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Sample records for internal breakdown soft

  1. Optically reversible electrical soft-breakdown in wide-bandgap oxides—A factorial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Ang, D. S.; Kalaga, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    In an earlier work, we found that an electrical soft-breakdown region in wide-bandgap oxides, such as hafnium dioxide, silicon dioxide, etc., could be reversed when illuminated by white light. The effect is evidenced by a decrease in the breakdown leakage current, termed as a negative photoconductivity response. This finding raises the prospect for optical sensing applications based on these traditionally non-photo-responsive but ubiquitous oxide materials. In this study, we examine the statistical distribution for the rate of breakdown reversal as well as the influence of factors such as wavelength, light intensity, oxide stoichiometry (or oxygen content) and temperature on the reversal rate. The rate of breakdown reversal is shown to be best described by the lognormal distribution. Light in the range of ˜400-700 nm is found to have relatively little influence on the reversal rate. On the other hand, light intensity, oxygen content and temperature, each of them has a clear impact; a stronger light intensity, an oxide that is richer in oxygen content and a reduced temperature all speed up the reversal process substantially. These experimental results are consistent with the proposed phenomenological redox model involving photo-assisted recombination of the surrounding oxygen interstitials with vacancy defects in the breakdown path.

  2. International Conference on Soft Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Bijaya

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in International Conference on Soft Computing Systems (ICSCS 2015) held at Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Chennai, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the emerging areas of Soft Computing in Engineering and Technology. The book is organized in two volumes and discusses a wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  3. 6th International Workshop Soft Computing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Kovačević, Branko

    2016-01-01

    These volumes constitute the Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Soft Computing Applications, or SOFA 2014, held on 24-26 July 2014 in Timisoara, Romania. This edition was organized by the University of Belgrade, Serbia in conjunction with Romanian Society of Control Engineering and Technical Informatics (SRAIT) - Arad Section, The General Association of Engineers in Romania - Arad Section, Institute of Computer Science, Iasi Branch of the Romanian Academy and IEEE Romanian Section.                 The Soft Computing concept was introduced by Lotfi Zadeh in 1991 and serves to highlight the emergence of computing methodologies in which the accent is on exploiting the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solution cost. Soft computing facilitates the use of fuzzy logic, neurocomputing, evolutionary computing and probabilistic computing in combination, leading to the concept of hybrid intelligent systems.        The combination of ...

  4. Crowding of Interacting Fluid Particles in Porous Media through Molecular Dynamics: Breakdown of Universality for Soft Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Simon K.; Horbach, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of interacting soft disks confined in a heterogeneous quenched matrix of soft obstacles show dynamics which is fundamentally different from that of hard disks. The interactions between the disks can enhance transport when their density is increased, as disks cooperatively help each other over the finite energy barriers in the matrix. The system exhibits a transition from a diffusive to a localized state, but the transition is strongly rounded. Effective exponents in the mean-squared displacement can be observed over three decades in time but depend on the density of the disks and do not correspond to asymptotic behavior in the vicinity of a critical point, thus, showing that it is incorrect to relate them to the critical exponents in the Lorentz model scenario. The soft interactions are, therefore, responsible for a breakdown of the universality of the dynamics.

  5. Two QTL characterized for soft scald and soggy breakdown in apple (Malus × domestica) through pedigree-based analysis of a large population of interconnected families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Nicholas P.; Weg, van de Eric; Tillman, John; Tong, Cindy B.S.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.; Luby, James J.

    2018-01-01

    Soft scald and soggy breakdown are important postharvest physiological disorders of apple (Malus × domestica). ‘Honeycrisp’ and some of its offspring are particularly susceptible to developing these disorders. The purpose of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with high

  6. 4th International Conference on Quantitative Logic and Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shui-Li; Wang, San-Min; Li, Yong-Ming

    2017-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Quantitative Logic and Soft Computing (QLSC2016) held 14-17, October, 2016 in Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China. It includes 61 papers, of which 5 are plenary talks( 3 abstracts and 2 full length talks). QLSC2016 was the fourth in a series of conferences on Quantitative Logic and Soft Computing. This conference was a major symposium for scientists, engineers and practitioners to present their updated results, ideas, developments and applications in all areas of quantitative logic and soft computing. The book aims to strengthen relations between industry research laboratories and universities in fields such as quantitative logic and soft computing worldwide as follows: (1) Quantitative Logic and Uncertainty Logic; (2) Automata and Quantification of Software; (3) Fuzzy Connectives and Fuzzy Reasoning; (4) Fuzzy Logical Algebras; (5) Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing; (6) Fuzzy Sets Theory and Applications.

  7. 22nd International Conference on Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This proceeding book contains a collection of selected accepted papers of the Mendel conference held in Brno, Czech Republic in June 2016. The proceedings book contains three chapters which present recent advances in soft computing including intelligent image processing. The Mendel conference was established in 1995 and is named after the scientist and Augustinian priest Gregor J. Mendel who discovered the famous Laws of Heredity. The main aim of the conference is to create a regular possibility for students, academics and researchers to exchange ideas and novel research methods on a yearly basis.

  8. 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya

    2015-01-01

    This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2014) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and healthcare, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.

  9. 6th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Jagdish; Das, Kedar; Lal, Arvind; Garg, Harish; Nagar, Atulya; Pant, Millie

    2017-01-01

    This two-volume book gathers the proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2016), offering a collection of research papers presented during the conference at Thapar University, Patiala, India. Providing a veritable treasure trove for scientists and researchers working in the field of soft computing, it highlights the latest developments in the broad area of “Computational Intelligence” and explores both theoretical and practical aspects using fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, soft computing, computational intelligence, etc.

  10. The First International Conference on Soft Computing and Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ghazali, Rozaida; Deris, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Conference on Soft Computing and Data Mining, SCDM 2014, held in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, in June 16th-18th, 2014. The 65 revised full papers presented in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from 145 submissions, and organized into two main topical sections; Data Mining and Soft Computing. The goal of this book is to provide both theoretical concepts and, especially, practical techniques on these exciting fields of soft computing and data mining, ready to be applied in real-world applications. The exchanges of views pertaining future research directions to be taken in this field and the resultant dissemination of the latest research findings makes this work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered.    

  11. 5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya; Das, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2015) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.

  12. Soft Computing Applications : Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop Soft Computing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, János; Várkonyi-Kóczy, Annamária; Dombi, Joszef; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

                    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 5thInternational Workshop on Soft Computing Applications (SOFA 2012).                                The book covers a broad spectrum of soft computing techniques, theoretical and practical applications employing knowledge and intelligence to find solutions for world industrial, economic and medical problems. The combination of such intelligent systems tools and a large number of applications introduce a need for a synergy of scientific and technological disciplines in order to show the great potential of Soft Computing in all domains.                   The conference papers included in these proceedings, published post conference, were grouped into the following area of research: ·         Soft Computing and Fusion Algorithms in Biometrics, ·         Fuzzy Theory, Control andApplications, ·         Modelling and Control Applications, ·         Steps towa...

  13. Second International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Atulya; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Ray, Kanad; Gupta, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012), held at JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur, India. This book provides the latest developments in the area of soft computing and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining, etc. The objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.

  14. Third International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Nagar, Atulya; Bansal, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2013), held as a part of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Saharanpur Campus of IIT Roorkee, at the Noida Campus of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on soft computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems, which are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed ...

  15. A Dynamic Approach to the Analysis of Soft Power in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses soft power in international relations and the soft power of China’s foreign policy in recent years. After presenting a critique of the soft power theory developed by Joseph S. Nye, the paper provides an alternative interpretation of soft power. The author proposes a dynamic analysis of soft power in international relations, and argues that whether a power resource is soft or hard depends on the perceptions and feelings of various actors in specific situations. Due to the varying degrees of acceptance, power can be divided into hard power, soft power and bargaining power. An analysis should look at the soft or hard effectiveness of a power resource from three perspectives–horizontally, vertically and relatively. Recently, the soft power of China’s foreign policy and international behavior has mainly been manifested in multilateralism, economic diplomacy and a good-neighborly policy.

  16. Cloning and characterization of differentially expressed genes of internal breakdown in mango fruit (Mangifera indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthaiah, Hemanth K N; Ravishankar, Kundapura V; Shivashankara, Kodthalu S; Anand, Lalitha; Narayanaswamy, Pappana; Mukunda, Gullarachikkanahalli; Prasad, Trichy G

    2006-04-01

    Internal breakdown in mango fruits has become a major concern in recent years. This disorder renders the fruits unfit for human consumption. The overall loss due to this disorder is about 35-55%. Environmental and physiological factors like high temperature, humidity, respiration and low transpiration rates have been attributed to cause spongy tissue due to reduced loss of heat from fruits. Biochemical studies have shown that there is a reduction in pH, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total sugars and carotenoids, low reducing and non-reducing sugar contents, lower amylase and invertase activities and high acid and starch content in spongy tissue affected pulp. There are no reports on molecular studies to determine changes in gene expression in these tissues. The present study was conducted using PCR based subtractive hybridization and RNA gel blot analysis of a few selected genes. The latter showed a higher expression of catalase, ubiquitin, alcohol dehydrogenase, coproporphyrinogen oxidase and keratin associated protein. A lower expression of ribosomal gene, fructose bisphosphate aldolase and cysthathionine gamma synthase was also noticed in spongy tissue. Biochemical studies indicated a lower amylase activity and a lower content of the total and reducing sugars in spongy tissue as compared to healthy tissue. Analyses of results indicate that oxidative stress may be one of the causes for formation of spongy tissue, which affects the expression of many genes. The role of these genes in spongy tissue formation is discussed.

  17. Application of the international guidelines for machinery breakdown prevention at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    2001-01-01

    For more than forty years as a specialized branch of the worldwide insurance industry, the nuclear insurance pools have underwritten property damage protection for nuclear facilities throughout the world. At power plants insured by the pools, an enviable record of operational safety has been attained. Nevertheless, electrical and mechanical equipment does break down occasionally. Although these failures do not necessarily compromise nuclear safety, they can cause significant damage to equipment, leading to a considerable loss of generating revenue and causing sizeable insurance losses. Since insurance companies have a large financial stake in nuclear power plants, their goal is to minimize insurance losses, including the failure of systems and equipment and ensuing consequential damages. To ensure that the insurance risk is properly underwritten, insurance companies analyze loss information, develop loss prevention guidelines and focus loss control activities on those areas where insurance risk is most significant. This paper provides a chronology of the development of the ''International Guidelines for Machinery Breakdown Prevention at Nuclear Power Plants'' and describes the results of insurance inspections conducted using these guidelines. Included is a summary of guideline content and of insurance loss experience between 1962 and 1999. (author)

  18. PREFACE: International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2011-07-01

    Soft matter is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research field covering a range of subject areas including physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and engineering. Some of the important universal features of these materials are their mesoscopic structures and their dynamics. Due to the existence of such large-scale structures, which nevertheless exhibit interactions of the order of the thermal energy, soft matter can readily be taken out of equilibrium by imposing a weak external field such as an electric field, a mechanical stress or a shear flow. The importance of the coexistence of microscopic molecular dynamics and the mesoscopic/macroscopic structures and flows requires us to develop hierarchical approaches to understand the nonlinear and nonequilibrium phenomena, which is one of the central issues of current soft matter research. This special section presents selected contributions from the 'International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010' held from 17-20 August 2010 in Nara, Japan, which aimed to describe recent advances in soft matter research focusing especially on its nonequilibrium aspects. The topics discussed cover statics and dynamics of a wide variety of materials ranging from traditional soft matter like polymers, gels, emulsions, liquid crystals and colloids to biomaterials such as biopolymers and biomembranes. Among these studies, we highlighted the physics of biomembranes and vesicles, which has attracted great attention during the last decade; we organized a special session for this active field. The work presented in this issue deals with (1) structure formation in biomembranes and vesicles, (2) rheology of polymers and gels, (3) mesophases in block copolymers, (4) mesoscopic structures in liquid crystals and ionic liquids, and (5) nonequilibrium dynamics. This symposium was organized as part of a research project supported by the Grant-in-Aid for the priority area 'Soft Matter Physics' (2006-2010) from the Ministry of Education

  19. Soft law in public international law : a pragmatic or a principled choice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, Marcel M.T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of soft law in international law, in particular in the field of sustainable development law. Soft law is often regarded as non-law. However this qualification increasingly does not match the realities of the development of international law in which many legally

  20. Discrimination of soft tissues using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in combination with k nearest neighbors (kNN) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Sibo; Fan, Rongwei; Yu, Xin; Chen, Deying

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, discrimination of soft tissues using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in combination with multivariate statistical methods is presented. Fresh pork fat, skin, ham, loin and tenderloin muscle tissues are manually cut into slices and ablated using a 1064 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Discrimination analyses between fat, skin and muscle tissues, and further between highly similar ham, loin and tenderloin muscle tissues, are performed based on the LIBS spectra in combination with multivariate statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA), k nearest neighbors (kNN) classification, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Performances of the discrimination models, including accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, are evaluated using 10-fold cross validation. The classification models are optimized to achieve best discrimination performances. The fat, skin and muscle tissues can be definitely discriminated using both kNN and SVM classifiers, with accuracy of over 99.83%, sensitivity of over 0.995 and specificity of over 0.998. The highly similar ham, loin and tenderloin muscle tissues can also be discriminated with acceptable performances. The best performances are achieved with SVM classifier using Gaussian kernel function, with accuracy of 76.84%, sensitivity of over 0.742 and specificity of over 0.869. The results show that the LIBS technique assisted with multivariate statistical methods could be a powerful tool for online discrimination of soft tissues, even for tissues of high similarity, such as muscles from different parts of the animal body. This technique could be used for discrimination of tissues suffering minor clinical changes, thus may advance the diagnosis of early lesions and abnormalities.

  1. THE ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTARY OF THE "SOFT POWER" IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available "Soft power" is a complex instrument of international politics. It is an organized set of interactions and relationships predetermined to a large extent by the psychological element. Its core qualities are attraction, persuasion and legitimacy. The "soft power" acts in international relations through a complex instrumentation consisting of actions in the military, political, economic, cultural, sports, ideological, religious spheres, but all its manifestations must be supported by the economic instrument. To this end, many countries have set up special bodies. It is expected that "soft power" will be a major instrument of international politics in the coming epoch.

  2. International Conference on Soft Computing Techniques and Engineering Application

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of ICSCTEA 2013 is to provide a platform for researchers, engineers and academicians from all over the world to present their research results and development activities in soft computing techniques and engineering application. This conference provides opportunities for them to exchange new ideas and application experiences face to face, to establish business or research relations and to find global partners for future collaboration.

  3. 2nd International Conference on Soft Computing and Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ghazali, Rozaida; Nawi, Nazri; Deris, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction and practical look at the concepts and techniques readers need to get the most out of their data in real-world, large-scale data mining projects. It also guides readers through the data-analytic thinking necessary for extracting useful knowledge and business value from the data. The book is based on the Soft Computing and Data Mining (SCDM-16) conference, which was held in Bandung, Indonesia on August 18th–20th 2016 to discuss the state of the art in soft computing techniques, and offer participants sufficient knowledge to tackle a wide range of complex systems. The scope of the conference is reflected in the book, which presents a balance of soft computing techniques and data mining approaches. The two constituents are introduced to the reader systematically and brought together using different combinations of applications and practices. It offers engineers, data analysts, practitioners, scientists and managers the insights into the concepts, tools and techni...

  4. The Role Of Soft Law Acts In The Mechanism Of Functioning Of International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Shpakovych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Present article focuses on the norms of soft law in the framework of international organizations. Today majority of scientists become an interesting phenomenon decision of international organizations which are increasingly sound as a category of "soft law" and its influence on the development of international law in general. International organizations cease to be the "second" subject of international law, and if you have not won the first place, it is only a matter of time. In the article the role of soft law in the mechanism of international organizations functioning are shown, the legal nature and impact of these acts on the member states. In our opinion, norms of "soft law", as a rule, contained in resolutions of international organizations are non-binding and do not formally bind member states. Norms of "soft law" are often adheres by the states and moreover are implemented into the national legal systems by incorporating similar in content standards into the national legislation. This is due to the fact that norms of "soft law" has a weight of moral and political significance and, as a rule, are created by organizations that have a considerable authority. Jurists generally distinguish two kinds of acts of recommendatory force: model acts (laws and recommended acts which are not model, adopted in the framework of international organizations. In this connection the question of each mentioned method influence on the legislation of state. In our opinion, one of distinguishing features of the model recommendatory acts has is quite limited influence on the law of states and a narrow scope. At the same time, recommendatory acts of some specialized international organizations have a more complex effect on the development of national legislation, contain the highest level of standards, and as well develop international treaty provisions.

  5. International Conference on Soft Computing in Information Communication Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Soft Computing in Information Communication Technology

    2012-01-01

      This is a collection of the accepted papers concerning soft computing in information communication technology. All accepted papers are subjected to strict peer-reviewing by 2 expert referees. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchanges of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field makes the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The present book represents a cooperative effort to seek out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of Neural Networks, Swarm Intelligence, Evolutionary Computing, Image Processing Internet Security, Data Security, Data Mining, Network Security and Protection of data and Cyber laws. Our sincere appreciation and thanks go to these authors for their contributions to this conference. I hope you can gain lots of useful information from the book.

  6. 'Soft' human resource management in small international joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the value creation aspects of HRM in international joint ventures of a relatively small size and their implications for strategic management. We assume that HRM in this context is rather a process than a function, and a ‘soft’ – humanistic rather than a ‘hard’, instrumentalist...... of joint venture autonomy. A conceptual framework developed from these empirical insights invites further generalizing efforts, and more importantly, contributes to a dynamic understanding of HRM in small IJVs....

  7. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

    2004-01-01

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  8. 8th International Conference on Soft Methods in Probability and Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Giordani, Paolo; Vantaggi, Barbara; Gagolewski, Marek; Gil, María; Grzegorzewski, Przemysław; Hryniewicz, Olgierd

    2017-01-01

    This proceedings volume is a collection of peer reviewed papers presented at the 8th International Conference on Soft Methods in Probability and Statistics (SMPS 2016) held in Rome (Italy). The book is dedicated to Data science which aims at developing automated methods to analyze massive amounts of data and to extract knowledge from them. It shows how Data science employs various programming techniques and methods of data wrangling, data visualization, machine learning, probability and statistics. The soft methods proposed in this volume represent a collection of tools in these fields that can also be useful for data science.

  9. Application and development of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrumentation for international safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barefield, II, James E.; Le, Loan; Lopez, Leon; Jolin, John L.; Clegg, Samuel M. [Chemical Diagnostic and Engineering and Physical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Advanced methodologies and improvements to current measurements techniques are needed to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards. The primary tool employed by the IAEA to detect undeclared processes and activities at special nuclear material facilities and sites still is environmental sampling. This type of environmental sampling is both time consuming and costly since many samples must be collected, packaged, and shipped to an analytical laboratory for analysis that in some cases can take weeks to months to complete. Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently investigating potential uses of LIBS for safeguards applications, including(1) a user-friendly man-portable LIBS system to characterize samples in real to near-real time (typical analysis time are on the order of minutes) across a wide range of elements in the periodic table from hydrogen up to heavy elements like plutonium and uranium, (2) a LIBS system that can be deployed in harsh environments such as hot cells and glove boxes providing relative compositional analysis of process streams for example, ratios like Cm Division-Slash Pu and Cm Division-Slash / U, (3) an inspector field deployable system that can be used to analyze microscopic and single particle samples containing plutonium and uranium, and (4) a high resolution LIBS system that can be used to determine the isotopic composition of samples containing for example uranium and plutonium. In this paper, we will describe our current development and performance testing results for LIBS instrumentation both in a fixed lab and measurements in field deployable configurations.

  10. Soft x-ray camera for internal shape and current density measurements on a noncircular tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Powell, E.T.; Reusch, M.; Roney, P.; Simon, M.P.

    1988-05-01

    Soft x-ray measurements of the internal plasma flux surface shaped in principle allow a determination of the plasma current density distribution, and provide a necessary monitor of the degree of internal elongation of tokamak plasmas with a noncircular cross section. A two-dimensional, tangentially viewing, soft x-ray pinhole camera has been fabricated to provide internal shape measurements on the PBX-M tokamak. It consists of a scintillator at the focal plane of a foil-filtered pinhole camera, which is, in turn, fiber optically coupled to an intensified framing video camera (/DELTA/t />=/ 3 msec). Automated data acquisition is performed on a stand-alone image-processing system, and data archiving and retrieval takes place on an optical disk video recorder. The entire diagnostic is controlled via a PDP-11/73 microcomputer. The derivation of the polodial emission distribution from the measured image is done by fitting to model profiles. 10 refs., 4 figs

  11. Using polypropylene mesh graft for soft-tissue reconstruction in internal hemipelvectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asavamongkolkul Apichat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a patient with chondrosarcoma involving the right pelvis and contralateral pubic area in a 45-year-old male who underwent an extensive internal hemipelvectomy without bony reconstruction. We demonstrate the technique of using polypropylene mesh graft for soft-tissue reconstruction. Follow-up at 7.5 years showed a good oncological and functional outcome.

  12. Proceedings of the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Atulya; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish

    2012-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2011), held at Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on Soft Computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.

  13. Soft x-ray measurement of internal tearing mode structure in a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartas, G.; Hokin, S.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of internally resonant tearing modes has been studied in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a soft x-ray detector system consisting of an imaging array at one toroidal location and several detectors at different toroidal locations. The toroidal mode numbers of m = 1 structures are in the range n = -5, -6, -7. The modes propagate with phase velocity v = 1--6 x 10 6 cm/s, larger than the diamagnetic drift velocity v d ∼ 5 x 10 5 cm/s. Phase locking between modes with different n in manifested as a beating of soft x-ray signals which is found to be strongest near the resonant surfaces of the modes (r/a = 0.1 -- 0.5). 15 refs., 5 figs

  14. Proceedings of the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Atulya; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish

    2012-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2011), held at Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on Soft Computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.

  15. Supporting international development through the integration of relevant 'soft-skills' into geoscience education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.

    2014-05-01

    Geologists have an important role to play in international development, improving disaster risk reduction and access to clean water, sanitation, infrastructure, and natural resources. That geologists can contribute to international development is well established. Less so, however, is an understanding of the 'soft' skills required to do this effectively. The fight against global poverty requires an integrated and interdisciplinary approach, demanding a host of skills other than technical geology. Factors such as cultural understanding, cross disciplinary communication, diplomacy, community mobilisation and participation are all aspects that, if lacking, may result in a project failing to have maximum impact. Whilst project success may be highly dependent on these skills and aspects of knowledge, opportunities to develop them throughout a geologist's education are not common. Through a discussion of two case studies (based on water and hazards work), this study seeks to demonstrate the value of an integrated approach and the skills that geologists should invest in at an early stage of their career. It proceeds to examine a range of practical ways by which geology students can develop these skills during and after their education. A number of these opportunities are currently being utilised by Geology for Global Development (GfGD), a not-for-profit organisation working in the UK to support young geoscientists to make a long-term and effective contribution to international development.

  16. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Silicone elastomers have been heavily investigated as candidates for dielectric elastomers and are as such almost ideal candidates with their inherent softness and compliance but they suffer from low dielectric permittivity. This shortcoming has been sought optimized by many means during recent...... years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we investigate the electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers. Two types...... of silicone elastomers are investigated and different types of breakdown are discussed. Furthermore the use of voltage stabilizers in silicone-based dielectric elastomers is investigated and discussed....

  17. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  18. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of calcium ions dissolved in water using filter paper substrates: an ideal internal standard for precision improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daewoong; Gong, Yongdeuk; Nam, Sang-Ho; Han, Song-Hee; Yoo, Jonghyun; Lee, Yonghoon

    2014-01-01

    We report an approach for selecting an internal standard to improve the precision of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis for determining calcium (Ca) concentration in water. The dissolved Ca(2+) ions were pre-concentrated on filter paper by evaporating water. The filter paper was dried and analyzed using LIBS. By adding strontium chloride to sample solutions and using a Sr II line at 407.771 nm for the intensity normalization of Ca II lines at 393.366 or 396.847 nm, the analysis precision could be significantly improved. The Ca II and Sr II line intensities were mapped across the filter paper, and they showed a strong positive shot-to-shot correlation with the same spatial distribution on the filter paper surface. We applied this analysis approach for the measurement of Ca(2+) in tap, bottled, and ground water samples. The Ca(2+) concentrations determined using LIBS are in good agreement with those obtained from flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Finally, we suggest a homologous relation of the strongest emission lines of period 4 and 5 elements in groups IA and IIA based on their similar electronic structures. Our results indicate that the LIBS can be effectively applied for liquid analysis at the sub-parts per million level with high precision using a simple drying of liquid solutions on filter paper and the use of the correct internal standard elements with the similar valence electronic structure with respect to the analytes of interest.

  20. Comparison of the thermodynamic and correlation criteria for internal standard selection in laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labutin, Timur A.; Zaytsev, Sergey M.; Popov, Andrey M.; Seliverstova, Irina V.; Bozhenko, Sergey E.; Zorov, Nikita B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of the reference line of an internal standard in LIBS is a usual way to eliminate or reduce the fluctuations of plasma parameters from pulse to pulse as well as from sample to sample. Thermodynamic criterion, i.e. closeness of excitation potentials of the analytical line and the reference one, is often used to select an appropriate reference line. In this work, we propose an alternative criterion based on searching the best correlated pairs of lines under the variations of laser energy. Two criteria were compared for high-alloy steels and soils of different origins. The discrepancy among the values of plasma temperature calculated from Fe I, Mn I and Cr I transitions was found under the conditions of slightly changed laser fluence on steel samples. On the other hand, the agreement between plasma temperatures, obtained for Fe I and Mn I transitions, was demonstrated in plasma on soil samples. Calibration results obtained for manganese in steels and lead in soils show that thermodynamic criterion can be an appropriate way for choosing an internal standard only under LTE conditions. Two lines of Mn I at 403.07 nm and 404.14 nm and Pb I at 405.78 nm were the analytical lines for the quantification of manganese in steels and lead in soils, respectively. The use of the correlative criterion seems to be suitable for internal standardization under LTE or non-LTE conditions. Probable limitations of the correlative criterion and its possibilities to identify weak lines are discussed in the article. - Highlights: • Novel criterion for internal standard selection, based on the correlation of analytical line and reference one • Comparison of correlation and thermodynamic criteria • Correlation analysis of the spectrum can be useful for atomic line identification. • Correlation approach can be used in LTE and non-LTE conditions

  1. Are Soft Short Tests Good Indicators of Internal Li-ion Cell Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, J.; Chung, J.-S.; Jung, K.; Park, J.

    2013-01-01

    The self discharge test at full state of charge, may not be a good one to detect subtle defects since the li-ion chemistry has the highest self discharge at full state of charge. One should characterize self discharge versus storage time for each cell manufacturer/design to differentiate between normal self discharge and that due to a subtle manufacturing defect. The various soft short test methods indicate that if this test is carried out at full discharge (0% SOC) with all capacity removed (by lowering the current load in a stepwise manner to the same end of discharge voltage), then the cells need to be placed in storage for more than 72 hours to get a good analysis on the presence of subtle defects since it takes more than 72 hours to achieve voltage stabilization. If the cells are to be charged up even to a small percentage (ex. 1%), 72 hours are sufficient to determine issues. However, the pass/fail criteria should be based on a valid OCV decline. Less than 10 mV voltage decline is not a good method to detect subtle defects. As mentioned in the first bullet, self discharge is a competing reaction when a charge is introduced and hence a characterization of the self discharge versus storage time is required to fully correlate voltage decline to a failure due to a subtle defect. Soft short test method cannot be relied on for defect detection because cells with and without voltage decline seemed to have similar defects and characteristics. Screening methods such as internal resistance and capacity as well as a 3-sigma range for OCV, mass and dimensions should be used to screen out outliers. A very critical aspect in the understanding of subtle defects is to carry out destructive analysis of cells from every lot to confirm the quality of production and screen all cells and batteries in a stringent manner to have a high quality set of flight cells. Self Discharge Test: Fully charged cells shall be placed in Open circuit stand for 72 hours (OCV measurement twice a

  2. AC BREAKDOWN IN GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    electron- emission (multipactor) region, and (3) the low-frequency region. The breakdown mechanism in each of these regions is explained. An extensive bibliography on AC breakdown in gases is included.

  3. Soft power as a means of fighting international terrorism: a case study of Nigeria’s “Boko Haram”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilesanmi Abiodun Bakare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent rise in global terrorism is alarming, but it also reaffirms the failure of our purely hard military approach to counter the phenomenon. This paper analyzes soft power as a means to combating terrorism, with the role of education, religion and international cooperation. The case of Boko Haram, the militant Islamist group operating in Northern Nigeria, is analyzed. This group has been attracting increasing levels of attention. The group is becoming ever more daring and violent. It is unlikely that Boko Haram will be defeated totally through military means. “Soft Power” will play a crucial role in our ability to attract the moderates and deny the extremists new recruits. Islamic education is viewed as a key instrument of these “soft power” counter-terrorism strategy. Islamic education refers to the totality of the upbringing of an individual within the content and context of Islam. The Almajiri system of education in Nigeria is analyzed in the article. Besides education, international cooperation is analyzed with the special focus on Moroccan experience of learning of Sunni Maliki jurisprudence and Achaari theology. The author underlines that many African countries requested Morocco to share its experiences in the education of Imams and signed several cooperation agreements.

  4. Quality assurance of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispim, Sandra P; Nicolas, Genevieve; Casagrande, Corinne; Knaze, Viktoria; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Huybrechts, Inge; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific 'note files' that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data.

  5. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local "soft short circuits" in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data.

  6. High frequency breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Thanh Duy.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information about the effect of frequency on the breakdown voltage of an air gap at standard pressure and temperature, 76 mm Hg and O degrees C, respectively. The frequencies of interest are 47 MHz and 60 MHz. Additionally, the breakdown in vacuum is briefly considered. The breakdown mechanism is explained on the basis of collision and ionization. The presence of the positive ions produced by ionization enhances the field in the gap, and thus determines the breakdown. When a low-frequency voltage is applied across the gap, the breakdown mechanism is the same as that caused by the DC or static voltage. However, when the frequency exceeds the first critical value f c , the positive ions are trapped in the gap, increasing the field considerably. This makes the breakdown occur earlier; in other words, the breakdown voltage is lowered. As the frequency increases two decades or more, the second critical frequency, f ce , is reached. This time the electrons start being trapped in the gap. Those electrons that travel multiple times across the gap before reaching the positive electrode result in an enormous number of electrons and positive ions being present in the gap. The result is a further decrease of the breakdown voltage. However, increasing the frequency does not decrease the breakdown voltage correspondingly. In fact, the associated breakdown field intensity is almost constant (about 29 kV/cm).The reason is that the recombination rate increases and counterbalances the production rate, thus reducing the effect of the positive ions' concentration in the gap. The theory of collision and ionization does not apply to the breakdown in vacuum. It seems that the breakdown in vacuum is primarily determined by the irregularities on the surfaces of the electrodes. Therefore, the effect of frequency on the breakdown, if any, is of secondary importance

  7. Shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, H. A.; Liu, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    Computational simulation and study of shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes are considered for bound (internal) and unbound (external) flow domains. The problem is formulated using the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations which are solved using an implicit, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. For the bound flow domain, a supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct and the problem is solved for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. For the unbound domain, a supersonic swirling flow issued from a nozzle into a uniform supersonic flow of lower Mach number is considered for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. The results show several modes of breakdown; e.g., no-breakdown, transient single-bubble breakdown, transient multi-bubble breakdown, periodic multi-bubble multi-frequency breakdown and helical breakdown.

  8. On dielectric breakdown statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncer, Enis; James, D Randy; Sauers, Isidor; Ellis, Alvin R; Pace, Marshall O

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dielectric breakdown data of some insulating materials and focus on the applicability of the two- and three-parameter Weibull distributions. A new distribution function is also proposed. In order to assess the model distribution's trustworthiness, we employ the Monte Carlo technique and, randomly selecting data-subsets from the whole dielectric breakdown data, determine whether the selected probability functions accurately describe the breakdown data. The utility and strength of the proposed expression are illustrated distinctly by the numerical procedure. The proposed expression is shown to be a valuable alternative to the Weibull ones

  9. Product Work Breakdown Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okayama, Y; Chirillo, L. D

    1980-01-01

    .... Any such subdivision scheme is a work breakdown structure. Traditional shipbuilders employ work subdivisions by ships functional systems which are natural and appropriate for estimating and for early design stages...

  10. Electrical breakdown in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beukema, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the field enhancement factor; in particular to the study of the origin, alteration and influence on the breakdown properties of different materials. This work required the examination of large surface areas on the same microscopic scale on which the relevant phenomena occur. (Pre)-breakdown measurements are described in which the anode condition does not play a role in the initiation of a breakdown, while the cathode can be considered as a broad-area electrode. The influence of adsorbed gases on pre-breakdown currents is investigated. It is shown that ions, released by field emission electrons from adsorbed layers on the anode change the emitting properties of a well-conditioned cathode if the current density at the anode is small. A new experimental arrangement is outlined to better distinguish between the different parameters which are important for the initiation of electrical breakdown. Comparative measurements between stainless steel and titanium electrodes are described to study the influence of either the cathode or the anode upon the initiation of a breakdown. (Auth.)

  11. Soft Power as a Policy Rationale for International Education in the UK: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a textual analysis conducted on policy discourses on international students in the UK between 1999 and 2013. A number of rationales for and against increasing their numbers have been made, which have largely remained consistent over changing political administrations. One key rationale is that international…

  12. Skin breakdown in acute care pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddaby, Elizabeth C; Barnett, Scott D; Facteau, Lorna

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, single-page measurement tool that evaluates risk of skin breakdown in the peadiatric population and apply it to the acutely hospitalized child. Data were collected over a 15-month period from 347 patients on four in-patient units (PICU, medical-surgical, oncology, and adolescents) on skin breakdown using the AHCPR staging guidelines and compared to the total score on the Starkid SkinScale in order to determine its ability to predict skin breakdown. The inter-rater reliability of the Starkid Skin Scale was r2 = 0.85 with an internal reliablity of 0.71. The sensitivity of the total score was low (17.5%) but highly specific (98.5%). The prevalence of skin breakdown in the acutely hospitalized child was 23%, the majority (77.5%) occurring as erythema of the skin. Buttocks, perineum, and occiput were the most common locations of breakdown. Occiput breakdown was more common in critically ill (PICU) patients while diaper dermatitis was more common in the general medical-surgical population.

  13. Impulse breakdown of liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Ushakov, Vasily Y

    2007-01-01

    The book describes the main physical processes and phenomena in pulsed electric breakdown. The knowledge and the control of the electric breakdown of liquids is important not only for the insulation inside power systems but it is also used for the creation and information of high voltage and high current pulses. Such high-voltage micro- and nanosecond pulses find wide application in experimental physics, electro discharge technology, physics of dielectrics, radar detection and ranging, high-speed photography. The nature of charge carriers, mechanism of formation and evolution of the gas phase,

  14. Beauty in the Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Most human beings look at erosion as the destruction of a surface, but artists can see that erosion often creates indefinable beauty. Where do you see beauty in the breakdown? In this article, the author presents an innovative lesson that would allow students to observe both human and physical nature. In this activity students will create a work…

  15. Degenerescência da polpa e respiração de quivi cv. "Bruno" em função das condições de armazenamento Internal breakdown and respiration of 'Bruno' kiwifruit in relation to storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano André Steffens

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da atmosfera controlada sobre a ocorrência da degenerescência da polpa, de sabor e aroma alcoólico no quivi cultivar "Bruno" e a relação destes parâmetros com a taxa respiratória e o quociente respiratório. Os tratamentos foram 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5kPa O2, combinados com 8, 12 e 16kPa CO2. A incidência de degenerescência da polpa e de frutos com aroma alcoólico foi menor nos frutos armazenados com 8kPa de CO2, independente do nível de O2. A taxa respiratória dos frutos foi menor nos tratamentos com 16kPa de CO2 e o quociente respiratório apresentou os maiores valores no tratamento com 0,5kPa de O2 combinado com 16kPa de CO2. A taxa respiratória correlacionou-se negativamente com a incidência de degenerescência da polpa e com a presença de aroma alcoólico. O quociente respiratório apresentou uma correlação positiva com a degenerescência da polpa e com a incidência de aroma alcoólico. Segundo a análise sensorial, os tratamentos com 1,0 e 1,5kPa de O2, combinados com 8kPa de CO2, não induziram a formação de sabor alcoólico nos frutos.This research was aimed at evaluating the effect of controlled atmosphere on the internal breakdown, alcoholic taste and flavor in ‘Bruno’ kiwifruits and the relationship between these parameters and the rate and respiratory quotient. The treatments were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5kPa O2 combined with 8, 12 and 16kPa CO2. The internal breakdown and occurrence of fruits with flavor was lower at 8kPa of CO2 independent of O2 level. Respiration rate of fruits was lower at treatments with 16kPa of CO2 and the respiratory quotient showed highest values at treatment with 16kPa of CO2. The respiration rate was negatively correlated with internal breakdown and flavor incidence. The respiratory quotient showed a positive correlation with internal breakdown and alcoholic aroma incidence. According to sensory analysis, the treatments with 1.0 and 1.5kPa of O2 combined

  16. Promoting the Recognition and Protection of the Rights of All Migrants Using a Soft-Law International Migrants Bill of Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Kysel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rights and movement of people crossing international borders remain inadequately governed and incompletely protected by a fragmented patchwork of institutions and norms. In recent years, debates regarding migration law and practice globally have been focused on subcategories of migrants, such as refugees, or on particular migration contexts, such as migration as a result of crisis or climate change. In response, a transnational initiative housed at the Georgetown University Law Center has drafted a soft-law bill of rights — the International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR — that seeks to elaborate the law protecting all migrants, regardless of the cause of their movement across an international border. The bill draws its content from human rights, refugee, and labor law, among other areas, and is drafted to be a comprehensive and declarative tool that articulates a core set of rights to protect migrants and to apply in the migration context.This article articulates how such a tool could be used to promote the recognition and protection of the rights of all migrants, in law and in practice. It argues that a soft-law bill of rights could be leveraged to fill significant gaps and promote an improved normative and institutional infrastructure that better protects all migrants worldwide. Section I provides a brief overview of the gap that a soft-law bill of rights can address. Section II provides a brief overview of the history and content of the bill of rights and IMBR Initiative. Section III describes, specifically, how making use of a soft-law bill of rights stands to improve the recognition and protection of fundamental rights that protect all migrants — and how soft law can help fill specific protection gaps.

  17. Detection Method for Soft Internal Short Circuit in Lithium-Ion Battery Pack by Extracting Open Circuit Voltage of Faulted Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhwan Seo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of internal short circuit which is main cause of thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is necessary to ensure battery safety for users. As a promising fault index, internal short circuit resistance can directly represent degree of the fault because it describes self-discharge phenomenon caused by the internal short circuit clearly. However, when voltages of individual cells in a lithium-ion battery pack are not provided, the effect of internal short circuit in the battery pack is not readily observed in whole terminal voltage of the pack, leading to difficulty in estimating accurate internal short circuit resistance. In this paper, estimating the resistance with the whole terminal voltages and the load currents of the pack, a detection method for the soft internal short circuit in the pack is proposed. Open circuit voltage of a faulted cell in the pack is extracted to reflect the self-discharge phenomenon obviously; this process yields accurate estimates of the resistance. The proposed method is verified with various soft short conditions in both simulations and experiments. The error of estimated resistance does not exceed 31.2% in the experiment, thereby enabling the battery management system to detect the internal short circuit early.

  18. Gas breakdown in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.A.; Pogutse, O.P.; Yurchenko, Eh.I.

    1975-01-01

    The initial stage of the charge development in a tokomak is considered theoretically. It is supposed that all electrons produced in neutral gas ionisation process are in the regime of an almost continuous acceleration. The production time of a given electron density is calculated as a function of the neutral gas density and of parameters of the vortex electric field. The mechanism of plasma escape on walls is considered. It is shown that the escaping time is defined by a specific inertial flow of plasma and depends on whether chamber walls are metal or dielectric. The criterion of the gas breakdown in a toroidal system is formulated. The developed theory is shown to explain a strong dependence of the breakdown on the gas initial density [ru

  19. The International Politics of Legal Reforms: Hard Bilateralism, Soft Multilateralism and the World Bank’s “Doing Business” Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shin Tang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Law and Development literature still debates on the role of international institutions in promoting legal reforms as a means of inducing economic growth. This article takes one step further by arguing that incremental circumstances compelled such institutions to change from bilaterally-binding pressures to soft-based multilateral strategies, by analyzing the gradual rise of the World Bank’s “Doing Business” initiative.

  20. The International Politics of Legal Reforms: Hard Bilateralism, Soft Multilateralism and the World Bank’s “Doing Business” Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Law and Development literature still debates on the role of international institutions in promoting legal reforms as a means of inducing economic growth. This article takes one step further by arguing that incremental circumstances compelled such institutions to change from bilaterally-binding pressures to soft-based multilateral strategies, by analyzing the gradual rise of the World Bank’s “Doing Business” initiative.

  1. PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M ampersand S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M ampersand S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry

  2. Breakdowns in collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative information seeking is integral to many professional activities. In hospital work, the medication process encompasses continual seeking for information and collaborative grounding of information. This study investigates breakdowns in collaborative information seeking through analyses...... of the use of the electronic medication record adopted in a Danish healthcare region and of the reports of five years of medication incidents at Danish hospitals. The results show that breakdowns in collaborative information seeking is a major source of medication incidents, that most of these breakdowns...... are breakdowns in collaborative grounding rather than information seeking, that the medication incidents mainly concern breakdowns in the use of records as opposed to oral communication, that the breakdowns span multiple degrees of separation between clinicians, and that the electronic medication record has...

  3. Breakdown of interdependent directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Stanley, H Eugene; Gao, Jianxi

    2016-02-02

    Increasing evidence shows that real-world systems interact with one another via dependency connectivities. Failing connectivities are the mechanism behind the breakdown of interacting complex systems, e.g., blackouts caused by the interdependence of power grids and communication networks. Previous research analyzing the robustness of interdependent networks has been limited to undirected networks. However, most real-world networks are directed, their in-degrees and out-degrees may be correlated, and they are often coupled to one another as interdependent directed networks. To understand the breakdown and robustness of interdependent directed networks, we develop a theoretical framework based on generating functions and percolation theory. We find that for interdependent Erdős-Rényi networks the directionality within each network increases their vulnerability and exhibits hybrid phase transitions. We also find that the percolation behavior of interdependent directed scale-free networks with and without degree correlations is so complex that two criteria are needed to quantify and compare their robustness: the percolation threshold and the integrated size of the giant component during an entire attack process. Interestingly, we find that the in-degree and out-degree correlations in each network layer increase the robustness of interdependent degree heterogeneous networks that most real networks are, but decrease the robustness of interdependent networks with homogeneous degree distribution and with strong coupling strengths. Moreover, by applying our theoretical analysis to real interdependent international trade networks, we find that the robustness of these real-world systems increases with the in-degree and out-degree correlations, confirming our theoretical analysis.

  4. Stress-induced breakdown during galvanostatic anodising of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Overmeere, Q.; Proost, J.

    2010-01-01

    Although internal stress is frequently being suggested as a plausible reason for oxide breakdown during valve metal anodising, no direct quantitative evidence has been made available yet. In this work, we anodized sputtered zirconium thin films galvanostatically at room temperature in sulphuric acid until breakdown was observed, and simultaneously measured the internal stress evolution in the oxide in situ, using a high-resolution curvature setup. It was found that the higher the magnitude of the observed internal compressive stress in the oxide, the smaller the oxide thickness at which breakdown occurred. The moment of breakdown was identified from a slope change in the cell voltage evolution, indicative for a decrease in anodising efficiency. The latter presumably occurs as a result of oxygen evolution, initiated by the relative increase of the cubic or tetragonal zirconia phase content relative to the monoclinic one. This was evidenced in turn by comparing electron diffractograms, taken in a transmission electron microscope, before and after breakdown. The critical role of internal stress on oxide breakdown during zirconium anodising can therefore be associated with its promoting effect on the densifying phase transformation of monoclinic oxide.

  5. The Role of Study-Abroad Students in Cultural Diplomacy: Toward an International Education as Soft Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akli, Madalina

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that study-abroad students should be at the center of cultural diplomacy. It recognizes that students can engage in soft action to establish intercultural dialogue. They develop and sustain relationships with people from host countries through cultural immersion and education. Study-abroad students are encouraged to proactively…

  6. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  7. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  8. Intracellular protein breakdown. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohley, P.; Kirschke, H.; Langner, J.; Wiederanders, B.; Ansorge, S.

    1976-01-01

    Double-labelled proteins from rat liver cytosol ( 14 C in long-lived, 3 H in short-lived proteins after in-vivo-labelling) are used as substrates for unlabelled proteinases in vitro. Differences in the degradation rates of short-lived and long-lived proteins in vitro by different proteinases and after addition of different effectors allow conclusions concerning their importance for the in-vivo-turnover of substrate proteins. The main activity (>90%) of soluble lysosomal proteinases at pH 6.1 and pH 6.9 is caused by thiolproteinases, which degrade preferentially short-lived cytosol proteins. These proteinases are inhibited by leupeptin. Autolysis of double-labelled cell fractions shows a remarkably faster breakdown of short-lived substrate proteins only in the soluble part of lysosomes. Microsomal fractions degrade in vitro preferentially long-lived substrate proteins. (author)

  9. Breakdown concepts for contingency tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhnt, S.

    2010-01-01

    Loglinear Poisson models are commonly used to analyse contingency tables. So far, robustness of parameter estimators as well as outlier detection have rarely been treated in this context. We start with finite-sample breakdown points. We yield that the breakdown point of mean value estimators

  10. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.); Radiografia e processamento de imagens na deteccao de disturbios fisiologicos internos em frutos da mangueira (Mangifera indica L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

    2004-01-15

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  11. Real-time patient-specific finite element analysis of internal stresses in the soft tissues of a residual limb: a new tool for prosthetic fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, S; Yarnitzky, G; Yizhar, Z; Kristal, A; Oppenheim, U; Siev-Ner, I; Gefen, A

    2007-01-01

    Fitting of a prosthetic socket is a critical stage in the process of rehabilitation of a trans-tibial amputation (TTA) patient, since a misfit may cause pressure ulcers or a deep tissue injury (DTI: necrosis of the muscle flap under intact skin) in the residual limb. To date, prosthetic fitting typically depends on the subjective skills of the prosthetist, and is not supported by biomedical instrumentation that allows evaluation of the quality of fitting. Specifically, no technology is presently available to provide real-time continuous information on the internal distribution of mechanical stresses in the residual limb during fitting of the prosthesis, or while using it and this severely limits patient evaluations. In this study, a simplified yet clinically oriented patient-specific finite element (FE) model of the residual limb was developed for real-time stress analysis. For this purpose we employed a custom-made FE code that continuously calculates internal stresses in the residual limb, based on boundary conditions acquired in real-time from force sensors, located at the limb-prosthesis interface. Validation of the modeling system was accomplished by means of a synthetic phantom of the residual limb, which allowed simultaneous measurements of interface pressures and internal stresses. Human studies were conducted subsequently in five TTA patients. The dimensions of bones and soft tissues were obtained from X-rays of the residual limb of each patient. An indentation test was performed in order to obtain the effective elastic modulus of the soft tissues of the residual limb. Seven force sensors were placed between the residual limb and the prosthetic liner, and subjects walked on a treadmill during analysis. Generally, stresses under the shinbones were approximately threefold higher than stresses at the soft tissues behind the bones. Usage of a thigh corset decreased the stresses in the residual limb during gait by approximately 80%. Also, the stresses

  12. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coated, rather than having fresh broken faces, and blocks continue to disintegrate after separating from the bedrock. Not only gypsum, but also hydromagnesite and aragonite are responsible for crystal wedging. It is impossible to study or identify potential breakdown foci by surface surveys alone, in-cave observation and mapping are essential.

  13. Analyzing randomly occurring voltage breakdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    During acceptance testing of high-vacuum neutron tubes, 40% of the tubes failed after experiencing high-voltage breakdowns during the aging process. Use of a digitizer in place of an oscilloscope revealed two types of breakdowns, only one of which affected acceptance testing. This information allowed redesign of the aging sequence to prevent tube damage and improve yield and quality of the final product

  14. New method to analyse internal disruptions with five-camera soft x-ray tomography on RTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzi, C.P. [FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica, Rijnhuizen (Netherlands); Blank, H.J. de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The five-camera soft x-ray diagnostic on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP) offers a wealth of information on sawteeth. Using four or five cameras, tomographic images with 7 poloidal harmonics have been obtained throughout sawtooth crashes and precursor oscillations. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the precursors are ideal MHD modes or can be attributed to the resistive growth of a magnetic island. In practice, the detection of the topology of magnetic surfaces from the reconstructed tomographic images is complicated by the fact that (except during the final phase of the collapse) the time dependence is dominated by rotation of the m = 1 displacement. A novel method allows to define quantities, e.g. the plasma volume where the emissivity is within a certain range, whose change is only determined by cross-field transport or reconnection, and is not affected by m = 1 convection and by rotation. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  15. New method to analyse internal disruptions with five-camera soft x-ray tomography on RTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, C.P.; Blank, H.J. de

    1994-01-01

    The five-camera soft x-ray diagnostic on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP) offers a wealth of information on sawteeth. Using four or five cameras, tomographic images with 7 poloidal harmonics have been obtained throughout sawtooth crashes and precursor oscillations. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the precursors are ideal MHD modes or can be attributed to the resistive growth of a magnetic island. In practice, the detection of the topology of magnetic surfaces from the reconstructed tomographic images is complicated by the fact that (except during the final phase of the collapse) the time dependence is dominated by rotation of the m = 1 displacement. A novel method allows to define quantities, e.g. the plasma volume where the emissivity is within a certain range, whose change is only determined by cross-field transport or reconnection, and is not affected by m = 1 convection and by rotation. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs

  16. Internal structure and stability of an interstellar cloud heated by an external flux of soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabano, Yutaka; Tosa, Makoto

    1975-01-01

    We study the properties of an interstellar gas cloud which is heated by an external flux of soft X-rays and has a uniform pressure distribution. The heating flux is significantly attenuated inside the cloud even for a rather small cloud, and the central region of the cloud is much cooler and denser than that heated uniformly, hence the cloud can be compressed easier. The stability of such a gas cloud and its implications for the process of star formation are discussed on the basis of the two-phase model of the interstellar medium. The large scale galactic shock seems important as a triggering mechanism for the formation of a dense cloud and for the gravitational collapse leading to star formation. (author)

  17. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  18. Soft leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Giudice, Gian F.; Raidal, Martti

    2003-01-01

    We study 'soft leptogenesis', a new mechanism of leptogenesis which does not require flavour mixing among the right-handed neutrinos. Supersymmetry soft-breaking terms give a small mass splitting between the CP-even and CP-odd right-handed sneutrino states of a single generation and provide a CP-violating phase sufficient to generate a lepton asymmetry. The mechanism is successful if the lepton-violating soft bilinear coupling is unconventionally (but not unnaturally) small. The values of the right-handed neutrino masses predicted by soft leptogenesis can be low enough to evade the cosmological gravitino problem

  19. Real-time subject-specific monitoring of internal deformations and stresses in the soft tissues of the foot: a new approach in gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnitzky, G; Yizhar, Z; Gefen, A

    2006-01-01

    No technology is presently available to provide real-time information on internal deformations and stresses in plantar soft tissues of individuals during evaluation of the gait pattern. Because internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad are critical factors in foot injuries such as diabetic foot ulceration, this severely limits evaluation of patients. To allow such real-time subject-specific analysis, we developed a hierarchal modeling system which integrates a two-dimensional gross structural model of the foot (high-order model) with local finite element (FE) models of the plantar tissue padding the calcaneus and medial metatarsal heads (low-order models). The high-order whole-foot model provides real-time analytical evaluations of the time-dependent plantar fascia tensile forces during the stance phase. These force evaluations are transferred, together with foot-shoe local reaction forces, also measured in real time (under the calcaneus, medial metatarsals and hallux), to the low-order FE models of the plantar pad, where they serve as boundary conditions for analyses of local deformations and stresses in the plantar pad. After careful verification of our custom-made FE solver and of our foot model system with respect to previous literature and against experimental results from a synthetic foot phantom, we conducted human studies in which plantar tissue loading was evaluated in real time during treadmill gait in healthy individuals (N = 4). We concluded that internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad during gait cannot be predicted from merely measuring the foot-shoe force reactions. Internal loading of the plantar pad is constituted by a complex interaction between the anatomical structure and mechanical behavior of the foot skeleton and soft tissues, the body characteristics, the gait pattern and footwear. Real-time FE monitoring of internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad is therefore required to identify elevated deformation

  20. High gradient RF breakdown study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, L.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Scheitrum, G.; Hanna, S.; Pearson, C.; Phillips, R.

    1998-01-01

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and UC Davis have been investigating high gradient RF breakdown and its effects on pulse shortening in high energy microwave devices. RF breakdown is a critical issue in the development of high power microwave sources and next generation linear accelerators since it limits the output power of microwave sources and the accelerating gradient of linacs. The motivation of this research is to find methods to increase the breakdown threshold level in X-band structures by reducing dark current. Emphasis is focused on improved materials, surface finish, and cleanliness. The test platform for this research is a traveling wave resonant ring. A 30 MW klystron is employed to provide up to 300 MW of traveling wave power in the ring to trigger breakdown in the cavity. Five TM 01 cavities have previously been tested, each with a different combination of surface polish and/or coating. The onset of breakdown was extended up to 250 MV/m with a TiN surface finish, as compared to 210 MV/m for uncoated OFE copper. Although the TiN coating was helpful in depressing the field emission, the lowest dark current was obtained with a 1 microinch surface finish, single-point diamond-turned cavity

  1. Vortex breakdown incipience: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Stanley A.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of the onset and the location of vortex breakdowns in concentrated vortex cores, and the pronounced tendency of the breakdowns to migrate upstream have been characteristic observations of experimental investigations; they have also been features of numerical simulations and led to questions about the validity of these simulations. This behavior seems to be inconsistent with the strong time-like axial evolution of the flow, as expressed explicitly, for example, by the quasi-cylindrical approximate equations for this flow. An order-of-magnitude analysis of the equations of motion near breakdown leads to a modified set of governing equations, analysis of which demonstrates that the interplay between radial inertial, pressure, and viscous forces gives an elliptic character to these concentrated swirling flows. Analytical, asymptotic, and numerical solutions of a simplified non-linear equation are presented; these qualitatively exhibit the features of vortex onset and location noted above.

  2. International Education as Soft Power? The Contributions and Challenges of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Internationalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of the Canadian federal government in two foreign policy areas: overseas development assistance and international cultural relations by providing a brief history of the federal government's engagement in both policy areas and highlighting the contributions and challenges of Canadian foreign policy to the…

  3. Flap reconstruction for soft-tissue defects with exposed hardware following deep infection after internal fixation of ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovaska, Mikko T; Madanat, Rami; Tukiainen, Erkki; Pulliainen, Lea; Sintonen, Harri; Mäkinen, Tatu J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the outcome for patients treated with flap reconstruction following deep ankle fracture infection with exposed hardware. Out of 3041 consecutive ankle fracture operations in 3030 patients from 2006 to 2011, we identified 56 patients requiring flap reconstruction following deep infection. Thirty-two of these patients could be examined at a follow-up visit. Olerud-Molander Ankle (OMA) score, 15D score, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and clinical examination were used to assess the outcome. A total of 58 flap reconstructions were performed in 56 patients with a mean age of 57 years (range 25–93 years) and mean follow-up time of 52 months. The most commonly used reconstruction was a distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap with a split-thickness skin graft. A microvascular free flap was required in only one patient. 22 (39%) patients required subsequent surgical interventions because of a flap-related complication. With flap reconstruction, hardware could eventually be salvaged in 53% of patients with a non-consolidated fracture. The mean OMA score was fair or poor in 53% of the patients, and only 56% had recovered their pre-injury level of function. Half of the patients had shoe wear limitations. The 15D score showed a significantly poorer health-related quality of life compared to an age-standardised sample of the general population. The mean pain NRS was 2.1 (range 0–6), and the mean satisfaction NRS was 6.6 (range 0–10). Our study showed that successful treatment of a soft-tissue defect with exposed hardware following ankle fracture infections can be achieved with local flaps. Despite eventual reconstructive success, complications are common. Patients perceive a poorer health-related quality of life, have shoe wear limitations, and only half of them achieve their pre-injury level of function.

  4. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques. Part 2; Preliminary System Performance Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.; Weiss, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance results of the artificial intelligence monitoring system in full operational mode using near real time acceleration data downlinked from the International Space Station. Preliminary microgravity environment characterization analysis result for the International Space Station (Increment-2), using the monitoring system is presented. Also, comparison between the system predicted performance based on ground test data for the US laboratory "Destiny" module and actual on-orbit performance, using measured acceleration data from the U.S. laboratory module of the International Space Station is presented. Finally, preliminary on-orbit disturbance magnitude levels are presented for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space, which are compared with on ground test data. The ground test data for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space were acquired from the Microgravity Emission Laboratory, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The artificial intelligence was developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services Project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment of time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a dynamic graphical display, implemented in Java, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments, whenever that is an option, based on the acceleration magnitude and frequency sensitivity associated with that experiment. This monitoring system detects primarily the vibratory disturbance sources. The system has built-in capability to detect both known

  5. 'Soft' human resource management in small international joint ventures:Cases from the Danish-Vietnamese context

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the value creation aspects of HRM in international joint ventures of a relatively small size and their implications for strategic management. We assume that HRM in this context is rather a process than a function, and a ‘soft’ – humanistic rather than a ‘hard’, instrumentalist managerial approach. Using cases from a modest sample of Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, we propose that HRM is significantly associated with creating a healthy and adaptive environment for mutua...

  6. Investigations of dc breakdown fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsvik, Trond; Reginelli, Alessandra; Taborelli, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    The need for high accelerating gradients for the future 30 GHz multi-TeV e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) at CERN has triggered a comprehensive study of DC breakdown fields of metals in UHV. The study shows that molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti) and TiVAl reach high breakdown fields, and are thus good candidates for the iris material of CLIC structures. A significant decrease in the saturated breakdown field (Esat) is observed for molybdenum and tungsten when exposed to air. Specifically, at air pressures of 10-5 mbar, the decrease in Esat is found to be 50% and 30% for molybdenum and tungsten, respectively. In addition, a 30% decrease is found when molybdenum is conditioned with a CO pressure of ~1-10-5 mbar. Surface analysis measurements and breakdown conditioning in O2 ambience imply that the origin of the decrease in Esat is closely linked to oxide formation on the cathode surface. "Ex-situ" treatments by ion bombardment of molybdenum effectively reduce the oxide layers, and improve the brea...

  7. En bloc resection of extra-peritoneal soft tissue neoplasms incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy: a novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sanjay S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A type III hemipelvectomy has been utilized for the resection of tumors arising from the superior or inferior pubic rami. Methods In eight patients, we incorporated a type III internal hemipelvectomy to achieve an en bloc R0 resection for tumors extending through the obturator foramen or into the ischiorectal fossa. The pelvic ring was reconstructed utilizing marlex mesh. This allowed for pelvic stability and abdominal wall reconstruction with obliteration of the obturator space to prevent herniations. Results All eight patients had an R0 resection with an overall survival of 88% and with average follow up of 9.5 years. Functional evaluation utilizing the Enneking classification system, which evaluates motion, pain, stability and strength of the affected extremity, revealed a 62% excellent result and a 37% good result. No significant complications were associated with the operative procedure. Marlex mesh reconstruction provided pelvic stability and eliminated all hernial defects. Conclusion The superior and inferior pubic rami provide a barrier to a resection for tumors that arise in the extra-peritoneal pelvis extending through the obturator foramen or ischiorectal fossa. Incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy with a simple marlex mesh reconstruction allows for complete tumor resection without functional compromise, acute infectious issues, obturator or abdominal hernia defects.

  8. Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M

    2018-04-09

    This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics. It will also suggest how and why soft robotics is more than simply a minor technical "tweak" on hard robotics and propose a unique role for chemistry, and materials science, in this field. Soft robotics is, at its core, intellectually and technologically different from hard robotics, both because it has different objectives and uses and because it relies on the properties of materials to assume many of the roles played by sensors, actuators, and controllers in hard robotics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Soft lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Jan; Mahadevan, Laksminarayanan

    2004-11-01

    We study the lubrication of fluid-immersed soft interfaces and show that elastic deformation couples tangential and normal forces and thus generates lift. We consider materials that deform easily, due to either geometry (e.g a shell) or constitutive properties (e.g. a gel or a rubber), so that the effects of pressure and temperature on the fluid properties may be neglected. Four different system geometries are considered: a rigid cylinder moving tangentially to a soft layer coating a rigid substrate; a soft cylinder moving tangentially to a rigid substrate; a cylindrical shell moving tangentially to a rigid substrate; and finally a journal bearing coated with a thin soft layer, which being a conforming contact allows us to gauge the influence of contact geometry. In addition, for the particular case of a soft layer coating a rigid substrate we consider both elastic and poroelastic material responses. Finally, we consider the role of contact geometry in the context of the journal bearing, a conforming contact. For all these cases we find the same generic behavior: there is an optimal combination of geometric and material parameters that maximizes the dimensionless normal force as a function of the softness.

  10. The structure and dynamics of bubble-type vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, R. E.; Ash, R. L.; Gatski, T. B.

    1990-01-01

    A unique discrete form of the Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady, three-dimensional, incompressible flow has been used to study vortex breakdown numerically. A Burgers-type vortex was introduced along the central axis of the computational domain, and allowed to evolve in space and time. By varying the strength of the vortex and the free stream axial velocity distribution, using a previously developed Rossby number criterion as a guide, the location and size of the vortex breakdown region was controlled. While the boundaries of the vortex breakdown bubble appear to be nominally symmetric, the internal flow field is not. Consequently, the mechanisms for mixing and entrainment required to sustain the bubble region are different from those suggested by earlier axisymmetric models. Results presented in this study, for a Reynolds number of 200, are in good qualitative agreement with higher Reynolds number experimental observations, and a variety of plots have been presented to help illuminate the fluid physics.

  11. Gauge theories as theories of spontaneous breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetsky, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    Any gauge theory is proved to arise from spontaneous breakdown of symmetry under certain infinite parameter group, the corresponding gauge field being the Goldstone field by which this breakdown is accompanied

  12. PREFACE: 1st International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics: Condensed Matter, Soft Matter and Materials Physics & 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38) and the 1st International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics: Condensed Matter, Soft Matter and Materials Physics (IWTCP-1). Both the conference and the workshop were held from 29 July to 1 August 2013 in Pullman hotel, Da Nang, Vietnam. The IWTCP-1 was a new activity of the Vietnamese Theoretical Physics Society (VTPS) organized in association with the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38), the most well-known annual scientific forum dedicated to the dissemination of the latest development in the field of theoretical physics within the country. The IWTCP-1 was also an External Activity of the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP). The overriding goal of the IWTCP is to provide an international forum for scientists and engineers from academia to share ideas, problems and solution relating to the recent advances in theoretical physics as well as in computational physics. The main IWTCP motivation is to foster scientific exchanges between the Vietnamese theoretical and computational physics community and world-wide scientists as well as to promote high-standard level of research and education activities for young physicists in the country. About 110 participants coming from 10 countries participated in the conference and the workshop. 4 invited talks, 18 oral contributions and 46 posters were presented at the conference. In the workshop we had one keynote lecture and 9 invited talks presented by international experts in the fields of theoretical and computational physics, together with 14 oral and 33 poster contributions. The proceedings were edited by Nguyen Tri Lan, Trinh Xuan Hoang, and Nguyen Ai Viet. We would like to thank all invited speakers, participants and sponsors for making the conference and the workshop successful. Nguyen Ai Viet Chair of NCTP-38 and IWTCP-1

  13. Self-Supporting Nanoclay as Internal Scaffold Material for Direct Printing of Soft Hydrogel Composite Structures in Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yifei; Liu, Chengcheng; Chai, Wenxuan; Compaan, Ashley; Huang, Yong

    2017-05-24

    Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology enables the freeform fabrication of complex constructs from various hydrogels and is receiving increasing attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study is to develop a novel self-supporting direct hydrogel printing approach to extrude complex 3D hydrogel composite structures in air without the help of a support bath. Laponite, a member of the smectite mineral family, is investigated to serve as an internal scaffold material for the direct printing of hydrogel composite structures in air. In the proposed printing approach, due to its yield-stress property, Laponite nanoclay can be easily extruded through a nozzle as a liquid and self-supported after extrusion as a solid. Its unique crystal structure with positive and negative charges enables it to be mixed with many chemically and physically cross-linked hydrogels, which makes it an ideal internal scaffold material for the fabrication of various hydrogel structures. By mixing Laponite nanoclay with various hydrogel precursors, the hydrogel composites retain their self-supporting capacity and can be printed into 3D structures directly in air and retain their shapes before cross-linking. Then, the whole structures are solidified in situ by applying suitable cross-linking stimuli. The addition of Laponite nanoclay can effectively improve the mechanical and biological properties of hydrogel composites. Specifically, the addition of Laponite nanoclay results in a significant increase in the Young's modulus of each hydrogel-Laponite composite: 1.9-fold increase for the poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)-Laponite composite, 7.4-fold increase for the alginate-Laponite composite, and 3.3-fold increase for the gelatin-Laponite composite.

  14. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... archiving. The Soft Clouding Project is part of LARM - a major infrastructure combining research in and access to sound and radio archives in Denmark. In 2012 the LARM infrastructure will consist of more than 1 million hours of radio, combined with metadata who describes the content. The idea is to analyse...... the concept of ‘infrastructure’ and ‘interface’ on a creative play with the fundamentals of LARM (and any sound archive situation combining many kinds and layers of data and sources). This paper will present and discuss the Soft clouding project from the perspective of the three practices and competencies...

  15. Individual breakdown of pension rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    You should have recently received, via email, your “Individual breakdown of pension rights”.   Please note that: the calculation was based on data as at 1st July 2016, as at 1st September 2016, CERN will introduce a new career structure; the salary position will now be expressed as a percentage of a midpoint of a grade.   We would like to draw your attention to the fact that your pension rights will remain unchanged. Benefits Service CERN Pension Fund

  16. Voltage breakdown on niobium and copper surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, G.R.; Padamsee, H.; Betzwieser, J.C.; Liu, Y.G.; Rubin, K.H.R.; Shipman, J.E.; Ying, L.T.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that voltage breakdown in superconducting niobium RF cavities is in many ways similar to voltage breakdown on niobium cathodes in DC voltage gaps; most striking are the distinctive starburst patterns and craters that mark the site of voltage breakdown in both superconducting cavities and DC vacuum gaps. Therefore, we can learn much about RF breakdown from simpler, faster DC experiments. We have direct evidence, in the form of before'' and ''after'' pictures, that breakdown events caused by high surface electric fields occur with high probability at contaminant particles on surfaces. Although the pre-breakdown behavior (field emission) seems to depend mostly on the contaminant particles present and little on the substrate, the breakdown event itself is greatly affected by the substrate-niobium, heavily oxidized niobium, electropolished copper, and diamond-machined copper cathodes lead to different kinds of breakdown events. By studying DC voltage breakdown we hope to learn more details about the processes involved in the transition from field emission to catastrophic arcing and the cratering of the surface; as well as learning how to prevent breakdown, we would like to learn how to cause breakdown, which could be important when ''processing'' cavities to reduce field emission. (author)

  17. Soft electronics for soft robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca K.

    2015-05-01

    As advanced as modern machines are, the building blocks have changed little since the industrial revolution, leading to rigid, bulky, and complex devices. Future machines will include electromechanical systems that are soft and elastically deformable, lending them to applications such as soft robotics, wearable/implantable devices, sensory skins, and energy storage and transport systems. One key step toward the realization of soft systems is the development of stretchable electronics that remain functional even when subject to high strains. Liquid-metal traces embedded in elastic polymers present a unique opportunity to retain the function of rigid metal conductors while leveraging the deformable properties of liquid-elastomer composites. However, in order to achieve the potential benefits of liquid-metal, scalable processing and manufacturing methods must be identified.

  18. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Aggarwal, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 71-year-old woman with a history of metastatic ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset, rapidly progressing painful rash in the genital region and lower abdominal wall. She was febrile to 103°F, heart rate was 114 beats per minute, and respiratory rate was 24 per minute. Her exam was notable for a toxic-appearing female with extensive areas of erythema, tenderness, and induration to her lower abdomen, intertriginous areas, and perineum with intermittent segments of crepitus without hemorrhagic bullae or skin breakdown. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT of the abdominal and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast revealed inflammatory changes, including gas and fluid collections within the ventral abdominal wall extending to the vulva, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection. Discussion: Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection of the skin and soft tissues that requires an early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality. Classified into several subtypes based on the type of microbial infection, necrotizing fasciitis can rapidly progress to septic shock or death if left untreated.1 Diagnosing necrotizing fasciitis requires a high index of suspicion based on patient risk factors, presentation, and exam findings. Definitive treatment involves prompt surgical exploration and debridement coupled with IV antibiotics.2,3 Clinical characteristics such as swelling, disproportionate pain, erythema, crepitus, and necrotic tissue should be a guide to further diagnostic tests.4 Unfortunately, lab values such as white blood cell count and lactate imaging studies have high sensitivity but low specificity, making the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis still largely a clinical one.4,5 CT is a reliable method to exclude the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections (sensitivity of 100%, but is only moderately reliable in correctly identifying such infections (specificity of 81%.5 Given the emergent

  19. The breakdown of COSMOS 1402

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlund, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sections of the satellite COSMOS 1402 containing radioactive materials disintegrated in the atmosphere over the Indian and Atlantic oceans Janyary/February 1983. Having the COSMOS 954 incident in mind and taking account of the fact that several satellite orbits crossed Norwegian territory, some preparedness measures were implemented prior to the break-down. The report describes the functions and experiences of an ad hoc satellite counsil which was appointed to take care of data collection, informaton to the public and planning for emergency actions. (RF)

  20. Dielectric breakdown in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus consists of a 130 kV dc 80 kV ac intermediate voltage unit and a 600 kV dc 700 kV high voltage unit under construction. The experimental devices consist of an insulated container, or dewar, in which two electrodes are placed, one above the other. A voltage is built up in one electrode until an arc occurs to the other electrode. A typical set of breakdown data is shown. A mathematical analysis is briefly described. (MOW)

  1. ["Nervous breakdown": a diagnostic characterization study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmán, E; Carrasco, J L; Liebowitz, M; Díaz Marsá, M; Prieto, R; Jusino, C; Cárdenas, D; Klein, D

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the influence of different psychiatric co-morbidities on the symptoms of the disorder popularly known as "ataque de nervios" (nervous breakdown) among the US Hispanic population. Using a self-completed instrument designed specially for both traditional nervous breakdown and for panic symptoms, and structured or semi-structured psychiatric interviews for Axis I disorders, and evaluation was made of Hispanic subjects who sought treatment for anxiety in a clinic (n = 156). This study centered on 102 subjects who presented symptoms of "nervous breakdown" and comorbidity with panic disorder, other anxiety disorders, or affective disorder. Variations in co-morbidity with "nervous breakdown" enabled the identification of different patterns of "nervous breakdown" presenting symptoms. Individuals with "nervous breakdown" and panic disorder characteristically expressed a greater sense of asphyxiation, fear of dying, and growing fear (panic-like) during their breakdowns. Subjects with "nervous breakdown" and affective disorder had a greater sensation of anger and more tendency toward screaming and aggressive behavior such as breaking things during the breakdown (emotional anger). Finally, subjects with "nervous breakdown" and co-morbidity with another anxiety disorder had fewer "paniclike" or "emotional anger" symptoms. These findings suggest that: a) the widely used term "nervous breakdown" is a popular label for different patterns of loss of emotional control; b) the type of loss of emotional control is influenced by the associated psychiatric disorder; and c) the symptoms characteristics of the "nervous breakdown" can be useful clinical markers for associated psychiatric disorders. Future research is needed to determine whether the known Hispanic entity "ataque de nervios" is simply a popular description for different aspects of well-known psychiatric disorders, or if it reflects specific demographic, environmental, personality and/or clinical

  2. Discharge breakdown in the EXTRAP configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.R.

    1982-02-01

    The breakdown of a discharge in a linear EXTRAP configuration has been studied experimentally. In this configuration the breakdown occurs along the zero B-field line, which is the axis of the linear octupole magnetic field, between the anode and cathode which constitute the ends of the linear device. Breakdown could be described by a modified Townsend criterion which included additional electron losses due to the presence of the B-field transverse to the discharge. (author)

  3. Electrode breakdown potentials in MHD plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Raju, G.V.R.; Kumar, A.S.; Gupta, Bhumesh

    1988-01-01

    Electrode breakdown potentials and current densities have been calculated for both the thermionically electron emitting and non-emitting cathodes. Calculated values have been compared with the available experimental results. It is found that the cathode potential drop for the breakdown is almost unaffected by the emission. However, both the total potential difference between the anode and the cathode and the current density at the breakdown are higher for electron-emitting cathodes than for non-emitting cathodes. (author)

  4. The Development of Breakdown in Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kudelcik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions under which breakdown of composite liquid - solid insulation can be occurred, e.g. in transformer, play an important role in designing of such insulation. The initial state of breakdown development is explained based on development of streamers in cavitations. The whole breakdown development in transformer oil is represented by RLC circuit and it depends on the parameters of outer circuit.

  5. Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery

    2011-01-01

    Experimental observations of vortex breakdown in a rotating lid-driven cavity are presented. The results show that vortex breakdown for cavities with high aspect ratios is associated with the appearance of stable helical vortex multiplets. By using results from stability theory generalizing Kelvi......’s problem on vortex polygon stability, and systematically exploring the cavity flow, we succeeded in identifying two new stable vortex breakdown states consisting of triple and quadruple helical multiplets....

  6. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fractures (Part II) Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Severed or Constricted Limbs or Digits Soft-Tissue ...

  7. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide program/project teams necessary instruction and guidance in the best practices for Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and WBS dictionary development and use for project implementation and management control. This handbook can be used for all types of NASA projects and work activities including research, development, construction, test and evaluation, and operations. The products of these work efforts may be hardware, software, data, or service elements (alone or in combination). The aim of this document is to assist project teams in the development of effective work breakdown structures that provide a framework of common reference for all project elements. The WBS and WBS dictionary are effective management processes for planning, organizing, and administering NASA programs and projects. The guidance contained in this document is applicable to both in-house, NASA-led effort and contracted effort. It assists management teams from both entities in fulfilling necessary responsibilities for successful accomplishment of project cost, schedule, and technical goals. Benefits resulting from the use of an effective WBS include, but are not limited to: providing a basis for assigned project responsibilities, providing a basis for project schedule development, simplifying a project by dividing the total work scope into manageable units, and providing a common reference for all project communication.

  8. The Multistability of Technological Breakdowns in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjarke Lindsø; Tafdrup, Oliver Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Everyone who is involved with modern technological artefacts such as computers, software and tablets has experienced situations where the artefacts suddenly cease to function properly. This is commonly known as a technological breakdown. Within education and the praxis of teaching...... technological breakdowns become a more and more ubiquitous phenomenon due to the rapid increase of technological artefacts utilized for educational purposes (Riis, 2012). The breakdowns impact the educational practice with consequences ranging from creating small obstacles to rendering it impossible to conduct...... successful teaching. Thus, knowing how to cope with technological breakdowns is a pivotal part of being a technological literate....

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics for classification of toys relying on toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Quienly; Leme, Flavio O.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Pereira Filho, Edenir R.; Rufini, Iolanda A.; Santos, Dario; Krug, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    Quality control of toys for avoiding children exposure to potentially toxic elements is of utmost relevance and it is a common requirement in national and/or international norms for health and safety reasons. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was recently evaluated at authors' laboratory for direct analysis of plastic toys and one of the main difficulties for the determination of Cd, Cr and Pb was the variety of mixtures and types of polymers. As most norms rely on migration (lixiviation) protocols, chemometric classification models from LIBS spectra were tested for sampling toys that present potential risk of Cd, Cr and Pb contamination. The classification models were generated from the emission spectra of 51 polymeric toys and by using Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The classification models and validations were carried out with 40 and 11 test samples, respectively. Best results were obtained when KNN was used, with corrected predictions varying from 95% for Cd to 100% for Cr and Pb.

  10. Building China’s soft power for a peaceful rise

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner

    2009-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic progress and steady increase in its international influence, China has gradually embarked on the soft power idea and has made developing its soft power as its national strategy. We argue that China’s soft power strategy is in accordance to Chinese Confucian culture and political value and fits well with its grand strategy of peaceful rise. Based on existing conceptualizations of soft power, we expanded the sources of soft power to six pillars: cul...

  11. The physics of ''vacuum'' breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirzke, F.

    1993-01-01

    Many discharges form small cathode spots which provide such a high energy density that the cathode material explodes into a dense plasma cloud within a very short time. Despite the fundamental importance of cathode spots for the breakdown process and the formation of a discharge, the structure of the cathode spot plasma and the source of the high energy density were not yet well defined. One model, the whisker explosive emission model, assumes that joule heating by field emitted electrons provides the energy. Current densities of j FE = 10 12 - 10 13 A/m 2 would be required. However, the pre-breakdown j FE is self-limiting. The negative space charge caused by j FE in the cathode-anode gap reduces the effective electric field E on the cathode surface. The maximum current density j CL is space charge limited by Child-Langmuir's law. The field emitting spot cannot deliver j CL without turning itself off, since the negative space charge caused by j CL reduces E congruent 0 at the cathode surface. Hence, it must be that the vacuum j FE CL . The development of a current with j > j FE (vacuum) requires that ions exist in front of the electron emitting spot. Ions cannot be emitted from the surface of the field emitting spot, the enhanced electric field would hold them back. The initial ionization must occur in the cathode-anode gap near the electron emitting spot. Ionization of desorbed neutrals provides the mechanism. This ionization process requires considerably less current than the ionization of solid material by joule heating. Field emission and the impact of ions stimulate desorption of weakly bound adsorbates from the surface of the electron emitting spot. The cross section for ionization of the neutrals has a maximum for ∼ 100 eV electrons

  12. Fast Breakdown as Coronal/Ionization Waves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Petersen, D.; da Silva, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of high-power narrow bipolar events (NBEs) have shown they are produced by a newly-recognized breakdown process called fast positive breakdown (FPB, Rison et al., 2016, doi:10.1038/ncomms10721). The breakdown was inferred to be produced by a system of positive streamers that propagate at high speed ( ˜3-6 x 107 m/s) due to occurring in a localized region of strong electric field. The polarity of the breakdown was determined from broadband interferometer (INTF) observations of the propagation direction of its VHF radiation, which was downward into the main negative charge region of a normally-electrified storm. Subsequent INTF observations being conducted in at Kennedy Space Center in Florida have shown a much greater incidence of NBEs than in New Mexico. Among the larger dataset have been clear-cut instances of some NBEs being produced by upward breakdown that would be of negative polarity. The speed and behavior of the negative breakdown is the same as that of the fast positive, leading to it being termed fast negative breakdown (FNB). The similarity (not too mention its occurrence) is surprising, given the fact that negative streamers and breakdown develops much differently than that of positive breakdown. The question is how this happens. In this study, we compare fast breakdown characteristics to well-known streamer properties as inferred from laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis. Additionally, we begin to explore the possibility that both polarities of fast breakdown are produced by what may be called coronal or ionization waves, in which the enhanced electric field produced by streamer or coronal breakdown of either polarity propagates away from the advancing front at the speed of light into a medium that is in a metastable condition of being at the threshold of hydrometeor-mediated corona onset or other ionization processes. The wave would develop at a faster speed than the streamer breakdown that gives rise to it, and thus would be

  13. Breakdown properties of irradiated MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paccagnella, A.; Candelori, A.; Pellizzer, F.; Fuochi, P.G.; Lavale, M.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on the breakdown properties of different types of MOS capacitors, with thick (200 nm) and thin (down to 8 nm) oxides. In general, no large variations of the average breakdown field, time-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown values have been observed after high dose irradiation (20 Mrad(Si) 9 MeV electrons on thin and thick oxides, 17(Si) Mrad Co 60 gamma and 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 only on thick oxides). However, some modifications of the cumulative failure distributions have been observed in few of the oxides tested

  14. Experiments concerning the theories of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Ronald L.; Stifle, Kirk E.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to investigate the character of vortex breakdown with particular regard to the stagnation and wave guide theories of vortex breakdown. Three different wings were used to produce a trailing vortex which convected downstream without undergoing breakdown. Disturbances were then introduced onto the vortex using a moving wire to 'cut' the vortex. The development of upstream and downstream propagating disturbance waves was observed and the propagation velocities measured. A downstream traveling wave was observed to produce a structure similar in appearance to a vortex breakdown. An upstream traveling wave produced a moving turbulent region. The upstream disturbance moved into an axial velocity profile that had a wake-like defect while the downstream moving vortex breakdown moved against a jet-like overshoot. The longitudinal and swirl velocity profiles were documented by LDV measurement. Wave velocities, swirl angles, and swirl parameters are reported.

  15. High-gradient breakdown studies of an X-band Compact Linear Collider prototype structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A Compact Linear Collider prototype traveling-wave accelerator structure fabricated at Tsinghua University was recently high-gradient tested at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK. This X-band structure showed good high-gradient performance of up to 100  MV/m and obtained a breakdown rate of 1.27×10^{−8} per pulse per meter at a pulse length of 250 ns. This performance was similar to that of previous structures tested at KEK and the test facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN, thereby validating the assembly and bonding of the fabricated structure. Phenomena related to vacuum breakdown were investigated and are discussed in the present study. Evaluation of the breakdown timing revealed a special type of breakdown occurring in the immediately succeeding pulse after a usual breakdown. These breakdowns tended to occur at the beginning of the rf pulse, whereas usual breakdowns were uniformly distributed in the rf pulse. The high-gradient test was conducted under the international collaboration research program among Tsinghua University, CERN, and KEK.

  16. Grain-Scale Supercharging and Breakdown on Airless Regoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Hartzell, C.M.; Wang, X.; Horanyi, M.; Hurley, D. M.; Hibbitts, K.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of the solar wind and emitted photoelectrons with airless bodies have been studied extensively. However, the details of how charged particles interact with the regolith at the scale of a single grain have remained largely uncharacterized. Recent efforts have focused upon determining total surface charge under photoemission and solar wind bombardment and the associated electric field and potential. In this work, theory and simulations are used to show that grain-grain charge differences can exceed classical sheath predictions by several orders of magnitude, sometimes reaching dielectric breakdown levels. Temperature-dependent electrical conductivity works against supercharging by allowing current to leak through individual grains; the balance between internal conduction and surface charging controls the maximum possible grain-to-grain electric field. Understanding the finer details of regolith grain charging, conductive equilibrium, and dielectric breakdown will improve future numerical studies of space weathering and dust levitation on airless bodies.

  17. Drell-Yan diffraction: breakdown of QCD factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasechnik, R.S.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffractive Drell-Yan process in proton-(anti)proton collisions at high energies in the color dipole approach. The calculations are performed at forward rapidities of the leptonic pair. The effect of eikonalization of the universal ''bare'' dipole-target elastic amplitude in the saturation regime takes into account the principal part of the gap survival probability. We present predictions for the total and differential cross sections of the single-diffractive lepton-pair production at RHIC and LHC energies. We analyze implications of the QCD factorization breakdown in the diffractive Drell-Yan process, which is caused by a specific interplay of the soft and hard interactions, resulting in rather unusual properties of the corresponding observables. (orig.)

  18. The Work Breakdown Structure in an Acquisition Reform Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert, Neil

    1997-01-01

    These viewgraphs discuss acquisition reform, costs, provide a definition for work breakdown structure, development process of work breakdown, an overview of contract business management, a GAO review...

  19. Breakdown characteristics of xenon HID Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia; Sato, Ayumu; Brates, Nanu; Noro, Koji; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The breakdown characteristics of mercury free xenon high intensity discharge (HID) lamps exhibit a large statistical time lag often having a large scatter in breakdown voltages. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the processes which determine the ignition voltages for positive and negative pulses in commercial HID lamps having fill pressures of up to 20 atm. Steep voltage rise results in higher avalanche electron densities and earlier breakdown times. Circuit characteristics also play a role. Large ballast resistors may limit current to the degree that breakdown is quenched. The breakdown voltage critically depends on cathode charge injection by electric field emission (or other mechanisms) which in large part controls the statistical time lag for breakdown. For symmetric lamps, ionization waves (IWs) simultaneously develop from the bottom and top electrodes. Breakdown typically occurs when the top and bottom IWs converge. Condensed salt layers having small conductivities on the inner walls of HID lamps and on the electrodes can influence the ignition behavior. With these layers, IWs tend to propagate along the inner wall and exhibit a different structure depending on the polarity.

  20. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  1. Breakdown Cause and Effect Analysis. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biały, Witold; Ružbarský, Juraj

    2018-06-01

    Every company must ensure that the production process proceeds without interferences. Within this article, the author uses the term "interferences" in reference to unplanned stoppages caused by breakdowns. Unfortunately, usually due to machine operators' mistakes, machines break, which causes stoppages thus generating additional costs for the company. This article shows a cause and effect analysis of a breakdown in a production process. The FMEA as well as quality management tools: the Ishikawa diagram and Pareto chart were used for the analysis. Correction measures were presented which allowed for a significant reduction in the number of stoppages caused by breakdowns.

  2. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ''point defects models'' (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies

  3. Soft energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    A compact energy concept opposes the existing development course of energy supply. This concept does without projects for opening-up oil and gas occurrences in the Arctic and in offshore seas, and also without a further extension of nuclear energy. Energy consumption is to be stabilized in the long-run on today's level by a utilization of energy which is to be substantially improved in a technical and economic respect. Oil and gas are to be replaced by 'soft', regenerative, mainly decentralized energy sources, in the course of about 30 years time. Solar energy is to be used for heating and service water, biogas as motor fuel being generated primarily from reference which will come from agriculture and forestry. Wind and hydroelectric power are to be used for generating electricity. In the first part, concepts for the present and future energy policy are discussed, in the second part, a lot of figures are given, supporting the respective arguments. In the third part the relationships between social and energy-economic developments are pointed out. (UA) [de

  4. Magnetic breakdown in an array of overlapping Fermi surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadigrobov, A.M.; Radić, D.; Bjeliš, A.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework for a magnetic breakdown in an array of circular two-dimensional bands with a finite overlap of neighboring Fermi surfaces due to the presence of a presumably weak periodic potential, and apply the obtained results to the electron bands in carbon honeycomb structures of doped graphene and intercalated graphite compounds. In contrast to the standard treatment, inaugurated more than fifty years ago by Slutskin and Kadigrobov, with electron semiclassical trajectories encircling significantly overlapping Fermi surfaces, we examine a configuration in which bands are related in a way that the Fermi surfaces only slightly overlap, forming internal band pockets with areas of the size comparable to the area of the quantum magnetic flux for a given external magnetic field. Such band configuration has to be treated quantum mechanically. The calculation leads to the results for magnetic breakdown coefficients comprising an additional large factor with respect to the standard results, proportional to the ratio of the Fermi energy and the cyclotron energy. Also, these coefficients show oscillating dependence on energy, as well as on the wave number of periodic potential. Both mentioned elements enable the adjustment of the preferred wave vector of possible magnetic breakdown induced density wave instability at the highest possible critical temperature

  5. A Recipe for Soft Fluidic Elastomer Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Andrew D; Katzschmann, Robert K; Rus, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    This work provides approaches to designing and fabricating soft fluidic elastomer robots. That is, three viable actuator morphologies composed entirely from soft silicone rubber are explored, and these morphologies are differentiated by their internal channel structure, namely, ribbed, cylindrical, and pleated. Additionally, three distinct casting-based fabrication processes are explored: lamination-based casting, retractable-pin-based casting, and lost-wax-based casting. Furthermore, two ways of fabricating a multiple DOF robot are explored: casting the complete robot as a whole and casting single degree of freedom (DOF) segments with subsequent concatenation. We experimentally validate each soft actuator morphology and fabrication process by creating multiple physical soft robot prototypes.

  6. The decline of soft power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Pimenova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the origins and stages of the evolution of the concept of “soft power” in the political practice of the key countries in the world. This concept is both theoretical and practical product since it synthesizes and represents the direction of the application by a state its of social and political resources. It is significant to trace the transformation of the views of the author of the term J. Nye on the essential elements and mechanisms of “soft power”. The author examines the concept of “soft power” as an element of the US strategy to maintain its leadership in the world. In this regard, for other countries the use of “soft power” may be less effective for their own political purposes, because the concept is tuned to the specific characteristics of US policy. Moreover, with change in the international environment, Wash-ington modernizes the concept, of “smart power”. The author draws attention to the fact that the conditions for the use of turning it in “soft power” are likely to have been changed for the other states. The author concludes that there is a need to revise the existing theoretical approaches to the image of the state in the international arena and to develop new tools that can take into account the complex cultural, tourism, educational opportunities and achievements of every state.

  7. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorka, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  8. Surface breakdown igniter for mercury arc devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, John R.

    1977-01-01

    Surface breakdown igniter comprises a semiconductor of medium resistivity which has the arc device cathode as one electrode and has an igniter anode electrode so that when voltage is applied between the electrodes a spark is generated when electrical breakdown occurs over the surface of the semiconductor. The geometry of the igniter anode and cathode electrodes causes the igniter discharge to be forced away from the semiconductor surface.

  9. Obstacle-induced spiral vortex breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche, Simon; Gallaire, François; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on vortex breakdown dynamics is performed. An adverse pressure gradient is created along the axis of a wing-tip vortex by introducing a sphere downstream of an elliptical hydrofoil. The instrumentation involves high-speed visualizations with air bubbles used as tracers and 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Two key parameters are identified and varied to control the onset of vortex breakdown: the swirl number, defined as the maximum azimuthal velocity divided by...

  10. Modeling Covariance Breakdowns in Multivariate GARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xin; Maheu, John M

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a flexible way of modeling dynamic heterogeneous covariance breakdowns in multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) models. During periods of normal market activity, volatility dynamics are governed by an MGARCH specification. A covariance breakdown is any significant temporary deviation of the conditional covariance matrix from its implied MGARCH dynamics. This is captured through a flexible stochastic component that allows for changes in the conditional variances, covariances and impl...

  11. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  12. Soft Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalkowski, Ireneusz

    1997-01-01

    This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)

  13. Measuring protein breakdown rate in individual proteins in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Kjaer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo.......To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo....

  14. A computational study of the topology of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, Robert E.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional numerical simulation of vortex breakdown using the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations has been performed. Solutions to four distinct types of breakdown are identified and compared with experimental results. The computed solutions include weak helical, double helix, spiral, and bubble-type breakdowns. The topological structure of the various breakdowns as well as their interrelationship are studied. The data reveal that the asymmetric modes of breakdown may be subject to additional breakdowns as the vortex core evolves in the streamwise direction. The solutions also show that the freestream axial velocity distribution has a significant effect on the position and type of vortex breakdown.

  15. Effects of load voltage on voltage breakdown modes of electrical exploding aluminum wires in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen, E-mail: xwli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Kun; Chao, Youchuang; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The effects of the load voltage on the breakdown modes are investigated in exploding aluminum wires driven by a 1 kA, 0.1 kA/ns pulsed current in air. From laser probing images taken by laser shadowgraphy, schlieren imaging, and interferometry, the position of the shockwave front, the plasma channel, and the wire core edge of the exploding product can be determined. The breakdown mode makes a transition from the internal mode, which involves breakdown inside the wire core, to the shunting mode, which involves breakdown in the compressed air, with decreasing charging voltage. The breakdown electrical field for a gaseous aluminum wire core of nearly solid density is estimated to be more than 20 kV/cm, while the value for gaseous aluminum of approximately 0.2% solid density decreases to 15–20 kV/cm. The breakdown field in shunting mode is less than 20 kV/cm and is strongly affected by the vaporized aluminum, the desorbed gas, and the electrons emitted from the wire core during the current pause. Ohmic heating during voltage collapses will induce further energy deposition in the current channel and thus will result in different expansion speeds for both the wire core and the shockwave front in the different modes.

  16. dc breakdown conditioning and breakdown rate of metals and metallic alloys under ultrahigh vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Descoeudres

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The rf accelerating structures of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC require a material capable of sustaining high electric field with a low breakdown rate and low induced damage. Because of the similarity of many aspects of dc and rf breakdown, a dc breakdown study is underway at CERN in order to test candidate materials and surface preparations, and have a better understanding of the breakdown mechanism under ultrahigh vacuum in a simple setup. Conditioning speeds and breakdown fields of several metals and alloys have been measured. The average breakdown field after conditioning ranges from 100  MV/m for Al to 850  MV/m for stainless steel, and is around 170  MV/m for Cu which is the present base-line material for CLIC structures. The results indicate clearly that the breakdown field is limited by the cathode. The presence of a thin cuprous oxide film at the surface of copper electrodes significantly increases the breakdown field. On the other hand, the conditioning speed of Mo is improved by removing oxides at the surface with a vacuum heat treatment, typically at 875°C for 2 hours. Surface finishing treatments of Cu samples only affect the very first breakdowns. More generally, surface treatments have an effect on the conditioning process itself, but not on the average breakdown field reached after the conditioning phase. In analogy to rf, the breakdown probability has been measured in dc with Cu and Mo electrodes. The dc data show similar behavior as rf as a function of the applied electric field.

  17. Soft supersymmetry breaking in KKLT flux compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.; Falkowski, A.; Nilles, H.P.; Olechowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    We examine the structure of soft supersymmetry breaking terms in KKLT models of flux compactification with low energy supersymmetry. Moduli are stabilized by fluxes and nonperturbative dynamics while a de Sitter vacuum is obtained by adding supersymmetry breaking anti-branes. We discuss the characteristic pattern of mass scales in such a set-up as well as some features of 4D N=1 supergravity breakdown by anti-branes. Anomaly mediation is found to always give an important contribution and one can easily arrange for flavor-independent soft terms. In its most attractive realization, the modulus mediation is comparable to the anomaly mediation, yielding a quite distinctive sparticle spectrum. In addition, the axion component of the modulus/dilaton superfield dynamically cancels the relative CP phase between the contributions of anomaly and modulus mediation, thereby avoiding dangerous SUSY CP violation

  18. dc breakdown conditioning and breakdown rate of metals and metallic alloys under ultrahigh vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Descoeudres, A; Calatroni, S; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2009-01-01

    RF accelerating structures of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) require a material capable of sustaining high electric field with a low breakdown rate and low induced damage. Because of the similarity of many aspects of DC and RF breakdown, a DC breakdown study is underway at CERN in order to test candidate materials and surface preparations, and have a better understanding of the breakdown mechanism under ultra-high vacuum in a simple setup. Conditioning speeds and breakdown fields of several metals and alloys have been measured. The average breakdown field after conditioning ranges from 100 MV/m for Al to 850 MV/m for stainless steel, and is around 170 MV/m for Cu which is the present base-line material for CLIC structures. The results indicate clearly that the breakdown field is limited by the cathode. The presence of a thin cuprous oxide film at the surface of copper electrodes significantly increases the breakdown field. On the other hand, the conditioning speed of Mo is improved by removing oxides at t...

  19. Three-dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional supersonic vortex-breakdown problems in bound and unbound domains are solved. The solutions are obtained using the time-accurate integration of the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The computational scheme is an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. Two vortex-breakdown applications are considered in the present paper. The first is for a supersonic swirling jet which is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic uniform flow at a lower Mach number than that of the swirling jet. The second is for a supersonic swirling flow in a configured circular duct. In the first application, an extensive study of the effects of grid fineness, shape and grid-point distribution on the vortex breakdown is presented. Four grids are used in this study and they show a substantial dependence of the breakdown bubble and shock wave on the grid used. In the second application, the bubble-type and helix-type vortex breakdown have been captured.

  20. Planned waveguide electric field breakdown studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Faya; Li Zenghai

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental setup for X-band rf breakdown studies. The setup is composed of a section of WR90 waveguide with a tapered pin located at the middle of the waveguide E-plane. Another pin is used to rf match the waveguide so it operates in a travelling wave mode. By adjusting the penetration depth of the tapered pin, different surface electric field enhancements can be obtained. The setup will be used to study the rf breakdown rate dependence on power flow in the waveguide for a constant maximum surface electric field on the pin. Two groups of pins have been designed. The Q of one group is different and very low. The other has a similar Q. With the test of the two groups of pins, we should be able to discern how the net power flow and Q affect the breakdown. Furthermore, we will apply an electron beam treatment to the pins to study its effect on breakdown. Overall, these experiments should be very helpful in understanding rf breakdown phenomena and could significantly benefit the design of high gradient accelerator structures.

  1. Electrical breakdown of water in microgaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbach, Karl; Kolb, Juergen; Xiao Shu; Katsuki, Sunao; Minamitani, Yasushi; Joshi, Ravindra

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and modeling studies on electrical breakdown in water in submillimeter gaps between pin and plane electrodes have been performed. Prebreakdown, breakdown and recovery of the water gaps were studied experimentally by using optical and electrical diagnostics with a temporal resolution on the order of one nanosecond. By using Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the electric field distribution in the prebreakdown phase was determined by means of the Kerr effect. Electric fields values in excess of the computed electric fields, which reach >4 MV cm -1 for applied electrical pulses of 20 ns duration, were recorded at the tip of the pin electrode, an effect which can be explained by a reduced permittivity of water at high electric fields. Breakdown of the gaps, streamer-to-arc transition, was recorded by means of high-speed electrical diagnostics, and through high-speed photography. It was shown, through simulations, that breakdown is initiated by field emission at the interface of preexisting microbubbles. Impact ionization within the micro-bubble's gas then contributes to plasma development. Experiments using pulse-probe methods and Schlieren diagnostics allowed us to follow the development of the disturbance caused by the breakdown over a time of more than milliseconds and to determine the recovery time of a water switch. In order to trigger water switches a trigger electrode with a triple point has been utilized. The results of this research have found application in the construction of compact pulse power generators for bioelectric applications.

  2. The soft notion of China's 'soft power'

    OpenAIRE

    Breslin, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    · Although debates over Chinese soft power have increased in\\ud recent years, there is no shared definition of what ‘soft power’\\ud actually means. The definition seems to change depending on\\ud what the observer wants to argue.\\ud · External analyses of soft power often include a focus on\\ud economic relations and other material (hard) sources of power\\ud and influence.\\ud · Many Chinese analyses of soft power focus on the promotion of a\\ud preferred (positive) understanding of China’s inter...

  3. Conservative Soft Power: Liberal soft power bias and the ‘hidden’ attraction of Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Kaczmarska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The study of soft power in international relations suffers from a liberal democratic bias. Throughout the literature, liberal concepts and values are assumed to be universal in their appeal. This bias has led scholars to underestimate Russian soft power by instrumentalizing it, that is, to see it...

  4. Impact of Machine Breakdowns on Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwaruddin Tanwari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the machine breakdowns and their impact on the total productivity for the FMCGs (Fast Moving Consumer Goods industry because higher productivity rate is important factor on which the customer services largely depend in this competitive business world. This paper also suggests that the machine breakdowns and other related problems within the plant are due to improper care, keeping the plant operative for twenty four hours a day, seven days a week without any break and lack of management\\'s concentration towards these issues. These break-downs results in un-timely closure of the plant and very poor production performance is achieved in the plant that affects the service level at great level. Realising the importance of maintenance in improving productivity and service, an attempt has been made in this paper to study the scope of maintenance with the help of a case study.

  5. The Electrical Breakdown of Thin Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers are being developed for use in actuators, sensors and generators to be used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, the devices are operated at high electrical fields....... This increases the likelihood for electrical breakdown significantly. Hence, for many applications the performance of the dielectric elastomers is limited by this risk of failure, which is triggered by several factors. Amongst others thermal effects may strongly influence the electrical breakdown strength....... In this study, we model the electrothermal breakdown in thin PDMS based dielectric elastomers in order to evaluate the thermal mechanisms behind the electrical failures. The objective is to predict the operation range of PDMS based dielectric elastomers with respect to the temperature at given electric field...

  6. Progressive current degradation and breakdown behavior in GaN LEDs under high reverse bias stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Linna; Yu Peihong; Yan Dawei; Zhou Hao; Wu Jinbo; Cui Zhiqiang; Gu Xiaofeng; Guo Zixiang; Sun Huarui

    2017-01-01

    The progressive current degradation and breakdown behaviors of GaN-based light emitting diodes under high reverse-bias stress are studied by combining the electrical, optical, and surface morphology characterizations. The current features a typical “soft breakdown” behavior, which is linearly correlated to an increase of the accumulative number of electroluminescence spots. The time-to-failure for each failure site approximately obeys a Weibull distribution with slopes of about 0.67 and 4.09 at the infant and wear-out periods, respectively. After breakdown, visible craters can be observed at the device surface as a result of transient electrostatic discharge. By performing focused ion beam cuts coupled with scan electron microscope, we observed a local current shunt path in the surface layer, caused by the rapid microstructure deterioration due to significant current heating effect, consistent well with the optical beam induced resistance change observations. (paper)

  7. NASA Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Stefanie M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide program/project teams necessary instruction and guidance in the best practices for Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and WBS dictionary development and use for project implementation and management control. This handbook can be used for all types of NASA projects and work activities including research, development, construction, test and evaluation, and operations. The products of these work efforts may be hardware, software, data, or service elements (alone or in combination). The aim of this document is to assist project teams in the development of effective work breakdown structures that provide a framework of common reference for all project elements.

  8. Project management strategies for prototyping breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2009-01-01

    , managing the explorative and iterative aspects of prototyping projects is not a trivial task. We examine the managerial challenges in a small scale prototyping project in the Danish healthcare sector where a prototype breakdown and project escalation occurs. From this study we derive a framework...... of strategies for coping with escalation in troubled prototyping projects; the framework is based on project management triangle theory and is useful when considering how to manage prototype breakdown and escalation. All strategies were applied in the project case at different points in time. The strategies led...

  9. Vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Levey, Brian S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports a study of a vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet. A supersonic vortical jets were created by tangential injection and acceleration through a convergent-divergent nozzle. Vortex circulation was varied, and the nature of the flow in vortical jets was investigated using several types of flow visualization, including focusing schlieren and imaging of Rayleigh scattering from a laser light sheet. Results show that the vortical jet mixed much more rapidly with the ambient air than a comparable straight jet. When overexpanded, the vortical jet exhibited considerable unsteadiness and showed signs of vortex breakdown.

  10. Breakdowns in Coordination Between Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Orasanu, Judith; Miller, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    This talk outlines the complexity of coordination in air traffic control, introduces the NextGen technologies, identifies common causes for coordination breakdowns in air traffic control and examines whether these causes are likely to be reduced with the introduction of NextGen technologies. While some of the common causes of breakdowns will be reduced in a NextGen environment this conclusion should be drawn carefully given the current stage of development of the technologies and the observation that new technologies often shift problems rather than reduce them.

  11. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; divers...

  12. Soft, embodied, situated & connected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomico Plasencia, O.; Wilde, D.

    2015-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; diverse

  13. A Model for the Onset of Vortex Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, K.

    1996-01-01

    A large body of information exists on the breakdown of incompressible streamwise vortices. Less is known about vortex breakdown at high speeds. An interesting example of supersonic vortex breakdown is the breakdown induced by the interaction of vortices with shock waves. The flow in supersonic engine inlets and over high-speed delta wings constitute technologically important examples of this phenomenon, which is termed 'shock-induced vortex breakdown'. In this report, we propose a model to predict the onset of shock-induced vortex breakdown. The proposed model has no adjustable constants, and is compared to both experiment and computation. The model is then extended to consider two other problems: the breakdown of a free compressible vortex, and free incompressible vortex breakdown. The same breakdown criterion is used in all three problems to predict the onset of breakdown. Finally, a new breakdown map is proposed that allows the simultaneous comparison of data from flows ranging from incompressible breakdown to breakdown induced by a shock wave.

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  15. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    . It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as Hw varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional...

  16. Investigation of multipactor breakdown in communication satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multipactor breakdown or multipactor discharge is a form of high frequency discharge that may occur in microwave components operating at very low pressures. Some RF components of multi-channel communication satellites have co-axial geometry and handle high RF power under near-vacuum conditions.

  17. Breakdown and bad luck in Biblis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randow, G. von.

    1994-01-01

    Five minor breakdowns within a month have heated up the dispute between the ministries of the environment of the Federation and the Land of Hesse. Biblis A is to be shut down at all costs. As yet, however, the Hessian Ministry of the Environment has not solved the question of how to compensate the power cut. (DG) [de

  18. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we focus on the chloro propyl functionalized silicone elastomers prepared in Madsen et al[2] and we investigate the electrical...

  19. Fear of breakdown and the unlived life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2014-04-01

    Winnicott's Fear of breakdown is an unfinished work that requires that the reader be not only a reader, but also a writer of this work which often gestures toward meaning as opposed to presenting fully developed ideas. The author's understanding of the often confusing, sometimes opaque, argument of Winnicott's paper is as follows. In infancy there occurs a breakdown in the mother-infant tie that forces the infant to take on, by himself, emotional events that he is unable to manage. He short-circuits his experience of primitive agony by generating defense organizations that are psychotic in nature, i.e., they substitute self-created inner reality for external reality, thus foreclosing his actually experiencing critical life events. By not experiencing the breakdown of the mother-infant tie when it occurred in infancy, the individual creates a psychological state in which he lives in fear of a breakdown that has already happened, but which he did not experience. The author extends Winnicott's thinking by suggesting that the driving force of the patient's need to find the source of his fear is his feeling that parts of himself are missing and that he must find them if he is to become whole. What remains of his life feels to him like a life that is mostly an unlived life. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  20. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively. PMID:24949493

  1. Gold internal standard correction for elemental imaging of soft tissue sections by LA-ICP-MS: element distribution in eye microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konz, Ioana; Fernández, Beatriz; Fernández, M Luisa; Pereiro, Rosario; González, Héctor; Alvarez, Lydia; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the elemental imaging of Mg, Fe and Cu distribution in histological tissue sections of fixed eyes, embedded in paraffin, from human donors (cadavers). This work presents the development of a novel internal standard correction methodology based on the deposition of a homogeneous thin gold film on the tissue surface and the use of the (197)Au(+) signal as internal standard. Sample preparation (tissue section thickness) and laser conditions were carefully optimized, and internal normalisation using (197)Au(+) was compared with (13)C(+) correction for imaging applications. (24)Mg(+), (56)Fe(+) and (63)Cu(+) distributions were investigated in histological sections of the anterior segment of the eye (including the iris, ciliary body, cornea and trabecular meshwork) and were shown to be heterogeneously distributed along those tissue structures. Reproducibility was assessed by imaging different human eye sections from the same donor and from ten different eyes from adult normal donors, which showed that similar spatial maps were obtained and therefore demonstrate the analytical potential of using (197)Au(+) as internal standard. The proposed analytical approach could offer a robust tool with great practical interest for clinical studies, e.g. to investigate trace element distribution of metals and their alterations in ocular diseases.

  2. Practical applications of soft computing in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing has been presented not only with the theoretical developments but also with a large variety of realistic applications to consumer products and industrial systems. Application of soft computing has provided the opportunity to integrate human-like vagueness and real-life uncertainty into an otherwise hard computer program. This book highlights some of the recent developments in practical applications of soft computing in engineering problems. All the chapters have been sophisticatedly designed and revised by international experts to achieve wide but in-depth coverage. Contents: Au

  3. A computational study of the taxonomy of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, Robert E.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a fully three-dimensional numerical simulation of vortex breakdown using the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are presented. The solutions show that the freestream axial velocity distribution has a significant effect on the position and type of vortex breakdown. Common features between bubble-type and spiral-type breakdown are identified and the role of flow stagnation and the critical state are discussed as complimentary ideas describing the initiation of breakdown.

  4. Materials and Breakdown Phenomena: Heterogeneous Molybdenum Metallic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Marcelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological activities to design, manufacture, and test new accelerating devices using different materials and methods is under way all over the world. The main goal of these studies is to increase the accelerating gradients and reduce the probability of radio-frequency (RF breakdown. Indeed, it is still not clear why, by increasing the intensity of the applied field, intense surface damage is observed in copper structures, limiting the lifetime and, therefore, the practical applications. A possible solution is represented by a coating of a relatively thick layer of molybdenum in order to improve the breakdown rate. molybdenum can be reliably grown on different substrates with a negligible strain and, for thicknesses up to 600 nm, with a resistivity < 100–150·μΩ cm. Moreover, Mo coatings with controlled composition, internal stress, and roughness may allow improving thermo-mechanical properties reaching values not attainable by uncoated copper. Although the Mo conductivity remains lower compared to Cu, a Mo coating represents a very interesting option for high gradient accelerator components manufactured in copper.

  5. Small hook thread (Quill) and soft felt internal splint to increase the primary repair strength of lacerated rabbit Achilles tendons: biomechanical analysis and considerations for hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Johanna; Müller, Angela; Feldman, Kirill; Tervoort, Theo A; Fessel, Gion; Snedeker, Jess G; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2011-07-01

    For the prevention of re-rupture during early healing phase, the primary repair strength of repaired lacerated tendons in hand surgery should be maximal and the reconstructed diameter minimal. Two new repair methods (small hook thread and internal splint) were assessed for strength and reconstructed diameter characteristics. Achilles tendons of 43 female New Zealand White rabbits were sectioned 2 cm above the calcaneus. Specimens were divided into 7 groups and repaired as follows: Kirchmayr method 2-strand with 4.0 polypropylene thread; Becker method 4-strand; 6-strand; internal splint; Kirchmayr method small hook 2-strand; Becker method small hook 4-strand, non-modified tendon. Load until failure, load until gap formation, gap length, cross-sectional area and failure stress were determined. The small hook 2-strand suture had 1.3 fold higher loads until failure compared to a conventional 2-strand suture, P<0.05. The internal splint had a similar load until failure (22 N (SD 6)) as the conventional 2-strand suture (23 N (SD 4)); around half the load until failure of the conventional 4-strand suture (38 N (SD 9)). Load until gap formation correlated positively with load until failure (y=0.65+3.6; r(2)=0.72). The running suture increased the cross-sectional area at the repair site by a factor of 1.3. Using a small hook thread instead of a 4.0 polypropylene thread significantly increases the primary repair strength with the same number of strands. Internal splints may be an alternative to conventional 2-strand sutures for bridging large gaps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrical breakdown studies with Mycalex insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, W.; Greenway, W.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.

    2003-01-01

    Insulating materials such as alumina and glass-bonded mica (Mycalex) are used in accelerator systems for high voltage feedthroughs, structural supports, and barriers between high voltage insulating oil and the vacuum beam pipe in induction accelerator cells. Electric fields in the triple points should be minimized to prevent voltage breakdown. Mechanical stress can compromise seals and result in oil contamination of the insulator surface. We have tested various insulator cleaning procedures including ultrasonic cleaning with a variety of aqueous-based detergents, and manual scrubbing with various detergents. Water sheeting tests were used to determine the initial results of the cleaning methods. Ultimately, voltage breakdown tests will be used to quantify the benefits of these cleaning procedures

  7. Prevention of breakdown behind railgun projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    An electromagnetic railgun accelerator system, for accelerating projectiles by a plasma arc, introduces a breakdown inhibiting gas into the railgun chamber behind the accelerating projectile. The breakdown inhibiting gas, which absorbs electrons, is a halide or a halide compound such as fluorine or SF 6 . The gas is introduced between the railgun rails after the projectile has passed through inlets in the rails or the projectile; by coating the rails or the projectile with a material which releases the gas after the projectile passes over it; by fabricating the rails or the projectile or insulators out of a material which releases the gas into the portions of the chamber through which the projectile has travelled. The projectile may have a cavity at its rear to control the release of ablation products. 12 figs

  8. Supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive computational study of supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a configured circular duct is presented. The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used. The NS equations are solved for the quasi-axisymmetric flows using an implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The quasi-axisymmetric solutions are time accurate and are obtained by forcing the components of the flowfield vector to be equal on two axial planes, which are in close proximity of each other. The effect of Reynolds number, for laminar flows, on the evolution and persistence of vortex breakdown, is studied. Finally, the effect of swirl ration at the duct inlet is investigated.

  9. Breakdown Studies for the CLIC Accelerating

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, S; Kovermann, J; Taborelli, M; Timko, H; Wuensch, W; Durabekova, F; Nordlund, K; Pohjonen, A; Kuronen, A

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing the design and the manufacturing of the CLIC RF accelerating structures for achieving the target value of breakdown rate at the nominal accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m requires a detailed understanding of all the steps involved in the mechanism of breakdown. These include surface modification under RF fields, electron emission and neutral evaporation in the vacuum, arc ignition and consequent surface modification due to plasma bombardment. Together with RF tests, experiments are conducted in a simple DC test set-up instrumented with electrical diagnostics and optical spectroscopy. The results are also used for validating simulations which are performed using a wide range of numerical tools (MD coupled to electrostatic codes, PIC plasma simulations) able to include all the above phenomena. Some recent results are presented in this paper

  10. Bioavailability of glucosinolates and their breakdown products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose; Nikmaram, Nooshin; Roohinejad, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates are a large group of plant secondary metabolites with nutritional effects, and are mainly found in cruciferous plants. After ingestion, glucosinolates could be partially absorbed in their intact form through the gastrointestinal mucosa. However, the largest fraction is metabolized ...... the bioavailability of glucosinolates and their breakdown products. This review paper summarizes the assimilation, absorption, and elimination of these molecules, as well as the impact of processing on their bioavailability....

  11. Topology hidden behind the breakdown of adiabaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, L.-B.; Chen, S.-G.

    2005-01-01

    For classical Hamiltonian systems, the adiabatic condition may fail at some critical points. However, the breakdown of the adiabatic condition does not always cause the adiabatic evolution to be destroyed. In this paper, we suggest a supplemental condition of the adiabatic evolution for the fixed points of classical Hamiltonian systems when the adiabatic condition breaks down at the critical points. As an example, we investigate the adiabatic evolution of the fixed points of a classical Hamiltonian system which has a number of applications

  12. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  13. Electrical Breakdown Phenomena Involving Material Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    create ozone through chemical reactions involving reactive species created by the electrical discharge [3]. The glow discharge breakdown in such...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigation Of Pre-Ionization And Atmospheric Pulsed Discharge Plasma 5a...growth of the air discharge in the form of a conductive filament consisting of electrons and ions. This filament is created by temporal pulse that

  14. Breakdown localization in the fixed gap system

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamaki, Robin; Wuensch, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Accurate localization of breakdowns in vacuum could help shed light on breakdown related processes that are not yet fully understood. At the DC spark lab at CERN, an instrument called the Fixed Gap System (FGS) has been developed partially for this purpose. Among other things, the FGS has four built-in antennas, which are intended for breakdown localization. The capability of this aspect of the FGS was explored in this report. Specifically, the feasibility of using a method similar to that which is used in cavity Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) was investigated. The usable frequency range of the current experimental setup was also studied. Firstly, a modal analysis of the inner geometry of the FGS was done in HFSS. This showed that the two first modes to be expected in the spark gap quite differ from those of the ideal pillbox – both in field pattern and in frequency ( 4 and 6 GHz vs. 0.2 and 3 GHz). Secondly, S-parameters of the system were measured. These showed that the coupling between antennas is weak...

  15. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Runaway breakdown and electrical discharges in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milikh, Gennady; Roussel-Dupré, Robert

    2010-12-01

    This review considers the precise role played by runaway breakdown (RB) in the initiation and development of lightning discharges. RB remains a fundamental research topic under intense investigation. The question of how lightning is initiated and subsequently evolves in the thunderstorm environment rests in part on a fundamental understanding of RB and cosmic rays and the potential coupling to thermal runaway (as a seed to RB) and conventional breakdown (as a source of thermal runaways). In this paper, we describe the basic mechanism of RB and the conditions required to initiate an observable avalanche. Feedback processes that fundamentally enhance RB are discussed, as are both conventional breakdown and thermal runaway. Observations that provide clear evidence for the presence of energetic particles in thunderstorms/lightning include γ-ray and X-ray flux intensifications over thunderstorms, γ-ray and X-ray bursts in conjunction with stepped leaders, terrestrial γ-ray flashes, and neutron production by lightning. Intense radio impulses termed narrow bipolar pulses (or NBPs) provide indirect evidence for RB particularly when measured in association with cosmic ray showers. Our present understanding of these phenomena and their enduring enigmatic character are touched upon briefly.

  17. Dispersion of breakdown voltage of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Itaru; Noguchi, Takuya

    1978-01-01

    As for the electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium, the discrepancy among the measured values by each person is very large even in the fundamental DC breakdown voltage in uniform electric field. The dispersion of experimental values obtained in the experiments by the same person is also large. Hereafter, the difference among the mean values obtained by each experimenter will be referred to as ''deviation of mean values'', and the dispersion of measured values around the mean value obtained by the same person as ''deviation around the man value''. The authors have mainly investigated on the latter experimentally. The cryostat was made of stainless steel, and the innermost helium chamber was of 500 mm I.D. and approximately 1200 mm deep. The high voltage electrode was of brass sphere of 25 mm diameter, and the low voltage electrode was of brass plate. The experiment was conducted for liquid helium boiling at 4.2 K and 1 atm, and the breakdown voltage and time lag were measured by applying the approximately square wave impulses of fast rise and long tail, ramp and DC voltages. The cause of the deviation of mean values may be the presence of impurity particles or the effect of electrode shape. As for the deviation around the mean value, the dispersion is large, and its standard deviation may amount to 10 to 20% of the man value. The dispersion is not due to the statistical time lag, but is due to parameters that vary with breakdown. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. An electromechanical based deformable model for soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2009-11-01

    Soft tissue deformation is of great importance to surgery simulation. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviours of soft tissues, modelling of soft tissue deformation is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a new deformable model for simulation of soft tissue deformation from the electromechanical viewpoint of soft tissues. Soft tissue deformation is formulated as a reaction-diffusion process coupled with a mechanical load. The mechanical load applied to a soft tissue to cause a deformation is incorporated into the reaction-diffusion system, and consequently distributed among mass points of the soft tissue. Reaction-diffusion of mechanical load and non-rigid mechanics of motion are combined to govern the simulation dynamics of soft tissue deformation. An improved reaction-diffusion model is developed to describe the distribution of the mechanical load in soft tissues. A three-layer artificial cellular neural network is constructed to solve the reaction-diffusion model for real-time simulation of soft tissue deformation. A gradient based method is established to derive internal forces from the distribution of the mechanical load. Integration with a haptic device has also been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with haptic feedback. The proposed methodology does not only predict the typical behaviours of living tissues, but it also accepts both local and large-range deformations. It also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous deformations by simple modification of diffusion coefficients.

  19. Comparative Studies of High-Gradient Rf and Dc Breakdowns

    CERN Document Server

    Kovermann, Jan Wilhelm; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC project is based on normal-conducting high-gradient accelerating structures with an average accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. The maximum achievable gradient in these structures is limited by the breakdown phenomenon. The physics of breakdowns is not yet fully understood quantitatively. A full knowledge could have strong impact on the design, material choice and construction of rf structures. Therefore, understanding breakdowns has great importance to reaching a gradient of 100MV/m with an acceptable breakdown probability. This thesis addresses the physics underlying the breakdown effect, focusing on a comparison of breakdowns in rf structures and in a dc spark setup. The dc system is simpler, easier to benchmark against simulations, with a faster turnaround time, but the relationship to rf breakdown must be established. To do so, an experimental approach based on optical diagnostics and electrical measurements methods was made. Following an introduction into the CLIC project, a general theoretical ...

  20. Combined raman spectrometer/laser-induced breakdown spectrometer design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, Gregory; Ahlers, Berit; Boslooper, Erik; Rull-Perez, Fernando; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2017-11-01

    Amongst the different instruments that have been preselected to be on-board the Pasteur payload on ExoMars is the Raman/ Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities. An international team under the lead of TNO has been gathered to produce a design concept for a combined Raman Spectrometer/ LIBS Elegant Bread-Board (EBB). The instrument is based on a specifically designed extremely compact spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. Low mass, size and resources are the main drivers of the instrument's design concept. The proposed design concept, realization and testing programme for the combined Raman/ LIBS EBB is presented as well as background information on Raman and LIBS.

  1. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  2. RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-21

    Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A

  3. Voltage-stabilised elastomers with increased relative permittivity and high electrical breakdown strength by means of phase separating binary copolymer blends of silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Increased electrical breakdown strength and increased dielectric permittivity of silicone-based dielectric elastomers are achieved by means of the addition of so-called voltage-stabilisers prepared from PDMS–PPMS copolymers as well as PDMS–PEG copolymers in order to compensate for the negative...... effect of softness on electrical stability of silicone elastomers. The voltage-stabilised elastomer, incorporating a high-permittivity PDMS–PEG copolymer, possesses increased relative permittivity, high electrical breakdown strength, excellent network integrity and low dielectric loss and paves the way...

  4. Soft, embodied, situated & connected: enriching interactions with soft wearbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomico Plasencia, O.; Wilde, D.

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress;

  5. Possibility Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of possibility fuzzy soft set and its operation and study some of its properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision-making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two possibility fuzzy soft sets and discuss their application in a medical diagnosis problem.

  6. Fixing soft margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kofman (Paul); A. Vaal, de (Albert); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractNon-parametric tolerance limits are employed to calculate soft margins such as advocated in Williamson's target zone proposal. In particular, the tradeoff between softness and zone width is quantified. This may be helpful in choosing appropriate margins. Furthermore, it offers

  7. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  8. Embodying Soft Wearables Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...... and knowledge transfer in the context of soft wearables....

  9. Slovak Republic decree of 6 September 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory authority of the Slovak Republic about breakdown planning for the case of an accident or breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory authority of the Slovak Republic constitute: (A) of content, appurtenances and procedure of elaborate (1) of nuclear accident plans (emergency plans), (2) of plan of protection of inhabitants, (3) of accident transport order; (B) measures and procedures which constitute a assumptions for prevention, defeat and mitigation of consequences of breakdowns and accidents, (C) of procedure of apprise of the public, (D) of definition of emergency area in surroundings of nuclear equipment, (E) of periodicity of practice of the emergency planes. This decree contains three appendixes: (1) The minimal extent of data for regular apprise of the public; (2) The international nuclear event scale for means of apprise of the public; (3) The minimal extent of data for apprise of the public for the case of event (breakdown or accident) on nuclear equipment; (4) The intervention levels for urgent and consequent measures for inhabitant protection. This decree shall into effect on 1 October 1999

  10. Soft timing closure for soft programmable logic cores: The ARGen approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bollengier , Théotime; Lagadec , Loïc; Najem , Mohamad; Le Lann , Jean-Christophe; Guilloux , Pierre

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Reconfigurable cores support post-release updates which shortens time-to-market while extending circuits’ lifespan. Reconfigurable cores can be provided as hard cores (ASIC) or soft cores (RTL). Soft reconfigurable cores outperform hard reconfigurable cores by preserving the ASIC synthesis flow, at the cost of lowering scalability but also exacerbating timing closure issues. This article tackles these two issues and introduces the ARGen generator that produces scalable...

  11. Soft buckling actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-12-26

    A soft actuator is described, including: a rotation center having a center of mass; a plurality of bucklable, elastic structural components each comprising a wall defining an axis along its longest dimension, the wall connected to the rotation center in a way that the axis is offset from the center of mass in a predetermined direction; and a plurality of cells each disposed between two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and configured for connection with a fluid inflation or deflation source; wherein upon the deflation of the cell, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle in the predetermined direction. A soft actuating device including a plurality of the soft actuators and methods of actuation using the soft actuator or soft actuating device disclosed herein are also described.

  12. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  13. SolarSoft Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, S.; Hurlburt, N.

    2005-12-01

    The SolarSoft system (SSW) is a set of integrated software libraries, databases, and system utilities which provide a common programming and data analysis environment for solar physics. The system includes contributions from a large community base, representing the efforts of many NASA PI team MO&DA teams,spanning many years and multiple NASA and international orbital and ground based missions. The SSW general use libraries include Many hundreds of utilities which are instrument and mission independent. A large subset are also SOLAR independent, such as time conversions, digital detector cleanup, time series analysis, mathematics, image display, WWW server communications and the like. PI teams may draw on these general purpose libraries for analysis and application development while concentrating efforts on instrument specific calibration issues rather than reinvention of general use software. By the same token, PI teams are encouraged to contribute new applications or enhancements to existing utilities which may have more general interest. Recent areas of intense evolution include space weather applications, automated distributed data access and analysis, interfaces with the ongoing Virtual Solar Observatory efforts, and externalization of SolarSoft power through Web Services. We will discuss the current status of SSW web services and demonstrate how this facilitates accessing the underlying power of SolarSoft in more abstract terms. In this context, we will describe the use of SSW services within the Collaborative Sun Earth Connector environment.

  14. In Defense of Soft Universalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2011-01-01

    improved considerably since the time of the natural rights theories and the enlightenment. As a consequence prevailing international human rights are not the only possible human rights, and soft universalism is therefore partially open as regards the content of human rights, even though non discrimination...... human rights is the emerging global society, and human rights law is therefore best understood as (part of) the law of this emerging society. Seen in this way, human rights are an attempt to cope with a (partly) new situation, based on knowledge of human beings and society, a knowledge which has...... and other elements have some naturalness to them....

  15. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.

    1981-01-01

    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  16. Criteria for vacuum breakdown in rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Faehl, R.J.; Kadish, A.; Thode, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    A new high-voltage scaling based on Kilpatrick's criterion is presented that suggests that voltages more than twice the Kilpatrick limit can be obtained with identical initial conditions of vacuum and surface cleanliness. The calculations are based on the experimentally observed decrease in secondary electron emission with increasing ion-impact energy above 100 keV. A generalized secondary-emission package has been developed to simulate actual cavity dynamics in conjunction with our 2 1/2-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code CEMIT. The results are discussed with application to the suppression of vacuum breakdown in rf accelerator devices

  17. Ergodicity breakdown and scaling from single sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashyan, Armen K. [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Buiatti, Marco [Laboratoire de Neurophysique et Physiologie, CNRS UMR 8119 Universite Rene Descartes - Paris 5 45, rue des Saints Peres, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit - INSERM U562, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DRM/DSV, 4 Place du general Leclerc, 91401 Orsay Cedex (France); Grigolini, Paolo [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Fermi' - Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Istituto dei Processi Chimico, Fisici del CNR Area della Ricerca di Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: grigo@df.unipi.it

    2009-01-30

    In the ergodic regime, several methods efficiently estimate the temporal scaling of time series characterized by long-range power-law correlations by converting them into diffusion processes. However, in the condition of ergodicity breakdown, the same methods give ambiguous results. We show that in such regime, two different scaling behaviors emerge depending on the age of the windows used for the estimation. We explain the ambiguity of the estimation methods by the different influence of the two scaling behaviors on each method. Our results suggest that aging drastically alters the scaling properties of non-ergodic processes.

  18. Ergodicity breakdown and scaling from single sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashyan, Armen K.; Buiatti, Marco; Grigolini, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    In the ergodic regime, several methods efficiently estimate the temporal scaling of time series characterized by long-range power-law correlations by converting them into diffusion processes. However, in the condition of ergodicity breakdown, the same methods give ambiguous results. We show that in such regime, two different scaling behaviors emerge depending on the age of the windows used for the estimation. We explain the ambiguity of the estimation methods by the different influence of the two scaling behaviors on each method. Our results suggest that aging drastically alters the scaling properties of non-ergodic processes.

  19. Experiments and Computational Theory for Electrical Breakdown in Critical Components: THz Imaging of Electronic Plasmas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutavern, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hjalmarson, Harold P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bigman, Verle Howard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallegos, Richard Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report describes the development of ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) induced terahertz (THz) radiation to image electronic plasmas during electrical breakdown. The technique uses three pulses from two USPLs to (1) trigger the breakdown, (2) create a 2 picosecond (ps, 10 -12 s), THz pulse to illuminate the breakdown, and (3) record the THz image of the breakdown. During this three year internal research program, sub-picosecond jitter timing for the lasers, THz generation, high bandwidth (BW) diagnostics, and THz image acquisition was demonstrated. High intensity THz radiation was optically-induced in a pulse-charged gallium arsenide photoconductive switch. The radiation was collected, transported, concentrated, and co-propagated through an electro-optic crystal with an 800 nm USPL pulse whose polarization was rotated due to the spatially varying electric field of the THz image. The polarization modulated USPL pulse was then passed through a polarizer and the resulting spatially varying intensity was detected in a high resolution digital camera. Single shot images had a signal to noise of %7E3:1. Signal to noise was improved to %7E30:1 with several experimental techniques and by averaging the THz images from %7E4000 laser pulses internally and externally with the camera and the acquisition system (40 pulses per readout). THz shadows of metallic films and objects were also recorded with this system to demonstrate free-carrier absorption of the THz radiation and improve image contrast and resolution. These 2 ps THz pulses were created and resolved with 100 femtosecond (fs, 10 -15 s) long USPL pulses. Thus this technology has the capability to time-resolve extremely fast repetitive or single shot phenomena, such as those that occur during the initiation of electrical breakdown. The goal of imaging electrical breakdown was not reached during this three year project. However, plans to achieve this goal as part of a follow-on project are described in this document

  20. Numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Kandil, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Existing numerical simulations and physical aspects of subsonic and supersonic vortex-breakdown modes are reviewed. The solution to the problem of supersonic vortex breakdown is emphasized in this paper and carried out with the full Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows. Numerical simulations of vortex-breakdown modes are presented in bounded and unbounded domains. The effects of different types of downstream-exit boundary conditions are studied and discussed.

  1. Pressurized-helium breakdown at very low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metas, R J

    1972-06-01

    An investigation of the electrical-breakdown behavior of helium at very low temperatures has been carried out to assist the design and development of superconducting power cables. At very high densities, both liquid and gaseous helium showed an enhancement in electric strength when pressurized to a few atmospheres; conditioned values of breakdown fields then varied between 30 and 45 MV/m. Breakdown processes occurring over a wide range of helium densities are discussed. 24 references.

  2. Measurement of skeletal muscle collagen breakdown by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, B F; Ellis, D; Robinson, M M

    2011-01-01

    Exercise increases the synthesis of collagen in the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle. Breakdown of skeletal muscle collagen has not yet been determined because of technical limitations. The purpose of the present study was to use local sampling to determine skeletal muscle collagen breakdown...... collagen breakdown 17–21 h post-exercise, and our measurement of OHP using GC–MS was in agreement with traditional assays....

  3. Analysis on X-band structure breakdown at GLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehara, T.; Sanuki, T.; Komamiya, S.; Higo, T.; Hayano, H.; Terunuma, N.; Saeki, T.; Watanabe, K.; Hayakawa, A.; Tsukada, Y.

    2004-01-01

    We have built a new monitoring system for accelerator structure breakdown in the X-band high-gradient test facility at KEK (GLCTA: Global Linear Collider Test Accelerator). An X-band test structure KX01 (made by KEK) has been processed at GLCTA and we have been collecting data for about 3 months using this breakdown monitoring system. We describe overview of the monitoring system and preliminary result of breakdown analysis of the structure. (author)

  4. Breakdown of highly excited oxygen in a DC electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsin, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Deryugin, A.A.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The breakdown of oxygen in a dc electric field is studied. A high concentration of oxygen molecules in the a 1 Δ g excited state is obtained in a purely chemical reactor. A decrease in the breakdown voltage at degrees of excitation exceeding 50% is observed. The theoretical decrement in the breakdown voltage obtained by solving the Boltzmann equation is in good agreement with the experimental data

  5. Studies of RF Breakdown of Metals in Dense Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Hanlet, Pierrick M; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Johnson, Rolland P; Kaplan, Daniel; Kuchnir, Moyses; Moretti, Alfred; Paul, Kevin; Popovic, Milorad; Yarba, Victor; Yonehara, Katsuya

    2005-01-01

    A study of RF breakdown of metals in gases has begun as part of a program to develop RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas to be used for muon ionization cooling. A pressurized 800 MHz test cell has been used at Fermilab to compare the conditioning and breakdown behavior of copper, molybdenum, chromium, and beryllium electrodes as functions of hydrogen and helium gas density. These results are compared to the predicted or known RF breakdown behavior of these metals in vacuum.

  6. Doxorubicin plus evofosfamide versus doxorubicin alone in locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma (TH CR-406/SARC021): an international, multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tap, William D; Papai, Zsuzsanna; Van Tine, Brian A; Attia, Steven; Ganjoo, Kristen N; Jones, Robin L; Schuetze, Scott; Reed, Damon; Chawla, Sant P; Riedel, Richard F; Krarup-Hansen, Anders; Toulmonde, Maud; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Hohenberger, Peter; Grignani, Giovanni; Cranmer, Lee D; Okuno, Scott; Agulnik, Mark; Read, William; Ryan, Christopher W; Alcindor, Thierry; Del Muro, Xavier F Garcia; Budd, G Thomas; Tawbi, Hussein; Pearce, Tillman; Kroll, Stew; Reinke, Denise K; Schöffski, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Evofosfamide is a hypoxia-activated prodrug of bromo-isophosphoramide mustard. We aimed to assess the benefit of adding evofosfamide to doxorubicin as first-line therapy for advanced soft-tissue sarcomas. We did this international, open-label, randomised, phase 3, multicentre trial (TH CR-406/SARC021) at 81 academic or community investigational sites in 13 countries. Eligible patients were aged 15 years or older with a diagnosis of an advanced unresectable or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma, of intermediate or high grade, for which no standard curative therapy was available, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive doxorubicin alone (75 mg/m 2 via bolus injection administered over 5-20 min or continuous intravenous infusion for 6-96 h on day 1 of every 21-day cycle for up to six cycles) or doxorubicin (given via the same dose procedure) plus evofosfamide (300 mg/m 2 intravenously for 30-60 min on days 1 and 8 of every 21-day cycle for up to six cycles). After six cycles of treatment, patients in the single-drug doxorubicin group were followed up expectantly whereas patients with stable or responsive disease in the combination group were allowed to continue with evofosfamide monotherapy until documented disease progression. A web-based central randomisation with block sizes of two and four was stratified by extent of disease, doxorubicin administration method, and previous systemic therapy. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival, analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in all patients who received any amount of study drug. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01440088. Between Sept 26, 2011, and Jan 22, 2014, 640 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (317 to

  7. Numerical simulation of a precessing vortex breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochmann, P.; Sinigersky, A.; Hehle, M.; Schaefer, O.; Koch, R.; Bauer, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the results of time-dependent numerical predictions of a turbulent symmetry breaking vortex breakdown in a realistic gas turbine combustor. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved by using the k-ε two-equation model as well as by a full second-order closure using the Reynolds stress model of Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski (SSG). The results for a Reynolds number of 5.2 x 10 4 , a swirl number of 0.52 and an expansion ratio of 5 show that the flow is emerging from the swirler as a spiral gyrating around a zone of strong recirculation which is also asymmetric and precessing. These flow structures which are typical for the spiral type (S-type) vortex breakdown have been confirmed by PIV and local LDA measurements in a corresponding experimental setup. Provided that high resolution meshes are employed the calculations with both turbulence models are capable to reproduce the spatial and temporal dynamics of the flow

  8. Microemulsion systems applied to breakdown petroleum emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuma de Castro Dantas, Tereza; Avelino Dantas Neto, Afonso; Ferreira Moura, Everlane [Deptos de Quimica e Eng. Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario s/n, 59072.970, Natal/RN Campinas (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    Microemulsion systems obtained using commercial surfactants with demulsifier and emulsion prevention properties have been employed to break down Brazilian crude water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. These crude oils were supplied by the Brazilian oil company-PETROBRAS-and were characterized by the different Balance sheet of Sediment and Water (BSW) values of 48%, 36%, and 32%. The microemulsion systems formed in this study were composed of an aqueous phase (HCl 5.2% solution); an oil phase (toluene); a cosurfactant/surfactant (C/S) phase (isopropyl alcohol (C)/surfactants (S) with a ratio C/S of 9.0). The microemulsion efficiency to break down oil emulsions was evaluated by a direct contact method between the microemulsions and crude (W/O) emulsions. The Scheffe net statistical planning for mixtures was used to relate the component mass fractions to the relative breakdown of petroleum emulsions. The best composition of the microemulsion system for the complete breakdown of oil emulsions with high BSW values had the lowest C/S phase percentage.

  9. Second harmonic electron cyclotron breakdown in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; England, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    In linear wave-particle interaction models, the coupling between cold electrons and microwaves with frequency equal to twice the electron gyrofrequency is so weak that the ionization of a significant number of neutral hydrogen atoms would seem impossible in practical applications. However, the non-linear interaction of a cold electron with the wave is very large if the electron becomes trapped near resonance in a shallow, static magnetic well. A model has been developed to describe the breakdown of a neutral gas when these non-linear interactions are considered, and it is in reasonable agreement with the limited amount of available experimental data. For gas pressures that are too large, electron-neutral collisions inhibit the non-linear interaction and prevent breakdown. For gas pressures that are too low, the growth rate of the free electron population is limited because electrons capable of causing ionization are lost before suffering a collision with a neutral. Quantitative growth rate predictions are presented for stellarators, and formulae for rough estimates are given. (author)

  10. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  11. Electrical strength of vacuum gap at repetitive breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.; Chistyakov, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The investigation of repetitive pulse breakdown of vacuum space, which electrodes have been subjected to various treatment in vacuum and inert gas, is carried out. In case of electrode warm-up in vacuum up to 400 deg C as well as electronic heating up to 900 deg C the voltage in case of repetitive breakdown hasncreased approximately twice and in case of a through treatment, which is accomplished by a high-current glow discharge in inert gas, the maximum high voltage in case of the first breakdown at repetitive breakdown has decreased by 30...40%, remaining 2-3 times higher than in the first case

  12. Bangladesh looks for a soft loan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, A.

    1986-01-01

    The problems faced by developing countries in embarking on a nuclear power programme are considered. It is argued that an international funding agency should be set up by the IAEA and the World Bank to provide developing countries with help in the form of a loan at soft interest rates and longer repayment periods. (U.K.)

  13. Internal photoemission study on charge trapping behavior in rapid thermal oxides on strained-Si/SiGe heterolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, M.K.; Mahata, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Armstrong, B.M.; Gamble, H.S.; Maiti, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study on the nature of defects and their relationship to charge trapping with enhanced photosensitivity has been investigated through magnetic resonance and internal photoemission (IPE) experiments for rapid thermal grown oxides (RTO) on strained-Si/Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 and on co-processed bulk-Si (1 0 0) substrates. Both the band and defect-related electronic states were characterized through EPR, IPE, C-V and I-V measurements under UV-illumination. Surface chemical characterization of as-grown ultrathin oxides (5-7 nm) has been performed using high-resolution XPS. Enhancement in Ge-segregation with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Comparative studies on interface properties and leakage current behavior of rapid thermal oxides have also been studied through fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor structures. A degraded electrical property with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Constant voltage stressing (CVS) in the range of 5.5-7 V was used to study the breakdown characteristics of different samples. We observe a distinguishably different time-to-breakdown (t bd ) phenomenon for bulk-Si and strained-Si/SiGe samples. Whereas the oxide on bulk-Si shows a typical breakdown behavior, the RTO grown oxide on strained-Si/SiGe samples showed a quasi-or soft-breakdown with lower t bd value. It may be pointed out that quasi-breakdown may be a stronger reliability limiting factor for strained-Si/SiGe devices in the oxide thickness range studied

  14. Soft-Material Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; Nurzaman, SG; Iida, Fumiya

    2017-01-01

    There has been a boost of research activities in robotics using soft materials in the past ten years. It is expected that the use and control of soft materials can help realize robotic systems that are safer, cheaper, and more adaptable than the level that the conventional rigid-material robots can achieve. Contrary to a number of existing review and position papers on soft-material robotics, which mostly present case studies and/or discuss trends and challenges, the review focuses on the fun...

  15. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  16. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  17. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  18. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  19. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  20. Soft theorems for shift-symmetric cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Bernardo; Goon, Garrett; Pajer, Enrico; Santoni, Luca

    2018-03-01

    We derive soft theorems for single-clock cosmologies that enjoy a shift symmetry. These so-called consistency conditions arise from a combination of a large diffeomorphism and the internal shift symmetry and fix the squeezed limit of all correlators with a soft scalar mode. As an application, we show that our results reproduce the squeezed bispectrum for ultra-slow-roll inflation, a particular shift-symmetric, nonattractor model which is known to violate Maldacena's consistency relation. Similar results have been previously obtained by Mooij and Palma using background-wave methods. Our results shed new light on the infrared structure of single-clock cosmological spacetimes.

  1. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…

  2. Robust AIC with High Breakdown Scale Estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrya Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Akaike Information Criterion (AIC based on least squares (LS regression minimizes the sum of the squared residuals; LS is sensitive to outlier observations. Alternative criterion, which is less sensitive to outlying observation, has been proposed; examples are robust AIC (RAIC, robust Mallows Cp (RCp, and robust Bayesian information criterion (RBIC. In this paper, we propose a robust AIC by replacing the scale estimate with a high breakdown point estimate of scale. The robustness of the proposed methods is studied through its influence function. We show that, the proposed robust AIC is effective in selecting accurate models in the presence of outliers and high leverage points, through simulated and real data examples.

  3. Vortex breakdown in simple pipe bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Jesse; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Pipe bends and elbows are one of the most common fluid mechanics elements that exists. However, despite their ubiquity and the extensive amount of research related to these common, simple geometries, unexpected complexities still remain. We show that for a range of geometries and flow conditions, these simple flows experience unexpected fluid dynamical bifurcations resembling the bubble-type vortex breakdown phenomenon. Specifically, we show with simulations and experiments that recirculation zones develop within the bends under certain conditions. As a consequence, fluid and particles can remain trapped within these structures for unexpectedly-long time scales. We also present simple techniques to mitigate this recirculation effect which can potentially have impact across industries ranging from biomedical and chemical processing to food and health sciences.

  4. Runaway breakdown and hydrometeors in lightning initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, A V; Karashtin, A N

    2013-05-03

    The particular electric pulse discharges are observed in thunderclouds during the initiation stage of negative cloud-to-ground lightning. The discharges are quite different from conventional streamers or leaders. A detailed analysis reveals that the shape of the pulses is determined by the runaway breakdown of air in the thundercloud electric field initiated by extensive atmospheric showers (RB-EAS). The high amplitude of the pulse electric current is due to the multiple microdischarges at hydrometeors stimulated and synchronized by the low-energy electrons generated in the RB-EAS process. The series of specific pulse discharges leads to charge reset from hydrometeors to the free ions and creates numerous stretched ion clusters, both positive and negative. As a result, a wide region in the thundercloud with a sufficiently high fractal ion conductivity is formed. The charge transport by ions plays a decisive role in the lightning leader preconditioning.

  5. Development of Electrical Breakdown in Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kudelcik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers are key equipment for transfer and distribution of the electric power. Considering the significance of the power transformers in the electric system, their price and possible damages occurred by accidents, it is necessary to pay attention to their higher prevention. To prevent failure states of transformers, we perform different types ofmeasurements. They shall illustrate a momentary state of the measured equipment and if necessary to draw attention in advance to changes of parameters, which have specific relationship to no-failure operation of the equipment. The conditions under which breakdown of composite liquid/ solid insulation can occur, e.g. in transformer, play an important role in designing such insulation. The liquid, mainly mineral oil, generally constitutes the weakest part of insulation and a great amount of work has been devoted to the study of streamers, which appear in the gaseous phase, and most often are triggering the failure of insulation.

  6. Histotype-tailored neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus standard chemotherapy in patients with high-risk soft-tissue sarcomas (ISG-STS 1001): an international, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3, multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronchi, Alessandro; Ferrari, Stefano; Quagliuolo, Vittorio; Broto, Javier Martin; Pousa, Antonio Lopez; Grignani, Giovanni; Basso, Umberto; Blay, Jean-Yves; Tendero, Oscar; Beveridge, Robert Diaz; Ferraresi, Virginia; Lugowska, Iwona; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Fontana, Valeria; Marchesi, Emanuela; Donati, Davide Maria; Palassini, Elena; Palmerini, Emanuela; De Sanctis, Rita; Morosi, Carlo; Stacchiotti, Silvia; Bagué, Silvia; Coindre, Jean Michelle; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Picci, Piero; Bruzzi, Paolo; Casali, Paolo Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Previous trials from our group suggested an overall survival benefit with five cycles of adjuvant full-dose epirubicin plus ifosfamide in localised high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremities or trunk wall, and no difference in overall survival benefit between three cycles versus five cycles of the same neoadjuvant regimen. We aimed to show the superiority of the neoadjuvant administration of histotype-tailored regimen to standard chemotherapy. For this international, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3, multicentre trial, patients were enrolled from 32 hospitals in Italy, Spain, France, and Poland. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with localised, high-risk (high malignancy grade, 5 cm or longer in diameter, and deeply located according to the investing fascia), soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremities or trunk wall and belonging to one of five histological subtypes: high-grade myxoid liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive three cycles of full-dose standard chemotherapy (epirubicin 60 mg/m 2 per day [short infusion, days 1 and 2] plus ifosfamide 3 g/m 2 per day [days 1, 2, and 3], repeated every 21 days) or histotype-tailored chemotherapy: for high-grade myxoid liposarcoma, trabectedin 1·3 mg/m 2 via 24-h continuous infusion, repeated every 21 days; for leiomyosarcoma, gemcitabine 1800 mg/m 2 on day 1 intravenously over 180 min plus dacarbazine 500 mg/m 2 on day 1 intravenously over 20 min, repeated every 14 days; for synovial sarcoma, high-dose ifosfamide 14 g/m 2 , given over 14 days via an external infusion pump, every 28 days; for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, intravenous etoposide 150 mg/m 2 per day (days 1, 2, and 3) plus intravenous ifosfamide 3 g/m 2 per day (days 1, 2, and 3), repeated every 21 days; and for undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, gemcitabine 900 mg/m 2 on days 1 and

  7. Junction depth dependence of breakdown in silicon detector diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, G.A.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Munday, D.J.; Pritchard, T.W.; Robinson, D.; Wilburn, C.D.; Wyllie, K.

    1996-01-01

    The high voltage capability of detector diodes fabricated in the planar process is limited by the high field generated at the edge of the junction.We have fabricated diodes with increased junction depth with respect to our standard process and find a significantly higher breakdown voltage,in reasonable agreement with previous studies of junction breakdown. (orig.)

  8. Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass |

    Science.gov (United States)

    News | NREL Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass May 22, 2018 Roman Brunecky (left), Yannick Bomble soften biomass. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL If there's an easier, more efficient method, science will

  9. Simulation of a three-dimensional vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Menne, Stefan

    1989-01-01

    The breakdown of a vortex flow in a tube is studied for a slightly diverging tube by means of a numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a quasi-stationary, incompressible, laminar flow. Numerical results are compared to experiments of Faler and Leibovich. The numerical data display features similar to the experimental results concerning breakdown conditions, location, and structure.

  10. Formation of vortex breakdown in conical–cylindrical cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Diego Alves de Moro; Souza, Francisco José de; Salvo, Ricardo de Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rotating flows in conical–cylindrical cavities were simulated via an in-house code using unstructured meshes. • The vortex breakdown phenomenon was verified in the geometries analyzed. • The influence of Stewartson and Bödewadt layers was observed in the vortex breakdown formation. • A curve of stability and number of breakdowns was obtained as a function of Reynolds number. • Spiral vortex breakdown was observed in some situations. - Abstract: Numerical simulations in confined rotating flows were performed in this work, in order to verify and characterize the formation of the vortex breakdown phenomenon. Cylindrical and conical–cylindrical geometries, both closed, were used in the simulations. The rotating flow is induced by the bottom wall, which rotates at constant angular velocity. Firstly the numerical results were compared to experimental results available in references, with the purpose to verify the capacity of the computational code to predict the vortex breakdown phenomenon. Further, several simulations varying the parameters which govern the characteristics of the flows analyzed in this work, i.e., the Reynolds number and the aspect ratio, were performed. In these simulations, the limits for the transitional regime and the vortex breakdown formation were verified. Steady and transient cases, with and without turbulence modeling, were simulated. In general, some aspects of the process of vortex breakdown in conical–cylindrical geometries were observed to be different from that in cylinders

  11. Electric field measurements in moving ionization fronts during plasma breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Bowden, M.D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed time-resolved, direct measurements of electric field strengths in moving ionization fronts during the breakdown phase of a pulsed plasma. Plasma breakdown, or plasma ignition, is a highly transient process marking the transition from a gas to a plasma. Some aspects of plasma

  12. Quasiparticle Breakdown in a Quantum Spin Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Matthew B.; Zalinznyak, I.; Hong, T.; Broholm, C.L.; Reich, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Much of modern condensed matter physics is understood in terms of elementary excitations, or quasiparticles -- fundamental quanta of energy and momentum. Various strongly interacting atomic systems are successfully treated as a collection of quasiparticles with weak or no interactions. However, there are interesting limitations to this description: in some systems the very existence of quasiparticles cannot be taken for granted. Like unstable elementary particles, quasiparticles cannot survive beyond a threshold where certain decay channels become allowed by conservation laws; their spectrum terminates at this threshold. Such quasiparticle breakdown was first predicted for an exotic state of matter -- super-fluid 4 He at temperatures close to absolute zero, a quantum Bose liquid where zero-point atomic motion precludes crystallization. Here we show, using neutron scattering, that quasiparticle breakdown can also occur in a quantum magnet and, by implication, in other systems with Bose quasiparticles. We have measured spin excitations in a two-dimensional quantum magnet, piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate (PHCC), in which spin-1/2 copper ions form a non-magnetic quantum spin liquid, and find remarkable similarities with excitations in superfluid 4 He. We observe a threshold momentum beyond which the quasiparticle peak merges with the two-quasiparticle continuum. It then acquires a finite energy width and becomes indistinguishable from a leading-edge singularity, so that excited states are no longer quasiparticles but occupy a wide band of energy. Our findings have important ramifications for understanding excitations with gapped spectra in many condensed matter systems, ranging from band insulators to high-transition-temperature superconductors.

  13. Soft power v ruské zahraniční politice

    OpenAIRE

    Annenkov, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Soft power is one of the most emphasized concepts of current international relations. Russia still plays a significant role, however, russian soft power still has its limits. This thesis studies particular sources of russian soft power and refers to its deficiencies.

  14. Determining the mode of high voltage breakdowns in vacuum devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.; Furno, E.J.; Sturtz, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Devices were constructed which were essentially vacuum diodes equipped with windows allowing observation of high voltage breakdowns. The waveform of the applied voltage was photographed, and the x-ray output was monitored to investigate electrical breakdown in these vacuum diodes. Results indicate that breakdowns may be divided into two types: (1) vacuum (interelectrode) breakdown - characterized by a diffuse moderately bright discharge, a relative slow and smooth voltage collapse, and a large burst of x-rays, and (2) surface (insulator) flashover - characterized by a bright discharge with a very bright filamentary core, a relatively fast and noisy voltage collapse and no x-ray burst. Useful information concerning the type of breakdown in a vacuum device can be obtained by monitoring the voltage (current) waveform and the x-ray output

  15. International thermal reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The worldwide development of nuclear power plants is reviewed. Charts are presented which show the commitment to light-water reactor capacity construction with breakdown by region and country. Additional charts show the major nuclear research centers which have substantial scope in light water reactor development and extensive international activities

  16. Detection of Elemental Composition of Lubricating Grease Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Dhiman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of lubricating soft grease used in rail engines are studied using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS technique. LIBS spectra of fresh, partially used and fully used grease samples are recorded using time-gated ICCD spectrometer for verification of compositional degradation of the used grease. LIBS spectra of grease samples are analyzed by comparing with emission spectra of elements published by NIST standard database. Many spectral lines of impurity elements like Fe, Cu, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ni, S, Zn, Si, Pb, Ti, Ca and Al present in the grease in ppm or ppb level in trace level concentrations are observed in excess in the used grease mainly due to wear and tear. On the other hand in fresh grease, spectral lines of Ca, Al and Na are observed predominantly.

  17. Soft Dielectric Elastomer Oscillators Driving Bioinspired Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F Markus; Schlatter, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A

    2017-12-01

    Entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. To produce them, we must integrate control and actuation in the same soft structure. Soft actuators (e.g., pneumatic and hydraulic) exist but electronics are hard and stiff and remotely located. We present novel soft, electronics-free dielectric elastomer oscillators, which are able to drive bioinspired robots. As a demonstrator, we present a robot that mimics the crawling motion of the caterpillar, with an integrated artificial nervous system, soft actuators and without any conventional stiff electronic parts. Supplied with an external DC voltage, the robot autonomously generates all signals that are necessary to drive its dielectric elastomer actuators, and it translates an in-plane electromechanical oscillation into a crawling locomotion movement. Therefore, all functional and supporting parts are made of polymer materials and carbon. Besides the basic design of this first electronic-free, biomimetic robot, we present prospects to control the general behavior of such robots. The absence of conventional stiff electronics and the exclusive use of polymeric materials will provide a large step toward real animal-like robots, compliant human machine interfaces, and a new class of distributed, neuron-like internal control for robotic systems.

  18. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  19. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  20. Experimental Study on High Electrical Breakdown of Water Dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhang Jiande; Yang Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    By means of a coaxial apparatus, pressurized water breakdown experiments with microsecond charging have been carried out with different surface roughness of electrodes and different ethylene glycol concentrations of ethylene glycol/water mixture. The experimental results about the breakdown stress and the effective time are presented. The breakdown stress is normalized to the situation that the effective time is transformed to 1 μs and analyzed. The conclusions are as follows: (1) the breakdown stress formula is modified to E = 0.561M A -1/10 t eff -1/N P 1/8 ; (2) the coefficient M is significantly increased by surface polishing and ethylene glycol additive; (3) it is accumulative for the capacity of improving electrical breakdown strength for surface polishing, ethylene glycol additive, and pressurization, of which pressurization is the most effective method; (4) the highest stress of 235.5 kV/cm is observed in ethylene glycol/water mixture with an ethylene glycol concentration of 80% at a hydrostatic pressure of 1215.9 kPa and is about one time greater than that in pure water at constant pressure; (5) for pressurization and surface polishing, the primary mechanism to improve the breakdown strength of water dielectric is the increase in the breakdown time delay. Research results indicate great potential in the application of the high power pulse conditioning system of water dielectric

  1. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  2. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  3. Ultrasonographic findings of benign soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Sung; Oh, Dong Heon; Jung, Tae Gun; Kim, Yong Kil; Kwon, Jung Hyeok

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the characteristic sonographic features of benign soft tissue tumors and to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic imaging. We retrospectively reviewed ultrasonographic images of 70 cases in 68 patients with histologically proved benign soft tissue tumors. The tumors include 33 lipomas, 11 hemangiomas, 11 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, 2 fibromas, 1 mesenchymoma, and 1 myxoma. The sonographic appearances of the lesions were mainly solid in 53 cases(33 lipomas, 8 hemangiomas, 2 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 2 fibromas and 1 mesenchymoma), mainly cystic in 14 cases(1 hemangioma, 8 lymphangiomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, and 1 myxomal), and mixed in 3 cases(2 hemangiomas and 1 lymphangioma). Although an accurate histologic prediction could not be made in most cases, certain patterns appeared to be characteristic of specific tumor types. 26 cases(78%) of lipoma were seen as lentiform, iso- or hyperechoic, solid mass. Hemangioma had variable appearance and characteristic calcifications were seen in 3 cases. Unicameral or multiseptated cystic mass with variable thickness of echogenic septa and solid portion was the characteristic finding of lymhangioma. Neurilemmoma showed lobulated, oval to round , relatively hypoechoic mass or with without internal cystic portion. Sonographic evaluation of benign soft tissue tumors is useful in demonstrating the location, size, extent, and internal characteristic of the mass. A relatively confident diagnosis can made when the characteristic features of the benign soft tissue tumor are present on sonographic imaging

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of benign soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Sung; Oh, Dong Heon; Jung, Tae Gun; Kim, Yong Kil; Kwon, Jung Hyeok [Dongkang Genernal Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To clarify the characteristic sonographic features of benign soft tissue tumors and to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic imaging. We retrospectively reviewed ultrasonographic images of 70 cases in 68 patients with histologically proved benign soft tissue tumors. The tumors include 33 lipomas, 11 hemangiomas, 11 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, 2 fibromas, 1 mesenchymoma, and 1 myxoma. The sonographic appearances of the lesions were mainly solid in 53 cases(33 lipomas, 8 hemangiomas, 2 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 2 fibromas and 1 mesenchymoma), mainly cystic in 14 cases(1 hemangioma, 8 lymphangiomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, and 1 myxomal), and mixed in 3 cases(2 hemangiomas and 1 lymphangioma). Although an accurate histologic prediction could not be made in most cases, certain patterns appeared to be characteristic of specific tumor types. 26 cases(78%) of lipoma were seen as lentiform, iso- or hyperechoic, solid mass. Hemangioma had variable appearance and characteristic calcifications were seen in 3 cases. Unicameral or multiseptated cystic mass with variable thickness of echogenic septa and solid portion was the characteristic finding of lymhangioma. Neurilemmoma showed lobulated, oval to round , relatively hypoechoic mass or with without internal cystic portion. Sonographic evaluation of benign soft tissue tumors is useful in demonstrating the location, size, extent, and internal characteristic of the mass. A relatively confident diagnosis can made when the characteristic features of the benign soft tissue tumor are present on sonographic imaging.

  5. Mappings on Neutrosophic Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper we define the notion of a mapping on classes where the neutrosophic soft classes are collections of neutrosophic soft set. We also define and study the properties of neutrosophic soft images and neutrosophic soft inverse images of neutrosophic soft sets.

  6. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M.

    2001-01-01

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  7. Work Breakdown Structures The Foundation for Project Management Excellence

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric S; Fried, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    Understand and apply new concepts regarding Work Breakdown Structures The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) has emerged as a foundational concept and tool in Project Management. It is an enabler that ensures clear definition and communication of project scope while performing a critical role as a monitoring and controlling tool. Created by the three experts who led the development of PMI's Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structures, Second Edition, this much-needed text expands on what the standard covers and describes how to go about successfully implementing the WBS within the project life

  8. A model of breakdown in parallel-plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte, P.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC's) have many desirable properties, such as a fast, large area particle detector. However, the maximum gain is limited by a form of violent breakdown that limits the usefulness of this detector, despite its other evident qualities. The exact nature of this phenomenon is not yet sufficiently clear to sustain possible improvements. A previous experimental study is complemented in the present work by a quantitative model of the breakdown phenomenon in PPAC's, based on the streamer theory. The model reproduces well the peculiar behavior of the external current observed in PPAC's and resistive-plate chambers. Other breakdown properties measured in PPAC's are also well reproduced

  9. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten [DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Herrada, Miguel A [E.S.I, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 (Spain); Shtern, Vladimir N, E-mail: mobr@dtu.dk [Shtern Research and Consulting, Houston, TX 77096 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H{sub w}, and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H{sub w} varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H{sub w}, the AMF effect dominates. As H{sub w} increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)

  10. Subnanosecond breakdown in high-pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidis, George V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Lomaev, Mikhail I.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed discharges in high-pressure gases are of considerable interest as sources of nonequilibrium plasma for various technological applications: pollution control, pumping of laser media, plasma-assisted combustion, etc. Recently, attention has been attracted to the use of subnanosecond voltage fronts, producing diffuse discharges with radii of several millimeters. Such plasma structures, similar to pulsed glow discharges, are of special interest for applications due to quasi-uniformity of plasma parameters in relatively large gas volumes. This review presents the results of experimental and computational study of subnanosecond diffuse discharge formation. A description of generators of short high-voltage pulses with subnanosecond fronts and of discharge setups is given. Diagnostic methods for the measurement of various discharge parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution are described. Obtained experimental data on plasma properties for a wide range of governing factors are discussed. A review of various theoretical approaches used for computational study of the dynamics and structure of fast ionization waves is given; the applicability of conventional fluid streamer models for simulation of subnanosecond ionization waves is discussed. Calculated spatial-temporal profiles of plasma parameters during streamer propagation are presented. The efficiency of subnanosecond discharges for the production of reactive species is evaluated. On the basis of the comparison of simulation results and experimental data the effects of various factors (voltage rise time, polarity, etc.) on discharge characteristics are revealed. The major physical phenomena governing the properties of subnanosecond breakdown are analyzed.

  11. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A; Shtern, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H w , and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H w varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H w , the AMF effect dominates. As H w increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)

  12. Medical Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, A K; Rai, N K; Singh, Ankita; Rai, A K; Rai, Pradeep K; Rai, Pramod K

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle of human beings has resulted in various diseases and in turn we require a potential tool that can be used to address various issues related to human health. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is one such potential optical analytical tool that has become quite popular because of its distinctive features that include applicability to any type/phase of samples with almost no sample preparation. Several reports are available that discusses the capabilities of LIBS, suitable for various applications in different branches of science which cannot be addressed by traditional analytical methods but only few reports are available for the medical applications of LIBS. In the present work, LIBS has been implemented to understand the role of various elements in the formation of gallstones (formed under the empyema and mucocele state of gallbladder) samples along with patient history that were collected from Purvancal region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The occurrence statistics of gallstones under the present study reveal higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. The gallstone occurrence was found more prevalent for those male patients who were having the habit of either tobacco chewing, smoking or drinking alcohols. This work further reports in-situ LIBS study of deciduous tooth and in-vivo LIBS study of human nail

  13. Soft actuators and soft actuating devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-10-17

    A soft buckling linear actuator is described, including: a plurality of substantially parallel bucklable, elastic structural components each having its longest dimension along a first axis; and a plurality of secondary structural components each disposed between and bridging two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components; wherein every two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and the secondary structural components in-between define a layer comprising a plurality of cells each capable of being connected with a fluid inflation or deflation source; the secondary structural components from two adjacent layers are not aligned along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis; and the secondary structural components are configured not to buckle, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle along the second axis to generate a linear force, upon the inflation or deflation of the cells. Methods of actuation using the same are also described.

  14. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  15. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be us...

  16. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane

    2008-01-01

    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  17. Meiosis, egg activation, and nuclear envelope breakdown are differentially reliant on Ca2+, whereas germinal vesicle breakdown is Ca2+ independent in the mouse oocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombes, R. M.; Simerly, C.; Borisy, G. G.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    During early development, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is not only essential for fertilization, but has also been implicated during other meiotic and mitotic events, such as germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). In this study, the roles of intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ were examined during meiotic maturation and reinitiation at parthenogenetic activation and during first mitosis in a single species using the same methodologies. Cumulus-free metaphase II mouse oocytes immediately resumed anaphase upon the induction of a large, transient Ca2+ elevation. This resumption of meiosis and associated events, such as cortical granule discharge, were not sensitive to extracellular Ca2+ removal, but were blocked by intracellular Ca2+ chelators. In contrast, meiosis I was dependent on external Ca2+; in its absence, the formation and function of the first meiotic spindle was delayed, the first polar body did not form and an interphase-like state was induced. GVBD was not dependent on external Ca2+ and showed no associated Ca2+ changes. NEBD at first mitosis in fertilized eggs, on the other hand, was frequently, but not always associated with a brief Ca2+ transient and was dependent on Ca2+ mobilization. We conclude that GVBD is Ca2+ independent, but that the dependence of NEBD on Ca2+ suggests regulation by more than one pathway. As cells develop from Ca(2+)-independent germinal vesicle oocytes to internal Ca(2+)-dependent pronuclear eggs, internal Ca2+ pools increase by approximately fourfold.

  18. Development and Breakdown of Goertler Vortices in High Speed Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Wu, Minwei; Greene, Ptrick T.

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear development of G rtler instability over a concave surface gives rise to a highly distorted stationary flow in the boundary layer that has strong velocity gradients in both spanwise and wall-normal directions. This distorted flow is susceptible to strong, high frequency secondary instability that leads to the onset of transition. For high Mach number flows, the boundary layer is also subject to the second mode instability. The nonlinear development of G rtler vortices and the ensuing growth and breakdown of secondary instability, the G rtler vortex interactions with second mode instabilities as well as oblique second mode interactions are examined in the context of both internal and external hypersonic configurations using nonlinear parabolized stability equations, 2-D eigenvalue analysis and direct numerical simulation. For G rtler vortex development inside the Purdue Mach 6 Ludwieg tube wind tunnel, multiple families of unstable secondary eigenmodes are identified and their linear and nonlinear evolution is examined. The computation of secondary instability is continued past the onset of transition to elucidate the physical mechanisms underlying the laminar breakdown process. Nonlinear breakdown scenarios associated with transition over a Mach 6 compression cone configuration are also explored.

  19. Complex system modelling and control through intelligent soft computations

    CERN Document Server

    Azar, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The book offers a snapshot of the theories and applications of soft computing in the area of complex systems modeling and control. It presents the most important findings discussed during the 5th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control, held in Cairo, from August 31-September 2, 2013. The book consists of twenty-nine selected contributions, which have been thoroughly reviewed and extended before their inclusion in the volume. The different chapters, written by active researchers in the field, report on both current theories and important applications of soft-computing. Besides providing the readers with soft-computing fundamentals, and soft-computing based inductive methodologies/algorithms, the book also discusses key industrial soft-computing applications, as well as multidisciplinary solutions developed for a variety of purposes, like windup control, waste management, security issues, biomedical applications and many others. It is a perfect reference guide for graduate students, r...

  20. The legal aspects of the power breakdown in August 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunberry, E.

    2004-01-01

    The power breakdown on August 14, 2003 could re-occur. There are legal liabilities over interruptions of power without notice and honouring of contract terms. This risk must be managed with prudence and diligence. (author)

  1. Low-pressure gas breakdown in longitudinal combined electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskiy, V A; Kharchenko, N D; Yegorenkov, V D

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains the complete experimental and analytical picture of gas breakdown in combined electric fields for arbitrary values of rf and dc fields. To obtain it, we continued the study of the discharge ignition modes in nitrogen with simultaneous application of dc and rf electric fields presented in Lisovskiy et al (2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 125207). To this end, we studied the effect of rf voltage on dc discharge ignition. When we applied an rf voltage exceeding the one corresponding to the minimum breakdown voltage of a self-sustained rf discharge, the curve of dependence of the dc breakdown voltage of a combined discharge on gas pressure was found to consist of two sections. We got the generalized gas breakdown criterion in the combined field valid for arbitrary values of rf and dc electric fields. The calculation results agree with experimental data satisfactorily.

  2. Surface of Alumina Films after Prolonged Breakdowns in Galvanostatic Anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Girginov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown phenomena are investigated at continuous isothermal (20∘C and galvanostatic (0.2–5 mA cm−2 anodizing of aluminum in ammonium salicylate in dimethylformamide (1 M AS/DMF electrolyte. From the kinetic (-curves, the breakdown voltage ( values are estimated, as well as the frequency and amplitude of oscillations of formation voltage ( at different current densities. The surface of the aluminum specimens was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Data on topography and surface roughness parameters of the electrode after electric breakdowns are obtained as a function of anodization time. The electrode surface of anodic films, formed with different current densities until the same charge density has passed (2.5 C cm−2, was assessed. Results are discussed on the basis of perceptions of avalanche mechanism of the breakdown phenomena, due to the injection of electrons and their multiplication in the volume of the film.

  3. Review of Vortex Methods for Simulation of Vortex Breakdown

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levinski, Oleg

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify current developments in the field of vortex breakdown modelling in order to initiate the development of a numerical model for the simulation of F/A-18 empennage buffet...

  4. Vortex breakdown in closed containers with polygonal cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, I. V.; Dvoynishnikov, S. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Tsoy, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The vortex breakdown bubble in the confined flow generated by a rotating lid in closed containers with polygonal cross sections was analysed both experimentally and numerically for the height/radius aspect ratio equal to 2. The stagnation point locations of the breakdown bubble emergence and the corresponding Reynolds number were determined experimentally and in addition computed numerically by STAR-CCM+ CFD software for square, pentagonal, hexagonal, and octagonal cross section configurations. The flow pattern and the velocity were observed and measured by combining the seeding particle visualization and the temporal accuracy of laser Doppler anemometry. The vortex breakdown size and position on the container axis were determined for Reynolds numbers, ranging from 1450 to 2400. The obtained results were compared with the flow structure in the closed container of cubical and cylindrical configurations. It is shown that the measured evolution of steady vortex breakdown is in close agreement with the numerical results

  5. Streamwise Fluctuations of Vortex Breakdown at High Reynolds Numbers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Connelly, Jonathan S

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with the characterization of the dependence on the flow geometry of the stream wise fluctuations of the stagnation point of vortex breakdown in axisymmetric tubes and over delta wing aircraft...

  6. Optimal Rules for Single Machine Scheduling with Stochastic Breakdowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of scheduling a set of jobs on a single machine subject to stochastic breakdowns, where jobs have to be restarted if preemptions occur because of breakdowns. The breakdown process of the machine is independent of the jobs processed on the machine. The processing times required to complete the jobs are constants if no breakdown occurs. The machine uptimes are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d. and are subject to a uniform distribution. It is proved that the Longest Processing Time first (LPT rule minimizes the expected makespan. For the large-scale problem, it is also showed that the Shortest Processing Time first (SPT rule is optimal to minimize the expected total completion times of all jobs.

  7. Breakdown processes in wire chambers, prevention and rate capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.

    1983-01-01

    Breakdowns were optically and electronically observed in drift tubes and drift chambers. They occur at a critical gain for given intensity in a gas mixture when ultraviolet photons are not completely quenched. It was observed that the breakdowns depended critically on average current for a given gas mixture independent of the size of the drift tubes used. Using 4.6% ethyl alcohol vapor mixed into 50/50 argon ethane gas, breakdown are eliminated up to 7 /sub μ/A average current drawn by pulses on a 1 cm section of an anode wire under an intense source. Pulses with an avalanche size of 10 6 electron rates above 10 6 pulses per centimeter per wire may be obtained with the elimination of breakdowns

  8. Breakdown processes in wire chambers, prevention and rate capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.

    1982-01-01

    Breakdowns were optically and electronically observed in drift tubes and drift chambers. They occur at a critical gain for given intensity in a gas mixture when ultraviolet photons are not completely quenched. It was observed that the breakdowns depended critically on average current for a given gas mixture independent of the size of the drift tubes used. Using 4.6% ethyl alcohol vapor mixed into 50/50 argon ethane gas, breakdowns are eliminated up to 7 μA average current drawn by pulses on a 1 cm section of an anode wire under an intense source. Pulses with an avalanche size of 10 6 electron rates above 10 6 pulses per centimeter per wire may be obtained with the elimination of breakdowns

  9. Kertész line of thermally activated breakdown phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Yoshioka, Naoki; Kun, Ferenc; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2010-01-01

    Based on a fiber bundle model we substantially extend the phase-transition analogy of thermally activated breakdown of homogeneous materials. We show that the competition of breaking due to stress enhancement and due to thermal fluctuations leads

  10. Critical issues in soft rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ...

  11. Soft skills and dental education

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N. H.; Naimie, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses ...

  12. Enhancement of dielectric breakdown strengths in polymer film capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.; Mammone, R.J.; Lavene, B.; Rondeau, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that breakdown voltages of wound, polymer film/metal foil capacitors have been dramatically increased by briefly exposing them (after they had been spirally wound) to a low pressure, low temperature gas plasma. Exposure of wound, polycarbonate-based capacitors to a 96%CF 4 /4%O 2 gas plasma for 4 minutes, for example, produced a 200% increase in breakdown voltage

  13. Communication Breakdown: Unraveling the Islamic States Media Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Communication Breakdown: Unraveling the Islamic State’s Media Efforts Daniel Milton Communication Breakdown: Unraveling the Islamic State’s Media ...production arm of central media office).28 The high level of communication between the central media office and the satellite offices illustrates the tension...and discussed by the mass media . Those products are likely important to the group’s recruitment efforts, but clearly it is trying to portray itself

  14. Method of making dielectric capacitors with increased dielectric breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Liu, Shanshan

    2017-05-09

    The invention is directed to a process for making a dielectric ceramic film capacitor and the ceramic dielectric laminated capacitor formed therefrom, the dielectric ceramic film capacitors having increased dielectric breakdown strength. The invention increases breakdown strength by embedding a conductive oxide layer between electrode layers within the dielectric layer of the capacitors. The conductive oxide layer redistributes and dissipates charge, thus mitigating charge concentration and micro fractures formed within the dielectric by electric fields.

  15. Dynamical symmetry breakdown in SU(5) and SO(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellard, R.C.

    1983-09-01

    Some restrictions imposed upon Grand Unified Theories by dynamical symmetry breakdown are examined. It is observed in particular, that theories with SU(5) as symmetry group, with 3 or more fermion families undergo dynamical symmetry breakdown, and some of the fermions will acquire mass at the Grand Unified scale. On the other hand, the SO(10) group, with 3 families is free from this problem. (Author) [pt

  16. Ionizing potential waves and high-voltage breakdown streamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, N. W.; Tidman, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The structure of ionizing potential waves driven by a strong electric field in a dense gas is discussed. Negative breakdown waves are found to propagate with a velocity proportional to the electric field normal to the wavefront. This causes a curved ionizing potential wavefront to focus down into a filamentary structure, and may provide the reason why breakdown in dense gases propagates in the form of a narrow leader streamer instead of a broad wavefront.

  17. On Neutrosophic Soft Topological Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin Bera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of connectedness and compactness on neutrosophic soft topological space have been introduced along with the investigation of their several characteristics. Some related theorems have been established also. Then, the notion of neutrosophic soft continuous mapping on a neutrosophic soft topological space and it’s properties are developed here.

  18. Breakdown of predictability in gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper it is claimed that the breakdown of classical concepts of space and time is not merely a result of our ignorance of the correct theory but that it represents a fundamental limitation to our ability to predict the future, a limitation that is analogous but additional to the limitation imposed by the normal quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle. The new limitation arises because general relativity allows the causal structure of space-time to be very different from that of Minkowski space. The interaction region can be bounded not only by an initial surface on which data are given and a final surface on which measurements are made but also a ''hidden surface'' about which the observer has only limited information such as the mass, angular momentum, and charge. Concerning this hidden surface one has a ''principle of ignorance'': The surface emits with equal probability all configurations of particles compatible with the observerslimited knowledge. It is shown that the ignorance principle holds for the quantum-mechanical evaporation of black holes: The black hole creates particles in pairs, with one particle always falling into the hole and the other possibly escaping to infinity. Because part of the information about the state of the system is lost down the hole, the final situation is represented by a density matrix rather than a pure quantum state. This means there is no S matrix for the process of black-hole formation and evaporation. Instead one has to introduce a new operator, called the superscattering operator, which maps density matrices describing the initial situation to density matrices describing the final situation

  19. Breakdown coefficients and scaling properties of rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Harris

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of scale similarity and breakdown coefficients is applied here to intermittent rainfall data consisting of time series and spatial rain fields. The probability distributions (pdf of the logarithm of the breakdown coefficients are the principal descriptor used. Rain fields are distinguished as being either multiscaling or multiaffine depending on whether the pdfs of breakdown coefficients are scale similar or scale dependent, respectively. Parameter  estimation techniques are developed which are applicable to both multiscaling and multiaffine fields. The scale parameter (width, σ, of the pdfs of the log-breakdown coefficients is a measure of the intermittency of a field. For multiaffine fields, this scale parameter is found to increase with scale in a power-law fashion consistent with a bounded-cascade picture of rainfall modelling. The resulting power-law exponent, H, is indicative of the smoothness of the field. Some details of breakdown coefficient analysis are addressed and a theoretical link between this analysis and moment scaling analysis is also presented. Breakdown coefficient properties of cascades are also investigated in the context of parameter estimation for modelling purposes.

  20. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables

  1. Plasma breakdown in a capacitively-coupled radiofrequency argon discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. B.; Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.

    1998-10-01

    Low pressure, capacitively-coupled rf discharges are widely used in research and commercial ventures. Understanding of the non-equilibrium processes which occur in these discharges during breakdown is of interest, both for industrial applications and for a deeper understanding of fundamental plasma behaviour. The voltage required to breakdown the discharge V_brk has long been known to be a strong function of the product of the neutral gas pressure and the electrode seperation (pd). This paper investigates the dependence of V_brk on pd in rf systems using experimental, computational and analytic techniques. Experimental measurements of V_brk are made for pressures in the range 1 -- 500 mTorr and electrode separations of 2 -- 20 cm. A Paschen-style curve for breakdown in rf systems is developed which has the minimum breakdown voltage at a much smaller pd value, and breakdown voltages which are significantly lower overall, than for Paschen curves obtained from dc discharges. The differences between the two systems are explained using a simple analytic model. A Particle-in-Cell simulation is used to investigate a similar pd range and examine the effect of the secondary emission coefficient on the rf breakdown curve, particularly at low pd values. Analytic curves are fitted to both experimental and simulation results.

  2. Benchmarking HEI impact on students' soft skills development with labour market demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning P.; Roth, Eva

    Report on an international comprison of students' and companies attitudes regarding soft skills aiming at securing correspondence between students perception of own skills and companies demands.......Report on an international comprison of students' and companies attitudes regarding soft skills aiming at securing correspondence between students perception of own skills and companies demands....

  3. Clinical management of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, H.M.; Verweij, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is concerned with the clinical management of soft tissue sarcomas. Topics covered include: Radiotherapy; Pathology of soft tissue sarcomas; Surgical treatment of soft tissue sarcomas; and Chemotherapy in advanced soft tissue sarcomas

  4. Mapping on complex neutrosophic soft expert sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quran, Ashraf; Hassan, Nasruddin

    2018-04-01

    We introduce the mapping on complex neutrosophic soft expert sets. Further, we investigated the basic operations and other related properties of complex neutrosophic soft expert image and complex neutrosophic soft expert inverse image of complex neutrosophic soft expert sets.

  5. EU Soft Power and the Capability-Expectations Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union has in the past ten years frequently emphasised its soft power as its primary currency in international affairs. Yet a systematic analysis of the EU’s foreign policy performance, through the prism of the classic ‘capability-expectations gap’, suggests that soft power in itself...... the gap between the expectations and the capabilities. Rather, soft power, when it is present, widens that gap even further by adding to expectations, thus leading to even greater eventual disillusionment when the EU’s hard power capabilities do not match....

  6. Soft options. Sanfte Alternativen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, R

    1981-01-01

    This collection of contributions made by supporters of the ''soft approach'' is intended to provide an insight into a conceivable future which is quite different from traditional ideas on social and economic developments based on the usual economic thinking and conventional energy sources. The chapter entitled ''The new world view'' shows the way from a machine-like paradigm to a living example in science. In the chapter entitled ''Women are organizing their future'' female perspectives and concepts of solutions are described. In the chapter ''Eco-tecture'' examples of living architecture and of environment formation are presented. In the chapter ''Soft technology'' approaches to an ecology-oriented technology are discussed, and in the chapter ''Network and future workshops'' novel forms of organization and communication are described.

  7. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  8. Soft-sediment mullions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  9. Fracture in Soft Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole

    Fracture is a phenomenon that is generally associated with solids. A key element in fracture theory is the so-called weakest link idea that fracture initiates from the largest pre-existing material imperfection. However, recent work has demonstrated that fracture can also happen in liquids, where...... surface tension will act to suppress such imperfections. Therefore, the weakest link idea does not seem immediately applicable to fracture in liquids. This presentation will review fracture in liquids and argue that fracture in soft liquids is a material property independent of pre-existing imperfections....... The following questions then emerge: What is the material description needed to predict crack initiation, crack speed and crack shape in soft materials and liquids....

  10. CHARACTERIZATIONS OF FUZZY SOFT PRE SEPARATION AXIOMS

    OpenAIRE

    El-Latif, Alaa Mohamed Abd

    2015-01-01

    − The notions of fuzzy pre open soft sets and fuzzy pre closed soft sets were introducedby Abd El-latif et al. [2]. In this paper, we continue the study on fuzzy soft topological spaces andinvestigate the properties of fuzzy pre open soft sets, fuzzy pre closed soft sets and study variousproperties and notions related to these structures. In particular, we study the relationship betweenfuzzy pre soft interior fuzzy pre soft closure. Moreover, we study the properties of fuzzy soft pre regulars...

  11. Holiday fun with soft gluons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Emissions of soft gluons from energetic particles play an important role in collider processes. While the basic physics of soft emissions is simple, it gives rise to a variety of interesting and intricate phenomena (non-global logs, Glauber phases, super-leading logs, factorization breaking). After an introduction, I will review progress in resummation methods such as Soft-Collinear Effective Theory driven by a better understanding of soft emissions. I will also show some new results for computations of soft-gluon effects in gap-between-jets and isolation-cone cross sections.

  12. Hard, Soft or Smart Power: Conceptual Discussion or Strategic Definition?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Brígida

    2010-01-01

    The reflection presented here summarizes the discussions around conceptual differences, advantages, and risks associated with strategies inherent to Hard Power and Soft Power, as well as the emergent concept of Smart Power. The opportunity for this reflection was provided by the participation in the conference “Hard Vs. Soft Power: Foreign Policy Strategies in Contemporary International Relations” organised by the Academy for Cultural Diplomacy, at Cambridge University, in June 2010.

  13. Budaya Populer Game Pokemon Go Sebagai Soft Diplomacy Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Chadijah Isfariani

    2016-01-01

    Pokemon Go is a smartphone game that blends the real and digital worlds, tasking players with exploring their neighborhoods to find creatures and treasure for in-game use. This research describes the ways Japan uses its soft power in International coorporation relations, particulary through Pokemon Go's game. Based on Joseph S. Nye, Jr, the soft power defined as the ability of country to achieve its goal using cultural attraction rather than coercion and violence. After the World War II, Japa...

  14. Development of Composite Grinding Wheels for Hard and Soft Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Pruti, Faruk

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the performance of grinding wheel in terms of its internal granular particles and their effect on the surface finish for both soft and hard metals subjected to both dry and wet conditions of use. The study considers the properties of materials of construction including hardness of the granular particles and their size and distributions that affects the grinding wheel efficiency in abrading of soft and hard metal surfaces. Furthermore, in order to improve grinding pe...

  15. Software toolkit for modeling, simulation and control of soft robots

    OpenAIRE

    Coevoet , Eulalie; Morales-Bieze , Thor; Largilliere , Frederick; Zhang , Zhongkai; Thieffry , Maxime; Sanz-Lopez , Mario; Carrez , Bruno; Marchal , Damien; Goury , Olivier; Dequidt , Jeremie; Duriez , Christian

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The technological differences between traditional robotics and soft robotics have an impact on all of the modeling tools generally in use, including direct kinematics and inverse models, Jacobians, and dynamics. Due to the lack of precise modeling and control methods for soft robots, the promising concepts of using such design for complex applications (medicine, assistance, domestic robotics...) cannot be practically implemented. This paper presents a first unified sof...

  16. Reptile Soft Tissue Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Mans, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental Demonstration of Effective Medium Approximation Breakdown in Deeply Subwavelength All-Dielectric Multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Takayama, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of anomalous breakdown of the effective medium approximation in all-dielectric deeply subwavelength thickness (d∼λ/160-λ/30) multilayers, as recently predicted theoretically [H. H. Sheinfux et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 243901 (2014)]. Multilayer...... stacks are composed of alternating alumina and titania layers fabricated using atomic layer deposition. For light incident on such multilayers at angles near the total internal reflection, we observe pronounced differences in the reflectance spectra for structures with 10- vs 20-nm thick layers, as well...

  18. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Omar I; Kirby, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually arising in the soft tissues of the lower limbs in adults and in the head and neck region in children. It presents primarily as a slowly growing mass or as metastatic disease. It is characterized by a specific chromosomal alteration, der(17)t(X:17)(p11:q25), resulting in fusion of the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) with alveolar soft part sarcoma critical region 1 (ASPSCR1) at 17q25. This translocation is diagnostically useful because the tumor nuclei are positive for TFE3 by immunohistochemistry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion transcript on paraffin-embedded tissue blocks has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than detection of TFE3 by immunohistochemical stain. Cathepsin K is a relatively recent immunohistochemical stain that can aid in the diagnosis. The recent discovery of the role of the ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion protein in the MET proto-oncogene signaling pathway promoting angiogenesis and cell proliferation offers a promising targeted molecular therapy.

  19. Soft Ultrathin Electronics Innervated Adaptive Fully Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang

    2018-03-01

    Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Numerical study on physical mechanism of vortex breakdown occurrence in spin-up process

    OpenAIRE

    "小出, 輝明"; Teruaki", "Koide

    2008-01-01

    "A Numerical study presented on a vortex breakdown in spin-up process in an enclosed cylindrical container. In a transitional state, momentary vortex breakdowns can occur for particular parameter values ofthe Reynolds number and aspect ratio where no vortex breakdown appears in a steady state. This transient vortex breakdown flow is convenient to consider a mechanism for the occurrence of a vortex breakdown. It isdiscussed that periodical increase and decrease of angular momentum in upstream ...

  1. Breakdown-prone volume in terahertz wave beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Qiao, F.; Kashyn, D. G.; Pu, R. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-3511 (United States); Dolin, L. S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-21

    This study was motivated by the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by a focused terahertz (THz) radiation [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. According to this concept, a high-power THz radiation should be focused in a small spot where the field intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons in such a breakdown-prone volume, a THz discharge will occur there. However, this volume should be so small that in the absence of ionizing sources in its vicinity the probability to have there any free electrons is low. Then, the increased breakdown rate in a series of THz pulses would indicate the presence of hidden radioactive materials in the vicinity of the focused spot. For this concept, it is important to accurately determine the breakdown-prone volume created by a focused THz radiation. This problem is analyzed in this paper, first, for the case of a single wave beam and, then, for the case of crossing wave beams of different polarizations. The problem is studied first ignoring the diffraction spread of wave beams in the vicinity of the focal plane and, then, with the account for the diffraction spreading. Then, relations between the THz wave power, the range of such a system and the breakdown-prone volume are analyzed. Finally, the effect of the atmospheric turbulence on propagation and focusing of THz wave beams in air is considered.

  2. Dramatically enhanced electrical breakdown strength in cellulose nanopaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical breakdown behaviors of nanopaper prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC were investigated. Compared to conventional insulating paper made from micro softwood fibers, nanopaper has a dramatically enhanced breakdown strength. Breakdown field of nanopaper is 67.7 kV/mm, whereas that of conventional paper is only 20 kV/mm. Air voids in the surface of conventional paper are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Further analyses using mercury intrusion show that pore diameter of conventional paper is around 1.7 μm, while that of nanopaper is below 3 nm. Specific pore size of nanopaper is determined to be approximately 2.8 nm by the gas adsorption technique. In addition, theoretical breakdown strengths of nanopaper and conventional paper are also calculated to evaluate the effect of pore size. It turns out that theoretical values agree well with experimental data, indicating that the improved strength in nanopaper is mainly attributed to the decreased pore size. Due to its outstanding breakdown strength, this study indicates the suitability of nanopaper for electrical insulation in ultra-high voltage convert transformers and other electrical devices.

  3. Accoustic Localization of Breakdown in Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Peter Gwin [IIT, Chicago

    2016-07-01

    Current designs for muon accelerators require high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to be placed in solenoidal magnetic fields. These fields help contain and efficiently reduce the phase space volume of source muons in order to create a usable muon beam for collider and neutrino experiments. In this context and in general, the use of RF cavities in strong magnetic fields has its challenges. It has been found that placing normal conducting RF cavities in strong magnetic fields reduces the threshold at which RF cavity breakdown occurs. To aid the effort to study RF cavity breakdown in magnetic fields, it would be helpful to have a diagnostic tool which can localize the source of breakdown sparks inside the cavity. These sparks generate thermal shocks to small regions of the inner cavity wall that can be detected and localized using microphones attached to the outer cavity surface. Details on RF cavity sound sources as well as the hardware, software, and algorithms used to localize the source of sound emitted from breakdown thermal shocks are presented. In addition, results from simulations and experiments on three RF cavities, namely the Aluminum Mock Cavity, the High-Pressure Cavity, and the Modular Cavity, are also given. These results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the described technique for acoustic localization of breakdown.

  4. Breakdown resistance of refractory metals compared to copper

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M; Kildemo, M

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of Mo, W and Cu with respect to electrical breakdown in ultra high vacuum has been investigated by means of a capacitor discharge method. The maximum stable electric field without breakdown and the field enhancement factor, beta have been measured between electrodes of the same material in a sphere/plane geometry for anode and cathode, respectively. The maximum stable field increases as a function of the number of breakdown events for W and Mo. In contrast, no systematic increase is observed for Cu. The highest values obtained are typically 500 MV/m for W, 350 MV/m for Mo and only 180 MV/m for Cu. This conditioning, found for the refractory metals, corresponds to a simultaneous decrease of beta and is therefore related to the field emission properties of the surface and their modification upon sparking. Accordingly, high beta values and no applicable field increase occur for Cu even after repeated breakdown. The results are compared with RF breakdown experiments [1] performed on prototype 30 GHz...

  5. Abnormal breakdown characteristic in a two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Qizheng; Li Jin; Lu Fei

    2006-01-01

    A two-phase mixture (TPM) is a mixture of gas and macroparticles of high concentration. Based on Townsend's theory, a new cell-iterative model in analytical form for the breakdown mechanism in TPM is presented. Compared with the original cell-iterative model in our previous paper, the obstructive factor of the macroparticles that influences the electron avalanche propagation is considered, except for the macroparticles distorting the electrical field and capture of the electrons. The cell attractive parameter k is presented according to the classical continuum theory for field charging. The modified Paschen law for a TPM is presented to calculate the breakdown voltage. The breakdown voltage of the TPM, U TPM , increases gradually with an increase in the macroparticle number density (m). The voltage U TPM is lower than that of the pure gas at low m values and larger at high m values. With a decrease of the macroparticle volume fraction and the dielectric mismatch, the voltage U TPM increases gradually at low m values and decreases gradually at high m values. The voltage U TPM at pd 200 cm Torr is lower than that at pd = 760 cm Torr for low m values and larger for high m values. This kind of abnormal breakdown characteristic in the TPM occurs in the case of high macroparticle volume fraction. On the other hand, the minimum of the TPM's Paschen curve increases with increase in m. It provides the possibility and the conditions of greatly increasing the breakdown voltage in a nearly uniform field

  6. Breakdown-prone volume in terahertz wave beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Qiao, F.; Kashyn, D. G.; Pu, R.; Dolin, L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was motivated by the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by a focused terahertz (THz) radiation [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. According to this concept, a high-power THz radiation should be focused in a small spot where the field intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons in such a breakdown-prone volume, a THz discharge will occur there. However, this volume should be so small that in the absence of ionizing sources in its vicinity the probability to have there any free electrons is low. Then, the increased breakdown rate in a series of THz pulses would indicate the presence of hidden radioactive materials in the vicinity of the focused spot. For this concept, it is important to accurately determine the breakdown-prone volume created by a focused THz radiation. This problem is analyzed in this paper, first, for the case of a single wave beam and, then, for the case of crossing wave beams of different polarizations. The problem is studied first ignoring the diffraction spread of wave beams in the vicinity of the focal plane and, then, with the account for the diffraction spreading. Then, relations between the THz wave power, the range of such a system and the breakdown-prone volume are analyzed. Finally, the effect of the atmospheric turbulence on propagation and focusing of THz wave beams in air is considered.

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fabbri, F.; Fantoni, R.; Spizzichino, V.; Striber, J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied to test the possibility of detecting and identifying asbestos in different samples in view of the perspective at field operation without sample preparation which is peculiar to this technique. Several like-resin materials were first investigated by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, in order to find an asbestos container assuring safe laboratory operation during the material characterization aimed to identify indicators suitable for a quick identification on field. Successively, spectra of asbestos samples of both in serpentine and amphibole forms were measured and the variability in elemental composition was calculated from the emission spectra. Ratios of intensities of characteristic elements were tested as indicators for asbestos recognition. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy results were compared with those obtained by analyzing the same asbestos samples with a scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, a good correlation was found for Mg/Si and Fe/Si, thus showing the capability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for this category of materials. In particular, it was demonstrated that the method based on two indicators derived from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy intensity ratios allows to discriminate between asbestos and cements in single shot measurements suitable to field operation

  8. Treatment Approach for Infection of Healed Fractures After Internal Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Joshua M; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Rane, Ajinkya A; Cantrell, William Alex; Vallier, Heather A

    2017-11-01

    To review the efficacy of a treatment approach for patients with infection and colonized implants after open reduction and internal fixation of fractures. Retrospective case series. Level one trauma center. Twenty patients were treated for wound infection with colonized implants after open reduction and internal fixation. Surgical debridement, removal of implants, and a short postoperative oral antibiotic course. The course of patients after surgical debridement and removal of implants, including culture results, antibiotic administration, and presence of recurrent clinical infection and radiographic union. Twenty patients had clinical presentations, including skin breakdown, serous drainage, purulent drainage and/or exposed implants, most commonly of the tibia (15 of 20). Mean time from index procedure to debridement with implant removal was 19.7 months. At the time of debridement and implant removal, 18 of 20 (90%) patients had a positive intraoperative culture (16 routine cultures and 2 broth cultures). The most common bacteria were Enterobacter cloacae (5/17) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (4/17). All patients had soft tissue healing without signs of recurrent infection after mean follow up of 40 months after implant removal. Surgical debridement with implant removal plus a short oral antibiotic course is effective to resolve wound infection with a colonized implant in the setting of healed fracture after internal fixation. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Soft tissue anchor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G V; Chang, T; White, J M

    1994-04-01

    The concept of soft tissue attachment and reattachment has been addressed over the years through a variety of surgical techniques. This includes tendons and ligaments that have been detached both surgically and traumatically from their osseous origins or insertions. This study is designed to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of current commercially available devices. Detailed descriptions of the various devices are provided along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each. Their application and use in reconstructive foot and ankle surgery are also discussed.

  10. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    relationship with textiles, as they are one of the few products worn much of the time, often in direct contact with the body. When designing wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: sensitivity...... to material detail; an eye for fit and comfort on bodies with diverse shapes and movement capabilities; openness to a diversity of meanings that may be generated; as well as consideration of wearers’ intimate relations with technology. Soft wearables allow for greater scope within these requirements...

  11. Research of the X-ray spectrum in the digital image acquisition and processing for internal disturbs detection in mangoes (Mangifera indica l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rubemar S.; Freire Junior, Murillo; Botrel, Neide; Jesus, Edgar de

    2002-01-01

    In this work, digital image processing was associated to X-ray beam relevant to watching internal injuries, such as breakdown, soft nose and other physiological disturbs in mangoes CV Tommy Atkins. The X-ray source was a high frequency generator operating to a high tension between 14 to 35 kV on a molybdenum target tube, which generate X-ray characteristic near from 18,5 keV and 20 keV (k an l shell) plus a continuous spectrum, thought to be proper to get radiological images from mangoes in different maturation stages. Different filtrations and pseudo-colors technique were used to process the digital images produced. Results, from a group of comparative images, show the feasibility to detect several classes of internal disorders as well as others produced in packing houses and transport of mangoes. (author)

  12. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C

    2017-05-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Soft skills and dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z

    2013-05-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-cell Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgashev, Valery A; Higo, Toshiyasu; Nantista, Christopher D; Tantawi, Sami G

    2005-01-01

    Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials an...

  15. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  16. New method for determining avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov-Zorin, I.

    2017-01-01

    The avalanche breakdown and Geiger mode of the silicon p-n junction is considered. A precise physically motivated method is proposed for determining the avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The method is based on measuring the dependence of the relative photon detection efficiency (PDE rel ) on the bias voltage when one type of carriers (electron or hole) is injected into the avalanche multiplication zone of the p-n junction. The injection of electrons or holes from the base region of the SiPM semiconductor structure is performed using short-wave or long-wave light. At a low overvoltage (1-2 V) the detection efficiency is linearly dependent on the bias voltage; therefore, extrapolation to zero PDE rel value determines the SiPM avalanche breakdown voltage with an accuracy within a few millivolts. [ru

  17. Gas breakdown at cyclotron resonance with a submillimeter laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.P.; Temkin, R.J.; Lax, B.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed 496-μm CH 3 F laser is used to produce gas breakdown in He at pressures between 1 and 300 Torr in an intense longitudinal magnetic field. Breakdown is detected by the observation of visible light when the electron cyclotron frequency (eB/m) equals the laser frequency, which occurs at B=216 kG for lambda=496 μm. At the lowest helium pressures and near cyclotron resonance, the focused laser intensity of 40 kW/cm 2 gives rise to very large electron heating rates, well beyond the limit of validity of conventional equilibrium breakdown theory. The observed result is an intensity-dependent resonant linewidth, much larger than predicted by equilibrium theories

  18. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Calisti, M.; Picardi, G.; Laschi, C.

    2017-01-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human���robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human���robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This p...

  19. Architecture design for soft errors

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Shubu

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of the architetural techniques to tackle the soft error problem. It covers the new methodologies for quantitative analysis of soft errors as well as novel, cost-effective architectural techniques to mitigate them. To provide readers with a better grasp of the broader problem deffinition and solution space, this book also delves into the physics of soft errors and reviews current circuit and software mitigation techniques.

  20. New phenomenology of gas breakdown in DC and RF fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Sivoš, Jelena; Savić, Marija; Škoro, Nikola; Radmilović Radenović, Marija; Malović, Gordana; Gocić, Saša; Marić, Dragana

    2014-05-01

    This paper follows a review lecture on the new developments in the field of gas breakdown and low current discharges, usually covered by a form of Townsend's theory and phenomenology. It gives an overview of a new approach to identifying which feedback agents provide breakdown, how to model gas discharge conditions and reconcile the results with binary experiments and how to employ that knowledge in modelling gas discharges. The next step is an illustration on how to record volt-ampere characteristics and use them on one hand to obtain the breakdown voltage and, on the other, to identify the regime of operation and model the secondary electron yields. The second aspect of this section concerns understanding the different regimes, their anatomy, how those are generated and how free running oscillations occur. While temporal development is the most useful and interesting part of the new developments, the difficulty of presenting the data in a written form precludes an easy publication and discussion. Thus, we shall only mention some of the results that stem from these measurements. Most micro discharges operate in DC albeit with complex geometries. Thus, parallel plate micro discharge measurements were needed to establish that Townsend's theory, with all its recent extensions, is still valid until some very small gaps. We have shown, for example, how a long-path breakdown puts in jeopardy many experimental observations and why a flat left-hand side of the Paschen curve often does not represent good physics. We will also summarize a kinetic representation of the RF breakdown revealing a somewhat more complex picture than the standard model. Finally, we will address briefly the breakdown in radially inhomogeneous conditions and how that affects the measured properties of the discharge. This review has the goal of summarizing (rather than developing details of) the current status of the low-current DC discharges formation and operation as a discipline which, in spite of

  1. Soft Robotic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Juleon Taylor

    In this thesis a survey on soft robotic actuators is conducted. The actuators are classified into three main categories: Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAM), Electronic Electroactive Polymers (Electric EAP), and Ionic Electroactive Polymers (Ionic EAP). Soft robots can have many degrees and are more compliant than hard robots. This makes them suitable for applications that are difficult for hard robots. For each actuator background history, build materials, how they operate, and modeling are presented. Multiple actuators in each class are reviewed highlighting both their use and their mathematical formulation. In addition to the survey the McKibben actuator was chosen for fabrication and in-depth experimental analysis. Four McKibben actuators were fabricated using mesh sleeve, barbed hose fittings, and different elastic bladders. All were actuated using compressed air. Tensile tests were performed for each actuator to measure the tension force as air pressure increased from 20 to 100 psi in 10 psi increments. To account for material relaxation properties eleven trials for each actuator were run for 2-3 days. In conclusion, the smallest outer diameter elastic bladder was capable of producing the highest force due to the larger gap between the bladder and the sleeve.

  2. Soft skills and Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, technical university graduates are expected to acquire a set of not only hard skills but soft ones as well, which are in the first instance communication skills that can be developed through active and interactive methods during in-class learning. The issue related to communicative skills development is being discussed in different countries throughout the world. This problem is faced by university graduates from Europe, the US and Russia, and in the East. The learning process exploits a variety of electronic platforms, which, on the one hand, significantly increase the pool of students, but, on the other hand, hinder the development of communicative skills. This poses the question about blended learning which combines active and interactive teaching methods with e-learning. Consider a good example of these two types of combined student activity obtained using interactive methods in the Moodle course “Professional training in English” designed for the Bachelor's Degree Programs, Tomsk Polytechnic University (Tomsk, Russia. This paper considers the main types of tasks used in the e-course. It is shown that the teacher’s first aim is to be not a scientific knowledge translator, but to foster a creative educational environment by selecting an optimal teaching strategy through modern educational technology; an e-course is a good teaching aid to build hard and soft skills.

  3. Blackbody Emission from Laser Breakdown in High-Pressure Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller, A.; Plateau, G. R.; Kappus, B.; Putterman, S.

    2014-08-01

    Laser induced breakdown of pressurized gases is used to generate plasmas under conditions where the atomic density and temperature are similar to those found in sonoluminescing bubbles. Calibrated streak spectroscopy reveals that a blackbody persists well after the exciting femtosecond laser pulse has turned off. Deviation from Saha's equation of state and an accompanying large reduction in ionization potential are observed at unexpectedly low atomic densities—in parallel with sonoluminescence. In laser breakdown, energy input proceeds via excitation of electrons whereas in sonoluminescence it is initiated via the atoms. The similar responses indicate that these systems are revealing the thermodynamics and transport of a strongly coupled plasma.

  4. A Coaxial Vortex Ring Model for Vortex Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Blackmore, Denis; Brons, Morten; Goullet, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    A simple - yet plausible - model for B-type vortex breakdown flows is postulated; one that is based on the immersion of a pair of slender coaxial vortex rings in a swirling flow of an ideal fluid rotating around the axis of symmetry of the rings. It is shown that this model exhibits in the advection of passive fluid particles (kinematics) just about all of the characteristics that have been observed in what is now a substantial body of published research on the phenomenon of vortex breakdown....

  5. Nanosecond air breakdown parameters for electron and microwave beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Air breakdown by avalanche ionization plays an important role in the electron beam and microwave propagations. For high electric fields and short pulse applications one needs avalanche ionization parameters for modeling and scaling of experimental devices. However, the breakdown parameters, i.e., the ionization frequency vs E/p (volt. cm -1 . Torr -1 ) in air is uncertain for very high values of E/P. A review is given of the experimental data for the electron drift velocity, the Townsend ionization coefficient in N 2 and O 2 and the ionization frequency and the collision frequency for momentum transfer in air are developed. (author)

  6. Electrical Breakdown and Mechanical Ageing in Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin

    Dielectric elastomers (DE) are used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. For many applications, one of the major factors that limits the DE performance is premature electrical breakdown. There are many approaches that have been......, the lifetime of elastomer materials needs further investigation. Therefore, in the second strategy, several DE parameters such as Young’s moduli, breakdown strengths and dielectric permittivities of PDMS elastomers filled with hard filler particles were investigated after being subjected to pre...

  7. From Soft Sculpture to Soft Robotics: Retracing a Physical Aesthetics of Bio-Morphic Softness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Soft robotics has in the past decade emerged as a growing subfield of technical robotics research, distinguishable by its bio-inspired design strategies, interest in morphological computation, and interdisciplinary combination of insights from engineering, computer science, biology and material...... science. Recently, soft robotics technology has also started to make its way into art, design, and architecture. This paper attempts to think an aesthetics of softness and the life-like through an artistic tradition deeply imbricated with an interrogation of softness and its physical substrates, namely...... the soft sculpture that started proliferating in the late 1960s. Critical descriptions of these works, interestingly, frequently emphasize their similarities with living organisms and bodies as a central tenet of their aesthetics. The paper seeks to articulate aspects of a contiguity between softness...

  8. A Combined Electro-Thermal Breakdown Model for Oil-Impregnated Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The breakdown property of oil-impregnated paper is a key factor for converter transformer design and operation, but it is not well understood. In this paper, breakdown voltages of oil-impregnated paper were measured at different temperatures. The results showed that with the increase of temperature, electrical, electro-thermal and thermal breakdown occurred successively. An electro-thermal breakdown model was proposed based on the heat equilibrium and space charge transport, and negative differential mobility was introduced to the model. It was shown that carrier mobility determined whether it was electrical or thermal breakdown, and the model can effectively explain the temperature-dependent breakdown.

  9. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Claudine

    1999-01-01

    What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.

  10. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  11. Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  12. Soft, Rotating Pneumatic Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainla, Alar; Verma, Mohit S; Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M

    2017-09-01

    This article describes a soft pneumatic actuator that generates cyclical motion. The actuator consists of several (three, four, or five) chambers (arranged around the circumference of a circle surrounding a central rod) that can be actuated independently using negative pressure (or partial vacuum). Sequential actuation of the four-chamber device using reduced pressure moves the central rod cyclically in an approximately square path. We characterize the trajectory of the actuator and the force exerted by it, as we vary the material used for fabrication, the number of chambers, and the size of the actuator. We demonstrate two applications of this actuator: to deliver fluid while stirring (by replacing the central rod with a needle) and for locomotion that mimics a reptilian gait (by combining four actuators together).

  13. Soft tissue sparganosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Kwan Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In Hwan; Suh, Hyoung Sim [Daelin S. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis.

  14. Soft-collinear supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Elor, Gilly [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larkoski, Andrew J. [Physics Department, Reed College,Portland, OR 97202 (United States); Center for Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-03

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in “collinear superspace', a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.

  15. Interaction with Soft Robotic Tentacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Soft robotics technology has been proposed for a number of applications that involve human-robot interaction. In this tabletop demonstration it is possible to interact with two soft robotic platforms that have been used in human-robot interaction experiments (also accepted to HRI'18 as a Late...

  16. Not-so-Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  17. Pulsed and streamer discharges in air above breakdown electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Sun (Anbang); H.J. Teunissen (Jannis); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractA 3D particle model is developed to investigate the streamer formation in electric fields above the breakdown threshold, in atmospheric air (1bar, 300 Kelvin). Adaptive particle management, adaptive mesh refinement and parallel computing techniques are used in the code. Photoionization

  18. Localization of rf breakdowns in a standing wave cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faya Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available At SLAC, a five-cell, normal-conducting, L-band (1.3 GHz, standing-wave (SW cavity was built as a prototype positron capture accelerator for the ILC. The structure met the ILC gradient goal but required extensive rf processing. When rf breakdowns occurred, a large variation was observed in the decay rate of the stored energy in the cavity after the input power was shut off. It appeared that the breakdowns were isolating sections of the cavity, and that the trapped energy in those sections was then partitioned among its natural modes, producing a distinct beating pattern during the decay. To explore this phenomenon further, an equivalent circuit model of cavity was created that reproduces well its normal operating characteristics. The model was then used to compute the spectra of trapped energy for different numbers of isolated cells. The resulting modal patterns agree well with those of the breakdown data, and thus such a comparison appears to provide a means of identifying the irises on which the breakdowns occurred.

  19. characteristics of structural breakdown in plastic concrete and their

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    observed as shearing proceeded. ANALYSIS OF THIXOTROPIC BREAKDOWN OF. CONCRETE. As the cup rotates on application of rotational shear stress, the stator also tends to rotate due to the viscous drag transmitted by the mix. The stator continues to rotate until the resistance registered by the torque arm becomes ...

  20. Characteristics of Structural Breakdown in Plastic Concrete and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics of Structural Breakdown in Plastic Concrete and Their Potentials for Quality Control. ... A typical trace has four such significant features which characterise the mix. The significance of these features are analysed in relation to the functional requirements of plastic concrete in practice. Finally, the potentials of ...

  1. The breakdown phase in a coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donges, A.; Herziger, G.; Krompholz, H.; Ruehl, F.; Schoenbach, K.

    1980-01-01

    The electrical breakdown in a coaxial plasma gun was investigated by means of optical and electrical measurements. The optimum start and operation conditions of the gun turned out to be strongly dependent on material and length of the cylindrical insulator. (orig.)

  2. Overview of applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a method of performing elemental analyses of solids, liquids, and gases using the microplasma produced by a focused laser pulse. Because the microplasma is formed by optical radiation, LIBS has some important advantages compared to conventional laboratory based analytical methods. Three applications are discussed which use the LIBS method. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Direct relationship between breakdown strength and tracking index of composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Find; Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    . The breakdown field strength of specimens cut from similar samples is determined by a new method capable of estimating the stressed volume. The results from the two tests are finally compared and incorporated in a single analytical formula. All test specimens are supplied by Danish manufacturers of wind turbine...

  4. Highly Efficient Estimators of Multivariate Location with High Breakdown Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopuhaa, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    We propose an affine equivariant estimator of multivariate location that combines a high breakdown point and a bounded influence function with high asymptotic efficiency. This proposal is basically a location $M$-estimator based on the observations obtained after scaling with an affine equivariant

  5. The masking breakdown point of multivariate outlier identification rules

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Claudia; Gather, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider one-step outlier identifiation rules for multivariate data, generalizing the concept of so-called alpha outlier identifiers, as presented in Davies and Gather (1993) for the case of univariate samples. We investigate, how the finite-sample breakdown points of estimators used in these identification rules influence the masking behaviour of the rules.

  6. Phenomena of g-u symmetry-breakdown in HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, A.; Reinhold, E.M.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Phenomena associated with the breakdown of inversion symmetry in the HD molecule are reviewed and discussed. A distinction is made between three kinds of physical effects observed in HD spectra. The existence of a small electric dipole moment in the ground state gives rise to vibrational and pure

  7. On locally uniformly linearizable high breakdown location and scale functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives two constructions of a weighted mean which has a large domain, is affinely equivariant, has a locally high breakdown point and is locally uniformly linearizable. One construction is based on $M$-functionals with smooth defining $\\psi$- and $\\chi$ -functions which are used to

  8. Electric breakdown of high polymer insulating materials at cryogenic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sanhyon; Yoshino, Katsumi

    1985-01-01

    Cryogenic properties : temperature dependence of E sub(b) and effects of media upon E sub(b) were investigated on several high polymers. Temperature conditions were provided by liquid He (4.2 K), liquid N 2 (77 K) and cryogen (dry ice-methyl alcohol, 194 K). Silicone oil was used also at ambient temperature and elevated temperature. Polymer film coated with gold by vacuum evaporation was placed in cryostat, and high tension from pulse generator was applied to the film. Dielectric breakdowns were detected by oscilloscope and observed visually. The results of experiment are summerized as follow. (1) E sub(b) of film in He is affected by medium remarkably, and covering with 3-methyl pentane is effective for increasing E sub(b). (2) Temperature dependence of E sub(b) was not recognized in cryogenic temperature below liquid N 2 . (3) Temperature characteristic of E sub(b) changes considerably at the critical temperature T sub(c), and T sub(c) is dependent on material. (4) Strength against dielectric breakdown under cryogenic temperature is not affected by bridging caused by irradiation of electron beam. (5) Dielectric breakdown is thought to be caused by electronic process such as electron avalanche. Consequently, for designing insulation for the temperature below liquid He, insulation design for liquid N 2 is thought to be sufficient. However, the degradation and breakdown by mechanical stress under cryogenic temperature must be taken into consideration. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  9. Breakdown of large-scale circulation in turbulent rotating convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, R.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2008-01-01

    Turbulent rotating convection in a cylinder is investigated both numerically and experimentally at Rayleigh number Ra = $10^9$ and Prandtl number $\\sigma$ = 6.4. In this Letter we discuss two topics: the breakdown under rotation of the domain-filling large-scale circulation (LSC) typical for

  10. Prediction of vortex breakdown on a delta wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S.; Robinson, B. A.; Barnett, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies of leading-edge vortex flows with computational fluid dynamics codes using Euler or Navier-Stokes formulations have shown fair agreement with experimental data. These studies have concentrated on simulating the flowfields associated with a sharp-edged flat plate 70 deg delta wing at angles of attack where vortex breakdown or burst is observed over the wing. There are, however, a number of discrepancies between the experimental data and the computed flowfields. The location of vortex breakdown in the computational solutions is seen to differ from the experimental data and to vary with changes in the computational grid and freestream Mach number. There also remain issues as to the validity of steady-state computations for cases which contain regions of unsteady flow, such as in the post-breakdown regions. As a partial response to these questions, a number of laminar Navier-Stokes solutions were examined for the 70 deg delta wing. The computed solutions are compared with an experimental database obtained at low subsonic speeds. The convergence of forces, moments and vortex breakdown locations are also analyzed to determine if the computed flowfields actually reach steady-state conditions.

  11. Effects of continuum breakdown on hypersonic aerothermodynamics for reacting flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Timothy D.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of continuum breakdown on the surface aerothermodynamic properties (pressure, stress, and heat transfer rate) of a sphere in a Mach 25 flow of reacting air in regimes varying from continuum to a rarefied gas. Results are generated using both continuum [computational fluid dynamics (CFD)] and particle [direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC)] approaches. The DSMC method utilizes a chemistry model that calculates the backward rates from an equilibrium constant. A preferential dissociation model is modified in the CFD method to better compare with the vibrationally favored dissociation model that is utilized in the DSMC method. Tests of these models are performed to confirm their validity and to compare the chemistry models in both numerical methods. This study examines the effect of reacting air flow on continuum breakdown and the surface properties of the sphere. As the global Knudsen number increases, the amount of continuum breakdown in the flow and on the surface increases. This increase in continuum breakdown significantly affects the surface properties, causing an increase in the differences between CFD and DSMC. Explanations are provided for the trends observed.

  12. RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Nantista, C.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.

    2006-01-01

    Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM 01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials and preparation techniques with short turn-around time. Simple 2D geometry of the test structures simplifies modeling of the breakdown currents and their thermal effects

  13. Investigation of oral gels breakdown using image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tournier, Carole; Devezeaux de Lavergne, Marine; Velde, van de Fred; Stieger, Markus; Salles, Christian; Bertrand, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of food oral breakdown is of interest to understand the temporal perception of food products. The present work aimed at studying the possible contribution of artificial vision for studying bolus formation. Four emulsion-filled gels were prepared from two concentrations

  14. CANCER-PAthological breakdown of coherent energy states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan; Kobilková, J.; Jandová, Anna; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J. jr.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), s. 115-133 ISSN 1793-0480 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : breakdown of coherent states * Cancer electrodynamics * Warburg effect Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering; BO - Biophysics (FZU-D)

  15. Novel dielectric reduces corona breakdown in ac capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehner, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Dielectric system was developed which consists of two layers of 25-gage paper separated by one layer of 50-gage polypropylene to reduce corona breakdown in ac capacitors. System can be used in any alternating current application where constant voltage does not exceed 400 V rms. With a little research it could probably be increased to 700 to 800 V rms.

  16. Effects of streamwise vortex breakdown on supersonic combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiejima, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation study of the combustion structure of streamwise vortex breakdown at Mach number 2.48. Hydrogen fuel is injected into a combustor at sonic speed from the rear of a hypermixer strut that can generate streamwise vortices. The results show that the burning behavior is enhanced at the points of the shock waves that are incident on the vortex and therefore the vortex breakdown in the subsonic region occurs due to combustion. The breakdown domain in the mainstream is found to form a flame-holding region suited to combustion and to lead to a stable combustion field with detached flames. In this way, streamwise vortex breakdown has an essential role in combustion enhancement and the formation of flames that hold under supersonic inflow conditions. Finally, the combustion property defined here is shown to coincide with the produced-water mass flow. This property shows that the amount of combustion is saturated at equivalence ratios over 0.4, although there is a slight increase beyond 1.

  17. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to suture line breakdown after bladder operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogerd, W; Zoetmulder, F A; Moffie, D

    1990-01-01

    A patient is described with a severe encephalopathy and hyperammonemia in absence of liver dysfunction, attributed to urine absorption into the systemic circulation due to suture line breakdown after bladder dome resection. At autopsy characteristic Alzheimer type II astrocytes were found in the basal ganglia.

  18. Novel Voltage limiting concept for avalance breakdown protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, L.C.H.; Bezooijen, van A.; Mahmoudi, R.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Destructive over-voltage breakdown of cellular phone power transistors is prevented by using a new voltage-limiting concept. The output voltage is detected by an avalanche-based detector, and limited by decreasing the output power when needed. The voltage detector contains a low voltage bipolar NPN

  19. Influence of ultrasound on the electrical breakdown of transformer oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakaev, E. Kh; Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Demirov, N. A.; Akimov, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    When the transformer oil is exposed to low power ultrasonic waves (cavitation bubbles. With the increase of sonication time the breakdown voltage also increases, nonlinearly. The experimental data indicate the possibility of using ultrasonic waves of low power for degassing of transformer oil.

  20. Inhibitory effects of ethanol on phosphatidylinositol breakdown in pancreatic acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towner, S.J.; Peppin, J.F.; Tsukamoto, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently the physiological relationship between the phospholipid effect and secretagogue-induced cellular function has begun to be understood. In this study, the authors investigated acute and chronic effects of ethanol on phosphatidylinositol (PI) synthesis and breakdown in pancreatic acini. Five pairs of male Wistar rats were intragastrically infused for 30 days with high fat diet (25% total calories) plus ethanol or isocaloric dextrose. After intoxication, isolated in HEPES media, followed by 30 min incubation with CCK-8 (0, 100, 300 or 600 pM) and ethanol (0 or 100 mM). Acinar lipids were extracted and counted for labeled PI. Incorporation of 3 H-inositol into alcoholic acinar PI was reduced to 38.2% of that in controls. A percent maximal PI break down by CCK-8 was similar in the two groups (13-24% of basal). However, the magnitude of PI breakdown was markedly lower in alcoholic acini (482 vs 1081 dpm) due to the decreased PI synthesis rate. The presence of 100 mM ethanol in the media further inhibited the breakdown by 50% in this group. These results strongly indicate that chronic ethanol intoxication inhibits PI synthesis and breakdown in pancreatic acini, and that this inhibition can be potentiated by acute ethanol administration

  1. From Soft Power to Economic Diplomacy? A Comparison of the Changing Rationales and Roles of the U. S. and Canadian Federal Governments in International Education. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.2.15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai

    2015-01-01

    Through a historical and comparative analysis of international education policy development in Canada and the U.S., this paper will map the similarities and differences in the two countries. It will highlight the contributions and challenges of the government's involvement in international education (IE) in the two federal states and in…

  2. Successes and Problems of Conventional Breakdown Theory of Sprites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2004-12-01

    Sprite phenomenon is one of the most frequently observed forms of transient luminous events occurring at mesospheric/lower ionospheric altitudes, which is directly related to the lightning activity in underlying thunderstorms [Sentman et al., GRL, 22, 1205, 1995]. In this talk we will provide overview of conventional breakdown theory of sprites, which is build on original ideas advanced by C.T.R. Wilson [Wilson, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond., 37, 32D, 1925]. We will discuss similarity properties of electrical discharges as a function of gas pressure and a selected set of results of recent laboratory studies of filamentary channels of ionization (termed streamers) [e.g., van Veldhuizen et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 30, 162, 2002; Yi and Williams, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., 35, 205, 2002], which are directly applicable for understanding of high spatial resolution imagery of sprites revealing many internal filamentary features with transverse spatial scales ranging from tens to a few hundreds of meters [Gerken and Inan, JASTP, 65, 567, 2003]. The specific set of features, which can be successfully explained by existing conventional theory of sprites and which we will discuss in this talk, include: (1) sprite halos [Barrington-Leigh et al., 106, 1741, 2001]; (2) the observed diffuse and streamer regions of sprites [Pasko and Stenbaek-Nielsen, GRL, 29, 1440, doi:10.1029/2001GL014241, 2002]; (3) the observed ELF radiation from sprites [Cummer et al., GRL, 25, 1281, 1998; Pasko et al., GRL, 25, 3493, 1998]; (4) the observed spatial transverse scales of streamers in sprites; (5) the observed high-speed vertical development of sprites; and (6) the detections of short bursts of blue emissions from sprites (see [Liu and Pasko, JGR, 109, A04301, doi:10.1029/2003JA010064, 2004] for experimental references and recent modeling results pertaining to items (4), (5) and (6)). The talk will be concluded with a discussion of a set of unsolved problems in exiting sprite theory, which include

  3. Satellite based Ocean Forecasting, the SOFT project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmann, L.; Tintoré, J.; Moneris, S.

    2003-04-01

    The knowledge of future oceanic conditions would have enormous impact on human marine related areas. For such reasons, a number of international efforts are being carried out to obtain reliable and manageable ocean forecasting systems. Among the possible techniques that can be used to estimate the near future states of the ocean, an ocean forecasting system based on satellite imagery is developped through the Satelitte based Ocean ForecasTing project (SOFT). SOFT, established by the European Commission, considers the development of a forecasting system of the ocean space-time variability based on satellite data by using Artificial Intelligence techniques. This system will be merged with numerical simulation approaches, via assimilation techniques, to get a hybrid SOFT-numerical forecasting system of improved performance. The results of the project will provide efficient forecasting of sea-surface temperature structures, currents, dynamic height, and biological activity associated to chlorophyll fields. All these quantities could give valuable information on the planning and management of human activities in marine environments such as navigation, fisheries, pollution control, or coastal management. A detailed identification of present or new needs and potential end-users concerned by such an operational tool is being performed. The project would study solutions adapted to these specific needs.

  4. Exploring soft constraints on effective actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Massimo; Guerrieri, Andrea L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”,I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma, 00133 (Italy); Huang, Yu-tin; Lee, Chao-Jung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Taiwan University,No. 1 Roosevelt Road Sec. 4, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wen, Congkao [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”,I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma, 00133 (Italy)

    2016-10-10

    We study effective actions for simultaneous breaking of space-time and internal symmetries. Novel features arise due to the mixing of Goldstone modes under the broken symmetries which, in contrast to the usual Adler’s zero, leads to non-vanishing soft limits. Such scenarios are common for spontaneously broken SCFT’s. We explicitly test these soft theorems for N=4 sYM in the Coulomb branch both perturbatively and non-perturbatively. We explore the soft constraints systematically utilizing recursion relations. In the pure dilaton sector of a general CFT, we show that all amplitudes up to order s{sup n}∼∂{sup 2n} are completely determined in terms of the k-point amplitudes at order s{sup k} with k≤n. Terms with at most one derivative acting on each dilaton insertion are completely fixed and coincide with those appearing in the conformal DBI, i.e. DBI in AdS. With maximal supersymmetry, the effective actions are further constrained, leading to new non-renormalization theorems. In particular, the effective action is fixed up to eight derivatives in terms of just one unknown four-point coefficient and one more coefficient for ten-derivative terms. Finally, we also study the interplay between scale and conformal invariance in this context.

  5. RNA secondary structure prediction using soft computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of RNA structure is invaluable in creating new drugs and understanding genetic diseases. Several deterministic algorithms and soft computing-based techniques have been developed for more than a decade to determine the structure from a known RNA sequence. Soft computing gained importance with the need to get approximate solutions for RNA sequences by considering the issues related with kinetic effects, cotranscriptional folding, and estimation of certain energy parameters. A brief description of some of the soft computing-based techniques, developed for RNA secondary structure prediction, is presented along with their relevance. The basic concepts of RNA and its different structural elements like helix, bulge, hairpin loop, internal loop, and multiloop are described. These are followed by different methodologies, employing genetic algorithms, artificial neural networks, and fuzzy logic. The role of various metaheuristics, like simulated annealing, particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, and tabu search is also discussed. A relative comparison among different techniques, in predicting 12 known RNA secondary structures, is presented, as an example. Future challenging issues are then mentioned.

  6. Experimental study of vortex breakdown in a cylindrical, swirling flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J. L.; Celik, Z. Z.; Cantwell, B. J.; Lopez, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    The stability of a steady, vortical flow in a cylindrical container with one rotating endwall has been experimentally examined to gain insight into the process of vortex breakdowwn. The dynamics of the flow are governed by the Reynolds number (Re) and the aspect ratio of the cylinder. Re is given by Omega R(sup 2)/nu, where Omega is the speed of rotation of the endwall, R is the cylinder radius, and nu is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid filling the cylinder. The aspect ratio is H/R, where H is the height of the cylinder. Numerical simulation studies disagree whether or not the steady breakdown is stable beyond a critical Reynolds number, Re(sub c). Previous experimental researches have considered the steady and unsteady flows near Re(sub c), but have not explored the stability of the steady breakdown structures beyond this value. In this investigation, laser induced fluorescence was utilized to observe both steady and unsteady vortex breakdown at a fixed H/R of 2.5 with Re varying around Re(sub c). When the Re of a steady flow was slowly increased beyond Re(sub c), the breakdown structure remained steady even though unsteadiness was possible. In addition, a number of hysteresis events involving the oscillation periods of the unsteady flow were noted. The results show that both steady and unsteady vortex breakdown occur for a limited range of Re above Re(sub c). Also, with increasing Re, complex flow transformations take place that alter the period at which the unsteady flow oscillates.

  7. Abnormal breakdown characteristic in a two-phase mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Qizheng; Li Jin; Lu Fei [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2006-05-21

    A two-phase mixture (TPM) is a mixture of gas and macroparticles of high concentration. Based on Townsend's theory, a new cell-iterative model in analytical form for the breakdown mechanism in TPM is presented. Compared with the original cell-iterative model in our previous paper, the obstructive factor of the macroparticles that influences the electron avalanche propagation is considered, except for the macroparticles distorting the electrical field and capture of the electrons. The cell attractive parameter k is presented according to the classical continuum theory for field charging. The modified Paschen law for a TPM is presented to calculate the breakdown voltage. The breakdown voltage of the TPM, U{sub TPM}, increases gradually with an increase in the macroparticle number density (m). The voltage U{sub TPM} is lower than that of the pure gas at low m values and larger at high m values. With a decrease of the macroparticle volume fraction and the dielectric mismatch, the voltage U{sub TPM} increases gradually at low m values and decreases gradually at high m values. The voltage U{sub TPM} at pd 200 cm Torr is lower than that at pd = 760 cm Torr for low m values and larger for high m values. This kind of abnormal breakdown characteristic in the TPM occurs in the case of high macroparticle volume fraction. On the other hand, the minimum of the TPM's Paschen curve increases with increase in m. It provides the possibility and the conditions of greatly increasing the breakdown voltage in a nearly uniform field.

  8. Nanostructured Soft Matter Experiment, Theory, Simulation and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Zvelindovsky, Andrei V

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an interdisciplinary overview of a new and broad class of materials under the unifying name Nanostructured Soft Matter. It covers materials ranging from short amphiphilic molecules to block copolymers, proteins, colloids and their composites, microemulsions and bio-inspired systems such as vesicles. The book considers several fundamental questions, including: how self-assembly of various soft materials with internal structure at the nanoscale can be understood, controlled and in future used in the newly emerging field of soft nanotechnology. The book offers readers a view on the subject from different perspectives, combining modern experimental approaches from physical chemistry and physics with various theoretical techniques from physics, mathematics and the most advanced computer modelling. It is the first book of this sort in the field. All chapters are written by leading international experts, bringing together experience from Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, the Netherlands, Russ...

  9. A Real-time Breakdown Prediction Method for Urban Expressway On-ramp Bottlenecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yingjun; Qin, Guoyang; Sun, Jian; Liu, Qiyuan

    2018-01-01

    Breakdown occurrence on expressway is considered to relate with various factors. Therefore, to investigate the association between breakdowns and these factors, a Bayesian network (BN) model is adopted in this paper. Based on the breakdown events identified at 10 urban expressways on-ramp in Shanghai, China, 23 parameters before breakdowns are extracted, including dynamic environment conditions aggregated with 5-minutes and static geometry features. Different time periods data are used to predict breakdown. Results indicate that the models using 5-10 min data prior to breakdown performs the best prediction, with the prediction accuracies higher than 73%. Moreover, one unified model for all bottlenecks is also built and shows reasonably good prediction performance with the classification accuracy of breakdowns about 75%, at best. Additionally, to simplify the model parameter input, the random forests (RF) model is adopted to identify the key variables. Modeling with the selected 7 parameters, the refined BN model can predict breakdown with adequate accuracy.

  10. The electrical breakdown strength of pre-stretched elastomers, with and without sample volume conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In practice, the electrical breakdown strength of dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs)determines the upper limit for transduction. During DEAP actuation, the thickness of the elastomer decreases, and thus the electrical field increases and the breakdown process is determined by a coupled...... electro-mechanical failure mechanism. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms behind the electro-mechanical breakdown process is required for developing reliable transducers. In this study, two experimental configurations were used to determine the stretch dependence of the electrical breakdown...

  11. Soft law in EU Competition Law and its judicial reception in member states : A theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Z.R.

    2015-01-01

    This work draws from accounts on the nature and legal effects of soft law instruments in EU and international law with the ultimate aim to construct a theoretical framework for recognition of EU competition soft law—guidelines, communications, notices, and the like—in the judicial discourse of

  12. Soft Neutrosophic Loops and Their Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic loop,soft neutosophic biloop, soft neutrosophic N -loop with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic loop, the so called soft strong neutrosophic loop which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also found in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  13. Detection of boron in simulated corrosion products by using a laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K.; Yeon, J-W.; Jung, S-H.; Hwang, J.; Jung, E-C.

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many methods for detection of coolant leakage have been developed and employed for the safe operation. However, these methods have many limitations for analyzing and dealing with the corrosion products due to the high radioactivity. LIBS (Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) offer a remote and on-site elemental analysis including the boron in the corrosion products with no sample preparation. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of detecting boron and analyzing an elemental composition of boron-containing iron oxides with the LIBS, in order to develop a coolant leakage detection system. First, we prepared five different boron-containing iron oxides and the element ratios were determined by using ICP-AES (inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer). After this, the laser induced emission spectra of these iron oxides were obtained by using a 266 nm Nd:YAG laser. The B/Fe ratios of the oxides were determined by comparing the intensities of the B emission peak at 249.844 nm with those of the Fe peak at 250.217 nm as an internal reference. It was confirmed that the B contents in the oxides could be analyzed over 0.1 wt% by the laser induced breakdown spectroscopic technique. (author)

  14. Effect of high solenoidal magnetic fields on breakdown voltages of high vacuum 805 MHz cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, A.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Qian, Z.; Norem, J.; Li, D.; Zisman, M.; Torun, Y.; Rimmer, R.; Errede, D.

    2005-01-01

    There is an on going international collaboration studying the feasibility and cost of building a muon collider or neutrino factory [1,2]. An important aspect of this study is the full understanding of ionization cooling of muons by many orders of magnitude for the collider case. An important muon ionization cooling experiment, MICE [3], has been proposed to demonstrate and validate the technology that could be used for cooling. Ionization cooling is accomplished by passing a high-emittance muon beam alternately through regions of low Z material, such as liquid hydrogen, and very high accelerating RF Cavities within a multi-Tesla solenoidal field. To determine the effect of very large solenoidal magnetic fields on the generation of dark current, x-rays and on the breakdown voltage gradients of vacuum RF cavities, a test facility has been established at Fermilab in Lab G. This facility consists of a 12 MW 805 MHz RF station and a large warm bore 5 T solenoidal superconducting magnet containing a pill box type cavity with thin removable window apertures. This system allows dark current and breakdown studies of different window configurations and materials. The results of this study will be presented. The study has shown that the peak achievable accelerating gradient is reduced by a factor greater than 2 when solenoidal field of greater than 2 T are applied to the cavity

  15. Observation of Multi-GeV Breakdown Thresholds in Dielectric Wakefield Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.C.; Thompson, M.C.; Yoder, R.B.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Kirby, N.A.; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, D.R.; Badakov, H.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Travish, G.; Scott, A.; Muggli, P.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment designed to test the breakdown threshold of a dielectric subjected to the GV/m-scale electric-fields of an intense electron-beam has been completed. In this experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility, the 28.5 GeV SLAC electron beam was focused down and propagated through short fused-silica capillary-tubes with internal diameters of as little as 100 (micro)m. The electric field at the inner surface of the tubes was varied from about 1 GV/m to 22 GV/m by adjusting the longitudinal compression of the electron bunch. We observed a sharp increase in optical emissions from the capillaries in the middle part of this surface field range which we believe indicates the transition between sustainable field levels and breakdown. If this initial interpretation is correct, the multi-GV/m surfaced fields that were sustained equate to on axis accelerating field of several GV/m

  16. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  17. Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shaofan

    2012-01-01

    "Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics" is a compilation and selection of recent works in soft matter mechanics by a group of active researchers in the field. The main objectives of this book are first to disseminate the latest developments in soft matter mechanics in the field of applied and computational mechanics, and second to introduce soft matter mechanics as a sub-discipline of soft matter physics. As an important branch of soft matter physics, soft matter mechanics has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of the novel approaches discussed in this book are unique, such as the coarse grained finite element method for modeling colloidal adhesion, entropic elasticity, meshfree simulations of liquid crystal elastomers, simulations of DNA, etc. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the field of mechanics, condensed matter physics and biomaterials. Dr. Shaofan Li is a professor of the University of California-Berkeley, U.S.A; Dr. Bohua Sun is a professor of Cape Peninsula Universit...

  18. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  19. Impulse breakdown of small air gap in electric field Part II: Statistical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patterns of shot distribution and maximum coverage at impulse breakdown voltage for positive point electr-odes (needle and cone electrodes) in small air gaps in non-uniform electric fields were investigated. During the breakdown test, a sheet of paper was placed on the plate electrode (-ve), and each breakdown shot ...

  20. 48 CFR 252.236-7000 - Modification proposals-price breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-price breakdown. 252.236-7000 Section 252.236-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.236-7000 Modification proposals—price breakdown. As prescribed in 236.570(a), use the following clause: Modification Proposals—Price Breakdown (DEC 1991) (a) The...

  1. Differential saliva-induced breakdown of starch filled protein gels in relation to sensory perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Pijpekamp, A.M. van de; Labiausse, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the differential breakdown of protein gels containing four types of high and low cross-linked starch granules were studied. Susceptibility to saliva-induced breakdown of starch granules and the consequences of these for overall breakdown of the gel matrix were captured using a

  2. Relations between rheological properties, saliva-induced structure breakdown and sensory texture attributes of custards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Terpstra, M.E.J.; Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The relevance of initial rheological properties and mechanical and enzymatic structure breakdown in determining selected sensory texture attributes of custards was studied. The so-called structure breakdown cell was used to characterize saliva-induced breakdown, i.e., by monitoring digestion of

  3. Breakdown of teenage placements in Danish out-of-home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Olsson, Martin; Høst, Anders

    2012-01-01

    to breakdown. However, while the logistic regression model was significant, it explained only 6% of the variance. Earlier studies have indicated that breakdown is a substantial problem of child welfare in several other western countries, Denmark is no exception. These corresponding breakdown rates point out...

  4. Sample preconcentration utilizing nanofractures generated by junction gap breakdown assisted by self-assembled monolayer of gold nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ping Jen

    Full Text Available The preconcentration of proteins with low concentrations can be used to increase the sensitivity and accuracy of detection. A nonlinear electrokinetic flow is induced in a nanofluidic channel due to the overlap of electrical double layers, resulting in the fast accumulation of proteins, referred to as the exclusion-enrichment effect. The proposed chip for protein preconcentration was fabricated using simple standard soft lithography with a polydimethylsiloxane replica. This study extends our previous paper, in which gold nanoparticles were manually deposited onto the surface of a protein preconcentrator. In the present work, nanofractures were formed by utilizing the self-assembly of gold-nanoparticle-assisted electric breakdown. This reliable method for nanofracture formation, involving self-assembled monolayers of nanoparticles at the junction gap between microchannels, also decreases the required electric breakdown voltage. The experimental results reveal that a high concentration factor of 1.5×10(4 for a protein sample with an extremely low concentration of 1 nM was achieved in 30 min by using the proposed chip, which is faster than our previously proposed chip at the same conditions. Moreover, an immunoassay of bovine serum albumin (BSA and anti-BSA was carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed chip.

  5. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage.

  6. Soft Power: Political Use of A Scientific Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Vladimirovich Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use and transformation of the American scientific concept "soft power" in official Russian and US foreign policy rhetoric with the methodological help of Habermas' communicative action theory and its adoption to IR by T. Risse. In mainstream IR the proliferation of the "soft power" concept is viewed in terms of ideological competition among states. The author argues that it is better to view this process as a form of international political deliberations on new forms of power in world politics. The article shows that there's no communicative action of US and Russia based on their tentative discussion of the "soft power" concept. On of reasons might be the lack of interest of both states for the concept as an ideological basis for cooperative actions. For Russia soft power in its classical form might be used towards its near abroad and probably BIC states. In dealings with western states Russian soft power turns into lobbyism and propaganda which is strictly not soft power. US under Obama have basically refuted the concept, having changed it for analytically meaningless "smart power". The conclusion is that communicative action requires prior existence of commutative rationality. This type of rationality is evident among postmodern states - the EU member states - and apparently absent among modern states such as Russia and US.

  7. ON SOFT D2-ALGEBRA AND SOFT D2-IDEALS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Subramanian; S. Seethalaksmi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied some characterization of soft D2-algebra, kernel, intersection, image, quotient D2-algebra’s and relations ship between D2-algebra and D2-ideals with suitable examples.

  8. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.) [de

  9. Hard evidence on soft skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Kautz, Tim

    2012-08-01

    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills -personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies.

  10. Soft gelatin capsules (softgels).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullapalli, Rampurna Prasad

    2010-10-01

    It is estimated that more than 40% of new chemical entities (NCEs) coming out of the current drug discovery process have poor biopharmaceutical properties, such as low aqueous solubility and/or permeability. These suboptimal properties pose significant challenges for the oral absorption of the compounds and for the development of orally bioavailable dosage forms. Development of soft gelatin capsule (softgel) dosage form is of growing interest for the oral delivery of poorly water soluble compounds (BCS class II or class IV). The softgel dosage form offers several advantages over other oral dosage forms, such as delivering a liquid matrix designed to solubilize and improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly soluble compound as a unit dose solid dosage form, delivering low and ultra-low doses of a compound, delivering a low melting compound, and minimizing potential generation of dust during manufacturing and thereby improving the safety of production personnel. However, due to the very dynamic nature of the softgel dosage form, its development and stability during its shelf-life are fraught with several challenges. The goal of the current review is to provide an in-depth discussion on the softgel dosage form to formulation scientists who are considering developing softgels for therapeutic compounds.

  11. Soft valves in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keunhwan; Tixier, Aude; Christensen, Anneline; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Sif; Zwieniecki, Maciej; Jensen, Kaare

    2017-11-01

    Water and minerals flow from plant roots to leaves in the xylem, an interconnected network of vascular conduits that spans the full length of the organism. When a plant is subjected to drought stress, air pockets can spread inside the xylem, threatening the survival of the plant. Many plants prevent propagation of air by using hydrophobic nano-membranes in the ``pit'' pores that link adjacent xylem cells. This adds considerable resistance to flow. Interestingly, torus-margo pit pores in conifers are open and offer less resistance. To prevent propagation of air, conifers use a soft gating mechanism, which relies on hydrodynamic interactions between the xylem liquid and the elastic pit. However, it is unknown exactly how it is able to combine the seemingly antagonist functions of high permeability and resistance to propagation of air. We conduct experiments on biomimetic pores to elucidate the flow regulation mechanism. The design of plant valves is compared to other natural systems and optimal strategies are discussed. This work was supported by a research Grant (13166) from VILLUM FONDEN.

  12. Soft tissue angiosarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, P.H.; Lindberg, R.D.; Barkley, H.T.

    1981-12-01

    From 1949 to 1979, 12 patients with soft tissue angiosarcoma received radiotherapy (alone or in combination with other modalities of treatment) with curative intent at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. The primary site was the head and neck in six patients (scalp, four; maxillary antrum, one; and oral tongue, one), the breast in four patients, and the thigh in two patients. All four patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp had advanced multifocal tumors, and two of them had clinically positive neck nodes. None of these tumors were controlled locally, and local recurrences occurred within and/or at a distance from the generous fields of irradiation. The remaining two patients with head and neck lesions had their disease controlled by surgery and postoperative irradiation. Three of the four angiosarcomas of the breast were primary cases which were treated by a combination of surgery (excisional biopsy, simple mastectomy, radical mastectomy) and postoperative irradiation. One patient also received adjuvant chemotherapy. The fourth patient was treated for scar recurrence after radical mastectomy. All four patients had their disease locally controlled, and two of them have survived over 5 years. The two patients with angiosarcoma of the thigh were treated by conservative surgical excision and postoperative irradiation. One patient had her disease controlled; the other had a local recurrence requiring hip disarticulation and subsequent hemipelvectomy for salvage.

  13. Forensic Discrimination of Latent Fingerprints Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Chemometric Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Ho; Yoh, Jack J

    2018-01-01

    A novel technique is reported for separating overlapping latent fingerprints using chemometric approaches that combine laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and multivariate analysis. The LIBS technique provides the capability of real time analysis and high frequency scanning as well as the data regarding the chemical composition of overlapping latent fingerprints. These spectra offer valuable information for the classification and reconstruction of overlapping latent fingerprints by implementing appropriate statistical multivariate analysis. The current study employs principal component analysis and partial least square methods for the classification of latent fingerprints from the LIBS spectra. This technique was successfully demonstrated through a classification study of four distinct latent fingerprints using classification methods such as soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The novel method yielded an accuracy of more than 85% and was proven to be sufficiently robust. Furthermore, through laser scanning analysis at a spatial interval of 125 µm, the overlapping fingerprints were reconstructed as separate two-dimensional forms.

  14. A taxing problem: the complementary use of hard and soft OR in public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C; Brown, J; Pidd, M

    2004-01-01

    A review of the UK personal taxation system used a combination of hard and soft OR approaches in a complementary way. The hard OR was based on data mining to increase understanding of individual taxpayers and their changing needs within the personal tax system. The soft OR was based on soft systems methodology with two aims in mind. First, to guide the review and, secondly, as an auditable approach for collecting the views of key internal and external stakeholders. The soft and hard OR were u...

  15. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  16. Engineering applications of soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cortés, Margarita-Arimatea; Rojas, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between Soft Computing techniques and their applications to complex engineering problems. In each chapter we endeavor to explain the basic ideas behind the proposed applications in an accessible format for readers who may not possess a background in some of the fields. Therefore, engineers or practitioners who are not familiar with Soft Computing methods will appreciate that the techniques discussed go beyond simple theoretical tools, since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise in such areas. At the same time, the book will show members of the Soft Computing community how engineering problems are now being solved and handled with the help of intelligent approaches. Highlighting new applications and implementations of Soft Computing approaches in various engineering contexts, the book is divided into 12 chapters. Further, it has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently of the others.

  17. Imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanel, D.; Le Treut, A.

    1988-01-01

    Modern imaging of soft tissue sarcomas now includes ultrasounds, CT and MRI. These new techniques allow a better evaluation of initial local extension, of the response to treatment and are able to detect local recurrences early [fr

  18. Soft ideal topological space and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Borah

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce fuzzy soft ideal and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological spaces and some properties of this space. Also we introduce fuzzy soft $I$-open set, fuzzy soft $\\alpha$-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft pre-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft semi-$I$-open set and fuzzy soft $\\beta$-$I$-open set and discuss some of their properties.

  19. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  20. Development of microwave-enhanced spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Moon, Ahsa; Kaneko, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    We propose microwave-enhanced spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy with the same measurement and analysis processes as in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, but with a different plasma generation mechanism. The size and lifetime of the plasma generated can contribute to increased measurement accuracy and expand its applicability to industrial measurement, such as an exhaust gas analyzer for automobile engine development and its regulation, which has been hard to operate by laser at an engineering evaluation site. The use of microwaves in this application helps lower the cost, reduce the system size, and increase the ease of operation to make it commercially viable. A microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz was used to enhance the volume and lifetime of the plasma at atmospheric condition even at elevated pressure.

  1. Factors that Influence RF Breakdown in Antenna Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Baity, F. W.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Aghazarian, M.; Castano Giraldo, C. H.; Ruzic, David

    2007-11-01

    One of the main power-limiting factors in antenna systems is the maximum voltage that the antenna or vacuum transmission line can sustain before breaking down. The factors that influence RF breakdown are being studied in a resonant 1/4-wavelength section of vacuum transmission line terminated with an open circuit electrode structure. Breakdown can be initiated via electron emission by high electric fields and by plasma formation in the structure, depending on the gas pressure. Recent experiments have shown that a 1 kG magnetic field can influence plasma formation at pressures as low as 8x10-5 Torr at moderate voltage levels (LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Work supported by USDOE with grant DE-FG02-04ER54765

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): a new spectrochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, L.J.; Loree, T.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the breakdown spark from a focused laser beam to generate analytically useful emission spectra of minor constituents in air and other carrier gases. The medium was sampled directly. It was not necessary to reduce the sample to solution nor to introduce electrodes. The apparatus is particularly simple; a pulsed laser, spectrometer, and some method for time resolution. The latter is essential in laser-induced-breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) because of the strong early continuum. High temperatures in the spark result in vaporization of small particles, dissociation of molecules, and excitation of atomic and ionic spectra, including species which are normally difficult to detect. In one application, we have monitored beryllium in air at conventrations below 1 μg/m 3 , which is below 1 ppB (w/w). In another we have monitored chlorine and fluorine atoms in real time. LIBS has the potential for real-time direct sampling of contaminants in situ

  3. Breakdown dynamics of electrically exploding thin metal wires in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Caplinger, J.; Parada, F.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    Using a two-frame intensified charge coupled device (iCCD) imaging system with a 2 ns exposure time, we observed the dynamics of voltage breakdown and corona generation in experiments of fast ns-time exploding fine Ni and stainless-steel (SS) wires in a vacuum. These experiments show that corona generation along the wire surface is subjected to temporal-spatial inhomogeneity. For both metal wires, we observed an initial generation of a bright cathode spot before the ionization of the entire wire length. This cathode spot does not expand with time. For 25.4 μm diameter Ni and SS wire explosions with positive polarity, breakdown starts from the ground anode and propagates to the high voltage cathode with speeds approaching 3500 km/s or approximately one percent of light speed.

  4. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor

  5. Research of Dielectric Breakdown Micro fluidic Sampling Chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, F.; Lei, Y.; Yu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Micro fluidic chip is mainly driven electrically by external electrode and array electrode, but there are certain disadvantages in both of ways, which affect the promotion and application of micro fluidic technology. This paper discusses a scheme that uses the conductive solution in a microchannel made by PDMS, replacing electrodes and the way of dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver. It could reduce the driving voltage and simplify the chip production process. To prove the feasibility of this method, we produced a micro fluidic chip used in PDMS material with the lithography technology and experimented it. The results showed that using the dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver is feasible, and it has certain application prospect.

  6. Vortex-Breakdown-Induced Particle Capture in Branching Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Jesse T; Fani, Andrea; Chen, Kevin K; Shin, Sangwoo; Gallaire, François; Stone, Howard A

    2016-08-19

    We show experimentally that a flow-induced, Reynolds number-dependent particle-capture mechanism in branching junctions can be enhanced or eliminated by varying the junction angle. In addition, numerical simulations are used to show that the features responsible for this capture have the signatures of classical vortex breakdown, including an approach flow aligned with the vortex axis and a pocket of subcriticality. We show how these recirculation regions originate and evolve and suggest a physical mechanism for their formation. Furthermore, comparing experiments and numerical simulations, the presence of vortex breakdown is found to be an excellent predictor of particle capture. These results inform the design of systems in which suspended particle accumulation can be eliminated or maximized.

  7. Critical effects of downstream boundary conditions on vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used to study the critical effects of the downstream boundary conditions on the supersonic vortex breakdown. The present study is applied to two supersonic vortex breakdown cases. In the first case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct, and in the second case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling jet, that is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic jet of lower Mach number, is considered. For the configured duct flow, four different types of downstream boundary conditions are used, and for the swirling jet flow from the nozzle, two types of downstream boundary conditions are used. The solutions are time accurate which are obtained using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme.

  8. Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.M.D.

    2011-01-01

    at a distance of similar to 550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur similar to 4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from similar to 50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical...... electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.......The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which...

  9. Partial discharges and breakdown in C3F8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M; Franck, C M

    2014-01-01

    Traditional search processes of gases or gas mixtures for replacing SF 6 involve time consuming measurements of partial discharges and breakdown behaviour for several voltage waveforms and different field configurations. Recently a model for prediction of this behaviour for SF 6 was described in literature. The model only requires basic properties of the gas such as the critical field strength and the effective ionization coefficient, which can be obtained by swarm parameter measurements, and thermodynamic properties, which can be calculated. In this paper, we show for the well-known and electronegative gas octafluoropropane (C 3 F 8 ) that it is possible to transfer the model developed for SF 6 to this gas to describe the breakdown behaviour of C 3 F 8 . Thus the model can be beneficial in the screening process of new insulation gases. (paper)

  10. Partial discharges and breakdown in C3F8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M.; Franck, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Traditional search processes of gases or gas mixtures for replacing SF6 involve time consuming measurements of partial discharges and breakdown behaviour for several voltage waveforms and different field configurations. Recently a model for prediction of this behaviour for SF6 was described in literature. The model only requires basic properties of the gas such as the critical field strength and the effective ionization coefficient, which can be obtained by swarm parameter measurements, and thermodynamic properties, which can be calculated. In this paper, we show for the well-known and electronegative gas octafluoropropane (C3F8) that it is possible to transfer the model developed for SF6 to this gas to describe the breakdown behaviour of C3F8. Thus the model can be beneficial in the screening process of new insulation gases.

  11. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C, 1983963113 Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemehrezaei@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, 15875-4416 Shariati, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor.

  12. Breakdown in traffic networks fundamentals of transportation science

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed investigation of breakdowns in traffic and transportation networks. It shows empirically that transitions from free flow to so-called synchronized flow, initiated by local disturbances at network bottlenecks, display a nucleation-type behavior: while small disturbances in free flow decay, larger ones grow further and lead to breakdowns at the bottlenecks. Further, it discusses in detail the significance of this nucleation effect for traffic and transportation theories, and the consequences this has for future automatic driving, traffic control, dynamic traffic assignment, and optimization in traffic and transportation networks. Starting from a large volume of field traffic data collected from various sources obtained solely through measurements in real world traffic, the author develops his insights, with an emphasis less on reviewing existing methodologies, models and theories, and more on providing a detailed analysis of empirical traffic data and drawing consequences regarding t...

  13. The validity of the general similarity law for electrical breakdown of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmokrovic, Predrag; Zivic, Tamara; Loncar, Boris; Vasic, Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of the similarity law in cases of dc and pulse breakdown of gases. Geometrically similar systems insulated with SF 6 gas were used during experiments. It is shown that the similarity law is valid for dc breakdown voltage if the electron mean free path is included in geometrical parameters of the system, but not for pulse breakdown voltages. The explanation for this is the mechanism of the pulse discharge. The similarity law was expanded to take into account mechanisms of pulse breakdown initiation. Thus, the general similarity law is obtained, the validity of which in case of a pulse breakdown is established experimentally

  14. Effects of polarization and absorption on laser induced optical breakdown threshold for skin rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Bonito, Valentina; Turco, Simona; Verhagen, Rieko

    2016-03-01

    Laser induced optical breakdown (LIOB) is a non-linear absorption process leading to plasma formation at locations where the threshold irradiance for breakdown is surpassed. In this paper we experimentally demonstrate the influence of polarization and absorption on laser induced breakdown threshold in transparent, absorbing and scattering phantoms made from water suspensions of polystyrene microspheres. We demonstrate that radially polarized light yields a lower irradiance threshold for creating optical breakdown compared to linearly polarized light. We also demonstrate that the thermal initiation pathway used for generating seed electrons results in a lower irradiance threshold compared to multiphoton initiation pathway used for optical breakdown.

  15. Application of MTR soft-decision decoding in multiple-head ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    basic MTR logic circuits, and to develop, a new one, the soft-decision MTR decoder, based on such ... of integrated circuits provides their quite simple realization. ..... recording channels, PSU-UNS International Conference on Engineering and ...

  16. Soft physics with a supercollider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1984-01-01

    I discuss a set of possible, more or less adventurous, physics scenarios for the soft physics of a supercollider of 10-20 TeV cms energy. I also present extrapolations of the sizes of different quantities to these immense energies. One should always note that whether we like it or not, some 95-99% of the cross-section is soft physics at all energies. (orig.)

  17. Radiation effects on breakdown in silicon multiguarded diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisello, D.; Da Rold, M.; Franzin, L.; Wheadon, R.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have investigated the current-voltage characteristics of silicon PIN diodes with a number of different multiguard structures. These structures were designed to increase the overall device breakdown voltage. The same measurements were carried out after gamma irradiation at different doses and neutron irradiation at fluences beyond type-inversion. This study is a first step towards defining guard structures optimized for operation in high-radiation environments such as those expected at the LHC

  18. Canadian Food Dollar: Breakdown between Farm and Marketing Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Jessica; Weersink, Alfons; Cranfield, John

    2013-01-01

    This poster assesses the breakdown of the Canadian food dollar between farm and marketing costs. It uses input-output methods, comparable to those used by the Economic Research Service (ERS), in order to allow for Canadian-American comparison. The farm share and marketing bill provide a valuable snapshot of the dynamics of the agri-food supply chain, changing consumer demands, and the resultant value distribution of the retail food dollar.

  19. Breakdown, fractoemission, diffusion: role of defects in dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigouroux, J.P.; Serruys, Y.

    1987-01-01

    During the surface analysis of dielectric materials, the impinging ionising particles induce point defects localised in the band gap and build an electrical charge. The electric field created by the charged defects modifies the physico-chemical properties of surface and bulk. We show that the fundamental study of defects allows a better understanding of technological phenomena such as dielectric breakdown, fracture and diffusion [fr

  20. Study of three-dimensional effects on vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, M. D.; Kuruvila, G.

    1988-01-01

    The incompressible axisymmetric steady Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are used to simulate vortex breakdown. The equations, discretized using a second-order, central-difference scheme, are linearized and then solved using an exact LU decomposition, Gaussian elimination, and Newton iteration. Solutions are presented for Reynolds numbers, based on vortex-core radius, as high as 1500. An attempt to study the stability of the axisymmetric solutions against three-dimensional perturbations is discussed.

  1. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  2. Quantum dynamics and breakdown of classical realism in nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, Omri

    2007-01-01

    The leading nonclassical term in the quantum dynamics of nonlinear oscillators is calculated in the Moyal quasi-trajectory representation. The irreducibility of the quantum dynamics to phase-space trajectories is quantified by the discrepancy of the canonical quasi-flow and the quasi-flow of a general observable. This discrepancy is shown to imply the breakdown of classical realism that can give rise to a dynamical violation of Bell's inequalities. (fast track communication)

  3. Dissecting soft radiation with factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2014-05-01

    An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It can receive contributions from soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in Z+jet and H+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects. We use a QCD factorization theorem to predict the dependence on the jet radius R, jet p T , jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. The nonperturbative contributions involve only odd powers of R, and the linear R term is universal for quark and gluon jets. The hadronization model in PYTHIA8 agrees well with these properties. The perturbative soft initial state radiation (ISR) has a contribution that depends on the jet area in the same way as the underlying event. This degeneracy is broken by the jet p T dependence. The size of this soft ISR contribution is proportional to the color state of the initial partons, yielding the same positive contribution for gg→Hg and gq→Zq, but a negative interference contribution for q anti q→Zg. Hence, measuring these dependencies allows one to separate hadronization, soft ISR, and MPI contributions in the data.

  4. Optical breakdown of helium in Bessel laser radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, N E; Pleshanov, I V; Margolin, L Ya; Pyatnitskii, Lev N

    1998-01-01

    Numerical simulation is used to investigate the dynamics of formation of a helium plasma in Bessel beams, shaped by an axicon and a phase converter from a laser radiation pulse with Gaussian temporal and radial intensity profiles. The beam intensities at the breakdown threshold are determined as a function of the pulse duration for various radial field distributions in a beam characterised by Bessel functions of order m (m = 0 - 5). It is shown that in the investigated range of parameters the threshold intensity is independent of m. The temporal and spatial evolution of the resultant plasma, and the dependence of the plasma characteristics on the pulse parameters are considered. Conditions are found for the formation of tubular plasma channels in beams of orders m≥1. The adopted model of the optical breakdown of helium is shown to be satisfactory because of a good agreement between the results of calculations of the moment of breakdown in a zeroth-order Bessel beam and experimental results. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  5. Improvement of powertrain efficiency through energy breakdown analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, Lorenzo; Repetto, Matteo; Prato, Alessandro Pini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy breakdown analysis for the vehicular powertrain. • Model for road vehicles simulation in different missions. • Implemented powertrain management strategies: intelligent gearbox, Stop and Start, free wheel. • Innovative hybrid powertrain turned to engine thermodynamic cycles minimization. • Evaluation of fuel savings associated to each management strategy. - Abstract: A vehicular powertrain can be thought as an energy conversion chain, each component being characterized by its efficiency. Significant global efficiency improvements can be achieved once is identified the system energy breakdown, individuating the losses connected to each powertrain component; it is then possible to carry out the most appropriate interventions. This paper presents a simulation study of a diesel-fuelled commercial vehicle powertrain based on the above summarized point of view. The work aims at individuating the energy flows involved in the system during different missions, proposing an intelligent combination of technical solutions which minimize fuel consumption. Through a validated Matlab–Simulink model, able to indicate the powertrain energy breakdown, simulations are carried out to evaluate the fuel saving associated to a series of powertrain management logics which lead to the minimization of engine losses, the recovery of reverse power in deceleration and braking, the elimination of useless engine cycles. Tests were performed for different real missions (urban, extra-urban and highway). The results obtained point out a –23% fuel consumption (average value for urban, extra-urban and highway missions) compared to the traditional powertrain. Clearly, such result affects positively the CO 2 emission

  6. Vortex breakdown of compressible swirling flows in a pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harry; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao

    2017-11-01

    The manifold of branches of steady and axisymmetric states of compressible subsonic swirling flows in a finite-length straight circular pipe are developed. The analysis is based on Rusak et al. (2015) nonlinear partial differential equation for the solution of the flow stream function in terms of the inlet flow total enthalpy, entropy and circulation functions. This equation reflects the complicated thermo-physical interactions in the flows. The flow problem is solved numerically using a finite difference approach with a penalty procedure for identifying vortex breakdown and wall-separation states. Several types of solutions are found and used to form the bifurcation diagram of steady compressible flows with swirl as the inlet swirl level is increased at a fixed inlet Mach number. Results are compared with predictions from the global analysis approach of Rusak et al. (2015). The computed results provide theoretical predictions of the critical swirl levels for the first appearance of vortex breakdown states as a function of the inlet Mach number. The shows the delay in the appearance of breakdown with increase of the inlet axial flow Mach number in the subsonic range of operation.

  7. Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Roussel-Dupré, Robert; Symbalisty, Eugene M. D.; Chanrion, Olivier; Odzimek, Anna; van der Velde, Oscar; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which is characterized by consecutive broadband pulses in the low-frequency radio range from ˜10 to 300 kHz at a distance of ˜800 km. Experimental evidence for the existence of consecutive broadband pulses is provided by low-frequency radio observations of sprite-producing lightning discharges at a distance of ˜550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur ˜4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from ˜50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical ionospheric reflection of the first hop sky wave. Two consecutive pulses occur ˜4.5 ms and ˜3 ms after the causative lightning discharge and coincide with the sprite luminosity. It is concluded that relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere can emit broadband electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.

  8. Breakdown of coupling dielectrics for Si microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Padova Univ.; Saglimbeni, G.

    1999-01-01

    Double-layer coupling dielectrics for AC-coupled Si microstrip detectors have been electrically characterized in order to determine their performance in a radiation-harsh environment, with a focus on the dielectric breakdown. Two different dielectric technologies have been investigated: SiO 2 /TEOS and SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 . Dielectrics have been tested by using a negative gate voltage ramp of 0.2 MV/(cm·s). The metal/insulator/Si I-V characteristics show different behaviours depending on the technology. The extrapolated values of the breakdown field for unirradiated devices are significantly higher for SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 dielectrics, but the data dispersion is lower for SiO 2 /TEOS devices. No significant variation of the breakdown field has been measured after a 10 Mrad (Si) γ irradiation for SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 dielectrics. Finally, the SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 DC conduction is enhanced if a positive gate voltage ramp is applied with respect to the negative one, due to the asymmetric conduction of the double-layer dielectric

  9. Evaluation of methods for increasing vacuum breakdown strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.D.; Cooke, C.M.; Berman, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    Research to determine the effectiveness of coated and gas shielded cathodes as a means of increasing vacuum breakdown strength under short pulse conditions is reported. A technique for rapidly evaluating large numbers of coatings on small electrodes at relatively low pulse voltage (120 kV or less) and methods for testing larger electrodes and fewer coatings at higher total voltage were developed. Experiments with gas shielded cathodes were also conducted. Results suggest that it may be possible to eliminate prebreakdown current and to double breakdown strength by applying a suitable coating to the cathode. Breakdown stresses in excess of 2 MV/cm were obtained in a 0.5 mm gap with sputtered coatings of alumina, Cr 2 O 3 , and several readily available epoxies. Electrodes two orders of magnitude greater in area were tested, and stresses approaching 1 MV/cm were measured in 5 mm gaps for several epoxies and for alumina. It has further been shown that, because similar trends occurred in the data from large and small experiments, it should be possible to screen potential coatings rapidly and effectively with minimum expenditure using a method similar to that employed for small electrodes at low pulse voltage

  10. Electricity Breakdown Management for Sarawak Energy: Use of Condition-Based Equipment for Detection of Defective Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. K.; Abas, N.

    2017-07-01

    Managing electricity breakdown is vital since an outage causes economic losses for customers and the utility companies. However, electricity breakdown is unavoidable due to some internal or external factors beyond our control. Electricity breakdown on overhead lines tend occur more frequently because it is prone to external disturbances such as animal, overgrown vegetation and defective pole top accessories. In Sarawak Energy Berhad (SEB), majority of the network are composed of overhead lines and hence, is more prone to failure. Conventional method of equipment inspection and fault finding are not effective to quickly identify the root cause of failure. SEB has engaged the use of corona discharge camera as condition-based monitoring equipment to carry out condition based inspection on the line in order to diagnose the condition of the lines prior to failure. Experimental testing has been carried out to determine the correlation between the corona discharge count and the level of defect on line insulator. The result shall be tabulated and will be used as reference for future scanning and diagnostic on any defect on the lines.

  11. Pre-breakdown light emission phenomena in low-pressure argon between parabolic electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaars, E [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Perriens, N W B [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brok, W J M [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Bowden, M D [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Veldhuizen, E M van [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kroesen, G M W [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-09-07

    An experimental study on pre-breakdown light emission in low-pressure argon gas was performed. In a pulsed discharge, pre-breakdown phenomena were observed for repetition rates between 100 and 2000 Hz and pulse duration of 100 {mu}s. These phenomena were studied with time-resolved emission imaging using an intensified charge coupled device camera. The origin of the pre-breakdown emission was identified as diffusion of volume charges left over from previous discharges. These charges were accelerated towards the anode in small electron avalanches causing excitation of argon atoms. Different spatial distributions of the pre-breakdown light emission for different times between discharges were measured and the effects of the pre-breakdown phenomena on the main breakdown phase were studied using a double voltage pulse. The observed effects were attributed to the distribution of volume charges, left over from previous discharges, in the discharge gap during the pre-breakdown phase.

  12. New Approach to Quantitative Analysis by Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. H.; Kim, T. H.; Yun, J. I.; Jung, E. C.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been studied as the technique of choice in some particular situations like screening, in situ measurement, process monitoring, hostile environments, etc. Especially, LIBS can fulfill the qualitative and quantitative analysis for radioactive high level waste (HLW) glass in restricted experimental conditions. Several ways have been suggested to get quantitative information from LIBS. The one approach is to use the absolute intensities of each element. The other approach is to use the elemental emission intensities relative to the intensity of the internal standard element whose concentration is known already in the specimen. But these methods are not applicable to unknown samples. In the present work, we introduce new approach to LIBS quantitative analysis by using H α (656.28 nm) emission line as external standard

  13. Direct Monitoring and Control of Transformer Temperature in Order to Avoid its Breakdown Using FOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika YADAV

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript focuses on Direct Monitoring & Control of Transformer Temperature in order to avoid its Breakdown Using FOS (fiber optic sensor. Although there are various reasons for failure of transformer operation but mainly it is due to conductor loss and hysteresis losses which causes temperature rise in the internal structures of the transformer leading to burning of windings. A system for monitoring the temperature of transformers is required. Existing sensors cannot be used for monitoring the temperature of transformers because they are sensitive to electrical signals and can cause sparking which can trigger fire since there is oil in transformers cooling coils. Distributed FOS based on microbend is simulated on MATLAB7.5 in order to check the effectiveness of this sensor. Results in the form of graphs i.e., intensity modulation vs. the temperature has been shown in the manuscript.

  14. Using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on vacuum alloys-production process for elements concentration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianzhuo; Fan, Zhongwei; Lian, Fuqiang; Liu, Yang; Lin, Weiran; Mo, Zeqiang; Nie, Shuzhen; Wang, Pu; Xiao, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhong, Qixiu; Zhang, Hongbo

    2017-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) utilizing an echelle spectrograph-ICCD system is employed for on-line analysis of elements concentration in a vacuum induction melting workshop. Active temperature stabilization of echelle spectrometer is implemented specially for industrial environment applications. The measurement precision is further improved by monitoring laser parameters, such as pulse energy, spatial and temporal profiles, in real time, and post-selecting laser pulses with specific pulse energies. Experimental results show that major components of nickel-based alloys are stable, and can be well detected. By using internal standard method, calibration curves for chromium and aluminum are obtained for quantitative determination, with determination coefficient (relative standard deviation) to be 0.9559 (< 2.2%) and 0.9723 (< 2.8%), respectively.

  15. Changing the Paradigm in Medial Canthal Reconstruction: The Bridge Principle and the Croissant-Like Keystone Island Perforator Flap as An Alternative for Medium Size Soft Tissue Defects in Internal Canthus Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Epameinondas; Agiannidis, Christos; Konofaos, Petros; Kotsakis, Ioannis; Hatzigianni, Panagiota; Georgopoulos, Gerasimos; Papadatou, Zoe; Konstantinidou, Chara; Champsas, Gregorios; Papadopoulos, Othon; Casoli, Vincent

    2018-03-08

    Medial canthus is a common area of skin cancer prevalence. Defects in this region represent a challenging reconstructive task. The nasal version of keystone perforator island flap (KPIF) has proven its versatility. The aim of the present study was to expand its utilization in the neighbor medial canthus area. A modified croissant-like KPIF (CKPIF) was used resolving inner convexity-related problems. The presence of procerus in the glabella area, bridging a surface from nasalis up to the frontalis, changed the traditional dissecting flap technique. Thus, the authors introduce the bridge principle, which consists of the indirect transfer of the flap to the defect site through a muscular "bridge" (the procerus). The authors report their experience in medial canthal reconstruction combining a modified KPIF with a new dissecting "principle." From November 2016 to July 2017, a series of patients presenting soft tissue defects of various dimensions in the medial canthus, secondary to tumor extirpation, sustained reconstruction with a CKPIF dissected with the bridge principle. A total of 15 patients were treated with this new technique. Their mean age was 75.3 years. The mean size of the defect was 2.08 cm (length) × 1.5 cm (width). All flaps survived without any sign of venous congestion. A transient epiphora presented in 4 patients (4/15 or 26.6%), which was subsided 2 months later. A new approach following a novel paradigm was introduced to resolve an old problem. Initial outcomes are encouraging. However, longer series are needed to extract definitive and safer conclusion.

  16. Soft Mobility and Urban Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some European cases referred to promotion of soft mobility as a new lifestyle aimed to improve benefits on environment and urban liveability. Soft mobility includes any non-motorized transport (human powered mobility. According to this, soft mobility refers to pedestrian, bicycle, roller skate and skateboard transfers. It could be indented as “zeroimpact” mobility too. As a matter of fact, the words to define this way of moving have not been codified yet, therefore mobilitè douce, soft mobility, slow traffic are synonymous in referring mainly to pedestrians and cyclists to indicate alternative to car use. Soft mobility, indeed, can be defined as a special form of sustainable mobility able to optimize urban liveability, by keeping the individual right to move. At present, cities are engaged in defining policies, procedures and interventions to further “slow traffic”, both to relieve the traffic congestion, and to work for regeneration and environmental improvements. This asks for an in-depth cooperation between different political and administrative levels to achieve common objectives of development more attentive to environmental concerns. Despite this increasing attention, the idea of a “network” for soft mobility has not been yet achieved and the supply of integrated facilities and services as an alternative to the car use seems to be still difficult of accomplishment. High disparity characterizes European countries in promoting soft mobility: despite a prolific production of laws and roles referred to emergency of adopting alternative ways of moving to minimize negatives impacts (especially air and noise pollution as very threat to health due to car dependence for urban short distance too. And yet, soft mobility could represent a real occasion of urban and territorial regeneration aimed to rehabilitate some disused paths and routes (greenways. Some successful European cases show how it is possible to

  17. Neutrosophic Parameterized Soft Relations and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Deli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of relation on neutrosophic parameterized soft set (NP- soft sets theory. We have studied some related properties and also put forward some propositions on neutrosophic parameterized soft relation with proofs and examples. Finally the notions of symmetric, transitive, reflexive, and equivalence neutrosophic parameterized soft set relations have been established in our work. Finally a decision making method on NP-soft sets is presented.

  18. Evaluation of soft errors rate in a commercial memory EEPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Luiz H.; Silva, A.A.; Santos, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    Soft errors are transient circuit errors caused by external radiation. When an ion intercepts a p-n region in an electronic component, the ionization produces excess charges along the track. These charges when collected can flip internal values, especially in memory cells. The problem affects not only space application but also terrestrial ones. Neutrons induced by cosmic rays and alpha particles, emitted from traces of radioactive contaminants contained in packaging and chip materials, are the predominant sources of radiation. The soft error susceptibility is different for different memory technology hence the experimental study are very important for Soft Error Rate (SER) evaluation. In this work, the methodology for accelerated tests is presented with the results for SER in a commercial electrically erasable and programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). (author)

  19. Effects of soft x-ray irradiation on cell ultrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, T.W.; Page, A.M.; Stead, A.D.; Foster, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The future of X-ray microscopy lies mainly in its potential for imaging fresh, hydrated biological material at a resolution superior to that of light microscopy. For the image to be accepted as representing the cellular organization of the living cell, it is essential that artifacts are not introduced as a result of the image collection system. One possible source of artifacts is cellular damage resulting from the irradiation of the material with soft X-rays. Cells of the unicellular alga Chlorella have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following exposure to different doses of monochromatic (380eV) soft X-rays. Extreme ultrastructural damage has been detected following doses of 10 3 -10 4 Gy, in particular loss of cellular membranes such as the internal thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast. This is discussed in relation to dosage commonly used for imaging by soft X-ray microscopy

  20. Biochemical monitoring of sweet fruit flavoured glass bottled soft drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watto, M.H.S.; Kazi, T.G.; Bhanger, M.I.; Jakhrani, M.A.; Iqbal, J.; Porgar, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flavored glass bottled soft drinks are widely used in developing countries including Pakistan. People suffer greatly both in terms of health and economy if soft drinks are contaminated with microbes and toxic metals. Samples of sixteen different brands of soft drinks were analyzed for microbial and trace elemental study. Microbial study included identification of different coliforms like E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Klebsiela, and total Coliforms. Only seven samples were found to be free from investigated microbes. Contamination in other samples was probably due to improper handling and storage and could be dangerous to human health. Fifteen trace and toxic elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry following improved ash digestion method. The level of Al, Fe, Na, K, Ni, Pb and Cd was found to be higher in investigated samples than the international safety limits of WHO. Other elements investigated in all the samples were below the WHO maximum allowable concentration for drinking water. (author)

  1. Biologically-inspired soft exosuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbeck, Alan T; Dyer, Robert J; Larusson, Arnar F; Walsh, Conor J

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a novel soft cable-driven exosuit that can apply forces to the body to assist walking. Unlike traditional exoskeletons which contain rigid framing elements, the soft exosuit is worn like clothing, yet can generate moments at the ankle and hip with magnitudes of 18% and 30% of those naturally generated by the body during walking, respectively. Our design uses geared motors to pull on Bowden cables connected to the suit near the ankle. The suit has the advantages over a traditional exoskeleton in that the wearer's joints are unconstrained by external rigid structures, and the worn part of the suit is extremely light, which minimizes the suit's unintentional interference with the body's natural biomechanics. However, a soft suit presents challenges related to actuation force transfer and control, since the body is compliant and cannot support large pressures comfortably. We discuss the design of the suit and actuation system, including principles by which soft suits can transfer force to the body effectively and the biological inspiration for the design. For a soft exosuit, an important design parameter is the combined effective stiffness of the suit and its interface to the wearer. We characterize the exosuit's effective stiffness, and present preliminary results from it generating assistive torques to a subject during walking. We envision such an exosuit having broad applicability for assisting healthy individuals as well as those with muscle weakness.

  2. Radiosensitivity of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Iwasaki, Katsuro; Suzuki, Ryohei; Monzen, Yoshio; Hombo, Zenichiro

    1989-01-01

    The correlation between the effectiveness of radiation therapy and the histology of soft tissue sarcomas was investigated. Of 31 cases with a soft tissue sarcoma of an extremity treated by conservative surgery and postoperative radiation of 3,000-6,000 cGy, local recurrence occurred in 12; 5 out of 7 synovial sarcomas, 4 of 9 MFH, one of 8 liposarcomas, none of 4 rhabdomyosarcomas and 2 of 3 others. As for the histological subtyping, the 31 soft tissue sarcomas were divided into spindle cell, pleomorphic cell, myxoid and round cell type, and recurrence rates were 75%, 33.3%, 16.7% and 0%, respectively. From the remarkable difference in recurrent rate, it was suggested that round cell and myxoid type of soft tissue sarcomas showed a high radiosensitivity compared to the spindle cell type with low sensitivity. Clarifying the degree of radiosensitivity is helpful in deciding on the management of limb salvage in soft tissue sarcomas of an extremity. (author)

  3. International Students in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As the number of international students in Chinese higher education increases steadily, this volume is one of the first to focus on their many and varied experiences. With contributions focusing on such topics as intercultural adaptation, soft power and interculturality, language learning strateg...

  4. Intelligent systems and soft computing for nuclear science and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, D.; D'hondt, P.; Govaerts, P.; Kerre, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The second international workshop on Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science (FLINS) addresses topics related to intelligent systems and soft computing for nuclear science and industry. The proceedings contain 52 papers in different fields such as radiation protection, nuclear safety (human factors and reliability), safeguards, nuclear reactor control, production processes in the fuel cycle, dismantling, waste and disposal, decision making, and nuclear reactor control. A clear link is made between theory and applications of fuzzy logic such as neural networks, expert systems, robotics, man-machine interfaces, and decision-support techniques by using modern and advanced technologies and tools. The papers are grouped in three sections. The first section (Soft computing techniques) deals with basic tools to treat fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, decision-making, and software used for general soft-computing aspects. The second section (Intelligent engineering systems) includes contributions on engineering problems such as knowledge-based engineering, expert systems, process control integration, diagnosis, measurements, and interpretation by soft computing. The third section (Nuclear applications) focusses on the application of soft computing and intelligent systems in nuclear science and industry

  5. Two Understandings of "Soft Power": Prerequisites, Correlates and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Parshin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of "soft power" suggested by Joseph Nye in early 1990s is analyzed in the paper as one of realization of tactile metaphor. Highlighted are those cognitive semantic peculiarities of this metaphor which contribute to its wide popularity and, at the same time, produce prerequisites for two dramatically different understandings of "soft power". According to technological understanding, "soft power" is an instrument or, broader, a technology, especially a communicative one, applied in world politics in such a way as to minimize damage caused to the object of power exertion in comparison to other, "hard power" instruments. In accordance with resource understanding, "soft power" is peculiar to influence exerted by an actor due to his/her/its attractiveness and shared values. The author analyses political and ideological correlates of these two understandings and relates them to different traditions in the study of country image and reputation, namely international relations theory and nation branding.. Analyzed are also the most topical disagreements about the "soft power" in the discourse of world politics.

  6. Soft cooperation systems and games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J. R.; Gallego, I.; Jiménez-Losada, A.; Ordóñez, M.

    2018-04-01

    A cooperative game for a set of agents establishes a fair allocation of the profit obtained for their cooperation. In order to obtain this allocation, a characteristic function is known. It establishes the profit of each coalition of agents if this coalition decides to act alone. Originally players are considered symmetric and then the allocation only depends on the characteristic function; this paper is about cooperative games with an asymmetric set of agents. We introduced cooperative games with a soft set of agents which explains those parameters determining the asymmetry among them in the cooperation. Now the characteristic function is defined not over the coalitions but over the soft coalitions, namely the profit depends not only on the formed coalition but also on the attributes considered for the players in the coalition. The best known of the allocation rules for cooperative games is the Shapley value. We propose a Shapley kind solution for soft games.

  7. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  8. The constraints on the soft power efforts of authoritarian states. The case of the 2015 military parade in Beijing – strengthening patriotic pride, soft power and strategic deterrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2017-01-01

    Is it possible for authoritarian states such as China, Russia and Iran to combine the soft power narratives directed primarily towards an international audience with the narratives directed primarily towards a domestic audience and aimed at maintaining regime security? To investigate this question...... further, this article analyses the 2015 military parade in Beijing and uses this case to highlight and discuss the constraints on the Chinese leaders’ efforts to project soft power. The key finding is that soft power will continue to be the weak link in China’s pursuit for a great power position...

  9. Research of the X-ray spectrum in the digital image acquisition and processing for internal disturbs detection in mangoes (Mangifera indica l.); Pesquisa do espectro de raios-X na aquisicao e processamento de imagens digitais para a deteccao de desordens internas em frutos da mangueira (Mangifera indica l.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rubemar S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rubemar@ird.gov.br; Freire Junior, Murillo; Botrel, Neide [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: mfreire@ctaa.embrapa.br; Jesus, Edgar de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.br

    2002-07-01

    In this work, digital image processing was associated to X-ray beam relevant to watching internal injuries, such as breakdown, soft nose and other physiological disturbs in mangoes CV Tommy Atkins. The X-ray source was a high frequency generator operating to a high tension between 14 to 35 kV on a molybdenum target tube, which generate X-ray characteristic near from 18,5 keV and 20 keV (k an l shell) plus a continuous spectrum, thought to be proper to get radiological images from mangoes in different maturation stages. Different filtrations and pseudo-colors technique were used to process the digital images produced. Results, from a group of comparative images, show the feasibility to detect several classes of internal disorders as well as others produced in packing houses and transport of mangoes. (author)

  10. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

  11. Breakdown study of dc silicon micro-discharge devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaederlé, L; Kulsreshath, M K; Lefaucheux, P; Tillocher, T; Dussart, R; Overzet, L J

    2012-01-01

    The influence of geometrical and operating parameters on the electrical characteristics of dc microcavity discharges provides insight into their controlling physics. We present here results of such a study on silicon-based microcavity discharge devices carried out in helium at pressure ranging from 100 to 1000 Torr. Different micro-reactor configurations were measured. The differences include isolated single cavities versus arrays of closely spaced cavities, various cavity geometries (un-etched as well as isotropically and anisotropically etched), various dimensions (100 or 150 µm cavity diameter and 0-150 µm depth). The electrode gap was kept constant in all cases at approximately 6 µm. The applied electric field reaches 5 × 10 7 V m -1 which results in current and power densities up to 2 A cm -2 and 200 kW cm -3 , respectively. The number of microcavities and the microcavity depth are shown to be the most important geometrical parameters for predicting breakdown and operation of microcavity devices. The probability of initiatory electron generation which is volume dependent and the electric field strength which is depth dependent are, respectively, considered to be responsible. The cavity shape (isotropic/anisotropic) and diameter had no significant influence. The number of micro-discharges that could be ignited depends on the rate of voltage rise and pressure. Larger numbers ignite at lower frequency and pressure. In addition, the voltage polarity has the largest influence on the electrical characteristics of the micro-discharge of all parameters, which is due to both the asymmetric role of electrodes as electron emitter and the non-uniformity of the electric field resulting in different ionization efficiencies. The qualitative shape of all breakdown voltage versus pressure curves can be explained in terms of the distance over which the discharge breakdown effectively occurs as long as one understand that this distance can depend on pressure. (paper)

  12. PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure. Cost and schedule review copy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  13. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy library for the Martian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover will carry the first Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy experiment in space: ChemCam. We have developed a laboratory model which mimics ChemCam's main characteristics. We used a set of target samples relevant to Mars geochemistry, and we recorded individual spectra. We propose a data reduction scheme for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy data incorporating de-noising, continuum removal, and peak fitting. Known effects of the Martian atmosphere are confirmed with our experiment: better Signal-to-Noise Ratio on Mars compared to Earth, narrower peak width, and essentially no self-absorption. The wavelength shift of emission lines from air to Mars pressure is discussed. The National Institute of Standards and Technology vacuum database is used for wavelength calibration and to identify the elemental lines. Our Martian database contains 1336 lines for 32 elements: H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ar, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, and Pb. It is a subset of the National Institute of Standards and Technology database to be used for Martian geochemistry. Finally, synthetic spectra can be built from the Martian database. Correlation calculations help to distinguish between elements in case of uncertainty. This work is used to create tools and support data for the interpretation of ChemCam results. - Highlights: ► Chemcam: first Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique on Mars. ► Creation of a LIBS specific database to ChemCam on Mars. ► Data reduction scheme is proposed. ► Best signal under Martian conditions. ► LIBS emission lines database: subset of NIST database for Martian geochemistry.

  14. Optical breakdown threshold investigation of 1064 nm laser induced air plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Thompson, Shane

    2012-01-01

    We present the theoretical and experimental measurements and analysis of the optical breakdown threshold for dry air by 1064 nm infrared laser radiation and the significance of the multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization process on the breakdown threshold measurements over pressures range from 10 to 2000 Torr. Theoretical estimates of the breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are obtained using two distinct theories namely multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization theories. The theoretical estimates are validated by experimental measurements and analysis of laser induced breakdown processes in dry air at a wavelength of 1064 nm by focusing 450 mJ max, 6 ns, 75 MW max high-power 1064 nm IR laser radiation onto a 20 μm radius spot size that produces laser intensities up to 3 - 6 TW/cm 2 , sufficient for air ionization over the pressures of interest ranging from 10 to 2000 Torr. Analysis of the measured breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are carried out in relation with classical and quantum theoretical ionization processes, operating pressures. Comparative analysis of the laser air breakdown results at 1064 nm with corresponding results of a shorter laser wavelength (193 nm) [M. Thiyagarajan and J. E. Scharer, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 2512 (2008)] and a longer microwave wavelength (10 8 nm) [A. D. MacDonald, Microwave Breakdown in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1966)]. A universal scaling analysis of the breakdown threshold measurements provided a direct comparison of breakdown threshold values over a wide range of frequencies ranging from microwave to ultraviolet frequencies. Comparison of 1064 nm laser induced effective field intensities for air breakdown measurements with data calculated based on the collisional cascade and multiphoton breakdown theories is used successfully to determine the scaled collisional microwave portion. The measured breakdown threshold of 1064 nm laser intensities are then scaled to

  15. A-Soft Separation Axioms in Soft Topological Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Abd –Al-Hani Al-Sweedi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The important science tools in a different kinds and  specialties , that considered the basic mainstay of ( the set theory and because of  huge development in all life fields. This causes great problems , that need solution and parallel tools for those developments , so the scientis become responsible to work on the development of number theory and open new horizons , that a new science had appeared  which is  ( soft figures theory which is considered the important tool to solve most difficult problems or overcome them ,in these sciences and their specific life specialization, economy, medicine , geometry and others. Also the theory of soft numbers had entered in general topology in power full and active way. The last years a new science has appeared is (soft topological space.              The main idea of this research is to define the separation axioms in  (soft topological space  and practically in certain point , and to study the most important  properties and results of it .

  16. Individual breakdown of pension rights and end of contract

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    As in previous years, members of the CERN Pension Fund will shortly receive their “Individual breakdown of pension rights” by e-mail.   In this respect, we would like to remind members that according to Articles II 1.11 - II 1.12 (calculation and payment of the transfer value) and II 2.02 (retirement pension), several options are possible at the end of their contract (depending on their length of service in the Fund): payment of the transfer value into a personal bank account, payment of the transfer value into a new pension scheme, pension (deferred, anticipated or retirement). Benefits Service CERN Pension Fund

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children Adopted After Early Care Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jonathan; Leadbitter, Kathy; Kay, Catherine; Sharma, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Syndromic autism has been described in children adopted after orphanage rearing. We investigated whether the same existed in children adopted after family breakdown. Families of 54/60 adopted children aged 6?11?years (mean 102?months; SD 20; 45?% male) returned screening questionnaires for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); 21/54 (39?%) screened positive. Detailed in-person phenotyping of screen positive cases showed ASD in 6/54 (11?%), Broad ASD (sub threshold traits) in 10/54 (18.5?%); 5/54 (9...

  18. Dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry and abnormal perturbation expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Pervushin, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    Dynamical breakdown of γ 5 -symmetry is studied in the Abelian gauge theory of massless ''quarks'' interacting with massless vector ''gluons''. For this purpose the path-integral approach with bilocal fields as dynamical variables is used. The classical field equation defined by the stationary point of the generating functional turns out to be identical with the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the quark propagator. After a short discussion of the possible solutions of this equation an abnormal perturbation theory has been worked out

  19. Chemical consequences of laser-induced breakdown in molecular gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babánková, Dagmar; Civiš, Svatopluk; Juha, Libor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2-3 (2006), s. 75-88 ISSN 0079-6727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1278; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk LC528; GA MŠk 1P04LA235 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser spark * laser-induced dielectric breakdown * laser-plasma chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.500, year: 2006

  20. Recovering from trust breakdowns in large system implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Andersen, Povl Erik Rostgård

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of experiences from the Faroese large-scale implementation of integrated healthcare information systems and insights into dynamic aspects of trust, we offer the following lessons learned for the successful management and recovery of trust (breakdowns) in large system implementations......: restore relations by turning towards face-to-face events and procedures, assure a well-functioning and available support organization, demonstrate trust in actors to enhance their own self-confidence and celebrate successes, even the smallest or ones injected by yourself. The propositions are based on a 6...

  1. Determination of secondary electron yields from low pressure breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maric, D; Zivanov, S.; Strinic, A.; Malovic, G.; Djuric, M.; Petrovic, Z. Lj.

    2000-01-01

    In order to model accurately the secondary yields in gas breakdown and collisional plasmas both the numerous processes discussed in related experiments must be included and also proper determination of γ (E/n) must be provided. In addition to the application of the correct ionization rate it is also essential to include the nonequilibrium region where electrons gain energy and achieve hydrodynamics equilibrium. For lower values of E/n, greater values of γ than those based on the literature data for αn(E/n) have been found, possibly due to existence of the photoelectric effects

  2. Mechanism of laser beam reentry into a laser breakdown plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, P.; Kekez, M.M.; Makomaski, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the focus-directed filament often observed in streak photographs of CO 2 -laser produced gas breakdown can be explained by the lateral expansion and consequent cooling of the plasma behind the radiation supported shock. A simple analysis and more detailed numerical calculations show a temperature maximum developing in the plasma, which travels either towards or away from the light source, depending on the nature of the gas. Thus, the locus of the cutoff temperature also travels along the beam, allowing it to reenter the plasma at a velocity which may attain the speed of light. (Auth.)

  3. Soft Neutrosophic Bi-LA-semigroup and Soft Neutrosophic N-LA-seigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic biLA-semigroup,soft neutosophic sub bi-LA-semigroup, soft neutrosophic N -LA-semigroup with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic bi-LAsemigroup, the so called soft strong neutrosophic bi-LAsemigoup which is of pure neutrosophic character. This is also extend to soft neutrosophic strong N-LA-semigroup. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  4. Influence of water trees on breakdown voltage of polymeric cables insulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancu, Cristina [INCDIE ICPE CA, Bucharest (Romania); Notingher, Petru V.; Plopeanu, Mihai Gabriel [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    In a previous paper was shown that water trees development modifies considerably the electric field repartition, which increases significantly in the vicinity of treed areas. In order to find the water trees influence on the breakdown voltage, in the present paper, an experimental study on model cables insulated with low density polyethylene is done. In insulation samples, water trees with various dimensions and densities were developed. For the reduction of the test duration, an electric field with a higher frequency (3-5 kHz) was used. For breakdown voltage measurement an automatic setup was realized. For each value of the ageing time the dimensions and densities of water trees and breakdown voltage were measured and the dependency of the breakdown voltage with these quantities were analysed. The results show a significant reduction of the breakdown voltage of treed cables insulations compared to un-treed ones. Key words: polyethylene, water treeing, electric field, breakdown, power cables.

  5. Influence of temperature on current-induced domain wall motion and its Walker breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lvchao; Hu, Jingguo; Su, Yuanchang; Zhu, Jinrong

    2016-01-01

    The current-driven domain wall propagation along a thin ferromagnetic strip with thermal field is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. The results show that the velocity of domain wall is almost independent of temperature until Walker breakdown happened. However the thermal field can suppress Walker breakdown and makes domain wall move faster. Further analysis indicates that the thermal field tends to keep the out-of-plane magnetic moment of the domain wall stay in high value, which can promote domain wall motion and suppress the Walker breakdown by breaking the period of domain wall transformation. - Highlights: • Influences of temperature on the displacement and the velocity of DW are shown. • The suppression of Walker breakdown by temperature is given. • The reason for suppressing Walker breakdown is analyzed. • The breaking transformation period of Walker breakdown by temperature is given.

  6. Criterion for vortex breakdown on shock wave and streamwise vortex interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiejima, Toshihiko

    2014-05-01

    The interactions between supersonic streamwise vortices and oblique shock waves are theoretically and numerically investigated by three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations. Based on the two inequalities, a criterion for shock-induced breakdown of the streamwise vortex is proposed. The simple breakdown condition depends on the Mach number, the swirl number, the velocity deficit, and the shock angle. According to the proposed criterion, the breakdown region expands as the Mach number increases. In numerical simulations, vortex breakdown appeared under conditions of multiple pressure increases and the helicity disappeared behind the oblique shock wave along the line of the vortex center. The numerical results are consistent with the predicted breakdown condition at Mach numbers 2.0 and 3.0. This study also found that the axial velocity deficit is important for classifying the breakdown configuration.

  7. Noise Parameter Analysis of SiGe HBTs for Different Sizes in the Breakdown Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie-In Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise parameters of silicon germanium (SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs for different sizes are investigated in the breakdown region for the first time. When the emitter length of SiGe HBTs shortens, minimum noise figure at breakdown decreases. In addition, narrower emitter width also decreases noise figure of SiGe HBTs in the avalanche region. Reduction of noise performance for smaller emitter length and width of SiGe HBTs at breakdown resulted from the lower noise spectral density resulting from the breakdown mechanism. Good agreement between experimental and simulated noise performance at breakdown is achieved for different sized SiGe HBTs. The presented analysis can benefit the RF circuits operating in the breakdown region.

  8. Experimental study of DC vacuum breakdown and application to high-gradient accelerating structures for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Shipman, Nicholas; Jones, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is a leading candidate for the next generation high energy linear collider. As any breakdown would result in a partial or full loss of luminosity for the pulse in which it occurs, obtaining a low breakdown rate in CLIC accelerating structures is a critical requirement for the successful operation of the proposed collider. This thesis presents investigations into the breakdown phenomenon primarily in the low breakdown rate regime of interest to CLIC, performed using the CERN DC spark systems between 2011 and 2014. The design, construction and commissioning of several new pieces of hardware, as well as the development of improved techniques to measuring the inter-electrode gap distance are detailed. These hardware improvements were fundamental in enabling the exciting new experiments mentioned below, which in turn have provided significant additional insight into the phenomenon of breakdown. Experiments were performed to measure fundamental parameters of individual breakdowns...

  9. Dark current, breakdown, and magnetic field effects in a multicell, 805 MHz cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Norem

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of dark currents and x rays in a six cell 805 MHz cavity, taken as part of an rf development program for muon cooling, which requires high power, high stored energy, low frequency cavities operating in a strong magnetic field. We have done the first systematic study of the behavior of high power rf in a strong (2.5–4 T magnetic field. Our measurements extend over a very large dynamic range in current and provide good fits to the Fowler-Nordheim field emission model assuming mechanical structures produce field enhancements at the surface. The locally enhanced field intensities we derive at the tips of these emitters are very large, (∼10  GV/m, and should produce tensile stresses comparable to the tensile strength of the copper cavity walls and should be capable of causing breakdown events. We also compare our data with estimates of tensile stresses from a variety of accelerating structures. Preliminary studies of the internal surface of the cavity and window are presented, which show splashes of copper with many sharp cone shaped protrusions and wires which can explain the experimentally measured field enhancements. We discuss a “cold copper” breakdown mechanism and briefly review alternatives. We also discuss a number of effects due to the 2.5 T solenoidal fields on the cavity such as altered field emission due to mechanical deformation of emitters, and dark current ring beams, which are produced from the irises by E×B drifts during the nonrelativistic part of the acceleration process.

  10. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  11. Breakdown characteristics in DC spark experiments of copper focusing on purity and hardness

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, Kazue; Higashi, Yasuo; Higo, Toshi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Santiago-Kern, Ana Rocia; Pasquino, Chiara; Calatroni, Sergio; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The breakdown characteristics related to the differences in purity and hardness were investigated for several types of copper using a DC spark test system. Three types of oxygen-free copper (OFC) materials, usual class 1 OFC 7-nine large-grain copper and 6-nine hot-isotropic-pressed (HIP) copper with/without diamond finish, were tested with the DC spark test system. The measurements of the beta, breakdown fields, and breakdown probability are presented and discussed in this paper.

  12. An Opinion on Soft Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Mikhailovitch Astakhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes different aspects of the "soft power" of Russia. The author affirms that in this field the country doesn't have well defined strategies policy. To Russia has the excellent potential for the promotion of its positive image. This potential is primarily due to the famous Russian science, literature, music and art. But this "natural"potential has to be used in the national interests abroad. In recent years the Russian government has made some important steps in cultural diplomacy, in particular for the promotion of Russian language and supporting Russian Diaspora. However, much more has to be done not only in these directions, but also in propaganda and counterpropaganda to meet information pressure against Russia. In this connection, to form properly all directions of the policy of "soft power", is desirable to use the experience of other countries. The states who pretend to have an important place in the world, consider "soft power" as a strategic policy aiming to strengthen their geopolitical positions. In this context the author offers some suggestions concerning different organizational aspects. Special attention is given to the coordination of the activities of all structures involved in the policy of "soft power ".

  13. Glass transition of soft colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Adrian-Marie; Truzzolillo, Domenico; Galvan-Myoshi, Julian; Dieudonné-George, Philippe; Trappe, Véronique; Berthier, Ludovic; Cipelletti, Luca

    2018-04-01

    We explore the glassy dynamics of soft colloids using microgels and charged particles interacting by steric and screened Coulomb interactions, respectively. In the supercooled regime, the structural relaxation time τα of both systems grows steeply with volume fraction, reminiscent of the behavior of colloidal hard spheres. Computer simulations confirm that the growth of τα on approaching the glass transition is independent of particle softness. By contrast, softness becomes relevant at very large packing fractions when the system falls out of equilibrium. In this nonequilibrium regime, τα depends surprisingly weakly on packing fraction, and time correlation functions exhibit a compressed exponential decay consistent with stress-driven relaxation. The transition to this novel regime coincides with the onset of an anomalous decrease in local order with increasing density typical of ultrasoft systems. We propose that these peculiar dynamics results from the combination of the nonequilibrium aging dynamics expected in the glassy state and the tendency of colloids interacting through soft potentials to refluidize at high packing fractions.

  14. Bone and soft tissue ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Brown, M.L.; Joyce, J.W.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses clinical features and imaging techniques for ischemic necrosis, a common problem in the foot, particularly in diabetics and patients with other vascular diseases. Necrosis of bone and soft tissues will be considered separately as the underlying etiology and imaging evaluation differ considerably

  15. Modeling soft interface dominated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The two main continuum frameworks used for modeling the dynamics of soft multiphase systems are the Gibbs dividing surface model, and the diffuse interface model. In the former the interface is modeled as a two dimensional surface, and excess properties such as a surface density, or surface energy

  16. Biocompatible mesoporous and soft nanoarchitectures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelova, A.; Angelov, Borislav; Mutafchieva, R.; Lesieur, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2015), s. 214-232 ISSN 1574-1443 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : soft nanoarchitectures * lipid bilayer building block * self-assembled nanochannel networks Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.308, year: 2015

  17. Soft-Collinear Effective Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    I will review the basic principles about Soft-Collinear Effective Theory. I will focus on how it can be used to understand factorization properties and how one can resum large logarithms arising from infrared physics using the renormalization group evolution.

  18. Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.

  19. CMS results on soft diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00086121

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of soft single- and double-diffractive cross sections, as well as of forward rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV at the LHC, and compare the results to other measurements and to theoretical predictions implemented in various Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Soft lithography of ceramic patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, Ole; Nedelcu, M.; Steiner, U.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer-based precursor solutions are patterned using a soft-lithographic patterning technique to yield sub-micrometer-sized ceramic patterns. By using a polymer-metal-nitrate solution as a lithographic resist, we demonstrate a micromolding procedure using a simple rubber stamp that yields a

  1. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2016-01-01

    People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

  2. Time domain simulations of preliminary breakdown pulses in natural lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B E; Liang, C; Bitzer, P; Christian, H

    2015-06-16

    Lightning discharge is a complicated process with relevant physical scales spanning many orders of magnitude. In an effort to understand the electrodynamics of lightning and connect physical properties of the channel to observed behavior, we construct a simulation of charge and current flow on a narrow conducting channel embedded in three-dimensional space with the time domain electric field integral equation, the method of moments, and the thin-wire approximation. The method includes approximate treatment of resistance evolution due to lightning channel heating and the corona sheath of charge surrounding the lightning channel. Focusing our attention on preliminary breakdown in natural lightning by simulating stepwise channel extension with a simplified geometry, our simulation reproduces the broad features observed in data collected with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array. Some deviations in pulse shape details are evident, suggesting future work focusing on the detailed properties of the stepping mechanism. Preliminary breakdown pulses can be reproduced by simulated channel extension Channel heating and corona sheath formation are crucial to proper pulse shape Extension processes and channel orientation significantly affect observations.

  3. Experimental breakdown of selected anodized aluminum samples in dilute plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Norman T.; Domitz, Stanley

    1992-01-01

    Anodized aluminum samples representative of Space Station Freedom structural material were tested for electrical breakdown under space plasma conditions. In space, this potential arises across the insulating anodized coating when the spacecraft structure is driven to a negative bias relative to the external plasma potential due to plasma-surface interaction phenomena. For anodized materials used in the tests, it was found that breakdown voltage varied from 100 to 2000 volts depending on the sample. The current in the arcs depended on the sample, the capacitor, and the voltage. The level of the arc currents varied from 60 to 1000 amperes. The plasma number density varied from 3 x 10 exp 6 to 10 exp 3 ions per cc. The time between arcs increased as the number density was lowered. Corona testing of anodized samples revealed that samples with higher corona inception voltage had higher arcing inception voltages. From this it is concluded that corona testing may provide a method of screening the samples.

  4. Control of leading edge vortex breakdown by blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, K. D.; Iwanski, K. P.; Nelson, R. C.; Ng, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation into the effects of using a jet of air to control the vortex breakdown position on a 70 degree delta wing is presented. The specific objectives focused on optimizing the blowing positions in terms of maximum lift increments obtained for minimum blowing rates. The tests were conducted at chord Reynolds numbers of 150,000, 200,000, and 250,000 at angles of incidence of 30 and 35 degrees. Visualization and force data is presented to show the effect of the jet on the wing aerodynamic characteristics. The results indicate a jet position located at and aligned parallel to the leading edge to be the optimum. Nearness to the apex and tangency to the upper surface were also crucial factors. The influence of the jet on the leading edge vortex structure was examined using laser Doppler anemometry. Velocity surveys through the vortex showed that at high blowing rates the parallel velocity in the outer swirling region of the vortex increased and the normal velocity decreased. This resulted in a decrease in the swirling angle in the outer region. The peak core velocity was reduced and the vortex breakdown was delayed.

  5. Preliminary Breakdown: Physical Mechanisms and Potential for Energetic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, D.; Beasley, W. H.

    2014-12-01

    Observations and analysis of the preliminary breakdown phase of virgin negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) lightning strokes will be presented. Of primary interest are the physical processes responsible for the fast electric field "characteristic" pulses that are often observed during this phase. The pulse widths of characteristic pulses are shown to occur as a superposed bimodal distribution, with the short and long modes having characteristic timescales on the order of 1 microsecond and 10 microseconds, respectively. Analysis of these pulses is based on comparison with laboratory observations of long spark discharge processes and with recently acquired high-speed video observations of a single -CG event. It will be argued that the fast electric field bimodal distribution is the result of conventional discharge processes operating in an extensive strong ambient electric field environment. An important related topic will also be discussed, where it will be argued that preliminary breakdown discharges are capable of generating energetic electrons and may therefore seed relativistic electron avalanches that go on to produce pulsed energetic photon emissions.

  6. Mechanical breakdown in the nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. Thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavin, L.A.; Cherevko, K.V.; Sysoev, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a similarity of the Van der Waals and nucleon-nucleon interaction the known thermodynamic relations for ordinary liquids are used to analyze the possible decay channels in the proton induced nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. The main features of the different phase trajectories in the P-V plane are compared with the experimental data on multifragmentation. It allowed choosing the phase trajectories with the correct qualitative picture of the phenomena. Based on the thermodynamic analysis of the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena the most appropriate decay channel corresponding to the realistic phase trajectory is chosen. Macroscopic analysis of the suggested decay channel is done in order to check the possibility of the mechanical breakdown of the heated system. Based on a simple thermodynamic model preliminary quantitative calculations of corresponding macroscopic parameters (energy, pressure) are done and therefore the model verification on macroscopic level is held. It is shown that on macroscopic level the chosen decay channel through the mechanical breakdown meets the necessary conditions for describing the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena

  7. Breakdown of the few-level approximation in collective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiffner, M.; Evers, J.; Keitel, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    The validity of the few-level approximation in dipole-dipole interacting collective systems is discussed. As an example system, we study the archetype case of two dipole-dipole interacting atoms, each modeled by two complete sets of angular momentum multiplets. We establish the breakdown of the few-level approximation by first proving the intuitive result that the dipole-dipole induced energy shifts between collective two-atom states depend on the length of the vector connecting the atoms, but not on its orientation, if complete and degenerate multiplets are considered. A careful analysis of our findings reveals that the simplification of the atomic level scheme by artificially omitting Zeeman sublevels in a few-level approximation generally leads to incorrect predictions. We find that this breakdown can be traced back to the dipole-dipole coupling of transitions with orthogonal dipole moments. Our interpretation enables us to identify special geometries in which partial few-level approximations to two- or three-level systems are valid

  8. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  9. Magnetoresistance and magnetic breakdown phenomenon in amorphous magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hui-yu; Gong Xiao-yu

    1988-01-01

    Transverse magnetoresistance in amorphous magnetic alloys (Fe/sub 1-//sub x/CO/sub x/) 82 Cu/sub 0.4/Si/sub 4.4/B/sub 13.2/ were measured at room temperature and in the magnetic field range 0--15 kOe. For large magnetic field, three different functional dependences of magnetoresistance on magnetic field strength have been found as follows: (1) Δrho/rho approaches saturation. (2) Δrho/rho increases proportionally to H 2 . (3) For x = 0.15, a sharp Δrho/rho peak appears at a certain magnetic field strength in spatial angular orientation of both magnetic field and electric currents. Case (3) is a magnetic breakdown phenomenon. Magnetic breakdown occurs at the gap between the spin-up and spin-down sheets of the Fermi surface. This gap is the spin-orbit gap and its magnitude is a sensitive function of magnetization. Hence the magnitude and width of the magnetoresistance peak and the magnetic field strength at the peak point are functions of angular orientation of both magnetic field and electric current

  10. Rf breakdown studies in room temperature electron linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.W.

    1988-05-01

    This paper is an overall review of studies carried out by the authors and some of their colleagues on RF breakdown, Field Emission and RF processing in room temperature electron linac structure. The motivation behind this work is twofold: in a fundamental way, to contribute to the understanding of the RF breakdown phenomenon, and as an application, to determine the maximum electric field gradient that can be obtained and used safely in future e/sup +-/ linear colliders. Indeed, the next generation of these machines will have to reach into the TeV (10 12 eV) energy range, and the accelerating gradient will be to be of the crucial parameters affecting their design, construction and cost. For a specified total energy, the gradient sets the accelerator length, and once the RF structure, frequency and pulse repetition rate are selected, it also determines the peak and average power consumption. These three quantities are at the heart of the ultimate realizability and cost of these accelerators. 24 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Structure of a swirling jet with vortex breakdown and combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaborin, D. K.; Dulin, V. M.; Markovich, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    An experimental investigation is performed in order to compare the time-averaged spatial structure of low- and high-swirl turbulent premixed lean flames by using the particle image velocimetry and spontaneous Raman scattering techniques. Distributions of the time-average velocity, density and concentration of the main components of the gas mixture are measured for turbulent premixed swirling propane/air flames at atmospheric pressure for the equivalence ratio Φ = 0.7 and Reynolds number Re = 5000 for low- and high-swirl reacting jets. For the low-swirl jet (S = 0.41), the local minimum of the axial mean velocity is observed within the jet center. The positive value of the mean axial velocity indicates the absence of a permanent recirculation zone, and no clear vortex breakdown could be determined from the average velocity field. For the high-swirl jet (S = 1.0), a pronounced vortex breakdown took place with a bubble-type central recirculation zone. In both cases, the flames are stabilized in the inner mixing layer of the jet around the central wake, containing hot combustion products. O2 and CO2 concentrations in the wake of the low-swirl jet are found to be approximately two times smaller and greater than those in the recirculation zone of the high-swirl jet, respectively.

  12. Experimental research for vacuum gap breakdown in high voltage multi-pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ziping; He Jialong; Chen Sifu; Deng Jianjun; Wang Liping

    2008-01-01

    Base on the breakdown theory of vacuum gaps, experiments have been done to find out the breakdown electric field intensities in high voltage single-and triple-pulse for 26 vacuum gaps with different shapes. The experimental results match up to the theory and confirm the effect of the pulse-number increase on the breakdown electric field intensity. The key point to decide the macroscopical breakdown electric field intensity of a vacuum gap has been pointed out with some advises about the design of a multi-pulse linear inductive accelerator's accelerate gap. (authors)

  13. Studies on gas breakdown in pulsed radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, W. G.; Jian, S. J.; Yao, J.; Ding, Z. F.

    2014-01-01

    In pulsed RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the gas breakdown judged by the rapid drop in the amplitude of the pulsed RF voltage is no longer universally true. The steep increment of the plasma-absorbed RF power is proposed to determine the gas breakdown. The averaged plasma-absorbed RF power over a pulse period is used to evaluate effects of the preceding pulsed RF discharge on the breakdown voltage of the following one, finding that the breakdown voltage decreases with the increment in the averaged plasma-absorbed RF power under constant pulse duty ratio. Effects of the pulse off-time on the breakdown voltage and the breakdown delay time are also studied. The obtained dependence of the breakdown voltage on the pulse off-time is indicative of the transitional plasma diffusion processes in the afterglow. The breakdown voltage varies rapidly as the plasma diffuses fast in the region of moderate pulse off-time. The contribution of nitrogen atom recombination at the alumina surface is demonstrated in the prolonged memory effect on the breakdown delay time vs. the pulse off-time and experimentally validated by introducing a trace amount of nitrogen into argon at short and long pulse off-times

  14. A categorization of water system breakdowns: Evidence from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Tori; Cronk, Ryan; Shields, Katherine F; Bartram, Jamie

    2018-04-01

    In rural sub-Saharan Africa, one in three handpumps are non-functional at any time. While there is some evidence describing factors associated with non-functional water systems, there is little evidence describing the categories of water system breakdowns that commonly occur. Insufficient water availability from broken down systems can force people to use unimproved water sources, which undermines the health benefits of an improved water source. We categorized common water system breakdowns using quantitative and qualitative monitoring data from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda (each N>3600 water systems) and examined how breakdown category varies by water system type and management characteristics. Specific broken parts were mentioned more frequently than all other reasons for breakdown; hardware parts frequently found at fault for breakdown were aprons (Liberia), pipes (Tanzania and Uganda), taps/spouts (Tanzania and Uganda), and lift mechanisms (Nigeria). Statistically significant differences in breakdown category were identified based on system type, age, management type, and fee collection type. Categorization can help to identify common reasons for water system breakdown. The analysis of these data can be used to develop improved monitoring instruments to inform actors of different breakdown types and provide reasons for system non-functionality. Improved monitoring instruments would enable actors to target appropriate resources to address specific breakdowns likely to arise based on system type and management characteristics in order to inform improved implementation of and post-construction support for water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ac breakdown in near-atmospheric pressure noble gases: I. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M; Manders, F; Gendre, M F; Hendriks, J

    2011-01-01

    Ac-driven breakdown processes have been explored much less than the pulsed or dc breakdown, even though they have possible applications in industry. This paper focuses on the frequency range between 60 kHz and 1 MHz, at a pin-pin electrode geometry and gap lengths of 4 or 7 mm. The breakdown process was examined in argon and xenon at 0.3 and 0.7 bar. We used electrical and optical measurements to characterize the breakdown process, to observe the influence of frequency change and the effect of ignition enhancers-UV irradiation and radioactive material.

  16. Ac breakdown in near-atmospheric pressure noble gases: I. Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Postbus 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Manders, F; Gendre, M F; Hendriks, J, E-mail: a.sobota@tue.nl [Philips Lighting, LightLabs, Mathildelaan 1, 5600JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-06-08

    Ac-driven breakdown processes have been explored much less than the pulsed or dc breakdown, even though they have possible applications in industry. This paper focuses on the frequency range between 60 kHz and 1 MHz, at a pin-pin electrode geometry and gap lengths of 4 or 7 mm. The breakdown process was examined in argon and xenon at 0.3 and 0.7 bar. We used electrical and optical measurements to characterize the breakdown process, to observe the influence of frequency change and the effect of ignition enhancers-UV irradiation and radioactive material.

  17. Improved model of activation energy absorption for different electrical breakdowns in semi-crystalline insulating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Wenxia; Jiang, Xiongwei; Peng, Qingjun; Sun, Potao

    2018-05-01

    Electrical breakdown is an important physical phenomenon in electrical equipment and electronic devices. Many related models and theories of electrical breakdown have been proposed. However, a widely recognized understanding on the following phenomenon is still lacking: impulse breakdown strength which varies with waveform parameters, decrease in the breakdown strength of AC voltage with increasing frequency, and higher impulse breakdown strength than that of AC. In this work, an improved model of activation energy absorption for different electrical breakdowns in semi-crystalline insulating polymers is proposed based on the Harmonic oscillator model. Simulation and experimental results show that, the energy of trapped charges obtained from AC stress is higher than that of impulse voltage, and the absorbed activation energy increases with the increase in the electric field frequency. Meanwhile, the frequency-dependent relative dielectric constant ε r and dielectric loss tanδ also affect the absorption of activation energy. The absorbed activation energy and modified trap level synergistically determine the breakdown strength. The mechanism analysis of breakdown strength under various voltage waveforms is consistent with the experimental results. Therefore, the proposed model of activation energy absorption in the present work may provide a new possible method for analyzing and explaining the breakdown phenomenon in semi-crystalline insulating polymers.

  18. Reduction of space charge breakdown in e-beam irradiated nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Feihu; Zhang Yewen; An Zhenlian; Dong Jianxing; Lei Qingquan

    2013-01-01

    Fast discharge of numerous space charges in dielectric materials can cause space charge breakdown. This letter reports the role of nanoparticles in affecting space charge breakdown of nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites. Space charge distributions in the composites, implanted by electron beam irradiation, were measured by pressure wave propagation method. The results show that the nanoparticles have significant effects on the isothermal charge decay and space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites. The resistance to space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites is attributed to the combined action of the introduction of deep trapping states and the scattering effect by the added nanoparticles.

  19. Soft x-ray Planetary Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to prototype a soft X-ray Imager for planetary applications that has the sensitivity to observe solar system sources of soft  X-ray emission. A strong...

  20. Brazil’s Soft-Power Strategy: The Political Aspirations of South–South Development Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bry, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    By trading upon the principles of South-South cooperation, Brazil is widely viewed as having gained a positive image worldwide. Brazil’s South-South development cooperation was one of the foreign policy instruments it used to raise this profile. However, studies of the generation of soft power...... are still lacking in the international relations literature,and where empirical research exists it focuses more on the results of soft power strategies than on how soft power is created. Therefore,this article explores how Brazil’s soft power strategy is conceptualized in Brazil’s development cooperation...... of its cooperation agency and guided it towards sectors and targets that contribute to the creation of positive outcomes. This article contributes to the debate on the state’s behavior in soft power, that is, the ‘behavior’ of the Brazilian government in the design of its cooperation agency’s activities...