WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal distraction device

  1. Internal maxillary distraction with a new bimalar device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, David M; Broujerdi, Joseph; Schendel, Stephen A

    2008-04-01

    Distraction osteogenesis of the Le Fort I segment is advocated for patients who require significant advancement of the maxilla or who have a soft tissue envelope compromised by scar tissue. We present a technique for maxillary distraction using an interconnecting intraoral device anchored to the malar prominences above the osteotomy and either the maxilla and/or the dentition below the level of the osteotomy. Ten patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate, mean age of 18, underwent Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis for management of maxillary hypoplasia. A Le Fort I osteotomy is performed and a Spectrum Intraoral Midface Multi-Vector Distractor (OsteoMed, Addison, TX) is placed leaving a 1 mm to 2 mm distraction gap. After a 2 to 4 day latency period, distraction begins at a rate of 1 mm a day. Once the desired occlusion is achieved the device is left in place for a minimum of 2 months for consolidation. Preoperative Sella-Nasion-A point measurements from lateral cephalograms averaged 74 degrees (range, 70-76 degrees). Postoperative Sella-Nasion-A point averaged 81 degrees (range, 75-89 degrees). Preoperative overjet averaged -7.4 mm (range, -3 to -13 mm). Postoperative overjet averaged 2.6 mm (range, 1-3 mm). Average distraction was 9 mm (range, 6-16 mm). The average vertical movement was 7.2 mm in an inferior direction (range, 0-15 mm). The results remained stable at a follow-up of 30 months. We report on distraction of the Le Fort I segment using an internal device. The device design allows the forces of distraction to be shared across a larger surface area delivering a uniform and reliable vector of distraction with increased stability.

  2. External versus Internal Distraction Devices in Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Craniofacial Anomalies.

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    Rachmiel, Adi; Nseir, Saleh; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror

    2014-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is often associated with congenital craniofacial malformations due to hypoplastic mandible and decreased pharyngeal airway. In this study, we will compare external and internal distraction devices for mandibular lengthening in terms of effectiveness, results, patient comfort, and complications. Thirty-seven patients were treated by bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis for obstructive sleep apnea: 20 with external and 17 with internal distraction devices. Lengthening of the mandible and increase of the pharyngeal airway were obtained in all patients. Using the external devices, the average mandibular elongation was 30 mm versus 22 mm with the internal devices; however, after 1 year, the results were more stable with internal devices. External devices carried greater risk for pin tract infection than the internal devices (27.5% vs 5.88%). In addition, pin loosening in 22.5% required pin replacement or led to reduced retention period. Internal devices had a precise and predictable vector of lengthening and left less visible scars at the submandibular area but carried the disadvantage of requiring a second operation for device removal. In very young children with severe micrognathia, it was impossible to place internal devices, and external devices were used. Internal devices should be the first choice because they are more comfortable to the patients, more predictable vector of lengthening, are less vulnerable to dislodgement, and leave reduced scarring, with the great disadvantage of second operation for removal. However, external devices still should be considered mainly in severely hypoplastic cases, and the surgeon should be prepared for both options.

  3. Maxillary movement in distraction osteogenesis using internal devices in cleft palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Daisuke; Omura, Susumu; Ozaki, Shusaku; Shimazaki, Kazuo; Fukuyama, Eiji; Tohnai, Iwai; Torikai, Katsuyuki

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this cephalometric study was to compare the actual movement with the planned movement of the maxilla by using internal maxillary distraction in cleft lip and palate patients. Twelve patients, including eight with unilateral and four with bilateral cleft lip and palate, underwent maxillary advancement with internal maxillary distractors. Lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained preoperatively, predistraction, and postdistraction were used for analysis. The movement of the maxilla, angular change of the internal devices and rotation of the mandible were measured at each stage, and the planned vector of advancement predicted from the placement vector of the distractors was compared with the actual vector. Internal maxillary distractors were rotated in a clockwise direction during the distraction period. The angular change of the distractors was 7.7°. The amount of actual advancement at anterior nasal spine with distraction was 6.3 mm, which represented about 70% of the distance of activation of distraction. The actual advanced vector at anterior nasal spine was 9.7° smaller than the planned vector. The mandible underwent a clockwise rotation of 3.5°. In the internal distraction technique, the maxilla was advanced inferiorly to the planned vector and with a slight clockwise rotation. These results are useful for surgical planning when using internal distractors.

  4. Transsutural distraction osteogenesis applied to maxillary complex with new internalized distraction device: analysis of the feasibility and long-term osteogenesis outcome.

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    Tong, Haizhou; Gao, Feng; Yin, Jiapeng; Zhang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Chen; Yin, Ningbei; Zhao, Zhenmin

    2015-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of transsutural distraction osteogenesis applied to the maxillary complex with a new internalized distraction device and to analyze the long-term osteogenesis outcome. Three-month-old beagle dogs were treated with a self-designed internalized distractor. The feasibility was evaluated, and the effects of the maxillary growth were measured using radiography and computed tomography (CT). The regenerated bone was examined with micro-CT, biomechanical testing, and histology 1 year after the distraction. The experimental group showed significantly larger forward displacement of maxillary during the distraction. One year after the distraction, the micro-CT showed more incompact structure and bone volume/total volume was significantly less in the experimental group. Biomechanical testing also showed a significantly lower yield but with no difference in stiffness. Histologic staining found osteoclasts deposited in the region of the suture and osteoblasts on the bone surface. The immunohistochemical staining of osteoprotegrin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand showed evidence of expression in suture area components and osteocytes with no difference between the groups. Transsutural distraction osteogenesis using an internalized distractor with skull anchorage demonstrated feasibility. It is expected that this device may provide new thoughts in developing an appropriate appliance for clinical use in young patients with midfacial hypoplasia. Moreover, the long-term osteogenesis analysis findings suggest that the metabolism of sutural area still remained active, which enhanced our understanding of bone remodeling in the sutural area to manage maxillary relapse after transsutural distraction osteogenesis.

  5. The correction of maxillary defciency with internal distraction devices: a multidisciplinary approach.

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    Oz, A Alper; Ozer, Mete; Eroglu, Lütfi; Ozdemir, Oguz Suleyman

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present the orthodontic, surgical and restorative treatments in the case of an operated cleft lip and palate and severe maxillary defciency in a 14-year-old female patient. Only orthodontic treatment could be ineffcient for cleft lip and palate patients characterized with maxillary hypoplasia. Orthodontic and surgical treatment shows suffcient results, especially with severe skeletal defciency. A cleft lip and palate patient required complex multidisciplinary treatment to preserve health and restore esthetics. Dental leveling and alignment of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were provided before the surgery. Maxillary advancement and clockwise rotation of the maxillary-mandibular complex was applied by a Le Fort 1 osteotomy with two internal distraction devices. After the active treatment including orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery, upper full mouth ceramic restoration was applied. This report shows the efficiency of internal distraction devices in cleft lip palate patients and exemplifes the multidisciplinary care required for such diffcult cases. Clinical signifcance: Stable improved occlusion and skeletal relations were observed after a follow-up examination period of 12 months.

  6. Le Fort I distraction using internal devices for maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip, palate, and alveolus: complications and their prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Kaneshige; Morishita, Tadashi

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, advancement has been made in distraction osteogenesis in the facial area. It has been applied actively to treat maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip, palate, and alveolus. Le Fort I distraction using internal devices does not lead to disability in daily living, including during the retention period, and has low surgical invasiveness, facile management, and superior aesthetics. Thus, there have been occasional reports on this procedure in recent years. Because an internal device is unidirectional, the greatest disadvantage is the inability to adjust the direction of distraction after its placement. However, past reports have emphasized its advantages, and its complications have rarely been discussed. We performed Le Fort I distraction using internal devices on 15 young patients. Our results showed notable complications in a few cases. When serial cephalometric analysis was performed after maxillary distraction, it demonstrated that the maxilla assumes various three-dimensional distraction morphologies. In particular, cases with insufficient bone grafting of alveolar clefts developed collapse mainly in the alveolar cleft region during postoperative distraction. Mobility and deviation of the maxillary bone fragment occurred. We implemented preventative measures against complications such as using modifications to place the devices parallel on the left and right sides and using a bite splint for distraction. These measures produced improved outcomes, and we describe here the details.

  7. External versus Internal Distraction Devices in Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Craniofacial Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Rachmiel, DMD, PhD

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Internal devices should be the first choice because they are more comfortable to the patients, more predictable vector of lengthening, are less vulnerable to dislodgement, and leave reduced scarring, with the great disadvantage of second operation for removal. However, external devices still should be considered mainly in severely hypoplastic cases, and the surgeon should be prepared for both options.

  8. Development and evolution of distraction devices: Use of indigenous appliances for Distraction Osteogenesis-An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Neelam; Gandhewar, Trupti; Kalra, Rinku

    2011-01-01

    An attempt has been made to review various devices as well as the outstanding studies done in the past for understanding the methodology of distraction for regeneration of bone. Lengthening of underdeveloped bones inclusive of the maxillofacial complex has been obtained by distraction osteogenesis by many authors. This could be achieved by the use of various extraoral or intraoral devices. Devices used for distraction osteogenesis must have a minimum of 2 important characteristics – they should be able to transfer distraction forces directly to the bone and secondly, should offer adequate rigidity for osseous consolidation to occur. With advanced technology and biomechanical engineering, preformed intraoral distraction devices are now available worldwide. The introduction of these intraoral bone-bourne devices have eliminated the need for bulky, cumbersome extraoral distraction devices which had problems such as external scars, pin tract infections, nerve or tooth bud injuries and poor patient compliance. The design of completely internalized custom made appliance has opened new vistas in the field of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Indigenous internal devices are also economical and locally available. PMID:23482829

  9. Vertical distraction of the severely resorbed mandible - The Groningen Distraction Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Heydenrijk, K; Vissink, A

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, both the surgical procedure and the clinical results of a novel distraction device to augment a severely resorbed anterior edentulous mandible are described. The distraction device is non-voluminous, and consists of two distraction screws and one guide screw. Two months after the last

  10. Initial Experience With a New Intraoral Midface Distraction Device.

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    Burstein, Fernando; Soldanska, Magdalena; Granger, Michael; Berhane, ChiChi; Schoemann, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia that necessitates surgical advancement affects approximately 25% of patients born with cleft lip and palate. Syndromic conditions such as Crouzon may also be accompanied by significant maxillary hypoplasia. Severe maxillary hypoplasia can result in airway obstruction, malocclusion, proptosis, and facial disfigurement. For optimal stability, severe hypoplasia is best addressed with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-two patients (15 boys, 7 girls, ages 6-16 years, mean age 10 years) with severe midface hypoplasia underwent midface distraction with new internal maxillary distraction (IMD) device at our institution. Total distraction distances ranged from 15 to 30 mm. There were no major complications, and all of them had improvement in functional and aesthetic parameters. There were 2 minor complications and 2 patients failed to distract the full distance because of converging vectors. Early maxillary distraction in patients with severe midface hypoplasia is a useful technique to provide interval correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia before skeletal maturity and definitive orthognathic surgery is contemplated, and it is a good tool to improve occlusion, aesthetics, and self-perception in younger patients.

  11. Initial Experience With a New Intraoral Midface Distraction Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Fernando; Soldanska, Magdalena; Granger, Michael; Berhane, ChiChi; Schoemann, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maxillary hypoplasia that necessitates surgical advancement affects approximately 25% of patients born with cleft lip and palate. Syndromic conditions such as Crouzon may also be accompanied by significant maxillary hypoplasia. Severe maxillary hypoplasia can result in airway obstruction, malocclusion, proptosis, and facial disfigurement. For optimal stability, severe hypoplasia is best addressed with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-two patients (15 boys, 7 girls, ages 6–16 years, mean age 10 years) with severe midface hypoplasia underwent midface distraction with new internal maxillary distraction (IMD) device at our institution. Total distraction distances ranged from 15 to 30 mm. There were no major complications, and all of them had improvement in functional and aesthetic parameters. There were 2 minor complications and 2 patients failed to distract the full distance because of converging vectors. Early maxillary distraction in patients with severe midface hypoplasia is a useful technique to provide interval correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia before skeletal maturity and definitive orthognathic surgery is contemplated, and it is a good tool to improve occlusion, aesthetics, and self-perception in younger patients. PMID:26080162

  12. Rapid maxillary distraction protocol utilizing the halo distraction system and rigid internal fixation.

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    Baker, Stephen B; Reid, Russell R; Burkey, Brooke; Bartlett, Scott P

    2007-09-01

    To shorten head frame wear time associated with external halo distraction (HD), we have adapted a protocol for maxillary distraction with the halo system that integrates plate fixation. All patients had a history of cleft lip and/or palate and maxillary retrusion > or = 8 mm. Five patients treated with this protocol and followed for at least 1 year were included in this study. The protocol included a 3-day latency period, variable maxillary distraction, and removal of the halo device with simultaneous rigid internal fixation. Two patients had a variable period of maxillomandibular fixation (MMF), which maintained the maxillary advancement and idealized intercuspal position while permitting further callus maturation. Cephalographs were obtained preoperatively, immediately following distractor removal, and 1 year after rigid internal fixation. The mean age at time of surgery was 18.7 years. The maxillary deficiency ranged from 8 to 15 mm (mean = 10.6 mm). All five patients demonstrated excellent occlusion. Cephalometric analysis 1-year post rigid internal fixation revealed minimal (maxillary distraction followed by MMF to maintain maxillary advancement may reduce halo device wear to 1 to 2 weeks. MMF optimizes occlusion by forcing the maxillary teeth into maximal intercuspal position. Rigid fixation is not only associated with less long-term relapse compared to nonrigid forms of fixation, but also minimizes the incidence of nonunion. This treatment protocol provides the advancement possible with distraction osteogenesis and the accuracy of orthognathic surgery, thereby minimizing external head frame wear.

  13. Long-term results of maxillary distraction osteogenesis in nongrowing cleft: 5-years experience using internal device.

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    Hirjak, D; Reyneke, J P; Janec, J; Beno, M; Kupcova, I

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) related deformities frequently have maxillary hypoplasia in all dimensions. These patients usually present with class III malocclusions, retruded midfaces and narrow hard palates. The skeletal problems can be treated by means of Le Fort I maxillary procedures. Surgical and orthodontic correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia, as often seen in CLP patients, has however proved to be challenging. The magnitude of the advancement is often hampered and the post operative stability significantly affected by palatal soft tissue scarring. The slow distraction of bone and the histogenic abilities of distraction osteogenesis (DO) have made it an atractive alternative treatment option for the management of maxillary hypoplasia in these patients. This paper presents the treatment results of 15 nongrowing CLP patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia treated by means of intra oral distraction. The mean anterior distraction of the maxillas was 12.7 mm (9-15.0 mm). The long-term cephalometric and clinical evaluation after a minimum of 60 months (mean follow-up 71 months) proved to be stable. The treatment results revealed, that distraction osteogenesis in nongrowing CLP patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia proved to be a predictable and stable option (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 26).

  14. A osteogenesis distraction device enabling control of vertical direction for syndromic craniosynostosis.

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    Kobayashi, Shinji; Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Maegawa, Jiro

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a hybrid facial osteogenesis distraction system that combines the advantages of external and internal distraction devices to enable control of both the distraction distance and vector. However, when the advanced maxilla has excessive clockwise rotation and shifts more downward vertically than planned, it might be impossible to pull it up to correct it. We invented devices attached to external distraction systems that can control the vertical vector of distraction to resolve this problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the result of utilizing the distraction system for syndromic craniosynostosis. In addition to a previously reported hybrid facial distraction system, the devices for controlling the vertical direction of the advanced maxilla were attached to the external distraction device. The vertical direction of the advanced maxilla can be controlled by adjustment of the spindle units. This system was used for 2 patients with Crouzon and Apert syndrome. The system enabled control of the vertical distance, with no complications during the procedures. As a result, the maxilla could be advanced into the planned position including overcorrection without excessive clockwise rotation of distraction. Our system can alter the cases and bring them into the planned position, by controlling the vertical vector of distraction. We believe that this system might be effective in infants with syndromic craniosynostosis as it involves 2 osteotomies and horizontal and vertical direction of elongation can be controlled.

  15. Transantral distraction devices in correction of severe maxillary deformity in cleft patients.

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    Shokirov, Shokhruh; Wangerin, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Maxillary advancement by Le Fort I osteotomy in cleft patients has an average relapse of about 40-60 percent. With extraoral distraction devices it is possible to obtain an almost unlimited advancement of the upper jaw. Due to the social problems the retention period is normally reduced to some monthes. A relapse of 10-25 % can be seen in these cases. Le Fort I internal distraction osteogenesis offers an alternative to one-step orthognathic advancement, with advantages of gradual lengthening through scar and earlier treatment in growing patients. The objective of this study was to present our experience in the treatment of maxillary deficiency in cleft patients using transantral internal distraction devices. The distraction procedure was successfully accomplished in seventeen patients. For all the seventeen patients maxillary distraction device designed by Konrad Wangerin was used. The distraction distances were 8 to 24 mm. Preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up (12 and 24 months) lateral cephalogram measurements were compared including angular and linear changes. A good new bone was found that was formed in distraction pitch between lines of osteotomy. After distraction of median facial zone, occlusion and profile of soft tissues were considerably improved. All patients after postoperative time required final orthodontic treatment and their final occlusal relationships were satisfactory. The transantral distraction device is a new option for the treatment of severe maxillary hypoplasia in cleft patients.

  16. Perioperative incidents associated with internal maxillary distraction osteogenesis: a retrospective study of 20 patients.

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    Kristian, Andersen; Erik, Nørholt Sven; Annelise, Küseler; John, Jensen; Klit, Pedersen Thomas

    2012-12-01

    This retrospective study aimed to assess the frequency and distribution of incidents encountered during the perioperative period of maxillary distraction with internal devices. The perioperative period was defined as the period between device placement and removal. Records of 20 patients treated during 2004-2011 with internal maxillary distraction osteogenesis were examined. Incidents were registered in terms of severity and need of intervention. Eighty percent of the patients experienced minor incidents, of which the most frequent were pain during activation and infections; 80% of these experienced ≥1 hard and soft tissue-related incidents, and 20% ≥1 device-related incidents. All incidents were solved with minimal or no intervention. Maxillary distraction using internal devices is a safe treatment with only minor incidents in the perioperative period. Preoperative planning and good cooperation are essential for preventing postoperative incidents. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment during the distraction period may be indicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioresorbable distraction device for the treatment of airway problems for infants with Robin sequence.

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    Breugem, Corstiaan; Paes, Emma; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B; van der Molen, Aebele B Mink

    2012-08-01

    Pierre Robin sequence is a well known craniofacial entity. There are numerous ways to treat the respiratory insufficiency, but sometimes surgical intervention is needed. Tracheotomy could be associated with morbidity, and distraction osteogenesis has been established as a stable method to obtain a safe airway. Distraction osteogenesis has traditionally been performed with an external device. In this manuscript we describe the feasibility of an internal bioresorbable device. Retrospective descriptive study was performed in a tertiary academic children's hospital. After multidisciplinary team consultation, 12 consecutive patients with Robin sequence were treated with this internal distraction device. The mean age at surgery was 32 days, and the average amount of mandibular distraction was 18 mm. All patients were extubated after an average of 7.5 days after the surgery. The average length of stay in the hospital was 17 days after surgery. There were no major surgical complications. A tracheotomy was prevented in all our patients, and complications were limited. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the influence that internal distraction has on the growth of the mandible and teeth. The internal distraction system seems safe for infants with micrognathia and has certain benefits when compared to the external distractor.

  18. Maxillary distraction in patients with cleft deformity using a rigid external distraction device: a pilot study on the distraction ratio of the maxilla to the device.

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    Harada, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masaru; Omura, Ken

    2004-01-01

    We examined the ratio between actual maxillary distraction and the distraction of the rigid external distraction device (Rigid external distraction (RED) system) used for maxillary distraction in patients with a cleft deformity. Twelve patients were examined. The amount of maxillary advancement was measured on lateral cephalograms and divided by the activation amount on the RED system. The value obtained was represented as the distraction ratio of the maxilla to the system. The mean ratio in 10 patients with complete cleft lip, palate, and alveolus (complete cleft) was 0.24. However, the ratios in two patients with cleft lip and alveolus or soft cleft palate (incomplete cleft) were considerably higher than the mean ratios in patients with complete cleft. When the maxilla is distracted in patients with complete cleft using the RED system, the amount of activation on the system needs to be about four times the amount of planned maxillary distraction. However, the distraction ratio may be affected by the type of cleft.

  19. Maxillary advancement using distraction osteogenesis with intraoral device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Yoko; Uematsu, Setsuko; Takada, Kenji

    2010-11-01

    This article describes the surgical orthodontic treatment of maxillary hypoplasia in a patient with cleft lip and palate using maxillary distraction osteogenesis with internal maxillary distractors. Maxillary advancement was performed to correct the retrusive maxillary facial profile and Class III malocclusion. Rotational movement of the distraction segment was made to correct the upper dental midline. Although maxillary advancement was insufficient because of unexpected breakage of the intraoral distractor after completion of the distraction, skeletal traction with a face mask compensated for the shortage. Successful esthetic improvement and posttreatment occlusal stability were achieved with no discernible relapse after 2 years of retention.

  20. The use of internal maxillary distraction for maxillary hypoplasia: a preliminary report.

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    Van Sickels, Joseph E; Madsen, Mathew J; Cunningham, Larry L; Bird, Douglas

    2006-12-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a useful alternative to advance the maxilla in complicated cases of maxillary hypoplasia. The purpose of this article is to review the workup, experience, and preliminary results with the use of internal distraction osteogenesis for maxillary hypoplasia at one teaching institution. Over a 5-year period, more than 300 patients with craniofacial and dentofacial defects have undergone oral and maxillofacial surgery at our center to correct their skeletal discrepancies. Of these, 10 have had maxillary distraction osteogenesis done with internal distractors. Follow-up of 6 months or more was available for 8 patients. Stereolithographic models were used to bend distractors prior to surgery in 6 patients. Latency prior to the start of distraction was 3 to 7 days and varied with the age of the patient. Distraction occurred at approximately 1 mm per day with an average distraction length of 8.5 mm (range, 6-10 mm). Excellent occlusal results were obtained in 5 patients. Major complications including nonunion and failure to achieve acceptable occlusal results were observed in 3 patients. Minor complications including pain and loosening of the distracter devices were observed in 2 patients, but did not appear to affect the esthetic and functional results. Distraction osteogenesis is a useful alternative to traditional orthognathic surgery to treat maxillary hypoplasia. Internal distractions are attractive to patients, but are more difficult to place and can cause discomfort to patients when trying to achieve an ideal primary vector of distraction. Stereolithographic models can help with placement of the device. Changes in design of distractors may help with patient discomfort.

  1. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Koteswara Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction.

  2. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

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    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Hussain, Syed Altaf; Chitharanjan, Arun B.; Murthy, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction. PMID:25991895

  3. 77 FR 24764 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...-0053] Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices AGENCY... proposed voluntary NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices. The agency... Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices (77 FR 11200). The proposed NHTSA...

  4. Technical Modifications of Tooth-borne Distraction Device for Anterior Maxillary Distraction in Cleft Patients

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    Dhivakar Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tooth-borne distractor gained popularity for anterior maxillary distraction because of the effective treatment outcome, no need for external fixation, noninvasive, less chewing difficulty, social tolerance and economical. Tooth-borne distractor device needs modification in terms of maxillary deficiency, tooth position, retained deciduous tooth, and fistula. Hence, we recommend the following modifications in certain circumstances for the successful treatment outcome.

  5. Exploring Factors That Influence Technology-Based Distractions in Bring Your Own Device Classrooms

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    Kay, Robin; Benzimra, Daniel; Li, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on distractions and the use of mobile devices (personal digital assistants, tablet personal computers, or laptops) have been conducted almost exclusively in higher education. The purpose of the current study was to examine the frequency and influence of distracting behaviors in Bring Your Own Device secondary school classrooms.…

  6. Five years experience with a new intraoral maxillary distraction device (RID).

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    Picard, Arnaud; Diner, Patrick A; Galliani, Eva; Tomat, Catherine; Vazquez, Ma rie Paule; Carls, Friedrich P

    2011-10-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is well established for the treatment of severe retromaxilla. We report our experience since 2004 of the treatment of 19 patients using a new intraoral maxillary distraction device. Maxillary advancement was successful in all patients with mean advancement of 9.6mm (range 4-17) measured at a point in lateral cephalograms. The new device limited surgical exposure and the amount of materials implanted, and improved control in every phase of the distraction. It was psychologically accepted by patients and was more comfortable than existing devices. Copyright © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Velopharyngeal changes after maxillary distraction in cleft patients using a rigid external distraction device: A retrospective study.

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    Taha, Mahasen; Elsheikh, Yasser M

    2016-11-01

     To evaluate early and late velopharyngeal changes in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients after use of the Rigid External Distractor (RED) device and to correlate these changes to the amount of maxillary advancement.  Thirty Class III CLP patients were included in the study. Maxillary advancement was performed using the RED device in combination with titanium miniplates and screws for anchorage. Lateral cephalograms, nasometer, and nasopharyngoscope records were taken before distraction, immediately after distraction, and 1 year after distraction. A paired t-test was used to detect differences at P maxillary distraction (P  =  .0001). Statistically significant increases in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal depths, velar angle, and need ratio were also found (P  =  .0001). Nasalance scores showed a significant increase (P  =  .008 for nasal text and .044 for oral text). A significant positive correlation was observed between the amount of maxillary advancement and the increase in nasopharyngeal depth and hypernasality (P  =  .012 and .026, respectively).  Nasopharyngeal function was deteriorated after maxillary advancement in CLP patients. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of maxillary advancement and the increase in nasopharyngeal depth and hypernasality.

  8. A new distraction arthroplasty device using magnetic force; a cadaveric study.

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    Kamei, Goki; Ochi, Mitsuo; Okuhara, Atsushi; Fujimiya, Mineko; Deie, Masataka; Adachi, Nobuo; Nakamae, Atsuo; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Ohkawa, Shingo; Takazawa, Kobun; Eguchi, Akio; Katou, Tomohiro; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Usman, Muhammad Andry

    2013-04-01

    It is difficult for an articular cartilage injury to repair spontaneously. There are many procedures for treating cartilage injury, however there is no standard procedure for middle-aged patients who have diffuse knee osteoarthritis, especially of the lateral compartment. Therefore, Ochi developed a new distraction device that uses magnetic power to enlarge a joint space and promote cartilage regeneration with microfracture. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this new distraction arthroplasty system by using the cadaveric knee. This study used ten knees from six cadavers that were embalmed by Thiel's methods. The medial and lateral joint space was measured by AP radiographic view before and after distraction, and after weight-bearing to evaluate the joint distraction. The contact pressure of the medial and lateral compartments at the knee extension position by using a prescale film system was measured before and after weight-bearing with a 15 or 30-kg weight-bearing load to evaluate the effectiveness of this device. The lateral joint space significantly increased from the pre-distraction to the post-distraction; however, it did not change significantly between post-distraction and post-weight-bearing. With a 15 or 30-kg weight-bearing load, the contact pressure of the lateral compartment significantly decreased from the pre-distraction to the post-distraction. The most important advantage of this device is that it maintains a continuous distraction tension and enables almost the full range of motion of the knee. We believe that joint distraction by using magnetic force can be a promising option for cartilage injury in middle-aged patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Skeletal and soft tissue changes and stability in cleft lip and palate patients after distraction osteogenesis using a new intraoral maxillary device.

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    Ansari, Edward; Tomat, Catherine; Kadlub, Natacha; Diner, Patrick A; Bellocq, Thomas; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Picard, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    The authors have recently reported on the use of an internal maxillary distraction device. In this study, we report on the hard and soft tissue movements achieved with this intraoral distraction device, and the stability changes after distraction osteogenesis for maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip and palate. Ten male patients with severe hypoplasia of the maxilla, with complete uni- or bilateral cleft lip and palate were included. The mean age of the patients at the time of operation was 11.91 years (±3.41). To evaluate the distraction process and stability, superimpositions on the preoperative lateral cephalograms were performed. The mean follow-up (FU) was 15.42 months (±3.94). Cephalometric measurements at all of the maxillary hard and soft tissue points improved significantly. Maxillary point A was advanced by 8.25 mm (±3.17; P distraction soft tissue point A' had advanced 7.10 mm (±2.69; P distraction. Maxillary horizontal relapse at point A was 14.1% at FU. Vertical relapse was not significant. This rigid intraoral distraction device can be successfully used in the correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia. The marked aesthetic improvement and low psychological encumbrance make this device viable for the treatment of cleft-related hypoplasia of the maxilla. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal Distraction Osteogenesis With Piezosurgery Oblique Osteotomy of Supraorbital Margin of Frontal Bone for the Treatment of Unilateral Coronal Synostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weimin; Cui, Jie; Chen, Jianbing; Ji, Yi; Kong, Liangliang

    2017-05-01

    To assess the utility of internal distraction osteogenesis with Piezosurgery oblique osteotomy of supraorbital margin of frontal bone for the treatment of unilateral coronal synostosis and to study the outcome and complications of this procedure. Oblique osteotomy allows for entry into the cranial cavity, and along with parallel cut to the roof of the orbit, avoids the need to cut into the orbit which forms the frontal flap. Oblique osteotomy was performed along the supraorbital rim to do a frontal suture of the glabella (ages of patients were less than 1 year) or on the opposite side of the supraorbital rim (ages of patients were older than 1 year) after performing a suturectomy of the effected coronal suture. Two internal distraction devices were subsequently placed across the osteotomized, fused coronal suture. Finally, the cranium pieces were divided in the middle and placed in the middle of the frontal bone using biological glue. Five days after the operation, a 0.6-mm distraction was done twice daily. The distraction was removed 6 months after reaching 2 to 3 cm. Internal distraction osteogenesis with supraorbital oblique osteotomy was performed in 9 patients suffering from unilateral coronal synostosis. Eight patients had no postoperative infections around the shaft puncture wounds. One patient had infection in the rods around the distraction during the period of fixed, but was cured with antibiotic treatment. During a mean follow-up period of 12 months (5-26 months), all patients were satisfied with the cosmetic and functional results. No complications, including fixed screw displacement, penetration of the cranium and dura mater or retraction of distraction devices, occurred. The devices were exposed in 1 patient, resulting in a postoperative scar. Despite these complications, the cranium was successfully expanded in all patients. Use of this procedure avoids the need for frontal osteotomy to move the orbit forward. Adding 2 cranium strips can be used to

  11. Le Fort III Distraction With Internal vs External Distractors: A Cephalometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin J; Mendez, Bernardino M; Bruce, William J; McDonnell, Brendan D; Chiodo, Michael V; Patel, Parit A

    2018-05-01

    This study compares the change in midface position following Le Fort III advancement using either rigid external distraction (group 1) or internal distraction (group 2). We hypothesized that, with reference to right-facing cephalometry, internal distraction would result in increased clockwise rotation and inferior displacement of the midface. Le Fort III osteotomies and standardized distraction protocols were performed on 10 cadaveric specimens per group. Right-facing lateral cephalograms were traced and compared across time points to determine change in position at points orbitale, anterior nasal spine (ANS), A-point, and angle ANB. Institutional. Twenty cadaveric head specimens. Standard subcranial Le Fort III osteotomies were performed from a coronal approach and adequately mobilized. The specified distraction mechanism was applied and advanced by 15 mm. Changes of position were calculated at various skeletal landmarks: orbitale, ANS, A-point, and ANB. Group 1 demonstrated relatively uniform x-axis advancement with minimal inferior repositioning at the A-point, ANS, and orbitale. Group 2 demonstrated marked variation in x-axis advancement among the 3 points, along with a significant inferior repositioning and clockwise rotation of the midface ( P External distraction resulted in more uniform advancement of the midface, whereas internal distraction resulted in greater clockwise rotation and inferior displacement. External distraction appears to provide increased vector control of the midface, which is important in creating a customized distraction plan based on the patient's individual occlusal and skeletal needs.

  12. Initial Experience With a New Intraoral Midface Distraction Device

    OpenAIRE

    Burstein, Fernando; Soldanska, Magdalena; Granger, Michael; Berhane, ChiChi; Schoemann, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maxillary hypoplasia that necessitates surgical advancement affects approximately 25% of patients born with cleft lip and palate. Syndromic conditions such as Crouzon may also be accompanied by significant maxillary hypoplasia. Severe maxillary hypoplasia can result in airway obstruction, malocclusion, proptosis, and facial disfigurement. For optimal stability, severe hypoplasia is best addressed with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-two patients (15 boys, 7 girls, ages 6?1...

  13. Anterior maxillary distraction using a tooth-borne device for hypoplastic cleft maxillas-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sunil; Agni, Nisheet A; Selvaraj, Dhivakar

    2011-12-01

    The management of maxillary retrusion in a patient with cleft lip and palate is performed using Le Fort I advancement or distraction osteogenesis using an external or an internal device. Distraction mostly involves movement of the entire maxilla at the Le Fort I level and is characterized by a higher relapse rate and a hampering of speech. Hence, distraction of the anterior maxilla was performed using a tooth-borne palatal distractor similar to the one proposed by Gunaseelan et al (J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65:1044, 2007). However, the technique was modified by placing the distractor preoperatively before performing the osteotomy cut. The main advantage of this modification is that more control over the vector can be achieved and chances of cement failure caused by contamination and an inability to achieve isolation is drastically decreased. This study investigated the efficacy and stability of anterior maxillary distraction in the management of cleft maxillary retrognathia and any resulting complications. Fourteen patients older than 12 years with cleft maxillary retrognathia were included in the study irrespective of gender, type of cleft lip and palate, and the amount of advancement needed. The patients were evaluated using Orthopantomogram and lateral cephalograms preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively (ie, before appliance removal) and at 6 months postoperatively. The distractor was fabricated extraorally on a cast and cemented into the patient's mouth the day before surgery. The initial deficiency, amount of advancement achieved, and relapses at 6 months, if any, were studied. The data were tabulated and analyzed. Only 1 of the 14 patients showed a relapse, of 2 mm, because this patient was lost to follow-up and thus delayed tooth replacement. Anterior maxillary distraction with a tooth-borne device is a feasible modality for the management of cleft maxillary retrognathia, with stable results. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and

  14. Orthodontic considerations for maxillary distraction osteogenesis in growing patients with cleft lip and palate using internal distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Adriana da; Moura, Pollyana Marques de; Harshbarger, Raymond J

    2014-11-01

    The orthodontist plays a key role in the selection of the optimal treatment for patients followed by a craniofacial team. For patients with cleft lip and palate, the need for multidisciplinary treatment planning and sequentially staged treatment is essential for successful patient outcomes. The technique of Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla using an internal device is potentially a predictable, stable, and convenient option for the correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia. It is an alternative option for treatment of maxillary hypoplasia in growing patients. In this article, the authors describe the orthodontist's approach to the management of cleft patients with severe maxillary deficiency with the use of an internal distraction device. The information is presented with a focus on the clinical aspects of treatment, using case illustrations and appropriate literature.

  15. Simultaneous maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a twin-track distraction device combined with alveolar bone grafting in cleft patients: preliminary report of a technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Watanabe, Masayo; Buranastidporn, Boonsiva; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Ohyama, Kimie; Ishii, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    The simultaneous use of cleft reduction and maxillary advancement by distraction osteogenesis has not been applied routinely because of the difficulty in three-dimensional control and stabilization of the transported segments. This report describes a new approach of simultaneous bilateral alveolar cleft reduction and maxillary advancement by distraction osteogenesis combined with autogenous bone grafting. A custom-made Twin-Track device was used to allow bilateral alveolar cleft closure combined with simultaneous maxillary advancement, using distraction osteogenesis and a rigid external distraction system in a bilateral cleft lip and palate patient. After a maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy, autogenous iliac bone graft was placed in the cleft spaces before suturing. A latency period of six days was observed before activation. The rate of activation was one mm/d for the maxillary advancement and 0.5 mm/d for the segmental transport. Accordingly, the concave facial appearance was improved with acceptable occlusion, and complete bilateral cleft closure was attained. No adjustments were necessary to the vector of the transported segments during the activation and no complications were observed. The proposed Twin-Track device, based on the concept of track-guided bone transport, permitted three-dimensional control over the distraction processes allowing simultaneous cleft closure, maxillary distraction, and autogenous bone grafting. The combined simultaneous approach is extremely advantageous in correcting severe deformities, reducing the number of surgical interventions and, consequently, the total treatment time.

  16. Bring Your Own Device or Bring Your Own Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxman, Kumar; Holt, Craig

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to investigate the utilisation of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) technologies in the classroom to determine if students and teachers perceive that the use of a digital device increased a learner's access to learning opportunities within the classroom, and, if the use of digital devices increased their…

  17. Internal pump monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Toshikazu.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a thermometer is disposed at the upper end of an internal pump casing of a coolant recycling system in a BWR type reactor to detect leakage of reactor water thereby ensuring the improvement of reliability of the internal pump. Namely, a thermometer is disposed, which can detect temperature elevation occurred when water in the internal pump leaked from a reactor pressure vessel passes through the gap between a stretch tube and an upper end of the pump casing. Signals from the thermometer are transmitted to a signal processing device by an instrumentation cable. The signal processing device generates an alarm when the temperature signal exceeds a predetermined value and announces that leakage of reactor water occurs in the internal pump. Since the present invention can detect the leakage of the reactor water in the pump casing in an early stage, it can contribute to the improvement of the safety and reliability of the internal pump. (I.S.)

  18. Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romesh P. Nalliah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly cause students to be distracted from the lecture and if these activities impact student learning.Methods. This study is a quasi-experimental pilot study of 26 students from a single institution. In the current study, one class of third-year students were surveyed after a lecture on special needs dentistry. The survey identified self-reported utilization patterns of “smart” devices during the lecture. Additionally, twelve quiz-type questions were given to assess the students’ recall of important points in the lecture material that had just been covered.Results. The sample was comprised of 26 students. Of these, 17 were distracted in some form (either checking email, sending email, checking Facebook, or sending texts. The overall mean score on the test was 9.85 (9.53 for distracted students and 10.44 for non-distracted students. There were no significant differences in test scores between distracted and non-distracted students (p = 0.652. Gender and types of distractions were not significantly associated with test scores (p > 0.05. All students believed that they understood all the important points from the lecture.Conclusions. Every class member felt that they acquired the important learning points during the lecture. Those who were distracted by electronic devices during the lecture performed similarly to those who were not. However, results should be interpreted with caution as this study was a small quasi-experimental design and further research should examine the influence of different types of distraction on different types of learning.

  19. Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2014-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly cause students to be distracted from the lecture and if these activities impact student learning. Methods. This study is a quasi-experimental pilot study of 26 students from a single institution. In the current study, one class of third-year students were surveyed after a lecture on special needs dentistry. The survey identified self-reported utilization patterns of "smart" devices during the lecture. Additionally, twelve quiz-type questions were given to assess the students' recall of important points in the lecture material that had just been covered. Results. The sample was comprised of 26 students. Of these, 17 were distracted in some form (either checking email, sending email, checking Facebook, or sending texts). The overall mean score on the test was 9.85 (9.53 for distracted students and 10.44 for non-distracted students). There were no significant differences in test scores between distracted and non-distracted students (p = 0.652). Gender and types of distractions were not significantly associated with test scores (p > 0.05). All students believed that they understood all the important points from the lecture. Conclusions. Every class member felt that they acquired the important learning points during the lecture. Those who were distracted by electronic devices during the lecture performed similarly to those who were not. However, results should be interpreted with caution as this study was a small quasi-experimental design and further research should examine the influence of different types of distraction on different types of learning.

  20. A novel osteogenic distraction device for the transversal correction of temporozygomatic hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Mario; Fadda, Maria Teresa; Cascone, Piero; Iannetti, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder characterized by craniofacial malformation of one or both sides of the lower face. Since these anomalies are associated with soft-tissue deficiencies, corrective surgery is often difficult. Bone grafts have typically been used for augmentation, but distraction osteogenesis now offers an alternative for many craniofacial deficiencies, but there are few if any appropriate distraction devices and surgical procedures for the augmentation of craniofacial transversal dimensions. The aim of this study was to evaluate a technique for guided augmentation of craniofacial transversal dimensions through distraction osteogenesis. We tested the efficacy of a prototype distractor, developed in collaboration with Medartis, using cadavers and demonstrated its application for the correction of the transverse dimension of the temporozygomatic region in a patient with Goldenhar syndrome. CT scans showed a 4-mm transverse augmentation of the bony surface after 9 days and a 10-mm increase after 30 days. Upon removal of the distractor (60 days after the first surgery) CT indicated good bony fusion and a stable result in the transverse plane. Six months after removal of the distractor, 3D computed tomography confirmed the success of the transverse augmentation, as it appeared to be stable and reliable. Distraction osteogenesis, using our device, can be used to correct the transverse dimension of the temporozygomatic region in HFM patients. It should also be considered for the correction of residual postsurgical skeletal deficiency due to surgical relapse or deficient growth, and unsatisfactory skeletal contour. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Texting at the light and other forms of device distraction behind the wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, James J; Bernstein, Joseph

    2015-09-26

    Cell phones are a well-known source of distraction for drivers, and owing to the proliferation of text messaging services, web browsers and interactive apps, modern devices provide ever-increasing temptation for drivers to take their eyes off the road. Although it is probably obvious that drivers' manual engagement of a device while their vehicles are in motion is potentially dangerous, it may not be clear that such engagement when the vehicle is at rest (an activity broadly labeled "texting at the light") can also impose risks. For one thing, a distracted driver at rest may fail to respond quickly to sudden changes in road conditions, such as an ambulance passing through. In addition, texting at the light may decrease so-called "situational awareness" and lead to driving errors even after the device is put down. To our knowledge, the direct comparison of the rate of device usage by drivers at rest with the rate of device usage by drivers in motion has not been reported. We collected information on 2000 passenger vehicles by roadside observation. For the first group of 1000 passenger vehicles stopped at a traffic light, device usage ("texting", "talking", "none"), gender of the driver, vehicle type, seatbelt usage and presence of front seat passengers were recorded. For a second set of 1000 vehicles in motion, device usage alone was noted. Statistical significance for differences in rates was assessed with the chi-square test. We found that 3 % of drivers in motion were texting and 5 % were talking. Among the stopped drivers, 14.5 % were texting and 6.3 % were talking. In the stopped-vehicle set, gender and vehicle type were not associated with significant differences in device usage, but having a front seat passenger and using seatbelts were. Device usage is markedly higher among drivers temporarily at rest compared with those in motion, and the presence of a front seat passenger, who may help alleviate boredom or reprimand bad behavior, is associated with lower

  2. Surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploumis Avraam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspinous distraction devices (IPDD are indicated as stand-alone devices for the treatment of spinal stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of patients undergoing surgery for spinal stenosis with a combination of unilateral microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. Methods This is a prospective clinical and radiological study of minimum 2 years follow-up. Twenty-two patients (average age 64.5 years with low-back pain and unilateral sciatica underwent decompressive surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry Disability Index and walking capacity plus radiologic measurements of posterior disc height of the involved level and lumbar lordosis Cobb angle were documented both preoperatively and postoperatively. One-sided posterior subarticular and foraminal decompression was conducted followed by dynamic stabilization of the diseased level with an IPDD (X-STOP. Results The average follow-up time was 27.4 months. Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index improved statistically significantly (p Conclusions The described surgical technique using unilateral microdecompression and IPDD insertion is a clinically effective and radiologically viable treatment method for symptoms of spinal stenosis resistant to non-operative treatment.

  3. Does wearable device bring distraction closer to drivers? Comparing smartphones and Google Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jibo; McCarley, Jason S; Crager, Kirsten; Jadliwala, Murtuza; Hua, Lesheng; Huang, Sheng

    2018-07-01

    Head-up and wearable displays, such as Google Glass™, are sometimes marketed as safe in-vehicle alternatives to phone-based displays, as they allow drivers to receive messages without eye-off-the-road glances. However, head-up displays can still compromise driver performance (e.g., He et al., 2015b), as the distracting effect of interacting with any device will depend on the user's multitasking strategies. The present experiment examined drivers' interaction with a head-down smartphone display and a wearable head-up display. Participants performed a simulated driving task while receiving and responding to text messages via smartphone or the head-mounted display (HMD) on the Google Glass™. Incoming messages were signaled by an auditory alert, and responses were made vocally. When using Google Glass, participants' responses were quicker than that of smartphone, and the time to engage in a task did not vary according to lane-keeping difficulty. Results suggest that a willingness to engage more readily in distracting tasks may offset the potential safety benefits of wearable devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of the Moderate Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with an Intespinous Distraction Device IMPALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haso Sefo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was the evaluation of symptom improvements in patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis, who consecutively underwent placement of interspinous distraction deviceIMPALA®.Methods: This study included a total of 11 adult patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis. Clinical evaluations were performed preoperatively and 3-months after surgery using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI.Results: The mean preoperative VAS was 7.09 and fell to 2.27 a 3-months after surgery. The mean preoperative ODI was 59.45 fell to 20.72 a 3-months after surgery.Conclusions: Using the IMPALA® device in patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis is a minimal invasive, effective and safe procedure. Clinical symptoms were improved 3 months after surgery.

  5. Breakage of internal maxillary distractor: considerable complication of maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Tomonao; Iida, Seiji; Isomura, Emiko T; Namikawa, Mari; Matsuoka, Yudai; Yamada, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Taku; Takigawa, Yoko

    2008-07-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis using intraoral distractors is now one of the standard treatments of maxillary retrusion. This report shows 2 cases of breakage of this internal maxillary distractor in patients with cleft lip and palate; one was observed during the distraction period and the other was during the retention period. The first case required a rotational movement of the distraction segment, and this movement caused the laterally dislocation of the posterior part of the distractor, where the distractor suffered some mechanical forces by mouth opening. In the latter case, breakage of distractor was observed on the radiographs taken 3 months after distraction and this complication may have been caused by mechanical force by occlusion and mastication. Both breakages were found at the joint of the anchorage plate and the extension rod, which has some flexibility for adjusting the plate to the bone surface. Therefore, surgeons should pay special attention for this mechanical weak area in this distractor not only during the advancement period, but also during the retention period and should avoid unnecessary frequent bending for adopting the bone surface, which directly weakens the joint.

  6. Devices, Distractions and Digital Literacy: "Bring Your Own Device" to Polytech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Leoni; Forbes, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the ways polytechnic students use personal mobile devices to support their learning. This study used purposive sampling and mixed methods to generate data about student ownership and use of mobile digital devices within a single institution. Findings reveal patterns of device ownership, insights into how…

  7. Internal inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibilities and limits of using specific endoscopes, the design and performance of rigid and flexible endoscopes are studied. The results show on the one hand the physical conditions setting a limit to the applicability of a certain device, and on the other indicate possible ways of improving and modifying given devices so as to adapt them to the special requirements of current testing standards. Based on theoretical and practical experience, proposals for improvements are made. For rigid endoscopes, e.g., additional equipment has been developed and is described in detail, allowing hitherto existing problems to be solved, thus enlarging the range of employment and enhancing and improving the information to be gained by testing using endoscopes. (orig./RW) [de

  8. Maxillary protraction in adult cleft lip and palate by a rigid external distraction device with dentoskeletal anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bengisu; Taner, Tulin; Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Mavili, M. Emin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to evaluate the effects of maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) in an adult patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) by using a rigid external distraction (RED) device with dentoskeletal anchorage. Method: 31-year-old male patient with UCLP with severe maxillary hypoplasia, dolichofacial growth pattern, negative overjet and 1.5 mm openbite. After pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, an intra-oral appliance was modified to prevent extrusion of the molars and clockwise rotation of the mandible. Stainless steel plates were soldered bilaterally to the intra oral appliance at the level of canines. During surgery, miniplates were inserted in the maxillary segment and fixed to the plates of the intra oral appliance with screws. Results: The mean distraction length was 12 mm immediately after DO. SNA increased from 73o to 82o after distraction. A significant advancement of the maxilla and correction of the sagittal Class III skeletal relationship was achieved. The vertical position of the mandible and the face was kept stable, and the soft tissue profile became more balanced. Conclusion: This intra oral appliance design achieved desired skeletal changes during maxillary protraction with RED device in dolichofacial CLP patient. Occlusion and facial profile changes was found to be stable in 1-year follow-up. PMID:22509125

  9. Maxillary protraction in adult cleft lip and palate by a rigid external distraction device with dentoskeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bengisu; Taner, Tulin; Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Mavili, M Emin

    2012-04-01

    The objective is to evaluate the effects of maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) in an adult patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) by using a rigid external distraction (RED) device with dentoskeletal anchorage. 31-year-old male patient with UCLP with severe maxillary hypoplasia, dolichofacial growth pattern, negative overjet and 1.5 mm openbite. After pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, an intra-oral appliance was modified to prevent extrusion of the molars and clockwise rotation of the mandible. Stainless steel plates were soldered bilaterally to the intra oral appliance at the level of canines. During surgery, miniplates were inserted in the maxillary segment and fixed to the plates of the intra oral appliance with screws. The mean distraction length was 12 mm immediately after DO. SNA increased from 73o to 82o after distraction. A significant advancement of the maxilla and correction of the sagittal Class III skeletal relationship was achieved. The vertical position of the mandible and the face was kept stable, and the soft tissue profile became more balanced. This intra oral appliance design achieved desired skeletal changes during maxillary protraction with RED device in dolichofacial CLP patient. Occlusion and facial profile changes was found to be stable in 1-year follow-up.

  10. 77 FR 12907 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... require accommodations such as a sign language interpreter or translator. For technical issues concerning... Transportation's Web site on distracted driving, Distraction.gov , NHTSA's Web site, www.nhtsa.gov , or by... available on the Web pages listed above under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT and also in the rulemaking...

  11. Distraction of the alveolar crest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Liem, RBS; Schoen, PJ; Vissink, A; Arnaud, E; Diner, PA

    2001-01-01

    The surgical procedure and clinical results of the Groningen Distraction Device (GDD) to augment the severely resorbed edentulous mandible are described. The GGD is non-voluminous, and consists of 2 distraction screws and I guide screw. Two months after the last day of distraction, both distraction

  12. Postdistraction stability of hypoplastic maxilla in unilateral cleft lip and palate treated using rigid external distraction device: An audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maxillary hypoplasia resulting in skeletal class III malocclusion is common among patients with cleft lip and palate. Large anteroposterior discrepancies and surgical scaring often leads to unpredictable stability of maxillary advancement with Le Fort I osteotomy and is known for a high degree of relapse. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the postdisraction stability after 1-year of maxillary advancement done with rigid external distraction (RED device in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 cases treated with RED device used for distraction of maxilla in cleft lip and palate cases were assessed. Lateral cephalograms selected were taken at the end of presurgical (T1, immediate postdistraction (T2 and 1-year postdistraction (T3. Five angular measurements and nine linear measurements were used to assess the position of maxilla in all three planes. P values were obtained for repeated measurement by analysis of variance with Bonferroni′s correction for multiple comparisons. Normality was tested using Shapiro-Wilk′s test. Results: The average 1-year postdistraction measurements (T3 did not differ significantly compared to the corresponding average postdistraction measurements (T2 (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Midface distraction with RED device provides a significant structural improvement for patients with cleft lip and palate. There was marked an improvement in dentofacial structures and results were stable during the retention phase.

  13. Personal Communication Device Use by Nurses Providing In-Patient Care: Survey of Prevalence, Patterns, and Distraction Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Deborah L; LeVasseur, Sandra A

    2017-04-13

    respondents believe that on average personal communication devices have a more negative than positive impact on patient care and 39.07% (481/1231) reported that personal communication devices were always or often a distraction while working. Respondents acknowledged their own device use negatively affected their work performance (7.56%, 94/1243), or caused them to miss important clinical information (3.83%, 47/1225) or make a medical error (0.90%, 11/1218). Respondents reported witnessing another nurse's use of devices negatively affect their work performance (69.41%, 860/1239), or cause them to miss important clinical information (30.61%, 378/1235) or make a medical error (12.51%, 155/1239). Younger respondents reported greater device use while at work than older respondents and generally had more positive opinions about the impact of personal communication devices on their work. The majority of registered nurses believe that the use of personal communication devices on hospital units raises significant safety issues. The high rate of respondents who saw colleagues distracted by their devices compared to the rate who acknowledged their own distraction may be an indication that nurses are unaware of their own attention deficits while using their devices. There were clear generational differences in personal communication device use at work and opinions about the impact of these devices on patient care. Professional codes of conduct for personal communication device use by hospital nurses need to be developed that maximize the benefits of personal communication device use, while reducing the potential for distraction and adverse outcomes. ©Deborah L McBride, Sandra A LeVasseur. Originally published in JMIR Human Factors (http://humanfactors.jmir.org), 13.04.2017.

  14. [Biomechanical study of internal midface distraction after different types of maxillary osteotomy in patients with cleft lip and palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Min; Shi, Guang-Yu; Pu, Li-Chen; Song, Da-Li; Zhang, Xi-Zhong; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the biomechanical changes of internal midface distraction after different types of maxillary osteotomy in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). 3-D finite element (FEM) analysis was used. 3-D models of Le Fort I, II, III osteotomy and soft tissue were established. Based on the new pattern of internal midface distractor, the distraction of maxillary complex was simulated to advance 10 mm anteriorly. The mechanical change was studied. The maxillary complex in CLP were advanced after distraction. Constriction of alveolar crest and palate occurred in Le Fort I osteotomy, but not in Le Fort II and III osteotomy. The maxillary complex was moved anteriorly en bloc after Le Fort III osteotomy, but some degree of rotation of maxillary complex was observed during the distraction after Le Fort I and II osteotomy. In vertical direction, the maxillary complex had more counterclockwise rotation after Le Fort II osteotomy. 3-D FEM analysis can be used for the study of internal distraction. It can reflect the maxillary movement and provide the theory basis for preoperative design.

  15. State laws restricting driver use of mobile communications devices distracted-driving provisions, 1992-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Anderson, Evan D; Burris, Scott C; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2011-06-01

    State laws limiting the use of mobile communications devices (MCDs) by drivers are being enacted at an accelerating pace. Public health law research is needed to test various legislative models and guide future legal innovation. To define the current state of the law, facilitate new multi-state evaluations, and demonstrate the utility of systematic, scientific legal research methods to improve public health services research. Westlaw and Lexis-Nexis were used to create a 50-state, open-source data set of laws restricting the use of any form of MCD while operating a motor vehicle that were in effect between January 1, 1992, and November 1, 2010. Using an iterative process, the search protocol included the following terms: cellphone, cell phone, cellular phone, wireless telephone, mobile telephone, text, hands-free, cell! and text! The text and citations of each law were collected and coded across 22 variables, and a protocol and code book were developed to facilitate future public use of the data set. Thirty-nine states and the District of Columbia have at least one form of restriction on the use of MCDs in effect. The laws vary in the types of communication activities and categories of driver regulated, as well as enforcement mechanisms and punishments. No state completely bans use of MCDs by all drivers. State distracted-driving policy is diverging from evidence on the risks of MCD use by drivers. An updatable data set of laws is now available to researchers conducting multistate evaluations of the impact of laws regulating MCDs by drivers. If this data set is shown to be useful for this public health problem, similar rigorously developed and regularly updated data sets might be developed for other public health issues that are subject to legislative interventions. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Segmental maxillary distraction with a novel device for closure of a wide alveolar cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousdras, Vasilios A; Liyanage, Chandra; Mars, Michael; Ayliffe, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of a wide alveolar cleft with initial application of segmental distraction osteogenesis is reported, in order to minimise cleft size prior to secondary alveolar bone grafting. The lesser maxillary segment was mobilised with osteotomy at Le Fort I level and, a novel distractor, facilitated horizontal movement of the dental/alveolar segment along the curvature of the maxillary dental arch. Following a latency period of 4 days distraction was applied for 7 days at a rate of 0.5 mm twice daily. Radiographic, ultrasonographic and clinical assessment revealed new bone and soft tissue formation 8 weeks after completion of the distraction phase. Overall the maxillary segment did move minimising the width of the cleft, which allowed successful closure with a secondary alveolar bone graft.

  17. 75 FR 45697 - Safety Advisory Notice: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Stuart Streck by telephone at (404) 832-1140 or by e-mail at [email protected] drivers. Operators of vehicles transporting hazardous materials should guard against distraction, including the use of PEDs while operating a vehicle. All CMV drivers transporting hazardous materials should...

  18. Long-term skeletal and dental changes in patients with cleft lip and palate after maxillary distraction: a report of three cases treated with a rigid external distraction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masaru; Omura, Ken

    2005-04-01

    We examined long-term skeletal and dental changes in three patients with cleft lip and palate who underwent maxillary distraction using a rigid external distraction device. Two were children, and one was an adult. Changes in the overjet (OJ), overbite (OB), and positions of the anterior nasal spine (ANS), upper incisors (U1), pogonion (Pog), and lower incisors (L1) were measured on preoperative to 36 months postoperative lateral-cephalograms. In the adult, the positions of all examination points were relatively stable from 6 to 36 months postoperatively, and the OJ and OB were maintained at over 2 mm at 36 months. In the children, the positions of ANS and U1 changed inferiorly, Pog and L1 changed anteroinferiorly, and OJ and OB tended to decrease from 6 to 36 months postoperatively. Long-term skeletal and dental stability following maxillary distraction was relatively well maintained in the adult patient. In the children, the maxillomandibular growth was observed after maxillary distraction, but the mandibular overgrowth might have been inhibited by the correction of class III dentoskeletal deformity resulting from the maxillary distraction.

  19. Transverse maxillary distraction in patients with periodontal pathology or insufficient tooth anchorage using custom-made devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sanromán, Jacinto; Donascimento, Montserrat González; López, Alberto Costas; Ferro, Martín Fernández; Berrondo, Ibon Almandoz

    2010-07-01

    We present our experience using modified Hyrax devices for treating transverse deficiencies of the maxilla in adult patients with periodontal pathology or insufficient tooth anchorage. The surgical technique, clinical indications, and results are discussed. Eight adult patients (6 females, 2 males) requiring maxillary expansion were studied prospectively between July 2002 and July 2007. All the patients had periodontal pathology or insufficient tooth anchorage preventing the use of conventional Hyrax devices. Patients underwent surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with the use of custom-made modified Hyrax devices (bone-borne or tooth-bone-borne devices). Patients received preoperatively (T1), at the end of distraction (T2), at removal of the expansion device (T3), and 12 months after surgery (T4) lateral and posterior anterior cephalograms and study models to measure the width of the anterior and posterior dental arches with a digital sliding calliper. Mean age was 28.5 years (range, 18-45 years). A significant widening of the anterior (6.3 +/- 1.6 mm) and posterior (7.1 +/- 1.2 mm) dental arches was demonstrated. No significant differences were found when comparing T3 with T4 measures. No significant complications were found. The results indicated that maxillary expansion with custom-made devices in adults was an easy, affordable, predictable and stable technique without significant complications in patients who suffer periodontal pathology or patients without enough dental support. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of non-pharmacological measures for reducing pain and fear in children during venipuncture in the emergency department: a vibrating cold devices versus distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aracil, Noelia; Ramos-Pichardo, Juan Diego; Castejón-de la Encina, María Elena; José-Alcaide, Lourdes; Juliá-Sanchís, Rocío; Sanjuan-Quiles, Ángela

    2018-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a physical method of managing pain and fear in children and anxiety in the accompanying adult during venous puncture in the emergency department. Quasi-experimental study of 3 groups: one group used a combination of directed distraction by means of a vibration device with ice pack, a second group received only distraction, and no strategy was used in the third. Pain and adult anxiety were similar in the 2 groups in which a pain management strategy was applied. Pain and adult anxiety were greater when no strategy was adopted. We detected no differences in the level of the children's fear. Directed distraction can be useful for managing pain in children and it reduces the anxiety experienced by accompanying adults. The use of a vibration device with ice does not add benefits. Fear is not reduced by any of these measures.

  1. Controlling the vector of distraction osteogenesis in the management of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, Dekel; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror; Rachmiel, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in individuals with craniofacial anomalies can compromise airway and is a serious life-threatening condition. In many cases, tracheostomy is carried out as the treatment of choice. Distraction osteogenesis of the mandible as a treatment modality for OSA is very useful and may spare the need for tracheostomy or allow decannulation, yet controlling the vector of distraction is still a major challenge. We present a method for controlling the vector of distraction. Eight patients with severe respiratory distress secondary to a micrognathic mandible were treated by mandibular distraction osteogenesis using either external or internal devices. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) and orthodontic elastics were used to control the vector of distraction. Cephalometric X-rays, computed tomography, and polysomnographic sleep studies were used to analyze the results. A mean distraction of 22 mm using the internal devices and a mean of 30 mm using the external devices were achieved. Increase in the pharyngeal airway and hyoid bone advancement was also observed. Anterior-posterior advancement of the mandible was noted with no clockwise rotation. Most importantly, clinical improvement in symptoms of OSA, respiratory distress, and feeding was noted. We describe a method for controlling the vector of distraction used as a treatment for OSA. In these cases, TADs were used as an anchorage unit to control the vector of distraction. Our results show excellent clinical and radiographical results. TADs are a simple and nonexpensive method to control the vector of distraction.

  2. Effect of osteogenic periosteal distraction by a modified Hyrax device with and without platelet-rich fibrin on bone formation in a rabbit model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripatnanont, P; Balabid, F; Pongpanich, S; Vongvatcharanon, S

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a modified Hyrax device and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on osteogenic periosteal distraction (OPD). Twelve adult male New Zealand white rabbits were separated into two main groups (six in each) according to the duration of the consolidation period (4 or 8 weeks). In each main group, the animals underwent OPD of the left and right sides of the mandible and were divided into four subgroups (three animals per group): device vs. device+PRF, and PRF vs. sham. Radiographic, histological, histomorphometric, and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analyses were performed. New bone formation was observed on the lateral and vertical sides of the mandible of all groups. Micro-CT and histomorphometry showed that the device+PRF group presented the highest percentages of bone volume and bone area at 4 weeks (56.67 ± 12.67%, 41.37 ± 7.57%) and at 8 weeks (49.67 ± 8.33%, 55.46 ± 10.67%; significantly higher than the other groups, P<0.001), followed by the device group at 4 weeks (33.00 ± 1.73%, 33.21 ± 11.00%) and at 8 weeks (30.00 ± 3.00%, 23.25 ± 5.46%). In conclusion, the modified Hyrax device was used successfully for OPD in a rabbit model to gain vertical ridge augmentation, and greater bone maturation was achieved with the addition of PRF. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increased awareness of distracted driving using radio advertisements, news stories, and similar media. After the projects ... available at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov . Distracted Driving Enforcement – TV Ads (Paid). For re-tagging, go to: www. ...

  4. Promoted new bone formation in maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a tissue-engineered osteogenic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kazuhiko; Hibi, Hideharu; Yamada, Yoichi; Ueda, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral maxillary distraction was performed at a higher rate in rabbits to determine whether locally applied tissue-engineered osteogenic material (TEOM) enhances bone regeneration. The material was an injectable gel composed of autologous mesenchymal stem cells, which were cultured then induced to be osteogenic in character, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). After a 5-day latency period, distraction devices were activated at a rate of 2.0 mm once daily for 4 days. Twelve rabbits were divided into 2 groups. At the end of distraction, the experimental group of rabbits received an injection of TEOM into the distracted tissue on one side, whereas, saline solution was injected into the distracted tissue on the contralateral side as the internal control. An additional control group received an injection of PRP or saline solution into the distracted tissue in the same way as the experimental group. The distraction regenerates were assessed by radiological and histomorphometric analyses. The radiodensity of the distraction gap injected with TEOM was significantly higher than that injected with PRP or saline solution at 2, 3, and 4 weeks postdistraction. The histomorphometric analysis also showed that both new bone zone and bony content in the distraction gap injected with TEOM were significantly increased when compared with PRP or saline solution. Our results demonstrated that the distraction gap injected with TEOM showed significant new bone formation. Therefore, injections of TEOM may be able to compensate for insufficient distraction gaps.

  5. Digital Devices, Distraction, and Student Performance: Does In-Class Cell Phone Use Reduce Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, Angel R.; Wilcox, Bethany R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads, and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use on student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight…

  6. Repair of segmental bone defects in the maxilla by transport disc distraction osteogenesis: Clinical experience with a new device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonzaier, James; Vicatos, George; Hendricks, Rushdi

    2015-01-01

    The bones of the maxillary complex are vital for normal oro-nasal function and facial cosmetics. Maxillary tumor excision results in large defects that commonly include segments of the alveolar and palatine processes, compromising eating, speech and facial appearance. Unlike the conventional approach to maxillary defect repair by vascularized bone grafting, transport disc distraction osteogenesis (TDDO) stimulates new bone by separating the healing callus, and stimulates growth of surrounding soft tissues as well. Bone formed in this way closely mimics the parent bone in form and internal structure, producing a superior anatomical, functional and cosmetic result. Historically, TDDO has been successfully used to close small horizontal cleft defects in the maxilla, not exceeding 25 mm. Fujioka et al. reported in 2012 that “no bone transporter corresponding to the (large) size of the oro-antral fistula is marketed. The authors report the successful treatment of 4 cases involving alveolar defects of between 25 mm and 80 mm in length. PMID:26389041

  7. Skeletal and dental stability after maxillary distraction with a rigid external device in adult cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Muge; Saglam-Aydinatay, Banu; Akcan, Cenk Ahmet; El, Hakan; Taner, Tulin; Kocadereli, Ilken; Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Mavili, Mehmet Emin

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate skeletal and dental stability in adult cleft lip and palate patients treated with a rigid external distraction system at the end of distraction and during the postdistraction period. Lateral cephalograms of 7 patients were obtained before distraction, at the end of distraction, and during the postdistraction period. The mean age before distraction was 21.56 +/- 4.73 years. The mean follow-up was 37.3 +/- 12.4 months. The assessment of findings showed that skeletal maxillary sagittal movement was achieved in a superoanterior direction. The maxillary depth angle and effective maxillary length increased significantly (2 degrees and 9 mm, respectively) after distraction, whereas the palatal plane angle increased by 8 degrees , resulting in an anterior movement of the maxilla with a counterclockwise rotation. The lower facial height showed no significant changes after distraction. The sagittal movement of the upper incisors and the angulation of the upper first molars increased significantly (4.5 mm and 5.5 degrees , respectively). During the postdistraction period, the maxilla showed a slight relapse (22%). The effective maxillary length decreased by 2 mm. The palatal plane angle almost returned to its original position, showing 7 degrees of clockwise rotation. The lower facial height remained stable. The upper incisors moved anteriorly and the upper first molars showed a significant mesioangular change during follow-up. After distraction, significant maxillary advancement was achieved with a counterclockwise rotation. The upper incisors moved labially, and the upper first molars angulated mesially. After 3 years, a 22% relapse rate was seen in the maxilla. The counterclockwise rotation of the maxilla was returned to its original position. The upper incisors moved more anteriorly. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mobile Devices: A Distraction, or a Useful Tool to Engage Nursing Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cara; Nakashima, Hannah

    2018-03-01

    Engaging nursing students in theoretical courses, such as research, can be challenging. Innovative instructional strategies are essential to engage nursing students in theoretical nursing courses. This article describes an educational innovation using technology as a tool in an undergraduate nursing research class. All students in the course received iPads for the semester. Lecture material was presented in class using Nearpod, an interactive presentation embedded with slides, multimedia components, and learning activities. Students reported that using the mobile technology helped them minimize off-task activities, interact more with each other and the instructor, solve problems in the class, and develop skills and confidence related to their career. Allowing device use in the classroom, such as iPads and interactive mobile applications, can be a useful learning tool. Intentional use of technology and pedagogy can increase engagement and interaction with students. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(3):170-173.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Perpendicular serial maxillary distraction osteogenesis in cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikontiola, Leena P; Sándor, George K; Harila, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate patients often have a retruded maxilla with a severely narrowed deficient maxillary arch. This report aims to describe the management of severe maxillary retrusion and constriction in cleft lip and palate patients using distraction osteogenesis applied in serial sequence in two directions perpendicular to each other. Two adult male cleft lip and palate patients were treated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in two stages. In the first stage, surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion with a tooth-borne device was performed to significantly expand the maxillary arch in the transverse dimension. After the teeth were orthodontically aligned, the horizontal distraction of the maxilla was made by two internal maxillary distraction devices. In the first patient, the maxilla was initially widened by 11 mm and then distracted forward by 20 mm. Despite the breakage of the shaft of one of the two distractors at the end of distraction, a satisfactory occlusion was found at the time of distractor device removal. The maxillary position has remained stable through 8 years of follow-up. In the second patient, the palate was widened by 14 mm and the maxilla was distracted forward by 22 mm. The maxillary position has remained stable through 3 years of follow-up. Sequential serial distraction of maxilla in two planes perpendicular to each other is a safe and stable approach for the treatment of cleft lip and palate patients with severe transverse and anteroposterior discrepancies.

  10. Distracted Biking: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Breeze, Janis L; Salzler, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Commuting via bicycle is a very popular mode of transportation in the Northeastern United States. Boston, MA, has seen a rapid increase in bicycle ridership over the past decade, which has raised concerns and awareness about bicycle safety. An emerging topic in this field is distracted bicycle riding. This study was conducted to provide descriptive data on the prevalence and type of distracted bicycling in Boston at different times of day. This was a cross-sectional study in which observers tallied bicyclists at 4 high traffic intersections in Boston during various peak commuting hours for 2 types of distractions: auditory (earbuds/phones in or on ears), and visual/tactile (electronic device or other object in hand). Nineteen hundred seventy-four bicyclists were observed and 615 (31.2%), 95% CI [29, 33%], were distracted. Of those observed, auditory distractions were the most common (N = 349; 17.7%), 95% CI [16, 19], p = .0003, followed by visual/tactile distractions (N = 266; 13.5%), 95% CI [12, 15]. The highest proportion (40.7%), 95% CI [35, 46], of distracted bicyclists was observed during the midday commute (between 13:30 and 15:00). Distracted bicycling is a prevalent safety concern in the city of Boston, as almost a third of all bicyclists exhibited distracted behavior. Education and public awareness campaigns should be designed to decrease distracted bicycling behaviors and promote bicycle safety in Boston. An awareness of the prevalence of distracted biking can be utilized to promote bicycle safety campaigns dedicated to decreasing distracted bicycling and to provide a baseline against which improvements can be measured.

  11. Mid-maxillary distraction osteogenesis of cleft patients using a special custom-made tooth-borne device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, D K; De Silva, H L; Senadeera, W M

    2011-09-01

    A relatively new approach to maxillary advancement by maxillary distraction using a combined surgical and modified orthodontic technique is described. This protocol and the technique have been used for the past 3 years (2006 to 2009) on more than 60 patients, aged between 14-29 years. Distraction of between 7 and 18 mm has been achieved, creating class 1 or mild class 2 arch relationships in cleft lip and cleft palate patients who had class 3 arch relationship compounded by significant maxillary retrusion. The technique is simple, inexpensive and less time consuming.

  12. Maxillary distraction complications in cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeblaoui, Y; Morand, B; Brix, M; Lebeau, J; Bettega, G

    2010-06-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients often present with a class III malocclusion in connection with a three dimensional maxillary hypoplasia. Twenty-five to 60% of these patients need maxillary advancement. Two solutions are possible: orthognathic surgery and maxillary distraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications of maxillary distraction in CLP patients. Data was collected from the records of patients treated in our surgery unit between 2000 and 2007. Among the eight patients (four male and four female), five presented with a bilateral CLP, two with a unilateral CLP, and one with a unilateral cleft lip associated to a soft palate cleft. The average age at surgery was 17 years. All underwent a Le Fort I osteotomy with a pterygomaxillary disjunction. An external distractor was used for the first two patients and an internal distractor for the six following patients. After a seven-day latency, activation was implemented at a rate of 1mm twice a day. The average period of consolidation was four months. Maxillary advancement ranged between 7 and 19mm, with an average of 12.6mm. The average follow-up was four years. Complications were noted in seven patients: one intra-operative hemorrhage, one avulsion of a tooth anchored at the pterygoid process during osteotomy, three cases of device dysfunction, two cases of significant pain during activation, one loosening of the orthodontic arch in an external system, two cases of labial ulceration, and one maxillary sinusitis due to migration of a wisdom tooth. Complications of maxillary distraction in CLP patients were very frequent. Most were related to the device and did not interfere with the final result. This must be taken into account when indicating distraction and choosing the device. Two types of complications can occur during distraction: those related to the osteotomy and those related to the device. The complications related to the osteotomy are linked to the cicatricial ground of previous

  13. Mandibular distraction in neonates: indications, technique, results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesenna Enrico

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pierre Robin Sequence features were first described by Robin in 1923 and include micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress with an incidence estimated as 1:8,500 to 1:20,000 newborns. Upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulties are the main concerns related to the pathology. Mandibular distraction should be considered a treatment option (when other treatments result inadequate. Patiants and methods Ten patients between the ages of 1 month and 2 years with severe micrognathia and airway obstruction were treated with Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (MDO. All patients underwent fibroscopic examination of the upper airway and a radiographic imaging and/or computed tomography scans to detect malformations and to confirm that the obstruction was caused by posterior tongue displacement. All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Indications for surgery included frequent apneic episodes with severe desaturation (70%. Gavage therapy was employed in all patients since oral feeding was not possible. The two tracheotomy patients were 5 months and 2 years old respectively, and the distraction procedure was performed to remove the tracheotomy tube. All patients were treated with bilateral mandibular distraction: two cases with an external multivector distraction device, six cases with an internal non-resorbable device and two cases with an internal resorbable device. In one case, the patient with Goldenhar's Syndrome, the procedure was repeated. Results The resolution of symptoms was obtained in all patients, and, when present, tracheotomy was removed without complications. Of the two patients with pre-existing tracheotomies, in the younger patient (5 months old the tracheotomy was removed 7 days postoperatively. In the Goldenhar's syndrome case (2 years old a Montgomery device was necessary for 6 months due to the presence of tracheotomy-inducted tracheomalacia. Patients were discharged when the

  14. Changes after surgically-assisted maxillary expansion (SARME) to the dentoalveolar, palatal and nasal structures by using tooth-borne distraction devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberger, Robin; Kater, Wolfgang; Schulte-Geers, Michael; Davids, Rolf; Freier, Kolja; Thiele, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    Different devices are available to aid surgically-assisted maxillary expansion. In this study we have evaluated the changes to the anchoring teeth, the hard palate, and the lower nasal passage made by tooth-borne distraction devices. Thirty-one patients (mean (SD) age 28 (2) years) with deficiencies in the transverse width of the maxilla were examined by computed tomography and cone beam scans before and after operation. The data were analysed with the help of Wilcoxon's signed rank test and Spearman's r correlation. The mean (SD) distraction width was 6.5 (2.3) mm. All anchorage teeth were tilted (pdistraction width, with changes in the intercoronal and interapical distances of the anchoring premolars (pdistraction width and the overall gain in width of the lower nasal passage (pmaxillary expansion with tooth-borne devices has significant effects on the anchoring teeth, the nasal floor, and the hard palate. Both tilting of the teeth and an evenly distributed movement of the segments were seen. Copyright © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The PediSedate device, a novel approach to pediatric sedation that provides distraction and inhaled nitrous oxide: clinical evaluation in a large case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, William T; Tuason, Pacifico M; Ahmed, Mohammed I; Brennen, Loralie M; Cepeda, M Soledad; Carr, Daniel B

    2007-02-01

    Pediatric sedation is of paramount importance but can be challenging. Fear and anticipatory anxiety before invasive procedures often lead to uncooperativeness. A novel device (PediSedate) provides sedation through a combination of inhaled nitrous oxide and distraction (video game). We evaluated the acceptability and safety of the PediSedate device in children. We enrolled children between 3 and 9 years old who were scheduled to undergo surgical procedures that required general inhalational anesthesia. After the device was applied, he/she played a video game while listening to the audio portion of the game through the earphones. Nitrous oxide in oxygen was administered via the nasal piece of the headset starting at 50% and increasing to 70%, in 10% increments every 8 min. Treatment failures, vital signs, arterial oxygen saturation, depth of sedation, airway patency, side effects, acceptance of the device and parental satisfaction were all evaluated. Of 100 children included, treatment failure occurred in 18% mainly because of poor tolerance of the device. At least 96% of the children who completed the study exhibited an excellent degree of sedation, 22% had side effects, and none experienced serious airway obstruction. Nausea and vomiting were the most common side effects and no patients had hemodynamic instability. The PediSedate device combines nonpharmacologic with pharmacologic methods of sedation. Most of the children we evaluated were able to tolerate the PediSedate device and achieved an adequate degree of sedation.

  16. International Policy and Roma Education in Europe: Essential Inputs or Centralized Distractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Melanie H.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the case of Roma inclusion in education as a study of the ways in which international policy can and cannot bring change at the local level. I first reflect on the numerous international organizations and initiatives to improve the educational outcomes of Roma, and to reduce segregation and other non-inclusionary practices.…

  17. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: "Just Hang Up and Drive".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Christopher A; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-12-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as "distracted driving." The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article "Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011" highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  18. Efficacy of a children’s procedural preparation and distraction device on healing in acute burn wound care procedures: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Nadia J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intense pain and anxiety triggered by burns and their associated wound care procedures are well established in the literature. Non-pharmacological intervention is a critical component of total pain management protocols and is used as an adjunct to pharmacological analgesia. An example is virtual reality, which has been used effectively to dampen pain intensity and unpleasantness. Possible links or causal relationships between pain/anxiety/stress and burn wound healing have previously not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to investigate these relationships, specifically by determining if a newly developed multi-modal procedural preparation and distraction device (Ditto™ used during acute burn wound care procedures will reduce the pain and anxiety of a child and increase the rate of re-epithelialization. Methods/design Children (4 to 12 years with acute burn injuries presenting for their first dressing change will be randomly assigned to either the (1 Control group (standard distraction or (2 Ditto™ intervention group (receiving Ditto™, procedural preparation and Ditto™ distraction. It is intended that a minimum of 29 participants will be recruited for each treatment group. Repeated measures of pain intensity, anxiety, stress and healing will be taken at every dressing change until complete wound re-epithelialization. Further data collection will aid in determining patient satisfaction and cost effectiveness of the Ditto™ intervention, as well as its effect on speed of wound re-epithelialization. Discussion Results of this study will provide data on whether the disease process can be altered by reducing stress, pain and anxiety in the context of acute burn wounds. Trial registration ACTRN12611000913976

  19. Maxillary-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction for hemifacial microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideo; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Tamada, Ikkei; Ogata, Hisao; Kishi, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Teruo

    2011-12-01

    We treat hemifacial microsomia with a combination of surgery and orthodontic treatment during the growth period, resulting in early improvement in facial asymmetry and the induction of normal growth. We previously used gradual distraction of the mandibular ramus for Pruzansky's type II classification (Pruzansky, 1969). In type II cases, the maxilla should also be treated actively as, using this technique, improvement of the occlusal plane is difficult to achieve, resulting in a cross bite and difficulties in post-operative orthodontic treatment-especially in older patients. Morphologically, the mandibular angle region of the operative side is flat, and the angle of the mouth remains elevated. We performed mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction while the occlusion was maintained using intermaxillary anchorage. However, mandibular-driven distraction tended to elongate the face because the mandible only elongated downwards and the mandibular ramus did not reach the glenoid. Furthermore, external distraction devices produce significant distress for patients until removal of the device and cause scars on the face. We developed a new internal distraction device with a variable angle and performed maxillary-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction using this device. The result was morphologically satisfactory and solved the above problems. Because the patient was in the growth period, careful follow-up and induction to normal growth were important while the inferior growth of the affected side was monitored. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Le Fort I Maxillary Advancement Using Distraction Osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Patrick D.; Harshbarger, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of maxillary hypoplasia has traditionally involved conventional Le Fort I osteotomies and advancement. Advancements of greater than 10 mm risk significant relapse. This risk is greater in the cleft lip and palate population, whose anatomy and soft tissue scarring from prior procedures contributes to instability of conventional maxillary advancement. Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis has emerged as viable, stable treatment modality correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia in cleft, syndromic, and noncleft patients. In this article, the authors provide a review of current data and recommendations concerning Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis. In addition, they outline their technique for treating severe maxillary hypoplasia with distraction osteogenesis using internal devices. PMID:25383054

  1. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10 -6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  2. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: “Just Hang Up and Drive”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Kahn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as “distracted driving.” The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR article “Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011” highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011 estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  3. International Catalogue of Sealed Radioactive Sources and Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The international catalogue of sealed radioactive sources and devices have two major objectives. The first objective is to provide vital information for a wide range of individuals and organizations on industrially manufactured radioactive sources and devices. The second objective is to facilitate identification of design specifications based on limited information from orphan sources and devices to allow safe handling of these items.

  4. [Maxillary distraction complications in cleft patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeblaoui, Y; Morand, B; Brix, M; Lebeau, J; Bettega, G

    2008-09-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients often present with a class III malocclusion in connection with a three dimensional maxillary hypoplasia. Twenty-five to 60% of these patients require a maxillary advancement. Two solutions are possible: orthognathic surgery and maxillary distraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications of the maxillary distraction in CLP patients. Data was collected from the records of patients treated at our Surgery Unit between 2000 and 2007. Among the eight patients (four male and four female), five presented a bilateral CLP, two a unilateral CLP and one a unilateral cleft lip associated to a soft palate cleft. The average age at surgery was 17 years old. All had a Le Fort I osteotomy with a pterygomaxillary disjunction. The first two patients had external distractors and the six following internal ones. After a seven-day latency, activation was led to the rate of 1mm per day twice. The period of consolidation was four months on average. The maxillary advancement varied between 7 and 19 mm with an average of 12.6mm. The average follow-up was four years. We encountered difficulties and/or complications in seven patients: one intraoperatively haemorrhage, one avulsion of a tooth fixed at the pterygoid process during the osteotomy, three device failures, two cases of significant pains during activation, one dissociation of the dental anchorage of an external system, two labial ulcerations and one maxillary sinusitis by migration of the 18. Difficulties of maxillary distraction in CLP patients are very frequent. The majority is related to the distractors and did not interfere with the final result. But this frequency must be taken into account in the indication and in the choice of the material. Two types of complications can occur during distraction: those related to the osteotomy and those related to the material. The complications related to the osteotomy are in connection with the cicatricial ground of the CLP. They are

  5. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  6. Distraction osteogenesis and orthognathic surgery for a patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Il Hong; Lee, Sang Min; Yang, Byoung Eun; Park, In Young

    2015-03-01

    Maxillary deficiency is a common feature in patients with repaired cleft lip and palate. Orthognathic surgery has been the conventional approach for the management of cleft-related maxillary hypoplasia. However, for patients with a severe maxillary deficiency, orthognathic surgery alone has many disadvantages, such as high relapse rates of 25% to 40%, instability, limited amount of advancement, and a highly invasive surgical technique. As an alternative treatment method, distraction osteogenesis has been used successfully in the distraction of the mandible, the maxilla, the entire midface, and the orbits as well as the cranial bones, with stable outcomes. The type of distraction device, either external or internal, can be chosen based on the surgical goals set for the patient. In this study, we report on the use of a rigid external distraction device for maxillary advancement in a 22-year-old woman with a repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate and severe maxillary hypoplasia. After the distraction osteogenesis, 2-jaw surgery was performed to correct the maxillary yaw deviation and the mandibular prognathism. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distraction rate and latency: factors in the outcome of paediatric maxillary distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, Stephen; Cole, Patrick; Stephenson, J B; Hollier, Larry

    2009-12-01

    Over 50 years ago, current tenets of distraction osteogenesis were developed through work on the lower extremity; however, the application of these tenets in the paediatric craniofacial skeleton remains questionable. Prompted by recent concern that traditional aspects of distraction may be either outdated or wholly inapplicable to the paediatric maxilla, we retrospectively evaluated maxillary distraction protocol using a 24-h latency period in conjunction with a distraction rate of 2mm/day. Following maxillary advancement via a distraction protocol consisting of a 24-h latency period and a distraction rate of 2mm/day, seven consecutive paediatric cases were evaluated. Standard profile photos and cephalometric films taken preoperatively, at device removal and at 1-year follow-up were compared. With the sella as the point of registration, pre- and post-distraction films were superimposed on the sella-nasion plane. Sella-nasion-subspinale, the angle of convexity, the distance from incisal edges to the y-axis, and angulation of the upper incisor to the sella-nasion plane were analysed to evaluate hard-tissue changes. Patient age ranged from 3 to 14 years (mean=7.43 years). Maxillary distraction length averaged 11 mm (range=10-12 mm). Interval from device application to removal averaged 98 days (range=75-180 days). The interval of the active distraction ranged from 11 to 65 days (mean=24 days). From distraction completion to device removal averaged 85 days (range=60-150). Follow-up intervals ranged from 52 to 24 months (mean=34 months). All patients demonstrated substantial clinical advancement of the maxilla with correction of midfacial deficiencies. A single patient developed mild cellulitis at one skin-device interface; no other complications were noted. Cephalometric and clinical evaluations at 1 year post-distraction demonstrated stable results, and parental satisfaction was qualitatively high. The surgical dogma of lower-extremity distraction osteogenesis is not

  8. On-Demand Cell Internal Short Circuit Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A device implantable in Li-ion cells that can generate a hard internal short circuit on-demand by exposing the cell to 60?C has been demonstrated to be valuable for expanding our understanding of cell responses. The device provides a negligible impact to cell performance and enables the instigation of the 4 general categories of cell internal shorts to determine relative severity and cell design susceptibility. Tests with a 18650 cell design indicates that the anode active material short to the aluminum cathode current collector tends to be more catastrophic than the 3 other types of internal shorts. Advanced safety features (such as shutdown separators) to prevent or mitigate the severity of cell internal shorts can be verified with this device. The hard short success rate achieved to date in 18650 cells is about 80%, which is sufficient for using these cells in battery assemblies for field-failure-relevant, cell-cell thermal runaway propagation verification tests

  9. Mobile devices, interaction, and distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    at stake in such impaired social interaction include delayed responses, mechanical intonation, a motionless body, and a lack of eye contact. Appropriating developmental psychologist Daniel Stern’s terminology, it is suggested that this mismatch between the vitality of a person and his or her absently...

  10. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Peter A J; Golanó, Pau; Clavero, Joan A; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-05-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, whereas in ankle distraction the anterior neurovascular bundle is pulled tight towards the joint, thereby decreasing the safe anterior working area. Six fresh frozen ankle specimens, amputated above the knee, were scanned with computed tomography. Prior to scanning the anterior tibial artery was injected with contrast fluid and subsequently each ankle was scanned both in ankle dorsiflexion and in distraction. A special device was developed to reproducibly obtain ankle dorsiflexion and distraction in the computed tomography scanner. The distance between the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet and the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery was measured. The median distance from the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet to the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery in ankle dorsiflexion and distraction was 0.9 cm (range 0.7-1.5) and 0.7 cm (range 0.5-0.8), respectively. The distance in ankle dorsiflexion significantly exceeded the distance in ankle distraction (P = 0.03). The current study shows a significantly increased distance between the anterior distal tibia and the overlying anterior neurovascular bundle with the ankle in a slightly dorsiflexed position as compared to the distracted ankle position. We thereby conclude that the distracted ankle position puts the neurovascular structures more at risk for iatrogenic damage when performing anterior ankle arthroscopy.

  11. Driven to Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Cooper, Joel M

    2015-12-01

    We address several themes that emerged in the commentaries related to our target article. First, we consider the relationship between cognitive distraction and crash risk. Second, we discuss the development of our cognitive distraction scale. Third, we weigh issues of self-regulation, appropriate baselines, and satisficing. Finally, we identify several areas where additional research is needed to refine our understanding of driver distraction and crash risk. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. 78 FR 68853 - International Medical Device Regulators Forum; Medical Device Single Audit Program International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... its inaugural meeting in Singapore in 2012, identified a Work Group (WG) to develop specific documents... Assessment Method for the Recognition and Monitoring of Medical Device Auditing Organizations;'' and IMDRF...

  13. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwakalonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.

  14. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or reading and typing text messages (texting). Distraction has negative effects on

  15. Taking Action on Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Insights → We identify a significant increase in digital distractions and the rise of what we call Do Not Disturb software designed to decrease, delimit, or discard these digital distractions. → Our basic typology and framework can help us understand how Do Not Disturb software is, ironically, de...

  16. Transpalatal distraction for the management of maxillary constriction in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphs, Nicolai; Ernst, Nicole; Hoffmeister, Bodo; Raguse, Jan-Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Context: The management of severe maxillary constriction can be challenging. For that purpose surgically assisted maxillary expansion by transpalatal distraction (TPD) can typically be recommended after skeletal maturity. However in selected cases bone borne transpalatal distraction devices can contribute to improve maxillary constriction considerably earlier already during mixed dentition. Aims: To assess the possibility of bone borne transpalatal distraction in pediatric patients. Settings ...

  17. A minipig model of maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Maria E; Troulis, Maria J; Glowacki, Julie; Kaban, Leonard B

    2010-11-01

    To establish a porcine model for maxillary distraction osteogenesis and to document the sequence of bone formation in the zone of advancement. Female Yucatan minipigs (n = 9) in the mixed dentition stage underwent modified Le Fort I osteotomy through a vestibular incision under general anesthesia. A unidirectional, semiburied Le Fort I distraction device was fixed across the osteotomy. The distraction protocol was 0-day latency, 1-mm/d rate for 12 days, and 24 days of fixation. Maxillary specimens (n = 9) were harvested and divided in half at the end of distraction (n = 6 sides), midfixation (n = 6), and the end of fixation (n = 6). Clinical stability, volume, and radiographic density across the zone of advancement were graded on semiquantitative scales. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined with light microscopy. Animals tolerated the operation, the distraction and fixation periods. There were no infections and no devices failed. At the end of the distraction period, bone trabeculae were present at the periphery and fibrous tissues, and vessels, preosteoblasts, and osteoblasts were present in the center of the zone of advancement. Islands of chondrocyte-like cells appeared in 1 specimen each at midfixation and the end of fixation. At the end of fixation, clinical stability and radiographic density were graded 3/3 and bone formation was complete across the advancement zone in all specimens. A model for Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis was established. Intramembranous bone formation was the predominant mechanism of healing in the zone of advancement. Latency was not necessary for bone formation in this minipig model. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anterior maxillary segmental distraction for correction of maxillary hypoplasia and dental crowding in cleft palate patients: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-X; Wang, X; Li, Z-L; Yi, B; Liang, C; Jia, Y-L; Zou, B-S

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of anterior maxillary segmental distraction (AMSD) to correct maxillary hypoplasia and severe dental crowding in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients, 7 patients (average age 16.4 years) with maxillary hypoplasia, shortened maxillary dental arch length and severe anterior dental crowding secondary to CLP were selected for this study. After anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy, 3 patients were treated using bilateral internal distraction devices, and 4 patients were treated using rigid external distraction devices. Photographs and radiographs were taken to review the improvement in facial profile and occlusion after distraction. An average 10.25 mm anterior maxillary advancement was obtained in all patients after 10-23 days of distraction and 9-16 weeks of consolidation. The sella-nasion-point A (SNA) angle increased from 69.5 degrees to 79.6 degrees. Midface convexity was greatly improved and velopharyngeal competence was preserved. The maxillary dental arch length was greatly increased by 10.1 mm (P<0.01). Dental crowding and malocclusion were corrected by orthodontic treatment. These results show that AMSD can effectively correct the hypoplastic maxilla and severe dental crowding associated with CLP by increasing the midface convexity and dental arch length while preserving velopharyngeal function, and dental crowding can be corrected without requiring tooth extraction.

  19. Distraction and mind-wandering under load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Attention research over the last several decades has provided rich insights into the determinants of distraction, including distractor characteristics, task features, and individual differences. Load Theory represented a particularly important breakthrough, highlighting the critical role of the level and nature of task-load in determining both the efficiency of distractor rejection and the stage of processing at which this occurs. However, until recently studies of distraction were restricted to those measuring rather specific forms of distraction by external stimuli which I argue that, although intended to be irrelevant, were in fact task-relevant. In daily life, attention may be distracted by a wide range of stimuli, which may often be entirely unrelated to any task being performed, and may include not only external stimuli but also internally generated stimuli such as task-unrelated thoughts. This review outlines recent research examining these more general, entirely task-irrelevant, forms of distraction within the framework of Load Theory. I discuss the relation between different forms of distraction, and the universality of load effects across different distractor types and individuals.

  20. Distraction and mind-wandering under load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eForster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Attention research over the last several decades has provided rich insights into the determinants of distraction, including distractor characteristics, task features and individual differences. Load Theory represented a particularly important breakthrough, highlighting the critical role of the level and nature of task load in determining both the efficiency of distractor rejection and the stage of processing at which this occurs. However, until recently studies of distraction were restricted to those measuring rather specific forms of distraction by external stimuli which I argue that, although intended to be irrelevant, were in fact task-relevant. In daily life, attention may be distracted by a wide range of stimuli, which may often be entirely unrelated to any task being performed, and may include not only external stimuli but also internally generated stimuli such as task-unrelated thoughts. This review outlines recent research examining these more general, entirely task-irrelevant, forms of distraction within the framework of Load Theory. I discuss the relation between different forms of distraction, and the universality of load effects across different distractor types and individuals.

  1. International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rattan, Sunita; Verma, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials and Devices, which was conceived as a major contribution to large-scale efforts to foster Indian research and development in the field in close collaboration with the community of non-resident Indian researchers from all over the world. The research articles collected in this volume - selected from among the submissions for their intrinsic quality and originality, as well as for their potential value for further collaborations - document and report on a wide range of recent and significant results for various applications and scientific developments in the areas of Materials and Devices. The technical sessions covered include photovoltaics and energy storage, semiconductor materials and devices, sensors, smart and polymeric materials, optoelectronics, nanotechnology and nanomaterials, MEMS and NEMS, as well as emerging technologies.

  2. 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication & Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high quality papers presented at 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication & Devices (ICCD 2016) organized by Interscience Institute of Management and Technology (IIMT), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, during 13 and 14 August, 2016. The book covers all dimensions of intelligent sciences in its three tracks, namely, intelligent computing, intelligent communication and intelligent devices. intelligent computing track covers areas such as intelligent and distributed computing, intelligent grid and cloud computing, internet of things, soft computing and engineering applications, data mining and knowledge discovery, semantic and web technology, hybrid systems, agent computing, bioinformatics, and recommendation systems. Intelligent communication covers communication and network technologies, including mobile broadband and all optical networks that are the key to groundbreaking inventions of intelligent communication technologies. This covers communication hardware, soft...

  3. Modeling reacting gases and aftertreatment devices for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depcik, Christopher David

    As more emphasis is placed worldwide on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, automobile manufacturers have to create more efficient engines. Simultaneously, legislative agencies want these engines to produce fewer problematic emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. In response, newer combustion methods, like homogeneous charge compression ignition and fuel cells, are being researched alongside the old standard of efficiency, the compression ignition or diesel engine. These newer technologies present a number of benefits but still have significant challenges to overcome. As a result, renewed interest has risen in making diesel engines cleaner. The key to cleaning up the diesel engine is the placement of aftertreatment devices in the exhaust. These devices have shown great potential in reducing emission levels below regulatory levels while still allowing for increased fuel economy versus a gasoline engine. However, these devices are subject to many flow control issues. While experimental evaluation of these devices helps to understand these issues better, it is impossible to solve the problem through experimentation alone because of time and cost constraints. Because of this, accurate models are needed in conjunction with the experimental work. In this dissertation, the author examines the entire exhaust system including reacting gas dynamics and aftertreatment devices, and develops a complete numerical model for it. The author begins by analyzing the current one-dimensional gas-dynamics simulation models used for internal combustion engine simulations. It appears that more accurate and faster numerical method is available, in particular, those developed in aeronautical engineering, and the author successfully implements one for the exhaust system. The author then develops a comprehensive literature search to better understand the aftertreatment devices. A number of these devices require a secondary injection of fuel or reductant in the exhaust stream

  4. Design and Optimization of Resorbable Silk Internal Fixation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Dylan S.

    Limitations of current material options for internal fracture fixation devices have resulted in a large gap between user needs and hardware function. Metal systems offer robust mechanical strength and ease of implantation but require secondary surgery for removal and/or result in long-term complications (infection, palpability, sensitivity, etc.). Current resorbable devices eliminate the need for second surgery and long-term complications but are still associated with negative host response as well as limited functionality and more difficult implantation. There is a definitive need for orthopedic hardware that is mechanically capable of immediate fracture stabilization and fracture fixation during healing, can safely biodegrade while allowing complete bone remodeling, can be resterilized for reuse, and is easily implantable (self-tapping). Previous work investigated the use of silk protein to produce resorbable orthopedic hardware for non- load bearing fracture fixation. In this study, silk orthopedic hardware was further investigated and optimized in order to better understand the ability of silk as a fracture fixation system and more closely meet the unfulfilled market needs. Solvent-based and aqueous-based silk processing formulations were cross-linked with methanol to induce beta sheet structure, dried, autoclaved and then machined to the desired device/geometry. Silk hardware was evaluated for dry, hydrated and fatigued (cyclic) mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, resterilization, functionalization with osteoinductive molecules and implantation technique for fracture fixation. Mechanical strength showed minor improvements from previous results, but remains comparable to current resorbable fixation systems with the advantages of self-tapping ability for ease of implantation, full degradation in 10 months, ability to be resterilized and reused, and ability to release molecules for osteoinudction. In vivo assessment confirmed biocompatibility, showed

  5. Electronic Gaming as Pain Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Jameson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether active distraction reduces participants’ experience of pain more than passive distraction during a cold pressor task. In the first experiment, 60 participants were asked to submerge their hand in cold (2°C water for as long as they could tolerate. They did this with no distraction, and then with active (electronic gaming system and passive (television distraction, in randomly assigned order. Tolerance time, pain intensity ratings and task absorption ratings were measured for each condition. A second experiment attempted to control for participants’ expectations about the effects of distraction on pain. Forty participants underwent the same experimental procedure, but were given verbal suggestions about the effects of distraction by the experimenter before each distraction condition. Participants in both experiments had a significantly higher pain tolerance and reported less pain with the active distraction compared with passive or no distraction. Participants reported being more absorbed, and were significantly more willing to do the task again when they had the active distraction compared with both passive distraction and no distraction. They also had more enjoyment, less anxiety and greater reduction in pain with active distraction than with passive distraction. There was no effect of suggestion. These experiments offer further support for the use of electronic games as a method of pain control.

  6. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  7. Distracted shareholders and corporate actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth; Manconi, Alberto; Spalt, Oliver

    Investor attention matters for corporate actions. Our new identification approach constructs firm-level shareholder "distraction" measures, by exploiting exogenous shocks to unrelated parts of institutional shareholders' portfolios. Firms with "distracted" shareholders are more likely to announce

  8. PREFACE International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, You-wei; Judy, Jack; Qian, Zhenghong; Wang, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    SSDC logo Preface The International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization (ISSDC' 2010) was held in Beijing, China, from 21 to 24 October 2010. The aim of the symposium was to provide an opportunity for international experts, academics, researchers, practitioners and students working in the areas of spintronic theories, spintronic materials, and spintronic devices to exchange information on the R&D and commercialization of spintronic materials and devices. New developments, concepts, future research trends and potential commercialization areas were also discussed. The topics covered by ISSDC' 2010 were: Fundmental Spintronic Theories/Experiments Spin polarization, spin-dependent scattering, spin relaxation, spin manipulation and optimization, as well as other related characterizations and applications, etc. Spintronic Materials Giant magnetoresistance materials, magnetic tunnel junction materials, magnetic semiconductor materials, molecular spintronic materials. Spintronic Devices Sensors, isolators, spin logic devices and magnetic random access memories (MRAMs), microwave devices, spin diodes, spin transistor, spin filters and detectors, spin optoelectronic devices, spin quantum devices, single chip computer, spin molecule and single electron devices. Other Magnetic Materials Soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, magnetostriction materials. Applications of Spintronic Devices Magnetic position/angle/velocity/rotation velocity sensors, magnetic encoders, magnetic compasses, bio-medical magnetic devices and other applications. Future Research Trends and the Commercialization of Spintronic Devices Approximately 85 scientists from almost 10 countries participated in the conference. The conference featured 6 keynote lectures, 8 invited lectures, 12 contributed lectures and about 30 posters. We would like to express our gratitude to all participants for their presentations and discussions, which made the conference

  9. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  10. A shield against distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Halin, N.; Marsh, J.E.; Hellman, A.; Hellstrom, I.; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the basic idea of a trade-off between the level of concentration and distractibility to test whether a manipulation of task difficulty can shield against distraction. Participants read, either in quiet or with a speech noise background, texts that were displayed either in an easy-to-read or a hard-to-read font. Background speech impaired prose recall, but only when the text was displayed in the easy-to-read font. Most importantly, recall was better in the background sp...

  11. [An adjustable distractor for transverse maxillary distraction osteogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyder, P; Wycisk, G; Quilichini, J

    2013-06-01

    The posterior skeletal widening in conventional distractions (Surgical Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion) is often modest, in contrast with a predominant anterior expansion. Until recently, it was not possible to consider transverse palatal distraction osteogenesis and Le Fort I impaction or advancement in the same procedure, as the osteosynthesis plates impeded maxillary anterior opening. We developed new sliding osteosynthesis plates allowing to perform an advancement or impaction Le Fort I osteotomy associated with a low-resistance bipartite palatal distraction osteogenesis. We had for aim to describe the device and to determine its clinical applications. This new palatal distractor is made up of two independent stainless steel jacks allowing for an adjustable distraction in the anterior or posterior area as needed. Bone-borne and tooth-borne versions are available. This new distractor can be adjusted sagittally. The distraction can be angular or parallel, and the distraction mode can be modified during post-operative distraction. This device should be adapted to all clinical presentations. It can be used in combination with sliding osteosynthesis to perform a Le Fort 1 osteotomy and at the same time a complete correction of vertical, horizontal, and sagittal deficiencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Communication, Control and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sushabhan

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high-quality research papers presented at the first international conference, ICICCD 2016, organised by the Department of Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering of University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun on 2nd and 3rd April, 2016. The book is broadly divided into three sections: Intelligent Communication, Intelligent Control and Intelligent Devices. The areas covered under these sections are wireless communication and radio technologies, optical communication, communication hardware evolution, machine-to-machine communication networks, routing techniques, network analytics, network applications and services, satellite and space communications, technologies for e-communication, wireless Ad-Hoc and sensor networks, communications and information security, signal processing for communications, communication software, microwave informatics, robotics and automation, optimization techniques and algorithms, intelligent transport, mechatronics system, guidance and navigat...

  13. VISUAL DISTRACTION WHILE DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime ITO

    2001-01-01

    The article provides background information and summarizes worldwide trends in research on accident rates, the special characteristics of visual behavior and the effects of visual distraction on drivers and vehicle behavior. It also reports on the state of ISO standardization efforts and related technological trends. Finally, it defines a number of topics for future research in the field of human engineering.

  14. Management of Cleft Maxillary Hypoplasia with Anterior Maxillary Distraction: Our Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Tojan; Vinod, Sankar; Mani, Varghese; George, Arun; Sivaprasad, K K

    2014-12-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia is a common developmental problem in cleft lip and palate deformities. Since 1970s these deformities have traditionally been corrected by means of orthognathic surgery. Management of skeletal deformities in the maxillofacial region has been an important challenge for maxillofacial surgeons and orthodontists. Distraction osteogenesis is a surgical technique that uses body's own repairing mechanisms for optimal reconstruction of the tissues. We present four cases of anterior maxillary distraction osteogenesis with tooth borne distraction device-Hyrax, which were analyzed retrospectively for the efficacy of the tooth borne device-Hyrax and skeletal stability of distracted anterior maxillary segment.

  15. Distracting laying hens with a 'toy'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of a commercially available plastic device, intended to distract laying hens, was investigated and found not to have the claimed effect. ... table for the white birds, 15 week egg production. Source of variation df2. SS3. MS4. F ratio. SLs. East. Blocks. 35. 67627.61. 1932.22. Treatments. I. 1233.39. 1233.39. 0.7104. 0.4050.

  16. Two-stage distraction lengthening of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinia, Amir H; Al-Sheikh, Ayman A; Panossian, Andre E; Upton, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Single-stage lengthening of the forearm using callus distraction is well described; however, forearm lengthening using a 2-stage technique of distraction followed by bone grafting has received less attention. A 2-staged technique can be a better alternative in cases where the surgeon desires extensive lengthening. A retrospective review was undertaken of eleven 2-stage forearm lengthening procedures performed by 1 surgeon over a 15-year period. Indications were radial longitudinal deficiency (8 patients), neonatal ischemic contractures (2 patients), and septic growth arrest (1 patient). Average follow-up was 2.8 years. Distraction was performed on patients an average of 82 mm over an average duration of 24 weeks. Average time to union from the time of distractor removal and grafting was 87 days. Average healing index was 32.1 d/cm. Distraction problems were common and related to the length of time that the distractor was in place; they included pain, pin-related infections, and multiple mechanical device difficulties. Three patients had nonunion, and another had delayed union; however, additional procedures resulted in ultimate bony union in all patients. Demineralized bone matrix and autologous corticocancellous bone grafts yielded predictable healing and good functional results in short-distance distractions. For longer distractions, free vascularized fibula transfer produced the best outcomes. Intercalary cortical allografts did not heal well. Patients with neonatal Volkmann contractures had the most difficulty with distraction and healing, ultimately obtaining little to no lengthening and poor functional outcomes.

  17. Maxillary Hypoplasia With Congenital Oligodontia Treated by Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Sayaka; Yamaguchi, Takako; Watanabe, Takuma; Komatani, Toru; Nakao, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Katsu; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2018-02-27

    It is known that congenitally missing teeth can often cause differences in craniofacial morphology; however, there are few reported cases of orthognathic surgical treatment for these patients. Herein, the authors report a rare case of maxillary hypoplasia with congenital oligodontia treated by maxillary distraction osteogenesis with internal device. A 17-year-old male presenting with multiple tooth agenesis and maxillary recession was referred to our hospital for orthognathic surgical treatment. Preoperative simulation surgery was performed using Full-Color 3-dimensional salt model. After surgery, improvement in maxillary recession and occlusal stability was observed. This report demonstrates the advantages of the method used herein, which includes reduction in operating time with increase in the safety of the procedure.

  18. Biomechanical evaluation of sagittal maxillary internal distraction osteogenesis in unilateral cleft lip and palate patient and noncleft patients: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, Sultan; Dogan, Servet; Pekedis, Mahmut; Yildiz, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    To compare the pattern and amount of stress and displacement during maxillary sagittal distraction osteogenesis (DO) between a patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and a noncleft patient. Three-dimensional finite element models for both skulls were constructed. Displacements of the surface landmarks and stress distributions in the circummaxillary sutures were analyzed after an anterior displacement of 6 mm was loaded to the elements where the inferior plates of the distractor were assumed to be fixed and were below the Le Fort I osteotomy line. In sagittal plane, more forward movement was found on the noncleft side in the UCLP model (-6.401 mm on cleft side and -6.651 mm on noncleft side for the central incisor region). However, similar amounts of forward movement were seen in the control model. In the vertical plane, a clockwise rotation occurred in the UCLP model, whereas a counterclockwise rotation was seen in the control model. The mathematical UCLP model also showed higher stress values on the sutura nasomaxillaris, frontonasalis, and zygomatiomaxillaris on the cleft side than on the normal side. Not only did the sagittal distraction forces produce advancement forces at the intermaxillary sutures, but more stress was also present on the sutura nasomaxillaris, sutura frontonasalis, and sutura zygomaticomaxillaris on the cleft side than on the noncleft side.

  19. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil......, on the other hand, the cultural formations of television, film and computers have fundamentally re-configured "aesthetic experience."...

  20. Treatment of maxillary cleft palate: Distraction osteogenesis vs. orthognathic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmiel, Adi; Even-Almos, Michal; Aizenbud, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the treatment of hypoplastic, retruded maxillary cleft palate using distraction osteogenesis vs. orthognathic surgery in terms of stability and relapse, growth after distraction and soft tissue profile changes. Materials and Methods: The cleft patients showed anteroposterior maxillary hypoplasia with class III malocclusion and negative overjet resulting in a concave profile according to preoperative cephalometric measurements, dental relationship, and soft tissue analysis. The patients were divided in two groups of treatment : S0 eventeen were treated by orthognathic Le Fort I osteotomy fixed with four mini plates and 2 mm screws, and 19 were treated by maxillary distraction osteogenesis with rigid extraoral devices (RED) connected after a Le Fort I osteotomy. The rate of distraction was 1 mm per day to achieve Class I occlusion with slight overcorrection and to create facial profile convexity. Following a 10 week latency period the distraction devices were removed. Results: In the RED group the maxilla was advanced an average of 15.80 mm. The occlusion changed from class III to class I. The profile of the face changed from concave to convex. At a 1-year follow up the results were stable. The mean orthognathic movement was 8.4 mm. Conclusion: In mild maxillary deficiency a one stage orthognathic surgery is preferable. However, in patients requiring moderate to large advancements with significant structural deficiencies of the maxilla or in growing patients the distraction technique is preferred. PMID:23483803

  1. Driver Distraction Using Visual-Based Sensors and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernández

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Driver distraction, defined as the diversion of attention away from activities critical for safe driving toward a competing activity, is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Additionally, the trend towards increasing the use of in-vehicle information systems is critical because they induce visual, biomechanical and cognitive distraction and may affect driving performance in qualitatively different ways. Non-intrusive methods are strongly preferred for monitoring distraction, and vision-based systems have appeared to be attractive for both drivers and researchers. Biomechanical, visual and cognitive distractions are the most commonly detected types in video-based algorithms. Many distraction detection systems only use a single visual cue and therefore, they may be easily disturbed when occlusion or illumination changes appear. Moreover, the combination of these visual cues is a key and challenging aspect in the development of robust distraction detection systems. These visual cues can be extracted mainly by using face monitoring systems but they should be completed with more visual cues (e.g., hands or body information or even, distraction detection from specific actions (e.g., phone usage. Additionally, these algorithms should be included in an embedded device or system inside a car. This is not a trivial task and several requirements must be taken into account: reliability, real-time performance, low cost, small size, low power consumption, flexibility and short time-to-market. The key points for the development and implementation of sensors to carry out the detection of distraction will also be reviewed. This paper shows a review of the role of computer vision technology applied to the development of monitoring systems to detect distraction. Some key points considered as both future work and challenges ahead yet to be solved will also be addressed.

  2. Driver Distraction Using Visual-Based Sensors and Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alberto; Usamentiaga, Rubén; Carús, Juan Luis; Casado, Rubén

    2016-10-28

    Driver distraction, defined as the diversion of attention away from activities critical for safe driving toward a competing activity, is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Additionally, the trend towards increasing the use of in-vehicle information systems is critical because they induce visual, biomechanical and cognitive distraction and may affect driving performance in qualitatively different ways. Non-intrusive methods are strongly preferred for monitoring distraction, and vision-based systems have appeared to be attractive for both drivers and researchers. Biomechanical, visual and cognitive distractions are the most commonly detected types in video-based algorithms. Many distraction detection systems only use a single visual cue and therefore, they may be easily disturbed when occlusion or illumination changes appear. Moreover, the combination of these visual cues is a key and challenging aspect in the development of robust distraction detection systems. These visual cues can be extracted mainly by using face monitoring systems but they should be completed with more visual cues (e.g., hands or body information) or even, distraction detection from specific actions (e.g., phone usage). Additionally, these algorithms should be included in an embedded device or system inside a car. This is not a trivial task and several requirements must be taken into account: reliability, real-time performance, low cost, small size, low power consumption, flexibility and short time-to-market. The key points for the development and implementation of sensors to carry out the detection of distraction will also be reviewed. This paper shows a review of the role of computer vision technology applied to the development of monitoring systems to detect distraction. Some key points considered as both future work and challenges ahead yet to be solved will also be addressed.

  3. Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis in the Hypoplastic Cleft Maxilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao (Janardhan), Sruthi; Kotrashetti, S. M.; Lingaraj, J. B.; Pinto, P. X.; Keluskar, K. M.; Jain, Siddharth; Sone, Piyush; Rao, Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis play a prime role in the correction of maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Advancement of the anterior maxilla alone without interfering with the velopharyngeal sphincter may be advantageous in cleft patients, who more commonly have speech deficits and dental crowding. We present a case series of anterior maxillary segmental distraction for maxillary hypoplasia in 5 CLP patients with a one-year follow-up. A custom-made tooth-borne distraction device with a hyrax screw positioned anteroposteriorly was used. The evaluation comprised of hard and soft tissue analysis and speech assessment. A stable occlusion with positive overjet and correction of dental-crowding without extraction was achieved at one year post-distraction. Facial profile and lip support improved. There was no deterioration in speech. PMID:23984033

  4. Making Markets for Low-Cost Schooling: The Devices and Investments behind Bridge International Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riep, Curtis B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the market-making devices behind Bridge International Academies: a for-profit education company aiming to school millions of nursery and primary aged-students living on less than $2 per day. A wide variety of devices are utilised by Bridge International Academies to construct mass markets for low-cost schooling, including GPS…

  5. Corrected Cephalometric Analysis to Determine the Distance and Vector of Distraction Osteogenesis for Syndromic Craniosynostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kobayashi, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions:. Using the corrected cephalometric analysis, the distance and vector of distraction osteogenesis with Le Fort III osteotomy could be determined in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. The distraction system brought the patients' facial bones to the planned position using controlling devices.

  6. Pleasures of distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    Actor-network theory, post-ANT material semiotic approaches, and related philosophical perspectives provide a way of conceptualizing visitor experiences which highlights shifting engagements and where interruption, shift and distraction form the course and content of a visit. Interruption, shift...... each other. This insight about the museum visit, which is generated during ethnographic fieldwork and is inspired by ANT and post-ANT approaches, relates to Serres’ philosophy, which in central ways has been foundational to ANT and post-ANT. Conceptualizing the museum visits in terms of shift...

  7. Do absorption and realistic distraction influence performance of component task surgical procedure?

    OpenAIRE

    Pluyter, J.R.; Buzink, S.N.; Rutkowski, A.F.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Surgeons perform complex tasks while exposed to multiple distracting sources that may increase stress in the operating room (e.g., music, conversation, and unadapted use of sophisticated technologies). This study aimed to examine whether such realistic social and technological distracting conditions may influence surgical performance. Methods. Twelve medical interns performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy task with the Xitact LC 3.0 virtual reality simulator under distracting con...

  8. Neural Basis of Visual Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to maintain focus and avoid distraction by goal-irrelevant stimuli is critical for performing many tasks and may be a key deficit in attention-related problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that irrelevant stimuli that are consciously perceived may be filtered out on a neural level and not cause the distraction triggered by…

  9. Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis with intra-articular distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyong Nyun; Jeon, June Young; Noh, Kyu Cheol; Kim, Hong Kyun; Dong, Quanyu; Park, Yong Wook

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis has shown high rates of union comparable to those with open arthrodesis but with substantially less postoperative morbidity, shorter operative times, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stays. To easily perform arthroscopic resection of the articular cartilage, sufficient distraction of the joint is necessary to insert the arthroscope and instruments. However, sometimes, standard noninvasive ankle distraction will not be sufficient in post-traumatic ankle arthritis, with the development of arthrofibrosis and joint contracture after severe ankle trauma. In the present report, we describe a technique to distract the ankle joint by inserting a 4.6-mm stainless steel cannula with a blunt trocar inside the joint. The cannula allowed sufficient intra-articular distraction, and, at the same time, a 4.0-mm arthroscope can be inserted through the cannula to view the joint. Screws can be inserted to fix the joint under fluoroscopic guidance without changing the patient's position or removing the noninvasive distraction device and leg holder, which are often necessary during standard arthroscopic arthrodesis with noninvasive distraction. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term skeletal stability after maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in nongrowing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takahiro; Mitsugi, Masaharu; Hosoe, Michi; Sukegawa, Shintaro; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2008-09-01

    We assessed the long-term skeletal stability of the repositioned maxilla, midface in patients who underwent maxillary advancement using distraction osteogenesis (DO). The study included 19 nongrowing patients with maxillary hypoplasia with a Class III relationship, a normally developed mandible, and follow-up after DO exceeding 2 years. Eleven men and 8 women participated, with a mean age at treatment of 20.7 years (range 15.4-33.4 years). Twelve patients had midfacial hypoplasia associated with a cleft lip and palate (CLP), and 7 patients had developed noncleft-related hypoplasia. The surgical treatment included our modified Le Fort I osteotomy in combination with intraoral (5 cases) or extraoral (14 cases) distraction devices. Distraction was started after a latency period of 5 to 7 days and continued until the proper convexity was obtained. After active distraction, a 3- to 4-week period of retention was allowed, followed by rigid internal fixation (IF) with or without distractor removal. Lateral cephalometric films before midfacial distraction (T0), after IF with or without distractor removal (T1), 6 months after T1 (T2), and 2 or more years (mean 2.8 years) after T1 (T3) were analyzed. The maxillary A-point in the Frankfort horizontal reference plane was used to assess the skeletal changes in the maxillary position (x, y) at each time point (T1-T3). In addition, we analyzed the differences in the devices and techniques. Midfacial DO was successful in all cases, resulting in a mean change obtained at point A of 10.3 mm (8.4 mm horizontally, 4.7 mm inferiorly). Point A underwent a moderate amount of skeletal relapse at T2 [0.4 mm (5%) horizontally and 0.6 mm (13%) superiorly], with a mean of 8% (0.6 mm) horizontally and 19% (1.0 mm) superiorly over the mean 2.8-year (2.0-4.8 years) follow-up. After long-term follow-up, the maxillary advancement with DO was stable in both CLP and non-CLP patients with maxillary hypoplasia. In addition, our original technique

  11. Technical feasibility of personalized articulating knee joint distraction for treatment of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struik, T; Jaspers, J E N; Besselink, N J; van Roermund, P M; Plomp, S; Rudert, M J; Lafeber, F P J G; Mastbergen, S C

    2017-11-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent degenerative joint disorder characterized by joint tissue damage and pain. Knee joint distraction has been introduced as a joint preserving surgical procedure to postpone knee arthroplasty. An often used standard externally fixation device for distraction poses a burden to patients due to the absence of joint flexion during the 6weeks treatment. Therefore, a personalized articulating distraction device was developed. The aim of this study was to test technical feasibility of this device. Based on an often applied rigid device, using equal bone pin positions and connectors, a hinge mechanism was developed consisting of a cam-following system for reproducing the complex joint-specific knee kinematics. In support, a device was developed for capturing the joint-specific sagittal plane articulation. The obtained kinematic data were translated into joint-specific cam shapes that were installed bilaterally in the hinge mechanism of the distraction device, as such providing personalized knee motion. Distraction of 5mm was performed within a range of motion of 30deg. joint flexion. Pre-clinical evaluation of the working principle was performed on human cadaveric legs and system stiffness characteristics were biomechanically evaluated. The desired range of motion was obtained and distraction was maintained under physiologically representative loading. Moreover, the joint-specific approach demonstrated tolerance of deviations from anatomical and alignment origin during initial placement of the developed distraction device. Articulation during knee distraction is considered technically feasible and has potential to decrease burden and improve acceptance of distraction therapy. Testing of clinical feasibility is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interim Procedures Safeguarding Mobile Devices during International Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    This procedure is for safeguarding EPA information and systems for all employees, contractors, and other users while on international travel or to specifically designated locations within the United States and foreign embassies.

  13. Patient satisfaction related to rigid external distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eggermont, Bas; Jansma, J.; Bierman, M. W. J.; Stegenga, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate satisfaction with treatment among cleft lip and palate patients who underwent maxillary advancement using a rigid external distraction (RED) device. Nine patients (four boys, five girls), mean age 17.7 years (SD 4.0), were included in the study. Outcome measures

  14. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Patnaik, Srikanta; Ichalkaranje, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    In the history of mankind, three revolutions which impact the human life are the tool-making revolution, agricultural revolution and industrial revolution. They have transformed not only the economy and civilization but the overall development of the society. Probably, intelligence revolution is the next revolution, which the society will perceive in the next 10 years. ICCD-2014 covers all dimensions of intelligent sciences, i.e. Intelligent Computing, Intelligent Communication and Intelligent Devices. This volume covers contributions from Intelligent Communication which are from the areas such as Communications and Wireless Ad Hoc & Sensor Networks, Speech & Natural Language Processing, including Signal, Image and Video Processing and Mobile broadband and Optical networks, which are the key to the ground-breaking inventions to intelligent communication technologies. Secondly, Intelligent Device is any type of equipment, instrument, or machine that has its own computing capability. Contributions from ...

  15. An injection limiting thrustor control device for internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givaudan, B.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this device is the automatic limitation, without any command circuit, of the injection in large diesel engines (16 or 20 cylinders) during a compressed air assisted start-up. The thrustor is driven directly by the compressed air. The limitation may be extended and regulated by the means of valves. Application to start-up of diesel generating sets for nuclear power plants

  16. Contributions to the 7th International Conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report contains three papers presented in the 7th International Conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices held in Princeton (USA) 5-9 May 1986, all referred to the FT Tokamak

  17. A simple mechanism for measuring and adjusting distraction forces during maxillary advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva

    2009-10-01

    Direct measurement of distraction forces on the craniofacial skeleton has never been reported. The present report describes the development of a method of assessing and adjusting traction forces applied through maxillary distraction osteogenesis. A simple mechanism to measure and adjust tension force during maxillary distraction osteogenesis was developed and connected bilaterally to the traction screws of a rigid external distraction device. Measurements were carried out before and after activation using a Shimpo (Nidec-Shimpo America Corporation, Itasca, IL) force gauge in 4 patients (2 with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, 1 with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 1 with noncleft) during the distraction process. Activation was performed twice a day at a rate of 1 mm/day. The average maximum force applied throughout the distraction period was 42.5 N (range 16.4 to 65.3 N), with increments, after activation, averaging 10.5 N (range 7.9 to 15.7 N). In patients with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, distraction forces on the larger segment were 65.1% higher than on the lesser segment. A differential pattern of forces was also observed in the patients with asymmetric noncleft. However, the differential forces between lateral segments were not observed in the patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate. During the activation period, distraction forces progressively increased, whereas the amount of maxillary movement decreased. Pain and discomfort were reported with high forces. Through this mechanism, direct measurement and adjustment of distraction forces during maxillary advancement was possible. The unbalanced pattern of forces observed in patients with cleft suggests the necessity of individual adjustments for controlling pain and clinical symptoms. Accordingly, assessment of distraction forces during maxillary distraction osteogenesis is extremely helpful in understanding the biomechanics of the distraction process.

  18. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edell, Aimée R; Jung, Jesse J; Solomon, Joel M; Palu, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma.

  19. Internal Models Support Specific Gaits in Orthotic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthias Braun, Jan; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Patients use orthoses and prosthesis for the lower limbs to support and enable movements, they can not or only with difficulties perform themselves. Because traditional devices support only a limited set of movements, patients are restricted in their mobility. A possible approach to overcome such...... the system's accuracy and robustness on a Knee-Ankle-Foot-Orthosis, introducing behaviour changes depending on the patient's current walking situation. We conclude that the here presented model-based support of different gaits has the power to enhance the patient's mobility....

  20. Corrected Cephalometric Analysis to Determine the Distance and Vector of Distraction Osteogenesis for Syndromic Craniosynostosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to confirm the utility of a corrected cephalometric analysis to facilitate the planning of distraction osteogenesis with Le Fort III osteotomy for syndromic craniosynostosis. Methods: This prospective study involved 4 male and 2 female patients (mean patient age, 8 years 9 months; age range, 4 years 6 months to 13 years 2 months) with Crouzon syndrome who were treated with Le Fort III maxillary distraction using our previously described system of analysis of a corrected cephalogram and who underwent clinical follow-up. Lateral cephalograms were obtained immediately after device removal. Results: Distraction of orbitale moved the vector downward to the adult profile, but there was slightly less elongation than the adult profile for the distraction distance. The desired and real mean angles after distraction of point A were 29.2 ± 7.9° and 6.1 ± 8.5°, respectively, and the desired and the real mean distances after distraction of point A were 30.6 ± 12.7 mm and 29.4 ± 4.1 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Using the corrected cephalometric analysis, the distance and vector of distraction osteogenesis with Le Fort III osteotomy could be determined in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. The distraction system brought the patients' facial bones to the planned position using controlling devices. PMID:29062650

  1. Mobile Devices: Driving Us to Distraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Bryan Goodwin delves into the reason behind addictive use of smartphones, tablets, netbooks, and e-readers, and considers whether introducing them into classrooms will help or hinder learning.

  2. Driver Distraction in Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    YOUNG, K; SALMON, P; REGAN MICHAEL, M

    2007-01-01

    There is converging evidence that driver distraction is a contributing factor in car crashes, in Australia and overseas. Surprisingly, no known previous research has attempted to identify and assess the potentially distracting activities undertaken by the drivers of public passenger vehicles. This paper describes research undertaken on this issue. The research was partitioned into three phases: an analysis of the functions and tasks currently undertaken by public passenger vehicle drivers; th...

  3. Soft-tissue volumetric changes following monobloc distraction procedure: analysis using digital three-dimensional photogrammetry system (3dMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fuan Chiang; Kawamoto, Henry K; Federico, Christina; Bradley, James P

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that monobloc advancement by distraction osteogenesis resulted in decreased morbidity and greater advancement with less relapse compared with acute monobloc advancement with bone grafting. In this study, we examine the three-dimensional (3D) volumetric soft-tissue changes in monobloc distraction.Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis who underwent monobloc distraction from 2002 to 2010 at University of California-Los Angeles Craniofacial Center were studied (n = 12). We recorded diagnosis, indications for the surgery, and volumetric changes for skeletal and soft-tissue midface structures (preoperative/postoperative [6 weeks]/follow-up [>1 year]). Computed tomography scans and a digital 3D photogrammetry system were used for image analysis.Patients ranged from 6 to 14 years of age (mean, 10.1 years) at the time of the operation (follow-up 2-11 years); mean distraction advancement was 19.4 mm (range, 14-25 mm). There was a mean increase in the 3D volumetric soft-tissue changes: 99.5 ± 4.0 cm(3) (P < 0.05) at 6 weeks and 94.9 ± 3.6 cm(3) (P < 0.05) at 1-year follow-up. When comparing soft-tissue changes at 6 weeks postoperative to 1-year follow-up, there were minimal relapse changes. The overall mean 3D skeletal change was 108.9 ± 4.2 cm. For every 1 cm of skeletal gain, there was 0.78 cm(3) of soft-tissue gain.Monobloc advancement by distraction osteogenesis using internal devices resulted in increased volumetric soft-tissue changes, which remained stable at 1 year. The positive linear correlation between soft-tissue increments and bony advancement can be incorporated during the planning of osteotomies to achieve optimum surgical outcomes with monobloc distraction.

  4. Noncontacting device to indicate deflection of turbopump internal rotating parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. B.; Grieser, D. R.; Plummer, A. M.; Ensminger, D.; Saccacio, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Phase 2 (development) which was concluded for the ultrasonic Doppler device and the light-pipe-reflectance device is reported. An ultrasonic Doppler breadboard system was assembled which accurately measured runout in the J-2 LOX pump impeller during operation. The transducer was mounted on the outside of the pump volute using a C-clamp. Vibration was measured by conducting the ultrasonic wave through the volute housing and through the fluid in the volute to the impeller surface. The impeller vibration was also measured accurately using the light-pipe probe mounted in an elastomeric-gland fitting in the pump case. A special epoxy resin developed for cryogenic applications was forced into the end of the fiber-optic probe to retain the fibers. Subsequently, the probe suffered no damage after simultaneous exposure to 2150 psi and 77 F. Preliminary flash X-radiographs were taken of the turbine wheel and the shaft-bearing-seal assembly, using a 2-megavolt X-ray unit. Reasonable resolution and contrast was obtained. A fast-neutron detector was fabricated and sensitivity was measured. The results demonstrated that the technique is feasible for integrated-time measurements requiring, perhaps, 240 revolutions to obtain sufficient exposure at 35,000 rpm. The experimental verification plans are included.

  5. Maxillary segmental distraction in children with unilateral clefts of lip, palate, and alveolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemann, Wolfgang; Pichelmayer, Margit

    2011-06-01

    Alveolar clefts are commonly closed by a bone grafting procedure. In cases of wide clefts the deficiency of soft tissue in the cleft area may lead to wound dehiscence and loss of the bony graft. Segmental maxillary bony transfer has been mentioned to be useful in such cases. Standard distraction devices allow unidirectional movement of the transported segment. Ideally the distraction should strictly follow the dental arch. The aim of this study was to analyze distraction devices that were adapted to the individual clinical situation of the patients. The goal was to achieve a distraction strictly parallel to the dental arch. Six children with unilateral clefts of lip, palate, and alveolus between 12 and 13 years of age were included in the study. The width of the cleft was between 7 and 19 mm. Dental cast models were used to manufacture individual distraction devices that should allow a segmental bony transport strictly parallel to the dental arch. Segmental osteotomy was performed under general anesthesia. Distraction was started 5 days after surgery. All distracters were tooth fixed but supported by palatal inserted orthodontic miniscrews. In all patients, a closure of the alveolar cleft was achieved. Two patients required additional bone grafting after the distraction procedure. The distraction was strictly parallel to the dental arch in all cases. In 1 case a slight cranial displacement of the transported maxillary segment could be noticed, leading to minor modifications of the following distractors. Distraction osteogenesis is a proper method to close wide alveolar clefts. Linear segmental transport is required in the posterior part of the dental arch, whereas in the frontal part the bony transport should run strictly parallel to the dental arch. An exact guided segmental transport may reduce the postoperative orthodontic complexity. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edell AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. Keywords: orbital fracture, ocular trauma, orbital floor fracture, cell phone distraction, pedestrian safety

  7. Rotational Distraction for the Treatment of Severe Mandibular Retrognathia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Osamu; Mitsugi, Masaharu; Alcalde, Rafael E; Yano, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Noriko; Okazaki, Mutsumi

    2015-07-01

    The main problem with intraoral distraction of the mandible is the inability to achieve the three-dimensional mandibular correction as planned preoperatively. We developed a technique that allows spontaneous changes in the direction of mandibular elongation using an intraoral distractor. After mandibular osteotomy, the distractor is fixed to the distal segment of the mandible using a single bicortical screw, allowing anterior-posterior, vertical and limited lateromedial changes in the vector of distraction. Mandibular lengthening is performed while keeping the maxilla and mandible in class I occlusion with intermaxillary fixation. As the distraction device is activated allowing mandibular elongation, the proximal segment, guided by the surrounding soft tissues, moves and rotates posterosuperiorly. Mandibular lengthening is continued until the condylar head reaches an adequate position in the mandibular fossa as confirmed clinically and radiographically. Thirty-three patients with mandibular retrognathia received this treatment and good results were obtained.

  8. [Effects of maxillary distraction osteogenesis on the velopharyngeal configuration of cleft palate patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-xia; Wang, Xing; Yi, Biao; Li, Zi-li; Liang, Cheng

    2005-12-18

    To study the effects of internal maxillary distraction osteogenesis(DO) on the velopharyngeal configuration of cleft palate patients. Ten patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate patients (7 males and 3 females, average age 20.1 years old) had undertaken high step LeFort I osteotomy, and internal maxillary distraction devices were applied to advance the maxilla. Before surgery, when DO was completed and 6 months after DO was completed, oriented lateral cephalograms at rest position of each patient were taken, and 6 measure indexes of velopharyngeal configuration were collected and analyzed. All patients had successfully accomplished maxillary DO and the maxilla had been averagely advanced 11.3 mm. PNS-PhW, C-PhW, UL and ANS-PNS-T had all significantly increased, and UD had significantly decreased when DO was completed and 6 months after DO was completed as compared with pre-surgery. No significant linear correlation was found between maxilla advancement distance and velopharyngeal configuration changes. Correction of maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft palate surgery by using internal maxillary DO can increase the velopharyngeal cavity depth, and may impair velopharyngeal competence, but the compensatory changes of velopharyngeal soft tissue can alleviate this impairment to certain extent.

  9. The pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction spinal cord injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Ji; Xue, Jing; Huang, Rongrong; Wu, Di; Song, Yueming

    2017-11-01

    A reliable experimental rabbit model of distraction spinal cord injury (SCI) was established to successfully simulate gradable and replicable distraction SCI. However, further research is needed to elucidate the pathologic mechanisms underlying distraction SCI. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction SCI in rabbits. This is an animal laboratory study. Using a self-designed spine distractor, the experimental animals were divided into a control group and 10%, 20%, and 30% distraction groups. Pathologic changes to the spinal cord microvessels in the early stage of distraction SCI were identified by perfusion of the spinal cord vasculature with ink, production of transparent specimens, observation by light microscopy, and observation of corrosion casts of the spinal cord microvascular architecture by scanning electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations in the injured spinal cord tissue were measured after 8 hours. With an increasing degree and duration of distraction, the spinal cord microvessels were only partially filled and had the appearance of spasm until rupture and hemorrhage were observed. The MDA concentration increased and the SOD concentration decreased in the spinal cord tissue. Changes to the internal and external spinal cord vessels led to spinal cord ischemia, which is a primary pathologic mechanism of distraction SCI. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals took part in secondary pathologic damage of distraction SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Variable compression ratio device for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Ronald P.; Faletti, James J.

    2004-03-23

    An internal combustion engine, particularly suitable for use in a work machine, is provided with a combustion cylinder, a cylinder head at an end of the combustion cylinder and a primary piston reciprocally disposed within the combustion cylinder. The cylinder head includes a secondary cylinder and a secondary piston reciprocally disposed within the secondary cylinder. An actuator is coupled with the secondary piston for controlling the position of the secondary piston dependent upon the position of the primary piston. A communication port establishes fluid flow communication between the combustion cylinder and the secondary cylinder.

  11. Understanding commercial truck drivers' decision-makin process concerning distracted driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-05-01

    A concurrent mixed methods design was used to explore personal and workplace factors, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, that affect truck drivers' decision-making about distracted driving on the job. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with experts in truck safety and distracted driving, and quantitative data were collected via online survey of truck drivers in the United States. Findings from the interviews illustrated how drivers perceived distractions and the importance of supervisors enforcing organizational distracted driving policies. Survey results found that behavioral intentions were most important in regards to texting and crash and near-crash outcomes, while perceived norms from management best described the correlation between dispatch device use and negative crash-related outcomes. By using a mixed methods design, rather than two separate studies, these findings revealed nuanced differences into the influence of supervisors on distracted driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. International registry results for an interstitial laser BPH treatment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Richard L.; Muschter, Rolf; Adams, Curtis S.; Esch, Victor C.

    1996-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can significantly impair quality of life in older men. Most men over 60 experience some symptoms due to BPH and it is thought that essentially all men would eventually be affected by it if they lived long enough. At present, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), a surgical treatment for BPH, is one of the more common procedures performed in the developed world, particularly in the United States. A number of other treatments are also often used, including open prostatectomy, side-firing lasers, and drug therapy. With the population in the developed world rapidly aging, BPH is expected to affect an even larger group of men in the future. Current methods of therapy carry significant disadvantages. Open prostatectomy carries a fairly high risk of impotence and incontinence, as well as sometimes significant risk of death depending on the patient's age and medical conditions. TURP also carries similar risks, albeit reduced, including the risk of substantial blood loss and a small but meaningful risk of death. Side-firing lasers are thought to have a reduced risk of death compared to TURP due to significantly reduced bleeding; however, patients often experience an extended period of pain during voiding due to prolonged tissue sloughing. Drug treatment, although useful for some patients, does not strongly improve symptoms in the majority of patients. Even with the current range of treatments, many patients with symptomatic BPH elect to avoid any current treatment due to risks and side effects. As a possible solution to this problem, previous writers have suggested the possibility of treating BPH through interstitial thermotherapy. In this treatment, prostatic tissue is heated from within the prostate to the point of irreversible necrosis. Healing processes then reduce the volume of the affected tissue, even in the absence of sloughing. This study covers initial human use of such a device, using an 810 nm wavelength diode laser

  13. Long-term follow-up after maxillary distraction osteogenesis in growing children with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Shing; Harikrishnan, Pandurangan; Liao, Yu-Fang; Ko, Ellen W C; Liou, Eric J W; Chen, Philip K T

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the changes in maxillary position after maxillary distraction osteogenesis in six growing children with cleft lip and palate. Retrospective, longitudinal study on maxillary changes at A point, anterior nasal spine, posterior nasal spine, central incisor, and first molar. The University Hospital Craniofacial Center. Cephalometric radiographs were used to measure the maxillary position immediately after distraction, at 6 months, and more than 1 year after distraction. After maxillary distraction with a rigid external distraction device, the maxilla (A point) on average moved forward 9.7 mm and downward 3.5 mm immediately after distraction, moved backward 0.9 mm and upward 2.0 mm after 6 months postoperatively, and then moved further backward 2.3 mm and downward 6.8 mm after more than 1 year from the predistraction position. In most cases, maxilla moved forward at distraction and started to move backward until 1 year after distraction, but remained forward, as compared with predistraction position. Maxilla also moved downward during distraction and upward in 6 months, but started descending in 1 year. There also was no further forward growth of the maxilla after distraction in growing children with clefts.

  14. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... distracted driving grants on August 24, 2012. In this notice, DOT is extending the application submission...

  15. Relaxation and Distraction in Experimental Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R. O.; Marshall, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared experimental desensitization with a procedure that replaced relaxation with a distraction task and with an approach that combined both relaxation and distraction. Desensitization generally was more effective than the other two procedures. (Author)

  16. On Demand Internal Short Circuit Device Enables Verification of Safer, Higher Performing Battery Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew

    2017-05-15

    The Internal Short Circuit (ISC) device enables critical battery safety verification. With the aluminum interstitial heat sink between the cells, normal trigger cells cannot be driven into thermal runaway without excessive temperature bias of adjacent cells. With an implantable, on-demand ISC device, thermal runaway tests show that the conductive heat sinks protected adjacent cells from propagation. High heat dissipation and structural support of Al heat sinks show high promise for safer, higher performing batteries.

  17. Determination of internal series resistance of PV devices: repeatability and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentadue, Germana; Pavanello, Diego; Salis, Elena; Field, Mike; Müllejans, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The calibration of photovoltaic devices requires the measurement of their current–voltage characteristics at standard test conditions (STC). As the latter can only be reached approximately, a curve translation is necessary, requiring among others the internal series resistance of the photovoltaic device as an input parameter. Therefore accurate and reliable determination of the series resistance is important in measurement and test laboratories. This work follows standard IEC 60891 ed 2 (2009) for the determination of the internal series resistance and investigates repeatability and uncertainty of the result in three aspects for a number of typical photovoltaic technologies. Firstly the effect of varying device temperature on the determined series resistance is determined experimentally and compared to a theoretical derivation showing agreement. It is found that the series resistance can be determined with an uncertainty of better than 5% if the device temperature is stable within  ±0.1 °C, whereas the temperature range of  ±2 °C allowed by the standard leads to much larger variations. Secondly the repeatability of the series resistance determination with respect to noise in current–voltage measurement is examined yielding typical values of  ±5%. Thirdly the determination of the series resistance using three different experimental set-ups (solar simulators) shows agreement on the level of  ±5% for crystalline Silicon photovoltaic devices and deviations up to 15% for thin-film devices. It is concluded that the internal series resistance of photovoltaic devices could be determined with an uncertainty of better than 10%. The influence of this uncertainty in series resistance on the electrical performance parameters of photovoltaic devices was estimated and showed a contribution of 0.05% for open-circuit voltage and 0.1% for maximum power. Furthermore it is concluded that the range of device temperatures allowed during determination of series

  18. Vector alignment in maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckan, Sina; Arman, Ayca; Bayram, Burak; Celik, Erkan

    2006-09-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is an alternative treatment of cleft patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia. The aim of this paper is to present the combined surgical/orthodontic treatment of a cleft lip and palate patient and to evaluate the maxillary distraction procedure and the distraction vector in high Le Fort I osteotomy.

  19. Use of Multidirectional Cranial Distraction Osteogenesis for Cranial Expansion in Syndromic Craniosynostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataru Sunaga, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis often require a large amount of cranial expansion to avoid intracranial hypertension, but the surgical procedure remains controversial. A patient of severe syndromic craniosynostosis with multiple bony defects and anomalous venous drainage at the occipital region was treated by multidirectional cranial distraction osteogenesis (MCDO at the age of 8 months. Distraction started 5 days after surgery and ceased on postoperative day 16. The distraction devices were removed 27 days after completing distraction. After device removal, the increase of intracranial volume was 155 ml and the cephalic index was improved from 115.5 to 100.5. The resultant cranial shape was well maintained with minimal relapse at postoperative 9 months. In cases of syndromic craniosynostosis with multiple bony defects and/or anomalous venous drainage at the occipital region, expansion of the anterior cranium by MCDO is a viable alternative to conventional methods.

  20. Percutaneous distraction lengthening in brachymetacarpia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Alexander D; Fragomen, Austin T

    2011-08-08

    Brachymetacarpia is a condition manifesting a shortened metacarpal that is caused by early closure of the epiphyseal plate and believed to arise idiopathically. The correction for brachymetacarpia is usually for cosmetic reasons as brachymetacarpia does not impair function. The literature indicates several different approaches to lengthening digits, including single-stage lengthening and rapid distraction lengthening with a bone graft. However, gradual distraction is the preferred method due to excellent cosmetic outcomes and few postoperative complications. This article reports a case of brachymetacarpia treated with distraction lengthening using a minimally invasive, percutaneous approach. A 16-year-old girl presented with a shortened left ring finger and underwent surgery to correct the deformity. The left ring finger measured 12 mm shorter than her right ring finger; however, there was normal mobility at the joints. In the operating room, an external fixator was attached using 4 self-drilling, self-tapping pins through several 3-mm skin incisions. The total fixation time was 14 weeks; however, the achieved length of 12 mm was achieved 6 weeks postoperatively. The healing index of the fixation period was 81 days/cm. The postoperative course and fixation period were uneventful, with no complications except for 2 pin infections that were treated with oral antibiotics. The method of gradual distraction lengthening in this case successfully achieved the desired length and yielded an excellent cosmetic result. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Guiding device for a manipulator mast for internal inspection of a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, W.; Schlueter, H.

    1977-01-01

    A remote-controlled supporting device centering a manipulator mast is described which is mounted and operated above a reactor pressure vessel under water in such a way that rotations and vertical movements necessary for the internal inspection of the pressure vessel remain possible. (RW) [de

  2. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis: revive and restore the native bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Sumedha; Jagtap, Amit

    2009-12-01

    In prosthodontics, knife-edge bony alveolar ridges can cause a problem in their rehabilitation. The distraction osteogenesis process raises the medullary component of the alveolus, allowing the labial plate of the existing natural bone to be displaced. This process involves mobilization, transport, and fixation of a healthy segment of bone adjacent to the deficient site. It entails use of the gradual controlled displacement of surgically created fractures, which results in simultaneous expansion of soft tissue and bone volume. A mechanical device, the alveolar distraction device, is used for this purpose. This modality of treatment can be used in implant dentistry cases for rehabilitation of resorbed ridges. The objective of this overview is to explain this procedure wherein the alveolar housing, including the osseous and soft-tissue components, is enlarged in a single, simultaneous process, which makes creation of an appropriate alveolar morphology possible.

  3. Google glass: a driver distraction cause or cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Ben D; Finomore, Victor S; Calvo, Andres A; Hancock, P A

    2014-11-01

    We assess the driving distraction potential of texting with Google Glass (Glass), a mobile wearable platform capable of receiving and sending short-message-service and other messaging formats. A known roadway danger, texting while driving has been targeted by legislation and widely banned. Supporters of Glass claim the head-mounted wearable computer is designed to deliver information without concurrent distraction. Existing literature supports the supposition that design decisions incorporated in Glass might facilitate messaging for drivers. We asked drivers in a simulator to drive and use either Glass or a smartphone-based messaging interface, then interrupted them with an emergency brake event. Both the response event and subsequent recovery were analyzed. Glass-delivered messages served to moderate but did not eliminate distracting cognitive demands. A potential passive cost to drivers merely wearing Glass was also observed. Messaging using either device impaired driving as compared to driving without multitasking. Glass in not a panacea as some supporters claim, but it does point the way to design interventions that effect reduced load in multitasking. Discussions of these identified benefits are framed within the potential of new in-vehicle systems that bring both novel forms of distraction and tools for mitigation into the driver's seat.

  4. The Long-Term Effects of Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis on Developing Deciduous Molar Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO in alleviating the micrognathia-associated upper airway obstruction but very few studies have focused on long-term dental outcomes. Objective. To report the effect of MDO on developing deciduous molars in the distraction area. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients with Pierre Robin sequence who underwent MDO with documented long-term dental assessments. Results. Ten children (mean age at surgery 69.8 days; 6 boys and 4 girls were included for analysis. All patients underwent bilateral MDO with an inverted L-shaped osteotomy to avoid injuring tooth buds. The dental developmental stage was primary dentition in all children. Overall, 3 patients developed minor dental problems involving 4 molar teeth (2 root malformations and 2 shape anomalies but they did not require any interventions. Conclusion. Significant primary molar developmental complications were not seen in our patients. The use of internal distractor device with an inverted L-shaped osteotomy seems to be a safe surgical approach in regards to dental outcomes.

  5. Profile Changes and Stability following Distraction Osteogenesis with Rigid External Distraction in Adult Cleft Lip and Palate Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painatt, Jaeson M.; Veeraraghavan, Ravi; Puthalath, Ushass; Peter, Sherry; Rao, Latha P.; Kuriakose, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the hard and soft-tissue profile changes as well as the upper airway changes after distraction osteogenesis (DO) using rigid external distraction device in adult cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The study also evaluates the stability of the surgical result. Materials and Methods: Three lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken: Predistraction (T1), postdistraction (T2), and 1 year after distractor removal (T3). The treatment changes (T1 vs. T2) and the stability (T2 vs. T3) were analyzed. The overall treatment changes after 1 year were also evaluated (T1 vs. T3). The lateral cephalograms were digitally analyzed with the help of software named Dolphin. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used, and the probability value (P value) of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant level. Results: Eleven adult patients with CLP were retrospectively analyzed. After distraction, there was a significant mean maxillary advancement of 14 mm (P maxillary relapse of 3.20 mm (P maxillary advancement for CLP patients with DO. There were significant improvements immediately after distraction, but during the 1-year follow-up, some relapse was seen. This stressed on the need for overcorrection of about 35%–40% for adult CLP patients. PMID:28839409

  6. Transpalatal distraction for the management of maxillary constriction in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, Nicolai; Ernst, Nicole; Hoffmeister, Bodo; Raguse, Jan-Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The management of severe maxillary constriction can be challenging. For that purpose surgically assisted maxillary expansion by transpalatal distraction (TPD) can typically be recommended after skeletal maturity. However in selected cases bone borne transpalatal distraction devices can contribute to improve maxillary constriction considerably earlier already during mixed dentition. To assess the possibility of bone borne transpalatal distraction in pediatric patients. Clinical paper. Since 2010 TPD has been applied to six pediatric patients during mixed dentition when severe maxillary constriction was present and conventional orthodontic widening has already failed. Individually selected devices (Surgitec, Belgium) were inserted in general anaesthesia and distraction was performed according to well known parameters. Maxillary constriction could be improved in all six patients without any drawbacks by bone borne devices during mixed dentition. Skeletal conditions were obviously improved for subsequent orthodontic or orthognathic therapy without functional impairment. Follow-up is up to 36 months after device removal. Transpalatal Distraction is recommendable in selected pediatric patients if massive growth disturbance is present or has to be expected. TPD allows for individually adapted maxillary expansion by selection and positioning of appropriate devices in combination with intraoperative testing of maxillary movements and controlled bone removal.

  7. The role of computer-aided 3D surgery and stereolithographic modelling for vector orientation in premaxillary and trans-sinusoidal maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Altan; Basa, Selçuk

    2009-06-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is a challenging procedure when it is performed with internal submerged distractors due to obligation of setting accurate distraction vectors. Five patients with severe maxillary retrognathy were planned with Mimics 10.01 CMF and Simplant 10.01 software. Distraction vectors and rods of distractors were arranged in 3D environment and on STL models. All patients were operated under general anaesthesia and complete Le Fort I downfracture was performed. All distractions were performed according to orientated vectors. All patients achieved stable occlusion and satisfactory aesthetic outcome at the end of the treatment period. Preoperative bending of internal maxillary distractors prevents significant loss of operation time. 3D computer-aided surgical simulation and model surgery provide accurate orientation of distraction vectors for premaxillary and internal trans-sinusoidal maxillary distraction. Combination of virtual surgical simulation and stereolithographic models surgery can be validated as an effective method of preoperative planning for complicated maxillofacial surgery cases.

  8. Stem cells rejuvenate radiation-impaired vasculogenesis in murine distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sagar S; Gallagher, Kathleen K; Donneys, Alexis; Nelson, Noah S; Guys, Nicholas P; Felice, Peter A; Page, Erin E; Sun, Hongli; Krebsbach, Paul H; Buchman, Steven R

    2015-03-01

    Radiotherapy is known to be detrimental to bone and soft-tissue repair. Bone marrow stromal cells have been shown to enhance bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis following radiation therapy. The authors posit that transplanted bone marrow stromal cells will significantly augment the mandibular vascularity devastated by radiation therapy. Nineteen male Lewis rats were split randomly into three groups: distraction osteogenesis only (n = 5), radiation therapy plus distraction osteogenesis (n = 7), and radiation therapy plus distraction osteogenesis with intraoperative placement of 2 million bone marrow stromal cells (n = 7). A mandibular osteotomy was performed, and an external fixator device was installed. From postoperative days 4 through 12, rats underwent a gradual 5.1-mm distraction followed by a 28-day consolidation period. On postoperative day 40, Microfil was perfused into the vasculature and imaging commenced. Vascular radiomorphometric values were calculated for regions of interest. An analysis of variance with post hoc Tukey or Games-Howell tests was used, dependent on data homogeneity. Stereologic analysis indicated significant remediation in vasculature in the bone marrow stromal cell group compared with the radiation therapy/distraction osteogenesis group. Each of five metrics idicated significant improvements from radiation therapy/distraction osteogenesis to the bone marrow stromal cell group, with no difference between the bone marrow stromal cell group and the distraction osteogenesis group. Bone marrow stromal cells used together with distraction osteogenesis can rejuvenate radiation-impaired vasculogenesis in the mandible, reversing radiation therapy-induced isotropy and creating a robust vascular network. Bone marrow stromal cells may offer clinicians an alternative reconstructive modality that could improve the lifestyle of patients with hypovascular bone.

  9. [Mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction for hemifacial microsomia with rapid prototyping technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Quan-Wen; Song, Hui-Feng; Xu, Ming-Huo; Liu, Chun-Ming; Chai, Jia-Ke

    2013-11-01

    To explore the clinical application of mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandihular distraction to correct hemifacial microsomia with rapid prototyping technology. The patient' s skull resin model was manufactured with rapid prototyping technology. The osteotomy was designed on skull resin model. According to the preoperative design, the patients underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular ramus osteotomy. The internal mandible distractor was embedded onto the osteotomy position. The occlusal titanium pin was implanted. Distraction were carried out by mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandihular distraction 5 days after operation. The distraction in five patients was complete as designed. No infection and dysosteogenesis happened. The longest distance of distraction was 28 mm, and the shortest distance was 16 mm. The facial asymmetry deformity was significantly improved at the end of distraction. The ocelusal plane of patients obviously improved. Rapid prototyping technology is helpful to design precisely osteotomy before operation. Mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction can correct hemifacial microsomia. It is worth to clinical application.

  10. Analysis of flavor and perfume using an internally cooled coated fiber device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Begnaud, Frédéric; Chaintreau, Alain; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2007-05-01

    A miniaturized internally cooled coated fiber device was applied for the analysis of flavors and fragrances from various matrices. Its integration with a CTC CombiPAL autosampler enabled high throughput for the analysis of analytes in complex matrices that required simultaneous heating of the matrices and cooling of the fiber coating to achieve high extraction efficiency. It was found that up to ten times increase of extraction efficiencies was observed when the device was used to extract flavor compounds in water, even when limited sample temperatures were used to preserve the integrity of target compounds. The extraction of the flavor compounds in water with the device was reproducible, with RSD not larger than 15%. The lower limits of the linear ranges were in the low ppb range, which was about one order of magnitude smaller than those obtained with the commercialized 100 microm PDMS fibers. Exhaustive extraction of some perfume ingredients from a complex matrix (shampoo) was realized. All achieved recoveries were not less than 80%. The repeatability of the extraction of the perfume compounds from shampoo was better than 10%. The linear ranges were about 1-3000 microg/g, and the LOD was about 0.2-1 microg/g. The automated internally cooled coated fiber device was demonstrated to be a powerful sample preparation tool in flavor and fragrance analysis.

  11. Affective privilege: Asymmetric interference by emotional distracters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal eReeck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theories posit that affectively salient stimuli are privileged in their capacity to capture attention and disrupt ongoing cognition. Two underlying assumptions in this theoretical position are that the potency of affective stimuli transcends task boundaries (i.e., emotional distracters do not have to belong to a current task-set to disrupt processing and that there is an asymmetry between emotional and cognitive processing (i.e., emotional distracters disrupt cognitive processing, but not vice versa. These assumptions have remained largely untested, as common experimental probes of emotion-cognition interaction rarely manipulate task-relevance and only examine one side of the presumed asymmetry of interference. To test these propositions directly, a face-word Stroop protocol was adapted to independently manipulate (a the congruency between target and distracter stimulus features, (b the affective salience of distracter features, and (c the task-relevance of emotional compared to non-emotional target features. A three-way interaction revealed interdependent effects of distracter relevance, congruence, and affective salience. Compared to task-irrelevant distracters, task-relevant congruent distracters facilitated performance and task-relevant incongruent distracters impaired performance, but the latter effect depended on the nature of the target feature and task. Specifically, task-irrelevant emotional distracters resulted in equivalent performance costs as task-relevant non-emotional distracters, whereas task-irrelevant non-emotional distracters did not produce performance costs comparable to those generated by task-relevant emotional distracters. These results document asymmetric cross-task interference effects for affectively salient stimuli, supporting the notion of affective prioritization in human information processing.

  12. Do absorption and realistic distraction influence performance of component task surgical procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluyter, Jon R; Buzink, Sonja N; Rutkowski, Anne-F; Jakimowicz, Jack J

    2010-04-01

    Surgeons perform complex tasks while exposed to multiple distracting sources that may increase stress in the operating room (e.g., music, conversation, and unadapted use of sophisticated technologies). This study aimed to examine whether such realistic social and technological distracting conditions may influence surgical performance. Twelve medical interns performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy task with the Xitact LC 3.0 virtual reality simulator under distracting conditions (exposure to music, conversation, and nonoptimal handling of the laparoscope) versus nondistracting conditions (control condition) as part of a 2 x 2 within-subject experimental design. Under distracting conditions, the medical interns showed a significant decline in task performance (overall task score, task errors, and operating time) and significantly increased levels of irritation toward both the assistant handling the laparoscope in a nonoptimal way and the sources of social distraction. Furthermore, individual differences in cognitive style (i.e., cognitive absorption and need for cognition) significantly influenced the levels of irritation experienced by the medical interns. The results suggest careful evaluation of the social and technological sources of distraction in the operation room to reduce irritation for the surgeon and provision of proper preclinical laparoscope navigation training to increase security for the patient.

  13. Changes in nasorespiratory function in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in subjects with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kiyo; Ono, Takashi; Mochida, Masumi; Ohyama, Kimie

    2006-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine how nasorespiratory function changes in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO). Furthermore, with regard to impaired nasorespiratory function, the possibility of a relationship between the cleft side and laterality and any effect of maxillary distraction osteogenesis was investigated. In this descriptive, prospective clinical report, subjective and objective data regarding nasorespiratory function before and after maxillary distraction osteogenesis were compared. Data from 13 subjects with cleft lip and palate were used. Subjects had a severe maxillary deficiency and underwent distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external device system. The subjective measure was the score on a questionnaire regarding nasorespiratory function using a visual analog scale. The objective measure was nasal resistance. The visual analog scale score for two items significantly decreased just after distraction osteogenesis. Nasal resistance also significantly decreased 1 year after distraction osteogenesis. Moreover, nasal resistance on the cleft side was significantly greater than that on the noncleft side just before and 1 year after distraction osteogenesis. There was a significant positive correlation between changes in the visual analog scale score and nasal resistance. These results suggest that nasorespiratory function changes in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in subjects with cleft lip and palate. Moreover, it appears that nasal obstruction on the cleft side does not change in subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

  14. The potential effect of technology and distractions on undergraduate students' concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Najya A; Baig, Lubna; Marzouk, Yousef I; Khan, Anwar

    2017-01-01

    In the present era, it is difficult to keep the concentration of college students at its maximum potential during the class time, as there are many distractions that negatively impact students' concentration and prevent optimal learning. Technologies such as laptops and cell phones have invaded the classroom, raising considerable concerns about their effects on college students' attention in the classroom. Despite these concerns, no research has been done in Saudi Arabia on the effects of technology and other types of classroom distractions on students' concentration. In the current study, we have attempted to identify students' perceptions of major distractions in the classroom based on seventeen internally (self-produced) and twenty-four externally produced classroom situations. The students participating in this study rated the degree to which each distraction interferes with their concentration on the class materials and their ability to learn. Data were collected through surveys of 265 students (66 and 199 students from medical and basic classes, respectively), including 97 females and 168 males 17-23 years of age from the academic years 2010 to 2014. A validated self-administered questionnaire was handed to the students in the classroom. The students were asked to report and rate the classroom distraction produced by 24 external internal distracters (Table-II), on a 5-point scale. The results revealed that ringing cell phones in the class were the most commonly reported electronic external distractor for 68% of students, and 21% of them reported being extremely distracted by this noise. Having an instructor who is difficult to understand was the most commonly reported external behavioral distractor for 75% of students, and 48% of them rated this as extremely distracting. Students talking in class were the most self-produced distractor for 72% of students; negatively impacting their concentration and ability to learn, and 42% of them rated it as an extreme

  15. Technology-related distracted walking behaviours in Manhattan's most dangerous intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Basch, Charles E

    2014-10-01

    Use of mobile devices has been cited as a distraction while driving, and more recently, among pedestrians crossing urban streets. In 2010, over half of New York City traffic fatalities were pedestrians. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of distracted walking due to pedestrians' use of headphones, mobile phones, or both. Data were gathered by direct observations at the 10 intersections in Manhattan with the highest frequency of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. More than 1 in 4 of the >3500 pedestrians observed were distracted by mobile electronic devices while crossing during the 'walk' (28.8%) and 'don't walk' (26.3%) signals. Poisson regression analyses established there was a significant difference in individuals talking on a mobile device during the 'walk' signal versus the 'don't walk' signal; however, no other significant differences in other distracted walking behaviours were observed. This study contributes to the emerging literature on distracted walking behaviour by pedestrians in busy urban areas and can help to inform pedestrian-focused safety efforts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Microwave heating device for internal heating convection experiments, applied to Earth's mantle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surducan, E; Surducan, V; Limare, A; Neamtu, C; Di Giuseppe, E

    2014-12-01

    We report the design, construction, and performances of a microwave (MW) heating device for laboratory experiments with non-contact, homogeneous internal heating. The device generates MW radiation at 2.47 GHz from a commercial magnetron supplied by a pulsed current inverter using proprietary, feedback based command and control hardware and software. Specially designed MW launchers direct the MW radiation into the sample through a MW homogenizer, devised to even the MW power distribution into the sample's volume. An adjustable MW circuit adapts the MW generator to the load (i.e., the sample) placed in the experiment chamber. Dedicated heatsinks maintain the MW circuits at constant temperature throughout the experiment. Openings for laser scanning for image acquisition with a CCD camera and for the cooling circuits are protected by special MW filters. The performances of the device are analyzed in terms of heating uniformity, long term output power stability, and load matching. The device is used for small scale experiments simulating Earth's mantle convection. The 30 × 30 × 5 cm(3) convection tank is filled with a water‑based viscous fluid. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminum heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions apply at the tank base. We characterize the geometry of the convective regime as well as its bulk thermal evolution by measuring the velocity field by Particle Image Velocimetry and the temperature field by using Thermochromic Liquid Crystals.

  17. Microwave heating device for internal heating convection experiments, applied to Earth's mantle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surducan, E.; Surducan, V.; Neamtu, C., E-mail: camelia.neamtu@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies (INCDTIM), 67-103 Donat St., 400293, Cluj‑Napoca (Romania); Limare, A.; Di Giuseppe, E. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), Univ. Paris Diderot, UMR CNRS 7154, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005, Paris (France)

    2014-12-15

    We report the design, construction, and performances of a microwave (MW) heating device for laboratory experiments with non-contact, homogeneous internal heating. The device generates MW radiation at 2.47 GHz from a commercial magnetron supplied by a pulsed current inverter using proprietary, feedback based command and control hardware and software. Specially designed MW launchers direct the MW radiation into the sample through a MW homogenizer, devised to even the MW power distribution into the sample's volume. An adjustable MW circuit adapts the MW generator to the load (i.e., the sample) placed in the experiment chamber. Dedicated heatsinks maintain the MW circuits at constant temperature throughout the experiment. Openings for laser scanning for image acquisition with a CCD camera and for the cooling circuits are protected by special MW filters. The performances of the device are analyzed in terms of heating uniformity, long term output power stability, and load matching. The device is used for small scale experiments simulating Earth's mantle convection. The 30 × 30 × 5 cm{sup 3} convection tank is filled with a water‑based viscous fluid. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminum heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions apply at the tank base. We characterize the geometry of the convective regime as well as its bulk thermal evolution by measuring the velocity field by Particle Image Velocimetry and the temperature field by using Thermochromic Liquid Crystals.

  18. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly

  19. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on healing of maxillary distraction osteogenesis in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudoh, Atsuo

    2008-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis has been widely used even in the craniofacial region. A long fixation time during the consolidation period, however, is a major clinical disadvantage. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been used to improve healing in ischemic wounds. We have recently started applying hyperbaric oxygen to cleft palate patients after maxillary distraction, but there is little basic evidence. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen would enhance the healing of distraction osteogenesis in the cleft palate model in dogs. A bony segment including a canine was transported proximally into an artificial bone defect in the left palate. Three dogs were treated with hyperbaric oxygen for 20 days just after the distraction and three other dogs underwent only the distraction process (control group). Blood flow of the canine pulp in the bone segment was monitored using a laser Doppler flowmeter throughout the experiment. All the dogs were sacrificed on day 100, and radiological analysis using peripheral quantitative CT and histomorphometric evaluations were performed. Blood flow in the HBO-treated group recovered to the original level about 30 days faster than in the control group (p<0.05). Cortical bone mineral density was significantly higher at the distraction site in the HBO-treated group than in the control group (p<0.05). The histomorphometric analysis revealed that the newly formed bone area was also larger in the HBO-treated group than in the control group (p<0.05). These results suggest that hyperbaric oxygen treatment could be useful for early removal of the distraction device in distraction osteogenesis. (author)

  20. [Effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on healing of maxillary distraction osteogenesis in beagle dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Atsuo

    2008-03-01

    Distraction osteogenesis has been widely used even in the craniofacial region. A long fixation time during the consolidation period, however, is a major clinical disadvantage. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been used to improve healing in ischemic wounds. We have recently started applying hyperbaric oxygen to cleft palate patients after maxillary distraction, but there is little basic evidence. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen would enhance the healing of distraction osteogenesis in the cleft palate model in dogs. A bony segment including a canine was transported proximally into an artificial bone defect in the left palate. Three dogs were treated with hyperbaric oxygen for 20 days just after the distraction and three other dogs underwent only the distraction process (control group). Blood flow of the canine pulp in the bone segment was monitored using a laser Doppler flowmeter throughout the experiment. All the dogs were sacrificed on day 100, and radiological analysis using peripheral quantitative CT and histomorphometric evaluations were performed. Blood flow in the HBO-treated group recovered to the original level about 30 days faster than in the control group (p<0.05). Cortical bone mineral density was significantly higher at the distraction site in the HBO-treated group than in the control group (p<0.05). The histomorphometric analysis revealed that the newly formed bone area was also larger in the HBO-treated group than in the control group (p<0.05). These results suggest that hyperbaric oxygen treatment could be useful for early removal of the distraction device in distraction osteogenesis.

  1. The Effect of Interacting with Two Devices when Creating the Illusion of Internal State in Tangible Widgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Christoffer; Bork, Andreas Heldbjerg; Memborg, Jakob Birch

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the illusion of internal state in passive tangible widgets is stronger when using one touchscreen device or two devices. Passive tangible widgets are an increasingly popular way to interact with tablet games. Since the production of passive widgets is usually cheaper...... than the production of widgets with internal state, it is much more cost-efficient to induce the illusion of internal state in passive widgets than to use tangible widgets with an actual internal state. An experiment was conducted where the participants’ belief in the illusion was determined by means...

  2. Multi-modal distraction. Using technology to combat pain in young children with burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kate; Rodger, Sylvia; Bucolo, Sam; Greer, Ristan; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-08-01

    The use of non-pharmacological pain management remains adhoc within acute paediatric burns pain management protocols despite ongoing acknowledgement of its role. Advancements in adult based pain services including the integration of virtual reality has been adapted to meet the needs of children in pain, as exemplified by the development of multi-modal distraction (MMD). This easy to use, hand held interactive device uses customized programs designed to inform the child about the procedure he/she is about to experience and to distract the child during dressing changes. (1) To investigate if either MMD procedural preparation (MMD-PP) or distraction (MMD-D) has a greater impact on child pain reduction compared to standard distraction (SD) or hand held video game distraction (VG), (2) to understand the impact of MMD-PP and MMD-D on clinic efficiency by measuring length of treatment across groups, and lastly, (3) to assess the efficacy of distraction techniques over three dressing change procedures. A prospective randomised control trial was completed in a paediatric tertiary hospital Burns Outpatient Clinic. Eighty participants were recruited and studied over their first three dressing changes. Pain was assessed using validated child report, caregiver report, nursing observation and physiological measures. MMD-D and MMD-PP were both shown to significantly relieve reported pain (ppositive effects of both MMD-D and MMD-PP were sustained with subsequent dressing changes. The use of MMD as a preparatory or a distraction tool in an outpatient burns clinic offered superior pain reduction across three dressing changes to children when compared to standard practices or hand held video games. This device has the potential to improve clinic efficiency with reductions in treatment lengths.

  3. [Analysis of the results of bone healing in femurs lengthened by the gradual distraction method in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochymek, J; Skvaril, J; Ondrus, S

    2009-10-01

    Treatment of leg length inequality via lengthening of the shorter extremity is an infrequent orthopedic procedure due to the requirement of special distraction devices and possible serious complications. Essential qualitative changes in operative technique development are associated with the name of G. A. Ilizarov, who paved the way for the autoregenerate gradual distraction method in the 1950s. In the years 1990 through 2007 a total of 67 patients underwent femur lengthening via gradual distraction using various types of external fixators at the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Orthopedics, and Traumatology, Faculty Hospital in Brno. The quality of bone healing was monitored and a number of parameters followed and statistically evaluated using regularly scheduled X-ray examinations. In 13 cases we had to remove the external fixator following the distraction phase, perform an osteosynthesis via a splint and fill the distraction gap via spongioplasty. The bone healing was satisfactory in the remaining 54 patients and the lengthened bone required no other fixation method. The analysis showed statistically significant deceleration in bone healing following distraction in female patients over 12 years of age, and in boys over 14 years of age. Lack of periosteal callus five weeks after surgery always signified serious problems in further healing. Severe complications were recorded in 11 cases during the distraction phase, and in 12 cases after the removal of the distraction apparatus. Our results fully correspond with the data and experience of others cited authors. In addition our study showed deceleration in bone healing in girls over 12 years and in boys over 14 years of age and serious problem in healing when is lack of periostal callus five weeks after surgery. The aim of this report was to present the results of our study of distraction gap bone healing using the gradual lengthening approach. Key words: leg lengthening, gradual distraction, external fixation, leg

  4. Utilizing national and international registries to enhance pre-market medical device regulatory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lilly Q; Campbell, Gregory; Lu, Nelson; Xu, Yunling; Zuckerman, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory decisions are made based on the assessment of risk and benefit of medical devices at the time of pre-market approval and subsequently, when post-market risk-benefit balance needs reevaluation. Such assessments depend on scientific evidence obtained from pre-market studies, post-approval studies, post-market surveillance studies, patient perspective information, as well as other real world data such as national and international registries. Such registries provide real world evidence and are playing a more and more important role in enhancing the safety and effectiveness evaluation of medical devices. While these registries provide large quantities of data reflecting real world practice and can potentially reduce the cost of clinical trials, challenges arise concerning (1) data quality adequate for regulatory decision-making, (2) bias introduced at every stage and aspect of study, (3) scientific validity of study designs, and (4) reliability and interpretability of study results. This article will discuss related statistical and regulatory challenges and opportunities with examples encountered in medical device regulatory reviews.

  5. Texting while driving: A study of 1211 U.S. adults with the Distracted Driving Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Gliklich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Texting and other cell-phone related distracted driving is estimated to account for thousands of motor vehicle collisions each year but studies examining the specific cell phone reading and writing activities of drivers are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of cell-phone related distracted driving behaviors. A national, representative, anonymous panel of 1211 United States drivers was recruited in 2015 to complete the Distracted Driving Survey (DDS, an 11-item validated questionnaire examining cell phone reading and writing activities and at what speeds they occur. Higher DDS scores reflect more distraction. DDS scores were analyzed by demographic data and self-reported crash rate. Nearly 60% of respondents reported a cell phone reading or writing activity within the prior 30 days, with reading texts (48%, writing texts (33% and viewing maps (43% most frequently reported. Only 4.9% of respondents had enrolled in a program aimed at reducing cell phone related distracted driving. DDS scores were significantly correlated to crash rate (p < 0.0001, with every one point increase associated with an additional 7% risk of a crash (p < 0.0001. DDS scores were inversely correlated to age (p < 0.0001. The DDS demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94. High rates of cell phone-related distraction are reported here in a national sample. Distraction is associated with crash rates and occurs across all age groups, but is highest in younger drivers. The DDS can be used to evaluate the impact of public health programs aimed at reducing cell-phone related distracted driving.

  6. Application of high-temperature superconducting coil for internal ring devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yuichi [High Temperature Plasma Center, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail: ogawa@ppl.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Morikawa, Junji [High Temperature Plasma Center, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Yanagi, Nagato [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Iwakuma, Masataka [Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    A high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coil is applied for plasma confinement devices, where plasma is confined with a magnetic field of a floating HTS coil. The internal coil device mini-RT with a BSCCO tape has been constructed, in which the coil major radius and magnetomotive force are 0.15 m and 50 kA, respectively. The coil is cooled to 20 K with a helium gas by using a demountable transfer tube and check valve system. The coil current is directly excited by the external power supply with demountable electrodes. To reduce the heat load, the electrodes were cooled with liquid nitrogen. The levitation experiment of the HTS coil has been carried out. The position of the HTS coil is measured by laser sensors, and is feedback-controlled with the levitation coil current. We have succeeded in levitating the HTS coil during 1 h with accuracy of less than 20 {mu}m. The magnetic field strength near the internal coil is around 0.1 T, and a radio-frequency wave of 2.45 GHz is applied for the plasma production. At the floating condition of the HTS coil, a high-density plasma with more than 10{sup 17} m{sup -3}, which is higher than the cut-off density of a 2.45 GHz microwave, has been produced. A new device RT-1 with a major radius of 0.25 m and a magnetomotive force of 250 kA is under construction, and a persistent current has been demonstrated. The feasibility on YBCO tape is briefly discussed.

  7. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  8. Sound localization in the presence of one or two distracters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, E.H.A.; Kistler, D.J.; Wightman, F.L

    2001-01-01

    Localizing a target sound can be a challenge when one or more distracter sounds are present at the same time. This study measured the effect of distracter position on target localization for one distracter (17 positions) and two distracters (21 combinations of 17 positions). Listeners were

  9. One-stage tooth-borne distraction versus two stage bone-borne distraction in surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SARME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberger, Robin; Abe-Nickler, Dorothee; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Kunzmann, Kevin; Zingler, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of tooth-borne and bone-borne distraction devices in surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SARME) on dental and skeletal structures. A sample of 33 skeletally mature patients with transverse maxillary deficiencies was examined with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) before and 3 months after surgery. Fourteen patients were treated with tooth-borne devices and 19 patients with bone-borne devices. Dental crown expansion in the first premolars did not differ significantly between the two groups, and median expansion was 5.55 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 5.23) in the tooth-borne device group and 4.6 mm (IQR 3.4) in the bone-borne device group. In the first molars, crown expansion and lateral tipping were significantly greater in the tooth-borne device group (P ≤ .02). The median skeletal nasal isthmus increase was significantly more in the bone-borne device group at 3.0 mm than in the tooth-borne device group at 0.98 mm (P ≤ .02). Both tooth-borne and bone-borne devices are effective treatment modalities to correct maxillary transverse deficiencies. Bone-borne devices produced greater widening of the skeletal nasal floor and fewer dental side effects in the first molars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Endoscopic repair of an injured internal carotid artery utilizing femoral endovascular closure devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompaey, Jason; Bowers, Greg; Radhakrishnan, Jay; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo

    2014-06-01

    Injury to the internal carotid artery is a feared complication of endoscopic endonasal surgery of the skull base. Such an event, although rare, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Even if bleeding is controlled, permanent neurological defects frequently persist. Many techniques have been developed to manage internal carotid artery rupture with varying degrees of success. The purpose of this study was to explore endoscopic management of arterial damage with endovascular closure devices used for a femoral arteriotomy. The ability to remotely suture a damaged artery permits the possible adaptation of this technology in managing endoscopic arterial complications. Technical note. After the creation of an endoscopic endonasal corridor in a cadaveric specimen, an arteriotomy was created at the cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery. The Angio-Seal, StarClose, and MynxGrip vascular closure devices were utilized under endoscopic guidance to repair the arteriotomy. Angiography was then done on a cadaver sutured with the StarClose. Both the Angio-Seal and StarClose were deployed quickly and appeared to provide sufficient closure of the arteriotomy. The Angio-Seal required the use of a guidewire and was longer to deploy when compared with the StarClose. The StarClose deployment was quick and facile. The MynxGrip also deployed without difficulty. The Angio-Seal and StarClose systems were both successfully deployed utilizing an endoscopic endonasal approach. The MynxGrip was the easiest to deploy and has the greatest potential to be of benefit in this application. Further studies with hemodynamic models are required to properly assess the appropriateness in this setting. NA. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Bone-borne palatal distraction to correct the constricted cleft maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Raj M; Jarrahy, Reza; Sisodia, Manisha; Jourabchi, Natanel; Wasson, Kristy L; Bradley, James P

    2009-05-01

    Transverse maxillary hypoplasia, with or without cleft deformity, is typically treated with orthodontic expansion. However, the management of those patients who present later in life with severe uncorrected deformities or who have failed prior orthodontic care remains controversial. Tooth-borne palatal expanders have limitations in this subset of patients with scarred, constricted cleft palate. In this study, we assess the efficacy and safety of using a bone-borne palatal distraction device as an alternative treatment for this difficult subset of patients. Older children with a constricted maxilla who previously had unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate repairs and failed orthodontic expansion were included in the study (n = 15). Patients underwent Le Fort I corticotomy with placement of the bone-borne distraction device, expansion at a rate of 0.5 mm/d, and subsequent alveolar bone grafting. Preoperative and follow-up maxillary impressions were compared with assessed improvements in intermolar distance, intercanine distance, alveolar cleft width, and total palatal area. In addition, a small group of noncleft patients with constricted maxillas was treated with bone-borne palatal distraction without a corticotomy (n = 4). The mean amount of distraction in all patients was 14.1 mm, with a follow-up period of 19 months (range, 8-30 months). The average increase in intermolar distance was 8.4 mm, intercanine distance increased by an average of 9.5 mm, and palate surface areas were increased by a mean of 28.9 mm2. Relapse was between 4% and 7%, and all patients underwent subsequent alveolar bone grafting. In addition, the noncleft patients successfully underwent bone-borne palatal distraction without a corticotomy, with a 4% to 5% relapse. Rapid palatal expansion using a bone-borne distraction device in cleft patients with transverse maxillary hypoplasia who have failed nonsurgical orthodontic expansion provides adequate expansion necessary for alveolar bone

  12. Reflections of distraction in memory: transfer of previous distraction improves recall in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ruthann C; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting words. When the memory task was indirect in its use of distraction (Study 1), only older adults showed transfer, with better recall of previously distracting compared with new words, which increased their recall to match that of younger adults. However, younger adults showed transfer when cued about the relevance of previous distraction both before studying the words (Study 2) and before recalling the words (Study 3) in the memory test. Results suggest that both younger and older adults encode distraction, but younger adults require explicit cueing to use their knowledge of distraction. In contrast, older adults transfer knowledge of distraction in both explicitly cued and indirect memory tasks. Results are discussed in terms of age differences in inhibition and source-constrained retrieval.

  13. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis in cleft lip and palate cases with midface hypoplasia using rigid external distractor: an alternative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Gaurav; Navin Kumar, Andrews; Roy, Indranil Deb; Roy, Supriyo Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Patients with operated cleft lip and palate present with a problem of midface hypoplasia, and such patients have been traditionally treated with orthognathic surgery. Such a procedure has its own limitations of relapse and hence a newer modality of distraction osteogenesis with histiogenesis can be chosen to overcome such limitations for midfacial advancement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an alternative technique and its postoperative stability in maxillary distraction osteogenesis in patients of cleft lip and cleft palate using a rigid external device (RED). Nine patients with midface bone stock deficiency were selected for maxillary advancement. At the first surgery under general anesthesia, after Le Fort I osteotomy, RED system was used with the alternative technique. After distraction, evaluation was done for ease of the procedure, stability, and complications. Lateral cephalograms were evaluated at 3 stages: T1, pre-distraction; T2, post-distraction; and T3, 1 year post-distraction. A mean 13.4-mm midface advancement was shown with bone formation at the pterygomaxillary region without losing the vector and having a standby mode in case the wire broke during distraction The results were stable even at 1 year of follow-up. Maxillary position improved in relation to the cranial base. This study showed that the RED was versatile in midface advancement.

  14. A plastic total internal reflection-based photoluminescence device for enzymatic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Ishan G.

    Growing concerns for quality of water, food and beverages in developing and developed countries drive sizeable markets for mass-producible, low cost devices that can measure the concentration of contaminant chemicals in water, food, and beverages rapidly and accurately. Several fiber-optic enzymatic biosensors have been reported for these applications, but they exhibit very strong presence of scattered excitation light in the signal for sensing, requiring expensive thin-film filters, and their non-planar structure makes them challenging to mass-produce. Several other planar optical waveguide-based biosensors prove to be relatively costly and more fragile due to constituent materials and the techniques involved in their fabrication. So, a plastic total internal reflection (TIR)-based low cost, low scatter, field-portable device for enzymatic biosensors is fabricated and demonstrated. The design concept of the TIR-based photoluminescent enzymatic biosensor device is explained. An analysis of economical materials with appropriate optical and chemical properties is presented. PMMA and PDMS are found to be appropriate due to their high chemical resistance, low cost, high optical transmittance and low auto-fluorescence. The techniques and procedures used for device fabrication are discussed. The device incorporated a PMMA-based optical waveguide core and PDMS-based fluid cell with simple multi-mode fiber-optics using cost-effective fabrication techniques like molding and surface modification. Several techniques of robustly depositing photoluminescent dyes on PMMA core surface are discussed. A pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, fluoresceinamine, and an O2-sensitive phosphorescent dye, Ru(dpp) both are successfully deposited using Si-adhesive gel-based as well as HydroThane-based deposition methods. Two different types of pH-sensors using two different techniques of depositing fluoresceinamine are demonstrated. Also, the effect of concentration of fluoresceinamine-dye molecules

  15. Assessment of distraction from erotic stimuli by nonerotic interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alex B; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Distraction from erotic cues during sexual encounters is a major contributor to sexual difficulties in men and women. Being able to assess distraction in studies of sexual arousal will help clarify underlying contributions to sexual problems. The current study aimed to identify the most accurate assessment of distraction from erotic cues in healthy men (n = 29) and women (n = 38). Participants were assigned to a no distraction, low distraction, or high distraction condition. Distraction was induced using an auditory distraction task presented during the viewing of an erotic video. Attention to erotic cues was assessed using three methods: a written quiz, a visual quiz, and a self-reported distraction measure. Genital and psychological sexual responses were also measured. Self-reported distraction and written quiz scores most accurately represented the level of distraction present, while self-reported distraction also corresponded with a decrease in genital arousal. Findings support the usefulness of self-report measures in conjunction with a brief quiz on the erotic material as the most accurate and sensitive ways to simply measure experimentally-induced distraction. Insight into distraction assessment techniques will enable evaluation of naturally occurring distraction in patients suffering from sexual problems.

  16. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports ... while driving. Keywords: Distraction, prevention, road traffic collision, mobile phone. ..... keeps us connected with others with great advantages.

  17. Distraction: heroic attitude before the metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Zacca Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering distraction as the heroic ethos of  modernity, I intend to analyze the perceptive changes brought about by the advance of the productive forces under capitalism; and the subsequent apprehension  of this change by four contemporary poets, namely Liv Lagerblad, Heyk Pimenta, Alberto Pucheu and Eucanaã Ferraz. Each of these poets brings distraction as what Walter Benjamin classified as inner form. In all cases, distraction appears as a poetic force before the danger of annihilation in big cities. This reflection is the basis for another, another, yet concerning the relations between poetry and politics, thinking with Jacques Rancière its position on the "distribution of the sensible". Finally, a resumption of Baudelaire, a master of distraction, seems to be inevitable.

  18. Internal transmission coefficient in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2016-01-01

    Internal transmission profile in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been explored theoretically. Photovoltaic device was constructed from graphene/Si heterojunction forming a multilayer stuck with Si as generation layer. The graphene/Si sheet was layered on ITO/glass wafer then coated by Al forming Ohmic contact with Si. Photon incident propagate from glass substrate to metal electrode and assumed that there is no transmission in Al layer. The wavelength range spectra used in this calculation was 200 – 1000 nm. It found that transmission intensity in the generation layer show non-linear behavior and partitioned by few areas which related with excitation process. According to this information, it may to optimize the photons absorption to create more excitation process by inserting appropriate material to enhance optical properties in certain wavelength spectra because of the exciton generation is strongly influenced by photon absorption.

  19. Heat and momentum transport of ion internal transport barrier plasmas on Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, K.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.

    2010-11-01

    The peaked ion-temperature profile with steep gradient so called ion internal transport barrier (ion ITB) was formed in the neutral beam heated plasmas on the Large Helical Device (LHD) and the high-ion-temperature regime of helical plasmas has been significantly extended. The ion thermal diffusivity in the ion ITB plasma decreases down to the neoclassical transport level. The heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) observed the smooth potential profile with negative radial electric field (ion root) in the core region where the ion thermal diffusivity decreases significantly. The large toroidal rotation was also observed in the ion ITB core and the transport of toroidal momentum was analyzed qualitatively. The decrease of momentum diffusivity with ion temperature increase was observed in the ion ITB core. The toroidal rotation driven by ion temperature gradient so called intrinsic rotation is also identified. (author)

  20. Stable confinement of toroidal electron plasma in an internal conductor device Prototype-Ring Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Watanabe, S.

    2005-01-01

    A pure electron plasma has been produced in an internal conductor device Prototype-Ring Trap (Proto-RT). The temporal evolution of the electron plasma was investigated by the measurement of electrostatic fluctuations. Stable confinement was realized when the potential profile adjusted to match the magnetic surfaces. The confinement time varies as a function of the magnetic field strength and the neutral gas pressure, and is comparable to the diffusion time of electrons determined by the classical collisions with neutral gas. Although the addition of a toroidal magnetic field stabilized the electrostatic fluctuation of the plasma, the effects of the magnetic shear shortened the stable confinement time, possibly because of the obstacles of coil support structures

  1. High density high performance plasma with internal diffusion barrier in Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Kobayashi, M.; Miyazawa, J.

    2008-10-01

    A attractive high density plasma operational regime, namely an internal diffusion barrier (IDB), has been discovered in the intrinsic helical divertor configuration on the Large Helical Device (LHD). The IDB which enables core plasma to access a high density/high pressure regime has been developed. It is revealed that the IDB is reproducibly formed by pellet fueling in the magnetic configurations shifted outward in major radius. Attainable central plasma density exceeds 1x10 21 m -3 . Central pressure reaches 1.5 times atmospheric pressure and the central β value becomes fairly high even at high magnetic field, i.e. β(0)=5.5% at B t =2.57 T. (author)

  2. Prevalence of and attitudes about distracted driving in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Rybar, Jill; Styer, Tara; Fram, Ethan; Merchant, Gina; Eastman, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    To identify current distracted driving (DD) behaviors among college students, primarily those involving cell phone use, and elucidate the opinions of the students on the most effective deterrent or intervention for reducing cell phone use. Students enrolled at 12 colleges and universities were recruited to participate in an online, anonymous survey. Recruitment was done via school-based list-serves and posters. School sizes ranged from 476 to over 30,000. The validated survey included 38 questions; 17 were specifically related to distracted driving. Four thousand nine hundred sixty-four participants completed the surveys; the average age was 21.8, 66% were female, 82.7% were undergraduates, and 47% were white/non-Hispanic. Additionally, 4,517 (91%) reported phoning and/or texting while driving; 4,467 (90%) of drivers said they talk on the phone while driving; 1,241 (25%) reported using a hands-free device "most of the time"; 4,467 (90%) of drivers reported texting while driving; 2,488 (50%) reported sending texts while driving on the freeway; 2,978 (60%) while in stop-and-go traffic or on city streets; and 4,319 (87%) at traffic lights. Those who drove more often were more likely to drive distracted. When asked about their capability to drive distracted, 46% said they were capable or very capable of talking on a cell phone and driving, but they felt that only 8.5% of other drivers were capable. In a multivariate model, 9 predictors explained 44% of the variance in DD, which was statistically significant, F (17, 4945) = 224.31; P driving frequency) were self-efficacy (i.e., confidence) in driving while multitasking (β = 0.37), perception of safety of multitasking while driving (β = 0.19), social norms (i.e., observing others multitasking while driving; β = 0.29), and having a history of crashing due to multitasking while driving (β = 0.11). Distracted driving is a highly prevalent behavior among college students who have higher confidence in their own driving

  3. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    OpenAIRE

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, where...

  4. Novel Three-Dimensional Understanding of Maxillary Cleft Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Stephen Michael; Kau, Chung How; Waite, Peter Daniel

    2016-09-01

    To set forth a universal standard methodology for quantifying volumetric and linear changes in the craniofacial complex, utilizing three-dimensional data captured from a cleft-lip palate patient who underwent rigid external device (RED) distraction. Cone beam computed tomography images of a 14-year-old patient were captured using a Kodak 9500 (Atlanta, GA) Cone Beam system device and a stereophotogrammetric system (3dMDface(TM) Atlanta, GA). The subject was a nonsyndromic unilateral cleft-lip palate patient who received RED distraction as part of maxillary advancement in conjunction with orthodontic treatment. Preop (T1) and postop (T2) images were superimposed using Invivo 5.2.3 (San Jose, CA) software. Volumetric rendering of the airway, bone, and soft tissues, as well as linear measurements were analyzed. Each measurement was captured 10 times to ensure reliability and reproducibility of methodology. Data from T1 to T2 revealed mean differences as follows: airway total volume +5250 mm, minimum cross-sectional area +67.84 mm; bone +1719 mm, soft tissue +44,432 mm. Mean of linear measurements: Pronasale 1.98 mm, Subnasale 3.35 mm, Labial superius 10.79 mm, Labial inferius 4.13 mm, Right alare 5.71 mm, Right cheilion 7.83 mm, Left alare 4.97 mm, Left cheilion 5.50 mm, Pogonion 3.01 mm, B-point 2.49 mm, U1-U1 9.77 mm, and L1-L1 0.00 mm. P values are distractions in a three-dimensional format. A universal standard analysis of the craniofacial complex can be implemented using the techniques and method outlined in this study.

  5. Modeling safety risk perception due to mobile phone distraction among four wheeler drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunathan Rajesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing trend in the use of information and communication technology devices in new vehicles. Due to these increasing service facilities, driver distraction has become a major concern for transportation safety. To reduce safety risks, it is crucial to understand how distracting activities affect driver behavior at different levels of vehicle control. The objective of this work is to understand how the vehicle and driver characteristics influence mobile phone usage while driving and associated risk perception of road safety incidents. Based on literature review, a man–machine framework for distracted driving and a mobile phone distraction model is presented. The study highlights the findings from a questionnaire survey conducted in Kerala, India. The questionnaire uses a 5-point Likert scale. Responses from 1203 four-wheeler drivers are collected using random sampling approach. The questionnaire items associated with three driver-drive characteristics are: (i Human Factors (age, experience, emotional state, behavior of driver, (ii Driver space (meter, controls, light, heat, steering, actuators of vehicle, (iii Driving conditions (speed, distance, duration, traffic, signals. This mobile phone distraction model is tested using structural equation modeling procedure. The study indicates that among the three characteristics, ‘Human Factors’ has the highest influence on perceived distraction due to mobile phones. It is also observed that safety risk perception due to mobile phone usage while driving is moderate. The practical relevance of the study is to place emphasis on behavior-based controls and to focus on strategies leveraging perception of distraction due to mobile phones while driving.

  6. Lining up device for the internal structures of a nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverblatt, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns a nuclear reactor of the type with a vessel, a vessel head carried at the top of this vessel by a core cylinder comprising a flange internally supported by the vessel, and an upper support structure supported between the core cylinder flange and the vessel head to align laterally the head, vessel, flange and support structure. A bottom key device is provided for lining up the flange, support structure and vessel, and an upper key device for laterally lining up support structure and the vessel head and for maintaining this alignment when they are removed simultaneously from the core cylinder and vessel. When re-assembling the reactor, the top support structure and the vessel head are lowered simultaneously so that an opening in the top alignment structure engages in the upper extension of the bottom alignment structure. A plurality of alignment stuctures may be utilised round the circumference of the reactor vessel. The disposition of the invention also facilitates the removal of the core cylinder from the reactor vessel. In this way, the alignment on re-assembly is ensured by the re-entry of the bottom extension under the flange of the core cylinder with the groove or keyway of the reactor vessel [fr

  7. Proceedings of the international workshop on engineering design of next step reversed field pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, D.B.

    1987-11-01

    These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date

  8. Proceedings of the international workshop on engineering design of next step reversed field pinch devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, D.B. (comp.)

    1987-11-01

    These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date.

  9. Electronic ignition device for internal combustion engines. Elektronische Zuendvorrichtung fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhard, W

    1983-07-14

    The purpose of the invention is to create an electronic ignition device for internal combustion engines, so that the exact setting of a required ignition timing can be done without troublesome balancing of the circuit and without temperature compensation processes. According to the invention, in order to solve this problem, the ignition device is characterized by an auxiliary circuit, with an auxiliary winding magnetically coupled to the ignition coil, a capacitor and a diode, which is connected in parallel with the control section of the control component. The auxiliary winding charges the capacitor up via the diode, as long as the induction and therefore the voltage in the auxiliary winding are increasing. After exceeding the maximum voltage, this is maintained at the capacitor while the voltage in the auxiliary winding decreases. If the difference reaches the threshold voltage of the control component, in particular of a thyristor, this is switched on and blocks the switching transistor. Due to this circuit, the ignition timing is very close behind the timing of the greatest possible energy input into the primary coil.

  10. Changes in speech following maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, T W; Polley, J W; Figueroa, A; Smith, B E

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe changes in articulation and velopharyngeal function following maxillary distraction osteogenesis. This is a descriptive, post hoc clinical report comparing the performance of patients before and after maxillary distraction. The independent variable was maxillary distraction while the dependent variables were resonance, articulation errors, and velopharyngeal function. The data were collected at a tertiary health care center in Chicago. The data from pre- and postoperative evaluations of 18 maxillary distraction patients were used. The outcome measures were severity of hypernasality and hyponasality, velopharyngeal orifice size as estimated using the pressure-flow technique, and number and type of articulation errors. At the long-term follow-up, 16.7% exhibited a significant increase in hypernasality. Seventy-five percent of patients with preoperative hyponasality experienced improved nasal resonance. Articulation improved in 67% of patients by the 1-year follow-up. In a predominately cleft palate population, the risk for velopharyngeal insufficiency following maxillary distraction is similar to the risk observed in Le Fort I maxillary advancement. Patients being considered for maxillary distraction surgery should receive pre- and postoperative speech evaluations and be counseled about risks for changes in their speech.

  11. International scientific consensus on medical plantar pressure measurement devices: technical requirements and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giacomozzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2006, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS has been conducting independent scientific activities to standardize the technical assessment of plantar pressure measurement devices (PMDs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: On the basis of the ISS results, in 2010 the Pedobarographic Group of the International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics community (i-FAB-PG promoted a consensus activity about the main technical requirements for the appropriate use of PMDs. The activity relied on a moodlebased on-line forum, documents exchange, discussions, reviews, meetings and a final survey. RESULTS: The participation of clinical and technical researchers, users, and manufacturers, contributed to the delivery of the hereby reported recommendations which specifically regard Medical PMDs in the form of platforms. CONCLUSIONS: The i-FAB-PG community reached overall agreement on the recommendations, with a few minor objections which are reported and commented in the document. RELEVANCE: The present document, the highest result achievable within a small scientific community, will hopefully represent the starting point of the wider process of establishing official international guidelines or standards, within scientific communities and standardization organizations.

  12. Removable splint with locking attachments for maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the RED system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, E Y; Suzuki, B

    2007-12-01

    The external traction hooks of the intraoral splint used to control traction forces applied to the maxilla with the rigid external distraction system represent a major barrier to surgical procedures. The purpose of this article is to introduce a removable intraoral splint with locking attachments that can be placed post-surgically immediately before distraction, facilitating surgery and consequently reducing the operative time. Fifteen cleft lip and palate patients underwent maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external distraction device in combination with the proposed removable splint that was fixed onto the maxillary teeth to provide anchorage. Initial records showed severe maxillary hypoplasia and negative overjet. The removable splint was fabricated using 1.5-mm diameter stainless-steel rigid orthodontic wires soldered to the locking attachments (Y&B Products LP, Chiang Mai, Thailand), making possible its placement post-surgically. Stable splint fixation was achieved prior to the distraction procedure and the desired treatment goals were reached. No complications inserting or removing the splint post-surgically, including pain or discomfort, were observed. The use of the removable splint with locking attachments has proved to be a highly effective fixation approach to manage the severely hypoplastic maxilla, eliminating lip constraints resulting from scarring, and allowing for easier, more deliberate and careful dissection.

  13. Visual distraction during word-list retrieval does not consistently disrupt memory: no evidence for a finite cognitive resource theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jayne Louise Rae

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glenberg, Schroeder and Robertson (1998 reported that episodic memory is impaired by visual distraction and argued that this effect is consistent with a trade-off between internal and external attentional focus. However, their demonstration that visual distraction impairs memory for lists used 15 consecutive word lists, with analysis only of mid-list items, and has never been replicated. Experiment 1 (N=37 replicated their study, and found no overall effect of distraction on recall for the entire lists. However it did replicate the impairment for mid-list recall. Experiment 2 (N=64 explored whether this pattern arises because the mid-list items are poorly encoded (by manipulating presentation rate or because of interference. Experiment 3 (N=36 also looked at the role of interference whilst controlling for potential item effects. Neither study replicated the pattern seen in Experiment 1, despite reliable effects of presentation rate (Experiment 2 and interference (Experiments 2 and 3. Experiment 2 found no effect of distraction for mid-list items, but distraction did increase both correct and incorrect recall of all items suggestive of a shift in willingness to report. Experiment 3 found no effects of distraction whatsoever. Thus, there is no clear evidence that distraction consistently impairs retrieval of items from lists, contrary to the embodied cognition account used to explain the original finding.

  14. [Multimodal distraction to relieve pain in children undergoing acute medical procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kate; Rodger, Sylvia; Bucolo, Sam; Wang, Xue-Qing; Kimble, Roy M

    2009-10-01

    Non-pharmacological approaches to pain management have been used by therapists for decades to reduce the anxiety and pain experienced by children during burn care procedures. With a greater understanding of pain and the principles behind what causes a child to be distracted, combined with access to state of the art technology, we have developed an easy to use, hand held multimodal distraction device (MMD). MMD is an interactive device that prepares the child for a procedure and uses developmentally appropriate distraction stories and games during the procedures to alleviate anxiety and pain. This paper summarizes the results of three randomized control trials. The trials aimed to understand the effectiveness of MMD as a distraction and preparation tool in reducing anxiety and pain in children undergoing burns and non-burns medical procedures compared to pure pharmacological approaches Standard Distraction (SD) and off the shelf video games (VG). Three separate prospective randomized control trials involving 182 children having 354 dressing changes were conducted in the burns and orthopedic departments at Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, to address the above aims. Pain and anxiety scores were completed for the child, caregiver and nursing staff according to the Modified Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Scale, Faces Pain Scale-Revised, Visual Analogue Scale and Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. Procedural length was recorded. MMD as a preparation and distraction tool were shown to have a significant impact on child, parent and nursing staff reported anxiety and pain during procedures compared to standard care and video games (P positive effect on clinical time and was shown to sustain its impact on pain and time with further dressing changes. MMD is more effective in reducing the pain and anxiety experienced by children in acute medical procedures as compared with SD and VG. MMD is continuing to be trialed and is continuing to show

  15. Creating the environment for driver distraction: A thematic framework of sociotechnical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Katie J; Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L

    2018-04-01

    As modern society becomes more reliant on technology, its use within the vehicle is becoming a concern for road safety due to both portable and built-in devices offering sources of distraction. While the effects of distracting technologies are well documented, little is known about the causal factors that lead to the drivers' engagement with technological devices. The relevance of the sociotechnical system within which the behaviour occurs requires further research. This paper presents two experiments, the first aims to assess the drivers self-reported decision to engage with technological tasks while driving and their reasoning for doing so with respect to the wider sociotechnical system. This utilised a semi-structured interview method, conducted with 30 drivers to initiate a discussion on their likelihood of engaging with 22 different tasks across 7 different road types. Inductive thematic analysis provided a hierarchical thematic framework that detailed the self-reported causal factors that influence the drivers' use of technology whilst driving. The second experiment assessed the relevance of the hierarchical framework to a model of distraction that was established from within the literature on the drivers use of distracting technologies while driving. The findings provide validation for some relationships studied in the literature, as well as providing insights into relationships that require further study. The role of the sociotechnical system in the engagement of distractions while driving is highlighted, with the causal factors reported by drivers suggesting the importance of considering the wider system within which the behaviour is occurring and how it may be creating the conditions for distraction to occur. This supports previous claims made within the literature based model. Recommendations are proposed that encourage a movement away from individual focused countermeasures towards systemic actors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review on wax printed microfluidic paper-based devices for international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundemir, S; Uguz, A K; Ulgen, K

    2017-07-01

    Paper-based microfluidics has attracted attention for the last ten years due to its advantages such as low sample volume requirement, ease of use, portability, high sensitivity, and no necessity to well-equipped laboratory equipment and well-trained manpower. These characteristics have made paper platforms a promising alternative for a variety of applications such as clinical diagnosis and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological substances. Among the wide range of fabrication methods for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices ( μ PADs), the wax printing method is suitable for high throughput production and requires only a commercial printer and a heating source to fabricate complex two or three-dimensional structures for multipurpose systems. μ PADs can be used by anyone for in situ diagnosis and analysis; therefore, wax printed μ PADs are promising especially in resource limited environments where people cannot get sensitive and fast diagnosis of their serious health problems and where food, water, and related products are not able to be screened for toxic elements. This review paper is focused on the applications of paper-based microfluidic devices fabricated by the wax printing technique and used for international health. Besides presenting the current limitations and advantages, the future directions of this technology including the commercial aspects are discussed. As a conclusion, the wax printing technology continues to overcome the current limitations and to be one of the promising fabrication techniques. In the near future, with the increase of the current interest of the industrial companies on the paper-based technology, the wax-printed paper-based platforms are expected to take place especially in the healthcare industry.

  17. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  18. [Three-dimensional modeling of mandibular distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgon, L A; Trunde, F; Coudert, J L; Disant, F

    2003-12-01

    Facial hemi-atrophy affects 1 in 4000 or 5000 children. We propose treating this deformation of the 1st branchial arch with the "bone distraction" lengthening technique first described by Ilizarov in the 1950s, which has already been employed with the mandible. We have modelled mandibular distraction in facial hemi-atrophy patients and discuss the benefits of such pre-surgical planning encompassing the assistance of pre- and post-operative as well as surgically coordinated orthodontic therapy. Using X scanner views of a 5 year-old girl patient, we have developed a distraction-simulation software, which makes the pathological side harmonious with the healthy side along the medial sagittal plane. In order to obtain facial symmetry, put bones in balance, and orient the occlusal plane horizontally, essential requisites of occlusal stability, it is necessary: to employ a 2 or 3-dimensional distractor, to pre-plan the distraction and screw positioning, to set up a fixed orthodontic treatment plan prior to beginning distraction therapy.

  19. Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Turrill, Jonna; Cooper, Joel M; Coleman, James R; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Biondi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to establish a systematic framework for measuring and understanding cognitive distraction in the automobile. Driver distraction from secondary in-vehicle activities is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Across three studies, participants completed eight in-vehicle tasks commonly performed by the driver of an automobile. Primary, secondary, subjective, and physiological measures were collected and integrated into a cognitive distraction scale. In-vehicle activities, such as listening to the radio or an audio book, were associated with a low level of cognitive workload; the conversation activities of talking to a passenger in the vehicle or conversing with a friend on a handheld or hands-free cell phone were associated with a moderate level of cognitive workload; and using a speech-to-text interfaced e-mail system involved a high level of cognitive workload. The research established that there are significant impairments to driving that stem from the diversion of attention from the task of operating a motor vehicle and that the impairments to driving are directly related to the cognitive workload of these in-vehicle activities. Moreover, the adoption of voice-based systems in the vehicle may have unintended consequences that adversely affect traffic safety. These findings can be used to help inform scientifically based policies on driver distraction, particularly as they relate to cognitive distraction stemming from the diversion of attention to other concurrent activities in the vehicle. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  20. Use of controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) devices to control reproduction in goats: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, Marlon; Singh-Knights, Doolarie

    2016-09-01

    High reproductive rates are necessary in order to increase the productivity of goat operations. Progesterone and its analogues are widely used in other species to control the reproductive system to facilitate synchronized births, induce fertile estrus or to facilitate the use of assisted reproductive techniques with the goal of increasing productivity of livestock. Progesterone impregnated controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) devices are approved for delivery of the natural hormone progesterone to synchronize and induce fertile estrus in sheep. A few studies have reported a high estrous response and pregnancy rates when CIDRs are used to induce estrus in goats. However, significant variation exists in the duration of treatment (5-16 days) and in the use of exogenous gonadotropins as part of the treatment protocol. As gonadotropins are not currently approved for commercial use in small ruminants in the USA, studies are needed to determine the necessity for exogenous gonadotropins and whether they can be replaced by enhancing endogenous secretion through photoperiodic manipulation of the doe and \\ or increase stimulation through the 'buck-effect'. Future studies must not only evaluate efficacy, but should consider the economic feasibility of using CIDRs in commercial production systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. A rectal balloon catheter as internal immobilization device for conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, N.; Wachter, S.; Dorner, D.; Goldner, G.; Colotto, A.; Poetter, R.

    1999-01-01

    Background: As known from the literature, prostate motion depends on different bladder and/or rectum fillings. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a rectum balloon catheter, used as an internal immobilization device, on prostate and rectum motion during the treatment course. Moreover we have analysed if the balloon enables an increase of the distance between the prostate and the posterior rectum wall. Results: An increase of the distance between the prostate and the posterior rectal wall of 8 mm was observed at the base of the prostate when using the rectum balloon. Moreover prostate motion in the ventrodorsal direction ≥4 mm (1 SD) was reduced from 6/10 patients (60%) to 1/10 patients (10%) using the rectal balloon. In general, deviations in the latero-lateral and cranio-caudal directions were less (mean ≤ 2 mm, 1 SD), no difference between both examination series (with and without balloon) was observed. Conclusion: Rectal balloon catheter offers a possibility to reduce prostate motion and rectum filling variations during treatment course. In addition it enables an increase in the distance between prostate and posterior rectal wall, which could enable an improved protection of the posterior rectal wall. (orig./AJ) [de

  2. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis using Le Fort I osteotomy without intraoperative down-fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, K; Mitsugi, M; Takahashi, T

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present a technique for maxillary distraction osteogenesis using Le Fort I osteotomy without down-fracture. Six cleft-related patients suffering from severe midfacial deficiency were treated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. The RED II system was chosen as the extraoral device and the Leipzig retention plate system to anchor the maxillary segment. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis was successful in all cases. Cephalometric and clinical evaluation after an average follow-up period of 1 year showed stable results with respect to skeletal and dental relationships. The SNA angle increased from 72.3 degrees to 81.4 degrees and the ANB angle increased by 11.0 degrees immediately after removing the distraction device. After 1 year, the sagittal bone gain remained and the SNA angle had decreased by 0.8 degrees . This technique seems to minimize the risk of the surgical procedure and shorten the operation time. It may become an alternative method for the treatment of patients with severe midfacial hypoplasia.

  3. Tooth-borne distraction osteogenesis versus conventional Le Fort I in maxillary advancement of cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Showkatbakhsh, Rahman; Behnaz, Mohammad; Ghassemi, Alireza; Kamalee, Zinat; Perillo, Letizia

    2018-01-31

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is rapidly becoming a mainstream surgical technique for correction of maxillary deficiency. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a newly designed tooth-borne osteogenic distraction device with conventional LeFort 1 osteotomy in maxillary advancement of cleft lip and palate patients. The DO group consisted of 10 subjects (7 males, 3 females) with a mean age of 21.2 (SD 4.2) years. In these patients, the newly designed distraction device which exerted force anteroposteriorly was cemented after mobilization of the maxilla. After a latency period of 7 days, the distractor was activated twice daily by a total amount of 0.5 mm per day. The activation was continued for 3 weeks. After an 8-week consolidation period, the distraction appliance was removed. Cephalograms of DO patients were obtained at the start of distraction and at the end of consolidation. The LeFort 1 group consisted of 11 subjects (6 males, 5 females) with a mean age of 22.3 (SD 3.7) years. Pre and post-surgery lateral cephalograms were obtained. T-Test and paired T-test were used to evaluate the data. At the end of treatment, the SNA angle of LeFort 1 patients increased by 5.5° (SD 2.3) (Pdistraction device can effectively advance the maxilla forward in patients with cleft lip.

  4. One-step transversal palatal distraction and maxillary repositioning: technical considerations, advantages, and long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Antonio; Savastano, Mauro; Savastano, Germano; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2011-09-01

    Transversal maxillary hypoplasia in adolescence is a frequently seen pathology, which can be treated with a combination of surgery and orthodontic treatment to widen the maxilla in skeletally matured patients.We evaluated the advantages of a new surgical technique: Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis using a bone-borne device. Because relapse is one of the main problems in surgical maxillary expansion, long-term stability of this new technique was evaluated. Data from 4 adult patients with maxillary restriction, class III malocclusion, or maxillary malposition were collected preoperatively, 4 months after distraction, and 5 years after distraction. Measurements were recorded on dental models to detect palatal expansion at dental level; cephalograms by lateral and posteroanterior plane were analyzed to detect maxillary movements. Maxillary measurements were substantially stable 5 years after distractions. Only minor dental movements occurred at the dental analysis after 5 years related to a lack of orthodontic contention without any compromise of the dental result (no crossbite relapse and class I stability). Le Fort I with down-fracture for expansion and repositioning by bone-borne distractor device can [corrected] be used to simultaneously widen, advance, and vertically reposition the maxilla without causing healing problems, particularly using a rigid distraction device. Long-term stability can be achieved; however, further studies with a larger number of patients will be necessary for better evaluation.

  5. Proceedings of the first international conference on indium phosphide and related materials for advanced electronic and optical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Messick, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first international conference on indium phosphide and related materials for advanced electronic and optical devices. Topics covered include: Growth and characterization of bulk and epitaxial films, Passivation technology, Processing technology, High speed optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Solar cells

  6. National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    The 2015 National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors (NSDDAB) is the third in a series of telephone surveys on distracted driving providing data to help further the understanding of driving behavior and to contribute to the developm...

  7. Effects of distraction on memory and cognition: A commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergus I. M Craik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This commentary is a review of the findings and ideas reported in the preceding nine articles on the effects of distraction on aspects of cognitive performance. The articles themselves deal with the disruptive effects of distraction on recall of words, objects and events, also on visual processing, category formation and other cognitive tasks. The commentary assesses the part played by domain-general suppression of distracting information and the domain-specific competition arising when tasks and distraction involve very similar material. Some forms of distraction are meaningfully relevant to the ongoing task, and Treisman’s (1964 model of selective attention is invoked to provide an account of findings in this area. Finally, individual differences to vulnerability to distraction are discussed; older adults are particularly affected by distracting stimuli although the failure to repress distraction can sometimes prove beneficial to later cognitive performance.

  8. Effects of distraction on memory and cognition: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Fergus I M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary is a review of the findings and ideas reported in the preceding nine articles on the effects of distraction on aspects of cognitive performance. The articles themselves deal with the disruptive effects of distraction on recall of words, objects and events, also on visual processing, category formation and other cognitive tasks. The commentary assesses the part played by "domain-general" suppression of distracting information and the "domain-specific" competition arising when tasks and distraction involve very similar material. Some forms of distraction are meaningfully relevant to the ongoing task, and Treisman's (1964) model of selective attention is invoked to provide an account of findings in this area. Finally, individual differences to vulnerability to distraction are discussed; older adults are particularly affected by distracting stimuli although the failure to repress distraction can sometimes prove beneficial to later cognitive performance.

  9. Effect of distraction arthroplasty on osteoarthritic goat models of the articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky N.H. Putro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common knee degenerative disease, the number of OA patients increases along with the increase of life expectancy. Distraction arthroplasty is a less invasive alternatif for OA management by releaving mechanical stress while maintaining intermitten joint fluid pressure changes, thus halting the OA destructive cycle and inducing repair. This study aims to evaluate the anatomical and histopathological changes after distraction arthroplasty on osteoarthritic animal models.Methods: The study was performed on 32 goat stiffle joint (16 goats with mechanically induced OA by lateral meniscectomy. During the study 6 goats were decreased. Distraction arthroplasty was performed using external fixation on 10 knees for 4 weeks, and the contralateral knees left untreated. The knees were anatomically and histopathologically examined using International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS staging and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI scoring. The differences of the anatomical and histopathological changes are tested for significance using the Wilcoxon test.Results: There was anatomical and histopathological worsening of the OA on treated knees. The anatomical difference assessed using ICRS stage gave median values of 1.5 and 2.5 respectively (p < 0.002. The histopathological difference assessed using OARSI scoring was significant (6 vs 10; p < 0.002.Conclusion: Distraction arthroplasty in OA goat models in this study, worsens the OA instead of inducing repair. Further studies are required to find out a convincing biological basis of distraction arthroplasty as an alternative treatment for OA. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:64-9Keywords: Animal model, distraction arthroplasty, osteoarthritis

  10. Distracted driving: prevalence, problems, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Tiffany L; Rives, Terry E; Hecht, Carrie; Shafi, Shahid; Gandhi, Rajesh R

    2015-01-01

    While the number of motor vehicle crashes has declined over the years, crashes resulting from distracted driving are increasing in the United States resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The national public seems to be aware of the dangers associated with using technology while driving, but continues to engage in this dangerous behaviour, and may be unaware of or underestimate the impact of cell phone use on their own driving performance. Problems associated with distracted driving are not limited to novice or teenage drivers; multifaceted universal prevention efforts aimed at impacting large segments of the population may have the greatest impact. Legislation limiting drivers' cell phone use has had little impact, possibly due to low regulation and enforcement. Behaviour change programmes, improved vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been developed as potential preventive efforts to reduce accidents caused by distracted drivers.

  11. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. An evidence-based review: distracted driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, Luis E; Aronow, Kathy V; Macleod, Jana; Bard, Michael; Salzman, Steven; Greene, Wendy; Haider, Adil; Schupper, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cell phone use and texting are prevalent within society and have thus pervaded the driving population. This technology is a growing concern within the confines of distracted driving, as all diversions from attention to the road have been shown to increase the risk of crashes. Adolescent, inexperienced drivers, who have the greatest prevalence of texting while driving, are at a particularly higher risk of crashes because of distraction. Members of the Injury Control Violence Prevention Committee of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma performed a PubMed search of articles related to distracted driving and cell phone use as a distractor of driving between 2000 and 2013. A total of 19 articles were found to merit inclusion as evidence in the evidence-based review. These articles provided evidence regarding the relationship between distracted driving and crashes, cell phone use contributing to automobile accidents, and/or the relationship between driver experience and automobile accidents. (Adjust methods/results sections to the number of articles that correctly corresponds to the number of references, as well as the methodology for reference inclusion.) Based on the evidence reviewed, we can recommend the following. All drivers should minimize all in-vehicle distractions while on the road. All drivers should not text or use any touch messaging system (including the use of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter) while driving. Younger, inexperienced drivers should especially not use cell phones, texting, or any touch messaging system while driving because they pose an increased risk for death and injury caused by distractions while driving.

  13. The Effect of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain Relief During Dressing Changes in Children with Chronic Wounds on Lower Limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yun; Qiu, Rong; Yao, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Qin; Chen, Xiao-Li

    2015-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that patients with chronic wounds experience the most pain during dressing changes. Currently, researchers focus mostly on analgesics and appropriate dressing materials to relieve pain during dressing changes of chronic wounds. However, the effect of nonpharmacologic interventions, such as virtual reality distraction, on pain management during dressing changes of pediatric chronic wounds remains poorly understood. To investigate the effect of virtual reality distraction on alleviating pain during dressing changes in children with chronic wounds on their lower limbs. A prospective randomized study. A pediatric center in a tertiary hospital. Sixty-five children, aged from 4 to 16 years, with chronic wounds on their lower limbs. Pain and anxiety scores during dressing changes were recorded by using the Wong-Baker Faces picture scale, visual analogue scale, and pain behavior scale, as well as physiological measurements including pulse rate and oxygen saturation. Time length of dressing change was recorded. Virtual reality distraction significantly relieved pain and anxiety scores during dressing changes and reduced the time length for dressing changes as compared to standard distraction methods. The use of virtual reality as a distraction tool in a pediatric ward offered superior pain reduction to children as compared to standard distractions. This device can potentially improve clinical efficiency by reducing length time for dressing changes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and crossing behaviours, adjusting for age and gender. All multivariate analyses were conducted with random effect logistic regression (binary outcomes) and random effect linear regression (continuous outcomes), accounting for clustering by site. Observers recorded crossing behaviours for 1102 pedestrians. Nearly one-third (29.8%) of all pedestrians performed a distracting activity while crossing. Distractions included listening to music (11.2%), text messaging (7.3%) and using a handheld phone (6.2%). Text messaging, mobile phone use and talking with a companion increased crossing time. Texting pedestrians took 1.87 additional seconds (18.0%) to cross the average intersection (3.4 lanes), compared to undistracted pedestrians. Texting pedestrians were 3.9 times more likely than undistracted pedestrians to display at least 1 unsafe crossing behaviour (disobeying the lights, crossing mid-intersection, or failing to look both ways). Pedestrians listening to music walked more than half a second (0.54) faster across the average intersection than undistracted pedestrians. Distracting activity is common among pedestrians, even while crossing intersections. Technological and social distractions increase crossing times, with text messaging associated with the highest risk. Our findings suggest the need for intervention studies to reduce risk of pedestrian injury.

  15. Biomechanical comparison of two intraoperative mobilization techniques for maxillary distraction osteogenesis: Down-fracture versus non-down-fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the distraction forces and the biomechanical effects between two different intraoperative surgical procedures (down-fracture [DF] and non-DF [NDF]) for maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Eight patients were assigned into two groups according to the surgical procedure: DF, n = 6 versus NDF, n = 2. Lateral cephalograms taken preoperatively (T1), immediately after removal of the distraction device (T2), and after at least a 6 months follow-up period (T3) were analyzed. Assessment of distraction forces was performed during the distraction period. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the difference in the amount of advancement, the maximum distraction force and the amount of relapse. Although a significantly greater amount of maxillary movement was observed in the DF group (median 9.5 mm; minimum-maximum 7.9-14.1 mm) than in the NDF group (median 5.9 mm; minimum-maximum 4.4-7.6 mm), significantly lower maximum distraction forces were observed in the DF (median 16.4 N; minimum-maximum 15.1-24.6 N) than in the NDF (median 32.9 N; minimum-maximum 27.6-38.2 N) group. A significantly greater amount of dental anchorage loss was observed in the NDF group. Moreover, the amount of relapse observed in the NDF group was approximately 3.5 times greater than in the DF group. In this study, it seemed that, the use of the NDF procedure resulted in lower levels of maxillary mobility at the time of the maxillary distraction, consequently requiring greater amounts of force to advance the maxillary bone. Moreover, it also resulted in a reduced amount of maxillary movement, a greater amount of dental anchorage loss and poor treatment stability.

  16. Efficacy of Distraction Methods on Procedural Pain and Anxiety by Applying Distraction Cards and Kaleidoscope in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejla Canbulat, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The distraction cards were the most effective method for pain and anxiety relief of children during phlebotomy. Also the distraction method with kaleidoscope was an effective method for pain and anxiety relief during phlebotomy in children.

  17. A Source of Distractions in the Classroom: The Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lily Y. S.

    This paper identifies distracting factors which take away pupils' attention from the lesson and focus it on the teacher. Distracting factors include teachers' irritating habits, improper attire, and mannerisms. Examples of distracting features of both males and females are listed in eight categories: (1) attire; (2) hair; (3) make-up; (4) personal…

  18. The Effects of Distraction on Cognitive Task Performance during Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Nancy M.; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Haden, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of distraction on attention and task performance during toddlerhood. Thirty toddlers (24- to 26-month-olds) completed different tasks (2 of each: categorization, problem solving, memory, free play) in one of two conditions: No Distraction or Distraction. The results revealed that the distractor had varying effects on…

  19. Profile changes and stability following distraction osteogenesis with rigid external distraction in adult cleft lip and palate deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeson M Painatt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the hard and soft-tissue profile changes as well as the upper airway changes after distraction osteogenesis (DO using rigid external distraction device in adult cleft lip and palate (CLP patients. The study also evaluates the stability of the surgical result. Materials and Methods: Three lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken: Predistraction (T1, postdistraction (T2, and 1 year after distractor removal (T3. The treatment changes (T1 vs. T2 and the stability (T2 vs. T3 were analyzed. The overall treatment changes after 1 year were also evaluated (T1 vs. T3. The lateral cephalograms were digitally analyzed with the help of software named Dolphin. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used, and the probability value (P value of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant level. Results: Eleven adult patients with CLP were retrospectively analyzed. After distraction, there was a significant mean maxillary advancement of 14 mm (P < 0.01 from a T1 value of 73.54 ± 10.38 to a T2 value of 88.2 ± 10.49. The lower facial height and the incisor exposure were significantly increased. The nasolabial angle had a significant improvement of 24.5° (P < 0.01 from a T1 value of 56.6 ± 21.03 to a T2 value of 81.18 ± 14.4.The upper airway was significantly improved by 3.7 mm (P < 0.01 with a T1 value of 13.5 ± 3.8 to a T2 value of 17.2 ± 3.66. After 1-year follow-up, there was a significant maxillary relapse of 3.20 mm (P < 0.05 from a T2 value of 8.29 ± 6.84 to a T3 value of 5.09 ± 5.59. However, the soft-tissue profile and upper airway remained stable. Conclusion: The clinician should have an understanding of the related hard and soft tissues as well as airway changes which may assist him when planning for maxillary advancement for CLP patients with DO. There were significant improvements immediately after distraction, but during the 1-year follow-up, some relapse was

  20. Effect of internal gettering of iron on electrical characteristics of devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talvitie, H.; Haarahiltunen, A.; Savin, H.; Yli-Koski, M.; Asghar, M.I.; Sinkkonen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of gettering treatments were applied to a real device process to evaluate their ability to remove iron contamination from the device layer and improve the electrical characteristics of the devices. NMOS and PMOS transistors and other test structures were manufactured on boron doped, both iron contaminated and uncontaminated Cz silicon wafers with or without gettering treatment. Gettering treatments, which were designed to induce sufficient iron precipitate nucleation in the bulk to ensure iron precipitation, were inserted in the fabrication process after the last high temperature treatment in which the iron solubility was higher than the contamination level. The electrical characteristics of the devices, such as leakage currents, were measured. The applied gettering treatments were found to be inefficient to improve the device performance, possibly due to stronger gettering to heavily doped, ion implantation damaged device layer.

  1. Maxillary Tuberosity Reconstruction with Transport Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ugurlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe bone loss due to pathology in the maxillary tuberosity region is a challenging problem both surgically and prosthetically. Large bone grafts have a poor survival rate due to the delicate bony architecture in this area and presence of the maxillary sinus. Our case presentation describes a new technique for reconstructing severe bony defect in the maxillary tuberosity with horizontal distraction osteogenesis in a 45-year-old man. A 4×6×3cm cyst was discovered in the left maxillary molar region and enucleated. Three months postoperatively, the area had a severe bone defect extending to the zygomatic buttress superiorly and hamular notch posteriorly. Three months later, a bone segment including the right upper second premolar was osteotomised and distracted horizontally. The bone segment was distracted 15 mm distally. After consolidation, implants were placed when the distractor was removed. A fixed denture was loaded over the implants after 3 months. Complete alveolar bone loss extending to the cranial base can be reconstructed with transport distraction osteogenesis. Distalisation of the alveolar bone segment adjacent to the bony defect is an easy method for reconstructing such severe defects.

  2. Experiences in Performing Posterior Calvarial Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kevin; Lloyd, Mark; Evans, Martin; White, Nicholas; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Rodrigues, Desiderio; Sharp, Melanie; Noons, Pete; Solanki, Guirish; Dover, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    The use of posterior calvarial distraction (PCD) for the management of craniosynostosis is well recognized. The advantages of using this technique include increased cranial volume, decreased intracranial pressure, relief of posterior fossa crowding, improved cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation at the cranio-cervical junction with cessation, and possible resolution of syrinx.The authors retrospectively review their first 50 patients who have undergone PCD under the senior author's care in our unit.The demographics, diagnoses, intraoperative approach with techniques in distractor placement and outcomes of each patient were obtained through an electronic craniofacial database and written patient records. Analysis of complication rates (bleeding, distraction problems, CSF leaks, and infection) was included.A total of 31 boys and 19 girls underwent the procedure between October 2006 and September 2015 with a median age was 17.7 months (range 4 months to 19 years). Of those 50 children, 34 of the cohort were proven to be syndromic by genetic testing.The median length of inpatient stay was 9.4 days (range 3-43 days). Average distraction distance was 24 mm.Complications including CSF leaks, bleeding, distractor problems, and severe complications (recorded in 3 patients) are discussed. Our overall complication rate was 50%.Favorable outcomes included resolution of Chiari, syrinx, and raised intracranial pressure in the majority of patients where distraction was successful.The authors recommend that PCD should be considered the primary treatment for increasing calvarial volume. The authors discuss our experiences and technical innovations over the past decade.

  3. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... (2) Prohibition on youth cell phone use while driving. The State statute must-- (a) Prohibit a driver... of texting or using a cell phone while driving; (2) for traffic signs that notify drivers about the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving...

  4. Mandibular Deformity Correction by Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Asaduzzaman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis (DO is a biological process of new bone formation. It could be used as an alternative treatment method for the correction of mandibular hypoplastic deformity. Modern distraction osteogenesis evolved primarily from the work of Gavriel llizarov. DO has been first applied to craniofacial region since McCarthy et al. In this case report, the patient was 17 years old male with bird face deformity due to hypoplasia of mandible resulted from bilateral TMJ ankylosis due to the fracture of both condyle at the age of 4 years. Patient’s intraincisal opening was absent 1 year back. He underwent condylectomy in both sides to release the ankylosis and to increase intraincisal opening. His mandibular length was markedly short. To increase his mandibular antero-posterior length, mandibular body distraction was done in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department, BSMMU. Through this procedure length of the body of mandibule was increased by 10 mm, occlusion was edge to edge and his lower facial appearance increased markedly. Mandibular body distraction osteogenesis was considerably effective when performed in a hypoplastic mandible to facilitate post-operative functional and esthetic restoration. Long term follow-up is necessary to evaluate relapse and complications. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i2.7061BSMMU J 2010; 3(2: 103-106

  5. Rehabilitation of recurrent unicystic ameloblastoma using distraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This method of providing additional bone and soft tissue for implant placement is becoming more common. This clinical report describes the use of distraction osteogenesis and fixed implant supported prosthesis to treat a postsurgical alveolar defect as a result of the resection of a unicystic ameloblastoma in the anterior ...

  6. Reward, Distraction, and the Overjustification Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Pittman, Thane S.

    1978-01-01

    This study tests two differing hypotheses: the competing response hypothesis, which states that both reward and non-reward distractions produce decreases in interest which weaken over repeated trials, and the attribution/overjustification hypothesis, which maintains that rewards produce a decrease in interest that does not weaken over trials.…

  7. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. To recognize the use of international standards for making harmonized regulation of medical devices in Asia-pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, K; Saini, Ks; Chopra, Y; Binod, Sk

    2010-07-01

    'Medical Devices' include everything from highly sophisticated, computerized, medical equipment, right down to simple wooden tongue depressors. Regulations embody the public expectations for how buildings and facilities are expected to perform and as such represent public policy. Regulators, who develop and enforce regulations, are empowered to act in the public's interest to set this policy and are ultimately responsible to the public in this regard. Standardization contributes to the basic infrastructure that underpins society including health and environment, while promoting sustainability and good regulatory practice. The international organizations that produce International Standards are the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). With the increasing globalization of markets, International Standards (as opposed to regional or national standards) have become critical to the trading process, ensuring a level playing field for exports, and ensuring that imports meet the internationally recognized levels of performance and safety. The development of standards is done in response to sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established need for them. An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically communicates its requirement for standards to one of the national members. To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must receive a majority support of the participating members, who verify the global relevance of the proposed item. The regulatory authority (RA) should provide a method for the recognition of international voluntary standards and for public notification of such recognition. The process of recognition may vary from country to country. Recognition may occur by periodic publication of lists of standards that a regulatory authority has found will meet the Essential Principles. In conclusion, International standards

  9. Smartphone use during inpatient attending rounds: prevalence, patterns and potential for distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Sidlow, Rachel J; Ludwig, Allison; Miller, Scott; Sidlow, Robert

    2012-10-01

    While there are numerous benefits of smartphone use for physicians, little is known about the negative effects of using these devices in the context of patient care. To assess resident and faculty smartphone use during inpatient attending rounds and its potential as a source of distraction during transfer of clinical information. Cross-sectional survey. University-affiliated public teaching hospital. All housestaff and inpatient faculty in the departments of Medicine and Pediatrics. Participants were asked about smartphone ownership, usage patterns during attending rounds, and whether team members had ever missed important data during rounds due to distraction from smartphones. Attendings were asked whether policies should be established for smartphone use during rounds. The overall response rate was 73%. Device ownership was prevalent (89% residents, 98% faculty), as was use of smartphones during inpatient rounds (57% residents, 28% attendings). According to self-reports, smartphones were used during rounds for patient care (85% residents, 48% faculty), reading/responding to personal texts/e-mails (37% residents, 12% faculty), and other non-patient care uses (15% residents, 0% faculty). Nineteen percent of residents and 12% of attendings believed they had missed important information because of distraction from smartphones. Residents and faculty agreed that smartphones "can be a serious distraction during attending rounds," and nearly 80% of faculty believed that smartphone policies should be established. Smartphone use during attending rounds is prevalent and can distract users during important information transfer. Attendings strongly favored the institution of formal policies governing appropriate smartphone use during inpatient rounds. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  10. Anterior maxillary segmental distraction in the treatment of severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Dai, Jiewen; Si, Jiawen; Zhang, Jianfei; Wang, Minjiao; Shen, Steve Guofang; Yu, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Anterior maxillary segmental distraction (AMSD) is an effective surgical procedure in the treatment of maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate. Its unique advantage of preserving velopharyngeal function makes this procedure widely applied. In this study, the application of AMSD was described and its long-term stability was explored. Eight patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP were included in this study. They were treated with AMSD using rigid external distraction (RED) device. Cephalometric analysis was performed twice at three time points for evaluation: before surgery (T1), after distraction (T2), and 2 years after treatment (T3). One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the differences statistically. All the distractions completed smoothly, and maxilla was distracted efficiently. The value of SNA, NA-FH, Ptm-A, U1-PP, overjet and PP (ANS-PNS) increased significantly after the AMSD procedure (P 0.05). Changes of palatopharyngeal depth and soft palatal length were insignificant. AMSD with RED device provided an effective way to correct maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP, extended the palatal and arch length, avoided damage on velopharyngeal closure function and reduced the relapse rate. It is a promising and valuable technique in this potentially complicated procedure.

  11. Compiling a Medical Device File and a Proposal for an International Standard for Rehabilitation Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, GertWillem R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Medical devices produced by manufacturers are subject to regulatory review by authorities. Usually, medical devices are developed at universities and other research institutes. This implies that regulatory activities are to be carried out by the designer at these organizations also. And as early as

  12. Gender differences in the content of cognitive distraction during sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, Marta; Nunnink, Sarah E

    2006-02-01

    This study compared 220 college men and 237 college women on two types of self-reported cognitive distraction during sex, performance- and appearance-based. Affect, psychological distress, sexual knowledge, attitudes, fantasies, experiences, body image, satisfaction, and sexual function were assessed with the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory and the Sexual History Form to determine associations with distraction. Between-gender analyses revealed that women reported higher levels of overall and appearance-based distraction than did men, but similar levels of performance-based distraction. Within-gender analyses revealed that women reported as much of one type of distraction as the other, while men reported more performance- than appearance-based distraction. In women, appearance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, psychological distress, and not being in a relationship, while performance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, psychological distress, and sexual dissatisfaction. In men, appearance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, sexual dissatisfaction and not being in a relationship, while performance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image and sexual dissatisfaction. Investigating the content of cognitive distraction may be useful in understanding gender differences in sexual experience and in refining cognitive components of sex therapy.

  13. Periosteal Distraction Osteogenesis: An Effective Method for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of bone defects is challenging and controversial. As a new technology, periosteal distraction osteogenesis (PDO uses the osteogenicity of periosteum, which creates an artificial space between the bone surface and periosteum to generate new bone by gradually expanding the periosteum with no need for corticotomy. Using the newly formed bone of PDO to treat bone defects is effective, which can not only avoid the occurrence of immune-related complications, but also solve the problem of insufficient donor. This review elucidates the availability of PDO in the aspects of mechanisms, devices, strategies, and measures. Moreover, we also focus on the future prospects of PDO and hope that PDO will be applied to the clinical treatment of bone defects in the future.

  14. Rigid external maxillary distraction and rhinoplasty for pyknodysostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Altan; Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus; Sencimen, Metin; Akcam, Timur; Olmez, Hüseyin; Basa, Selçuk

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the treatment of an 33-year-old female patient with pyknodysostosis by rigid external distraction II midface distraction system. The patient with pyknodysostosis described in this report had severe midfacial hypoplasia. Correction of this by use of routine orthognathic surgery would require osteosynthesis and bone grafting. Risk of infection and/or nonunion after such a surgical procedure was considered too great, and therefore the possibility of treatment by distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla was evaluated. The rigid external distraction II midface distraction system was used to relocate the hypoplastic maxilla at anterior-inferior projection. Distraction osteogenesis should be considered as the primary reconstructive method for maxillofacial deformities in patients with sclerosing bone dysplasias, since this is the second reported case treated successfully with rigid external distraction.

  15. Adaptive cellular structures and devices with internal features for enhanced structural performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Michael Eugene

    This dissertation aims to develop a family of cellular and repeatable devices that exhibit a variety of force-displacement behaviors. It is envisioned that these cellular structures might be used either as stand-alone elements, or combined and repeated to create multiple types of structures (i.e. buildings, ship hulls, vehicle subfloors, etc.) with the ability to passively or actively perform multiple functions (harmonic energy dissipation, impact mitigation, modulus change) over a range of loading types, amplitudes, and frequencies. To accomplish this goal, this work combines repeatable structural frameworks, such as that provided by a hexagonal cellular structure, with internal structural elements such as springs, viscous dampers, buckling plates, bi-stable von Mises trusses (VMTs), and pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). The repeatable framework serves to position damping and load carrying elements throughout the structure, and the configuration of the internal elements allow each cell to be tuned to exhibit a desired force-displacement response. Therefore, gradient structures or structures with variable load paths can be created for an optimal global response to a range of loads. This dissertation focuses on the development of cellular structures for three functions: combined load-carrying capability with harmonic energy dissipation, impact mitigation, and cell modulus variation. One or more conceptual designs are presented for devices that can perform each of these functions, and both experimental measurements and simulations are used to gain a fundamental understanding of each device. Chapter 2 begins with a presentation of a VMT model that is the basis for many of the elements. The equations of motion for the VMT are derived and the static and dynamic behavior of the VMT are discussed in detail. Next, two metrics for the energy dissipation of the VMT - hysteresis loop area and loss factor - are presented. The responses of the VMT to harmonic displacement

  16. Electrically controlled fuel injection device for internal combustion engines with air quantity meter. Elektrisch gesteuerte Kraftstoffeinspritzeinrichtung fuer Brennkraftmaschinen mit Luftmengenmesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, B; Soell, W

    1980-12-11

    The invention concerns an electrically controlled preferably intermittently working fuel injection device for internal combustion engines with a throttle valve, a solenoid operated injection valve and a transistor circuit, which supplies electrical pulses used to open the injection valve synchronously to the revolution of the crankshaft. The invention is characterized by the fact that an electrical control device is provided, which extends the individual opening pulses in thrust operation (with the throttle valve closed or nearly closed and with a working speed above the speed). The extension produced by the control device decreases from a value at about 20% for the maximum speed to a value of 0 for the tickover speed. Details of the transistor control are made clear by detailed circuit diagrams and 5 patent claims.

  17. Combined maxillary and mandibular distraction osteogenesis in patients with hemifacial microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti; Lau, Geórgia W T; Marquezan, Mariana; de Souza Araújo, Mônica Tirre; Polley, John W; Figueroa, Alvaro A

    2015-05-01

    Hemifacial microsomia is a deformity of variable expressivity with unilateral hypoplasia of the mandible and the ear. In this study, we evaluated skeletal soft tissue changes after bimaxillary unilateral vertical distraction. Eight patients (4 preadolescents 4 adolescents) each with a grade II mandibular deformity underwent a LeFort I osteotomy and an ipsilateral horizontal mandibular ramus osteotomy. A semiburied distraction device was placed over the ramus, and intermaxillary fixation was applied. Anteroposterior cephalometric and frontal photographic analyses were conducted before and after distraction. Statistics were used to analyze the preoperative and postoperative changes. Cephalometrically, the nasal floor and the occlusal and gonial plane angles decreased. The ratios of affected-unaffected ramus and gonial angle heights improved by 15% and 20%, respectively. The position of menton moved toward the midline. The photographic analysis showed a decrease of the nasal and commissure plane angles, and the chin moved to the unaffected side. The parallelism between the horizontal skeletal and soft tissue planes improved, with an increase in the affected side ramus height and correction of the chin point toward the midline. Simultaneous maxillary and mandibular distraction improved facial balance and symmetry. Patients in the permanent dentition with fixed orthodontic appliances and well-aligned dental arches responded well to this intervention. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluctuations of Internal Transmittance in Security of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution with an Untrusted Source*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Chen Rui-Ke; Zhou Chun; Jiang Mu-Sheng; Li Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to detector side channel attacks, which is a crucial security loophole problem in traditional QKD. In order to relax a key assumption that the sources are trusted in MDI-QKD, an MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source has been proposed. For the security of MDI-QKD with an untrusted source, imperfections in the practical experiment should also be taken into account. In this paper, we analyze the effects of fluctuations of internal transmittance on the security of a decoy-state MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source. Our numerical results show that both the secret key rate and the maximum secure transmission distance decrease when taken fluctuations of internal transmittance into consideration. Especially, they are more sensitive when Charlie’s mean photon number per pulse is smaller. Our results emphasize that the stability of correlative optical devices is important for practical implementations . (paper)

  19. Introduction of a new removable adjustable intraoral maxillary distraction system for correction of maxillary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Alvaro A; Polley, John W; Figueroa, Alexander L

    2009-09-01

    Distraction osteogenesis has become a treatment alternative to treat severe craniofacial skeletal dysplasias. A rigid external distraction device has been successfully used to advance the maxilla as well as the maxillary, orbital, and forehead complex (monobloc) in children as young as 2 years, adolescents, and adults. For this severe group of patients, the technique has been found to be simpler and safer than traditional surgical methods. Maxillary and midfacial advancement through distraction has been found to be extremely stable in the patients in whom the technique was used.The authors introduce an intraoral distractor for those patients requiring a moderate maxillary advancement. The advantages of the device include ease of insertion, vector adjustability, reactivation capabilities, and no need for second procedure for its removal.The above approaches have provided predictable and stable results. A detailed description of the device, necessary orthodontic and surgical procedures, case reports, and cephalometric outcomes are presented. The techniques can be applied alone or as an adjunct to traditional orthognathic and craniofacial surgical procedures.

  20. Transpalatal distraction--state of the art for the individual management of transverse maxillary deficiency--a review of 50 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, Nicolai; Ernst, Nicole; Menneking, Horst; Hoffmeister, Bodo

    2014-12-01

    Transpalatal distraction has been established as a technique for surgical assisted rapid palatal/maxillary expansion (SARPE/SARME) in order to correct transverse maxillary deficiency. From 2007 until 2013 bone borne transpalatal distraction devices have been inserted in 50 patients affected by transverse maxillary deficiency and transpalatal distraction has been performed by the same surgical team. Patient records were retrospectively evaluated after ending of the active distraction phase with respect to indication, achieved expansion, additional procedures and side effects. In all cases the existing transverse maxillary deficiency was corrected by means of transpalatal distraction according to the individual needs. No complications were observed that interfered with that therapeutic aim. Evaluation of the records showed a wide variance of parameters which impedes evidence based statements. According to that series transpalatal distraction is a safe, powerful and reliable procedure and can be recommended as a state of the art procedure for the individually adapted correction of transverse maxillary deficiency if well known parameters of distraction are respected. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Minimum distraction gap: how much ankle joint space is enough in ankle distraction arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomen, Austin T; McCoy, Thomas H; Meyers, Kathleen N; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2014-02-01

    The success of ankle distraction arthroplasty relies on the separation of the tibiotalar articular surfaces. The purpose of this study was to find the minimum distraction gap needed to ensure that the tibiotalar joint surfaces would not contact each other with full weight-bearing while under distraction. Circular external fixators were mounted to nine cadaver ankle specimens. Each specimen was then placed into a custom-designed load chamber. Loads of 0, 350, and 700N were applied to the specimen. Radiographic joint space was measured and joint contact pressure was monitored under each load. The external fixator was then sequentially distracted, and the radiographic joint space was measured under the three different loads. The experiment was stopped when there was no joint contact under 700N of load. The radiographic joint space was measured and the initial (undistracted) radiographic joint space was subtracted from it yielding the distraction gap. The minimum distraction gap (mDG) that would provide total unloading was calculated. The average mDG was 2.4 mm (range, 1.6 to 4.0 mm) at 700N of load, 4.4 mm (range, 3.7 to 5.8 mm) at 350N of load, and 4.9 mm (range, 3.7 to 7.0 mm) at 0N of load. These results suggest that if the radiographic joint space of on a standing X-ray of an ankle undergoing distraction arthroplasty shows a minimum of 5.8 mm of DG, then there will be no contact between joint surfaces during full weight-bearing. Therefore, 5 mm of radiographic joint space, as recommended historically, may not be adequate to prevent contact of the articular surfaces during weight-bearing.

  2. 75 FR 45696 - Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... and operators of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities are required to have and follow.... Advisory Bulletin (ADB-10-06) To: Owners and Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems...

  3. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  4. Internal vacuum-assisted closure device in the swine model of severe liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Christopher B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The authors present a novel approach to nonresectional therapy in major hepatic trauma utilizing intraabdominal perihepatic vacuum assisted closure (VAC therapy in the porcine model of Grade V liver injury. Methods A Grade V injury was created in the right lobe of the liver in a healthy pig. A Pringle maneuver was applied (4.5 minutes total clamp time and a vacuum assisted closure device was placed over the injured lobe and connected to suction. The device consisted of a perforated plastic bag placed over the liver, followed by a 15 cm by 15cm VAC sponge covered with a nonperforated plastic bag. The abdomen was closed temporarily. Blood loss, cardiopulmonary parameters and bladder pressures were measured over a one-hour period. The device was then removed and the animal was euthanized. Results Feasibility of device placement was demonstrated by maintenance of adequate vacuum suction pressures and seal. VAC placement presented no major technical challenges. Successful control of ongoing liver hemorrhage was achieved with the VAC. Total blood loss was 625 ml (20ml/kg. This corresponds to class II hemorrhagic shock in humans and compares favorably to previously reported estimated blood losses with similar grade liver injuries in the swine model. No post-injury cardiopulmonary compromise or elevated abdominal compartment pressures were encountered, while hepatic parenchymal perfusion was maintained. Conclusion These data demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a perihepatic negative pressure device for the treatment of hemorrhage from severe liver injury in the porcine model.

  5. SPIDER: A Framework for Understanding Driver Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to identify key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. Driver distraction is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. A "SPIDER" model is developed that identifies key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. SPIDER is an acronym standing for scanning, predicting, identifying, decision making, and executing a response. When drivers engage in secondary activities unrelated to the task of driving, SPIDER-related processes are impaired, situation awareness is degraded, and the ability to safely operate a motor vehicle may be compromised. The pattern of interference helps to illuminate the sources of driver distraction and may help guide the integration of new technology into the automobile. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. Using Virtual Reality to Distract Overweight Children from Bodily Sensations During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M; Escobar, Patricia; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Alvarez Pitti, Julio; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Botella, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes the potential of virtual reality (VR) to enhance attentional distraction in overweight children as they experience bodily sensations during exercise. It has been suggested that one reason why obese children stop exercising is the perception of bodily sensations. In a counterbalanced design, a total of 109 children (33 overweight, 10-15 years old) were asked to walk twice for 6 minutes on a treadmill under one of two conditions: (a) traditional condition (TC)-focusing their attention on their physical feelings and sensations or (b) distraction condition (DC)-focusing their attention on a virtual environment. Attentional focus during exercise, bad-good feeling states (pre- and postexperimental), perceived exertion (3 minutes and post), heart rate, and enjoyment were assessed. Results indicated that overweight children focused on internal information under the TC, but they significantly shifted their attention to regard the external environment in the DC. This attentional distraction effect of VR was more intense in overweight than in normal-weight children. No differences between groups were found when examining changes in feeling states and perceived exertion. VR increased enjoyment during exercise, and children preferred exercise using virtual environments. VR is useful to promote distraction and may help overweight and obese children to enjoy exercise.

  7. Beliefs About Appearance, Cognitive Distraction and Sexual Functioning in Men and Women: A Mediation Model Based on Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elizabet; Pascoal, Patrícia M; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Dysfunctional beliefs about body appearance and cognitive distraction from body appearance during sexual activity have been associated with sexual problems, particularly in women. However, there are no studies examining the interplay between these dimensions and the mechanisms by which they affect sexual functioning. To examine the mediating role of cognitive distraction with body appearance on the relation between beliefs about appearance and sexual functioning. The study sample consisted of 426 heterosexual participants (129 men and 297 women) involved in an exclusive dyadic committed relationship who answered an online questionnaire. The Body Appearance Cognitive Distraction Scale, the Beliefs About Appearance Scale, the International Index of Erectile Function, and the Female Sexual Function Index. The findings indicated that cognitive distraction with body appearance fully mediated the relation between beliefs about appearance and sexual functioning in men and women. The results support the role of beliefs about appearance and cognitive distraction based on body appearance in predicting sexual functioning, reaffirming the role of cognitive models in explaining sexual functioning in men and women. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis Using a Rigid External Distractor: Which Clinical Factors Are Related With Relapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeenam; Uhm, Ki-Il; Shin, Donghyeok; Lee, Jina; Choi, Hyungon

    2015-06-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is a reliable treatment for cleft lip and palate with midfacial retrusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of long-term follow-up in patients with cleft lip and palate after maxillary distraction osteogenesis and to find clinical factors related to relapse. From February 2002 to June 2008, 21 patients with severe class III malocclusion were treated at our hospital. We performed distraction osteotomy with a rigid external distractor device. The distraction length was more than 15 mm in all patients. Preoperative and postoperative lateral cephalometric radiographs were used for analysis. The sella-nasion-subnasale, sella-nasion-supramentale, and point-A-point-B-nasion (sella-nasion-subnasale-sella-nasion-supramentale) angles were recorded. The timelines for follow-up were preoperatively, after distraction, after consolidation, at 3 years, and once fully grown (5- to 8-year follow-ups). A comparative analysis of clinical factors was performed for the relapsing and nonrelapsing groups. Of the 21 patients, 14 had relapsed. The mean age in the relapsing group was 9.1 years (7 boys and 7 girls) with 9 patients with unilateral cleft palate and 5 c bilateral cleft palate. The mean age in the nonrelapsing group was 11.7 years (4 boys and 3 girls) with 5 patients with unilateral cleft palate and 2 patients with bilateral cleft palate. Despite greater anterior overcorrection, relapse occurred owing to scar tissue retraction and mandibular compensatory hypertrophy. The results suggest that the younger the patient, the more likely relapse will occur.

  9. Attitudes and behaviors related to distracted driving in college students: a need for interventions in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; MacLean, Sarah A; Garcia, Philip

    2017-08-05

    Objective One of the biggest contributors to distracted driving among young people in the United States is technology. The objective of this study was to describe distracted driving behaviors among college students, with a specific focus on attitudes towards and use of social media. Methods With written permission, a survey was adapted from the Distracted Driving Public Opinion Poll distributed by the National Safety Council. The survey comprised 43 questions assessing attitudes and behaviors. A total of 411 students enrolled in a personal health course were invited to complete the survey. In total 324 surveys were completed, resulting in a response rate of 79%. Results Among students with a driver's license, 95.2% reported engaging in distracted driving behaviors. The use of social media while driving was common, with 30.7% reporting that they glance at, read, or post to social media while driving, most commonly on Snapchat or Instagram. It was common for students to make or answer phone calls (72.0%), review or send text messages (54.6%), or glance at or read automatic notifications (43.3%). Almost all students (91.5%) reported that they believed a hands-free solution is safer than holding the phone while driving, but only 67.9% reported that they usually used a hands-free device. Students in a health major and students who drive in urban areas were more likely to engage in distracted driving behaviors. Conclusions These findings suggest a need for interventions, particularly those which target adolescents in an attempt to deter these behaviors as they transition into adulthood.

  10. Mandibular Corpus Horizontal Distraction in an Edentulous Case and Its Effects on the Contralateral Coronoid Processus-Arcus Zygomaticus Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furkan Erol Karabekmez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available PurposeInteraction between the coronoid processus and the arcus-zygomaticus on contralateral hemi-mandible often drops off the radar in case of distraction osteogenesis of the mandibular corpus. We presented a 42 years old male without any teeth applied to hospital for facial asymmetry, short hemi-mandible and chewing problems.Case2D and 3D computerized tomography and stereo-lithographic models were used for planning, predicting possible movements on the contralateral condyle and anticipate the relation of contralateral coronoid process the with zygomatic arc. Maximum safe amounts of distraction were calculated with cooperation with orthodontics and radiology. The rotation angle on the axis of the contralateral condyle is calculated in order to measure the defect to be corrected to take the maxillary and mandibular midlines to the same plane. Total calculated defect were shortened for preventing any interaction between the coronoid processus and the arcus-zygomaticus on contralateral hemi-mandible.ResultPatient was satisfied and started to use new dentures two months after removal of the distraction device.ConclusionIn order to achieve successful distraction without any problem regarding to opposite side rotation angles of the condyle, and position changes in the coronoid processus, collaboration and multidisciplinary approach are essential with orthodontics and radiologist in case of unilateral mandibular corpus distraction.

  11. Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop on radiation effects on semiconductor devices for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This publication is the collection of the paper presented at the title workshop. The main purpose of the workshop is to bring the chance for exchange of information between scientists and engineers who work in the field of research and development of semiconductor devices used in strong radiation environment in space. The 27 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. [Stimulation and evaluation on maxillary distraction osteogenesis using CASSOS 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Qiu, Wei-liu; Tang, You-sheng; Li, Qing-yun

    2002-09-01

    To simulate maxillary distraction osteogenesis and evaluate the change of soft and hard tissue before and after treatment, using Computer-Assisted Simulation System for Orthognathic Surgery( CASSOS 2001). A fourteen-year-old boy with severe maxillary hypoplasia, due to unilateral cleft lip and palate, was analysed by cephalometric analysis. The simulations of maxillary distraction osteogenesis (Le Fort I osteotomy and Le Fort II osteotomy) were re-analysed. After the treatment, cephalometric analysis was preformed again. The data were compared. The maxillary hypoplasia was well treated using maxillary distraction osteogenesis; Compared with Le fort I osteotomy, more satisfactory results can be obtained by Le fort I distraction osteogenesis. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is a better way to treat severe maxillary hypoplasia with operated CLP than maxillary osteotomy. CASSOS 2001 can help surgeons and patients on simulation and evaluation of maxillary distraction osteogenesis, and on decision of treatment plan.

  13. Safety climate and the distracted driving experiences of truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Agnew, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    For truck drivers, distracted driving is a workplace behavior that increases occupational injury risk. We propose safety climate as an appropriate lens through which researchers can examine occupational distracted driving. Using a mixed methods study design, we surveyed truck drivers using the Safety Climate Questionnaire (SCQ) complemented by semi-structured interviews of experts on distracted driving and truck safety. Safety climate was assessed by using the entire SCQ as an overall climate score, followed by factor analysis that identified the following safety climate factors: Communications and Procedures; Management Commitment; and Work Pressure. In multivariate regression, the overall safety climate scale was associated with having ever experienced a crash and/or distraction-involved swerving. Interview participants described how these SCQ constructs could affect occupational distracted driving. To reduce distraction-related crashes in their organizations, management can adhere to safe policies and procedures, invest in engineering controls, and develop safer communication procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Visual Distraction: An Altered Aiming Spatial Response in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Healthy individuals demonstrate leftward bias on visuospatial tasks such as line bisection, which has been attributed to right brain dominance. We investigated whether this asymmetry occurred in patients with probable dementia of the Alzheimer type (pAD which is associated with neurodegenerative changes affecting temporoparietal regions. Methods: Subjects with pAD and matched controls performed a line bisection task in near and far space under conditions of no distraction, left-sided visual distraction and right-sided visual distraction. Results: Participants with pAD manifested different motor-preparatory ‘aiming’ spatial bias than matched controls. There were significantly greater rightward ‘aiming’ motor-intentional errors both without distraction and with right-sided distraction. Conclusion: ‘Aiming’ motor-preparatory brain activity may be induced by distraction in pAD subjects as compared to typical visual-motor function in controls.

  15. Periodontal ligament distraction: esthetics and occlusal stability at the 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgayer, Susiane; Rosenbach, Gabriella; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Estevanell; Polido, Waldemar Daudt

    2013-04-01

    Dental distraction is an orthodontic tooth movement technique that allows closure of extraction spaces, usually of premolars, in periods from 1 to 3 weeks, by bodily retraction of the canine. This article reports on canine distalization by using a distractor device obtained from a conventional hyrax screw. The patient was an adolescent boy, aged 17 years 9 months, who came to the clinic with the chief complaint of tooth crowding. The clinical examination showed a convex profile, retroclined and protruded maxillary incisors, buccally tipped and protruded mandibular incisors, and a Class I malocclusion. The treatment comprised extractions and rapid canine distraction procedures. Pretreatment, posttreatment, and 2-year follow-up records are shown and demonstrate that dental distraction is a viable alternative of treatment. With this treatment strategy, satisfactory results were obtained without additional anchorage devices, achieving an attractive smile and optimal occlusion. The main considerations about the treatment alternatives and their clinical concerns are discussed. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Distraction arthroplasty with arthroscopic microfracture in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis of the ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Adachi, Nobuo; Kato, Tomohiro; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    We treated a 39-year-old female who had experienced destruction of her ankle joint owing to rheumatoid arthritis. This relatively young patient wished to avoid ankle fusion and joint replacement. Therefore, distraction arthroplasty with arthroscopic microfracture was performed to improve her symptoms and preserve motion. A microfracture procedure specifically for cartilage defects of the tibial plafond and talar dome was performed with the arthroscope, after which a hinged external fixator was applied to distract the ankle joint. The ankle joint space was enlarged by the external device and joint movement allowed. After 3 months, removal of the external device and repeat arthroscopy revealed newly formed fibrocartilage on the surfaces of both the tibia and the talus. At 2 years after the surgery, a radiograph showed that the joint space enlargement of the ankle had been maintained. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 37 points preoperatively to 82 points at 2 years postoperatively. Our findings suggest that good clinical results can be achieved with distraction arthroplasty and arthroscopic microfracture in a relatively young patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  18. Alcohol and distraction interact to impair driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol+divided attention; placebo; and placebo+divided attention. As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Speech-Language Dissociations, Distractibility, and Childhood Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Method Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. Results More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. Conclusions The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations). PMID:26126203

  20. Commercial Truck Driver Health and Safety: Exploring Distracted Driving Performance and Self-Reported Driving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R

    2016-08-01

    Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Internal Mammary Arterial Injury from Lead Extraction: A Clinically Subtle yet Important Complication of Implantable Device Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous implantable device extraction has increased in recent years and is associated with small but significant risk. Arteriovenous fistula formation is an uncommon complication of this procedure. We report two cases where lead extraction was complicated by an arteriovenous fistula between the left internal mammary artery and the left brachiocephalic vein. In both cases, the patients were asymptomatic and the presence of a continuous murmur in the left subclavicular region led to the appropriate diagnosis. These were successfully treated with coil embolization. Auscultation around prior extraction sites should be routinely done to aid in the diagnosis of this potentially harmful complication.

  2. Mobile Devices in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2009-01-01

    As cell phones--with ever-expanding possibilities of texting, Web browsing, and game playing--have multiplied in recent years among teenagers and even preteens, so have the concerns of teachers and administrators about the distractions these devices can cause. A survey of students and parents earlier this year by the group Common Sense Media found…

  3. Identification of common features of vehicle motion under drowsy/distracted driving: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhong, Ming; Lyu, Nengchao; Huang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Drowsy/distracted driving has become one of the leading causes of traffic crash. Only certain particular drowsy/distracted driving behaviors have been studied by previous studies, which are mainly based on dedicated sensor devices such as bio and visual sensors. The objective of this study is to extract the common features for identifying drowsy/distracted driving through a set of common vehicle motion parameters. An intelligent vehicle was used to collect vehicle motion parameters. Fifty licensed drivers (37 males and 13 females, M=32.5 years, SD=6.2) were recruited to carry out road experiments in Wuhan, China and collecting vehicle motion data under four driving scenarios including talking, watching roadside, drinking and under the influence of drowsiness. For the first scenario, the drivers were exposed to a set of questions and asked to repeat a few sentences that had been proved valid in inducing driving distraction. Watching roadside, drinking and driving under drowsiness were assessed by an observer and self-reporting from the drivers. The common features of vehicle motions under four types of drowsy/distracted driving were analyzed using descriptive statistics and then Wilcoxon rank sum test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference of lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration between "normal driving" and drowsy/distracted driving. Study results also shown that, under drowsy/distracted driving, the lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration were significantly larger from the normal driving. The lateral acceleration rates were shown to suddenly increase or decrease by more than 2.0m/s(3) and the yaw rate acceleration by more than 2.5°/s(2). The standard deviation of acceleration rate (SDA) and standard deviation of yaw rate acceleration (SDY) were identified to as the common features of vehicle motion for distinguishing the drowsy/distracted driving from the normal driving. In order to identify a time window for

  4. Beneficial role of periosteum in distraction osteogenesis of mandible. Its preservation prevents the external bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Sawako; Matsuo, Akira; Chiba, Hiroshige

    2010-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical process of new bone generation through the gradual extension of two segments of existing bone. DO is applied for maxillofacial surgeries to manage defects in mandibular continuity. Vertical DO with an oral device is often employed to augment the alveolar bone height for better implant anchorage for esthetic purposes or functional prosthetic requirements. To determine how the periosteum affects the vertical DO in mandibular reconstruction, we extracted the teeth and resected the alveolar parts of the mandible on both sides of dogs, along with removal of the surrounding periosteum in the right, but not left side. Three months later, box-shaped bone segments (vectors) were prepared from the resected alveolar part, and the segments were vertically elongated using a distraction device on both sides at 0.9 mm/day for one week. The extent of bone formation after distraction was determined with micro-focused computed tomography and by measuring incorporation of tetracycline and calcein with confocal laser scanning microscopy. During the initial two months after distraction, new bone formation was observed more prominently in the left side than in the right side of mandible with the periosteum. However, this difference was less clear during the bone-remodeling period. One notable change was the reduced height of the alveolar part of the right-side mandible, a sign of external bone resorption, observed in two out of three dogs at 6-month post-consolidation. These findings suggest that preservation of periosteum prevents the external bone resorption during the vertical DO of mandible. (author)

  5. Distraction 'on the buses': a novel framework of ergonomics methods for identifying sources and effects of bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Young, Kristie L; Regan, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Driver distraction represents a significant problem in the public transport sector. Various methods exist for investigating distraction; however, the majority are difficult to apply within the context of naturalistic bus driving. This article investigates the nature of bus driver distraction at a major Australian public transport company, including the sources of distraction present, and their effects on driver performance, through the application of a novel framework of ergonomics methods. The framework represents a novel approach for assessing distraction in a real world context. The findings suggest that there are a number of sources of distraction that could potentially distract bus drivers while driving, including those that derive from the driving task itself, and those that derive from the additional requirements associated with bus operation, such as passenger and ticketing-related distractions. A taxonomy of the sources of bus driver distraction identified is presented, along with a discussion of proposed countermeasures designed to remove the sources identified or mitigate their effects on driver performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. The internal disruption as hard Magnetohydrodynamic limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity in large helical device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, J. [Department of Physics, Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohdachi, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Large helical device (LHD) inward-shifted configurations are unstable to resistive MHD pressure-gradient-driven modes. Sawtooth like activity was observed during LHD operation. The main drivers are the unstable modes 1/2 and 1/3 in the middle and inner plasma region which limit the plasma confinement efficiency of LHD advanced operation scenarios. The aim of the present research is to study the hard MHD limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity, not observed yet in LHD operation, and to predict its effects on the device performance. Previous investigations pointed out this system relaxation can be an internal disruption [J. Varela et al., 'Internal disruptions and sawtooth like activity in LHD,' 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (2011), P5.077]. In the present work, we simulate an internal disruption; we study the equilibria properties before and after the disruptive process, its effects on the plasma confinement efficiency during each disruptive phase, the relation between the n/m = 1/2 hard MHD events and the soft MHD events, and how to avoid or reduce their adverse effects. The simulation conclusions point out that the large stochastic region in the middle plasma strongly deforms and tears the flux surfaces when the pressure gradient increases above the hard MHD limit. If the instability reaches the inner plasma, the iota profiles will be perturbed near the plasma core and three magnetic islands can appear near the magnetic axis. If the instability is strong enough to link the stochastic regions in the middle plasma (around the half minor radius {rho}) and the plasma core ({rho}<0.25), an internal disruption is driven.

  7. Emotion-focused coping and distraction: sex differences in the influence of anxiety sensitivity during noxious heat stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T; Keogh, E; Chen, M J-L; French, C C

    2012-03-01

    While previous research has indicated that the relative efficacy of attentional strategies on pain may be influenced by anxiety sensitivity (AS) and sex, no study appears to have examined this within the context of an emotion-focus versus distraction paradigm. The present study compared the effect of attentional emotion-focus and distraction instructions on pain response with noxious heat stimulation in 114 healthy adults (62 women and 52 men) varying in levels of AS. Results indicated that men reported a significantly higher mean tolerance time than women. Moderated regression analysis also revealed a significant strategy × anxiety sensitivity × sex interaction on pain tolerance. For those low in AS, relative efficacy was dependent upon sex, with distraction superior to emotion-focusing in women, but with strategies equivalent in men. For those high in AS, however, distraction resulted in uniformly greater pain tolerance than attentional emotion-focusing. These results indicate that AS and sex may be influential in determining the relative effectiveness of distraction and emotion-based attentional strategies for pain management. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  8. Towards a universal scaling for broadband turbulent noise in internal flow devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.T. de; Golliard, J.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation is performed on the scalability of broadband noise sources from separated flows in internal pipe systems. Broadband sources from for example wellhead chokes, bends and valves can potentially excite subsea manifolds through fluid acoustic coupling and fluid structural coupling. The

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: IN-DRAIN TREATMENT DEVICE. HYDRO INTERNATIONAL UP-FLO™ FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Hydro International Up-Flo™ Filter with one filter module and CPZ Mix™ filter media was conducted at the Penn State Harrisburg Environmental Engineering Laboratory in Middletown, Pennsylvania. The Up-Flo™ Filter is designed as a passive, modular filtr...

  10. Roles of Mobile Devices Supporting International Students to Overcome Intercultural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyin; Li, Xiuyan

    2017-01-01

    Sociocultural theory emphasises the mediational role of tools in learning. International students usually find themselves in a vicious cycle, experiencing difficulties when engaging with local people and culture which might provide the mediation necessary to develop their intercultural communicative competence. Yang (2016) further points out that…

  11. Contactless ignition device for an internal combustion engine. Kontaktfreie Zuendanlage fuer eine Brennkraftmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohki, Y; Komiya, H

    1980-01-16

    The invention deals with the design of a contactless ignition device with semiconductor elements of the induction discharge type, provided with a self actuator. A short circuit current of the primary transformer coil flows through the transistor system. The emitter is capacitively connected with the primary transformer coil. When the primary short circuit current reaches its maximum, the circuit is interrupted and the ignition begins. Changes of the short circuit current are monitored. The ignition time can be pre-selected. The ignition process is independent from the engine speed.

  12. Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients with Rigid External Distraction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouri, Shadi; Waite, Peter D; Davis, Matthew B; Lamani, Ejvis; Kau, Chung How

    2017-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a treatment option for patients with maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate (CLP). The aim of this study is to present a technique for maxillary DO using Le Fort I osteotomy with rigid external distraction (RED) system. The patient presented in this paper was an Asian female with CLP aged 13 years and 6 months. She presented with severe midfacial deficiency with a Class III dental malocclusion with a negative overjet and concave facial profile. Cone-beam computed tomography images were recorded preoperatively and the operation performed involved a high Le Fort I osteotomy. The appliance fabricated was banded to upper first molars used for anchorage of the RED system. Distraction of the maxilla was initiated after 7-day latency period. Postoperative cephalometric analysis showed maxillary advancement anteriorly and superiorly, the total distraction treatment period was 10 days. The maxillary advancement was 10.5 mm and the SNA angle increased from 67.5° to 77.9°. Furthermore, the ANB angle changed from -9.8° to 1.6° and the occlusion changed from Class III to Class I. The profile of the face changed from concave to convex and a much better esthetic result was achieved. The study suggests RED system to be a reliable alternative procedure for the treatment of midfacial hypoplasia with or without cleft. Furthermore, it minimizes the risk of the surgical procedure and shortens the operating time.

  13. Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.

  14. Internally gas-cooled radiofrequency applicators as an alternative to conventional radiofrequency and microwave ablation devices: An in vivo comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempp, Hansjörg, E-mail: Hansjoerg.rempp@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, Tübingen, 72076 (Germany); Voigtländer, Matthias [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Schenk, Martin [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Enderle, Markus D. [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Scharpf, Marcus [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Insitute of Pathology, Department on General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy, Liebermeisterstraße 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Greiner, Tim O. [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Neugebauer, Alexander [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To test the efficacy of internally CO{sub 2}-cooled radiofrequency (RF) ablation in vivo and to compare its effectiveness to a standard water-cooled RF probe and to a gas-cooled microwave (MW) device. Method and materials: 49 ablations were performed on 15 pigs under general anesthesia using 15G monopolar CO{sub 2}-cooled RF applicators, 17G monopolar water-cooled RF applicators and 15G internally CO{sub 2}-cooled microwave devices. The power of the MW device was 45 W, the current of the gas-cooled RF device was 1200–1600 mA. At the water-cooled RF probe, maximum power of 200 W was set. Ablation time was 15 min. The short and long axes of the ablation zone were measured. Histological analyses and NADH-staining were performed. The diameters and the ablation volumes were compared using an analysis of variance. Results: No spots of untreated tissue were observed close to the cooled needle track in any of the ablation zones. The largest short axis diameter was 3.4 ± 0.5 cm achieved with the gas-cooled monopolar applicator. With the water-cooled applicators, short axis diameter was significantly smaller, reaching 2.5 ± 0.4 cm. Gas-cooled MW probes achieved 2.9 ± 1.0 cm. The largest ablation volume was 31.5 ± 12 ml (gas-cooled RF), and the smallest was 12.7 ± 4 ml (water-cooled RF). Short/long axis ratio was largest for gas-cooled RF probes with 0.73 ± 0.08 versus 0.64 ± 0.04 for the water-cooled probes and 0.49 ± 0.25 for the microwave applicator. Conclusion: Gas-cooled RF applicators may have a higher potential for effective destruction of liver lesions than comparable water-cooled RF systems, and may be an alternative to standard RF and MW ablation devices.

  15. Five Tips for Managing Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin

    2015-01-01

    The author, an outspoken advocate for using technology in the classroom, knows how important it is to establish expectations for responsible use of mobile devices. She's found that five strategies help ensure that mobile devices enhance, rather than distract from, learning. Teachers need to establish new norms that clarify responsible use,…

  16. International Conference on VLSI, Communication, Advanced Devices, Signals & Systems and Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Shirur, Yasha; Prasad, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented by renowned researchers, keynote speakers and academicians in the International Conference on VLSI, Communication, Analog Designs, Signals and Systems, and Networking (VCASAN-2013), organized by B.N.M. Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India during July 17-19, 2013. The book provides global trends in cutting-edge technologies in electronics and communication engineering. The content of the book is useful to engineers, researchers and academicians as well as industry professionals.

  17. The increased risk of road crashes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD adult drivers: driven by distraction? Results from a responsibility case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal El Farouki

    Full Text Available Both distractions (external and internal and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility.A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD.A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI [1.06-2.05], distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50-3.77] and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22-3.88]. The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06-16.32]. Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%.Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also increasingly relevant for these drivers.

  18. The increased risk of road crashes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult drivers: driven by distraction? Results from a responsibility case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Farouki, Kamal; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Orriols, Ludivine; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Contrand, Benjamin; Galéra, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Both distractions (external and internal) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition) modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards) on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility. A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD. A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06-2.05]), distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50-3.77]) and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22-3.88]). The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06-16.32]). Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%. Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also increasingly relevant for these drivers.

  19. Prediction of cartilaginous tissue repair after knee joint distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, J A D; Welsing, P M; van Roermund, P M; Custers, R J H; Kuchuk, N O; Lafeber, F P J G G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For young patients (<65years), knee joint distraction (KJD) may be a joint-saving treatment option for end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Distracting the femur from the tibia by five millimeters for six to eight weeks using an external fixation frame results in cartilaginous tissue repair,

  20. 77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum, Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for... a period of 3 months from the date of the event. Distracted driving is a serious safety risk on our...

  1. Neuronal Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27…

  2. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy versus distraction osteogenesis for mandibular advancements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to compare the treatment modality of distraction osteogenesis (DO) with the gold standard for mandibular advancement surgery. In fact we compare distraction osteogenesis with the standard of care, which is a conventional bilateral sagittal split osteotomy as described by

  3. Interference by Process, Not Content, Determines Semantic Auditory Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic…

  4. Response of ramus following vertical lengthening with distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzuner-Oncul, Aysegul Mine; Kisnisci, Reha S

    2011-09-01

    Vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable surgical procedures in the management of musculoskeletal maxillofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the mandibular ramus following vertical lengthening by means of distraction osteogenesis. This study included eight non-syndromic adult patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. The vertical height deficiency of the mandibular ramus and the ramus/condyle unit on the affected side were simultaneously reconstructed by transportation of a bone segment using distraction osteogenesis following gap arthroplasty. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms taken postoperatively before active distraction, at the completion of distraction and 6, 12, 24 months after distraction, were compared to evaluate the changes of the ramus height. In all cases the vertical ramus and ramus/condyle unit height loss were successfully reconstructed by distraction osteogenesis. There was no relapse in the amount of height gained by distraction osteogenesis at the 24 months follow-up review (p>0.05). Acute one stage vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable musculoskeletal procedures with relapse being a significant adverse outcome. In this clinical study gradual vertical lengthening of the ramus through ramus/condyle unit distraction osteogenesis has maintained the initial vertical ramus height gained for 24 months. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distraction-related road traffic collisions | Eid | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nineteen (5.8%) drivers were distracted by using mobile phones, 12 (3.6%) were pre-occupied with deep thinking, six (1.8%) were talking with other passengers, four (1.2%) were picking things in the vehicle, and three (0.9%) were using entertainment systems. The maximum distraction occurred during the time of 6 am - 12 ...

  6. Method and device for monochromatization of the internal accelerated particles beam in isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Dinev, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The invention assures a reduced size of the supplementary electrode which leads to economy of a material and a more effective use of the accelerator space, where the elements of an axial injection system of the cyclotron particles can be situated. The amplitude homogeneity of the supplementary accelerating field is also improved. To the main high-frequency field, covering the whole scope of the acceleration radiuses, an additional accelerating high-frequency field is introduced comprising a part of the scope of the acceleration radiuses. The frequency of this additional accelerating high frequency field is a third harmonics of the main field frequency. The device consists of a supplementary accelerating electrode, connected to an additional resonator and an additional exciting high-frequency generator. 2 cls., 7 figs

  7. Paracelsus to parascience: the environmental cancer distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, B N; Gold, L S

    2000-01-17

    Entering a new millennium seems a good time to challenge some old ideas, which in our view are implausible, have little supportive evidence, and might best be left behind. In this essay, we summarize a decade of work, raising four issues that involve toxicology, nutrition, public health, and government regulatory policy. (a) Paracelsus or parascience: the dose (trace) makes the poison. Half of all chemicals, whether natural or synthetic, are positive in high-dose rodent cancer tests. These results are unlikely to be relevant at the low doses of human exposure. (b) Even Rachel Carson was made of chemicals: natural vs. synthetic chemicals. Human exposure to naturally occurring rodent carcinogens is ubiquitous, and dwarfs the general public's exposure to synthetic rodent carcinogens. (c) Errors of omission: micronutrient inadequacy is genotoxic. The major causes of cancer (other than smoking) do not involve exogenous carcinogenic chemicals: dietary imbalances, hormonal factors, infection and inflammation, and genetic factors. Insufficiency of many micronutrients, which appears to mimic radiation, is a preventable source of DNA damage. (d) Damage by distraction: regulating low hypothetical risks. Putting huge amounts of money into minuscule hypothetical risks damages public health by diverting resources and distracting the public from major risks.

  8. Memory as discrimination: what distraction reveals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, C Philip; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Hodgetts, Helen M; Marsh, John E; Jones, Dylan M

    2013-11-01

    Recalling information involves the process of discriminating between relevant and irrelevant information stored in memory. Not infrequently, the relevant information needs to be selected from among a series of related possibilities. This is likely to be particularly problematic when the irrelevant possibilities not only are temporally or contextually appropriate, but also overlap semantically with the target or targets. Here, we investigate the extent to which purely perceptual features that discriminate between irrelevant and target material can be used to overcome the negative impact of contextual and semantic relatedness. Adopting a distraction paradigm, it is demonstrated that when distractors are interleaved with targets presented either visually (Experiment 1) or auditorily (Experiment 2), a within-modality semantic distraction effect occurs; semantically related distractors impact upon recall more than do unrelated distractors. In the semantically related condition, the number of intrusions in recall is reduced, while the number of correctly recalled targets is simultaneously increased by the presence of perceptual cues to relevance (color features in Experiment 1 or speaker's gender in Experiment 2). However, as is demonstrated in Experiment 3, even presenting semantically related distractors in a language and a sensory modality (spoken Welsh) distinct from that of the targets (visual English) is insufficient to eliminate false recalls completely or to restore correct recall to levels seen with unrelated distractors . Together, the study shows how semantic and nonsemantic discriminability shape patterns of both erroneous and correct recall.

  9. Nuclear fast neutron reactor cooled by a liquid metal and of which internal structures are equipped with a thermal protection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, G.; Lions, N.

    1986-01-01

    The internal structures of a nuclear fast neutron reactor are covered at least partially, on the most hot side, by a thermal protection device. This device comprises modular plates arranged end to end with a certain play between themselves and taking approximately the shape of the internal structures. Each plate is fixed in its center on the internal structures by a stud. A small plate fixed at one of the corners of each plate and covering partially the adjacent plates ensures the safety fixing of these ones [fr

  10. [Factors affecting bone regeneration in Ilizarov callus distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Krieger, M; Schneider, T; Menkhaus, S; Fischer, J; Rüther, W

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the X-rays of 36 patients who underwent 50 callus distractions. With the aid of a computerized digitalisation system for analogue films, the relative X-ray density of the distraction area was calculated for each X-ray. These relative X-ray densities were figured graphically for the duration of treatment for each patient. In the consolidation phase, the graph of each patient had a logarithmic relationship. The gradients of the logarithmic density curves were considered an indicator of the quantity of new bone formation. These gradients were correlated to the following clinical parameters: age of the patient, beginning of distraction after corticotomy, average speed of distraction, average weight bearing during the distraction and consolidation phase, location of corticotomy (distal femur versus proximal tibia) and diclofenac medication. Except for the location of the corticotomy and diclofenac, all parameters had an influence on osteoneogenesis by callus distraction. The parameters affecting new bone formation the most were the age of the patient and weight bearing. Patients aged under 18 years (p = 0.005), beginning of distraction later than 8 days (p = 0.109), an average distraction speed below 1 mm/day (p = 0.079), and average weight bearing of more than 30 kg (p = 0.068 for the distraction phase and p = 0.089 for the consolidation phase) showed a quantitatively higher rate of new bone formation by callus distraction than the patients in the other groups. Patients with a shorter leg due to poliomyelitis and one patient with an amniotic leg tie showed a slower increase in X-ray density graphs than the other patients.

  11. Signalling in international environmental agreements. Using pre-agreement emission level as a signalling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper addresses the question about strategic incentives in international environmental agreements and tries to give a positive description of how the design of the agreement influences the strategic behaviour of potential participants before they enter the treaty. A common feature of the design of agreements is that the reduction obligations (RO) are made contingent on a pre-agreement or baseline emission. As it is assumed that countries posses better information about their reduction costs than does the international body in charge of deciding the RO, countries might have incentives to signal higher costs by increasing their baseline emission, and thereby reducing the costs of entering the agreement. The appropriate analytical framework is to use a signalling game approach, where the pre-agreement emission level conveys information about the privately informed country`s reduction cost. In this paper two types of agreement design are considered, one with uniform obligations, and one with differentiated obligations. This enables us to make a comparison between two different reduction regimes. The result is that the predicted outcomes vary with regard to both the environmental effectiveness and the associated expected costs for the participating countries. This means that when private information is considered, the anticipation of a given institutional framework has significant impact on the resulting distortion of the total emission level, highlighting the necessity of taking this into consideration when future designs are proposed. (au)

  12. Signalling in international environmental agreements: Using pre-agreement emission level as a signalling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the question about strategic incentives in international environmental agreements and tries to give a positive description of how the design of the agreement influences the strategic behaviour of potential participants before they enter the treaty. A common feature of the design of agreements is that the reduction obligations (RO) are made contingent on a pre-agreement or baseline emission. As it is assumed that countries posses better information about their reduction costs than does the international body in charge of deciding the RO, countries might have incentives to signal higher costs by increasing their baseline emission, and thereby reducing the costs of entering the agreement. The appropriate analytical framework is to use a signalling game approach, where the pre-agreement emission level conveys information about the privately informed country's reduction cost. In this paper two types of agreement design are considered, one with uniform obligations, and one with differentiated obligations. This enables us to make a comparison between two different reduction regimes. The result is that the predicted outcomes vary with regard to both the environmental effectiveness and the associated expected costs for the participating countries. This means that when private information is considered, the anticipation of a given institutional framework has significant impact on the resulting distortion of the total emission level, highlighting the necessity of taking this into consideration when future designs are proposed. (au)

  13. Measurement of Distraction Force in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients During Le Fort I Maxillary Advancement With Rigid External Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hiromi; Ogawa, Takuya; Kataoka, Keiichi; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Moriyama, Keiji

    2017-03-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a mainstream surgical technique for patients who have severe maxillary hypoplasia associated with craniofacial syndromes and cleft-related deformities. However, limited information about the biomechanical aspects of maxillary DO is available limiting broad utilization and improvements to the procedure. The objective of this study was to analyze force levels during the active distraction process and to investigate the relationship between distraction force and maxillary movement during Le Fort I maxillary DO using a rigid external distraction (RED) system. Microtension gauges were integrated into the distraction wires on each side of the RED system. Six patients with cleft lip and palate aged 12.8 to 23.5 years underwent strain gauge measurements during maxillary advancement with DO using an RED system. Lateral cephalograms were taken to measure maxillary horizontal, vertical, and linear movements after DO. The average linear maxillary movement was 11.2 mm (range 8.5-15.9 mm). The applied forces ranged from 13.4 to 26.8 N. The distance of maxillary movement was proportional to the distraction force. The measurement of distraction forces during DO provides important information with which to establish appropriate protocols. Patients requiring more advancement may require more distraction force. However, other factors such as scarring, patient anatomy, surgical freedom of the osteotomized maxilla, and the like, may affect the required force during DO with the RED system.

  14. Distracted driving behaviors of adults while children are in the car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Linda; Violano, Pina; Klaus, Greg; Lofthouse, Rebecca; Dziura, James

    2013-10-01

    Cell phone use while driving is common and can result in driver distraction. However, data on the frequency of this behavior with other occupants in the vehicle are lacking. This study investigates whether adult drivers engage in cell phone use with passengers in the car and determines whether the frequency of these behaviors was modified if the passenger was a child. Subjects (N = 539) who have driven children during the previous 30 days were recruited to complete a survey regarding their cell phone usage while driving. The inclusion criteria of participants were as follows: 18 years or older with a valid driver's license, owns/uses a cell phone, drives with children, and reads English. Results were reported on a 4-point Likert scale (always, often, rarely, and never). Eighty percent of respondents reported cell phone use in some way while driving with children. As compared with similar behaviors when driving alone or with adult passengers, the odds of reporting "always" compared with "often, rarely, or never" of holding a cell phone in hand was 0.66 when driving with children. No significant differences were noted for the following variables: use of a blue tooth device or use of a cell phone to speak or text when parked. Cell phone use while driving is common. Distracted driving behaviors, although less frequent, persist when children are passengers in the vehicle. Further research into the effect of cell phone-related distracted driving behaviors of adults with child passengers is needed to address this public health concern.

  15. Nonunion of the external maxillary distraction in cleft lip and palate: analysis of possible reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongmei; Genecov, David G; Barcelo, Raul

    2010-10-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is an effective way to treat severe maxillary deficiency in patients with cleft lip and palate. It has been reported to have long-term stability and low relapse rate compared with conventional maxillary osteotomy in large maxillary movement. However, complications such as nonunion are seldom reported. While developing our external distraction techniques, we had 4 nonunion cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the possible reasons for these conditions by comparing them to patients successfully treated at 1 craniofacial institute. Fifty-six patients with CLP deformities treated with external maxillary distraction from 2000 to 2006 in 1 craniofacial center were reviewed. Among them, 17 had full records and follow-up time of more than 1 year. They had rigid external halo distraction with dental splint after a high Le Fort I osteotomy. Distraction was started at 5 days with a rate of 1 mm per day until the maxilla acquired the planned correction. Consolidation time ranged from 4 weeks to 3 months. Patients' general information, DO protocol, and cephalometric radiograph measurements before DO, immediately after DO, and follow-ups were evaluated. Thirteen of 17 patients successfully completed DO, whereas 4 others developed dental occlusion relapse 2 to 3 months after device removal. Later jaw surgery showed nonunion at the distraction sites. These were our first patients treated with external distraction. Their consolidation time was from 4 to 6 weeks with a mean of 5.2 weeks. After increasing the consolidation time up to 12 weeks, all of the other 13 patients had successful results without nonunion. Their mean consolidation time was 9.8 weeks. The nonunion group had significantly shorter consolidation time, older age, and larger distraction osteogenesis (DO) advancement than the successful group statistically. There was also a greater percentage of bilateral CLP patients in the nonunion group than in the

  16. CHAIRMEN'S FOREWORD: The Seventh International Conference on New Phenomena in Mesoscopic Structures & The Fifth International Conference on Surfaces and Interfaces of Mesoscopic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Yoshinobu; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2006-05-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceedings of the joint Seventh International Conference on New Phenomena in Mesoscopic Structures and Fifth International Conference on Surfaces and Interfaces of Mesoscopic Devices, which was held from November 27th - December 2nd, 2005, at the Ritz Carlton Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii. The string of these conferences dates back to the first one in 1989. Of special importance is that this year's conference was dedicated to Professor Gottfried Landwehr, in recognition of his many outstanding contributions to semiconductor physics. A personal tribute to Prof Landwehr by Dr K von Klitzing leads off this issue. The scope of NPMS-7/SIMD-5 spans nano-fabrication through complex phase coherent mesoscopic systems including nano-transistors and nano-scale characterization. Topics of interest include: •Nanoscale fabrication: high-resolution electron lithography, FIB nano-patterning, scanning- force-microscopy (SFM) lithography, SFM-stimulated growth, novel patterning, nano-imprint lithography, special etching, and self-assembled monolayers •Nanocharacterization: SFM characterization, ballistic-electron emission microscopy (BEEM), optical studies of nanostructures, tunneling, properties of discrete impurities, phase coherence, noise, THz studies, and electro-luminescence in small structures •Nanodevices: ultra-scaled FETs, quantum single-electron transistors (SETS), resonant tunneling diodes, ferromagnetic and spin devices, superlattice arrays, IR detectors with quantum dots and wires, quantum point contacts, non-equilibrium transport, simulation, ballistic transport, molecular electronic devices, carbon nanotubes, spin selection devices, spin-coupled quantum dots, and nanomagnetics •Quantum-coherent transport: the quantum Hall effect, ballistic quantum systems, quantum-computing implementations and theory, and magnetic spin systems •Mesoscopic structures: quantum wires and dots, quantum chaos

  17. Office noise: Can headphones and masking sound attenuate distraction by background speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahncke, Helena; Björkeholm, Patrik; Marsh, John E; Odelius, Johan; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2016-11-22

    Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction. The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound. Quiet was deployed as a baseline condition. Thirty students participated in an experiment employing a repeated measures design. Performance (serial short-term memory) was impaired by background speech (1 voice), but this impairment was attenuated when the speech was masked - and in particular when it was masked by nature sound. Furthermore, perceived workload was lowest in the quiet condition and significantly higher in all other sound conditions. Notably, the headphones tested as a sound-attenuating device (i.e. without masking) did not protect against the effects of background speech on performance and subjective work load. Nature sound was the only masking condition that worked as a protector of performance, at least in the context of the serial recall task. However, despite the attenuation of distraction by nature sound, perceived workload was still high - suggesting that it is difficult to find a masker that is both effective and perceived as satisfactory.

  18. Electronic distractions of the respiratory therapist and their impact on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakos, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Over the last decade, data from the lay press, government agencies, and the business world have identified ever-growing problems with electronic distraction and changes in human relationships in this electronically interconnected planet. As health professionals, we are well aware of the epidemic growth of injuries and deaths related to texting and driving. It should not surprise us that this distracted behavior has affected all levels of health-care providers and has impacted patient care. This advent of “distracted doctoring” was first coined by the Pulitzer Prize-winning correspondent Matt Richtel in a landmark article in the New York Times, “As doctors use more devices, potential for distraction grows.” This article was a flashpoint for professional organizations to reflect on this change in behavior and how it will impact patient safety and how we relate to patients. The explosion in technology (both personnel and hospital-based), coupled with a rapid social shift, creates an environment that constantly tempts health-care workers to surf the internet, check social media outlets, or respond to e-mails. Studies and commentaries in the medical literature only support how this is a growing problem in patient safety and may both increase medical errors and affects costs and the way we relate to patients and fellow staff. The Emergency Care Research Institute (ECRI) released its annual list of technology hazards for 2013, and three ring true for United States caregivers: distractions from smartphones and mobile devices, alarm hazards, and patient/data mismatches in electronic medical records and other health IT systems, all being in the top 10. How do we begin to address these new technological threats to our patients? First and foremost, we accept that this problem exists. We begin by educating our students and staff that this electronic explosion affects our behavior through addiction and the environment within our hospital through the use of electronic

  19. Effect of gradual weight-bearing on regenerated articular cartilage after joint distraction and motion in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomofumi; Ishii, Tomoo; Chang, Fei; Yanai, Takaji; Watanabe, Arata; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mishima, Hajime; Nakai, Kenjiro; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of gradual weight bearing (GWB) on regenerating cartilage. We developed a novel external fixation device (EFD) with a controllable weight-bearing system and continuous passive motion (CPM). A full-thickness defect was created by resection of the entire articular surface of the tibial plateau after the EFD was fixed in the rabbit's left knee. In the GWB group (n=6), GWB was started 6 weeks after surgery. In the CPM group (n=6), CPM with EFD was applied in the same manner without GWB. The control group (n=5) received only joint distraction. All rabbits were sacrificed 9 weeks after surgery. The central one-third of the regenerated tissue was assessed and scored blindly using a grading scale modified from the International Cartilage Repair Society visual histological assessment scale. The areas stained by Safranin-O and type II collagen antibody were measured, and the percentage of each area was calculated. There was no significant difference in the histological assessment scale among the groups. The percentage of the type II collagen-positive area was significantly larger in the GWB group than in the CPM group. The present study suggests that optimal mechanical stress, such as GWB, may affect regeneration of cartilage, in vivo. Copyright (c) 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. Coating application procedure qualification for internal girth weld using a robot device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebsch, Andre; Cunha, Bruno Rocha Marques da; Barreto, Eduardo Chave; Nunes, Erik Barbosa; Solymossy, Victor [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This year PETROBRAS complete 55 years old filling up our country of energy necessary to support our development. Some oil fields, especially from the northeast region, has being had their production decrease by their ageing. In order to have their live protracted some retrieval technical has being used. For example we can mention gas lift, production water injection, CO{sub 2} injection and so on. The produced water even treated has an elevated tenor of chloride, acid ph, presence of organics acids, H{sub 2}S and no O{sub 2}. The water became too corrosive by those characteristics. Due to it an anti corrosive coating application is demanded on the pipe internal surface and on the girth weld. The pipes are coated in a coating plant and it has a qualified coating procedure. Therefore an application of anti corrosive coating is demanded on the girth weld after the pipe welding. To accomplish this job an application procedure was developed using a robot. The PETROBRAS' Engineer witnesses the PQT of this procedure aiming to guarantee the applied coating quality. This paper will show the PQT results and a basic description of the robot operation. (author)

  1. Auditory distraction and serial memory: The avoidable and the ineluctable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan M Jones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the serial order processing of the visually presented items and the serial order coding that is the by-product of the streaming of the sound. However, recently emerging work shows that the distraction from a single sound (one deviating from a prevailing sequence results in attentional capture and is qualitatively distinct from that of a sequence in being restricted in its action to encoding, not to rehearsal of list members. Capture is also sensitive to the sensory task load, suggesting that it is subject to top-down control and therefore avoidable. These two forms of distraction-conflict of process and attentional capture-may be two consequences of auditory perceptual organization processes that serve to strike the optimal balance between attentional selectivity and distractability.

  2. Cycling and sounds : the impact of the use of electronic devices on cycling safety. Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on Driver Distraction and Inattention, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 4-6, 2013.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M. & Wee, B. van

    2013-01-01

    The role of auditory perception of traffic sounds has often been stressed, especially for vulnerable road users such as cyclists or (visually impaired) pedestrians. This often in relation to two growing trends feared to negatively affect the use of auditory signals by road users: popularity of

  3. Effect of cell phone distraction on pediatric pedestrian injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2009-02-01

    Early adolescents are using cell phones with increasing frequency. Cell phones are known to distract motor vehicle drivers to the point that their safety is jeopardized, but it is unclear if cell phones might also distract child pedestrians. This study was designed to examine the influence of talking on a cell phone for pediatric pedestrian injury risk. Seventy-seven children aged 10 to 11 years old completed simulated road crossings in an immersive, interactive virtual pedestrian environment. In a within-subjects design, children crossed the virtual street 6 times while undistracted and 6 times while distracted by a cell phone conversation with an unfamiliar research assistant. Participants also completed several other experimental tasks hypothesized to predict the impact of distraction while crossing the street and talking on a cell phone. Children's pedestrian safety was compromised when distracted by a cell phone conversation. While distracted, children were less attentive to traffic; left less safe time between their crossing and the next arriving vehicle; experienced more collisions and close calls with oncoming traffic; and waited longer before beginning to cross the street. Analyses testing experience using a cell phone and experience as a pedestrian yielded few significant results, suggesting that distraction on the cell phone might affect children's pedestrian safety no matter what their experience level. There was some indication that younger children and children who are less attentive and more oppositional may be slightly more susceptible to distraction while talking on the cell phone than older, more attentive, and less oppositional children. Our results suggest that cell phones distract preadolescent children while crossing streets.

  4. Distraction osteogenesis after irradiation in a rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Kenji; Sakurakichi, Keisuke; Watanabe, Koji; Matsubara, Hidenori; Tomita, Katsuro

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of preoperative irradiation on distraction osteogenesis, as little is known about how preoperative irradiation delays distraction osteogenesis. A single dose of irradiation was applied to the right rear legs of rabbits. This was followed by tibial lengthening at a rate of 0.5 mm/day, which was continued for 4 weeks. Bone regeneration was examined radiographically and histologically. In the irradiation group, the radiographs showed little regeneration during the elongation phase. During the maturation phase, the callus appeared slowly, and its formation was spotty. Furthermore, regeneration was not completed until the fourth week of the maturation period. Histological examination at the end of distraction showed a gap in the distraction consisting of loose connective tissue, with part of the fibrous tissue oriented longitudinally. Four weeks after completion of distraction, the major part of the radiolucent region consisted of cartilage. The spotty osteogenesis was identified as enchondral ossification. Immunohistochemical examination of the regeneration area revealed that the blood vessels were extremely localized, and that the level of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the osteoblasts was high. Microangiography showed that vascularization at the distracted sites was poor. Distraction osteogenesis was decreased markedly by preoperative irradiation in terms of both rate and process. The results suggested that most of the osteoprogenitor cells were damaged immediately after irradiation. The high level of VEGF in the osteoblasts and the enchondral ossification also suggested a hypoxic state in the distracted region. Preoperative irradiation interferes with distraction osteogenesis by inducing a state of poor angiogenesis. (author)

  5. Distraction as a measure of presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Korsgaard, Dannie

    2010-01-01

    ) to determine presence as immersion (Lombard and Ditton in At the heart of it all: the concept of presence, Department of Broadcasting, Telecommunications and Mass Media, Temple University, 1997) at selectable events (approximated real-time). Two experiments were conducted to investigate its applicability......To assess and improve the user experience in entertainment products, developers need results of evaluation methods, which in detail measure the relationship between the mediated content and the resulting media experience. This paper proposes a method applying adjustable distraction (AD...... in computer games and movies with respectively visual and tactile AD. The first experiment examined whether the experienced intensity in a survival-shooter game, measured through questionnaires, was proportional to results from the AD method. The intrusiveness of the AD method was also addressed...

  6. Tooth-borne distraction of the lower anterior subapical segment for correction of class II malocclusion, subsequent to genioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Hiro-o; Ooi, Kazuhiro; Totsuka, Yasunori

    2011-09-01

    Alveolar distraction is mainly used to increase height and width of the alveolar crest. This technique, however, is not typically used for lengthening the perimeter of the dental arch or improving teeth axes. We applied alveolar distraction in a tooth-borne manner in the second stage of our original method and obtained favorable results. We therefore present an outline of this method. Genioplasty was first performed to create an infrastructure for sequential advancement of the subapical alveolar segment. After bone union, anterior subapical alveolar osteotomy was performed. The stump of the osteotomized dentate segment was moved forward without changing the incisal edge position, and a box-type bioabsorbable plate with four holes was fixed only onto the dentate segment using two screws. After a latency period, two distraction devices were placed bilaterally to the brackets and activated at 1.0 mm/day. After reaching the desired position, the distractor was immobilized, and then replaced by resin temporary teeth to retain the created space. After the consolidation period, orthodontic treatment was restarted and teeth moved into the newly created space. Bimaxillary surgery was performed after completing pre-surgical orthodontic treatment. Finally, both desirable occlusion and functional masticatory function were obtained. This tooth-borne distraction system is one applicable method for patients with skeletal class II and crowding of lower anterior teeth, achieving good results particularly in combination with our original method.

  7. Stability after Cleft Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis or Conventional Orthognathic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Svenstrup, Martin; Pedersen, Thomas Klit

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare stability of maxillary advancements in patients with cleft lip and palate following distraction osteogenesis or orthognathic surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1) cleft lip and palate, 2) advancement > 8 mm. Eleven patients comprised the distraction...... changed in CONVG. At follow-up (T3), VOB increased in CONVG compared with DOG, (P = 0.01). Vertical position of A point differed between the groups (P = 0.04). No significant intergroup differences between soft tissue parameters occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Distraction osteogenesis resulted in a stable position...

  8. Influences shaping nurses' use of distraction for children's procedural pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Deborah L; Scott, Shannon D; Mayan, Maria; Koop, Priscilla M; Reid, Kathy

    2014-04-01

    This study explored pediatric nurses' choices to use distraction for managing painful procedures. Using interpretive description approaches, interviews with pediatric nurses provided descriptions of choices to manage procedural pain. Nurses' distress influenced distraction use to mitigate the suffering of children and themselves. Newer nurses described task mastery as influencing distraction choices. Nurses' accounts of performing painful procedures on children mirrored children's descriptions of pain from the literature. Nurses' distress and competency performing painful procedures on children influenced practice. Future qualitative studies could extend understanding of pain management choices by pediatric nurses and the impact on undermanaged pain. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Distractibility in Attention/Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): the virtual reality classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca; Finn, Paul; Moes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Kathleen; Rizzo, Albert Skip

    2009-03-01

    Nineteen boys aged 8 to 14 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 16 age-matched controls were compared in a virtual reality (VR) classroom version of a continuous performance task (CPT), with a second standard CPT presentation using the same projection display dome system. The Virtual Classroom included simulated "real-world" auditory and visual distracters. Parent ratings of attention, hyperactivity, internalizing problems, and adaptive skills on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Monitor for ADHD confirmed that the ADHD children had more problems in these areas than controls. The difference between the ADHD group (who performed worse) and the control group approached significance (p = .05; adjusted p = .02) in the Virtual Classroom presentation, and the classification rate of the Virtual Classroom was better than when the standard CPT was used (87.5% versus 68.8%). Children with ADHD were more affected by distractions in the VR classroom than those without ADHD. Results are discussed in relation to distractibility in ADHD.

  10. Distraction osteogenesis of ankylosed front teeth with subsequent orthodontic fine adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Lothar; Korbmacher, Heike; Niemeyer, Karsten; Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel

    2006-07-01

    Conventional therapeutic approaches to correct ankylosed anterior teeth in infraposition require compromises involving esthetics and function. The combined approach of distraction and early orthodontic fine adjustment, not yet established as a routine, promises better results concerning the bone conditions and gingival development. Both female patients had suffered a trauma to the front teeth during early mixed dentition resulting in ankylosed central incisors in infraposition. At the ages of 14 years and 2 months and 15 years and 2 months, respectively, we carried out segment distraction by means of a bone-supported internal distractor followed by orthodontic fine adjustment after having shortened the consolidation phase. Both ankylosed front teeth could be successfully aligned, leading to an increase in bone and harmonization of the gingival margin in the dental arch. At ten and 14 months after the conclusion of treatment, we observed only few deviations in the dental situation compared to posttherapeutic findings. From a functional and esthetic point of view, therapy involving combined orthodontics and surgery is superior to conventional therapy. Orthodontic fine adjustment should be considered as a continuation of the distraction procedure.

  11. 8th international workshop on plasma edge theory in fusion devices. Abstracts of invited and contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, S.K.; Heikkinen, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 8th International Workshop on Plasma Edge Theory in Fusion Devices, held at Dipoli Congress Centre, Espoo, Finland, is organised on behalf of the International Scientific Committee by Helsinki University of Technology and VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland). Similar to the seven preceding Workshops, it addresses the theory for the boundary layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. It reflects the present status of the theory for the edge region of fusion plasmas. Emphasis is placed on the development of theory and of appropriate numerical methods as well as on self-consistent modelling of experimental data (including also empirical elements). The following topics are covered: basic edge plasma theory, models of special phenomena and edge control, and integrated edge plasma modelling. The International Scientific Committee has selected the papers and compiled the scientific programme. All other arrangements have been made by the Local Organising Committee. The Workshop is supported by the European Commission, High-Level Scientific Conferences. This Book of Abstracts contains the scientific programme and the abstracts of the invited and contributed papers. The Workshop has seven invited lectures of 60 minutes duration (including 10 minutes for discussion). In addition, 10 contributed papers were selected for oral presentation of 30 minutes duration (including five minutes for discussion). All oral presentations are given in plenary sessions. The remaining 34 contributed papers are presented as posters in three sessions. The invited lectures and contributed oral papers are presented also as posters. All invited and contributed papers will be refereed and published also as a regular issue of the journal Contributions to Plasma Physics. (orig.)

  12. Callus molding in external and internal distraction of mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: CM plays a crucial role in those cases where proper vector orientation is hindered because of anatomical difficulty for osteotomy cuts and parallel fixation of the distractor to ramus resulting in cross-bite with deviation toward the undistracted side. Manipulation of the regenerates would provide a precise achievement of gonial angle, minimizing the need for secondary corrections, and diminishing treatment duration and costs.

  13. Towards operationalising internal distractibility (Mind Wandering) in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Fitzgerald, Maura; Uchida, Mai; Spencer, Thomas J; Fried, Ronna; Wicks, Jennifer; Saunders, Alexandra; Faraone, Stephen V

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether specific symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can help identify ADHD patients with mind wandering. Subjects were adults ages 18-55 of both sexes (n=41) who completed the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and the ADHD module of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version. We used Spearman's rank correlation and Pearson's χ2 analyses to examine associations between the ADHD module and the MWQ and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the ADHD module. Out of the three ADHD domains, the inattentive ADHD scores had the strongest association with the MWQ (total: r s=0.34, df=39, p=0.03; inattentive: r s=0.38, df=39, p=0.02; Hyperactive: r s=0.17, df=39, p=0.28). Correlation analyses between individual items on the ADHD module and the MWQ showed that two inattention items ('failure to pay attention to detail' and 'trouble following instructions') were positively associated with total scores on the MWQ (p=0.02). These two inattention items had the strongest association with the MWQ (r s=0.45, df=38, p=0.004). ROC analyses showed that the combined score of the two significant inattention items had the highest efficiency (AUC=0.71) in classifying high-level mind wanderers as defined by scores greater than the median split on the MWQ. The combined score of the two inattention items best identified high-level mind wanderers. Results suggest a way to operationalise mind wandering using the symptoms of ADHD.

  14. Redo-urethroplasty in pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect: an audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Suresh K; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Kumar, Santosh; Devasia, Antony; Kekre, Nitin S

    2011-02-01

    To predict the outcome of redo-urethroplasty after failed single or multiple open urethral procedures for pelvic fracture urethral distraction defects. From January 1997 to December 2006, 43 patients underwent redo-urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect. Forty-one were referred from other centers. All had undergone open surgery along with an endoscopic procedure (one or more procedures in each patient) which included endoscopic internal urethrotomy, urethral stenting or urethral dilations. There were 43 men with mean age of 29 (range 11-52). Eleven had associated injuries: intraperitoneal bladder rupture (3), bladder neck (2), rectum (3), anal sphincter (2), combined bladder, rectum and anal sphincter (1). Trocar suprapubic cystostomy was performed in 22, rail-road procedures in 10 and open suprapubic cystostomy in 11 along with the management of associated injuries as immediate treatment. Of 43 patients, 28 had progressive perineal, and 12 had transpubic repair. Three patients had total bulbar necrosis, and they underwent prepuceal tube reconstruction (1) and staged substitution with BMG and standard scrotal inlay (2). Analysis of various factors like number of attempts at previous surgery and stricture length did not affect the outcome. A successful result was achieved in 36 (83.72%), improved and stable in five and failure in two. The overall result of redo-urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect continues to be gratifying. Failures happen usually within the first 3 months. Substitution urethroplasty can be reserved for those who have long distraction defect. Long-term follow-up is essential using stringent criteria to measure success.

  15. Taming Distraction: The Second Screen Assemblage, Television and the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Stauff

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that television’s resilience in the current media landscape can best be understood by analyzing its role in a broader quest to organize attention across different media. For quite a while, the mobile phone was considered to be a disturbance both for watching television and for classroom teaching. In recent years, however, strategies have been developed to turn the second screen’s distractive potential into a source for intensified, personalized and social attention. This has consequences for television’s position in a multimedia assemblage: television’s alleged specificities (e.g. liveness become mouldable features, which are selectively applied to guide the attention of users across different devices and platforms. Television does not end, but some of its traditional features do only persist because of its strategic complementarity with other media; others are re-adapted by new technologies thereby spreading televisual modes of attention across multiple screens. The article delineates the historical development of simultaneous media use as a ‘problematization’—from alternating (and competitive media use to multitasking and finally complementary use of different media. Additionally, it shows how similar strategies of managing attention are applied in the ‘digital classroom’. While deliberately avoiding to pin down, what television is, the analysis of the problem of attention allows for tracing how old and new media features are constantly reshuffled. This article combines three arguments: (1 the second screen is conceived of as both a danger to attention and a tool to manage attention. (2 To organize attention, the second screen assemblage modulates the specific qualities of television and all the other devices involved. (3 While being a fragile and often inconsistent assemblage, the second screen spreads its dynamics—and especially the problem of attention—far beyond television, e.g. into the realm of

  16. Distraction osteogenesis of radiation-induced orbitozygomatic hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Ramon; Murray, Dylan; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2008-05-01

    In the last decade, the application of distraction osteogenesis to the craniofacial skeleton has grown to include not only deformities of the mandible, but of the midface, palate, dentoalveolar region, and calvarium. A major advantage of distraction osteogenesis lies in the simultaneous soft tissue histogenesis that accompanies the bony distraction process, allowing for potentially lower relapse rates and improved cosmesis. Although this may seem appropriately suited to irradiation-induced deformities of both hard and soft tissues, there is little in the literature as to the efficacy of this technique in patients who have received radiotherapy. To introduce an effective application of this technology, and highlight some advantages and disadvantages of its application in the irradiated craniofacial skeleton, we present a case of distraction osteogenesis of the orbitozygomatic complex in a patient with radiation induced orbitozygomatic hypoplasia.

  17. Distracted driving due to visual working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In an attempt to understand the : specific mechanism by which distractions (such as cell : - : phone use) can interfere with : driving, this work tested the idea that driving performance depends on available space within visual short : - : term memor...

  18. Characterization of endocrine events during the periestrous period in sheep after estrous synchronization with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleeff, J; Karsch, F J; Padmanabhan, V

    1998-01-01

    The Controlled Internal Drug Releasing (CIDR) device is an intravaginal pessary containing progesterone (P4) designed for synchronizing estrus in ruminants. To date, there has been little information available on the timing, duration, and quality of the follicular phase after CIDR removal and how those characteristics compare with natural periovulatory endocrine events. The present communication relates the results of methods we used to characterize the endocrine events that followed CIDR synchronization. Breeding-season ewes were given an injection (10 mg) of Lutalyse (PGF2 alpha), and then studied during three consecutive estrous cycles, beginning in the luteal phase after the estrus induced by PGF2 alpha. Cycle 1 estrus was synchronized with 1 CIDR (Type G) inserted for 8 d beginning 10 d after PGF2 alpha. Cycles 2 and 3 were synchronized with two CIDRs for 8 d beginning 10 d after previous CIDR removal. Cycle 1 estrous behavior and serum gonadotropins showed a follicular phase (the interval from CIDR withdrawal to gonadotropin surge [surge] peak) of 38.2 +/- 1.5 hr. Two CIDRs lengthened the interval to 46.2 +/- 1.5 hr (P synchronization concentrated surges within a 24-hr period in 92% of the ewes in Cycles 1 and 2. Cycles 3 ewes were euthanized at estimated luteal, early follicular, late follicular, LH surge, and secondary FSH rise timepoints. Endocrine data and ovaries showed that 88% of the ewes synchronized with two CIDRs were in the predicted stage of the estrous cycle. These data demonstrate that the CIDR device applied during the luteal phase effectively synchronizes estrus and results in a CIDR removal-to-surge interval of similar length to a natural follicular phase.

  19. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery for cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloukos, Dimitrios; Fudalej, Piotr; Sequeira-Byron, Patrick; Katsaros, Christos

    2016-09-30

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common birth defects and can cause difficulties with feeding, speech and hearing, as well as psychosocial problems. Treatment of orofacial clefts is prolonged; it typically commences after birth and lasts until the child reaches adulthood or even into adulthood. Residual deformities, functional disturbances, or both, are frequently seen in adults with a repaired cleft. Conventional orthognathic surgery, such as Le Fort I osteotomy, is often performed for the correction of maxillary hypoplasia. An alternative intervention is distraction osteogenesis, which achieves bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. To provide evidence regarding the effects and long-term results of maxillary distraction osteogenesis compared to orthognathic surgery for the treatment of hypoplastic maxilla in people with cleft lip and palate. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 16 February 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 16 February 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 16 February 2016), LILACS BIREME (1982 to 16 February 2016), the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) (to 16 February 2016), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to 16 February 2016). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication in the electronic searches. We performed handsearching of six speciality journals and we checked the reference lists of all trials identified for further studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing maxillary distraction osteogenesis to conventional Le Fort I osteotomy for the correction of cleft lip and palate maxillary hypoplasia in non-syndromic cleft patients aged 15 years or older. Two review authors assessed studies for eligibility. Two review authors independently

  20. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    OpenAIRE

    Edell, Aim?e R; Jung, Jesse J; Solomon, Joel M; Palu, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cel...

  1. Distraction by novel and pitch-deviant sounds in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Wetzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of attention is an important part of our executive functions and enables us to focus on relevant information and to ignore irrelevant information. The ability to shield against distraction by task-irrelevant sounds is suggested to mature during school age. The present study investigated the developmental time course of distraction in three groups of children aged 7 – 10 years. Two different types of distractor sounds that have been frequently used in auditory attention research – novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds – were presented within an oddball paradigm while children performed a visual categorization task. Reaction time measurements revealed decreasing distractor-related impairment with age. Novel environmental sounds impaired performance in the categorization task more than pitch-deviant sounds. The youngest children showed a pronounced decline of novel-related distraction effects throughout the experimental session. Such a significant decline as a result of practice was not observed in the pitch-deviant condition and not in older children. We observed no correlation between cross-modal distraction effects and performance in standardized tests of concentration and visual distraction. Results of the cross-modal distraction paradigm indicate that separate mechanisms underlying the processing of novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds develop with different time courses and that these mechanisms develop considerably within a few years in middle childhood.

  2. Motivation enhances control of positive and negative emotional distractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Amy T; Carmel, David; Harper, David; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2018-01-03

    Using cognitive control to ignore distractions is essential for successfully achieving our goals. In emotionally-neutral contexts, motivation can reduce interference from irrelevant stimuli by enhancing cognitive control. However, attention is commonly biased towards emotional stimuli, making them potent distractors. Can motivation aid control of emotional distractions, and does it do so similarly for positive and negative stimuli? Here, we examined how task motivation influences control of distraction from positive, negative, and neutral scenes. Participants completed a simple perceptual task while attempting to ignore task-irrelevant images. One group received monetary reward for fast and accurate task performance; another (control) group did not. Overall, both negative (mutilation) and positive (erotic) images caused greater slowing of responses than neutral images of people, but emotional distraction was reduced with reward. Crucially, despite the different motivational directions associated with negative and positive stimuli, reward reduced negative and positive distraction equally. Our findings suggest that motivation may encourage the use of a sustained proactive control strategy that can effectively reduce the impact of emotional distraction.

  3. Memory load modulates graded changes in distracter filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria eShimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to maintain small amounts of information in mind is critical for successful performance on a wide range of tasks. However, it remains unclear exactly how this maintenance is achieved. One possibility is that it is brought about using mechanisms that overlap with those used for attentional control. That is, the same mechanisms that we use to regulate and optimise our sensory processing may be recruited when we maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM. We aimed to test this hypothesis by exploring how distracter filtering is modified by concurrent VSTM load. We presented participants with sequences of target items, the order and location of which had to be maintained in VSTM. We also presented distracter items alongside the targets, and these distracters were graded such that they could be either very similar or dissimilar to the targets. We analysed scalp potentials using a novel multiple regression approach, which enabled us to explore the neural mechanisms by which the participants accommodated these variable distracters on a trial-to-trial basis. Critically, the effect of distracter filtering interacted with VSTM load; the same graded changes in perceptual similarity exerted effects of a different magnitude depending upon how many items participants were already maintaining in VSTM. These data provide compelling evidence that maintaining information in VSTM recruits an overlapping set of attentional control mechanisms that are otherwise used for distracter filtering.

  4. Distracted driving in elderly and middle-aged drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Johnson, Amy M; Emerson, Jamie L; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Boer, Erwin R; Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean=72.5 years, SD=5.0 years) and 51 middle-aged drivers (mean=53.7 years, SD=9.3 year) under a concurrent auditory-verbal processing load created by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Compared to baseline (no-task) driving performance, distraction was associated with reduced steering control in both groups, with middle-aged drivers showing a greater increase in steering variability. The elderly drove slower and showed decreased speed variability during distraction compared to middle-aged drivers. They also tended to "freeze up", spending significantly more time holding the gas pedal steady, another tactic that may mitigate time pressured integration and control of information, thereby freeing mental resources to maintain situation awareness. While 39% of elderly and 43% of middle-aged drivers committed significantly more driving safety errors during distraction, 28% and 18%, respectively, actually improved, compatible with allocation of attention resources to safety critical tasks under a cognitive load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hard and Soft Tissue Changes Following Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis and Mandibular Setback with Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawane, Shilpa S; Andrade, Neelam N

    2016-12-01

    (1) To highlight the role of intraoral submerged device in distraction osteogenesis (DO) of patients requiring two jaw surgeries for the correction of severe developmental maxillary hypoplasia (MH) and mandibular prognathism (MP) (2) To analyse the hard and soft tissue changes following maxillary DO and mandibular setback with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in patients with severe MH and MP requiring two jaw surgeries. During the period Jan 2004 to Dec 2006, five patients with severe developmental MH along with MP were treated. In 1st stage maxillary distraction was done. Distraction started on 6th postoperative day, 1 mm distraction was carried out for 10-15 days on either side. Serial radiographs were taken immediate postoperative period for baseline comparison, post-distraction and at the end of distraction. After a period of 3-4 months of distraction 2nd stage was done. In 2nd stage, mandibular setback was done with BSSO and distractors were removed under general anesthesia. Radiographs were taken immediately and at 4 months post-operatively. Cephalometric tracings were carried out preoperatively, post DO and finally after mandibular setback with BSSO. The mean horizontal movement of maxilla was 11.4 mm at ANS and 9.6 mm at A point. Upper incisor edge was advanced by 8.8 mms. SNA increased by 8.4° and SNB decreased by 4.6°. Nasal projection advanced by 4°. Nasolabial angle normalized in all patients, mean change achieved was 10.8°. Upper lip moved forward by 5.4 mm. Lower lip moved backward by 5.4 mm. Mandible positioned backward by 4 mm at B point. No vertical change occurred in the position of A, ANS and upper incisor edges. Mean increase in skeletal angle of convexity was 26.4°. Concave profile was significantly changed to convex in all patients. Maxillary DO and mandibular setback with BSSO was associated with improved facial balance and esthetics.

  6. Lifting devices with minimum effort for testing, maintenance and repair at the example of a lifting rig for core internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pache, Martin [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH (Germany); Wiesendanger, Robert [Kernkraftwerk Beznau, NOK (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Beznau is a Westinghouse built nuclear power plant in the Aargau area Switzerland. It consists of two PWR units, each providing 365 MWe net capacity. The units were set into operation in 1969 and 1972, respectively, and hold an unlimited license for operation, provided they continue to fulfill current legal and security requirements. Beznau's previous lifting rigs for core internals required a high effort in testing and maintenance. Moreover, a damage to one of the rigs nearly resulted in the inoperability of the rig. However, no element of the load chain was affected, so there was no danger of a crash, but it could have caused an extended outage. Hence, it was decided to replace the lifting rigs with a state-of-the-art functional design that reflects modern requirements on maintenance and testing. Although the plant was built to ASME standards and codes, the new lifting rigs have been designed to German KTA code for lifting devices (KTA 3902 / 3903 for equipment with increased requirements, as per section 4.3 of KTA 3902). Given KTA's demands on periodic testing, one main requirement on the new design was to minimize the testing effort for the new rigs. (orig.)

  7. A new internal fixation technique for fractures of the proximal humerus--the Bilboquet device: a report on 26 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doursounian, L; Grimberg, J; Cazeau, C; Jos, E; Touzard, R C

    2000-01-01

    We describe a novel internal fixation device and report on 26 patients (mean age, 70 years) whose proximal humeral fractures were managed with this technique. The 2-part titanium implant consists of a circular staple impacted into the humeral head cancellous bone and a spigoted diaphyseal stem that inserts into the staple "cup." Of the 26 cases reviewed, 16 had 3-part fractures and 10 had 4-part fractures. Mean follow-up was 25.9 months. In the 16 3-part fractures, the mean active forward elevation was 114 degrees and the results were as follows: excellent, 7; good, 5; fair, 3; poor, 1. In the 10 4-part fracture patients, the mean active forward elevation was 101 degrees and the results were as follows: excellent, 2; good, 4; fair, 3; poor, 1. There were 5 cases of avascular necrosis and 1 case of tuberosity nonunion. Only 2 cases needed conversion to hemiarthroplasty. The new technique should simplify the surgery of these fractures and reduce the need for arthroplasty.

  8. Validation of the A&D BP UA-651 device for home blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Elisabetta; Fania, Claudio; Palatini, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the A&D BP UA-651 device for home blood pressure (BP) measurement according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. Device evaluation was carried out in 33 patients. The mean age of the patients was 48.3±15.5 years, the mean systolic BP was 138.3±24.9 mmHg (range 90-180), the mean diastolic BP was 88.3±13.8 mmHg (range 60-108), and the mean arm circumference was 28.6±3.4 cm (range 23-36). The protocol requirements were followed precisely. The device passed all requirements, fulfilling the standards of the protocol. On average, the device underestimated the systolic BP by 0.4±4.4 mmHg and diastolic BP by 1.3±3.5 mmHg. The device-observer discrepancies were unrelated to patients' clinical characteristics. These data show that the A&D BP UA-651 device fulfilled the requirements for validation by the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population.

  9. Modelling Li-ion cell thermal runaway triggered by an internal short circuit device using an efficiency factor and Arrhenius formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Darcy, Eric; Veje, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model for analyzing the thermal runaway in Li-ion battery cells with an internal short circuit device implanted in the cell. The model is constructed using Arrhenius formulations for representing the self-heating chemical reactions and the State of Charge. The model...

  10. A lower border augmentation technique to allow implant placement after a bilateral mandibular fracture as a complication of vertical distraction osteogenesis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdijk, F B T; Meijer, G J; Soehardi, A; Koole, R

    2013-07-01

    As with other techniques, vertical distraction osteogenesis (VDO) can also induce complications. The case of a patient with a residual alveolar ridge in the symphyseal area of 8 mm is presented. After performing VDO, the patient returned at 1-day postoperatively complaining of pain and dislocation of the distractor device, due to a fracture of the lower mandibular segment on the right side. After removal of the distractor device and application of osteosynthesis plates, the patient returned 2 weeks later due to a second fracture of the lower segment, yet on the left side. After removing the osteosynthesis material, stabilization of the mandible was achieved with an acrylic splint, which was fixated with peri-mandibular wiring. Finally, reconstruction was accomplished by lower border onlay grafting, limited to the symphyseal area, in preparation for implant insertion. Ultimately, after a healing period of 5 months, two endosseous implants were installed. The patient's function has remained satisfactory for 3 years. Reinforcement of the extreme resorbed edentulous mandible after fracture healing by lower border bone augmentation can be a reliable method to allow implant installation in a second stage. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DISTRACTION EXTERNAL FIXATIONS OF PELVIC FRACTURES CAUSED BY A LATERAL COMPRESSION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlin Apostolov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors represent a distraction external pelvic fixation technique, which they use in pelvic fractures caused by a lateral compression. They consider the indications and mounting techniques. The authors recommend the early movement activities (on the 3rd - 5th day after the external fixator placement. This method had been used in 8 patients and 3 cases are analyzed in details. The priority of this technique over open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF mainly are: (1 the implementation of good reduction of the fracture preventing the risk of ORIF; (2 the possibility for early movement activities for the patient.

  12. Reduced Distractibility in a Remote Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W.; Caparos, Serge; Linnell, Karina J.; Davidoff, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Background In visual processing, there are marked cultural differences in the tendency to adopt either a global or local processing style. A remote culture (the Himba) has recently been reported to have a greater local bias in visual processing than Westerners. Here we give the first evidence that a greater, and remarkable, attentional selectivity provides the basis for this local bias. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, Eriksen-type flanker interference was measured in the Himba and in Western controls. In both groups, responses to the direction of a task-relevant target arrow were affected by the compatibility of task-irrelevant distractor arrows. However, the Himba showed a marked reduction in overall flanker interference compared to Westerners. The smaller interference effect in the Himba occurred despite their overall slower performance than Westerners, and was evident even at a low level of perceptual load of the displays. In Experiment 2, the attentional selectivity of the Himba was further demonstrated by showing that their attention was not even captured by a moving singleton distractor. Conclusions/Significance We argue that the reduced distractibility in the Himba is clearly consistent with their tendency to prioritize the analysis of local details in visual processing. PMID:22046275

  13. The cell phone : a dangerous driving distraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutlay, J. [Alberta Motor Association, Calgary, AB (Canada); Ure, D. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Shell Canada demands that workers do not operate telecommunication systems while operating a motor vehicle for company business, with the exception of short acknowledgment conversations. This power point presentation advised of the dangers of using cell phones while driving. Cell phone use while driving is considered to be mentally demanding as well as contributing to slower reaction times to hazards and reducing driving field of view. Research has indicated that drivers visualize an image of the person being spoken to, in addition to thinking about issues being discussed. Statistics from the United Kingdom reveal that drivers engaged in cell phone conversations are 4 times more likely to crash than other drivers, and take risks comparable to alcohol impaired driving, as well as showing significantly poorer driving performance. Various types of driver distractions were presented. A comparison between radio and cell phones was presented. It was suggested that drivers should not take a phone call while driving alone, and in an emergency, should pull off the road to receive or send phone calls. It was also suggested that callers should ask if a person is driving, and end a conversation if they suspect the person is driving. tabs, figs.

  14. Quantitative assessment of mineralization in distraction osteogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, Sunit; Biswal, Sandeep; Jang, Ki-Mo; Modi, Hitesh N.; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Suk-Ha; Lee, Seok Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The most important decision in distraction osteogenesis is the timing of fixator removal. Various methods have been tried, such as radiographic appearance of callus and bone mineral density (BMD) assessment, but none has acquired gold standard status. The purpose of this study was to develop another objective method of assessment of callus stiffness to help clinicians in taking the most important decision of when to remove the fixator. We made a retrospective study of 70 patients to compare the BMD ratio and pixel value ratio. These ratios were calculated at the time of fixator removal, and Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to show the comparability. Inter- and intra-observer variability of the new method was also tested. Good correlation was found between BMD ratio and pixel value ratio, with a Pearson's coefficient of correlation of 0.79. The interobserver variability was also low, with high intra-observer reproducibility, suggesting that this test was simple to perform. Pixel value ratio is a good method for assessing callus stiffness, and it can be used to judge the timing of fixator removal. (orig.)

  15. Validation of the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring device according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlage, Peter; Deutsch, Cornelia; Krüger, Ralf; Wolf, Andreas; Müller, Peter; Zwingers, Thomas; Beime, Beate; Mengden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring (ABPM) device according to the 2010 International Protocol revision of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP). The device can be used for ABPM for up to 72 hours. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were sequentially measured in 33 adult subjects (13 males and 20 females) and compared with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers). A total of 99 comparison pairs were obtained. The custo screen 400 met the requirements of parts 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP revision 2010. The mean difference between the device and reference sphygmomanometer readings was -0.5±4.5 mmHg for SBP and -0.1±3.3 mmHg for DBP. All but one measurement were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the device and the observers for SBP and DBP. The number of absolute differences between the device and the observers within a range of 5 mmHg was 84 of 99 readings for SBP, and 93 of 99 readings for DBP. The custo screen 400 ABPM device met the requirements of the 2010 ESH-IP revision, and hence can be recommended for ABPM in adults. To our knowledge, the custo screen 400 is the first device to pass the revised ESH-IP 2010.

  16. Impact of distracted driving on safety and traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L; Garner, Annie A; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C; Ball, Karlene K; Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Fine, Philip R

    2013-12-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16-25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) Poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner

  17. Condylar cartilaginous changes after mandibular distraction osteogenesis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sin-Young; Kim, Su-Gwan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologic and immunohistochemical changes in the condylar articular surface in response to distraction osteogenesis (DO) of the mandibular body in rabbits. A unilateral osteotomy of the mandible at the premolar area was performed in 16 rabbits. The animals were divided into 4 groups based on different distraction parameters (rate and rhythm). After a 5-day latency, the mandible was lengthened by 0.5 mm daily for 6 days (group 1); 0.5 mm twice daily for 3 days (group 2); 0.5 mm once daily for 10 days (group 3); or 0.5 mm twice daily for 5 days (group 4). All 4 groups underwent a 14-day consolidation period. Four rabbits were included in the control group. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic examination. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of growth factors. None of the groups demonstrated any degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). On the distraction side in all groups, the histopathological examination revealed a hypertrophic thickening of the cartilage zone. Prominent endochondral ossification and high active osteoblasts were observed in groups 3 and 4. On the nondistraction side, no major changes were observed excluding the appearance of osteoclasts in groups 3 and 4. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed tenascin immunoreactivity in bone marrow mesenchymal cells on the distraction side in group 4. Connexin immunoreactivity did not display a marked change in any of the groups. Osteocalcin was observed on the distraction side in group 2, which suggested that bone formation is increased. Nitric oxide synthase 2 immunoreactivity was observed on the distraction side in group 2, which is associated with stress and inflammation. The results indicated that the hypertrophy of the cartilage zone and endochondral ossification became more pronounced as the extent and rate of distraction increased. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Audiovisual distraction reduces pain perception during shockwave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsdin, Emma; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2012-05-01

    Lithotripsy is an established method to fragment kidney stones that can be performed without general anesthesia in the outpatient setting. Discomfort and/or noise, however, may deter some patients. It has been demonstrated that audiovisual distraction (AV) can reduce sedoanalgesic requirements and improve patient satisfaction in nonurologic settings, but to our knowledge, this has not been investigated with lithotripsy. This randomized controlled trial was designed to test the hypothesis that AV distraction can reduce perceived pain during lithotripsy. All patients in the study received identical analgesia before a complete session of lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter. Patients were randomized to two groups: One group (n=61) received AV distraction via a wall-mounted 32″ (82 cm) television with wireless headphones; the other group (n=57) received no AV distraction. The mean intensity of treatment was comparable in both groups. Patients used a visual analogue scale (0-10) to record independent pain and distress scores and a nonverbal pain score was documented by the radiographer during the procedure (0-4). In the group that received AV distraction, all measures of pain perception were statistically lower. The patient-reported pain score was reduced from a mean of 6.1 to 2.4 (P<0.0001), and the distress score was reduced from a mean of 4.4 to 1.0 (P=0.0001). The mean nonverbal score recorded by the radiographer was reduced from 1.5 to 0.5 (<0.0001). AV distraction significantly lowered patients' reported pain and distress scores. This correlated with the nonverbal scores reported by the radiographer. We conclude that AV distraction is a simple method of improving acceptance of lithotripsy and optimizing treatment.

  19. Special distraction osteogenesis before bone grafting for alveolar cleft defects to correct maxillary deformities in patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates: distraction osteogenesis performed separately for each bone segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Morishita, Tadashi; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2014-07-01

    Patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates have premaxillary protrusion and characteristic jaw deformities involving three-dimensional malposition of the premaxilla and bilateral maxillary bone segments. This study examined patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates who had deviation and hypoplasia of the premaxillas and bilateral maxillary segments. Before bone grafting, the patients were treated with special distraction performed separately for each bone segment using a halo-type external device. This report describes this novel treatment method which produced good results. The subjects were five patients with severe jaw deformities due to bilateral cleft lip and palate. They were treated with maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy and subsequent distraction performed separately for each bone segment using a halo device. In three of five patients, premaxillary osteotomy was not performed, and osteotomy and distraction were performed only for the right and left lateral segments with severe hypoplasia. All patients achieved distraction close to the desired amount. The widths of the alveolar clefts were narrowed, and satisfactory occlusion and maxillary arch form were achieved. After the surgery, three of five patients underwent bone grafting for bilateral alveolar cleft defects and the bone graft survival was satisfactory. This method had many benefits, including narrowing of alveolar clefts, improvement of maxillary hypoplasia, and achievement of a good maxillary arch form. In addition, subsequent bone grafting for alveolar cleft defects was beneficial, dental prostheses were unnecessary, and frequency of surgery and surgical invasiveness were reduced. This method is a good surgical procedure that should be considered for patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates who have premaxillary protrusion and hypoplasia of the right and left lateral segments. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Monoaxial distraction of ulna to second metacarpal followed by single bone forearm in massive post infective radial bone loss

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    Jitendra N Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radial bone loss associated with gross manus valgus deformity can be managed by open reduction internal fixation using intervening strut bone graft, callus distraction using ring or monoaxial fixator, and achieving union by distraction histogenesis. These methods are particularly suitable when bone loss is small. Single or staged procedure is described for congenital as well as in acquired extensive bone loss of radius. Distraction through radial proximal to distal segments, to achieve reduction of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ, is also described in acquired cases. In the present series, functional results of distraction through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal is studied alongwith, functional status of hand, stability of wrist, level of patient′s satisfaction are also studied. Materials and Methods: 7 unilateral cases of radial loss (M = 5, F = 2 affecting 4 right hands of mean age 17 years (range 9 to 24 years were included in this study. They were treated by distracting through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal to achieve DRUJ alignment in first stage. Subsequently ulna was osteotomised and translated to distal stump of radius. It was then fixed to the distal radial remnant in 30° pronation in dominant and 30° supination non dominant hands. Results: Union was achieved in all cases associated with beneficial cross union of distal ulna. Hand functions improved near to normal, with fully corrected stable wrist joint, hypertrophied ulna and without recurrence. All of them had practically complete loss of forearm rotations, however patients were fully satisfied. Conclusion: This method is particularly suitable when associated with 6 cm or more radial bone loss. But when loss is small, sacrifice of one bone may not be justifiable.

  1. Validation of the A&D BP UB-542 wrist device for home blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladini, Francesca; Benetti, Elisabetta; Fania, Claudio; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the A&D BP UB-542 wrist device for home blood pressure (BP) measurement according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH). Device evaluation was carried out in 33 patients. The mean age was 50.9±10.1 years, the mean systolic BP was 141.6±22.8 mmHg (range 92 : 189), the mean diastolic BP was 89.2±11.4 mmHg (range 62 : 120), the mean arm circumference was 28.8±3.2 cm (range 23-35), and the mean wrist circumference was 17.1±1.4 cm (range 14-19.5). The protocol requirements were followed precisely. The device passed all requirements, fulfilling the standards of the protocol. On average, the device overestimated the systolic BP by 1.8±7.2 mmHg and diastolic BP by 1.6±5.7 mmHg. These data show that the A&D BP UB-542 wrist device met the requirements for validation by the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population.

  2. Reward-prospect interacts with trial-by-trial preparation for potential distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; van den Berg, Berry; Woldorff, Marty G

    2015-02-01

    When attending for impending visual stimuli, cognitive systems prepare to identify relevant information while ignoring irrelevant, potentially distracting input. Recent work (Marini et al., 2013) showed that a supramodal distracter-filtering mechanism is invoked in blocked designs involving expectation of possible distracter stimuli, although this entails a cost ( distraction-filtering cost ) on speeded performance when distracters are expected but not presented. Here we used an arrow-flanker task to study whether an analogous cost, potentially reflecting the recruitment of a specific distraction-filtering mechanism, occurs dynamically when potential distraction is cued trial-to-trial ( cued distracter-expectation cost ). In order to promote the maximal utilization of cue information by participants, in some experimental conditions the cue also signaled the possibility of earning a monetary reward for fast and accurate performance. This design also allowed us to investigate the interplay between anticipation for distracters and anticipation of reward, which is known to engender attentional preparation. Only in reward contexts did participants show a cued distracter-expectation cost, which was larger with higher reward prospect and when anticipation for both distracters and reward were manipulated trial-to-trial. Thus, these results indicate that reward prospect interacts with the distracter expectation during trial-by-trial preparatory processes for potential distraction. These findings highlight how reward guides cue-driven attentional preparation.

  3. Effects of individual differences on the efficacy of different distracters during visual sexual stimulation in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Verena M; Prause, Nicole

    2012-02-01

    Distractions from sexual cues have been shown to decrease the sexual response, but it is unclear how distracters decrease sexual response. Individual differences may modulate the efficacy of distracters. Forty women viewed three sexual films while their labial temperature and continuous self-reported sexual arousal were monitored. One sexual film had simultaneous verbal distracters concerning dissatisfaction with one's physical appearance (higher salience distracter), a second had distracters concerning daily chores (lower salience distracter), and the third sexual film had no distracters. Participant's reporting greater relationship satisfaction and more communication with their partner about their own physical appearance were expected to decrease the efficacy (increased sexual arousal) of the distracters concerning physical appearance. Contrary to expectations, women who received less feedback about their body from their partners reported less sexual arousal during a sexual film with body distracters than a sexual film with general distracters or a sexual film with no distracters. All women exhibited lower labial temperature in Minutes 2 and 3 of the sexual film with body image distracters as compared to the other two sexual films. Possible explanations explored include self-verification theory and individual differences in the indicators that women consider when rating their sexual arousal.

  4. Pharyngeal airway changes associated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in adult cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Muge; Taner, Tülin; Sahin-Veske, Pınar; Kocadereli, Ilken; Konas, Ersoy; Mavili, Mehmet Emin

    2012-02-01

    To investigate 1) the changes in pharyngeal airway sizes associated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis and 2) the correlations between maxillary skeletal variables and the pharyngeal airway in adult patients with cleft lip and palate. The study was carried out in 14 adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Predistraction records were taken at a mean age of 22.7 ± 4.6 years. All patients had placement of a rigid external distraction device (RED I; KLS Martin, Tuttlingen, Germany) after Le Fort I osteotomy. Lateral cephalograms were assessed before surgery and at short-term follow-up (8.0 ± 6.4 months). The cephalometric skeletal and pharyngeal airway variables were statistically evaluated by use of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Spearman ρ correlation was performed to check the correlations between maxillary skeletal and pharyngeal variables. The maxillary movement was 8.7 mm (P maxillary depth angle (+7.9°) and effective maxillary length (9.4 mm) increased significantly (P distraction, whereas the palatal plane angle remained unchanged. Anterior nasal spine (8.2 mm) and Posterior nasal spine (6.9 mm) moved anteriorly. The overjet increased (9.5 mm) significantly (P maxillary movement. PNS changes showed the highest correlation with posterior airway changes. The significant anterior movement of the maxilla resulted in significant increases in posterior, superoposterior, and middle airway spaces. The posterior airway space showed the highest significant positive correlation with the movement of PNS. The posterior and superoposterior airway spaces also showed significant positive correlations with the maxillary skeletal variables. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of cleft maxillary distraction osteogenesis on the levator veli palatini and velopharyngeal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Por, Yong-Chen; Liou, Eric Jein-Wein; Chang, Frank Chun-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Le Fort I maxillary distraction with the rigid external distraction (RED) device is performed to correct severe midface retrusion in cleft patients, but it may adversely affect velopharyngeal function. This study aims to investigate the angular changes in the levator veli palatini (LVP) and its influence on velopharyngeal function after maxillary distraction using 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) scan volume rendered images. This was a retrospective study of 12 patients. Group 1 had no velopharyngeal function deterioration and group 2 had velopharyngeal function deterioration. Preoperative and 1 year postoperative CT scans were analyzed with Mimics v10 software. Segmentation of the LVP and the nasopharyngeal airway was performed and volumetric images were obtained. Six measurements were made: (1) the angle between the levator plane and the Frankfort horizontal, (2) the angle between the levator plane and the soft palate plane, (3) the angle between the 2 LVP muscles, (4) the pharyngeal depth, and (5, 6) the movement of the inferior pharyngeal point with respect to the horizontal and vertical planes. The independent samples t test, Mann-Whitney test, and paired t tests were used for statistical analyses (P < 0.05). Group 2 had statistically significant reduction in the angle between the levator plane and Frankfort horizontal as well as the soft palate plane. Group 1 had a statistically significant increase in the pharyngeal depth and movement of the inferior pharyngeal point with respect to the horizontal plane. A decrease in the angle between the levator plane and the Frankfort horizontal or the soft palate plane was associated with velopharyngeal function deterioration.

  6. New fixation method for maxillary distraction osteogenesis using locking attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Buranastidporn, Boonsiva; Ishii, Masatoshi

    2006-10-01

    The external traction hooks of the intraoral splint used in the rigid external distraction (RED) system for maxillary distraction osteogenesis interfere with the surgical procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce an innovative splint fixation method for maxillary distraction osteogenesis with Locking Attachments and evaluate their advantages, such as reduction of operating time compared with the traditional intraoral splint method. Retrospective comparison of operative times of maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy procedures was carried out with the traditional protocol using the intraoral splint cemented to the maxillary dentition (n = 14), and a removable intraoral splint that is inserted postsurgically (n = 14). Operative procedure times were compared and analyzed statistically using the data extracted from the surgical records. There were no complications inserting the removable splint postsurgically, including pain, discomfort, or time-consuming procedure. Stable and secure splint fixation was obtained before the distraction procedure and the desired treatment goals were obtained in all patients. The total operative procedure times were significantly reduced in the Locking Attachments group by 24% to 41% (approximately 65 minutes) compared with earlier operations involving the conventional splints (P Maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the Locking Attachments is a highly effective fixation approach to manage severe hypoplastic maxilla, eliminating lip constraints resulting from scarring and allowing for easier, more deliberate and careful dissection. The use of the Locking Attachments is reliable in craniofacial surgery and has proved to be advantageous in the reduction of the operating time and surgical risks.

  7. Distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx in distal thumb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansü, Eren; Ünal, Mehmet Bekir; Parmaksızoğlu, Fatih; Gürcan, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Thumb amputation is a major cause of hand dysfunction, and the treatment for distal thumb amputations remains controversial. Although finger reconstruction methods using distraction lengthening are known to restore finger length and function, we found no reports in the literature regarding phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations. We aimed to evaluate proximal phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations at or near the interphalangeal (IP) joint. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. All patients underwent osteotomy, either during the initial procedure or as a second-stage procedure. Distraction began 10 days after osteotomy with the use of an external fixator that remained in place until ossification of the gap occurred without bone grafting. Patients were evaluated using the QuickDASH score. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 27 years and a mean follow-up period of 7 years were enrolled. The mean phalangeal lengthening achieved was 20 mm. Ossification occurred at all distraction sites, and the fixators were maintained for a mean of 85 days. The mean healing index was 42.5 days/cm. All 14 patients achieved the desired amount of phalangeal lengthening without major complications such as nonunion, premature union, or gross infection. For reconstruction in cases of distal thumb amputations, distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx can be used to improve absolute length, web space, and grip distance. The technique is safe and effective, improves functionality/cosmesis, and offers a low complication risk.

  8. Figurativeness in the Sense of Distraction (Studies by Lithuanian Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laimutė Monginaitė

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the sense of distraction and the feature of figurativeness in it are analysed with the help of phenomenological description, the concept of sense of Juozas Mureika and the conception of imagination of Kristupas Sabolius. The position is followed that the acts of sense and the being of those existing found in them cannot be known in a purely rational way. Knowing is reached with intuitive insights. The experiencing of distraction is approached as one of the norms or intentions of consciousness. The sense of distraction is acknowledged to be a basic value becoming more and more important in a modern stressful life. The article indicates that the intentional beings of the sense of distraction are expressed in really various human activities and are distinguished with mono-subjectivity and unrepeatable feeling. Figurativeness is perceived as the result of imaginary, creative activity of the imagination and aesthetical quality. The peculiarities of the formation of figurativeness are revealed through the phenomenological description of imagination by Sabolius. Four features of the act of visualisation, determining the quality of figurativeness, are emphasized: intentionality, power of transformation, relation with emotions and the symbolism of the image. The conclusion is made that figurativeness, being the result of the creative act (visualisation of imagination, appears as aesthetical quality or the ensemble of qualities. Figurativeness sharpens the sense of distraction and calls the wave of new experiences.

  9. What's the law got to do with it? Legislation regarding in-vehicle technology use and its impact on driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Katie J; Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L

    2017-03-01

    Legislation in the road transport domain aims to control safety on the roads. Despite this, a critical issue affecting road safety is that of driver distraction. Although poorly defined, distraction is a significant road safety issue which, in part, is caused by the prevalence of technology within vehicles. Legislation surrounding the use of in-vehicle technologies are explored in this paper from a socio-technical system perspective. This reveals the wider context of the road transport system operating under the current laws using an Accimap analysis. A distinction in the law between the use of hand-held mobile phones, a device that is typically banned for use by drivers worldwide, and the use of other technological devices that are covered by more general laws against 'careless' and/or 'dangerous' driving was found. Historically, individual drivers' have been blamed for distraction, whereas the systems approach shows how current legislation may have created the conditions necessary for driver distraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dancing to distraction: mediating 'docile bodies' in 'Philippine Thriller video'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangaoang, Áine

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the conditions behind the 'Philippine Prison Thriller' video, a YouTube spectacle featuring the 1,500 inmates of Cebu Provincial Detention and Rehabilitation Centre (CPDRC) dancing to Michael Jackson's hit song 'Thriller'. The video achieved viral status after it was uploaded onto the video-sharing platform in 2007, and sparked online debates as to whether this video, containing recorded moving images of allegedly forced dancing, was a form of cruel and inhumane punishment or a novel approach to rehabilitation. The immense popularity of the video inspired creative responses from viewers, and this international popularity caused the CPDRC to host a monthly live dance show held in the prison yard, now in its seventh year. The essay explores how seemingly innocuous products of user-generated-content are imbued with ideologies that obscure or reduce relations of race, agency, power and control. By contextualising the video's origins, I highlight current Philippine prison conditions and introduce how video-maker/programme inventor/prison warden Byron Garcia sought to distance his facility from the Philippine prison majority. I then investigate the 'mediation' of 'Thriller' through three main issues. One, I examine the commodification and transformation from viral video to a thana-tourist destination; two, the global appeal of 'Thriller' is founded on public penal intrigue and essentialist Filipino tropes, mixed with a certain novelty factor widely suffused in YouTube formats; three, how dance performance and its mediation here are conducive to creating Foucault's docile bodies, which operate as a tool of distraction for the masses and ultimately serve the interests of the state far more than it rehabilitates(unconvicted and therefore innocent) inmates.

  11. Testing a decades’ old assumption : Are individuals with lower sensory gating indeed more easily distracted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bak, Nikolaj; Mann, J.J.; Fagerlund, B.; Glenthøj, Birte Y.; Jepsen, Jens Richardt M.; Oranje, B.

    2017-01-01

    The sensory gating deficits in schizophrenia have been theorized to associate with increased distractibility. We explore the potential associations between sensory and sensorimotor gating and subjective and objective indices of distraction in healthy subjects. Forty healthy males were assessed with

  12. Complications of mandibular distraction osteogenesis for developmental deformities: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, C. R. A.; van de Vijfeijken, S. E. C. M.; Tuinzing, D. B.; Jansma, E. P.; Becking, A. G.; Swennen, G. R. J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of English and non-English articles on the complications of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) for patients with developmental deformities was performed, in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Search terms expressing distraction osteogenesis were used in 'AND'

  13. Selectively Distracted: Divided Attention and Memory for Important Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D

    2017-08-01

    Distractions and multitasking are generally detrimental to learning and memory. Nevertheless, people often study while listening to music, sitting in noisy coffee shops, or intermittently checking their e-mail. The current experiments examined how distractions and divided attention influence one's ability to selectively remember valuable information. Participants studied lists of words that ranged in value from 1 to 10 points while completing a digit-detection task, while listening to music, or without distractions. Though participants recalled fewer words following digit detection than in the other conditions, there were no significant differences between conditions in terms of selectively remembering the most valuable words. Similar results were obtained across a variety of divided-attention tasks that stressed attention and working memory to different degrees, which suggests that people may compensate for divided-attention costs by selectively attending to the most valuable items and that factors that worsen memory do not necessarily impair the ability to selectively remember important information.

  14. Understanding Factors of Distraction among Intrastate Bus Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunos Muhammad Nur Annuar Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in number of the world population have affected the demand for public transport especially in larger cities. Intrastate buses are chosen as the main public transport by many people due to its affordable fares. Therefore, a better performance of the intrastate bus drivers would be significant to cater the high demand. Nevertheless, distraction among the intrastate bus drivers have been found as one of the major factors that could affect the performance of the drivers. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding on the factors of distraction among intrastate bus drivers. This paper refers to findings from previous researches which are related to this field of study. In conclusion, this paper will provide a list of factors of distraction among the intrastate bus drivers which may degrade their performance.

  15. Muscle response to leg lengthening during distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorey, Fritz; Bruenger, Jens; Windhagen, Henning; Witte, Frank

    2009-04-01

    Continuous lengthening of intact muscles during distraction osteogenesis leads to an increase of sarcomeres and enhances the regeneration of tendons and blood vessels. A high distraction rate leads to an excessive leg and muscle lengthening and might cause damages of muscle fibers with fibrosis, necrosis, and muscle weakness. Complications like muscle contractures or atrophy after postoperative immobilization emphazize the importance of muscles and their function in the clinical outcome. In an animal model of distraction osteogenesis, 18 sheep were operated with an external fixator followed by 4 days latency, 21 days distraction (1.25 mm per day) and 51 days consolidation. The anatomical location (gastrocnemius, peroneus tertius, and first flexor digitorum longus muscle), dimension and occurrence of muscular defects were characterized histologically. The callus formation and leg axis was monitored by weekly X-rays. Additionally, serum creatine kinase was analyzed during a distraction and consolidation period. Significant signs of muscle lesions in all three observed muscles can be found postoperatively, whereas normal callus formation and regular leg axis was observed radiologically. The peroneus tertius and first flexor digitorum longus muscles were found to have significantly more signs of fibrosis, inflammatory, and necrosis. Creatine kinase showed two peaks: 4 and 39 days postoperative as an indication of muscle damage and regeneration. The study implicates that muscle damages should be considered when a long-distance distraction osteogenesis is planned. The surgeon should consider these muscle responses and individually discuss a two-stage treatment or additional muscle tendon releases to minimize the risk of muscle damages.

  16. Preventing distracted driving among college students: Addressing smartphone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Sahar; Kelly, Erin H; Smith, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sara; Sozzer, Fatima H; Atchley, Paul; Sullivan, Elroy; Larson, Dean; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2017-02-01

    Based on the National Highway Traffic Safety Association's (NHTSA) Report, fatalities due to distracted driving are on the rise and the highest proportion of fatalities by age group is the 20-29 year old category. To date little has been done to educate college students about the dangers of distracted driving and engage these students in promoting a safe driving culture. Intervening among college students has the potential for making real-time behavior change, can foster a lifetime of safe driving habits among these students, and can help contribute to a culture of safe driving that can be created and sustained through positive messages from peers. The goals of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate a distracted driving presentation for college students to change knowledge, attitude and behavior on distracted driving. A 30-min, multi-media presentation on distracted driving was presented to 19 colleges and universities, totaling 444 college students (mean age 23.7±7.0 years of age, 61% females, 39% males). Students completed three surveys: prior to the workshop (interview 1), immediately after the workshop (interview 2), and 3 months following the workshop (interview 3). We assessed changes between interview 1 and interview 2 and found 15 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions significantly improved after the course. In addition, we assessed changes from interviews 1 and 3, and found 11 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions maintained their significance. Responses to behavior related questions at three months were also compared to baseline, and significant improvements were found for 12 of the 14 questions. While this study was successful in improving the short-term attitude-knowledge and behaviors on distracted driving, work is needed to sustain (and evaluate) long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Socioeconomic impact on device-associated infections in pediatric intensive care units of 16 limited-resource countries: international Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Jarvis, William R; Jamulitrat, Silom; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Ramachandran, Bala; Dueñas, Lourdes; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Ersoz, Gulden; Novales, María Guadalupe Miranda; Khader, Ilham Abu; Ammar, Khaldi; Guzmán, Nayide Barahona; Navoa-Ng, Josephine Anne; Seliem, Zeinab Salah; Espinoza, Teodora Atencio; Meng, Cheong Yuet; Jayatilleke, Kushlani

    2012-07-01

    We report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium prospective surveillance study from January 2004 to December 2009 in 33 pediatric intensive care units of 16 countries and the impact of being in a private vs. public hospital and the income country level on device-associated health care-associated infection rates. Additionally, we aim to compare these findings with the results of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network annual report to show the differences between developed and developing countries regarding device-associated health care-associated infection rates. A prospective cohort, active device-associated health care-associated infection surveillance study was conducted on 23,700 patients in International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium pediatric intensive care units. The protocol and methodology implemented were developed by International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. Data collection was performed in the participating intensive care units. Data uploading and analyses were conducted at International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium headquarters on proprietary software. Device-associated health care-associated infection rates were recorded by applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network device-associated infection definitions, and the impact of being in a private vs. public hospital and the income country level on device-associated infection risk was evaluated. None. Central line-associated bloodstream infection rates were similar in private, public, or academic hospitals (7.3 vs. 8.4 central line-associated bloodstream infection per 1,000 catheter-days [p infection rates in lower middle-income countries were higher than low-income countries or upper middle-income countries (12.2 vs. 5.5 central line-associated bloodstream infections per 1,000 catheter-days [p infection rates were similar in academic, public and private

  18. Distraction in Verbal Short-Term Memory: Insights from Developmental Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Emily; Hughes, Robert W.; Briganti, A; Joseph, Tanya Nicolette; Marsh, John Everett; Macken, William J.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of two mechanisms of auditory distraction in verbal serial short-term memory-interference with the serial rehearsal processes used to support short-term recall and general attentional diversion-was investigated by exploiting differences in auditory distraction in children and adults. Experiment 1 showed that serial rehearsal plays a role in children's as well as adults' distractibility: Auditory distraction from irrelevant speech was greater for both children and adults as th...

  19. Device for the catalytic after-burning of exhaust gases in the exhaust gas system of an internal-combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, K

    1975-06-19

    The invention deals with a device which protects the catalyst for the after-burning of exhaust gases against damage by high temperatures. When the catalyst temperature reaches a certain limiting value, a throttle is activated by an electrical control device influenced by a temperature sensor via a servomotor. The throttle valve opens a by-pass for the exhaust gases which had previously flowed through the system for catalytic after-burning. In order to prevent the throttle from rusting due to its rare use, it is regularly put into use after switching off the ignition of the internal-combustion engine by the still briefly present oil pressure in the engine via an oil pressure switch and the mentioned control device.

  20. Full 3D internal strain measurement for device packaging materials using synchrotron laminography and volumetric digital image correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi; Kimura, Hidehiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kano, Taiki; Kajiwara, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    In order to measure full 3D internal strain field of resin molding compound specimens, synchrotron computed tomography and laminography at SPring-8 were performed. Then the reconstructed images were applied to 3D digital image correlation method to compute internal strain field. The results showed that internal strains in resin molding compound could be visualized in this way. (author)

  1. Background music as a risk factor for distraction among young-novice drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Warren; Slor, Zack

    2013-10-01

    There are countless beliefs about the power of music during driving. The last thing one would think about is: how safe is it to listen or sing to music? Unfortunately, collisions linked to music devices have been known for some time; adjusting the radio controls, swapping tape-cassettes and compact-discs, or searching through MP3 files, are all forms of distraction that can result in a near-crash or crash. While the decrement of vehicular performance can also occur from capacity interference to central attention, whether or not music listening is a contributing factor to distraction is relatively unknown. The current study explored the effects of driver-preferred music on driver behavior. 85 young-novice drivers completed six trips in an instrumented Learners Vehicle. The study found that all participants committed at-least 3 driver deficiencies; 27 needed a verbal warning/command and 17 required a steering or braking intervention to prevent an accident. While there were elevated positive moods and enjoyment for trips with driver-preferred music, this background also produced the most frequent severe driver miscalculations and inaccuracies, violations, and aggressive driving. However, trips with music structurally designed to generate moderate levels of perceptual complexity, improved driver behavior and increased driver safety. The study is the first within-subjects on-road high-dose double-exposure clinical-trial investigation of musical stimuli on driver behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation of four automatic devices for self-measurement of blood pressure according to the international protocol of the European Society of Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmar R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jirar Topouchian1, Davide Agnoletti1, Jacques Blacher1, Ahmed Youssef1, Isabel Ibanez2,3, Jose Khabouth2, Salwa Khawaja2, Layale Beaino2, Roland Asmar1–31Centre de Diagnostic, Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; 2Hôpital Libanais and Faculté Libanaise de Médecine, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Foundation-Medical Research Institutes, Geneva, SwitzerlandBackground: Four oscillometric devices for self-measurement of blood pressure (SBPM were evaluated according to the European Society of Hypertension (ESH international protocol and its 2010 revision in four separate studies. The Omron® M2, Omron M3, and Omron M6 measure blood pressure (BP at the brachial level, while the Omron R2 measures BP at the wrist level.Methods: The international protocol requires a total number of 33 subjects in which the validation is performed. The Omron M2 and Omron R2 were validated in 2009 according to the ESH international protocol, while the Omron M3 and Omron M6 were validated in 2010–2011 according to the 2010 ESH international protocol revision. The protocol procedures were followed precisely.Results: All four tested devices passed the validation process. The mean differences between the device and mercury readings were 2.7 ± 5.0 and –1.4 ± 3.2 mmHg for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, using the Omron M2 device, and 1.7 ± 3.2 and –0.9 ± 2.6 mmHg using the Omron M3, 1.6 ± 2.9 and -0.9 ± 2.5 mmHg using the Omron M6, and –1.1 ± 4.8 and –0.9 ± 4.3 mmHg using the Omron R2.Conclusion: Readings from the Omron M2, Omron M3, Omron M6, and Omron R2, differing by less than 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, fulfill the ESH international protocol and its 2010 revision requirements. Therefore, each of these four devices can be used by patients for SBPM.Keywords: Omron R2, M2, M3, M6, blood pressure measurement, validation, international protocol, European Society of Hypertension

  3. The effects of an oral distraction on cattle during a painful procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Brooke L.; Stookey, Joseph M.; Noble, Scott; Watts, Jon; Finlay, Don

    2013-01-01

    An oral distraction was investigated as a way to reduce struggle and heart rate of beef cattle undergoing freeze branding. Oral distraction reduced the struggle of steers, regardless of branding treatment. No effect on heart rate was found. Distractions may provide a way to reduce struggle by animals during restraint. PMID:24155450

  4. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  5. Pedicle distraction increases intervertebral and spinal canal area in a cadaver and bone model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Discussion: For each increase in pedicle distraction the area of the spinal and vertebral foramen increases. Pedicle distraction could potentially be used to alleviate spinal stenosis and root impingement. A potential osteotomy plane could be at the midpoint of the pedicle with minimal risk to nerve roots and soft tissue restrictions to prevent distraction.

  6. Radiographic Outcomes of Dorsal Distraction Distal Radius Plating for Fractures With Dorsal Marginal Impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huish, Eric G; Coury, John G; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Trzeciak, Marc A

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare radiographic outcomes of patients treated with dorsal spanning plates with previously reported normal values of radiographic distal radius anatomy and compare the results with prior publications for both external fixation and internal fixation with volar locked plates. Patients with complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction pattern necessitating dorsal distraction plating at the discretion of the senior authors (M.A.T. and M.A.I.) from May 30, 2013, to December 29, 2015, were identified and included in the study. Retrospective chart and radiograph review was performed on 19 patients, 11 male and 8 female, with mean age of 47.83 years (22-82). No patients were excluded from the study. All fractures united prior to plate removal. The average time the plate was in place was 80.5 days (49-129). Follow-up radiographs showed average radial inclination of 20.5° (13.2°-25.5°), radial height of 10.7 mm (7.5-14 mm), ulnar variance of -0.3 mm (-2.1 to 3.1 mm), and volar tilt of 7.9° (-3° to 15°). One patient had intra-articular step-off greater than 2 mm. Dorsal distraction plating of complex distal radius fractures yields good radiographic results with minimal complications. In cases of complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction where volar plating is not considered adequate, a dorsal distraction plate should be considered as an alternative to external fixation due to reduced risk for infection and better control of volar tilt.

  7. Predictors of body appearance cognitive distraction during sexual activity in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, Patrícia; Narciso, Isabel; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive distraction is a core concept in cognitive models of sexual dysfunction. Body appearance cognitive distraction during sexual activity (BACDSA) has been mainly studied among female college samples. However, the relative contribution of different indicators of body dissatisfaction among men and women from community samples, including the contribution of relationship variables to BACDSA, has yet to be examined. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which aspects of body dissatisfaction and relationship variables predict BACDSA. A total of 669 cohabitating, heterosexual, Portuguese participants (390 women and 279 men) with no sexual problems completed an anonymous online survey. The survey included a sociodemographic questionnaire and a set of questionnaires assessing body- and relationship-related variables. We used a single item measure of the participant's satisfaction with the opinion that they perceive their partner has about the participant's body (PPO); the Global Body Dissatisfaction Subscale of the Body Attitudes Test (GBD); a version of the Contour Drawing Rating Scale; the Global Measure of Relationship Satisfaction; and the Inclusion of Other in Self Scale. Focus on specific body parts during sexual activity (FBP) and relationship length were assessed with an open-ended question. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that GBD and FBP were the only body dissatisfaction variables that significantly predicted BACDSA in both men and women. The relationship variables significantly increased the amount of variance explained in BACDSA for both men and women. However, PPO was the only significant relationship variable that predicted BACDSA and only in women. Body and relationship variables are significant factors in body appearance cognitive distraction. They require further research and assessment, particularly for clinical intervention. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Biomechanical effect of interspinous process distraction height after lumbar fixation surgery: An in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ma, Jianxiong; Lu, Bin; Jia, Haobo; Zhao, Jie; Kuang, Mingjie; Feng, Rui; Xu, Liyan; Bai, Haohao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Ying; Ma, Xinlong

    2017-07-01

    Pedicle screw fixation may induce abnormal activity at adjacent segment and accelerate the degeneration of lumbar vertebrae. Dynamic stabilizers could provide an intermediate solution between conservative treatment and fusion surgery. Lumbar vertebral segment cephalad to instrumented fixation was the most common localization of adjacent segment degeneration. The aim of this study is to explore the use of interspinous process devices in the lumbar vertebral segment cephalad to fixation segment in changing the mechanical distribution and limiting abnormal activity of the spine. Eight specimens were tested in the following groups: intact group, instability group (bilateral facetectomy at L3-L4), fixation group (bilateral facetectomy and pedicle screw fixation at L3-L4), and hybrid fixation group (fixation at L3-L4 and simulating interspinous device implantation of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 mm at L2-L3). Range of motion, motion of vertebral body, and strain distribution change were recorded. The range of motion in extension with 16- and 18-mm hybrid constructs was significantly lower than intact, instability, and fixation groups. In flexion and lateral bending, the strain values of L4 inferior articular process with 18-mm hybrid construct have a significant difference compared with other groups. In axial rotation, under the condition of a contralateral state, the strain values of L2 superior articular process with 18-mm hybrid construct have a significant difference compared with intact and fixation groups. The strain value of the L4 inferior articular process had negative correlation with height distraction in three dimensions, except extension. A negative correlation between the strain value of the L2 superior articular process and distraction height was found in contralateral bending and contralateral axial rotation. Interspinous process devices above the fixation segment can change the mechanical distribution of the spine and limit activity in some of the

  9. Conventional bone-anchored palatal distractor using an orthodontic palatal expander for the transverse maxillary distraction osteogenesis: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Seiji; Haraguchi, Seiji; Aikawa, Tomonao; Yashiro, Kohtaro; Okura, Masaya; Kogo, Mikihiko

    2008-02-01

    Surgical-assisted rapid palatal expansion includes various treatment procedures for solving transverse maxillary deficiencies, especially in cases with a matured palatal suture. Recent introduction of the concept of distraction osteogenesis has contributed to generalize this useful treatment and to develop some bone-borne devices that will not cause the problems found in cases treated by tooth-supported palatal expander. This report shows a conventional bone-borne distractor using commercially available orthodontic palatal expansion screws. The distractor consists of 2 parts: one is a commercially available orthodontic palatal expansion screw (Hyrax type, Fan style) and another is a screw-ring, which is one of the attached parts of the mandibular distraction system. The bone screws are inserted transmucosally to the palatal bone via the screw-rings. The palatal distractor can be applied to varied palatal shapes and can expand the palate without any trouble. This conventional palatal distractor may contribute to generalize the transpalatal maxillary distraction osteogenesis for cases with maxillary teeth problems.

  10. Validation of Omron RS8, RS6, and RS3 home blood pressure monitoring devices, in accordance with the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hakuo; Yoshika, Masamichi; Yokoi, Toyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Allowing patients to measure their blood pressure at home is recognized as being of clinical value. However, it is not known how often these measurements are taken correctly. Blood pressure monitors for home use fall into two types based on the position of the cuff, ie, at the upper arm or the wrist. The latter is particularly convenient, as measurements can be taken fully clothed. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the wrist-type blood pressure monitors Omron RS8 (HEM-6310F-E), Omron RS6 (HEM-6221-E), and Omron RS3 (HEM-6130-E). A team of three trained doctors validated the performance of these devices by comparing the measurements obtained from these devices with those taken using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. All the devices met the validation requirements of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010. The difference in blood pressure readings between the tested device and the standard mercury sphygmomanometer was within 3 mmHg, which is acceptable according to the European Society of Hypertension guidelines. All the home devices tested were found to be suitable for measuring blood pressure at home because their performance fulfilled the requirement of the guidelines.

  11. Validation of the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring device according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramlage P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Peter Bramlage,1 Cornelia Deutsch,1 Ralf Krüger,1 Andreas Wolf,2 Peter Müller,2 Thomas Zwingers,1,4 Beate Beime,1 Thomas Mengden31Institut für Pharmakologie und Präventive Medizin, Cloppenburg, 2Müller and Sebastiani, Ottobrunn, 3Kerckhoff-Klinik, Bad Nauheim, 4Estimate, Augsburg, GermanyObjective: The aim of the present study was to validate the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring (ABPM device according to the 2010 International Protocol revision of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP. The device can be used for ABPM for up to 72 hours.Materials and methods: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively were sequentially measured in 33 adult subjects (13 males and 20 females and compared with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers. A total of 99 comparison pairs were obtained.Results: The custo screen 400 met the requirements of parts 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP revision 2010. The mean difference between the device and reference sphygmomanometer readings was −0.5±4.5 mmHg for SBP and −0.1±3.3 mmHg for DBP. All but one measurement were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the device and the observers for SBP and DBP. The number of absolute differences between the device and the observers within a range of 5 mmHg was 84 of 99 readings for SBP, and 93 of 99 readings for DBP.Conclusion: The custo screen 400 ABPM device met the requirements of the 2010 ESH-IP revision, and hence can be recommended for ABPM in adults. To our knowledge, the custo screen 400 is the first device to pass the revised ESH-IP 2010.Keywords: validation, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ESH

  12. A new palatal distractor device for bodily movement of maxillary bones by rigid self-locking miniplates and screws system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Antonio; Savastano, Mauro; Cantone, Antonio; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2013-07-01

    A new palatal distractor device for bodily movement of the maxillary bones after complete segmented Le Fort I osteotomy for 1-stage transversal distraction and tridimensional repositioning on 1 patient is presented. The new distractor has an intrinsic tridimensional rigidity also in the fixation system by self-locking miniplates and screws for better control of the 2 maxillary fragments during distraction. Le Fort I distraction and repositioning procedure in association with a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were performed on 1 patient with complete solution of the cross-bite and class III malocclusion. Results of dental and cephalometric analysis performed before surgery (T1), after surgery and distraction time (T2), and 18 months after surgery and orthodontic appliance removal (T3) are reported. No complications were encountered using the new distractor device. Advantages of this device and technique are presented including improved rigidity of both distraction (jackscrew) and fixation (4 self-locking miniplates and screws) systems resulting in complete control of the position of the 2 maxillary fragments during distraction and surgery. In addition, this new device allows resuming palatal distraction in the event of cross-bite relapse without causing dental-related problems or the risks of screw slackening.

  13. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  14. Trans-sinusoidal maxillary distraction in three cleft patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Martini, M.; Nadjmi, N.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Jagtman, A.K.; Bergé, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The trans-sinusoidal maxillary distractor (TS-MD) was used to achieve maxillary advancement in three patients with repaired cleft lip and palate. After preoperative computer-aided planning of the distraction vectors, each TS-MD was bent on a stereolithographic model of the maxilla of the patient.

  15. Complications in transpalatal distraction osteogenesis: a retrospective clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, C.R.A.; Gooris, P.G.; Becking, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Transpalatal distraction osteogenesis is a bone-borne technique to expand the maxilla and has become a routine method in treating patients with transverse maxillary hypoplasia. Limited reports concerning treatment difficulties have been published. The purpose of this study was to

  16. Complications in Transpalatal Distraction Osteogenesis: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, C.R.A.; Gooris, P.G.; Becking, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Transpalatal distraction osteogenesis is a bone-borne technique to expand the maxilla and has become a routine method in treating patients with transverse maxillary hypoplasia. Limited reports concerning treatment difficulties have been published. The purpose of this study was to

  17. Complications in transpalatal distraction osteogenesis: a retrospective clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Charlotte R. A.; Gooris, Peter G.; Becking, Alfred G.

    2011-01-01

    Transpalatal distraction osteogenesis is a bone-borne technique to expand the maxilla and has become a routine method in treating patients with transverse maxillary hypoplasia. Limited reports concerning treatment difficulties have been published. The purpose of this study was to investigate and

  18. National Phone Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    As more drivers take their cell phones into their vehicles, distracted driving continues to grow as a traffic safety issue. Most U.S. States : responded by enacting some sort of cell phone or texting ban. In November and December 2010, NHTSA conducte...

  19. Zika, public health, and the distraction of abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2017-09-01

    This paper suggests that the focus on abortion legalization in the aftermath of the Zika outbreak is distracting for policy and lawmakers from what needs to be done to address the outbreak effectively. Meeting basic health needs (i.e. preventive measures), together with research and development conducive to a vaccine or treatment for the Zika virus should be priorities.

  20. Modeling mind-wandering: a tool to better understand distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marieke; Taatgen, Niels; Sackur, Jerome; Bastian, Mikael; Taatgen, Niels; van Vugt, Marieke; Borst, Jelmer; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2015-01-01

    When we get distracted, we may engage in mind-wandering, or task-unrelated thinking, which impairs performance on cognitive tasks. Yet, we do not have cognitive models that make this process explicit. On the basis of both recent experiments that have started to investigate mind-wandering and

  1. Auditory Distraction in Semantic Memory: A Process-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate auditory-semantic distraction in tests of memory for semantic category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-semantic, rather than acoustic,…

  2. The Effects of Distraction on Preoperative Anxiety Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, Aynur; Doru, Özlem; Kucukoglu, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of distraction on the preoperative anxiety levels of pediatric patients. A prospective, two-group experimental design was used. This study was conducted in the clinic of pediatric surgery of a university hospital in Turkey between November 20, 2013 and January 25, 2014. The population of the study was composed of a total of 83 children (40 in the study group and 43 in the control group) who met the inclusion. The data were collected using the "Personal Information Form," "Separation Scoring," and "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-State Form." Distraction was performed on the children in the study group during the preoperative period. No intervention was applied to the children in the control group. The results of this study demonstrated that the separation scores and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-State scores of the children in the study group, on whom distraction was applied, were lower than those of the control group. Distraction applied to children in the preoperative period significantly reduced anxiety and separation anxiety. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Distracting the mind improves performance : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, S.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, N.A.; Martens, Sander

    2010-01-01

    Background: When a second target (T2) is presented in close succession of a first target (T1), people often fail to identify T2, a phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB). However, the AB can be reduced substantially when participants are distracted during the task, for instance by a

  4. Distraction Arthroplasty of the Trapeziometacarpal Joint Without Trapeziectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Weng Wong

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Our technique (distraction arthroplasty without trapeziectomy preserves bony and adjacent structures. It is easier and quicker than traditional arthroplasties. It serves as another effective and stable method of tendon reconstruction with a less invasive approach. A larger series is needed for further observation of validity of the procedure.

  5. Distraction and Facilitation--Two Faces of the Same Coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Nicole; Widmann, Andreas; Schroger, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected and task-irrelevant sounds can capture our attention and may cause distraction effects reflected by impaired performance in a primary task unrelated to the perturbing sound. The present auditory-visual oddball study examines the effect of the informational content of a sound on the performance in a visual discrimination task. The…

  6. Distraction osteogenesis in the irradiated mandible. A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Jansma, J; Vissink, A; Roodenburg, JLN

    Background: Distraction osteogenesis has been suggested as a relatively simple method of mandibular reconstruction following ablative head and neck surgery. Some authors report good results in irradiated patients while other authors report limitations with this group of patients. Patient: In a

  7. Validation of the Omron M6 (HEM-7001-E) upper arm blood pressure measuring device according to the International Protocol in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunkan, Sekip; Iliman, Nevzat; Altunkan, Erkan

    2008-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of automated self-measurement monitors, there is limited published evidence on their accuracy and reliability on different patient groups. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the Omron M6 (HEM-7001-E) upper-arm blood pressure (BP) device against mercury sphygmomanometer on elderly patients according to the criteria of the International Protocol. Thirty-three patients above 65 years of age, who were classified based on the BP categories of the International Protocol, were recruited for the study. BP measurements at the upper arm with the Omron M6 were compared with the results obtained by two trained observers using a mercury sphygmomanometer. Nine sequential BP measurements were taken. During the validation study, 99 measurements were obtained from 33 patients for comparison. The first phase was carried out on 15 patients and if the device passed this phase, 18 more patients were selected. Mean discrepancies and standard deviations of the device sphygmomanometer were 1.4+/-5.3 mmHg for systolic BP (SBP) and -1.4+/-4.5 mmHg for diastolic BP (DBP) in the study group. The device passed phase 1 in 15 patients. In phase 2.1, from the total 99 comparisons, 76, 92, and 97 for SBP and 77, 94, and 99 for DBP were less than 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively. The Omron M6 passed phases 2.1 and 2.2 in the elderly group of patients. The Omron M6 (HEM-7001-E) upper-arm BP monitor passed according to the International Protocol criteria and can be recommended for use in elderly patients.

  8. Validation of the A&D UM-211 device for office blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fania, Claudio; Albertini, Federica; Palatini, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to define the accuracy of UM-211, an automated oscillometric device for office use coupled to several cuffs for different arm sizes, according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. The validation was performed in 33 individuals. Their mean age was 59.6±12.9 years, systolic blood pressure (BP) was 144.3±21.5 mmHg (range: 96-184 mmHg), diastolic BP was 86.8±18.5 mmHg (range: 48-124 mmHg), and arm circumference was 30.2±4.3 cm (range: 23-39 cm). Four sequential readings were taken by observers 1 and 2 using a double-headed stethoscope and a mercury sphygmomanometer, whereas three BP readings were taken by the supervisor using the test instrument. The differences between the readings provided by the device and the mean observer measurements were calculated. Therefore, each device measurement was compared with the previous and the next mean observer measurement. The validation results fulfilled all the 2010 European Society of Hypertension revision Protocol criteria for the general population and passed all validation grades. On average, the device overestimated systolic BP by 1.7±2.4 mmHg and diastolic BP by 1.7±2.5 mmHg. These data show that the UM-211 device coupled to several cuffs for different ranges of arm circumference met the requirements for validation according to the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population. However, these results mainly apply to the use of the 22-32 and the 31-45 cm cuffs.

  9. Distraction induced enterogenesis: a unique mouse model using polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawada, Manabu; Maria, Haytham Mustafa; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the small intestine can be lengthened by applying mechanical forces to the bowel lumen-distraction-induced enterogenesis. However, the mechanisms which account for this growth are unknown, and might be best examined using a mouse model. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of developing distractive-induced small bowel growth in mouse. Twelve-week old C57BL/6J mice had a jejunal segment taken out of continuity, and distended with polyethylene glycol (PEG: 3350 KDa); this group was compared with a control group without stretching. Segment length and diameter were measured intra-operatively and after 5 d. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscle thickness in the isolated segment were assessed. Rate of epithelial cell proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine: BrdU incorporation) in crypts were also examined. The mucosal mRNA expression of targeted factors was performed to investigate potential mechanisms which might lead to distraction-induced enterogenesis. At harvest, the PEG-stretched group showed a significant increase in length and diameter versus controls. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscular layer thickness increased in the PEG group. The PEG group also showed significantly increased rates of epithelial cell proliferation versus controls. Real-time PCR showed a trend toward higher β-catenin and c-myc mRNA expression in the PEG-stretched group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Radial distraction-induced enterogenesis with PEG is a viable method for increasing small intestinal length and diameter. This model may provide a new method for studying the mechanisms leading to distraction-induced enterogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of various distracting stimuli on spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Starc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protecting information from distraction is essential for optimal performance of working memory. We examined how the presence of distracting stimuli influences spatial working memory and compared the effect of both task-similar and negatively emotionally salient distractors. We checked the effect of distractors on the accuracy of high-resolution representations, as well as the maintenance of spatial categories, and more precisely defined not only the existence but also the direction of the distracting influences (towards or away from the position of the distractor. Participants (n = 25, 8 men, 19–31 years old were asked to remember the exact position of a target scrambled image and recall it with a joystick after a delay. In some trials an additional distracting image (scrambled, neutral or negative was shown during the delay. We measured the spread of responses (standard deviation of angular error and shifts of the average response towards the prototype angles (45° or towards the position of distractors. Distracting stimuli did not affect the spread of responses and decreased the tendency of participants to move the responses towards the prototype angle. Different types of distractors did not differ in this effect. Contrary to expectations, the participants moved their responses away from the position of distractors; this effect was more pronounced for negative distractors. In addition to memorizing the exact position and maintaining attention on the position of the stimulus, participants are likely to strategically use information about spatial category membership (quadrants and information about the position of the distractor. The repulsive effect of the distractor likely results from inhibition of its position and indicates the need to supplement computational models of spatial working memory and to take into account different strategies of working memory use.

  11. Selective modulation of nociceptive processing due to noise distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Yvonne; El-Deredy, Wael; Martínez Montes, Eduardo; Bentley, Deborah E; Jones, Anthony K P

    2008-09-15

    This study investigates the effects of noise distraction on the different components and sources of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) whilst attending to either the spatial component (localisation performance task) or the affective component (unpleasantness rating task) of pain. LEPs elicited by CO2 laser stimulation of the right forearm were recorded from 64 electrodes in 18 consenting healthy volunteers. Subjects reported either pain location or unpleasantness, in the presence and absence of distraction by continuous 85 dBa white noise. Distributed sources of the LEP peaks were identified using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Pain unpleasantness ratings and P2 (430 ms) peak amplitude were significantly reduced by distraction during the unpleasantness task, whereas the localisation ability and the corresponding N1/N2 (310 ms) peak amplitude remained unchanged. Noise distraction (at 310 ms) reduced activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and precuneus during attention to localisation and unpleasantness, respectively. This suggests a complimentary role for these two areas in the control of attention to pain. In contrast, activation of the occipital pole and SII were enhanced by noise during the localisation and unpleasantness task, respectively, suggesting that the presence of noise was associated with increased spatial attentional load. This study has shown selective modulation of affective pain processing by noise distraction, indicated by a reduction in the unpleasantness ratings and P2 peak amplitude and associated activity within the medial pain system. These results show that processing of the affective component of pain can be differentially modulated by top-down processes, providing a potential mechanism for therapeutic intervention.

  12. Grunting's competitive advantage: Considerations of force and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Scott; Maglinti, Cj; Kingstone, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Grunting is pervasive in many athletic contests, and empirical evidence suggests that it may result in one exerting more physical force. It may also distract one's opponent. That grunts can distract was supported by a study showing that it led to an opponent being slower and more error prone when viewing tennis shots. An alternative explanation was that grunting masks the sound of a ball being hit. The present study provides evidence against this alternative explanation by testing the effect of grunting in a sport-mixed martial arts-where distraction, rather than masking, is the most likely mechanism. We first confirmed that kicking force is increased when a grunt is performed (Experiment 1), and then adapted methodology used in the tennis study to mixed martial arts (Experiment 2). Lifting the foot to kick is a silent act, and therefore there is nothing for a grunt to mask, i.e., its effect on an opponent's response time and/or accuracy can likely be attributed to attentional distraction. Participants viewed videos of a trained mixed martial artist kicking that included, or did not include, a simulated grunt. The task was to determine as quickly as possible whether the kick was traveling upward or downward. Overall, and replicating the tennis finding, the present results indicate that a participant's response to a kick was delayed and more error prone when a simulated grunt was present. The present findings indicate that simulated grunting may distract an opponent, leading to slower and more error prone responses. The implications for martial arts in particular, and the broader question of whether grunting should be perceived as 'cheating' in sports, are examined.

  13. Validation of the Samsung SBM-100A and Microlife BP 3BU1-5 wrist blood pressure measuring devices in adults according to the International Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunkan, Sekip; Ilman, Nevzat; Altunkan, Erkan

    2007-04-01

    A variety of automatic blood measurement devices with diverse features have been introduced to the medical markets recently. Among these devices, models that measure at the wrist have become increasingly popular in self measurements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Samsung SBM-100A and Microlife BP 3BU1-5 wrist blood pressure devices against the mercury sphygmomanometer in adults according to the International Protocol criteria. Fifty-four patients over 30 years of age were studied and classified based on the International Protocol range. Blood pressure measurements at the wrist with the Samsung SBM-100A and Microlife BP 3BU1-5 were compared with the results obtained by two trained observers using a mercury sphygmomanometer. Nine sequential blood pressure measurements were taken. A total of 33 participants with randomly distributed arm circumferences were selected for both of the validation studies. During each validation study, 99 measurements were obtained for comparison from 33 participants. The first phase was performed on 15 participants and if the device passed this phase, 18 more participants were selected. Mean discrepancies and standard deviations of the device-sphygmomanometer were 0.9+/-9.2 and -2.7+/-9.3 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and -1.4+/-8.0 mmHg and 1.4+/-5.7 for diastolic blood pressure in the Samsung and Microlife study groups, respectively. The Samsung SBM-100A passed Phase 1 in 15 participants. Despite the fact that Microlife BP 3BU1-5 passed Phase 1 for diastolic pressure, it failed according to the systolic pressure criteria. Eighteen patients were added and Phase 2 was continued, in which Samsung SBM-100A failed to meet the criteria of Phases 2.1 and 2.2 for adults in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. It was found that the Microlife BP 3BU1-5 does not meet the criteria of either of Phases 2.1 and 2.2 for systolic blood pressure and Phase 2.2 for diastolic blood pressure. In this study, Samsung SBM

  14. Validation of the Omron M6 (HEM-7001-E) upper-arm blood pressure measuring device according to the International Protocol in adults and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunkan, Sekip; Ilman, Nevzat; Kayatürk, Nur; Altunkan, Erkan

    2007-08-01

    Electronic blood pressure (BP) measurement devices are the preferred choice of patients owing to their user-friendly nature; however, there is a requirement to investigate the accuracy and reliability of these devices. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the Omron M6 upper-arm BP device against the mercury sphygmomanometer in adults and obese adults according to the International Protocol criteria. One hundred and twenty-one patients, older than 30 years of age, were studied and classified on the basis of the range of the International Protocol. BP measurements at the upper arm with the Omron M6 were compared with the results obtained by two trained observers using a mercury sphygmomanometer. Nine sequential BP measurements were taken. A total of 33 participants were selected for each validation study. During the validation study, 99 measurements were performed on 33 participants for comparison. The first phase was performed on 15 participants, and if the device passed this phase, 18 more participants were selected. Having a two-fold purpose, this study was conducted on both adult and obese adult patients. Mean discrepancies and standard deviations of the monitor-mercury sphygmomanometer were 1.1+/-4.0 mmHg for systolic BP (SBP) and -0.5+/-3.5 mmHg for diastolic BP (DBP) in the adult group. The device passed phase 1 in 15 participants. In phase 2.1, out of a total of 99 comparisons, 88, 96, and 97 for SBP, and 88, 98, and 99 for DBP were M6 automatic monitor, which measures BP at the upper arm, produced results in accordance with the criteria of phases 2.1 and 2.2 in both SBP and DBP, when applied to adults and to obese adults. It was concluded that the Omron M6 device, which measures BP at the upper arm, was deemed to be in accordance with the International Protocol criteria and can be recommended for use by adults and obese adults.

  15. Calibration and validation of a model for simulating thermal and electric performance of an internal combustion engine-based micro-cogeneration device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, A.; Sibilio, S.

    2012-01-01

    The growing worldwide demand for more efficient and less polluting forms of energy production has led to a renewed interest in the use of micro-cogeneration technologies in the residential. Among the others technologies, internal combustion engine-based micro-cogeneration devices are a market-ready technology gaining an increasing appeal thanks to their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, low emissions, low noise and vibration. In order to explore and assess the feasibility of using internal combustion engine-based cogeneration systems in the residential sector, an accurate and practical simulation model that can be used to conduct sensitivity and what-if analyses is needed. A residential cogeneration device model has been developed within IEA/ECBCS Annex 42 and implemented into a number of building simulation programs. This model is potentially able to accurately predict the thermal and electrical outputs of the residential cogeneration devices, but it relies almost entirely on empirical data because the model specification uses experimental measurements contained within a performance map to represent the device specific performance characteristics coupled with thermally massive elements to characterize the device's dynamic thermal performance. At the Built Environment Control Laboratory of Seconda Università degli studi di Napoli, an AISIN SEIKI micro-cogeneration device based on natural gas fuelled reciprocating internal combustion engine is available. This unit has been intensively tested in order to calibrate and validate the Annex 42 model. This paper shows in detail the series of experiments conducted for the calibration activity and examines the validity of this model by contrasting simulation predictions to measurements derived by operating the system in electric load following control strategy. The statistical comparison was made both for the whole database and the segregated data by system mode operation. The good agreement found in the predictions of

  16. Divided attention reduces resistance to distraction at encoding but not retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jennifer C; Hasher, Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Older adults show implicit memory for previously seen distraction, an effect attributed to poor attentional control. It is unclear whether this effect results from lack of control over encoding during the distraction task, lack of retrieval constraint during the test task, or both. In the present study, we simulated poor distraction control in young adults using divided attention at encoding, at retrieval, at both times, or not at all. The encoding task was a 1-back task on pictures with distracting superimposed letter strings, some of which were words. The retrieval task was a word fragment completion task testing implicit memory for the distracting words. Attention was divided using an auditory odd digit detection task. Dividing attention at encoding, but not at retrieval, resulted in significant priming for distraction, which suggests that control over encoding processes is a primary determinant of distraction transfer in populations with low inhibitory control (e.g. older adults).

  17. Validation of the A&D UM-201 device for office blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol Revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fania, Claudio; Albertini, Federica; Palatini, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the A&D UM-201 device coupled to several cuffs for different arm sizes for office blood pressure (BP) measurement according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. Evaluation was carried out in 33 individuals. The mean age of the individuals was 59.3±13.2 years, systolic BP was 145.4±20.6 mmHg (range: 109-186 mmHg), diastolic BP was 87.3±18.0 mmHg (range: 50-124 mmHg), and arm circumference was 30.4±4.2 cm (range: 23-39 cm). The protocol requirements were followed precisely. The UM-201 monitor passed all requirements, fulfilling the standards of the protocol. On average, the device overestimated systolic BP by 3.0±2.1 mmHg and diastolic BP by 2.6±2.0 mmHg. These data show that the A&D UM-201 device coupled to several cuffs for different ranges of arm circumference fulfilled the requirements for validation by the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population.

  18. Effectiveness of audiovisual distraction in behavior modification during dental caries assessment and sealant placement in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; El Batawi, Hisham Yehia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) distraction in behavior modification during dental caries assessment and sealant placement in children with autism spectrum disorder. This study was conducted on 28 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, aged 6.5-9.8 years. Children underwent one introductory (desensitization) appointment and three treatment sessions. During the introductory session, children had the procedures explained to them, they watched a movie projected on a screen while oral screening and assessment of cooperation level were carried out. In treatment session I, oral examination, charting, and dental x-rays were undertaken, whereas the children watched movies with or without video eyewear. During treatment sessions II/III, dental prophylaxis was carried out on upper and lower jaws in addition to the application of dental sealants on the right upper and lower and the left upper and lower permanent molars, respectively, while the children were distracted by cartoon movies using video eyewear. Changes in pulse oximeter and heart rate were recorded every 5 min. Independent samples t -test was used to assess the significance of changes in pulse and O 2 saturation levels during each visit. International Caries Detection and Assessment System-code 2 was found to be the most prevalent ( n = 58; 52%). A significant difference ( P behavior in the subjects. Video eyewear distraction proved an effective tool in managing children with autism spectrum disorder during noninvasive preventive dental procedures.

  19. Evaluating Robotic Surgical Skills Performance Under Distractive Environment Using Objective and Subjective Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Irene H; LaGrange, Chad A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2016-02-01

    Distractions are recognized as a significant factor affecting performance in safety critical domains. Although operating rooms are generally full of distractions, the effect of distractions on robot-assisted surgical (RAS) performance is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of distractions on RAS performance using both objective and subjective measures. Fifteen participants performed a knot-tying task using the da Vinci Surgical System and were exposed to 3 distractions: (1) passive distraction entailed listening to noise with a constant heart rate, (2) active distraction included listening to noise and acknowledging a change of random heart rate from 60 to 120 bpm, and (3) interactive distraction consisted of answering math questions. The objective kinematics of the surgical instrument tips were used to evaluate performance. Electromyography (EMG) of the forearm and hand muscles of the participants were collected. The median EMG frequency (EMG(fmed)) and the EMG envelope (EMG(env)) were analyzed. NASA Task Load Index and Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery score were used to evaluate the subjective performance. One-way repeated analysis of variance was applied to examine the effects of distraction on skills performance. Spearman's correlations were conducted to compare objective and subjective measures. Significant distraction effect was found for all objective kinematics measures (P < .05). There were significant distraction effects for EMG measures (EMG(env), P < .004; EMG(fmed), P = .031). Significant distraction effects were also found for subjective measurements. Distraction impairs surgical skills performance and increases muscle work. Understanding how the surgeons cope with distractions is important in developing surgical education. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Versatile microfluidic total internal reflection (TIR)-based devices: application to microbeads velocity measurement and single molecule detection with upright and inverted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Yokokawa, Ryuji; Dao, Dzung Viet; Nguyen, Thien Duy; Wells, John C; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2009-01-21

    A poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chip for Total Internal Reflection (TIR)-based imaging and detection has been developed using Si bulk micromachining and PDMS casting. In this paper, we report the applications of the chip on both inverted and upright fluorescent microscopes and confirm that two types of sample delivery platforms, PDMS microchannel and glass microchannel, can be easily integrated depending on the magnification of an objective lens needed to visualize a sample. Although any device configuration can be achievable, here we performed two experiments to demonstrate the versatility of the microfluidic TIR-based devices. The first experiment was velocity measurement of Nile red microbeads with nominal diameter of 500 nm in a pressure-driven flow. The time-sequenced fluorescent images of microbeads, illuminated by an evanescent field, were cross-correlated by a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) program to obtain near-wall velocity field of the microbeads at various flow rates from 500 nl/min to 3000 nl/min. We then evaluated the capabilities of the device for Single Molecule Detection (SMD) of fluorescently labeled DNA molecules from 30 bp to 48.5 kbp and confirm that DNA molecules as short as 1105 bp were detectable. Our versatile, integrated device could provide low-cost and fast accessibility to Total Internal Reflection Fluorescent Microscopy (TIRFM) on both conventional upright and inverted microscopes. It could also be a useful component in a Micro-Total Analysis System (micro-TAS) to analyze nanoparticles or biomolecules near-wall transport or motion.

  1. International Workshop on Ion Beam Modification and Processing of High Tc- Superconductors: Physics and Devices: Program and Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-12

    that a train levitated by superconductivity magnets will be used routinely in Japan around the end of the century. All this has been achieved without...study of the effect of irradiation temperature on radiation damage. This study demonstrated that films or devices operating at liquid nitrogen ...April 1989 us Allpy R. i A- Ua NY 5510 1"~l HARWELL UK ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITY ION BEAM MODIFICATION AND PROCESSING IN HIGH-T, SUPERCONDUCTORS: PHYSICS

  2. Internal bone transport using a cannulated screw as a mounting device in the treatment of a post-infective ulnar defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitskaris, Konstantinos; Havard, Heledd; Bijlsma, Paulien; Hill, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    Bone transport techniques can be used to address the segmental bone loss occurring after debridement for infection. Secure fixation of the bone transport construct to the bone transport segment can be challenging, particularly if the bone is small and osteopenic. We report a case of a segmental ulnar bone defect in a young child treated with internal bone transport using a cannulated screw as the mounting device. We found this technique particularly useful in the treatment of bone loss secondary to infection, where previous treatment and prolonged immobilisation had led to osteopenia. This technique has not been previously reported.

  3. Vertical periodontal ligament distraction--a new method for aligning ankylosed and displaced canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Benedict; Drescher, Dieter

    2009-05-01

    In the course of a clinical pilot study we tested the vertical periodontal ligament (V-PDL) distraction as a means of aligning ankylosed upper canines. The objective of this study was to analyze the appropriateness und effectiveness of this method. The ankylosed upper canines of five female patients aged between 16 und 19 years were surgically exposed, luxated, and after a latency period of 5 to 7 days, distracted at a rate of 0.5 mm per day. The installed distractors were borne by the periodontal-mucosa, the periodontal-mucosa and the bone, or by the bone exclusively. We evaluated the distraction distance and time and degree of hard and soft tissue generation present in the region surrounding the distracted teeth. All canines were aligned after a mean distraction period of 43.2 days (+/- 3.6 days). The mean distraction distance was 10.8 mm. Three canines had defects at the cemento-enamel junction, and one canine had to be extracted due to a large defect at the root. Vertical PDL distraction is a minimally-invasive therapy to align ankylosed impacted canines. Even if the long-term prognosis of distracted canines with defects is uncertain, the patient benefits from the vertical PDL distraction because both hard and soft tissues are generated in the vicinity of the distracted canine.

  4. Attention and working memory in elderly: the influence of a distracting environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro F S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

    2015-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of a distracting environment in the performance of attentional and working memory (WM) tasks in elderly participants. To this end, forty elderly performed two attentional tasks (simple reaction time and go/no-go tasks), and three WM tasks (arithmetic, memory for digits and sequences of letters and numbers). Each participant performed the tasks in a distracting and a non-distracting environment, with an interval of 14-21 days between sessions. The results revealed better performance in the attentional tasks when these were done in the non-distracting environment, as compared to when they were done in the distracting environment. Specifically, participants provided more accurate responses, fewer false alarms and omissions when responding in the non-distracting environment than when responding in the distracting environment. Participants were also faster at providing correct responses in the go/no-go task when it was performed in the non-distracting environment. As for the memory tasks, the effect of type of environment was significant only in the memory for digits in a forward direction task. Our data suggest the need to consider the potential damaging consequences of distracting environments when the elderly have to perform tasks that demand their attention. Specific examples of such situations are presented in the discussion (e.g., distracting effect of environment on medical and on psychological evaluations).

  5. Normalizing memory recall in fibromyalgia with rehearsal: a distraction-counteracting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Frank; Katz, Robert S

    2009-06-15

    To examine the impact of distraction on the retention of rehearsed information in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Data refer to the neurocognitive examination of 134 patients (91 with FMS and 43 control subjects) presenting with memory loss. Four neurocognitive measures free of distraction, along with 2 measures with added distraction, were completed. Differences in the retention of rehearsed and unrehearsed information with a source of distraction present were calculated. Patients with FMS showed normal cognitive functioning on verbal memory tests free of distraction. Adding a source of distraction caused unrefreshed information to be lost at a disproportionate rate in patients with FMS. Over 87% of patients with FMS scored in the impaired range on a task of unrehearsed verbal memory. Adding a source of distraction to well-rehearsed information produced a normal rate of recall in FMS. Rehearsal mechanisms are intact in patients with FMS and play beneficial roles in managing interference from a source of distraction. In the absence of rehearsal, a source of distraction added to unrefreshed information signals a remarkable level of cognitive deficit in FMS that goes undetected by conventionally relied-upon neurocognitive measures. We present a theory to promote understanding of the cognitive deficit of people with FMS based on reduced speed of lexical activation and poor recall after distraction.

  6. Prediction of the maximum dosage to man from the fallout of nuclear devices V. Estimation of the maximum dose from internal emitters in aquatic food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamplin, A.R.; Fisher, H.L.; Chapman, W.H.

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for estimating the maximum internal dose that could result from the radionuclides released to an aquatic environment. By means of this analysis one can identify the nuclides that could contribute most to the internal dose, and determine the contribution of each nuclide to the total dose. The calculations required to estimate the maximum dose to an infant's bone subsequent to the construction of a sea-level canal are presented to illustrate the overall method. The results are shown to serve the basic aims of preshot rad-safe analysis and of guidance for postshot documentation. The usefulness of the analysis in providing guidance for device design is further pointed out. (author)

  7. Relationship of distraction rate with inferior alveolar nerve degeneration-regeneration shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hua Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is an important technique for the treatment of maxillofacial abnormities and defects. However, distraction osteogenesis may cause the injury of the inferior alveolar nerve. The relationship between distraction rate and nerve degeneration-regeneration shift remains poorly understood. In this study, 24 rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. To establish the rabbit mandibular distraction osteogenesis model, the mandibles of rabbits in distraction osteogenesis groups were subjected to continuous osteogenesis distraction at a rate of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm/d, respectively, by controlling rounds of screwing each day in the distractors. In the sham group, mandible osteotomy was performed without distraction. Pin-prick test with a 10 g blunt pin on the labium, histological and histomorphometric analyses with methylene blue staining, Bodian's silver staining, transmission electron microscopy and myelinated fiber density of inferior alveolar nerve cross-sections were performed to assess inferior alveolar nerve conditions. At 28 days after model establishment, in the pin-prick test, the inferior alveolar nerve showed no response in the labium to a pin pricks in the 2 mm/d group, indicating a severe dysfunction. Histological and histomorphometric analyses indicated that the inferior alveolar nerve suffered more degeneration and injuries at a high distraction rate (2 mm/d. Importantly, the nerve regeneration, indicated by newborn Schwann cells and axons, was more abundant in 1.0 and 1.5 mm/d groups than in 2.0 mm/d group. We concluded that the distraction rate was strongly associated with the inferior alveolar nerve function, and the distraction rates of 1.0 and 1.5 mm/d had regenerative effects on the inferior alveolar nerve. This study provides an experimental basis for the relationship between distraction rate and nerve degeneration-regeneration shift during distraction osteogenesis, and may facilitate reducing nerve

  8. Executive and Perceptual Distraction in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The contents of visual working memory are likely to reflect the influence of both executive control resources and information present in the environment. We investigated whether executive attention is critical in the ability to exclude unwanted stimuli by introducing concurrent potentially distracting irrelevant items to a visual working memory paradigm, and manipulating executive load using simple or more demanding secondary verbal tasks. Across 7 experiments varying in presentation format, timing, stimulus set, and distractor number, we observed clear disruptive effects of executive load and visual distraction, but relatively minimal evidence supporting an interactive relationship between these factors. These findings are in line with recent evidence using delay-based interference, and suggest that different forms of attentional selection operate relatively independently in visual working memory. PMID:28414499

  9. Executive and perceptual distraction in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J

    2017-09-01

    The contents of visual working memory are likely to reflect the influence of both executive control resources and information present in the environment. We investigated whether executive attention is critical in the ability to exclude unwanted stimuli by introducing concurrent potentially distracting irrelevant items to a visual working memory paradigm, and manipulating executive load using simple or more demanding secondary verbal tasks. Across 7 experiments varying in presentation format, timing, stimulus set, and distractor number, we observed clear disruptive effects of executive load and visual distraction, but relatively minimal evidence supporting an interactive relationship between these factors. These findings are in line with recent evidence using delay-based interference, and suggest that different forms of attentional selection operate relatively independently in visual working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Interference from previous distraction disrupts older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, Renée K; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2013-07-01

    Previously relevant information can disrupt the ability of older adults to remember new information. Here, the researchers examined whether prior irrelevant information, or distraction, can also interfere with older adults' memory for new information. Younger and older adults first completed a 1-back task on pictures that were superimposed with distracting words. After a delay, participants learned picture-word paired associates and memory was tested using picture-cued recall. In 1 condition (high interference), some pairs included pictures from the 1-back task now paired with new words. In a low-interference condition, the transfer list used all new items. Older adults had substantially lower cued-recall performance in the high- compared with the low-interference condition. In contrast, younger adults' performance did not vary across conditions. These findings suggest that even never-relevant information from the past can disrupt older adults' memory for new associations.

  11. Rate of retraction of anterior teeth after canine distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litesh Singla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Orthodontists have always strived to develop a new technique to reduce the treatment time with minimal patient cooperation. Canine distraction was introduced as an alternative technique for canine retraction in a minimum possible period of 3 weeks, thus avoiding taxing the anchorage by molars since the canines are retracted within the lag phase of molars. It has been proved by numerous studies that the bone mesial to canine after rapid canine distraction through the extraction socket is a new and immature. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rate of retraction of anterior teeth, the time taken, and anchorage loss during the retraction of anterior teeth into this newly organized bone. Methods: Six orthodontic patients who required first premolar extractions were selected. Undermining of the interseptal bone distal to the canine was done, and canines were retracted into the extraction space of the first premolar, using a custom-made tooth borne intraoral distraction screw, following which the incisors were retracted into the newly formed bone using closing loops. The patients were called at weekly intervals to measure the amount of space left between canine and lateral incisor, and the rate of retraction was calculated after space was closed. Results: The present study showed that the rate of retraction of mandibular and maxillary teeth was 0.74 ± 0.39 mm and 0.73 ± 0.15 mm/week, respectively. The anchorage loss was found to be 1.83 ± 0.29 mm and 2.08 ± 0.38 mm in mandibular and maxillary arches, respectively. The time taken to retract the incisors was found to be 40.3 ± 1.5 and 41.7 ± 0.6 days for mandibular and maxillary arches, respectively. Interpretation and Conclusion: Retraction of incisors is faster in both maxillary and mandibular arches when the incisors are retracted immediately into the immature bone created after canine distraction.

  12. Le Fort I Maxillary Advancement Using Distraction Osteogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Combs, Patrick D.; Harshbarger, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of maxillary hypoplasia has traditionally involved conventional Le Fort I osteotomies and advancement. Advancements of greater than 10 mm risk significant relapse. This risk is greater in the cleft lip and palate population, whose anatomy and soft tissue scarring from prior procedures contributes to instability of conventional maxillary advancement. Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis has emerged as viable, stable treatment modality correction of severe maxillary hyp...

  13. Stability of orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis: options and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Bethany; Perciaccante, Vincent J; Cunningham, Larry L

    2007-08-01

    Relapse in orthognathic surgery is multifactorial and can be attributed to posttreatment growth, condylar changes, lack of rigid fixation, and muscle pull and function. Consideration of these factors can aide the surgeon in the decision-making process with regards to treatment options and alternatives. This article reviews the stability of various orthognathic movements using traditional osteotomies and fixation, and compares them to what is currently in the literature regarding distraction osteogenesis.

  14. Perception urbaine, distraction et stratification chez Benjamin, Eisenstein et Vertov

    OpenAIRE

    Rousse, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    La ville à l’écran est le substrat imaginaire et historique du cinéma. Mais le cinéma, burlesque et soviétique, transforme ce contexte tout en constituant sa mémoire. Walter Benjamin inaugura cette problématique avec la notion de « distraction », liant architecture et cinéma sur le fond du paradigme de la stratification de l’appareil psychique chez Freud.

  15. Complications associated with distraction plate fixation of wrist fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, Douglas P; Ruhlman, Scott David; Katolik, Leo I; Allan, Christopher H

    2010-05-01

    This article discusses the major and minor complications of distal plating in the light of a cohort study carried out by the authors, who reviewed all patients undergoing bridge distraction plate fixation of distal radius fractures by three surgeons in a single level I trauma center. The article discusses the effectiveness and the complication rates associated with the technique. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Taming Distraction: The Second Screen Assemblage, Television and the Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Stauff, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that television's resilience in the current media landscape can best be understood by analyzing its role in a broader quest to organize attention across different media. For quite a while, the mobile phone was considered to be a disturbance both for watching television and for classroom teaching. In recent years, however, strategies have been developed to turn the second screen's distractive potential into a source for intensified, personalized and social attention. This h...

  17. A balancing act: a phenomenological exploration of medical students' experiences of using mobile devices in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid-Doubell, F; Mohamed, S; Elmusharaf, K; O'Neill, C S

    2016-05-03

    The aims of this study were to describe the experiences of senior students using mobile devices in a clinical setting while learning and interacting with clinical teachers, patients and each other, and to identify challenges that facilitated or impeded the use of such devices in the hospital. Interpretative phenomenology was chosen to guide our enquiry. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to examine the experiences of five senior medical students using mobile devices in the clinical setting. Senior medical students at an international medical school in the Middle East. Three main themes emerged from the data analysis: learning; professional identity and transitioning from student to doctor. The findings showed that using mobile devices in the clinical area as a learning tool was not a formalised process. Rather, it was opportunistic learning at the bedside and on occasion a source of distraction from clinical teaching. Students needed to negotiate relationships between themselves, the clinical teacher and patients in order to ensure that they maintained an acceptable professional image. Participants experienced and negotiated the change from student to doctor making them mindful of using their devices at the bedside. Mobile devices are part of daily life for a medical student and there is a need to adapt medical education in the clinical setting, to allow the students to use their devices in a sensitive manner. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Emerson, Jamie L; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y; Anderson, Steven W; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and to predict older drivers performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. A total of 203 drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years and older) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40 to 64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than did middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers.Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors, and executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older drivers' management of driving tasks at multiple levels and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers.

  19. Visual attention in violent offenders: Susceptibility to distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotboom, Jantine; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bouman, Yvonne H A; In 't Hout, Willem; Sergiou, Carmen; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention. We expected offenders to have impaired visual attention, as revealed by increased attentional capture, compared to healthy controls. When comparing the performance of 62 offenders to 69 healthy community controls, we found our hypothesis to be partly confirmed. Offenders were more accurate overall, more accurate in the absence of distracting information, suggesting superior attention. In the presence of distracting information offenders were significantly less accurate compared to when no distracting information was present. Together, these findings indicate that violent offenders may have superior attention, yet worse control over attention. As such, violent offenders may have trouble adjusting to unexpected, irrelevant stimuli, which may relate to failures in self-regulation and inhibitory control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-modal distraction: insights from children's limited attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusz, Pawel J; Broadbent, Hannah; Ferrari, Jessica; Forrest, Benjamin; Merkley, Rebecca; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-03-01

    How does the multi-sensory nature of stimuli influence information processing? Cognitive systems with limited selective attention can elucidate these processes. Six-year-olds, 11-year-olds and 20-year-olds engaged in a visual search task that required them to detect a pre-defined coloured shape under conditions of low or high visual perceptual load. On each trial, a peripheral distractor that could be either compatible or incompatible with the current target colour was presented either visually, auditorily or audiovisually. Unlike unimodal distractors, audiovisual distractors elicited reliable compatibility effects across the two levels of load in adults and in the older children, but high visual load significantly reduced distraction for all children, especially the youngest participants. This study provides the first demonstration that multi-sensory distraction has powerful effects on selective attention: Adults and older children alike allocate attention to potentially relevant information across multiple senses. However, poorer attentional resources can, paradoxically, shield the youngest children from the deleterious effects of multi-sensory distraction. Furthermore, we highlight how developmental research can enrich the understanding of distinct mechanisms controlling adult selective attention in multi-sensory environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Videogame distraction using virtual reality technology for children experiencing cold pressor pain: the role of cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily F; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Sil, Soumitri; Weiss, Karen E; Herbert, Linda Jones; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan Berrin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether increasing the demand for central cognitive processing involved in a distraction task, by involving the child in ongoing, effortful interaction with the distraction stimulus, would increase children's tolerance for cold pressor pain. Seventy-nine children ages 6-15 years underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which they received interactive distraction (i.e., used voice commands to play a videogame) or passive distraction (in which they merely watched the output from the same videogame segment) in counterbalanced order. Both distraction conditions were presented via a virtual reality-type helmet. As expected, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during distraction relative to baseline. Children showed the greatest improvement during the interactive distraction task. The effects of distraction on children's cold pressor pain tolerance are significantly enhanced when the distraction task also includes greater demands for central cognitive processing.

  2. Interactive versus passive distraction for acute pain management in young children: the role of selective attention and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlheiter, Karen A; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2013-03-01

    To examine whether age and developmental differences in selective attention influence young children's differential responses to interactive and passive distraction. 65 3- to 6-year-old children underwent three cold-pressor trials while receiving no intervention, playing a video game (interactive distraction), or watching a video game (passive distraction). In addition, children completed a test of selective attention, and parents completed ratings of attention. Consistent with neurocognitive models of pain, children benefited more from interactive distraction than from passive distraction. Although older children demonstrated superior pain tolerance overall, age and selective attention skills did not moderate children's responses to the distraction intervention. These findings suggest that younger preschoolers can benefit from interactive distraction to manage acute pain, provided that the distraction activity is developmentally appropriate. Research is needed to determine whether developmental issues are more important moderators of children's responses to distraction when faced with more challenging task demands.

  3. Transverse maxillary distraction with a bone-anchored appliance: dento-periodontal effects and clinical and radiological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramieri, G A; Spada, M C; Austa, M; Bianchi, S D; Berrone, S

    2005-06-01

    In 29 adult patients presenting with maxillary deficiency, a bone-anchored palatal distractor (Surgi-Tec NV, Brugge, Belgium) was applied after osteotomy of the anterolateral walls of the maxillary sinuses, midpalatal suture, and, eventually, separation of the pterygomaxillary sutures. Expansion proceeded at a rate of 0.33-0.66 mm per day and the device was retained for 4-6 months for consolidation. Active orthodontic therapy was started after 8-10 weeks. The increment of arch width and the perimeter were evaluated using dental casts. Tooth thermal sensitivity and the periodontal side effects of treatment were monitored clinically after distraction, at device removal, and after 1 year. Bone healing was also investigated during the procedure using conventional radiological techniques. This experience confirms that transverse maxillary distraction is an effective technique in adult patients, leading to the formation of new bone. There were no noticeable intraoperative complications, but postsurgical periodontal side effects were documented. The procedure offers advantages over traditional teeth-borne appliances in terms of rapidity of treatment and the absence of mechanical forces acting on the teeth. Further evaluation is required to assess the long-term stability and periodontal consequences of this technique.

  4. Maxillary Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis to Correct Maxillary Deficiencies in a Patient With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama-Iwata, Asuka; Haraguchi, Seiji; Iida, Seiji; Aikawa, Tomonao; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    This report describes a case of successful orthodontic treatment using maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis with an internal maxillary distractor and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy in a girl with cleft lip and palate. A 16-year-old girl with unilateral cleft lip and palate exhibited midface retrusion because of growth inhibition of the maxillary complex and mandibular excess. After the presurgical orthodontic treatment, 6.0-mm advancement of the maxillary anterior segment and 4.0-mm set back of the mandible were performed. After a retention period, the patient's midface convexity was greatly improved and the velopharyngeal competence was preserved without relapse.

  5. Comparison of estrus synchronization by controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) and adhesive transdermal progestin patch in postpartum beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaysri, Jatuporn; Chumchoung, Chaiwat; Wutthiwitthayaphong, Supphathat; Suthikrai, Wanvipa; Sangkamanee, Praphai

    2017-09-15

    Estrous synchronization with progesterone based protocols has been essentially used in cattle industry. Although intravaginal devices have been commonly used, this technique may induce vaginitis. This study aimed at examining the efficiency of novel transdermal progestin patch on follicle development and comparing the progestin patch versus CIDR device on estrous synchronization, complication at treated site and pregnancy in beef cattle. In experiment 1, seven beef cows were treated with an adhesive transdermal progestin patch on the ventral surface of the proximal part of the tail for 7 days. The cows were daily examined the follicular development using ultrasonography starting on Day 0 till 3 days after hormone removal. Experiment 2, forty beef cows were divided into two equal groups (20 cows per group). The cows randomly allocated to received either vaginal insertion of CIDR (n = 20) or treated with an adhesive transdermal progestin patch (n = 20). The levels of plasma progesterone during the experiment and the numbers of standing estrous cows were recorded. Timed artificial inseminated (TAI) was performed at 60 h after CIDR or patch termination. Pregnancy rates were determined at 60 days after TAI. Experiment 1 revealed that the novel transdermal progestin patch could efficiently control follicular growth. All the seven treated cows had dominant follicle upon dermal patch removal indicating the effectiveness of the progestin patch. In experiment 2, the percentages of cows exhibited standing estrus were similar between transdermal patch (72.22%) and CIDR (70.00%). The levels of plasma progesterone during CIDR treatment were significantly higher (4.06 ± 1.65 ng/mL on Day 1 and 3.62 ± 1.60 ng/mL on Day 7) compared with transdermal patch (2.60 ± 1.43 ng/mL on Day 1 and 1.81 ± 1.57 ng/mL on Day 7). Three cows treated with CIDR (15%) developed vaginitis while none of cows had physically dermal reaction at adhesive site. Cows synchronized with

  6. 75 FR 16391 - Limiting the Use of Wireless Communication Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the purpose of snow/ice removal; and persons operating a CMV for emergency response activities (all of... of the FRA's Emergency Order No. 26 regarding restricting distracting electronic devices (see... length of a football field, including the end zones, without looking at the roadway. At 65 mph (or 95.3...

  7. 75 FR 59118 - Limiting the Use of Wireless Communication Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... the purpose of snow/ice removal, and persons operating a CMV for emergency response activities (all of... Emergency Order No. 26 regarding restricting distracting electronic devices (see discussion below in Part E...), this equates to a driver traveling 371 feet, the approximate length of a football field, including the...

  8. 77 FR 60720 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, imported by Apple Inc...

  9. 77 FR 70464 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, by reason...

  10. 78 FR 16865 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  11. Perception of alcohol strength impaired by low and high volume distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Lorenzo; Agobiani, E.; Fernandes, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research demonstrated impaired discrimination of alcohol strength under distracting conditions. The present study aimed to extend this by examining the effects of distraction volume on alcohol perception. In the study here (between subjects design, 34 females/20 males), participants completed standardized taste and olfactory tests, followed by a taste test of alcoholic beverages (0, 1.9, 3.9, 5.6 and 7.5pct abv) in a randomly allocated distractive or control condition [Control, Shadow ...

  12. Texting while driving: A study of 1211 U.S. adults with the Distracted Driving Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gliklich, Emily; Guo, Rong; Bergmark, Regan W.

    2016-01-01

    Texting and other cell-phone related distracted driving is estimated to account for thousands of motor vehicle collisions each year but studies examining the specific cell phone reading and writing activities of drivers are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of cell-phone related distracted driving behaviors. A national, representative, anonymous panel of 1211 United States drivers was recruited in 2015 to complete the Distracted Driving Survey (DDS), an 11-ite...

  13. Development of a Ground-Based Analog to the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nathaniel J.; Scott-Pandorf, M. M.; Caldwell, E.; DeWitt, J.K.; Fincke, R.; Peters, B.T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and Wyle engineers constructed a Horizontal Exercise Fixture (HEF) that was patented in 2006. Recently modifications were made to HEF with the goal of creating a device that mimics squat exercise on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and can be used by bed rest subjects who must remain supine during exercise. This project posed several engineering challenges, such as how best to reproduce the hip motions (we used a sled that allowed hip motion in the sagittal plane), how to counterweight the pelvis against gravity (we used a pulley and free-weight mechanism), and how to apply large loads (body weight plus squat load) to the shoulders while simultaneously supporting the back against gravity (we tested a standard and a safety bar that allowed movement in the subject s z-axis, both of which used a retractable plate for back support). METHODS An evaluation of the HEF was conducted with human subjects (3F, 3M), who performed sets of squat exercises of increasing load from 10-repetition maximum (RM) up to 1-RM. Three pelvic counterweight loads were tested along with each of the two back-support squat bars. Data collection included 3-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF), muscle activation (EMG), body motion (video-based motion capture), and subjective comments. These data were compared with previous ground-based ARED study data. RESULTS All subjects in the evaluation were able to perform low- to high-loading squats on the HEF. Four of the 6 subjects preferred a pelvic counterweight equivalent to 60 percent of their body weight. Four subjects preferred the standard squat bar, whereas 2 female subjects preferred the safety bar. EMG data showed muscle activation in the legs and low back typical of squat motion. GRF trajectories and eccentric-concentric loading ratios were similar to ARED. CONCLUSION: Squat exercise performed on HEF approximated squat exercise on ARED.

  14. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  15. Biomechanical stability of a supra-acetabular pedicle screw internal fixation device (INFIX) vs external fixation and plates for vertically unstable pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Esquivel, Amanda O; Jin, Xin; Yang, King H; Onwudiwe, Ndidi A; Vaidya, Rahul

    2012-09-27

    We have recently developed a subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation technique (INFIX). This internal fixator permits patients to sit, roll over in bed and lie on their sides without the cumbersome external appliances or their complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of this novel supraacetabular pedicle screw internal fixation construct (INFIX) and compare it to standard internal fixation and external fixation techniques in a single stance pelvic fracture model. Nine synthetic pelves with a simulated anterior posterior compression type III injury were placed into three groups (External Fixator, INFIX and Internal Fixation). Displacement, total axial stiffness, and the stiffness at the pubic symphysis and SI joint were calculated. Displacement and stiffness were compared by ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons The mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 20, 9 and 0.8 mm for external fixation, INFIX and internal fixation, respectively. Plate fixation was significantly stiffer than the INFIX and external Fixator (P = 0.01) at the symphysis pubis. The INFIX device was significantly stiffer than external fixation (P = 0.017) at the symphysis pubis. There was no significant difference in SI joint displacement between any of the groups. Anterior plate fixation is stiffer than both the INFIX and external fixation in single stance pelvic fracture model. The INFIX was stiffer than external fixation for both overall axial stiffness, and stiffness at the pubic symphysis. Combined with the presumed benefit of minimizing the complications associated with external fixation, the INFIX may be a more preferable option for temporary anterior pelvic fixation in situations where external fixation may have otherwise been used.

  16. Effect of maxillary distraction osteogenesis on velopharyngeal function: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Ishii, Yoshimasa; Ishii, Masatoshi; Imaizumi, Humiko; Mibu, Michiko; Omura, Ken

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine preoperative and postoperative changes of velopharyngeal function in cleft patients who underwent maxillary distraction osteogenesis using the Rigid External Distraction System. Six cleft patients followed for a minimum of 12 months after maxillary distraction were examined. Plain and contrast lateral-cephalograms were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively, and speech evaluation was performed by the same authorized speech therapist at the same time points. The mean distraction amount at the anterior nasal spine was 11.7 mm (range, 7.4 mm - 15.0 mm). Both the nasopharyngeal depth and velar length increased after maxillary distraction, but the need ratio (nasopharyngeal depth/velar length) also increased after distraction. Although scores for velopharyngeal closure dropped a few points after maxillary distraction, the rating for hypernasality remained unchanged in all patients but the patient whose distraction amount was 15.0 mm. These results suggest that maxillary distraction of less than 15 mm may not markedly affect velopharyngeal function in cleft patients.

  17. The role of alcohol use on recent trends in distracted driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Tibbits, Melissa K

    2013-11-01

    Distracted driving is now an increasingly deadly threat to road safety. We provide evidence that intoxicated driving is increasingly responsible for recent increases in fatalities from distracted driving crashes. This study describes trends in deaths on U.S. public roads caused by alcohol-involved and distracted drivers using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)-a census of fatal crashes on U.S. public roads. Fatality rates per vehicle-miles traveled are calculated using data from the Federal Highway Administration. Alcohol-involved drivers who are simultaneously distracted were responsible for 1750 deaths in 2009, an increase of more than 63% from 2005 when there were 1072 deaths. Alcohol use while driving is increasingly responsible for a growing number of fatalities from distracted driving, accounting for 32% of deaths from distracted driving in 2009 versus 24% in 2005. The fatality rate from these crashes increased from 35.9 to 59.2 deaths per 100 billion vehicle-miles traveled after 2005. Alcohol use is quickly increasing as an important factor behind distracted driving fatalities. This has implications for policies combating distracted driving that do not address the role of alcohol use in distracted driving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Benefits of Ilizarov automated bone distraction for nerves and articular cartilage in experimental leg lengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Shchudlo, Nathalia; Varsegova, Tatyana; Stupina, Tatyana; Shchudlo, Michael; Saifutdinov, Marat; Yemanov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine peculiarities of tissue responses to manual and automated Ilizarov bone distraction in nerves and articular cartilage. METHODS Twenty-nine dogs were divided in two experimental groups: Group M - leg lengthening with manual distraction (1 mm/d in 4 steps), Group A - automated distraction (1 mm/d in 60 steps) and intact group. Animals were euthanized at the end of distraction, at 30th day of fixation in apparatus and 30 d after the fixator removal. M-responses in gastrocnemius ...

  19. Validating a perceptual distraction model in a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user’s perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference, e.g., two competing audio sources within the same listening space. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music-on-music stimuli...... that the model performance is equally good in both zones, i.e., with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli, and comparable to the previous validation round (RMSE approximately 10%). The results further confirm that the distraction model can be used as a valuable tool in evaluating and optimizing...

  20. Preliminary design of the internal geometry in a minimally invasive left ventricular assist device under pulsatile-flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P Alex; Wang, Yaxin; Metcalfe, Ralph W; Sampaio, Luiz C; Timms, Daniel L; Cohn, William E; Frazier, O H

    2018-03-01

    A minimally invasive, partial-assist, intra-atrial blood pump has been proposed, which would unload the left ventricle with a flow path from the left atrium to the arterial system. Flow modulation is a common strategy for ensuring washout in the pump, but it can increase power consumption because it is typically achieved through motor-speed variation. However, if a pump's performance curve had the proper gradient, flow modulation could be realized passively. To achieve this goal, we propose a pump performance operating curve as an alternative to the more standard operating point. Mean-line theory was employed to generate an initial set of geometries that were then tested on a hydraulic test rig at ~20,000 r/min. Experimental results show that the intra-atrial blood pump performed below the operating region; however, it was determined that smaller hub diameter and longer chord length bring the performance of the intra-atrial blood pump device closer to the operating curve. We found that it is possible to shape the pump performance curve for specifically targeted gradients over the operating region through geometric variations inside the pump.

  1. Proactive, Preventive or Indifference? Reaction Modes of Faculty towards Use of Personal Mobile Devices in Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkosh-Baruch, Alona; Meishar-Tal, Hagit

    2016-01-01

    Students enter classes with mobile devices and use them for learning; however, these are also distracting devices. Some teacher educators display positive attitudes; others display negative attitudes, depending on their perception of the advantages and disadvantages of mobile technology for learning. This paper represents findings of a study that…

  2. Using Personal Portable Devices as Learning Tools in the English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Díaz, Luz Edith; Cruz Ramos, María de los Milagros; Sandoval Sánchez, Mario Alberto

    2014-01-01

    A group of university students used a variety of personal portable devices (cellphones, tablets, laptops, and netbooks) which distracted them in English class. This qualitative action research aimed to implement activities entailing the use of such devices and to learn their impact on students' learning and the use of English in class. Thus, a…

  3. [A new method of osteosynthesis in proximal humeral fractures: a new internal fixation device. Apropos of 17 cases followed over more than 2 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doursounian, L; Grimberg, J; Cazeau, C; Touzard, R C

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe a new internal fixation device, and report on 17 proximal humeral fractures managed with this technique. The fracture patterns, using Neer's classification were: 9 displaced three-part fractures, 4 displaced four-part fractures and 4 interior fracture dislocations (mean age of the patients: 70 years). The device is a two-part titanium device. The humeral component has a long vertical stem cemented in the humeral shaft; and a short proximal portion set at an angle of 135 degrees on the stem, with a neck and a Morse taper cone. The other part is a crown-shaped stapple, whose base is a perforated disk with a central Morse taper socket. The rim of the crown has five prongs which, together with the central socket, are impacted in the cancellous bone of the humeral head. The taper of the humeral component is inserted into the central socket of the stapple to provide fracture fixation. Tuberosities are reattached to the shaft with non absorbable sutures. Mean follow-up was 29 months. The global ratings were as follows: 4 excellent results, 6 good results, 4 fair results, 3 poor results. Mean active forward flexion: 100 degrees, and mean active external rotation 22 degrees. After exclusion of the 4 fracture-dislocations, the global rating became: 4 excellent results, 5 good results, 3 fair results, 1 poor result. Mean active forward flexion: 110 degrees and mean active external rotation: 31.5 degrees. There were no case of avascular necrosis in 13 patients. Complications requiring surgery occurred in one case: an upper protrusion of the stapple which required replacement of the stapple by a prosthetic humeral head. Other complications included: 2 asymptomatic partial protrusions of the stapple, 2 complete and two partial avascular necrosis in fracture-dislocations. Except for the fracture-dislocations our device confers several major benefits. The humeral head is preserved. Typical problems associated with joint replacement (dislocations, loosening

  4. Audiovisual distraction as a useful adjunct to epidural anesthesia and sedation for prolonged lower limb microvascular orthoplastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassoglou, Vassilis; Wallis, Anna; Galitzine, Svetlana

    2015-11-01

    Lower limb orthopedic operations are frequently performed under regional anesthesia, which allows avoidance of potential side effects and complications of general anesthesia and sedation. Often though, patients feel anxious about being awake during operations. To decrease intraoperative anxiety, we use multimedia equipment consisting of a tablet device, noise-canceling headphones, and a makeshift frame, where patients can listen to music, watch movies, or occupy themselves in numerous ways. These techniques have been extensively studies in minimally invasive, short, or minor procedures but not in prolonged orthoplastic operations. We report 2 cases where audiovisual distraction was successfully applied to 9.5-hour procedures, proved to be a very useful adjunct to epidural anesthesia + sedation, and made an important contribution to positive patients' outcomes and overall patients' experience with regional anesthesia for complex limb reconstructive surgery. In the era when not only patients' safety and clinical outcomes but also patients' positive experiences are of paramount importance, audiovisual distraction may provide a simple tool to help improve experience of appropriately informed patients undergoing suitable procedures under regional anesthesia. The anesthetic technique received a very positive appraisal by both patients and encouraged us to study further the impact of modern audiovisual technology on anxiolysis for major surgery under regional anesthesia. The duration of surgery per se is not a contraindication to the use of audiovisual distraction. The absolute proviso of successful application of this technique to major surgery is effective regional anesthesia and good teamwork between the clinicians and the patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Audiovisual distraction for pain relief in paediatric inpatients: A crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, N C A C; Santos, J L F; Linhares, M B M

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a stressful experience that can have a negative impact on child development. The aim of this crossover study was to examine the efficacy of audiovisual distraction for acute pain relief in paediatric inpatients. The sample comprised 40 inpatients (6-11 years) who underwent painful puncture procedures. The participants were randomized into two groups, and all children received the intervention and served as their own controls. Stress and pain-catastrophizing assessments were initially performed using the Child Stress Scale and Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children, with the aim of controlling these variables. The pain assessment was performed using a Visual Analog Scale and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised after the painful procedures. Group 1 received audiovisual distraction before and during the puncture procedure, which was performed again without intervention on another day. The procedure was reversed in Group 2. Audiovisual distraction used animated short films. A 2 × 2 × 2 analysis of variance for 2 × 2 crossover study was performed, with a 5% level of statistical significance. The two groups had similar baseline measures of stress and pain catastrophizing. A significant difference was found between periods with and without distraction in both groups, in which scores on both pain scales were lower during distraction compared with no intervention. The sequence of exposure to the distraction intervention in both groups and first versus second painful procedure during which the distraction was performed also significantly influenced the efficacy of the distraction intervention. Audiovisual distraction effectively reduced the intensity of pain perception in paediatric inpatients. The crossover study design provides a better understanding of the power effects of distraction for acute pain management. Audiovisual distraction was a powerful and effective non-pharmacological intervention for pain relief in paediatric inpatients. The effects were

  6. Device-associated infection rates, mortality, length of stay and bacterial resistance in intensive care units in Ecuador: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium’s findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado Yepez, Estuardo; Bovera, Maria M; Rosenthal, Victor D; González Flores, Hugo A; Pazmiño, Leonardo; Valencia, Francisco; Alquinga, Nelly; Ramirez, Vanessa; Jara, Edgar; Lascano, Miguel; Delgado, Veronica; Cevallos, Cristian; Santacruz, Gasdali; Pelaéz, Cristian; Zaruma, Celso; Barahona Pinto, Diego

    2017-01-01

    AIM To report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) study conducted in Quito, Ecuador. METHODS A device-associated healthcare-acquired infection (DA-HAI) prospective surveillance study conducted from October 2013 to January 2015 in 2 adult intensive care units (ICUs) from 2 hospitals using the United States Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and INICC methods. RESULTS We followed 776 ICU patients for 4818 bed-days. The central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rate was 6.5 per 1000 central line (CL)-days, the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate was 44.3 per 1000 mechanical ventilator (MV)-days, and the catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rate was 5.7 per 1000 urinary catheter (UC)-days. CLABSI and CAUTI rates in our ICUs were similar to INICC rates [4.9 (CLABSI) and 5.3 (CAUTI)] and higher than NHSN rates [0.8 (CLABSI) and 1.3 (CAUTI)] - although device use ratios for CL and UC were higher than INICC and CDC/NSHN’s ratios. By contrast, despite the VAP rate was higher than INICC (16.5) and NHSN’s rates (1.1), MV DUR was lower in our ICUs. Resistance of A. baumannii to imipenem and meropenem was 75.0%, and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam was higher than 72.7%, all them higher than CDC/NHSN rates. Excess length of stay was 7.4 d for patients with CLABSI, 4.8 for patients with VAP and 9.2 for patients CAUTI. Excess crude mortality in ICUs was 30.9% for CLABSI, 14.5% for VAP and 17.6% for CAUTI. CONCLUSION DA-HAI rates in our ICUs from Ecuador are higher than United States CDC/NSHN rates and similar to INICC international rates. PMID:28289522

  7. Validation of the blood pressure measurement device Erkameter 125 PRO according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beime, Beate; Deutsch, Cornelia; Krüger, Ralf; Zimmermann, Erik; Bramlage, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the blood pressure (BP) measurement device Erkameter 125 PRO according to the International Protocol revision 2010 of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP2). In 33 patients aged 32-79 years, BP measurements were performed alternately using the Erkameter 125 PRO and the reference mercury sphygmomanometer according to ESH-IP revision 2010. For the analysis, a total of 99 comparisons were included. All absolute differences between the test device and the reference were within 10 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP), and all except one for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). A total of 93 out of 99 comparisons for SBP showed an absolute difference within 5 mmHg and 92 out of 99 for DBP. The mean±SD difference between the Erkameter 125 PRO and the standard reference was -0.5±3.5 mmHg for SBP and 0.5±3.5 mmHg for DBP. As to part 2 of ESH-IP 2010, all patients had a minimum of two out of three measurements within 5 mmHg difference for SBP and 31 out of 33 patients for DBP. The Erkameter 125 PRO fulfilled the requirements of parts 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP revision 2010 and can be recommended for office BP measurements in adults.

  8. Italian chapter of the International Society of cardiovascular ultrasound expert consensus document on training requirements for noncardiologists using hand-carried ultrasound devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Francesco; Palmiero, Pasquale; Maiello, Maria; Losi, Maria-Angela

    2012-07-01

    Hand-carried ultrasound devices (HCDs), also named personal use echo, are pocket-size, compact, and battery-equipped echocardiographic systems. They have limited technical capabilities but offer some advantages compared with standard echocardiographic devices due to their simplicity of use, immediate availability at the patient's bedside, transportability, and relatively low cost. Current HCDs are considered as screening tools and are used to complement the physical examination by cardiologists. Many noncardiologic subspecialists, however, have adopted this technologic advancement rapidly raising the concern of an inappropriate use of HCD by health professionals who do not have any specific training. In keeping with the mission of the International Society of Cardiovascular Ultrasound to advance the science and art of cardiovascular ultrasound and encourage the knowledge of this subject, the purpose of this Expert Consensus document is to focus on the training for all health care professionals considering the use of HCD. Accordingly, this paper summarizes general aspects of HCD, such as technical characteristics and clinical indications, and then details the specific training requirements for noncardiologists (i.e., training program, minimum case load, duration, and certification of competence). © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Stability after Cleft Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis or Conventional Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kristian; Svenstrup, Martin; Pedersen, Thomas Klit; Küseler, Annelise; Jensen, John; Nørholt, Sven Erik

    2015-01-01

    To compare stability of maxillary advancements in patients with cleft lip and palate following distraction osteogenesis or orthognathic surgery. 1) cleft lip and palate, 2) advancement > 8 mm. Eleven patients comprised the distraction osteogenesis group (DOG). Seven patients comprised the orthognathic treatment group (CONVG). Skeletal and soft tissue points were traced on lateral cephalograms: T1 (preoperatively), T2 (after surgery), T3 (follow-up). Group differences were analyzed using Students t-test. At T1-T2, advancement of 6.98 mm (P = 0.002) was observed in DOG. Horizontal overjet increased 11.62 mm (P = 0.001). A point-nasion-B point (ANB) angle increased 8.82° (P = 0.001). Aesthetic plane to upper lip was reduced 5.44 mm (P = 0.017) and the naso-labial angle increased 16.6° (P = 0.001). Vertical overbite (VOB) increased 2.27 mm (P = 0.021). In T2-T3, no significant changes were observed in DOG. In T1-T2, horizontal overjet increased 8.45 mm (P = 0.02). The ANB angle, 9.33° (P = 0.009) in CONVG. At T2-T3, VOB increased, 2.35 mm (P = 0.046), and the ANB angle reduced, 3.83° (P = 0.003). In T2-T3, no parameters changed in CONVG. At follow-up (T3), VOB increased in CONVG compared with DOG, (P = 0.01). Vertical position of A point differed between the groups (P = 0.04). No significant intergroup differences between soft tissue parameters occurred. Distraction osteogenesis resulted in a stable position of the maxilla and movement upwards in vertical plane, however in case of orthognathic treatment sagittal relapse and a continued postoperatively downward movement was registered.

  10. Videogame playing as distraction technique in course of venipuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Minute

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: needle-related procedures (venipuncture, intravenous cannulation are the most common source of pain and distress for children. reducing needle related pain and anxiety could be important in order to prevent further distress, especially for children needing multiple hospital admissions. the aim of the present open randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of adding an active distraction strategy (videogame to eMlA premedication in needle-related pain in children. Methods: one-hundred and nine children (4 -10 years of age were prospectively recruited to enter in the study. ninety-seven were randomized in two groups: CC group (conventional care: eMlA only as control group and Ad group (active distraction: eMlA plus videogame as intervention group. outcome measures were: selfreported pain by mean of FPS-r scale (main study outcome, observer-reported pain by FlACC scale, number of attempts for successful procedure. Results: in both groups FPS-r median rate was 0 (interquartile range: 0-2, with significant pain (FPS-r>4 reported by 9% of subjects. FlACC median rate was 1 in both groups (interquartile range 0-3 in CC group; 0-2 in Ad group. the percentage of children with major pain (FlACC>4 was 18% in CC group and 9% in Ad group (p=0.2. the median of necessary attempts to succeed in the procedures was 1 (interquartile range 1-2 in both groups.. Conclusion: Active distraction doesn’t improve eMlA analgesia for iv cannulation and venipuncture. even though, it resulted in an easily applicable strategy appreciated by children. this technique could be usefully investigated in other painful procedures.

  11. Stability after Cleft Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis or Conventional Orthognathic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Andersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare stability of maxillary advancements in patients with cleft lip and palate following distraction osteogenesis or orthognathic surgery. Material and Methods: Inclusion criteria: 1 cleft lip and palate, 2 advancement > 8 mm. Eleven patients comprised the distraction osteogenesis group (DOG. Seven patients comprised the orthognathic treatment group (CONVG. Skeletal and soft tissue points were traced on lateral cephalograms: T1 (preoperatively, T2 (after surgery, T3 (follow-up. Group differences were analyzed using Students t-test. Results: At T1-T2, advancement of 6.98 mm (P = 0.002 was observed in DOG. Horizontal overjet increased 11.62 mm (P = 0.001. A point-nasion-B point (ANB angle increased 8.82° (P = 0.001. Aesthetic plane to upper lip was reduced 5.44 mm (P = 0.017 and the naso-labial angle increased 16.6° (P = 0.001. Vertical overbite (VOB increased 2.27 mm (P = 0.021. In T2-T3, no significant changes were observed in DOG. In T1-T2, horizontal overjet increased 8.45 mm (P = 0.02. The ANB angle, 9.33° (P = 0.009 in CONVG. At T2-T3, VOB increased, 2.35 mm (P = 0.046, and the ANB angle reduced, 3.83° (P = 0.003. In T2-T3, no parameters changed in CONVG. At follow-up (T3, VOB increased in CONVG compared with DOG, (P = 0.01. Vertical position of A point differed between the groups (P = 0.04. No significant intergroup differences between soft tissue parameters occurred. Conclusions: Distraction osteogenesis resulted in a stable position of the maxilla and movement upwards in vertical plane, however in case of orthognathic treatment sagittal relapse and a continued postoperatively downward movement was registered.

  12. Videogame playing as distraction technique in course of venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minute, M; Badina, L; Cont, G; Montico, M; Ronfani, L; Barbi, E; Ventura, A

    2012-01-01

    Needle-related procedures (venipuncture, intravenous cannulation) are the most common source of pain and distress for children. Reducing needle related pain and anxiety could be important in order to prevent further distress, especially for children needing multiple hospital admissions. The aim of the present open randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of adding an active distraction strategy (videogame) to EMLA premedication in needle-related pain in children. One-hundred and nine children (4 -10 years of age) were prospectively recruited to enter in the study. Ninety-seven were randomized in two groups: CC group (conventional care: EMLA only) as control group and AD group (active distraction: EMLA plus videogame) as intervention group. Outcome measures were: self-reported pain by mean of FPS-R scale (main study outcome), observer-reported pain by FLACC scale, number of attempts for successful procedure. In both groups FPS-R median rate was 0 (interquartile range: 0-2), with significant pain (FPS-R > 4) reported by 9% of subjects. FLACC median rate was 1 in both groups (interquartile range 0-3 in CC group; 0-2 in AD group). The percentage of children with major pain (FLACC > 4) was 18% in CC group and 9% in AD group (p = 0.2). The median of necessary attempts to succeed in the procedures was 1 (interquartile range 1-2) in both groups.. Active distraction doesn't improve EMLA analgesia for iv cannulation and venipuncture. Even though, it resulted in an easily applicable strategy appreciated by children. This technique could be usefully investigated in other painful procedures.

  13. Passive Sampling and Analysis of Naphthalene in Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust with Retracted SPME Device and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiba Baimatova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gases from internal combustion engines are the main source of urban air pollution. Quantification of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the exhaust gases is needed for emissions monitoring, enforcement, development, and testing of control technologies. The objective was to develop quantification of gaseous naphthalene in diesel engine exhaust based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME fiber coating and analysis on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Extraction of naphthalene with retracted fibers followed Fick’s law of diffusion. Extracted mass of naphthalene was proportional to Cg, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limit (p = 0.95 was 11.5 ppb (0.06 mg·m−3 at t = 9 h, Z = 10 mm and T = 40 °C, respectively. It was found that the % mass extracted of naphthalene by SPME needle assembly depended on the type of fiber. Storage time at different temperatures did not affect analyte losses extracted by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS 100 µm fiber. The developed method was tested on exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and tractor, and compared side-by-side with a direct injection of sampled exhaust gas method. Time-weighted average (TWA concentrations of naphthalene in exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and a tractor ranged from 0.08 to 0.3 mg·m−3 (15.3–53.7 ppb.

  14. Miniaturized Protein Microarray with Internal Calibration as Point-of-Care Device for Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvig Toth-Székély

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is still a leading cause of death among newborns. Therefore a protein-microarray for point-of-care testing that simultaneously quantifies the sepsis associated serum proteins IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF alpha, S-100, PCT, E-Selectin, CRP and Neopterin has been developed. The chip works with only a 4 µL patient serum sample and hence minimizes excessive blood withdrawal from newborns. The 4 µL patient samples are diluted with 36 µL assay buffer and distributed to four slides for repetitive measurements. Streptavidin coated magnetic particles that act as distinct stirring detection components are added, not only to stir the sample, but also to detect antibody antigen binding events. We demonstrate that the test is complete within 2.5 h using a single step assay. S-100 conjugated to BSA is spotted in increasing concentrations to create an internal calibration. The presented low volume protein-chip fulfills the requirements of point-of-care testing for accurate and repeatable (CV < 14% quantification of serum proteins for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

  15. Navigating our days in a culture of distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Horava

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade or so, librarians' working lives have been transformed by digitalcommunication and information technologies. This has created an environment wheredistraction has become a normative state. We need to be cognizant of the impacts ofdistraction on our effectiveness. As library professionals working with information for amultiplicity of purposes, how do we adapt in ways that respect our human limitations?What are the implications of working in a state of continual distraction, and whatstrategies can we use to minimize this reality? This article reviews some of our dailydistractions and draws associations from the literature in cognitive psychology andneuroscience to highlight the problems and raise potential solutions.

  16. [Technique and value of direct MR arthrography applying articular distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becce, Fabio; Wettstein, Michael; Guntern, Daniel; Mouhsine, Elyazid; Palhais, Nuno; Theumann, Nicolas

    2010-02-24

    Direct MR arthrography has a better diagnostic accuracy than MR imaging alone. However, contrast material is not always homogeneously distributed in the articular space. Lesions of cartilage surfaces or intra-articular soft tissues can thus be misdiagnosed. Concomitant application of axial traction during MR arthrography leads to articular distraction. This enables better distribution of contrast material in the joint and better delineation of intra-articular structures. Therefore, this technique improves detection of cartilage lesions. Moreover, the axial stress applied on articular structures may reveal lesions invisible on MR images without traction. Based on our clinical experience, we believe that this relatively unknown technique is promising and should be further developed.

  17. A Retrospective Study of Cleft lip and palate Patients' Satisfaction after Maxillary Distraction or Traditional Advancement of the Maxilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Küseler, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    A Retrospective Study of Cleft lip and palate Patients' Satisfaction after Maxillary Distraction or Traditional Advancement of the Maxilla......A Retrospective Study of Cleft lip and palate Patients' Satisfaction after Maxillary Distraction or Traditional Advancement of the Maxilla...

  18. Psychometrics of Multiple Choice Questions with Non-Functioning Distracters: Implications to Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Kishore K; Al-Umran, Khalid Umran; AI-Sheikh, Mona H; Dkoli, B V; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The functionality of distracters in a multiple choice question plays a very important role. We examined the frequency and impact of functioning and non-functioning distracters on psychometric properties of 5-option items in clinical disciplines. We analyzed item statistics of 1115 multiple choice questions from 15 summative assessments of undergraduate medical students and classified the items into five groups by their number of non-functioning distracters. We analyzed the effect of varying degree of non-functionality ranging from 0 to 4, on test reliability, difficulty index, discrimination index and point biserial correlation. The non-functionality of distracters inversely affected the test reliability and quality of items in a predictable manner. The non-functioning distracters made the items easier and lowered the discrimination index significantly. Three non-functional distracters in a 5-option MCQ significantly affected all psychometric properties (p psychometrically as effective as 5-option items. Our study reveals that a multiple choice question with 3 functional options provides lower most limit of item format that has adequate psychometric property. The test containing items with less number of functioning options have significantly lower reliability. The distracter function analysis and revision of nonfunctioning distracters can serve as important methods to improve the psychometrics and reliability of assessment.

  19. Comparative study of different osteotomy modalities in maxillary distraction osteogenesis for cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Wang, Xudong; Fang, Bing; Shen, Steve Guofang

    2012-11-01

    Conventional maxillary distraction osteogenesis and anterior maxillary segmental distraction were applied in the treatment of severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft clip and palate. The aim of the present study was to compare the difference between these 2 osteotomy modalities used for rigid external distraction. Ten patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP were enrolled in our study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups. Conventional maxillary distraction osteogenesis was performed in 5 patients and anterior maxillary segmental distraction in 5 patients. The preoperative and postoperative lateral cephalograms were compared, and cephalometric analysis was performed. The independent sample t test was used to evaluate the differences between the 2 groups. All patients healed uneventfully, and the maxillae moved forward satisfactorily. The sella-nasion-point A angles, nasion-point A-Frankfort horizontal plane angles, overjets, and 0-meridian to subnasale distances had increased significantly after distraction osteogenesis. Significant differences were found in the changes in palatal length between the 2 groups (P maxillary segmental distraction group. No significant difference in the changes in palatopharyngeal depth or soft palatal length was found. With the ability of increasing the palatal and arch length, avoiding changes in palatopharyngeal depth, and preserving palatopharyngeal closure function, anterior maxillary segmental distraction has great value in the treatment of maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP. It is a promising and valuable technique in this potentially complicated procedure. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential impact of personality traits on distracted driving behaviors in teens and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Morgan N; Ross, Lesley A; McManus, Benjamin; Bishop, Haley J; Wittig, Shannon M O; Stavrinos, Despina

    2016-07-01

    To determine the impact of personality on distracted driving behaviors. Participants included 120 drivers (48 teens, 72 older adults) who completed the 45-item Big Five Personality questionnaire assessing self-reported personality factors and the Questionnaire Assessing Distracted Driving (QUADD) assessing the frequency of distracted driving behaviors. Associations for all five personality traits with each outcome (e.g., number of times texting on the phone, talking on the phone, and interacting with the phone while driving) were analyzed separately for teens and older adults using negative binomial or Poisson regressions that controlled for age, gender and education. In teens, higher levels of openness and conscientiousness were predictive of greater reported texting frequency and interacting with a phone while driving, while lower levels of agreeableness was predictive of fewer reported instances of texting and interacting with a phone while driving. In older adults, greater extraversion was predictive of greater reported talking on and interacting with a phone while driving. Other personality factors were not significantly associated with distracted driving behaviors. Personality traits may be important predictors of distracted driving behaviors, though specific traits associated with distracted driving may vary across age groups. The relationship between personality and distracted driving behaviors provides a unique opportunity to target drivers who are more likely to engage in distracted driving behavior, thereby increasing the effectiveness of educational campaigns and improving driving safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the benefits of distraction on product evaluations : The mindset effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerouge, D.

    2009-01-01

    Past research in consumer behavior typically assumes that distraction during the decision process needs to be avoided. However, a common piece of advice given to consumers who have to make complex decisions is to distract their attention away from the decision problem for some moments. The current

  2. Do as I say, not as I do: Distracted driving behavior of teens and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Bingham, C; Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Almani, Farideh; Shope, Jean T; Sayer, Tina B

    2015-12-01

    Driver distraction is an important contributor to crash risk. Teenage driver distraction can be influenced by the attitudes and behaviors of parents. This study examined teens' and their parents' engagement in distracting behavior while driving. Survey data were collected from a national sample of 403 parent-teen dyads using random-digit dialing telephone interviews. Results demonstrated few parent or teen sex differences in distracting behavior engagement while driving, or in their perceptions of each others' behavior. Parents and teens' frequencies of distracting behavior engagement were positively correlated. Parents' and teens' perceptions of each others' distracting behavior engagement while driving exceeded their own selfreports. Finally, the likelihood that teens reported engaging in distracting behavior while driving was more strongly associated with their perceptions of their parents' distracting behavior than by parents' self reports of their own behavior. These results suggest that parents' examples of driving behavior are an important influence on teen driving behavior, but potentially more important are teens' perceptions of their parents' behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Imagery-inducing distraction leads to cognitive tunnelling and deteriorated driving performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briggs, G.F. Hole, G.J. & Land, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of imagery-induced distraction on hazard perception and eye movements were investigated in 2 simulated driving experiments. Experiment 1: sixty participants viewed and responded to 2 driving films containing hazards. Group 1 completed the task without distraction; group 2 completed a

  4. Can Ilizarov joint distraction delay the need for an arthrodesis of the ankle? A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valburg, A. A.; van Roermund, P. M.; Lammens, J.; van Melkebeek, J.; Verbout, A. J.; Lafeber, E. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    We applied joint distraction using an Ilizarov apparatus in 11 patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the ankle to try to delay the need for an arthrodesis. Distraction for three months resulted in clinical improvement in pain and mobility for a mean of two years, with an increase in the

  5. Circumplex Model of Affect: A Measure of Pleasure and Arousal During Virtual Reality Distraction Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharar, Sam R; Alamdari, Ava; Hoffer, Christine; Hoffman, Hunter G; Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R

    2016-06-01

    Immersive virtual reality (VR) distraction provides clinically effective pain relief and increases subjective reports of "fun" in medical settings of procedural pain. The goal of this study was to better describe the variable of "fun" associated with VR distraction analgesia using the circumplex model (pleasure/arousal) of affect. Seventy-four healthy volunteers (mean age, 29 years; 37 females) received a standardized, 18-minute, multimodal pain sequence (alternating thermal heat and electrical stimulation to distal extremities) while receiving immersive, interactive VR distraction. Subjects rated both their subjective pain intensity and fun using 0-10 Graphic Rating Scales, as well as the pleasantness of their emotional valence and their state of arousal on 9-point scales. Compared with pain stimulation in the control (baseline, no VR) condition, immersive VR distraction significantly reduced subjective pain intensity (P anxiety, greater fun, greater presence in the VR environment, and positive emotional valence-were associated with subjective analgesia during VR distraction. Immersive VR distraction reduces subjective pain intensity induced by multimodal experimental nociception. Subjects who report less anxiety, more fun, more VR presence, and more positive emotional valence during VR distraction are more likely to report subjective pain reduction. These findings indicate VR distraction analgesia may be mediated through anxiolytic, attentional, and/or affective mechanisms.

  6. Indications of high levels of inattentive and distracted driving in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, the Road Traffic Management Corporation undertook a pilot study to investigate how prevalent driver inattention and distraction is in South Africa. Driver inattention and distraction is the leading factor in near-crashes in for instance...

  7. Validation of a Perceptual Distraction Model in a Complex Personal Sound Zone System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Marsh, Steven; Bech, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates a previously proposed perceptual model predicting user’s perceived distraction caused by interfering audio programmes. The distraction model was originally trained using a simple sound reproduction system for music-on-music interference situations and it has not been formally...

  8. Cost, operation and hospitalization times in distraction osteogenesis versus sagittal split osteotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strijen, P. J.; Breuning, K. H.; Becking, A. G.; Perdijk, F. B. T.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    2003-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis in 'common' surgical orthodontics is mentioned as an alternative for conventional sagittal split osteotomy. After a 'learning curve' in the surgical skills of distraction, the two techniques can be compared concerning time and cost aspects. Forty-seven patients (male n=28,

  9. Differences between Students with and without ADHD on Task Vigilance under Conditions of Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Peter; Randolph, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Distraction is a typical component of any classroom environment. For effective instruction and learning to take place, it is critical for students to eventually return to task and maintain task vigilance (i.e., returning to the task at hand) when a distraction occurs. Students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), by definition,…

  10. Effects of the office environment on health and productivity 1: Auditory and visual distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, E. de; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Vink, P.

    2007-01-01

    A pilot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of visual or auditory distraction in an office environment on productivity, concentration and emotion. Ten subjects performed a simple, standardized computer task in five conditions (undisturbed, 3 variations of auditory distraction and visual

  11. TREATMENT OF INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSION USING PROXIMAL CEREBRAL PROTECTION DEVICE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE BLOOD PRESSURE DYNAMICS. CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. В. Shukurov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, according to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, about 200 thousand people died from stroke. Strokes are considered as the main cause of disability of the population, causing huge economic damage to the country. One of the most common causes of ischemic stroke is atherosclerosis of the branches of the aortic arch. The most common localization of atherosclerotic plaques is the extracranial section of the carotid arteries – bifurcation and ostium of the common carotid artery and the internal carotid artery. Recanalization of occlusion of the internal carotid artery until recently was an insoluble task for interventional surgery due to the high risk of distal embolization. The invention and use of the proximal cerebral protection device, which ensure the complete cessation of blood flow, has changed the situation. Effect of carotid revascularization on arterial hypertension, due to the effect on the baroreceptors of the carotid plexus by balloon angioplasty, which leads to a reflex decrease in arterial pressure, is an additional advantage of the endovascular technique in some cases. This effect requires further study. One also needs to pay careful attention to the diagnosis and imaging of carotid artery lesions before procedure. This clinical case is the illustration that an adequate assessment of the risk factors for intraoperative complications allows to achieve maximum results of endovascular treatment.

  12. Comparison of soft-tissue changes in simultaneous maxillomandibular distraction with mandibular distraction with second-stage maxillary osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S M; Balaji, Preetha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the frontal lip cant changes in common facial asymmetry (FA) cases after simultaneous maxillomandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) and mandibular DO with maxillary orthognathic surgery. Retrospective analysis of FA cases at tertiary craniofacial referral was performed. Patients of either gender with all medical imaging records and pre- and post-operative (1 year) facial photographs in natural head position were included in the study. The lip cant change was assessed by the ratio of the linear dimension between affected and unaffected side labial commissures and the bi-pupillary reference line. Difference between the pre- and post-operative ratio was analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for the outcome. P ≤0.05 was taken as significant. The mean preoperative measured value of the affected side was 0.845 ± 0.036 while the postoperative value was 0.95 ± 0.032. The effective change was 0.11 ± 0.044. The postoperative ratio compared with simultaneous DO case was 0.98 ± 0.06 while that of mandibular distraction with orthognathic surgery was 0.92 ± 0.08 (P = 0.048). The mean change of the simultaneous DO case was measured as 0.114 ± 0.041 while the same for the mandibular distraction with orthognathic surgery was 0.069 ± 0.035 (P = 0.013). The results indicate that the simultaneous DO yields more better frontal lip cant change between both halves than the mono-DO with orthognathic surgery. The mean change is much higher in the simultaneous DO cases indicating a more effective correction and desired result. The biological reason and lip musculature mechanism behind the response in both conditions are discussed.

  13. Using Spatial Information Technologies as Monitoring Devices in International Watershed Conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A. Twumasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies—Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing—in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region’s entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing

  14. Using spatial information technologies as monitoring devices in international watershed conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merem, Edmund C; Twumasi, Yaw A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies-Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing-in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region's entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing techniques by generating spatially referenced data to supplement

  15. Combined orthognathic distraction procedure: Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy and mandibular curvilinear distraction osteogenesis. A new technique for craniofacial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Stephen A; Hazan-Molina, Hagai; Aizenbud, Dror

    2014-04-01

    Dentofacial deformities are traditionally treated by maxillary and mandibular osteotomies conducted separately or simultaneously. Recently, distraction osteogenesis has become an irreplaceable part of the surgical armamentarium, for its ability to induce new bone formation between the surfaces of bone segments that are gradually separated by incremental traction, along with a simultaneous expansion of the surrounding soft-tissue envelope. The aim of this article is to describe a combined surgical technique consisting of simultaneous maxillary Le Fort I advancement and mandibular surgical repositioning by means of bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with a curvilinear distractor based on a preliminary computerized presurgical prediction.

  16. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis applications in cleft lip and palate patients: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Mülayim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis technique has been successfully applied in the craniofacial area for long time, and it is being applied increasingly more in cleft lip and palate patients also. Especially in large cleft palate cases, bone grafting or surgical procedures such as distraction osteogenesis can be applied in order to ensure a smooth alveolar arc. In this literature review, alveolar (segmental distraction osteogenesis applications in patients with cleft lip and palate, indications of the technique, advantages and disadvantages, application methods and types of appliances used for this purpose have been evaluated. As conclusion, especially with the application of alveolar (segmental distraction osteogenesis, successful outcome can be achieved in cleft lip and palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, maxillary hypoplasia and maxillary crowding, and this technique may be an alternative to conventional osteotomies and extraoral distractions.

  17. Validation of two automatic devices for self-measurement of blood pressure according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension: the Omron M6 (HEM-7001-E) and the Omron R7 (HEM 637-IT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouchian, Jirar A; El Assaad, Mohamed A; Orobinskaia, Ludmila V; El Feghali, Ramzi N; Asmar, Roland G

    2006-06-01

    Two electronic devices for self-measurement of blood pressure - a brachial monitor, the Omron M6, and a wrist monitor, the Omron R7 - were evaluated in two separate studies according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. The International Validation Protocol is divided into two phases: the first phase is performed on 15 selected participants (45 pairs of blood pressure measurements); if the device passes this phase, 18 supplementary participants are included (54 pairs of blood pressure measurements) making a total number of 33 participants (99 pairs of blood pressure measurements) on whom the final validation is performed. The same methodology recommended by the European Society of Hypertension protocol was applied for both studies. In each study and for each participant, four blood pressure measurements were taken simultaneously by two trained observers using mercury sphygmomanometers alternately with three measurements taken by the tested device. The difference between the blood pressure value given by the device and that obtained by the two observers (mean of the two observers) was calculated for each measure. The 99 pairs of blood pressure differences were classified into three categories (M6 device, and 0.2+/-4.2 and 0.2+/-2.9 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, for the Omron R7 device. For both devices, readings differing by less than 5, 10 and 15 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure values fulfill the recommendation criteria of the International Protocol as well as the individual analysis. The Omron M6 (HEM-7001-E) and the Omron R7 (HEM 637-IT) devices fulfilled the validation recommendations of the International Protocol.

  18. Do advertisements at the roadside distract the driver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettwich, Carmen; Klinger, Karsten; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment. More and more cars are on the road. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio and navigation system, the environment outside the car has also become more and more complex. Hoardings, advertising pillars, shop fronts and video screens are just a few examples. For this reason the potential risk of driver distraction is rising. But in which way do the advertisements at the roadside influence the driver's attention? The investigation which is described is devoted to this topic. Various kinds of advertisements played an important role, like illuminated and non-illuminated posters as well as illuminated animated ads. Several test runs in an urban environment were performed. The gaze direction of the driver's eye was measured with an eye tracking system. The latter consists of three cameras which logged the eye movements during the test run and a small-sized scene camera recording the traffic scene. 16 subjects (six female and ten male) between 21 and 65 years of age took part in this experiment. Thus the driver's fixation duration of the different advertisements could be determined.

  19. Attention, please. Negotiating Concentration and Distraction around 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Pantenburg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As has often been pointed out, museums and galleries have come to accommodate an ever growing number of moving image artworks in the past two decades. Contrasting the viewing conditions of conventional cinema and exhibition spaces, commentators have tended to emphasize the spatial parameters of installation works that allow the visitor to stroll freely, while spectatorship in the film-theatre traditionally means being fixed to your seat. This article suggests a reevaluation of this constellation by focusing on the different temporal protocols and regimes that the movie theater and exhibition spaces imply. Building on an essay by Georg Simmel and Peter Osborne’s concept of “distracted reception”, art exhibitions are characterized as places that confront the visitor with a multitude of options and synchronous stimuli, whereas the architecture of the film-theater provides, as Hollis Frampton claimed in 1968, “the only place left in our culture intended entirely for concentrated exercise of one, or at most two, of our senses”. Revisiting one of the canonical moments in the prehistory of “Artists’ Film”, the article investigates the early 1970s when Expanded Cinema and Structural Film suggested new answers to the question of concentration and distraction.

  20. Accurate expectancies diminish perceptual distraction during visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jocelyn L.; Guerin, Scott A.; Stegman, Anna; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively “spills-over” to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated using a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean blood oxygenation level dependent responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information. PMID:24904374