung; Saleem, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Undivided redox flow battery employing porous graphite felt electrodes was used. → Ruthenium acetylacetonate dissolved in acetonitrile was the electrolyte. → Charge/discharge conditions were determined for both 0.02 M and 0.1 M electrolytes. → Optimum power output of 0.180 W was also determined for 0.1 M electrolyte. → 55% voltage efficiency was obtained when battery was full of electrolytes. -- Abstract: The technical performance for the operation of a stand alone redox flow battery system for solar energy storage is presented. An undivided reactor configuration has been employed along with porous graphite felt electrodes and ruthenium acetylacetonate as electrolyte in acetonitrile solvent. Limiting current densities are determined for concentrations of 0.02 M and 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate. Based on these, operating conditions for 0.02 M ruthenium acetylacetonate are determined as charging current density of 7 mA/cm 2 , charge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0072 cm/s (through the porous electrodes), discharge current density of 2 mA/cm 2 and discharge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0045 cm/s. An optimum power output of 35 mW is also obtained upon discharge at 2.1 mA/cm 2 . With an increase in the concentration of ruthenium species from 0.02 M to 0.1 M, the current densities and power output are higher by a factor of five approximately (at same superficial velocities) due to higher mass transport phenomenon. Moreover at 0.02 M concentration the voltage efficiency is better for battery full of electrolytes prior to charging (52.1%) in comparison to an empty battery (40.5%) due to better mass transport phenomenon. Voltage efficiencies are higher as expected at concentrations of 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate (55% when battery is full of electrolytes and 48% when empty) showing that the all-ruthenium redox flow battery has some promise for future applications in solar energy storage. Some improvements for the

  9. Energy flow models for the estimation of technical losses in distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, Mau Teng; Tan, Chin Hooi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy flow models developed to estimate technical losses in distribution network. Energy flow models applied in this paper is based on input energy and peak demand of distribution network, feeder length and peak demand, transformer loading capacity, and load factor. Two case studies, an urban distribution network and a rural distribution network are used to illustrate application of the energy flow models. Results on technical losses obtained for the two distribution networks are consistent and comparable to network of similar types and characteristics. Hence, the energy flow models are suitable for practical application.

  10. Simultaneous integrated optimal energy flow of electricity, gas, and heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanpour-Haghighi, Amin; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks is studied. • Part-load performances of units are considered in modeling. • A modified teaching–learning based optimization is used to solve the problem. • Results show the advantages of the integrated optimization approach. - Abstract: In this paper, an integrated approach to optimize electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks simultaneously is studied. Several interdependencies between these infrastructures are considered in details including a nonlinear part-load performance for boilers and CHPs besides the valve-point effect for generators. A novel approach based on selecting an appropriate set of state-variables for the problem is proposed that eliminates the addition of any new variable to convert irregular equations into a regular set while the optimization problem is still solvable. As a large optimization problem, the optimal solution cannot be achieved by conventional mathematical techniques. Hence, it is better to use evolutionary algorithms instead. In this paper, the well-known modified teaching–learning based optimization algorithm is utilized to solve the multi-period optimal power flow problem of multi-carrier energy networks. The proposed scheme is implemented and applied to a typical multi-carrier energy network. Results are compared with some other conventional heuristic algorithms and the applicability and superiority of the proposed methodology is verified

  11. Microscopic energy flows in disordered Ising spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliari, E; Casartelli, M; Vezzani, A

    2010-01-01

    An efficient microcanonical dynamics has been recently introduced for Ising spin models embedded in a generic connected graph even in the presence of disorder, i.e. with the spin couplings chosen from a random distribution. Such a dynamics allows a coherent definition of local temperatures also when open boundaries are coupled to thermostats, imposing an energy flow. Within this framework, here we introduce a consistent definition for local energy currents and we study their dependence on the disorder. In the linear response regime, when the global gradient between thermostats is small, we also define local conductivities following a Fourier discretized picture. Then, we work out a linearized 'mean-field approximation', where local conductivities are supposed to depend on local couplings and temperatures only. We compare the approximated currents with the exact results of the nonlinear system, showing the reliability range of the mean-field approach, which proves very good at high temperatures and not so efficient in the critical region. In the numerical studies we focus on the disordered cylinder but our results could be extended to an arbitrary, disordered spin model on generic discrete structures

  12. Safeguards and legal matters 1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all currently valid sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Safeguards and Legal Matters. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards: Challenge and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Leonard S.

    2017-11-01

    This article provides a critical review of the nuclear accounting and inspection system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), known as "IAEA safeguards." The article focuses on the multiple challenges the Agency confronts in verifying that all nuclear activities in the countries under its safeguards system are being pursued for exclusively peaceful purposes. The principal challenges noted are those posed by: undeclared facilities, the development of enrichment and reprocessing capabilities, illicit procurement activities, denial of inspector access, difficulties in verifying absence of weaponization activities, and difficulties in establishing that all nuclear-relevant activities in a state are peaceful. The article is in the form of annotated PowerPoint briefing slides.

  14. International cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatkin, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    Main forms of international cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy are described. IAEA represents the organization called to establish the cooperation. For the purposes of wide nuclear power usage IAEA provides technical assistance to developing countries, conducting of meetings and conferences, accomplishes wide publishing activity and nuclear information exchange with the use of different data bases, including the INIS system, and coordinates the operating group activity through the INTOR program. Cooperation of socialist countries is accomplished in the framework of the CMEA. JINR, intimately connected with scientific organization of other countries including CERN, represents the center of nuclear investigations in socialist countries

  15. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1986-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1986 up to the end of 1999 and still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is noted as C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish by the relevant ISBN number

  16. Earth sciences 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences issued during the period 1969-1994. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  17. R and D programs of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the collaborative research program of the International Energy Agency. Focusing on the organization of the program, rather than attempting to cover the technical content of the research, the discussion conveys how its operation is facilitated through a framework that takes account of the interests of participating governments as well as technical objectives. Some Canadian activities in the IEA program are briefly described as illustration and a list of current IEA Research Agreements and associated activities is presented in an Appendix

  18. Internal structure and interfacial velocity development for bubbly two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocamustafaogullari, G.; Huang, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of the internal structure of air-water flowing horizontally. The double-sensor resistivity probe technique was applied for measurements of local interfacial parameters, including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble size distributions, bubble passing frequency and bubble interface velocity. Bubbly flow patterns at several flow conditions were examined at three axial locations, L/D=25, 148 and 253, in which the first measurement represents the entrance region where the flow develops, and the second and third may represent near fully developed bubbly flow patterns. The experimental results are presented in three-dimensional perspective plots of the interfacial parameters over the cross-section. These multi-dimensional presentations showed that the local values of the void fraction, interfacial area concentration and bubble passing frequency were nearly constant over the cross-section at L/D=25, with slight local peaking close to the channel wall. Although similar local peakings were observed at the second and third locations, the internal flow structure segregation due to buoyancy appeared to be very strong in the axial direction. A simple comparison of profiles of the interfacial parameters at the three locations indicated that the flow pattern development was a continuous process. Finally, it was shown that the so-called ''fully developed'' bubbly two-phase flow pattern cannot be established in a horizontal pipe and that there was no strong correspondence between void fraction and interface velocity profiles. ((orig.))

  19. Proposal for the International Atomic Energy Agency Training Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site has hosted similar activities, including both Hanford Summits I and II. The Hanford Summits were two-day televised events to discuss the commitment of the current Presidential administration to the environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. Public involvement and strategic issues established from Hanford Summit I include: Regulatory issues, training and education, economic development and partnership, and technology transfer. Hanford Summit II provided a summary of how Secretary of Energy O'Leary is proceeding on the above strategic issues. The DOE and Westinghouse School for Environmental Excellence frequently offers a six-week course for environmental professionals and workers. Approximately thirty to forty individuals attend the training course, which provides training in environmental regulation compliance. The Hanford Site has hosted two previous International Atomic Energy Agency training courses. The courses lasted two weeks and had approximately eight to ten participants. Nuclear Material Management and Neutron Monitoring were the courses hosted by the Hanford Site

  20. International Standardisation in the Field of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Renewable energy standards, regularly reviewed and updated by international committees of technical experts, can help policy makers as an instrument to demonstrate national regulatory compliance, as well as ensuring successful deployment of renewable energy technologies (RET). This study identifies over 570 standards in the current RET landscape, yet finds gaps in the existing standards, particularly for post-installation aspects of RET, such as operation, maintenance and repair. The study calls for a more structured information platform to make appropriate standards accessible to a variety of users. All stakeholders, including those from developing countries, need to be engaged in the standardisation process. IRENA's analysis also underlines the importance of RET certification schemes as a risk-mitigation tool, particularly to help small-scale projects obtain financing.

  1. Energy use and carbon emissions: Some international comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This report examines international energy use patterns, trends, and energy-related carbon emissions since 1970. The main focus of this study is on the developed countries, represented by the members of the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The study is organized as follows: (1) the OECD is placed in a world context; (2) aggregate-level information is then presented for an important part of the OECD, namely the Group of Seven (G-7) major industrialized countries (the US, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany -- defined in this report as western Germany only, except where indicated); and (3) individual economic sectors within the G-7 countries are broken out for detailed review

  2. Calculation of the separate parameters of a countercurrent centrifuge with an axially varying internal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliavacca, S.C.P.

    1991-01-01

    A review of the isotope separation theory for the countercurrent gas centrifuge is presented. The diffusion-convection equation is solved according to the ONSAGER-COHEN solution for the constant internal flow and adapted to an axially varying countercurrent flow. Based on that theory, a numerical program is developed for the calculation of the isotopic compositions and the separative parameters of the centrifuge. The influence of the feed flow and the internal parameters. Like cut and countercurrent flow, on the separative parameters is then analysed for a model-centrifuge, which afterwards is optimized with respect to its separative power. Finally, a comparison between the present calculation procedure and some published results, provided by different theories, shows deviations lower then 20%. (author)

  3. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36 percent to 111 percent of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable

  4. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J A; Julyk, L J [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1977-12-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

  5. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

  6. Calculation of external-internal flow fields for mixed-compression inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, W. J.; Kawamura, T.; Bencze, D. P.

    1987-01-01

    Supersonic inlet flows with mixed external-internal compressions were computed using a combined implicit-explicit (Beam-Warming-Steger/MacCormack) method for solving the three-dimensional unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conservation form. Numerical calculations were made of various flows related to such inlet operations as the shock-wave intersections, subsonic spillage around the cowl lip, and inlet started versus unstarted conditions. Some of the computed results were compared with wind tunnel data.

  7. The value relevance of direct cash flows under international financial reporting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Clacher, I; de Ricquebourg, AD; Hodgson, A

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if there has been a change in the value relevance of direct cash flow components since the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Australia. Our results show that for both industrial and extractive firms direct cash flow statements are value relevant under Australian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (AGAAP) and remain so after the adoption of IFRS. In addition, for industrial firms there is a significant increase in the value relevance of...

  8. The renewable energy development framework - II. The foundations of renewable energy development: Economic foundations of renewable energies; International foundations of renewable energies; European foundations of renewable energy development; Foundations of renewable energy development in internal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes Motel, Pascale; Thebaut, Matthieu; Loic Grard; Michallet, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    A first article analysis the reasons for the development of renewable energies (economic and environmental reasons, European commitments in terms of production objectives), how these renewable energies can be developed (acceptation by the population, administrative, technological, and financial constraints, political instruments related to market, taxes and purchase prices). A second article proposes a discussion about the way international law deals with renewable energies as far as texts as well as actors are concerned. The third article describes the European ambitions regarding renewable energies as a product of national perspectives (national action plans and projects) as well as of European perspectives (financing, integrated actions). The last article presents and comments various legal texts dealing with the development of renewable energies in France (texts concerning the right to energy, the environment law, planning tools, incentive measures)

  9. Internal flow and evaporation characteristic inside a water droplet on a vertical vibrating hydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Hun; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand the internal flow and the evaporation characteristics of a deionized water droplet subjected to vertical forced vibrations. To predict and evaluate its resonance frequency, the theories of Lamb, Strani, and Sabetta have been applied. To visualize the precise mode, shape, and internal flow inside a droplet, the experiment utilizes a combination of a high-speed camera, macro lens, and continuous laser. As a result, a water droplet on a hydrophobic surface has its typical shape at each mode, and complicated vortices are observed inside the droplet. In particular, large symmetrical flow streams are generated along the vertical axis at each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In addition, a bifurcation-shaped flow pattern is formed at modes 2 and 4, whereas a large ellipsoid-shape flow pattern forms at modes 6 and 8. Mode 4 has the fastest internal flow speed and evaporation rate, followed by modes 8 then 6, with 2 having the slowest of these properties. Each mode has the fastest evaporation rate amongst its neighboring frequencies. Finally, the droplet evaporation under vertical vibration would lead to more rapid evaporation, particularly for mode 4

  10. Internal flow and evaporation characteristic inside a water droplet on a vertical vibrating hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Hun; Lim, Hee Chang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    This study aims to understand the internal flow and the evaporation characteristics of a deionized water droplet subjected to vertical forced vibrations. To predict and evaluate its resonance frequency, the theories of Lamb, Strani, and Sabetta have been applied. To visualize the precise mode, shape, and internal flow inside a droplet, the experiment utilizes a combination of a high-speed camera, macro lens, and continuous laser. As a result, a water droplet on a hydrophobic surface has its typical shape at each mode, and complicated vortices are observed inside the droplet. In particular, large symmetrical flow streams are generated along the vertical axis at each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In addition, a bifurcation-shaped flow pattern is formed at modes 2 and 4, whereas a large ellipsoid-shape flow pattern forms at modes 6 and 8. Mode 4 has the fastest internal flow speed and evaporation rate, followed by modes 8 then 6, with 2 having the slowest of these properties. Each mode has the fastest evaporation rate amongst its neighboring frequencies. Finally, the droplet evaporation under vertical vibration would lead to more rapid evaporation, particularly for mode 4.

  11. Stratified flows and internal waves in the Vema Fracture Zone of the Mid Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman; Demidova, Tatiana; Frey, Dmitri; Grigorenko, Klim

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study stratified flows and internal waves in the Vema fracture zone of the Mid Atlantic Ridge. This fracture provides intense transportation of cold abyssal waters from the West Atlantic to the equatorial region of the East Atlantic [1]. The results of measurements [2,3] carried out in the cruises of RV Akademik Sergey Vavilov in 2014-2016 are presented. The structure of the near-bottom flow is studied experimentally on the basis of CTD- and LADCP profiling. Theoretical analysis involves mathematical formulation of stratified fluid flow which uses CTD-data obtained from field observation. Spectral properties and kinematic characteristics of internal waves are calculated and discussed. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 15-01-03942, 16-35-50158). References [1] Morozov E., Demidov A., Tarakanov R. and Zenk W. Abyssal Channels in the Atlantic Ocean: Water Structure and Flows, Springer, Dordrecht, 2010. [2] Morozov E.G., Tarakanov R.Yu., and Makarenko N.I. Flows of Antarctic Bottom Water through fractures in the southern part of the North Mid Atlantic Ridge, Oceanology, 2015, 55, 796-800. [3] Grigorenko K.S., Makarenko N.I., Morozov E.G., Tarakanov R.Yu., and Frey D.I. Stratified flows and internal waves in the Central West Atlantic, J. Physics: Conf. Series, 2016, 722, 012011.

  12. By-pass flows and temperature distribution in a hot gas duct internally insulated by carbon stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuk, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to calculate by-pass flows and temperature distribution in a hot gas duct internally insulated by carbon stone rings. The equations of conservation of mass and momentum are solved for a piping system to obtain axial and radial by-pass velocities. The energy equation is solved next by a marching method to obtain the radial temperature distribution along the duct. The results, although qualitative due to simplifications in the model, are useful to study the effects of duct geometry on its performance. (Author) [pt

  13. Internal high linear energy transfer (LET) targeted radiotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J

    2006-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for internal targeted therapy has been a long time coming on to the medical therapy scene. While fundamental principles were established many decades ago, the clinical implementation has been slow. Localized neutron capture therapy, and more recently systemic targeted alpha therapy, are at the clinical trial stage. What are the attributes of these therapies that have led a band of scientists and clinicians to dedicate so much of their careers? High LET means high energy density, causing double strand breaks in DNA, and short-range radiation, sparing adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts. Foremost is the complete lack of progress for the control of primary GBM, the holy grail for cancer therapies. Next is the inability to regress metastatic cancer on a systemic basis. This has been the task of chemotherapy, but palliation is the major application. Finally, there is the inability to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. This review charts, from an Australian perspective, the developing role of local and systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy. (review)

  14. The International Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. IFC created an Infrastructure Department in 1992 in response to the growing demand for its services in this area. During fiscal 1996 IFC approved 33 projects for new investments of $715 million of which 27% were in the power sector. In recognition of the continuing demand growth for private power investments an expanded Power Department has been formed to handle IFC`s investments in electric power generation projects using renewable resources such as: run-of-the-river hydro, geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind energy, and solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal, etc.), as well as conventional thermal generation projects, transmission and distribution projects, and energy efficiency investments.

  15. On-farm energy flow in grape orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Karimi; Hossein Moghaddam

    2018-01-01

    Efficient use of energy is an important step toward enhancing the sustainability of agricultural systems. In this study, we evaluated the energy balance of grape orchards in Shahriar, Iran. We collected information of energy input and energy output in 120 grape orchards through face to face questionnaires. This information was further used to evaluate net energy, energy use efficiency, energy intensity, and energy productivity in these orchards. The total energy used in grape orchards was 317...

  16. Fenestration system energy performance research, implementation, and international harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Raymond F [National Fenestration Rating Council, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2014-12-23

    The research conducted by the NFRC and its contractors adds significantly to the understanding of several areas of investigation. NFRC enables manufacturers to rate fenestration energy performance to comply with building energy codes, participate in ENERGY STAR, and compete fairly. NFRC continuously seeks to improve its ratings and also seeks to simplify the rating process. Several research projects investigated rating improvement potential such as • Complex Product VT Rating Research • Window 6 and Therm 6 Validation Research Project • Complex Product VT Rating Research Conclusions from these research projects led to important changes and increased confidence in the existing NFRC rating process. Conclusions from the Window 6/Therm 6 project will enable window manufacturers to rate an expanded array of products and improve existing ratings. Some research lead to an improved new rating method called the Component Modeling Approach. A primary goal of the CMA was a simplification of the commercial energy rating process to increase participation and make the commercial industry more competitive and code compliant. The project below contributed towards CMA development: • Component Modeling Approach Condensation Resistance Research NFRC continues to implement the Component Modeling Approach program. The program includes the CMA software tool, CMAST, and several procedural documents to govern the certification process. This significant accomplishment was a response the commercial fenestration industry’s need for a simplification of the present NFRC energy rating method (named site built). To date, most commercial fenestration is self-rated by a variety of techniques. The CMA enables commercial fenestration manufacturers to rate according to the NFRC 100/200 as most commercial energy codes require. International Harmonization NFRC achieved significant international harmonization success by continuing its licensing agreements with the Australian Fenestration

  17. International capital flows and investment volatility in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Brafu-Insaidoo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the impact of foreign capital flows on investment volatility in emerging and frontier market economies in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the study attempts to answer the question of whether different components of foreign capital inflows explain investment volatility. Theory suggests that increased cross-border capital mobility increases investment volatility due to the possibility of substituting foreign for domestic investments. Empirical literature does not, however, provide any clear evidence in support of this theory. By using the dynamic panel data analysis, this study tests the hypothesis that increased capital flows increases investment volatility and the study established that international capital flows reduce investment volatility.

  18. Self-organizing hybrid Cartesian grid generation and application to external and internal flow problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deister, F.; Hirschel, E.H. [Univ. Stuttgart, IAG, Stuttgart (Germany); Waymel, F.; Monnoyer, F. [Univ. de Valenciennes, LME, Valenciennes (France)

    2003-07-01

    An automatic adaptive hybrid Cartesian grid generation and simulation system is presented together with applications. The primary computational grid is an octree Cartesian grid. A quasi-prismatic grid may be added for resolving the boundary layer region of viscous flow around the solid body. For external flow simulations the flow solver TAU from the ''deutsche zentrum fuer luft- und raumfahrt (DLR)'' is integrated in the simulation system. Coarse grids are generated automatically, which are required by the multilevel method. As an application to an internal problem the thermal and dynamic modeling of a subway station is presented. (orig.)

  19. Lattice Boltzmann equation calculation of internal, pressure-driven turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, L A; Halliday, I; Care, C M; Stevens, A

    2002-01-01

    We describe a mixing-length extension of the lattice Boltzmann approach to the simulation of an incompressible liquid in turbulent flow. The method uses a simple, adaptable, closure algorithm to bound the lattice Boltzmann fluid incorporating a law-of-the-wall. The test application, of an internal, pressure-driven and smooth duct flow, recovers correct velocity profiles for Reynolds number to 1.25 x 10 5 . In addition, the Reynolds number dependence of the friction factor in the smooth-wall branch of the Moody chart is correctly recovered. The method promises a straightforward extension to other curves of the Moody chart and to cylindrical pipe flow

  20. Energy resources' utilization in organic and conventional vineyards: Energy flow, greenhouse gas emissions and biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavargiris, Stefanos E.; Mamolos, Andreas P.; Tsatsarelis, Constantinos A.; Nikolaidou, Anna E.; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L.

    2009-01-01

    An energy analysis, in conventional and organic vineyards, combined with ethanol production and greenhouse gas emissions, is useful in evaluating present situation and deciding best management strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in the energy flow between organic and conventional vineyards in three locations, to calculate CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O-emissions based on the used fossil energy and to explore if wine industry wastes can be used to extract bioethanol. The data were collected through personal interviews with farmers during 2004-2005. Eighteen farmers, who owned vineyards about 1 ha each, were randomly selected to participate in this study [(3 conventional and 3 organic) x 3 locations]. The means averaged over all locations for fertilizer application, plant protection products application, transportation, harvesting, labor, machinery, fuels, plant protections products and tools energy inputs, total energy inputs, outputs (grapes), outputs (grapes + shoots), grape yield, man hour, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher in conventional than in organic vineyards, while the opposite occurred for the pruning. Means averaged over two farming systems for harvesting, tools energy inputs, energy outputs (grapes), grape yield, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher at location A, followed by location C and location B. Finally, for irrigation, the means averaged over the two farming systems were significantly lower at location C. Greenhouse gas emissions were significant lower in organic than in conventional vineyards. The results show a clear response of energy inputs to energy outputs that resulted from the farming system and location.

  1. Energy principle for excitations in plasmas with counterstreaming electron flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman

    2018-05-01

    A relativistic electron beam propagating through plasma induces a return electron current in the system. Such a system of interpenetrating forward and return electron current is susceptible to a host of instabilities. The physics of such instabilities underlies the conversion of the flow kinetic energy to the electromagnetic field energy. Keeping this in view, an energy principle analysis has been enunciated in this paper. Such analyses have been widely utilized earlier in the context of conducting fluids described by MHD model [I. B. Bernstein et al., Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 244(1236), 17-40 (1958)]. Lately, such an approach has been employed for the electrostatic two stream instability for the electron beam plasma system [C. N. Lashmore-Davies, Physics of Plasmas 14(9), 092101 (2007)]. In contrast, it has been shown here that even purely growing mode like Weibel/current filamentation instability for the electron beam plasma system is amenable to such a treatment. The treatment provides an understanding of the energetics associated with the growing mode. The growth rate expression has also been obtained from it. Furthermore, it has been conclusively demonstrated in this paper that for identical values of S4=∑αn0 αv0α 2/n0γ0 α, the growth rate is higher when the counterstreaming beams are symmetric (i.e. S3 = ∑αn0αv 0α/n0γ0α = 0) compared to the case when the two beams are asymmetric (i.e. when S3 is finite). Here, v 0α, n0α and γ0α are the equilibrium velocity, electron density and the relativistic factor for the electron species `α' respectively and n0 = ∑αn0α is the total electron density. Particle - In - Cell simulations have been employed to show that the saturated amplitude of the field energy is also higher in the symmetric case.

  2. Investigations of internal turbulent flows in a low-head tubular pump and its performance predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, X L; Chen, X S; Wang, F J; Yang, W; Wu, Y L

    2012-01-01

    Based on the RANS equations, standard k−ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm, the internal turbulent flows in a low-head tubular pump were simulated by using the FLUENT software. Based on the predicted flow fields, the external performance curves including the head-discharge, efficiency-discharge and power-discharge curves were further obtained. The calculated results indicate that the internal flow pattern is smooth at the best efficiency point (BEP). When it works under off-design operating cases, the flow pattern inside the diffuser and the discharge passage is disorder, and at the same time, the hydraulic losses mainly come from the secondary flows. At large flow rates, the minimum static pressure near the inlet of the blade pressure surfaces due to the negative attack angle. At small flow rates, the minimum value happens near the inlet of the suction surfaces. At the BEP, the lowest static pressure appears in the region behind the suction surfaces inlet. The newly-designed model is validated by the comparisons between its predicted external performance and the experimental data of the JGM-3 model. This research provides some important references for the optimization of a low-head tubular pump.

  3. Predictors of antegrade flow at internal carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with proximal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kei; Kakumoto, Kosuke; Oshikata, Shogo; Fukuyama, Kozo

    2018-06-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) with proximal occlusion effectively prevent distal cerebral embolism by flow arrest at internal carotid artery (ICA); however, the method can expose antegrade flow at ICA due to incomplete flow arrest. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of antegrade flow during CAS with proximal protection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and angiographic data among 143 lesions treated with CAS with proximal protection by occluding the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA). Flow arrest or antegrade flow at ICA was confirmed by contrast injection during proximal protection. Antegrade flow at ICA was observed in 12 lesions (8.4%). Compared with lesions in which flow arrest of ICA was achieved, the diameter of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was significantly larger (2.4 ± 0.34 vs. 1.4 ± 0.68 mm, p protection should be combined with proximal protection for the lesions with antegrade flow to prevent distal migration of the carotid debris.

  4. 5th International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrala, G.A

    2005-01-01

    During the past several years, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Research is underway in many areas, such as compressible hydrodynamic mixing, strong shock phenomena, radiation flow, radiative shocks and jets, complex opacities, equations o fstat, and relativistic plasmas. Beyond this current research and the papers it is producing, plans are being made for the application, to astrophysics-relevant research, of the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the 600 kj Ligne d'Intergration Laser (LIL) and the 2 MJ Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in Bordeaux, France; petawatt-range lasers now under construction around the world; and current and future Z pinches. The goal of this conference and these proceedings is to continue focusing and attention on this emerging research area. The conference brought together different scientists interested in this emerging new fi...

  5. Kepentingan Indonesia Bergabung dengan Irena (International Renewable Energy Agency) Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Harto, Syafri; ", Zulfadli

    2016-01-01

    This research will explain about Indonesia interest joined with IRENA ( International Renewable Energy Agency). Nowadays energy condition is so far from standart of energy endurance. Indonesia energy needs still dominated by fossil energy. In 2013, Fossil Energy produces 93,4% of energy consumtion, 5,7% by renewable energy. 7% oil, 20,1% gas, 24,5% from coal. With Indonesia energy endurance and global market that affected domestic energy condition, Indonesia need to comply the national intere...

  6. Drag with external and pressure drop with internal flows: a new and unifying look at losses in the flow field based on the second law of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, Heinz; Schmandt, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    Internal and external flows are characterized by friction factors and drag coefficients, respectively. Their definitions are based on pressure drop and drag force and thus are very different in character. From a thermodynamics point of view in both cases dissipation occurs which can uniformly be related to the entropy generation in the flow field. Therefore we suggest to account for losses in the flow field by friction factors and drag coefficients that are based on the overall entropy generation due to the dissipation in the internal and external flow fields. This second law analysis (SLA) has been applied to internal flows in many studies already. Examples of this flow category are given together with new cases of external flows, also treated by the general SLA-approach. (paper)

  7. Energy study of heat pumps and energy storage at Cisco Systems International; Energiestudie warmtepompen en energieopslag Cisco Systems International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-23

    Cisco Systems International considers the use of energy storage in combination with heat pumps for the new office building in Amsterdam South-East, Netherlands. This office building has a floor space of 35,000 m{sup 2}. In a later phase this can be enlarged to 45,000 m{sup 2} (phase 1b) or 90,000 m{sup 2} (phase 2). This study is based on phase 1b. The mounting heat capacity is 2,760 kW and the cooling capacity is 7,045 kW. The annually cooling demand is estimated to be 30,400 MWh/a. The computer cooling forms a greater part of the cooling request (28,300 MWh/a). This study is a pilot study to the applicability of subsurface energy storage where heat pumps in the new office building are involved. However, nearby the Cisco location IKEA (furniture warehouse) has also planned an energy storage system. Therefore, the interaction between the two storage systems was examined. Cost effectiveness was analysed by comparison of the storage system with an energy system using conventional cooling machines and gas boilers. 5 refs.

  8. Energy flow and the “grassification” of desert shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Julio L.

    2015-01-01

    In our directionally and continuously changing world, history still matters, and it does so in increasingly novel and important ways. Human adaptation to global change will rely heavily on robust baselines of historic environmental variability and detailed understanding of how both past and modern ecosystems have responded to both individual and multiple stressors. The question of global change has motivated an upsurge in paleoecological studies that span the late Quaternary and the modern era, and has inspired a growing consideration of time as a fundamental axis in ecology (1). A major challenge in developing pertinent ecological baselines remains how to fuse, into continuous time series, observations and experiments from living systems with paleoecological reconstructions from the same sites (2, 3). Tracing and disentangling complex responses to environmental stress from paleological to present-day communities is especially daunting; for example, how climate change; accelerated land use; and biological invasions are influencing the flows of water, nutrients, and energy. The paper by Terry and Rowe in PNAS (4) is a shining example of how modern ecology and paleoecology can be spliced together to decipher how ecological processes unfold over time scales inaccessible to direct observation or experimentation, and how they can be disrupted by human impacts.

  9. Controlling the Internal Heat Transfer Coefficient by the Characteristics of External Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuromskii, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    The engineering-physical fundamentals of substance synthesis in a boiling apparatus are presented. We have modeled a system of automatic stabilization of the maximum internal heat transfer coefficient in such an apparatus by the characteristics of external flows on the basis of adaptive seeking algorithms. The results of operation of the system in the shop are presented.

  10. Towards a universal scaling for broadband turbulent noise in internal flow devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.T. de; Golliard, J.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation is performed on the scalability of broadband noise sources from separated flows in internal pipe systems. Broadband sources from for example wellhead chokes, bends and valves can potentially excite subsea manifolds through fluid acoustic coupling and fluid structural coupling. The

  11. Finite element simulation of internal flows with heat transfer using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Velocity correction method; finite element simulation; turbulent .... CFD, developments in turbulence modeling have been only evolutionary and ...... variables are made dimensionless using appropriate combinations of Uav, H, ...... Srinivas M 1994 Finite element analysis of internal flows with heat transfer Ph D thesis, Indian.

  12. Capital flows, bazookas and unconventional monetary policy : Essays in international financial stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frost, Jonathon Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Do international capital flows make countries more or less vulnerable to financial crises? Should countries shield their economies from stress with capital controls? ‎Once a crisis hits, should the public sector launch large-scale support programs ("bazookas")? And if the central bank decides to

  13. A distributed control algorithm for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, C. De; Jessen, J.J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Schiøler, H.

    2008-01-01

    We examine a distributed control problem for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit. The problem consists of guaranteeing prescribed indoor climate conditions in a cascade connection of an arbitrarily large number of communicating zones, in which air masses are exchanged to redirect

  14. "The Free Flow of News" and "Western Communication Imperialism": Divergent Views on Ethics in International Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, John C.

    A growing international controversy exists between the West on one hand and the Third World, Marxist states, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) on the other focusing on the concepts of "free flow of information" and "Western communication imperialism," and on ethical issues relating to these…

  15. Measurements of Overtopping Flow Time Series on the Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow the character......A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow...... the characteristics of the overtopping flow are discussed and the simulation algorithm is tested. Measured data is shown from a storm build up in October 2006, from theWave Dragon prototype situated in an inland sea in Northern Denmark. This wave energy converter extracts energy from the waves, by funnelling them...

  16. Oscillation of a rigid catenary riser due to the internal two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Sergio N.; Morooka, Celso K.; Cavalcante, Cesar C.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Matt, Cyntia G.C.; Franciss, Ricardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2008-07-01

    Production of petroleum reservoirs from deep and ultra-deep waters is of paramount importance in Brazil, and several researches are necessary to develop appropriated equipment and risers for those operational conditions. Risers are suspended pipes used to transport the petroleum fluids between the seabed and the floating production unit. The structural flexibility of riser's lines is conferred by its length when compared with the diameter, characterizing it as a slender body. The risers are submitted to large static and dynamic loads originated from its own weight, waves, currents, platform motions and the internal flow. These loadings may threaten, by fatigue, the structural integrity of the system, compromising its useful life, and so they must be considered in the riser's project. There is a large amount of knowledge in the literature about the effects of external loadings on these systems, but the effect of the internal flow remains vastly unexplored. The variation of the flow mass and momentum inside the riser causes a dynamic loading on this system, originating an oscillatory motion. Furthermore, the gas-liquid two-phase flow may assume several flow patterns (bubble, slug, intermittent or annular), each one possessing completely different characteristics. In this work, the influence of the internal flow on the oscillatory motion (whipping motion) of catenary risers is analyzed. To provide a better understanding of this physical phenomenon, a scaled apparatus was designed and built. The material used to manufacture the riser's model was a flexible silicone tube, and air and water were used to simulate the two-phase flow. The instrumentation used to measure the fluids flow rates and the sustaining force at the top of the model was installed in the apparatus. A video acquisition system was used to determine the displacements, and frequency spectrum, of color targets positioned throughout the model, under several flow conditions. The flow patterns

  17. Nuclear energy: exit or revival? International aspects; Energie nucleaire: sortie ou relance? Aspects internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This colloquium took place less than 1 year after the decision of the US of revival of their nuclear program. Thus the international context has changed, even if nuclear contestation remains as strong as in the past. Among governments, some positions preach the banishment of nuclear energy while others consider the nuclear option as the only solution to meet the growing up energy demand and the future environmental and economical stakes. This report makes a synthesis of the different talks given by the participants during the 3 round tables of the colloquium on the future of nuclear energy: the ecological stake, the democratic stake, and the energy policy stake. Four talks of French government representatives open and conclude the debates of the different round tables. (J.S.)

  18. Second International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-24

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at New Port Beach, U.S., from July 24 through 28, 1989. At the utility energy storage session, it is found that the 100kW-capable Na-S battery system of the Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., works effectively in levelling peakloads at storage efficiency of 70%. A Chino lead-acid battery system is also described. A lead-acid battery system of the BEWAG Corporation of Germany equipped with tubular electrodes is described. For application by the consuming party, system behavior relative to duty cycle control, sudden request for energy storage, power factor, and load adjustment is discussed. Use of a valve-controlled lead-acid battery is introduced, which is to be used as a stand-by system (such as an uninterruptible power supply) or for certain types of cyclic duties. At the 4th session, economic and technical models are exhibited. Computer-aided peakload prediction, battery storage system technology, economic parameters, profitability, etc., are explained for use by the consuming party in a peakload shaving battery system. The Zn/Br battery, redox-flow battery, and other advanced technologies are also presented. (NEDO)

  19. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  20. Separation Dynamics of Controlled Internal Flow in an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. J.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    2017-11-01

    The effects of fluidic actuation on the dynamic evolution of aggressive internal flow separation is investigated at speeds up to M = 0.4 within a constant-width diffuser branching off of a primary flow duct. It is shown that a spanwise array of fluidic actuators upstream of the separation actively controls the flow constriction (and losses) within the diffuser and consequently the local pressure gradient at its entrance. The effectiveness of the actuation, as may be measured by the increased flow rate that is diverted through the diffuser, scales with its flow rate coefficient. In the presence of actuation (0.7% mass fraction), the mass flow rate in the primary duct increases by 10% while the fraction of the diverted mass flow rate in the diffuser increases by more than 45%. The flow dynamics near separation in the absence and presence of actuation are characterized using high speed particle image velocimetry and analyzed using proper orthogonal and spectral decompositions. In particular, the spectral contents of the incipient boundary layer separation are compared in the absence and presence of actuation with emphasis on the changes in local dynamics near separation as the characteristic cross stream scale of the boundary layer increases with separation delay.