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Sample records for internacional fish canyon

  1. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the

  2. Is there excess argon in the Fish Canyon magmatic system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. M.; Sherlock, S.; Kelley, S. P.; Charlier, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Some phenocrysts from the Fish Canyon Tuff (San Juan volcanic field, south-western Colorado, USA) have yielded anomalously old 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages and yet the sanidine ages are sufficiently reproducible to allow its use as an international standard. The eruption age of the Fish Canyon tuff has recently been determined by high precision analysis and recalibration of the decay constants based on the sanidine standard at 28.305 ± 0.036 Ma [1], slightly younger than the generally accepted U-Pb age. Previously, minerals from the tuff have been used in various geochronological studies e.g., fission-track; U-Pb; Rb-Sr; K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar, but U-Pb zircon ages which range 28.37 - 28.61 Ma appear to be older than the sanidine and other minerals, including biotite, yield older ages (27.41 - 28.25 Ma for biotite) [2]. In the Fish Canyon volcanic system, the erupted products are thought to exist in the magma chamber for significant periods prior to eruption [3] and then pass rapidly from a high temperature magmatic environment (where Ar is free to re-equilibrate among the minerals), to effectively being quenched upon eruption (where Ar becomes immobile). Artificially elevated ages, older than eruption age, have been identified in some 40Ar/39Ar geochronological studies (e.g. [4]). These older ages may either reflect; 1) argon accumulation in pheno- or xenocrysts (by radioactive decay of parent 40K), 2) excess argon (40ArE) incorporated into a mineral during crystallisation (via diffusion into the mineral lattice or hosted within fluid or melt inclusions) or 3) inherited radiogenic argon (the dated material contains a component older than the age of eruption) [5]. To better understand the effects of 40ArE on 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages we have conducted a detailed study of intra-grain grain age variations by UV-LAMP Ar-analysis. Analysis of polished thick sections has been performed in-situ using a 213nm laser and Nu Instruments Noblesse which is able to discriminate against

  3. Submarine canyons along the upper Sardinian slope (Central Western Mediterranean) as repositories for derelict fishing gears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Alessandro; Alvito, Andrea; Moccia, Davide; Canese, Simonepietro; Pusceddu, Antonio; Rita, Cannas; Angiolillo, Michela; Follesa, Maria C

    2017-10-15

    By means of ROV surveys, we assessed the quantity, composition and bathymetric distribution of marine litter in 17 sites along the Sardinian continental margin (Central Western Mediterranean) at depths ranging from 100 to 480m. None of the investigated sites was litter free, but the mean density of litter (0.0175±0.0022itemsm -2 ) was lower than that reported from other Tyrrhenian regions. The difference in the total litter density among sites was negligible, but the density of derelict fishing gear (DFG) items (most of which ascribable to small scale fishery) in submarine canyons was higher in submarine canyons than in other habitats. Our result suggest that submarine canyons (known to be highly vulnerable ecosystems) act as major repositories of DFGs, and, therefore, we anticipate the need of specific measures aimed at minimizing the loss and abandonment of DFGs in submarine canyons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A refined astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar age for Fish Canyon sanidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, T.A.; Storey, M.; Zeeden, C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Kuiper, K.

    2011-01-01

    Intercalibration between the astronomical and radio-isotopic dating methods provides a means to improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty of an integrated, multi-chronometer geologic timescale. Here we report a high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the FishCanyon sanidine (FCs) neutron fluence monitor,

  5. Structure-forming corals and sponges and their use as fish habitat in Bering Sea submarine canyons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Miller

    Full Text Available Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids as well as birds and marine mammals. We show that in some areas the floor of these canyons harbors high densities of gorgonian and pennatulacean corals and sponges, likely due to enhanced surface productivity, benthic currents and seafloor topography. Rockfishes, including the commercially important Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, were associated with corals and sponges as well as with isolated boulders. Sculpins, poachers and pleuronectid flounders were also associated with corals in Pribilof Canyon, where corals were most abundant. Fishes likely use corals and sponges as sources of vertical relief, which may harbor prey as well as provide shelter from predators. Boulders may be equivalent habitat in this regard, but are sparse in the canyons, strongly suggesting that biogenic structure is important fish habitat. Evidence of disturbance to the benthos from fishing activities was observed in these remote canyons. Bottom trawling and other benthic fishing gear has been shown to damage corals and sponges that may be very slow to recover from such disturbance. Regulation of these destructive practices is key to conservation of benthic habitats in these canyons and the ecosystem services they provide.

  6. Structure-forming corals and sponges and their use as fish habitat in Bering Sea submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert J; Hocevar, John; Stone, Robert P; Fedorov, Dmitry V

    2012-01-01

    Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids as well as birds and marine mammals. We show that in some areas the floor of these canyons harbors high densities of gorgonian and pennatulacean corals and sponges, likely due to enhanced surface productivity, benthic currents and seafloor topography. Rockfishes, including the commercially important Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, were associated with corals and sponges as well as with isolated boulders. Sculpins, poachers and pleuronectid flounders were also associated with corals in Pribilof Canyon, where corals were most abundant. Fishes likely use corals and sponges as sources of vertical relief, which may harbor prey as well as provide shelter from predators. Boulders may be equivalent habitat in this regard, but are sparse in the canyons, strongly suggesting that biogenic structure is important fish habitat. Evidence of disturbance to the benthos from fishing activities was observed in these remote canyons. Bottom trawling and other benthic fishing gear has been shown to damage corals and sponges that may be very slow to recover from such disturbance. Regulation of these destructive practices is key to conservation of benthic habitats in these canyons and the ecosystem services they provide.

  7. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn (Nez Perce Soil and Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2006-07-01

    The ''Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Big Canyon Creek Watershed'' is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Big Canyon Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District. Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period September 1, 2004 through October 31, 2005 include; 2.7 riparian miles treated, 3.0 wetland acres treated, 5,263.3 upland acres treated, 106.5 riparian acres treated, 76,285 general public reached, 3,000 students reached, 40 teachers reached, 18 maintenance plans completed, temperature data collected at 6 sites, 8 landowner applications received and processed, 14 land inventories completed, 58 habitat improvement project designs completed, 5 newsletters published, 6 habitat plans completed, 34 projects installed, 2 educational workshops, 6 displays, 1 television segment, 2 public service announcements, a noxious weed GIS coverage, and completion of NEPA, ESA, and cultural resources requirements.

  8. Support for the Astronomically Calibrated 40Ar/39Ar Age of Fish Canyon Sanidine: Evidence from the Quaternary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, T.; Storey, M.; Zeeden, C.; Kuiper, K.; Hilgen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) is the neutron fluence monitor most widely used in Cenozoic argon geochronology. Recommend published ages for FCs have been determined through various intercalibration techniques, but have varied by up to 2% over the last three decades. The robust quality of the

  9. A Refined Astronomically Calibrated 40Ar/39Ar Age for Fish Canyon Sanidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Zeeden, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Intercalibration between the astronomical and radio-isotopic dating methods provides a means to improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty of an integrated, multi-chronometer geologic timescale. Here we report a high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) neutron fluence...... sanidine age of 0.7674±0.0022 Ma (2σ, external errors) is indistinguishable from the ID-TIMS U/Pb zircon age (0.7671±0.0019 Ma). The consistency between the astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar sanidine age and U/Pb zircon age for this Quaternary unit suggests that agreement between these two radio-isotopic...... dating techniques is now achievable at better than±0.3% (2σ) in the youngest part of geologic time (

  10. Supporting Evidence for the Astronomically Calibrated Age of Fish Canyon Sanidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Zeeden, Christian

    The relative nature of the 40Ar/39Ar radio-isotopic dating technique requires that the age and error of the monitor mineral be accurately known. The most widely accepted monitor for Cenozoic geochronology is the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs), whose recommended published ages have varied by up to 2...... tuned stratigraphic sections. The increasingly robust quality of the astronomical timescale, with precision better than 0.1% for the last 10 million years, suggests this method of intercalibration as the best way to proceed with addressing the true age of FCs. Recently, Kuiper, et al. (2008) determined...... Noblesse multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometer for the 40Ar/39Ar experiments, analyzing single crystals of FCs relative to sanidines from the astronomically dated tephra. The use of the multi-collector instrument allowed us to obtain high precision analyses with a level of precision for fully...

  11. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  12. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and fish collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Radionuclide ( 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl) contents were determined in soil, vegetation (overstory and understory), and fish (rainbow trout) collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon in 1995. All heavy metal and most radionuclide contents around or within the lake, except for U in soil, vegetation, and fish, were within or just above upper limit background. Detectable levels (where the analytical result was greater than two times counting uncertainty) of U in soils, vegetation, and fish were found in slightly higher concentrations than in background samples. Overall, however, maximum total committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)(95% confidence level)--based on consumption of 46 lb of fish--from Tsicoma Lake (0.066 mrem/y) was within the maximum total CEDE from the ingestion of fish from the Mescalero National Fish Hatchery (background)(0.113 mrem/y)

  13. Radionuclide and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fish from the Confluences of Major Canyons That Cross Los Alamos National Laboratory Lands with the Rio Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraig, D.H.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Mullen, M.A.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Bottom-feeding fish--catfish, suckers, and carp--that were collected from the confluences of some of the major canyons that cross LANL lands with the Rio Grande (RG) exhibited similar radionuclide (with the exception of 90 Sr), and nonradionuclide concentrations to fish collected upstream of any potential LANL contamination sources. Strontium-90 concentrations in fish from LANL canyons/RG may be associated with LANL operations; however, the concentrations of 90 Sr in fish decrease to background concentrations further downstream of LANL at CR. And, based on the most conservative assumptions (a 95% source term and maximum consumption rate), LANL operations do not result in significant doses to the general public from consuming fish along the length of the RG as it passes through the eastern edge of LANL lands to CR. Moreover, since over 85% of the doses were a result of 90 Sr detected in the muscle plus bone portions of the fish and most of the 90 Sr is associated with the bone, the doses to people that consume only the edible portions of the fish (muscle only), would be significantly lower

  14. Longitudinal and vertical spatial gradients in the distribution of fish within a canyon-shaped reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašek, Mojmír; Kubečka, J.; Peterka, Jiří; Čech, Martin; Draštík, Vladislav; Hladík, Milan; Prchalová, Marie; Frouzová, Jaroslava

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2004), s. 352-362 ISSN 1434-2944 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Keywords : fish distribution * spatial heterogeneity * reservoirs Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2004

  15. Non-native fish control below Glen Canyon Dam - Report from a structured decision-making project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Bean, Ellen; Smith, David; Kokos, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a structured decision-making project by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide substantive input to the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) for use in the preparation of an Environmental Assessment concerning control of non-native fish below Glen Canyon Dam. A forum was created to allow the diverse cooperating agencies and Tribes to discuss, expand, and articulate their respective values; to develop and evaluate a broad set of potential control alternatives using the best available science; and to define individual preferences of each group on how to manage the inherent trade-offs in this non-native fish control problem. This project consisted of two face-to-face workshops, held in Mesa, Arizona, October 18-20 and November 8-10, 2010. At the first workshop, a diverse set of objectives was discussed, which represented the range of concerns of those agencies and Tribes present. A set of non-native fish control alternatives ('hybrid portfolios') was also developed. Over the 2-week period between the two workshops, four assessment teams worked to evaluate the control alternatives against the array of objectives. At the second workshop, the results of the assessment teams were presented. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods were used to examine the trade-offs inherent in the problem, and allowed the participating agencies and Tribes to express their individual judgments about how those trade-offs should best be managed in Reclamation`s selection of a preferred alternative. A broad array of objectives was identified and defined, and an effort was made to understand how these objectives are likely to be achieved by a variety of strategies. In general, the objectives reflected desired future conditions over 30 years. A rich set of alternative approaches was developed, and the complex structure of those alternatives was documented. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods allowed the evaluation of those alternatives against the array

  16. Diablo Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The paper traces the history of Diablo Canyon nuclear power station, California, which took 18 years to reach full-power testing from the planning stage. The major delays during the construction are outlined, as well as the costs of Diablo Canyon. (UK)

  17. Relative distribution and abundance of fishes and crayfish in 2010 and 2014 prior to saltcedar (Tamarix ssp.) removal in the Amargosa River Canyon, southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, Mark E.

    2016-07-22

    The Amargosa River Canyon, located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern California, contains the longest perennial reach of the Amargosa River. Because of its diverse flora and fauna, it has been designated as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern and a Wild and Scenic River by the Bureau of Land Management. A survey of fishes conducted in summer 2010 indicated that endemic Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were abundant and occurred throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. The 2010 survey reported non-native red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) captures were significantly higher, whereas pupfish captures were lower, in areas dominated by non-native saltcedar (Tamarix ssp.). Based on the 2010 survey, it was hypothesized that the invasion of saltcedar could result in a decrease in native species. In an effort to maintain and enhance native fish populations, the Bureau of Land Management removed saltcedar from a 1,550 meter reach of stream on the Amargosa River in autumn 2014 and autumn 2015. Prior to the removal of saltcedar, a survey of fishes and crayfish using baited minnow traps was conducted in the treatment reach to serve as a baseline for future comparisons with post-saltcedar removal surveys. During the 2014 survey, 1,073 pupfish and 960 speckled dace were captured within the treatment reach. Catch per unit effort of pupfish and speckled dace in the treatment reach was less in 2014 than in 2010, although differences could be owing to seasonal variation in capture probability. Non-native mosquitofish catch per unit effort decreased from 2010 to 2014; however, the catch per unit effort of crayfish increased from 2010 to 2014. Future monitoring efforts of this reach should be conducted at the same time period to account for potential seasonal fluctuations of abundance and distribution of fishes and crayfish. A more robust study design that

  18. Assessing three fish species ecological status in Colorado River, Grand Canyon based on physical habitat and population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weiwei; Chen, Yuansheng

    2018-04-01

    Colorado River is a unique ecosystem and provides important ecological services such as habitat for fish species as well as water power energy supplies. River management for this ecosystem requires assessment and decision support tools for fish which involves protecting, restoring as well as forecasting of future conditions. In this paper, a habitat and population model was developed and used to determine the levels of fish habitat suitability and population density in Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead. The short term target fish populations are also predicted based on native fish recovery strategy. This model has been developed by combining hydrodynamics, heat transfer and sediment transport models with a habitat suitability index model and then coupling with habitat model into life stage population model. The fish were divided into four life stages according to the fish length. Three most abundant and typical native and non-native fish were selected as target species, which are rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown trout (Salmo trutta) and flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis). Flow velocity, water depth, water temperature and substrates were used as the suitability indicators in habitat model and overall suitability index (OSI) as well as weight usable area (WUA) was used as an indicator in population model. A comparison was made between simulated fish population alteration and surveyed fish number fluctuation during 2000 to 2009. The application of this habitat and population model indicates that this model can be accurate present habitat situation and targets fish population dynamics of in the study areas. The analysis also indicates the flannelmouth sucker population will steadily increase while the rainbow trout will decrease based on the native fish recovery scheme. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Turismo de negócios e eventos na RAA : análise do Torneio Internacional de Big Game Fishing

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestre, Natacha de Mendonça

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado, Gestão do Turismo Internacional, 10 de Janeiro de 2017, Universidade dos Açores. Atualmente os eventos são utilizados como instrumento de promoção turística e como forma de incremento da economia regional (Chang, 2006). A Associação de Turismo dos Açores, no seu Plano de Atividades e Orçamento 2015/2016, refere que “dando continuidade ao aumento da notoriedade do destino Açores através da captação de eventos internacionais (...) continuaremos a conjugar esforços, j...

  20. Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, one of the world's most spectacular gorges, is a premier U.S. National Park and a World Heritage Site. The canyon supports a diverse array of distinctive plants and animals and contains cultural resources significant to the region's Native Americans. About 15 miles upstream of Grand Canyon National Park sits Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, which created Lake Powell. The dam provides hydroelectric power for 200 wholesale customers in six western States, but it has also altered the Colorado River's flow, temperature, and sediment-carrying capacity. Over time this has resulted in beach erosion, invasion and expansion of nonnative species, and losses of native fish. Public concern about the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations prompted the passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to operate the dam 'to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established...' This legislation also required the creation of a long-term monitoring and research program to provide information that could inform decisions related to dam operations and protection of downstream resources.

  1. Standardized methods for Grand Canyon fisheries research 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, William R.; Ward, David L.; Avery, Luke A.

    2013-01-01

    This document presents protocols and guidelines to persons sampling fishes in the Grand Canyon, to help ensure consistency in fish handling, fish tagging, and data collection among different projects and organizations. Most such research and monitoring projects are conducted under the general umbrella of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program and include studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), National Park Service (NPS), the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD), various universities, and private contractors. This document is intended to provide guidance to fieldworkers regarding protocols that may vary from year to year depending on specific projects and objectives. We also provide herein documentation of standard methods used in the Grand Canyon that can be cited in scientific publications, as well as a summary of changes in protocols since the document was first created in 2002.

  2. Identification and evaluation of scientific uncertainties related to fish and aquatic resources in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon - summary and interpretation of an expert-elicitation questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying areas of scientific uncertainty is a critical step in the adaptive management process (Walters, 1986; Runge, Converse, and Lyons, 2011). To identify key areas of scientific uncertainty regarding biologic resources of importance to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) convened Knowledge Assessment Workshops in May and July 2005. One of the products of these workshops was a set of strategic science questions that highlighted key areas of scientific uncertainty. These questions were intended to frame and guide the research and monitoring activities conducted by the GCMRC in subsequent years. Questions were developed collaboratively by scientists and managers. The questions were not all of equal importance or merit—some questions were large scale and others were small scale. Nevertheless, these questions were adopted and have guided the research and monitoring efforts conducted by the GCMRC since 2005. A new round of Knowledge Assessment Workshops was convened by the GCMRC in June and October 2011 and January 2012 to determine whether the research and monitoring activities conducted since 2005 had successfully answered some of the strategic science questions. Oral presentations by scientists highlighting research findings were a centerpiece of all three of the 2011–12 workshops. Each presenter was also asked to provide an answer to the strategic science questions that were specific to the presenter’s research area. One limitation of this approach is that these answers represented the views of the handful of scientists who developed the presentations, and, as such, they did not incorporate other perspectives. Thus, the answers provided by presenters at the Knowledge Assessment Workshops may not have accurately captured the sentiments of the broader group of scientists involved in research and monitoring of the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Yet a fundamental ingredient of

  3. Submarine canyons as coral and sponge habitat on the eastern Bering Sea slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Miller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Submarine canyons have been shown to positively influence pelagic and benthic biodiversity and ecosystem function. In the eastern Bering Sea, several immense canyons lie under the highly productive “green belt” along the continental slope. Two of these, Pribilof and Zhemchug canyons, are the focus of current conservation interest. We used a maximum entropy modeling approach to evaluate the importance of these two canyons, as well as canyons in general, as habitat for gorgonian (alcyonacean corals, pennatulacean corals, and sponges, in an area comprising most of the eastern Bering Sea slope and outer shelf. These invertebrates create physical structure that is a preferred habitat for many mobile species, including commercially important fish and invertebrates. We show that Pribilof canyon is a hotspot of structure-forming invertebrate habitat, containing over 50% of estimated high-quality gorgonian habitat and 45% of sponge habitat, despite making up only 1.7% of the total study area. The amount of quality habitat for gorgonians and sponges varied in other canyons, but canyons overall contained more high-quality habitat for structure-forming invertebrates compared to other slope areas. Bottom trawling effort was not well correlated with habitat quality for structure-forming invertebrates, and bottom-contact fishing effort in general, including longlining and trawling, was not particularly concentrated in the canyons examined. These results suggest that if conserving gorgonian coral habitat is a management goal, canyons, particularly Pribilof Canyon, may be a prime location to do this without excessive impact on fisheries.

  4. EL ENTORNO INTERNACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Romero

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available La división internacional del trabajo experimentó cambios trascendentales en su estructura durante el siglo XX, jalonados por impresionantes avances tecnológicos durante las décadas que siguieron a la segunda guerra mundial. El mapa político surgido de la conflagración mundial condujo a la conformación de dos campos antagónicos: el socialista y el capitalista, los cuales ejercieron gran influencia en el avance del conocimiento. Con el derrumbe del sistema socialista la economía de mercado salió fortalecida, intensificándose el proceso de globalización a nivel planetario, sin que ello condujese a disminuir la brecha entre un pequeño grupo de potencias tecnológicamente desarrolladas y la mayoría de países del mundo. En este sentido, el entorno internacional sigue caracterizándose por la participación desigual de los diferentes grupos de países en los principales indicadores de la economía mundial, especialmente en aquellos relacionados con las tecnologías de punta, lo cual ha impedido disminuir el atraso socioeconómico en los llamados países en desarrollo. Igualmente, el modelo consumista adoptado por las naciones desarrolladas ha dado como resultado el creciente deterioro del medio ambiente y el agotamiento de los recursos naturales, poniendo en peligro la calidad de vida de las futuras generaciones.

  5. Derechos Humanos y Derecho Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Salcedo, Juan Antonio

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    La aparición de un nuevo consenso internacional en torno a las nociones de derechos humanos y democracia, como valores generalmente aceptados por la comunidad de naciones en su conjunto, y la afirmación de que el ser humano es titular de derechos propios, oponibles jurídicamente a todos los Estados, constituyen extraordinarias innovaciones que hacen que, a diferencia del Derecho internacional clásico, la persona no pueda seguir siendo considerada como un mero objeto del Derecho internacional.

  6. Flow in bedrock canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Jeremy G; Rennie, Colin D; Bomhof, James; Bradley, Ryan W; Little, Malcolm; Church, Michael

    2014-09-25

    Bedrock erosion in rivers sets the pace of landscape evolution, influences the evolution of orogens and determines the size, shape and relief of mountains. A variety of models link fluid flow and sediment transport processes to bedrock incision in canyons. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are increasingly well developed. In contrast, the model components being used to represent fluid flow are largely untested because there are no observations of the flow structure in bedrock canyons. Here we present a 524-kilometre, continuous centreline, acoustic Doppler current profiler survey of the Fraser Canyon in western Canada, which includes 42 individual bedrock canyons. Our observations of three-dimensional flow structure reveal that, as water enters the canyons, a high-velocity core follows the bed surface, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities near the bed and low velocities at the surface). The plunging water then upwells along the canyon walls, resulting in counter-rotating, along-stream coherent flow structures that diverge near the bed. The resulting flow structure promotes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor and undercutting of the canyon walls. This provides a mechanism for channel widening and ensures that the base of the walls is swept clear of the debris that is often deposited there, keeping the walls nearly vertical. These observations reveal that the flow structure in bedrock canyons is more complex than assumed in the models presently used. Fluid flow models that capture the essence of the three-dimensional flow field, using simple phenomenological rules that are computationally tractable, are required to capture the dynamic coupling between flow, bedrock erosion and solid-Earth dynamics.

  7. A sand budget for Marble Canyon, Arizona: implications for long-term monitoring of sand storage change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent U.S. Geological Survey research is providing important insights into how best to monitor changes in the amount of tributary-derived sand stored on the bed of the Colorado River and in eddies in Marble Canyon, Arizona. Before the construction of Glen Canyon Dam and other dams upstream, sandbars in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons were replenished each year by sediment-rich floods. Sand input into the Colorado River is crucial to protecting endangered native fish, animals, and plants and cultural and recreational resources along the river in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park.

  8. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon building so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered

  9. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-05-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon buildings so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered. (U.S.)

  10. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, M.-C.; Pedel, L.; Beuck, L.; Galgani, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in 2009 (Aamp/Comex). Qualitative information was extracted from four other cruises (two Marum/Comex cruises in 2009 and 2011 and two Ifremer cruises in 1995 and 2010) to support the previous observations in the Cassidaigne and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons. All the species, fishing impacts and litter recognized in the video films recorded from 180 to 700 m depth were mapped using GIS. The abundances and distributions of benthic fishing resources (marketable fishes, Aristeidae, Octopodidae), Vulnerable Marine Species, trawling scars and litter of 17 canyons were calculated and compared, as was the open slope between the Stoechades and Toulon canyons. Funiculina quadrangularis was rarely observed, being confined for the most part to the Marti canyon and, I. elongata was abundant in three canyons (Bourcart, Marti, Petit-Rhône). These two cnidarians were encountered in relatively low abundances, and it may be that they have been swept away by repeated trawling. The Lacaze-Duthiers and Cassidaigne canyons comprised the highest densities and largest colony sizes of scleractinian cold-water corals, whose distribution was mapped in detail. These colonies were often seen to be entangled in fishing lines. The alcyonacean Callogorgia verticillata was observed to be highly abundant in the Bourcart canyon and less abundant in several other canyons. This alcyonacean was also severely affected by bottom fishing gears and is proposed as a Vulnerable Marine Species. Our studies on anthropogenic

  11. Submarine canyons represent an essential habitat network for krill hotspots in a Large Marine Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A; Zeno, Ramona; Dorman, Jeffrey G; Sydeman, William J

    2018-05-15

    Submarine canyon systems are ubiquitous features of marine ecosystems, known to support high levels of biodiversity. Canyons may be important to benthic-pelagic ecosystem coupling, but their role in concentrating plankton and structuring pelagic communities is not well known. We hypothesize that at the scale of a large marine ecosystem, canyons provide a critical habitat network, which maintain energy flow and trophic interactions. We evaluate canyon characteristics relative to the distribution and abundance of krill, critically important prey in the California Current Ecosystem. Using a geological database, we conducted a census of canyon locations, evaluated their dimensions, and quantified functional relationships with krill hotspots (i.e., sites of persistently elevated abundance) derived from hydro-acoustic surveys. We found that 76% of krill hotspots occurred within and adjacent to canyons. Most krill hotspots were associated with large shelf-incising canyons. Krill hotspots and canyon dimensions displayed similar coherence as a function of latitude and indicate a potential regional habitat network. The latitudinal migration of many fish, seabirds and mammals may be enhanced by using this canyon-krill network to maintain foraging opportunities. Biogeographic assessments and predictions of krill and krill-predator distributions under climate change may be improved by accounting for canyons in habitat models.

  12. Fourmile Canyon Fire Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Graham; Mark Finney; Chuck McHugh; Jack Cohen; Dave Calkin; Rick Stratton; Larry Bradshaw; Ned Nikolov

    2012-01-01

    The Fourmile Canyon Fire burned in the fall of 2010 in the Rocky Mountain Front Range adjacent to Boulder, Colorado. The fire occurred in steep, rugged terrain, primarily on privately owned mixed ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests. The fire started on September 6 when the humidity of the air was very dry (¡Ö

  13. Canyons off northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.D.; Glover, L.K.; Hollister, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear-Research Submarine NR-1 was used to study morphoplogy, sediment, and sediment-water interactions off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. New detailed bathymetry from the surface-support ship, USS Portland, shows several submarine canyons in the area, some of them unreported previously. The north coast canyons, Arecibo, Tiberones and Quebradillas, are primarily erosional features although no recent turbidity-current evidence is seen. The canyons are presently filling with river-transported sediments. (orig./ME)

  14. The Whittard Canyon - A case study of submarine canyon processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Allcock, A. L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J. S.; Danovaro, R.; De Stigter, H. C.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A. J.; Gunton, L. M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K. L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C. E.; Lavaleye, M. S. S.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Submarine canyons are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many canyons do host diverse faunal communities but owing to our lack of understanding of the processes shaping and driving this diversity, appropriate management strategies have yet to be developed. Here, we integrate all the current knowledge of one single system, the Whittard Canyon (Celtic Margin, NE Atlantic), including the latest research on its geology, sedimentology, geomorphology, oceanography, ecology, and biodiversity in order to address this issue. The Whittard Canyon is an active system in terms of sediment transport. The net suspended sediment transport is mainly up-canyon causing sedimentary overflow in some upper canyon areas. Occasionally sediment gravity flow events do occur, some possibly the result of anthropogenic activity. However, the role of these intermittent gravity flows in transferring labile organic matter to the deeper regions of the canyon appears to be limited. More likely, any labile organic matter flushed downslope in this way becomes strongly diluted with bulk material and is therefore of little food value for benthic fauna. Instead, the fresh organic matter found in the Whittard Channel mainly arrives through vertical deposition and lateral transport of phytoplankton blooms that occur in the area during spring and summer. The response of the Whittard Canyon fauna to these processes is different in different groups. Foraminiferal abundances are higher in the upper parts of the canyon and on the slope than in the lower canyon. Meiofaunal abundances in the upper and middle part of the canyon are higher than on adjacent slopes, but lower in the deepest part. Mega- and macrofauna abundances are higher in the canyon compared with the adjacent slope and are higher in the eastern than

  15. Mercadotecnia internacional: instrumento para el comercio global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Guadalupe Ramírez Moreno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tiene por objeto analizar la mercadotecnia internacional y sus contribuciones al comercio internacional. En muchas empresas toman la decisión de expandir su producción hacia otro u otros países. Así mismo sin embargo hay factores que se deben de tomar en cuenta antes de competir en un mercado hacia el extranjero. Todos los temas referentes del marketing internacional se han expandido en su ámbito internacional.

  16. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  17. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  18. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  19. 236-Z canyon utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The 236-Z canyon contains equipment for repurification of plutonium and recovery of plutonium from scrap material. To meet production requirements of Fast Flux Test Facility/Clinch River Breeder Reactor oxide with the existing plant, several new pieces of equipment will be needed in the future. More storage space and a better accountability system are needed to support this increased production. The available canyon space needs to be utilized to its fullest in order to accommodate the new equipment. The purpose of this document is to identify the new pieces of equipment, show how they fit into the flowsheet, and locate them in the canyon

  20. 2010 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Diablo Canyon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Diablo Canyon (2010), and San...

  1. La protección internacional del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Franch, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    PowerPoint del Tema 14 de la asignatura "Derecho Internacional Público". Curso 2017-18. Tema 14. La protección internacional del medio ambiente: 1.- El Derecho Internacional del Medio Ambiente: caracteres específicos. 2.- Principios fundamentales del Derecho Internacional del Medio Ambiente. 3.- Medio ambiente y Desarrollo: el Desarrollo Sostenible.

  2. Mineral resources of the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon Emery, and Grand counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashion, W.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Kelley, K.D.; Kulik, D.M.; McDonnell, J.R.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation Canyon Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle Canyon Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy Canyon Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and in the western part of the Floy Canyon area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation Canyon area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy Canyon area and the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas

  3. Formative flow in bedrock canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, J. G.; Kwoll, E.; Rennie, C. D.; Church, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In alluvial channels, it is widely accepted that river channel configuration is set by a formative flow that represents a balance between the magnitude and frequency of flood flows. The formative flow is often considered to be one that is just capable of filling a river channel to the top of its banks. Flows much above this formative flow are thought to cause substantial sediment transport and rearrange the channel morphology to accommodate the larger flow. This idea has recently been extended to semi-alluvial channels where it has been shown that even with bedrock exposed, the flows rarely exceed that required to entrain the local sediment cover. What constitutes a formative flow in a bedrock canyon is not clear. By definition, canyons have rock walls and are typically incised vertically, removing the possibility of the walls being overtopped, as can occur in an alluvial channel at high flows. Canyons are laterally constrained, have deep scour pools and often have width to maximum depth ratios approaching 1, an order of magnitude lower than alluvial channels. In many canyons, there are a sequence of irregularly spaced scour pools. The bed may have intermittent or seasonal sediment cover, but during flood flows the sediment bed is entrained leaving a bare bedrock channel. It has been suggested that canyons cut into weak, well-jointed rock may adjust their morphology to the threshold for block plucking because the rock bed is labile during exceptionally large magnitude flows. However, this hypothesis does not apply to canyons cut into massive crystalline rock where abrasion is the dominant erosion process. Here, we argue that bedrock canyon morphology is adjusted to a characteristic flow structure developed in bedrock canyons. We show that the deeply scoured canyon floor is adjusted to a velocity inversion that is present at low flows, but gets stronger at high flows. The effect is to increase boundary shear stresses along the scour pool that forms in constricted

  4. Radionuclides at the Hudson Canyon disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Nevissi, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    A sampling and analytical program was initiated in June 1978 to measure radionuclides in water, sediments, and biota collected at the deepwater (4000 m) radioactive waste disposal site at the mouth of the Hudson Canyon 350km off New York Harbor in the western Atlantic Ocean. Plutonium, americium, cesium, strontium, and uranium series isotopes were measured in selected samples; the /sup 210/Pb data were used to give sedimentation and mixing rates in the upper sediment layers. The results showed that /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, and /sup 238/Pu were found at low concentrations in the skin, viscera, and stomach contents for some of the fish collected. Significant concentrations of /sup 241/Am were found in tissues of the common rattail Coryphaenoides (Macrouridae) collected at the disposal site, suggesting a local source for this radionuclide and biological accumulation. The edible muscle of this fish contained less than 2.6 x 10/sup -5/ Bq g/sup -1/ (dry wt) of /sup 239,240/Pu. Radionuclides measured in sediment-core profiles showed that mixing occurred to depths of 16 cm and that variable sedimentation or mixing rates, or both, exist at 4000 m deep. Radionuclide deposition near the canisters was not found to be significantly higher than the expected fallout levels at 4000 m deep. At the mouth of the Hudson Canyon variable sedimentation and mixing rates were found using the natural unsupported /sup 210/Pb tracer values; these variable rates were attributed to sediment transport by the currents and to bioturbation

  5. Transferencia internacional de datos sanitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ascensión Martín Huertas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los datos genéticos, como las muestras que los contienen, si están identificados o son identificables (codificados o disociados de forma reversible se consideran datos de carácter personal que por afectar a la salud del individuo tienen, además, la categoría de sensibles. Esta última nota impone que haya que garantizarles un Nivel de Seguridad Alto por lo que han de cumplir todos los requisitos que legalmente se establecen, entre otras cuestiones, cuando son objeto de una Transferencia Internacional. La finalidad perseguida por la regulación sobre Transferencias Internacional de Datos (TID es evitar la vulneración del derecho a la protección de datos una vez transferidos a terceros países. En el presente análisis se estudia dicha cuestión tal y como se contempla en el ordenamiento jurídico español. En su mecánica de actuación se parte de un principio general: la transferencia de datos personales de un Estado a un tercer país sólo podrá efectuarse cuando éste garantice un nivel de protección adecuado; o bien, cuando preste las garantías adecuadas que aseguren la protección de los datos personales. Fuera de estas hipótesis el resto de transferencias requieren la autorización del Director de la Agencia Española de Protección de Datos. Finalmente, hay que tener en cuenta que se ha elaborado una propuesta de Reglamento por parte del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo relativo a la protección de las personas físicas en lo que respecta al tratamiento de datos personales y a la libre circulación de estos datos que va a suponer, cuando entre en vigor, una adaptación de toda esta normativa a la era digital y, por ello, implicará, sin lugar a dudas, una mayor operatividad de las TID.

  6. Derecho internacional privado y Derecho comunitario

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Rozas, José Carlos

    1990-01-01

    Las Comunidades Europeas en el proceso de formación del Derecho internacional privado: un nuevo modelo de codificación. Ventajas de una interpretación uniforme por parte del TJCE. Realizaciones concretas y problemas suscitados en España tras su adhesión a las Comunidades Europeas. Las técnicas de Derecho internacional privado en la aplicación del Derecho comunitario.

  7. Diablo Canyon ECCS enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.; Lee, T.P.; Walter, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG and E) is a Westinghouse designed four loop plant. In recent years, several issues were identified regarding the compliance of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) surveillance tests to the ECCS analyses assumptions. These concerns are related mostly to the High Head Safety Injection (HHSI) and the Intermediate Head Safety Injection (IHSI) systems where the injection line throttle valves are adjusted during outage surveillance testing to ensure compliance with the Technical Specifications (TS). To resolve all of the identified issues PG and E performed an ECCS reanalysis and upgraded the ECCS surveillance test program and also had Westinghouse perform a containment reanalysis using their latest model. As a result of these plant specific enhancement efforts, DCPP widened the operating window for TS surveillance testing, lowered the ECCS pumps' acceptance performance curves, and re-gained Peak Clad Temperature (PCT) and containment peak pressure margins. These enhancements are generically applicable to other plants and are addressed in this paper. (author)

  8. Deepwater Canyons 2013: Pathways to the Abyss

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Leg I focused on biological objectives in Norfolk Canyon, with some sampling in Baltimore Canyon. Leg II focused on archaeological targets in and around the Norfolk...

  9. 78 FR 48670 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Canyon Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The... INFORMATION: Hoover Dam, authorized by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits...

  10. 77 FR 48151 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Canyon Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The... INFORMATION: Hoover Dam, authorized by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits...

  11. Nacimiento de la sanidad internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bta Mateos Jiménez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Iniciados los avances de la Revolución Industrial, en pleno siglo XIX, las graves y grandes epidemias de enfermedades pestilenciales (peste bubónica, fiebre amarilla y cólera asiático, continuaban imponiéndose libremente, ya que muchos países no disponían de leyes preventivas alguna, o se aplicaban de forma anárquica; cuando al mismo tiempo no se impartía la mas simple información sobre la situación sanitaria a otros Estados vecinos, favoreciéndose en esta manera la extensión de la epidemia. Por todo ello, en la mayoría de las Naciones existía un deseo casi ansioso de encontrar una fórmula aceptable que acabase con el desconcierto y la ignorancia de las múltiples y variadas normas que reinaban en cada país, incluso en cada puerto, respecto al trato preventivo- sanitario a imponer a buques, pasajeros y mercancías, lo cual significaba un verdadero y deprimente desconcierto para el comercio y para los viajeros. Tras variados intentos fracasados el Gobierno francés consiguió poner en marcha un plan que fue en general bastante bien acogido y que constituiría la base de la Primera Conferencia Sanitaria Internacional, inaugurada el 23 de Julio de 1851 en París, tras cursar una invitación, para su participación, a todas las Naciones con intereses marítimos en el Mediterráneo.

  12. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  13. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  14. La Corte Penal Internacional: abriendo caminos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Etcheberry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del análisis de las decisiones de la Corte Penal Internacional en el Caso Lubanga y la solicitud del Fiscal de detener al Presidente en ejercicio de Sudán, los autores analizan los desafíos y perspectivas del trabajo de la Corte Penal Internacional, particularmente en lo relativo a cómo se ha configurado su labor después de una etapa inicial dedicada a esclarecer su rol y constitución.

  15. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  16. Legalidad internacional y derecho a decidir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Pons Rafols

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto del actual debate político en Cataluña sobre el derecho a decidir, el autor intenta clarificar en términos jurídicos que alcance tiene la expresión derecho a decidir y trata de identificar qué es lo que puede ampararse y con qué alcance en el Derecho Internacional. A tal efecto, analiza los principios y normas del Derecho Internacional que pueden resultar pertinentes en este contexto: de un lado, el principio de la libre determinación y, en especial, la dimensión interna de este principio; y, de otro lado, los derechos humanos, la democracia y el estado de derecho, que constituyen en el Derecho Internacional una tríada inescindible. El autor considera que en el Derecho Internacional actual está reconocido que la voluntad del pueblo es la base de la autoridad del poder político y que todas las pretensiones políticas deben fundamentarse en el estado de derecho, la base sobre la que se construyen sociedades justas y equitativas

  17. Megabenthic assemblages at the Hudson Canyon head (NW Atlantic margin): Habitat-faunal relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdomenico, Martina; Gori, Andrea; Guida, Vincent G.; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2017-09-01

    . Such results are of particular significance in light of the recent action promoted by the Mid-Atlantic Fisheries Management Council, that restricts bottom trawling in most of the submarine canyons of the US Atlantic margin, including the Hudson Canyon, to protect cold-water corals from damage by fishing gear.

  18. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulley, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  19. Responsabilidad internacional del individuo y responsabilidad internacional del Estado: Encuentros y desencuentros en torno a la figura de los `crímenes de derecho internacional´

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchón Álvarez, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Lo que nos va a ocupar en la presente contribución es la necesidad de una clara distinción entre lo propio de la responsabilidad internacional del Estado y lo relativo a la responsabilidad internacional del individuo; en un ámbito singular como es el de los conocidos como "crímenes de derecho internacional". Cuestión que, a nadie escapa, tiene unas implicaciones esenciales para no naufragar en los procelosos mares del Derecho internacional contemporáneo

  20. La migracion internacional en Argentina hacia 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Calvelo

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los principales lineamientos de la migración internacional en Argentina hacia el año 2010, con detenimiento en el período 2000-2010. En el caso de la inmigración no nativa se basa en información de los censos nacionales de población 2001 y 2010. En el caso de la migración internacional de la población nativa de Argentina el análisis se sustenta en información de censos extranjeros hasta la ronda 2000 y en otras fuentes de datos de los principales países de destino hasta 2010 (Estados Unidos y España.

  1. Una perspectiva internacional de la contabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucia Suarez Suarez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la medida en que la internacionalización empresarial ha ido intensificándose y va surgiendo un nuevo usuario de la información internacional, la problemática ha ido pasando tanto al ámbito académico como al profesional. Consciente de esta realidad, la Facultad de Contaduría Pública de la Universidad de La Salle ha ido reformando el plan de estudios, e incorporando a los profesores a una visión internacional de la profesión, para atender la demanda formativa en este campo de la Contaduría Pública, para cualificar a los profesionales de la empresa en el escenario que la nueva dimensión internacional de la información contable está creando y necesitando. Uno de los principales objetivos de la contabilidad es proporcionar información útil para la toma de decisiones por parte de los usuarios. Esto adquiere mayor relevancia en la utilización de la información contable, la cual no se ciñe al ámbito nacional, sino que va más allá de las fronteras; la evolución del entorno que rodea a la empresa ha propiciado en los últimos años un proceso de internacionalización de la actividad económica, como consecuencia de la información contable.

  2. Sociedades fantasma y Derecho Internacional Privado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Carrascosa González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las conocidas como "sociedades fantasma" son una realidad en el escenario de la economía mundial del siglo XXI. Se trata de entes jurídicos constituidos en ciertos Estados, en los que poseen su sede social, pero en los que no realizan actividad económica o societaria alguna. El presente estudio analiza el régimen jurídico de estas sociedades fantasma en Derecho internacional privado europeo y español. Se aborda la cuestión de la determinación de la Ley reguladora de las sociedades fantasma, la reacción legal contra las pseudo-foreign corporations, la libertad de establecimiento de sociedades fantasma en la UE y la responsabilidad patrimonial de estas sociedades y de sus administradores, en especial, cuando se emplean testaferros. Por último, se presta una especial atención a régimen jurídico de la insolvencia internacional de la sociedad fantasma, lo que comporta el análisis del "centro de intereses principales" de la sociedad fantasma como deudor insolvente, así como del traslado internacional de la sede social de la sociedad fantasma

  3. Macrofaunal Patterns in and around du Couedic and Bonney Submarine Canyons, South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E Conlan

    Full Text Available Two South Australian canyons, one shelf-incising (du Couedic and one slope-limited (Bonney were compared for macrofaunal patterns on the shelf and slope that spanned three water masses. It was hypothesized that community structure would (H1 significantly differ by water mass, (H2 show significant regional differences and (H3 differ significantly between interior and exterior of each canyon. Five hundred and thirty-one species of macrofauna ≥ 1 mm were captured at 27 stations situated in depth stratified transects inside and outside the canyons from 100 to 1500 m depth. The macrofauna showed a positive relationship to depth in abundance, biomass, species richness and community composition while taxonomic distinctness and evenness remained high at all depths. Biotic variation on the shelf was best defined by variation in bottom water primary production while sediment characteristics and bottom water oxygen, temperature and nutrients defined biotic variation at greater depth. Community structure differed significantly (p<0.01 among the three water masses (shelf-flowing South Australian current, upper slope Flinders current and lower slope Antarctic Intermediate Water (H1. Although community differences between the du Couedic and Bonney regions were marginally above significance at p = 0.05 (H2, over half of the species captured were unique to each region. This supports the evidence from fish and megafaunal distributions that the du Couedic and Bonney areas are in different bioregions. Overall, the canyon interiors were not significantly different in community composition from the exterior (H3. However, both canyons had higher abundance and/or biomass, increased species dominance, different species composition and coarser sediments near the canyon heads compared to outside the canyons at the same depth (500 m, suggestive of heightened currents within the canyons that influence community composition there. At 1000-1500 m, the canyon interiors were

  4. 78 FR 7775 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area...), is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) electric service base charge and rates... subsequent laws, particularly section 9(c) of the Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)); and...

  5. 77 FR 2533 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area...), is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) electric service base charge and rates...) of the Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)); and other acts that specifically apply to...

  6. 76 FR 56430 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The Rates will... by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits on the Colorado River...

  7. 76 FR 8359 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP... Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)), and other acts that specifically apply to the project...

  8. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  9. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  10. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization

  11. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization

  12. Bell Canyon test summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Peterson, E.W.

    1981-04-01

    The Bell Canyon Test was an in situ evaluation of the ability of a cement grout plug to seal boreholes. It consisted of a 2-m-long, 20-cm-diameter grout plug in an anhydrite formation at a depth of 1370 m, directly above an aquifer that provided a 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) differential pressure. The aquifer had a production capability of 38,000 l/day (240 bbl/day, 10 4 gal/day). The observed leakage after plug installation was 0.6 l/day, which is equivalent to a 50 microdarcy flow path assuming all flow occurred through the plug cross-sectional area. Laboratory results and analysis of field data indicate that the bulk of the flow occurred through a microstructure at the interface between the plug and the host rock. The Bell Canyon Test demonstrated that a plug could be formulated, emplaced, and tested under actual conditions and provide acceptable performance. When these results are related to the WIPP performance assessment models, they provide additional confidence that borehole plugging can be accomplished satisfactorily. The Bell Canyon results can also be used as basis for future activities in the generic repository sealing program for similar emplacements and performance assessment evaluations. If the observed leakage rates are not acceptable at other sites, the BCT results would indicate that the first step in improving such emplacements should deal with improved bonding of the plug to the rock at these sites. The results obtained from the BCT, when coupled with results from long-term durability assessments, form a plug performance data basis for repository designers at other proposed waste repository sites

  13. H-Canyon Recovery Crawler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hera, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marzolf, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Phillips, M. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    The Nuclear Material Disposition Project group asked the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) department to help procure, test, and deploy a remote crawler to recover the 2014 Inspection Crawler (IC) that tipped over in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. R&DE wrote a Procurement Specification for a Recovery Crawler (RC) and SRNS Procurement Department awarded the contract to Power Equipment Manufacturing Inc. (PEM). The PEM RC was based on their standard sewer inspection crawler with custom arms and forks added to the front. The arms and forks would be used to upright the 2014 Inspection Crawler. PEM delivered the RC and associated cable reel, 2014 Inspection Crawler mockup, and manuals in late April 2015. R&DE and the team tested the crawler in May of 2015 and made modifications based on test results and Savannah River Site (SRS) requirements. R&DE delivered the RC to H-Area at the end of May. The team deployed the RC on June 9, 10, and 11, 2015 in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. The RC struggled with some obstacles in the tunnel, but eventually made it to the IC. The team spent approximately five hours working to upright the IC and eventually got it on its wheels. The IC travelled approximately 20 feet and struggled to drive over debris on the air tunnel floor. Unfortunately the IC tripped over trying to pass this obstacle. The team decided to leave the IC in this location and inspect the tunnel with the RC. The RC passed the IC and inspected the tunnel as it travelled toward H-Canyon. The team turned the RC around when it was about 20 feet from the H-Canyon crossover tunnel. From that point, the team drove the RC past the manway towards the new sand filter and stopped approximately 20 feet from the new sand filter. The team removed the RC from the tunnel, decontaminated the RC, and stored it the manway building, 294-2H. The RC deployment confirmed the IC was not in a condition to perform useful tunnel inspections and

  14. Environmental assessment overview, Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs

  15. Mercury and selenium accumulation in the Colorado River food web, Grand Canyon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David M.; E.J. Rosi-Marshall,; Kennedy, Theodore A.; W.F. Cross,; C.V. Baxter,

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) biomagnify in aquatic food webs and are toxic to fish and wildlife. The authors measured Hg and Se in organic matter, invertebrates, and fishes in the Colorado River food web at sites spanning 387 river km downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (AZ, USA). Concentrations were relatively high among sites compared with other large rivers (mean wet wt for 6 fishes was 0.17–1.59 μg g–1 Hg and 1.35–2.65 μg g–1 Se), but consistent longitudinal patterns in Hg or Se concentrations relative to the dam were lacking. Mercury increased (slope = 0.147) with δ15N, a metric of trophic position, indicating biomagnification similar to that observed in other freshwater systems. Organisms regularly exceeded exposure risk thresholds for wildlife and humans (6–100% and 56–100% of samples for Hg and Se, respectfully, among risk thresholds). In the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Hg and Se concentrations pose exposure risks for fish, wildlife, and humans, and the findings of the present study add to a growing body of evidence showing that remote ecosystems are vulnerable to long-range transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants. Management of exposure risks in Grand Canyon will remain a challenge, as sources and transport mechanisms of Hg and Se extend far beyond park boundaries. Environ Toxicol Chem2015;9999:1–10

  16. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.

  17. Carbon transport in Monterey Submarine Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J.; Paull, C. K.; Xu, J. P.; Clare, M. A.; Gales, J. A.; Buck, K. R.; Lovera, C.; Gwiazda, R.; Maier, K. L.; McGann, M.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are important conduits for sediment transport from continental margins to the abyss, but the rate, volume, and time scales of material transport have been measured only rarely. Using moorings with current meters, sediment traps (10 m above bottom) and optical backscatter sensors, we measured near-bottom currents, suspended sediment concentrations, and sediment properties at 1300 m depth in Monterey Canyon and at a non-canyon location on the continental slope at the same depth. Flow and water column backscatter were used to characterize "ambient" conditions when tidal currents dominated the flow field, and occasional "sediment transport events" when anomalously high down-canyon flow with sediment-laden waters arrived at the canyon mooring. The ambient sediment flux measured in sediment traps in Monterey Canyon was 350 times greater than measured at the non-canyon location. Although the organic carbon content of the canyon sediment flux during ambient periods was low (1.8 %C) compared to the slope location (4.9 %C), the ambient carbon transport in the canyon was 130 times greater than at the non-canyon site. Material fluxes during sediment transport events were difficult to measure owing to clogging of sediment traps, but minimal estimates indicate that mass transport during events exceeds ambient sediment fluxes through the canyon by nearly 3 orders of magnitude, while carbon transport is 380 times greater. Estimates of the instantaneous and cumulative flux of sediment and carbon from currents, backscatter, and sediment properties indicated that: 1) net flux is down-canyon, 2) flux is dominated by sediment transport events, and 3) organic carbon flux through 1300 m in Monterey Canyon was ca. 1500 MT C per year. The injection of 1500 MTCy-1 into the deep-sea represents ca. 260 km2 of the sediment C flux measured at the continental slope station (5.8 gCm-2y-1) and is sufficient to support a benthic community carbon demand of 5 gCm-2y-1 over 300 km2.

  18. El concepto de terrorismo en derecho internacional penal

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés Tomàs, Clàudia

    2017-01-01

    Este trabajo consiste en el estudio de la incidencia del concepto de terrorismo en la represión efectiva del delito de terrorismo en el marco del derecho internacional. Por ello, ha sido necesario dividir el trabajo en una primera parte sobre el estudio de la definición del terrorismo en derecho penal internacional y una segunda parte sobre su estudio en derecho internacional penal, específicamente en el contexto de la Corte Penal Internacional (CPI). En la primera parte analizaremos las def...

  19. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area lies within Monterey Bay in central California. Monterey Bay is one of the largest embayments along the west coast of the United States, spanning 36 km from its northern to southern tips (in Santa Cruz and Monterey, respectively) and 20 km along its central axis. Not only does it contain one of the broadest sections of continental shelf along California’s coast, it also contains Monterey Canyon, one of the largest and deepest submarine canyons in the world. Note that the California’s State Waters limit extends farther offshore between Santa Cruz and Monterey so that it encompasses all of Monterey Bay.The coastal area within the map area is lightly populated. The community of Moss Landing (population, 204) hosts the largest commercial fishing fleet in Monterey Bay in its harbor. The map area also includes parts of the cities of Marina (population, about 20,000) and Castroville (population, about 6,500). Fertile lowlands of the Salinas River and Pajaro River valleys largely occupy the inland part of the map area, and land use is primarily agricultural.The offshore part of the map area lies completely within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The

  20. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  1. LAS ACTUALES REGLAS DE LA COMPETITIVIDAD INTERNACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Daniel Paz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo nace de una preocupación profunda por las acciones desplegadas por los países latinoamericanos en las pasadas dos décadas, asociadas a la integración al circuito global de intercambios. La confianza en que el comercio y la vinculación internacional procuraría el umbral máximo de bienestar a sus poblaciones, impulsó reformas estructurales que desmantelarían el carácter autárquico de sus aparatos productivos; proceso que caló profundamente en Argentina. Pero en este camino, en mayor o menor medida, las economías latinoamericanas no lograron un crecimiento económico sostenido, a pesar de haber recreado sus capacidades productivas y practicado su reestructuración política, salvo algunas economías regionales, o el dinamismo que exhibieron algunas ciudades y comunidades locales. El presente trabajo está dirigido a explorar los elementos que deben ser atendidos a partir de la caracterización del esquema global de producción e intercambio, el cual destaca la relevancia de la actuación de las políticas públicas y la gestión de las ciudades y regiones, espacios dinámicos de la economía global. La búsqueda de competitividad en las ciudades y regiones, como una exigencia de la actual agenda pública, deberá guiar los esfuerzos, por un lado, hacia el desarrollo de competencias en los ambientes locales, y por el otro, al fomento de las exportaciones para ganar competitividad internacional. Se hace presente la relevancia de atender a la construcción de la marca de sus productos, como herramientas para la proyección internacional, y el impulso de las ventas en los mercados externos.

  2. Comercio Internacional y Medio Ambiente en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rincón, Mario Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX A portada: Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Ambientales, Opción Economía Ecológica y Gestión Ambiental A portada: Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA) Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Desde la perspectiva de la Economía Ecológica, el Comercio Internacional no es un juego de suma positiva donde todos los participantes resultan ganadores por el intercambio comercial, sino que es un juego de suma cero, donde hay beneficiados y perjudic...

  3. Street canyon aerosol pollutant transport measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, I D; Gallagher, M W; Dorsey, J R; Flynn, M; Bower, K N; Allan, J D

    2004-12-01

    Current understanding of dispersion in street canyons is largely derived from relatively simple dispersion models. Such models are increasingly used in planning and regulation capacities but are based upon a limited understanding of the transport of substances within a real canyon. In recent years, some efforts have been made to numerically model localised flow in idealised canyons (e.g., J. Appl. Meteorol. 38 (1999) 1576-89) and stepped canyons (Assimakopoulos V. Numerical modelling of dispersion of atmospheric pollution in and above urban canopies. PhD thesis, Imperial College, London, 2001) but field studies in real canyons are rare. To further such an understanding, a measurement campaign has been conducted in an asymmetric street canyon with busy one-way traffic in central Manchester in northern England. The eddy correlation method was used to determine fluxes of size-segregated accumulation mode aerosol. Measurements of aerosol at a static location were made concurrently with measurements on a platform lift giving vertical profiles. Size-segregated measurements of ultrafine and coarse particle concentrations were also made simultaneously at various heights. In addition, a small mobile system was used to make measurements of turbulence at various pavement locations within the canyon. From this data, various features of turbulent transport and dispersion in the canyon will be presented. The concentration and the ventilation fluxes of vehicle-related aerosol pollutants from the canyon will be related to controlling factors. The results will also be compared with citywide ventilation data from a separate measurement campaign conducted above the urban canopy.

  4. Diablo Canyon refueling outage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, W.B.; Irving, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Management of outages has become one of the most talked about subjects in the nuclear power industry in the past several years. Many utilities do not perform refueling outages very well or in the past have had some outages that they would not like to repeat and in some cases do not even like to think about. With the growing cost of energy and the demands placed on utilities to improve capacity factors, it is very easy for management to focus on shortening refueling outage durations as a prime objective in improving overall corporate performance. So it is with Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the Diablo Canyon power plant. A review of their refueling outage performance reflects a utility that is responding to the nuclear industry's call for improved outage performance

  5. A cooperação internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Arruda Cavallieri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Constata-se no atual cenário mundial a necessidade, cada vezmais premente, de que os Estados colaborem, de forma recíproca, para omelhor exercício de atos de sua jurisdição. Já que a jurisdição tem caráterterritorial, urgente se torna a cooperação internacional para a efetivação dejulgados ou quaisquer atos de cunho transnacional. Através de instrumentostais como a carta rogatória é que esse auxílio se dá de forma mais célere eefetiva. O presente trabalho busca mostrar o que se tem logrado obter deprogresso no uso deste mecanismo rogatório, ainda que não se encontreno patamar ideal. Constata-se a importância do trabalho do Departamentode Recuperação de Ativos e Cooperação Jurídica Internacional, órgão doMinistério da Justiça.

  6. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs

  7. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.

  8. Wintertime Boundary Layer Structure in the Grand Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, C. David; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi

    1999-08-01

    Wintertime temperature profiles in the Grand Canyon exhibit a neutral to isothermal stratification during both daytime and nighttime, with only rare instances of actual temperature inversions. The canyon warms during daytime and cools during nighttime more or less uniformly through the canyon's entire depth. This weak stability and temperature structure evolution differ from other Rocky Mountain valleys, which develop strong nocturnal inversions and exhibit convective and stable boundary layers that grow upward from the valley floor. Mechanisms that may be responsible for the different behavior of the Grand Canyon are discussed, including the possibility that the canyon atmosphere is frequently mixed to near-neutral stratification when cold air drains into the top of the canyon from the nearby snow-covered Kaibab Plateau. Another feature of canyon temperature profiles is the sharp inversions that often form near the canyon rims. These are generally produced when warm air is advected over the canyon in advance of passing synoptic-scale ridges.Wintertime winds in the main canyon are not classical diurnal along-valley wind systems. Rather, they are driven along the canyon axis by the horizontal synoptic-scale pressure gradient that is superimposed along the canyon's axis by passing synoptic-scale weather disturbances. They may thus bring winds into the canyon from either end at any time of day.The implications of the observed canyon boundary layer structure for air pollution dispersion are discussed.

  9. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  10. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  11. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  12. Os direitos humanos e a política internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Rocha Reis

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da questão do crescente reconhecimento internacional dos direitos humanos desde o fim da II Guerra Mundial e discute os efeitos desse processo sobre a política internacional. De modo geral os argumentos sobre o papel dos direitos humanos na política internacional dividem-se entre os que acham que eles não passam de retórica para encobrir interesses particulares, e os que enxergam na sua afirmação um potencial transformador da ordem internacional. No contexto atual,em que se discute a adoção de mecanismos coercitivos mais fortes para a proteção dos direitos humanos, como as intervenções humanitárias, por exemplo, essa discussão torna-se mais complexa e mais urgente.

  13. Economia Internacional: Teoria e Prática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Ayello Leite

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livro BAUMANN, Renato, Otaviano Canuto, Reinaldo Gonçalves. Economia Internacional: teoria e experiência brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier, 2004, 1ª ed., 442 p. ISBN: 85-352-1441-0.

  14. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...). SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  15. La aplicación del Derecho Internacional en el Derecho interno

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez, María

    2017-01-01

    PowerPoint del Tema 15 de la asignatura "Derecho Internacional Público". Curso 2017-2018. Tema 15.- La aplicación del Derecho Internacional en el Derecho interno. 1.-Las relaciones entre el Derecho Internacional y el Derecho interno. 2.- Los procesos de remisión entre el Derecho Internacional y el Derecho interno. 3.- La integración de las normas internacionales en el Derecho interno. 4.- Los conflictos entre el Derecho Internacional y el Derecho interno.

  16. The Glen Canyon Dam adaptive management program: progress and immediate challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, John F.; Melis, Theodore S.; Boon, Philip J.; Raven, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management emerged as an important resource management strategy for major river systems in the United States (US) in the early 1990s. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (‘the Program’) was formally established in 1997 to fulfill a statutory requirement in the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA). The GCPA aimed to improve natural resource conditions in the Colorado River corridor in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona that were affected by the Glen Canyon dam. The Program achieves this by using science and a variety of stakeholder perspectives to inform decisions about dam operations. Since the Program started the ecosystem is now much better understood and several biological and physical improvements have been achieved. These improvements include: (i) an estimated 50% increase in the adult population of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) between 2001 and 2008, following previous decline; (ii) a 90% decrease in non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), which are known to compete with and prey on native fish, as a result of removal experiments; and (iii) the widespread reappearance of sandbars in response to an experimental high-flow release of dam water in March 2008.Although substantial progress has been made, the Program faces several immediate challenges. These include: (i) defining specific, measurable objectives and desired future conditions for important natural, cultural and recreational attributes to inform science and management decisions; (ii) implementing structural and operational changes to improve collaboration among stakeholders; (iii) establishing a long-term experimental programme and management plan; and (iv) securing long-term funding for monitoring programmes to assess ecosystem and other responses to management actions. Addressing these challenges and building on recent progress will require strong and consistent leadership from the US Department of the Interior

  17. Crossing fitness canyons by a finite population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander S.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2017-06-01

    We consider the Wright-Fisher model of the finite population evolution on a fitness landscape defined in the sequence space by a path of nearly neutral mutations. We study a specific structure of the fitness landscape: One of the intermediate mutations on the mutation path results in either a large fitness value (climbing up a fitness hill) or a low fitness value (crossing a fitness canyon), the rest of the mutations besides the last one are neutral, and the last sequence has much higher fitness than any intermediate sequence. We derive analytical formulas for the first arrival time of the mutant with two point mutations. For the first arrival problem for the further mutants in the case of canyon crossing, we analytically deduce how the mean first arrival time scales with the population size and fitness difference. The location of the canyon on the path of sequences has a crucial role. If the canyon is at the beginning of the path, then it significantly prolongs the first arrival time; otherwise it just slightly changes it. Furthermore, the fitness hill at the beginning of the path strongly prolongs the arrival time period; however, the hill located near the end of the path shortens it. We optimize the first arrival time by applying a nonzero selection to the intermediate sequences. We extend our results and provide a scaling for the valley crossing time via the depth of the canyon and population size in the case of a fitness canyon at the first position. Our approach is useful for understanding some complex evolution systems, e.g., the evolution of cancer.

  18. Hydrogeology of Middle Canyon, Oquirrh Mountains, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Joseph Spencer

    1963-01-01

    Geology and climate are the principal influences affecting the hydrology of Middle Canyon, Tooele County, Utah. Reconnaissance in the canyon indicated that the geologic influences on the hydrology may be localized; water may be leaking through fault and fracture zones or joints in sandstone and through solution openings in limestone of the Oquirrh formation of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Surficial deposits of Quaternary age serve as the main storage material for ground water in the canyon and transmit water from the upper canyon to springs and drains at the canyon mouth. The upper canyon is a more important storage area than the lower canyon because the surficial deposits are thicker, and any zones of leakage in the underlying bedrock of the upper canyon probably would result in greater leakage than would similar outlets in the lower canyon.The total annual discharge from Middle Canyon, per unit of precipitation, decreased between 1910 and 1939. Similar decreases occurred in Parleys Canyon in the nearby Wasatch Range and in other drainage basins in Utah, and it is likely that most of the decrease in discharge from Middle Canyon and other canyons in Utah is due to a change in climate.Chemical analyses of water showed that the high content of sulfate and other constituents in the water from the Utah Metals tunnel, which drains into Middle Canyon, does not have a significant effect on water quality at the canyon mouth. This suggests that much of the tunnel water is lost from the channel by leakage, probably in the upper canyon, during the dry part of the year.Comparison of the 150 acre-feet of water per square mile of drainage area discharged by Middle Canyon in 1947 with the 623 and 543 acre-feet per square mile discharged in 1948 by City Creek and Mill Creek Canyons, two comparable drainage basins in the nearby Wasatch Range, also suggests that there is leakage in Middle Canyon.A hydrologic budget of the drainage basin results in an estimate that about 3,000 acre

  19. Colombia frente a la coyuntura financiera internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E. Suescún M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Las perspectivas de la economía colombiana y en particular su situación fiscal y cambiaria se analizan a la luz de las políticas sugeridas por el Consenso de Washington (ajuste fiscal, privatización y apertura y las críticas a este enfoque realizadas por el premio Nobel, Joseph Stiglitz. A partir de la experiencia de los países del sudeste asiático y su respuesta exitosa a la crisis financiera internacional, las políticas de austeridad fiscal y apertura a los mercados externos ganan credibilidad ante los organismos financieros internacionales. Sin embargo, los casos de Argentina y Brasil minan las bases de esta confianza. Argentina enfrenta una situación caótica, con una devaluación del 250% y restricciones a las operaciones comerciales. También Brasil presenta un alto riesgo de cri- sis, a pesar del apoyo recibido por el FMI. ...

  20. Let's Bet on Sediments! Hudson Canyon Cruise--Grades 9-12. Focus: Sediments of Hudson Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    These activities are designed to teach about the sediments of Hudson Canyon. Students investigate and analyze the patterns of sedimentation in the Hudson Canyon, observe how heavier particles sink faster than finer particles, and learn that submarine landslides are avalanches of sediment in deep ocean canyons. The activity provides learning…

  1. Annotated bibliography for the humpback chub (Gila cypha) with emphasis on the Grand Canyon population.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulet, C. T.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-10-05

    Glen Canyon Dam is a hydroelectric facility located on the Colorado River in Arizona that is operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) for multiple purposes including water storage, flood control, power generation, recreation, and enhancement of fish and wildlife. Glen Canyon Dam operations have been managed for the last several years to improve conditions for the humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other ecosystem components. An extensive amount of literature has been produced on the humpback chub. We developed this annotated bibliography to assist managers and researchers in the Grand Canyon as they perform assessments, refine management strategies, and develop new studies to examine the factors affecting humpback chub. The U.S. Geological Survey recently created a multispecies bibliography (including references on the humpback chub) entitled Bibliography of Native Colorado River Big Fishes (available at www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/data/COFishBib). That bibliography, while quite extensive and broader in scope than ours, is not annotated, and, therefore, does not provide any of the information in the original literature. In developing this annotated bibliography, we have attempted to assemble abstracts from relevant published literature. We present here abstracts taken unmodified from individual reports and articles except where noted. The bibliography spans references from 1976 to 2009 and is organized in five broad topical areas, including: (1) biology, (2) ecology, (3) impacts of dam operations, (4) other impacts, and (5) conservation and management, and includes twenty subcategories. Within each subcategory, we present abstracts alphabetically by author and chronologically by year. We present relevant articles not specific to either the humpback chub or Glen Canyon Dam, but cited in other included reports, under the Supporting Articles subcategory. We provide all citations in alphabetical order in Section 7.

  2. Geohydrology of White Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande from Otowi to Frijoles Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Owens, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Twenty-seven springs discharge from the Totavi Lentil and Tesuque Formation in White Rock Canyon. Water generally acquires its chemical characteristics from rock units that comprise the spring aquifer. Twenty-two of the springs are separated into three groups of similar aquifer-related chemical quality. The five remaining springs make up a fourth group with a chemical quality that differs due to localized conditions in the aquifer. Localized conditions may be related to recharge or discharge in or near basalt intrusion or through faults. Streams from Pajarito, Ancho, and Frijoles Canyons discharge into the Rio Grande in White Rock Canyon. The base flow in the streams is from springs. Sanitary effluent in Mortandad Canyon from the treatment plant at White Rock also reaches the Rio Grande

  3. Pollutant Dilution and Diffusion in Urban Street Canyon Neighboring Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Fu, Zh. M.

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we investigated the airflow patterns and air quality of a series of typical street canyon combinations, developed a mass balance model to determine the local pollutant dilution rate, and discuss the impact of upstream canyon on the air quality of downstream canyon. The results indicated that the geometrical size of upstream and downstream buildings have significant impacts on the ambient airflow patterns. The pollution distribution within the canyons varies with different building combinations and flow patterns. Within the upstream canyon, pollution always accumulates to the low building side for non-symmetrical canyon, and for symmetrical canyon high level of pollution occurs at the leeward side. The height of the middle and downstream buildings can evidently change the pollutant dispersion direction during the transport process. Within the polluted canyon, the pollutant dilution rate (PDR) also varies with different street canyon combinations. The highest PDR is observed when the upstream buildings are both low buildings no matter the height of downstream building. However, the two cases are likely to contribution pollution to the downstream canyon. The H-L-H combination is mostly against local pollution remove, while the L-H-L case is considered the best optimistic building combination with both the ability of diluting local pollution and not remarkably decreasing air quality of downstream canyon. The current work is expected instructive for city designers to optimize traffic patterns under typical existing geometry or in the development of urban geometry modification for air quality control.

  4. Recreational impacts on Colorado River beaches in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Steven W.; Johnson, Robert A.; Dolan, Robert

    1984-07-01

    Recreational impact was measured on eight beaches in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and 15 beaches in Grand Canyon National Park using permanently located transects and plots. Recreational impact indices included densities of human trash and charcoal and a measure of sand discoloration due to charcoal. Significant increases in the indices occurred on several Glen Canyon beaches over a seven-month period. Sand discoloration became significantly higher over all Glen Canyon beaches during the same time period. All indices were significantly higher in Glen Canyon than on similar Grand Canyon beaches. These differences are probably due to differences in: (a) level of impacts tolerated by the respective management regimes and, (b) in the number of user days among the two National Park Service administrative units. Management alternatives are presented for reversing the present trends of recreational impact on Glen Canyon beaches.

  5. Submarine canyons off the Coromandel coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Nair, R.R.; Murty, P.S.N.

    During the 26th Cruise of I.N.S. `KISTNA', a bathymetric survey was carried out in some detail off the Pondicherry coast. This survey has revealed the existence of three sets of distinctly separate canyons between Cuddalore and Palar River...

  6. Assessment of changes at Glen Canyon Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, D.; McCoy, J.; Crandall, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the complexity associated with the assessment of financial impacts of proposed and actual short-term restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam. The reasons for these restrictions are discussed as well as the methods used to measure their financial impact to Western Area Power Administration

  7. ACUMEN 2012: Atlantic Canyons Undersea Mapping Expeditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between February and August 2012, a team of NOAA and external partners will conduct a mapping ‘blitz’ focused on deepwater canyons off the northeastern...

  8. Turbulent ventilation of a street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings. The sta...

  9. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  10. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  11. USGS Workshop on Scientific Aspects of a Long-Term Experimental Plan for Glen Canyon Dam, April 10-11, 2007, Flagstaff, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary Glen Canyon Dam is located in the lower reaches of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area on the Colorado River, approximately 15 miles upriver from Grand Canyon National Park (fig. 1). In 1992, Congress passed and the President signed into law the Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA; title XVIII, sec. 1801?1809, of Public Law 102-575), which seeks ?to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve the values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established.? The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) was implemented as a result of the 1996 Record of Decision on the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement to ensure that the primary mandate of the GCPA is met through advances in information and resources management (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995). On November 3, 2006, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) announced it would develop a long-term experimental plan environmental impact statement (LTEP EIS) for operational activities at Glen Canyon Dam and other management actions on the Colorado River. The purpose of the long-term experimental plan is twofold: (1) to increase the scientific understanding of the ecosystem and (2) to improve and protect important downstream resources. The proposed plan would implement a structured, longterm program of experimentation to include dam operations, potential modifications to Glen Canyon Dam intake structures, and other management actions such as removal of nonnative fish species. The development of the long-term experimental plan continues efforts begun by the GCDAMP to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, including Grand Canyon, through adaptive management and scientific experimentation. The LTEP EIS will rely on the extensive scientific studies that have been undertaken as part of the adaptive management program by the U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC

  12. Warm Season Storms, Floods, and Tributary Sand Inputs below Glen Canyon Dam: Investigating Salience to Adaptive Management in the Context of a 10-Year Long Controlled Flooding Experiment in Grand Canyon National Park, AZ, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S.; Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Eischeid, J.

    2013-12-01

    The planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, maximizing conservation of downstream tributary sand supply, endangered native fish, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on the warm season floods (at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead-information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars in Grand Canyon; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of tributary sand input from the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers (located 26 and 124 km below the dam, respectively) into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in the southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm season floods from this relatively small, but prolific sand producing drainage of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. The coupled variations of the flood-driven sediment input (magnitude and timing) from these two drainages into the Colorado River are also investigated. The physical processes, including diagnosis of storms and moisture sources, are mapped alongside the planning and decision processes for the ongoing experimental flood releases from the Glen Canyon Dam which are aimed at achieving restoration and maintenance of sandbars and instream ecology. The GCDAMP represents one of the most visible and widely recognized

  13. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  14. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as

  15. Rumo a um novo regime monetário internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Soihet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo procura avançar na reflexão sobre a ordem internacional. O objetivo do artigo é examinar o impacto no sistema monetário internacional sob a dominância do dólar e a possibilidade de formação de uma cesta de moeda entre os países a  fim de se  ter uma ordem internacional  mais simétrica. The article seeks to foster reflection on the international order. The article aims to examine the impact in international monetary system under the dominance of the dollar as key currency and the possibility of forming a basket of currencies between countries in order to have a more balanced international.

  16. Las actividades terroristas ante el derecho internacional contemporáneo

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaide Fernández, Joaquín

    1996-01-01

    La comunidad internacional logro recientemente llegar a un consenso en la condena de los actos y actividades terroristas. Esa condena supone una radical novedad en el derecho internacional, permitiendo identificar el concepto normativo de terrorismo inter

  17. El Estoppel: dificultades para definir una regla en derecho internacional y el rol deslucido de la Corte Internacional de Justicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo, Federico J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nacido como instituto del common law, el estoppel fue introducido en el Derecho Internacional a través de laudos de árbitros británicos y norteamericanos en los siglos XIX y XX. Recogido luego –implícita o explícitamente– por la CPJI y la CIJ (Empréstitos Serbios, Estatus Legal de Groenlandia Oriental, Pesquerías, Plataforma Continental del Mar del Norte, entre otros, se ha convertido en una defensa perentoria de frecuente invocación. Sin embargo, la Corte Internacional no parece haber sabido precisar sus elementos constituyentes, derivando en una interpretación inconsistente del silencio y de la denominada detrimental reliance. Esto ha generado una incertidumbre que ha puesto incluso en duda la misma existencia del estoppel como regla del Derecho Internacional.

  18. LES of flow in the street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Vladimír; Brechler, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model) and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment) are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  19. New supply for canyon fire foam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainey, T.

    1995-01-01

    The raw water supply for the B-Plant Canyon fire foam system is being replaced. The 4 inche water supply line to the foam system is being rerouted from the 6 inches raw water line in the Pipe Gallery to the 10 inches raw water main in the Operating Gallery. This document states the acceptance criteria for the flushing and testing to be performed by the contractor

  20. Marine litter on the floor of deep submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: The role of hydrodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Xavier; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Rayo, Xavier; Rivera, Jesus; Amblas, David

    2015-05-01

    Marine litter represents a widespread type of pollution in the World's Oceans. This study is based on direct observation of the seafloor by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives and reports litter abundance, type and distribution in three large submarine canyons of the NW Mediterranean Sea, namely Cap de Creus, La Fonera and Blanes canyons. Our ultimate objective is establishing the links between active hydrodynamic processes and litter distribution, thus going beyond previous, essentially descriptive studies. Litter was monitored using the Liropus 2000 ROV. Litter items were identified in 24 of the 26 dives carried out in the study area, at depths ranging from 140 to 1731 m. Relative abundance of litter objects by type, size and apparent weight, and distribution of litter in relation to depth and canyon environments (i.e. floor and flanks) were analysed. Plastics are the dominant litter component (72%), followed by lost fishing gear, disregarding their composition (17%), and metal objects (8%). Most of the observed litter seems to be land-sourced. It reaches the ocean through wind transport, river discharge and after direct dumping along the coastline. While coastal towns and industrial areas represent a permanent source of litter, tourism and associated activities relevantly increase litter production during summer months ready to be transported to the deep sea by extreme events. After being lost, fishing gear such as nets and long-lines has the potential of being harmful for marine life (e.g. by ghost fishing), at least for some time, but also provides shelter and a substrate on which some species like cold-water corals are capable to settle and grow. La Fonera and Cap de Creus canyons show the highest mean concentrations of litter ever seen on the deep-sea floor, with 15,057 and 8090 items km-2, respectively, and for a single dive litter observed reached 167,540 items km-2. While most of the largest concentrations were found on the canyon floors at

  1. El Derecho del comercio internacional en el contorno de la globalización

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Rozas, José Carlos

    2000-01-01

    I. Escenario del nuevo comercio internacional. 1. Perspectiva histórica y sociológica; 2. Marketing internacional y comercio internacional. II. Comercio multilateral o mundializado, exterior e intracomunitario. 1. Marco general. 2. Principios del sistema multilateral de comercio. 3. Comercio exterior. 4. Comercio intracomunitario. III. Derecho del comercio internacional. 1. La polémica cuestión de la autonomía de este ordenamiento. 2. Ensayo de definición y elementos constitutivos. 3. Derecho...

  2. AUV Mapping and ROV Exploration of Los Frailes Submarine Canyon, Cabo Pulmo National Marine Park, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troni, G.; Caress, D. W.; Graves, D.; Thomas, H. J.; Thompson, D.; Barry, J. P.; Aburto-Oropeza, O.; Johnson, A. F.; Lundsten, L.

    2015-12-01

    the thalweg, largely bare of sediment. ROV video indicates the north wall is composed of granitic rock similar to outcrops on shore. Few fish or other animals are observed below 100 m depth, but considerable diversity exists along the canyon walls above 100 m depth. These observations are consistent with a pronounced oxygen minimum zone present below about 100 m depth.

  3. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-05-01

    The ventilation processes in three different street canyons of variable roof geometry were investigated in a wind tunnel using a ground-level line source. All three street canyons were part of an urban-type array formed by courtyard-type buildings with pitched roofs. A constant roof height was used in the first case, while a variable roof height along the leeward or windward walls was simulated in the two other cases. All street-canyon models were exposed to a neutrally stratified flow with two approaching wind directions, perpendicular and oblique. The complexity of the flow and dispersion within the canyons of variable roof height was demonstrated for both wind directions. The relative pollutant removals and spatially-averaged concentrations within the canyons revealed that the model with constant roof height has higher re-emissions than models with variable roof heights. The nomenclature for the ventilation processes according to quadrant analysis of the pollutant flux was introduced. The venting of polluted air (positive fluctuations of both concentration and velocity) from the canyon increased when the wind direction changed from perpendicular to oblique, irrespective of the studied canyon model. Strong correlations (>0.5) between coherent structures and ventilation processes were found at roof level, irrespective of the canyon model and wind direction. This supports the idea that sweep and ejection events of momentum bring clean air in and detrain the polluted air from the street canyon, respectively.

  4. 8 de marzo "Día internacional de la mujer"

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez González, Acela Elena

    1985-01-01

    Este año se cumple, setenta y cinco años de conmemoración del Día Internacional de la Mujer 8 de marzo, constituido desde 1910 para unificar las luchas que se gestaron a partir del siglo XVII por el derecho al voto.

  5. 1er. Taller internacional sobre oso hormiguero gigante (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)

    OpenAIRE

    M.V. Guillermo Pérez Jimeno

    2008-01-01

    ResumenLos pasados días 2 y 3 de noviembre se llevó a cabo el 1er. Taller internacional sobre oso hormiguero gigante (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), en instalaciones del Zoológico de Florencio Varela. Participaron activamente representantes de Brasil, Colombia, Holanda, Alemania y Argentina.

  6. Exploration of the Canyon-Incised Continental Margin of the Northeastern United States Reveals Dynamic Habitats and Diverse Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Quattrini

    Full Text Available The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa, demersal fish (69 taxa, and decapod crustacean (34 taxa assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichos and the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While

  7. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  8. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning..., the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  9. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research...

  10. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide... of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection with...

  11. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning..., the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  12. Modelling the air flow in symmetric and asymmetric street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F. [Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Fossil Fuels Dept., Numerical Simulation and Modelling Program

    2004-07-01

    In recent years a large amount of research has been conducted on urban scale and street canyon. Control of air quality inside cities is important for human health. To achieve this objective, street canyon modelling plays a significant role. Pollutant dispersion inside canyons are determined by wind flow around this complex geometry. Experimental investigations have been made by means of field measurements such as Vachon, G. et al. or wind tunnel experiences as Meroney, R.N. et al. or Kastner-Klein, P. and E.J. Plate. In many of these researches, they have used CFD models in several configurations, for instance Assimakopoulos, V.D. et al. or Sini, J.-F. et al. These models are based on a numerical resolution of Navier-Stokes equations with a turbulence closure. In this study, the aim is contribute to the understanding of air circulation inside street canyons. In order to achieve this purpose, several configurations of canyons are investigated. Two-dimensional sequences of real-scale street canyons (order to obstacles height is meters) with different features (symmetric canyons and asymmetric canyons forming step-up and step-down notch configurations) are simulated. These general configurations are modified to investigate some parameters such as aspect ratio, W/H, where W is the width of street and H is the height of buildings. Flows with high Reynolds numbers are modelling. FLUENT CFD software is used. (orig.)

  13. Implications of tree planting on pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Traffic pollutant dispersion processes inside urban street canyons with avenue-like tree planting have been studied in wind tunnel experiments. Tree planting of different crown porosities and their effects on the pollutant concentrations at the canyon walls have been investigated for wind

  14. Geology and geomorphology of the Lower Deschutes River Canyon, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Beebee; Jim E. O' Connor; Gordon E. Grant

    2002-01-01

    This field guide is designed for geologists floating the approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the Deschutes River from the Pelton-Round Butte Dam Complex west of Madras to Maupin, Oregon. The first section of the guide is a geologic timeline tracing the formation of the units that compose the canyon walls and the incision of the present canyon. The second section...

  15. Modeling the Effect of Wider Canyons on Urban Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Memon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The k-? turbulence model is adopted in this study to simulate the impact of street canyon AR (Aspect Ratios on heating within street canyon. The two-dimensional model was validated for RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes and energy transport equations. The validation process confirms that the results of the model for airtemperature and wind speed could be trusted. The application of the said model is carried out to ideal street canyons of ARs (ratio of building-height-to-street-width from 0.4 to 2 with the same boundary conditions. Notably, street canyon aspect ratio was calculated by varying the street width while keeping the building height constant. Results show that the weighted-average-air-temperature within AR 0.4 was around 0.8% (i.e. 2.4K higher than that within AR 2.0. Conversely, there was strong correlation (i.e., R2>0.9 between air temperature within the street canyon and street canyon AR. Results demonstrate stronger influence of vertical velocity on heating within street canyon. Evidently, increased vertical velocity decreased the temperatures. Conversely, temperatures were higher along the leeward side of the canyon in lower ARs.

  16. Perspective view over the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This simulated true color perspective view over the Grand Canyon was created from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data acquired on May 12, 2000. The Grand Canyon Village is in the lower foreground; the Bright Angel Trail crosses the Tonto Platform, before dropping down to the Colorado Village and then to the Phantom Ranch (green area across the river). Bright Angel Canyon and the North Rim dominate the view. At the top center of the image the dark blue area with light blue haze is an active forest fire. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 5 km in foreground to 40 km Location: 36.3 degrees north latitude, 112 degrees west longitude Orientation: North-northeast at top Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters Dates Acquired: May 12, 2000

  17. Deciphering Paria and Little Colorado River flood regimes and their significance in multi-objective adaptive management strategies for Colorado River resources in Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S.; Topping, D. J.; Melis, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, sandbars, recreational trout angling, endangered native fish, whitewater rafting, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on warm-season Paria River floods (JUL-OCT, at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars below Glen Canyon Dam; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of warm season tributary sand input from the Paria River into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The Little Colorado River is an important secondary source of sand inputs to Grand Canyon, but its lower segment is also critical spawning habitat for the endangered humpback chub. Fish biologists have reported increased abundance of chub juveniles in this key tributary in summers following cool-season flooding (DEC-FEB), but little is known about chub spawning substrates and behavior or the role that flood frequency in this tributary may play in native fish population dynamics in Grand Canyon. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm- and cool-season floods from these two important tributaries of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. Coupled variations of floods (magnitude and timing) from these rivers are also

  18. The Black Canyon of the Gunnison: Today and Yesterday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1965-01-01

    Since the early visit of Captain John William Gunnison in the middle of the last century, the Black Canyon of the Gunnison has stirred mixed apprehension and wonder in the hearts of its viewers. It ranks high among the more awesome gorges of North America. Many great western canyons are as well remembered for their brightly colored walls as for their airy depths. Not so the Black Canyon. Though it is assuredly not black, the dark-gray tones of its walls and the hazy shadows of its gloomy depths join together to make its name well deserved. Its name conveys an impression, not a picture. After the first emotional impact of the canyon, the same questions come to the minds of most reflective viewers and in about the following order: How deep is the Black Canyon, how wide, how does it compare with other canyons, what are the rocks, how did it form, and how long did it take? Several western canyons exceed the Black Canyon in overall size. Some are longer; some are deeper; some are narrower; and a few have walls as steep. But no other canyon in North American combines the depth, narrowness, sheerness, and somber countenance of the Black Canyon. In many places the Black Canyon is as deep as it is wide. Between The Narrows and Chasm View in the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument (fig. 15) it is much deeper than wide. Average depth in the monument is about 2,000 feet, ranging from a maximum of about 2,700 feet, north of Warner Point (which also is the greatest depth anywhere in the canyon), to a minimum of about 1,750 feet at The Narrows. The stretch of canyon between Pulpit Rock and Chasm View, including The Narrows, though the shallowest in the monument, is also the narrowest, has some of the steepest walls, and is, therefore, among the most impressive segments of the canyon (fig. 3). Profiles of several well-known western canyons are shown in figure 1. Deepest of these by far is Hells Canyon of the Snake, on the Idaho-Oregon border. Clearly, it dwarfs the

  19. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    depositional profile develops. Additionally, canyon filling will change the aquatic ecology of the river and the reservoir, and result in loss of fish habitat. A monitoring program is in place to answer this critical question.

  20. Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Yeon

    2013-05-01

    Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons with canyon aspect ratios of 1 and 2 are investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with the carbon bond mechanism IV (CBM-IV). Photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are expressed as a function of the NO2-to-NOx and toluene-to-xylene ratios, respectively. These are found to be useful for analyzing the O3 and OH oxidation processes in the street canyons. The OH oxidation process (O3 oxidation process) is more pronounced in the upper (lower) region of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2, which is characterized by more (less) aged air. In the upper region of the street canyon, O3 is chemically produced as well as transported downward across the roof level, whereas O3 is chemically reduced in the lower region of the street canyon. The O3 chemical production is generally favorable when the normalized photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are larger than 0.55 and 0.28, respectively. The sensitivities of O3 chemical characteristics to NOx and VOC emission rates, photolysis rate, and ambient wind speed are examined for the lower and upper regions of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2. The O3 concentration and the O3 chemical production rate divided by the O3 concentration increase as the NOx emission rate decreases and the VOC emission rate and photolysis rate increase. The O3 concentration is less sensitive to the ambient wind speed than to other factors considered. The relative importance of the OH oxidation process compared to the O3 oxidation process increases with increasing NOx emission rate and photolysis rate and decreasing VOC emission rate. In this study, both O3 and OH oxidation processes are found to be important in street-canyon scale chemistry. The methodology of estimating the photochemical ages can potentially be adopted to neighborhood scale chemistry.

  1. I Jornada Internacional GEMInIS (JIG/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEMInIS Grupo de Estudos sobre Mídias Interativas em Imagem e Som

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A I Jornada Internacional GEMInIS (JIG/2014 terá como tema central os processos da convergência midiática que transformam o “entretenimento transmídia” na base da economia criativa. O ‘entretenimento transmídia’ ocupa um lugar central na esfera da produção e consumo, porém, é uma noção que permanece relativamente inédita no campo acadêmico. Historicamente, entretenimento é um conceito que aparece associado ao que é ‘alegre, divertido, emocionante e prazeroso’. Na I Jornada Internacional GEMInIS, pretende-se debater os processos de compartilhamento da propriedade intelectual e comercial das marcas, visando um maior entendimento sobre o modo como o conteúdo audiovisual é concebido e distribuído nas redes culturais e comunicacionais.

  2. 22 de marzo: Día Internacional del Agua

    OpenAIRE

    Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales

    2013-01-01

    Con la excusa del día internacional del agua, nos parece importante compartir con ustedes algunos conceptos importantes. ¿A qué se denomina agua potable? Agua potable es aquella que, bien en su estado natural o después de un tratamiento adecuado, es apta para el consumo humano y no produce ningún efecto perjudicial para la salud. Es limpia, transparente, sin olores o sabores desagradables y está libre de contaminantes.

  3. El leasing financiero internacional en el tratado UNIDROIT

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Doña, Mª Sierra

    1998-01-01

    El Tratado UNIDROIT se refiere al contrato de leasing financiero internacional, esto es, al celebrado entre una Sociedad de leasing y un empresario con establecimientos (principal o secundario) situados en el territorio de dos Estados contratantes y caracterizado porque la primera adquiere elementos integrantes del patrimonio empresarial a un fabricante, según las instrucciones recibidas por su cliente y a quien se le entregará para su uso a cambio del pago de cuotas períodicas, al margen de ...

  4. Cooperação jurídica internacional e o diálogo das fontes no Direito Internacional Privado contemporáneo

    OpenAIRE

    André de Carvalho Ramos

    2017-01-01

    El presente artículo analiza las diferentes fuentes de la cooperación jurídica internacional, que hoy representan una importante área del derecho internacional privado, centrándose en el diálogo de las fuentes para solucionar eventuales conflictos normativos.

  5. Cooperação jurídica internacional e o diálogo das fontes no Direito Internacional Privado contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Carvalho Ramos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza las diferentes fuentes de la cooperación jurídica internacional, que hoy representan una importante área del derecho internacional privado, centrándose en el diálogo de las fuentes para solucionar eventuales conflictos normativos.

  6. Innovaciones organizativas y productividad: el caso del outsourcing internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fariñas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La evolución reciente del comercio internacional se ha caracterizado, entre otros factores, por un creciente aprovisionamiento de inputs intermedios en los mercados internacionales. En este artículo se analizan estas decisiones empresariales a través de la comparación de las características de tamaño, productividad, edad, intensidad de capital, composición de la mano de obra, esfuerzo innovador, costes, participación de capital extranjero, entre las empresas que hacen outsourcing internacional y las que no lo hacen. Para organizar el análisis empírico se toma como referencia el modelo de Antràs y Helpman (2004 que predice que las empresas con mayor productividad se autoseleccionan al tomar la decisión de realizar outsourcing internacional. El artículo ofrece evidencia empírica que confirma esta predicción a partir de una muestra de empresas industriales españolas de la Encuesta sobre Estrategias Empresariales.

  7. Innovaciones organizativas y productividad: el caso del outsourcing internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fariñas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La evolución reciente del comercio internacional se ha caracterizado, entre otros factores, por un creciente aprovisionamiento de inputs intermedios en los mercados internacionales. En este artículo se analizan estas decisiones empresariales a través de la comparación de las características de tamaño, productividad, edad, intensidad de capital, composición de la mano de obra, esfuerzo innovador, costes, participación de capital extranjero, entre las empresas que hacen outsourcing internacional y las que no lo hacen. Para organizar el análisis empírico se toma como referencia el modelo de Antràs y Helpman (2004 que predice que las empresas con mayor productividad se autoseleccionan al tomar la decisión de realizar outsourcing internacional. El artículo ofrece evidencia empírica que confirma esta predicción a partir de una muestra de empresas industriales españolas de la Encuesta sobre Estrategias Empresariales.

  8. Morphodynamic Model of Submarine Canyon Incision by Sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Parker, G.; Izumi, N.; Cartigny, M.; Li, T.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are carved by turbidity currents under the deep sea. As opposed to subaerial canyons, the relevant processes are not easy to observe directly. Turbidity currents are bottom-hugging sediment gravity flows of that can incise or deposit on the seafloor to create submarine canyons or fans. The triggers of turbidity currents can be storms, edge waves, internal waves, canyon wall sapping, delta failure, breaching and hyperpycnal flows. The formation and evolution mechanisms of submarine canyons are similar to those of subaerial canyons, but have substantial differences. For example, sandblasting, rather than wear due to colliding gravel clasts is more likely to be the mechanism of bedrock incision. Submarine canyons incise downward, and often develop meander bends and levees within the canyon, so defining "fairways". Here we propose a simple model for canyon incision. The starting point of our model is the Macro Roughness Saltation Abrasion Alluviation model of Zhang et al. [2015], designed for bedrock incision by gravel clasts in mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers. We adapt this formulation to consider sandblasting as a means of wear. We use a layer-averaged model for turbidity current dynamics. The current contains a mixture of mud, which helps drive the flow but which does not cause incision, and sand, which is the agent of incision. We show that the model can successfully model channel downcutting, and indeed illustrate the early formation of net incisional cyclic steps, i.e. upstream-migrating undulations on the bed associated with transcritical (in the Froude sense) flow. These steps can be expected to abet the process of incision.

  9. Charles Taylor na Haia: limites da justiça internacional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZADORA XAVIER DO MONTE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente o julgamento de Charles Taylor, um dos protagonistas no conflito civil na Libéria, atraiu a corte internacional em Haia para o foco da comunidade internacional. Assim, o presente artigo busca delimitar as conseqüências políticas e jurídicas que advirão desse processo para a comunidade internacional como um todo.

  10. Outage risk reduction at Diablo Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, Tobias W.T.; Eugene Newman, C.

    2004-01-01

    A formal risk reduction program was conducted at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating plant as part of EPRI's Outage Risk Assessment and Management Program. The program began with a probabilistic and deterministic assessment of the frequency of core coolant boiling and core uncovery during shutdown operations. This step identified important contributors to risk, periods of high vulnerability, and potential mechanisms for reducing risk. Next, recovery strategies were evaluated and procedures, training, and outage schedules modified. Twelve risk reduction enhancements were developed and implemented. These enhancements and their impact are described in this paper. These enhancements reduced the calculated risk of core uncovery by about a factor of four for a refueling outage without lengthening the outage schedule; increased the outage efficiency, contributing to completing 11 days ahead of schedule; and helped to earn the highest achievable SALP rating from the NRC. (author)

  11. Marine litter in the upper São Vicente submarine canyon (SW Portugal): Abundance, distribution, composition and fauna interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Frederico; Monteiro, Pedro; Bentes, Luis; Henriques, Nuno Sales; Aguilar, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Jorge M S

    2015-08-15

    Marine litter has become a worldwide environmental problem, tainting all ocean habitats. The abundance, distribution and composition of litter and its interactions with fauna were evaluated in the upper S. Vicente canyon using video images from 3 remote operated vehicle exploratory dives. Litter was present in all dives and the abundance was as high as 3.31 items100m(-1). Mean abundance of litter over rock bottom was higher than on soft substrate. Mean litter abundance was slightly higher than reported for other canyons on the Portuguese margin, but lower in comparison to more urbanized coastal areas of the world. Lost fishing gear was the prevalent type of litter, indicating that the majority of litter originates from maritime sources, mainly fishing activity. Physical contact with sessile fauna and entanglement of specimens were the major impacts of lost fishing gear. Based on the importance of this region for the local fishermen, litter abundance is expected to increase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distributions and habitat associations of deep-water corals in Norfolk and Baltimore Canyons, Mid-Atlantic Bight, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooke, S.D.; Watts, M.W.; Heil, A.D.; Rhode, M.; Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Davies, A.J.; Ross, S.W.

    2017-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary study of two major submarine canyons, Baltimore Canyon and Norfolk Canyon, off the US mid-Atlantic coast focused on the ecology and biology of canyon habitats, particularly those supporting deep-sea corals. Historical data on deep-sea corals from these canyons were sparse with

  13. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  14. Cooperação jurídica internacional e dever geral de cooperar

    OpenAIRE

    Saulo Stefanone Alle

    2017-01-01

    O direito internacional clássico oferta argumentos à resistência dos Estados à cooperação jurídica internacional, especialmente em matéria criminal. Nesse sentido, o ponto principal é a necessidade indispensável de tratado, sob um viés voluntarista extremado. Entretanto, a atual ordem onusiana e a primazia dos direitos humanos deslocam o eixo do voluntarismo extremado a pautar o direito internacional. Evidencia-se, nessa linha, que o dever de cooperação jurídica internacional é um princípio p...

  15. Characterizing the sponge grounds of Grays Canyon, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Clarke, M. Elizabeth; Fruh, Erica; Chaytor, Jason; Reiswig, Henry M.; Whitmire, Curt E.

    2018-01-01

    Deep-sea sponge grounds are relatively understudied ecosystems that may provide key habitats for a large number of fish and invertebrates including commercial species. Glass sponge grounds have been discovered from the tropics to polar regions but there are only a few places with high densities of dictyonine sponges. Dictyonine glass sponges have a fused skeleton, which stays intact when they die and in some areas the accumulation of successive generations of sponges leads to the formation of reefs. In 2010 and 2016, we surveyed an area near Grays Canyon in Washington, USA, where dense aggregations of glass sponges and potential sponge reefs were discovered in 2007. Our primary aims were to make a preliminary assessment of whether the glass sponges form reefs at this location, characterize the sponge assemblage present at this site and examine associations between the sponges and commercially important species. Multibeam mapping and sub-bottom profiling indicate that the glass sponges at this site do not form reefs and are mostly attached to hard substrates. Analysis of photographs collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle and samples collected by a remotely operated vehicle guided by telepresence revealed the presence of two abundant dictyonine sponge species at this site, Heterochone calyx and Aphrocallistes vastus (mean densities = 1.43 ± 0.057 per 10 m2, max = 24 per 10 m2). We also observed a large number of non-reef-building glass sponges and various demosponges including a potentially new species in the genus Acarnus. A diverse fish assemblage was recorded at this site including eight species of rockfish. Rockfish abundance was positively related to sponge abundance. Spot prawns (Pandalus platyceros) were also abundant and were strongly associated with sponges. Despite not finding sponge reefs, this is an ecologically significant area. Further research is necessary to determine the environmental factors that give rise to the abundance of large

  16. Using large-scale flow experiments to rehabilitate Colorado River ecosystem function in Grand Canyon: Basis for an adaptive climate-resilient strategy: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.; Pine, William E.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Jain, Shaleen; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Miller, Kathleen; Hamlet, Alan F.; Kenney, Douglas S.; Redmond, Kelly T.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive management of Glen Canyon Dam is improving downstream resources of the Colorado River in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP), a federal advisory committee of 25 members with diverse special interests tasked to advise the U.S. Department of the Interior), was established in 1997 in response to the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act. Adaptive management assumes that ecosystem responses to management policies are inherently complex and unpredictable, but that understanding and management can be improved through monitoring. Best known for its high-flow experiments intended to benefit physical and biological resources by simulating one aspect of pre-dam conditions—floods, the AMP promotes collaboration among tribal, recreation, hydropower, environmental, water and other natural resource management interests. Monitoring has shown that high flow experiments move limited new tributary sand inputs below the dam from the bottom of the Colorado River to shorelines; rebuilding eroded sandbars that support camping areas and other natural and cultural resources. Spring-timed high flows have also been shown to stimulate aquatic productivity by disturbing the river bed below the dam in Glen Canyon. Understanding about how nonnative tailwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and downstream endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) respond to dam operations has also increased, but this learning has mostly posed “surprise” adaptation opportunities to managers. Since reoperation of the dam to Modified Low Fluctuating Flows in 1996, rainbow trout now benefit from more stable daily flows and high spring releases, but possibly at a risk to humpback chub and other native fishes downstream. In contrast, humpback chub have so far proven robust to all flows, and native fish have increased under the combination of warmer river temperatures associated with reduced storage in Lake Powell, and a

  17. Rose Canyon Sustainable Aquaculture Project, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to EPA's preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential impacts related to the issuance of a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the Rose Canyon Sustainable Aquaculture Project.

  18. Habitat Mapping Cruise - Hudson Canyon (HB0904, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives are to: 1) perform multibeam mapping of transitional and deepwater habitats in Hudson Canyon (off New Jersey) with the National Institute of Undersea...

  19. H Canyon Processing In Correlation With FH Analytical Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinheimer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Management of radioactive chemical waste can be a complicated business. H Canyon and F/H Analytical Labs are two facilities present at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC that are at the forefront. In fact H Canyon is the only large-scale radiochemical processing facility in the United States and this processing is only enhanced by the aid given from F/H Analytical Labs. As H Canyon processes incoming materials, F/H Labs provide support through a variety of chemical analyses. Necessary checks of the chemical makeup, processing, and accountability of the samples taken from H Canyon process tanks are performed at the labs along with further checks on waste leaving the canyon after processing. Used nuclear material taken in by the canyon is actually not waste. Only a small portion of the radioactive material itself is actually consumed in nuclear reactors. As a result various radioactive elements such as Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium are commonly found in waste and may be useful to recover. Specific processing is needed to allow for separation of these products from the waste. This is H Canyon's specialty. Furthermore, H Canyon has the capacity to initiate the process for weapons-grade nuclear material to be converted into nuclear fuel. This is one of the main campaigns being set up for the fall of 2012. Once usable material is separated and purified of impurities such as fission products, it can be converted to an oxide and ultimately turned into commercial fuel. The processing of weapons-grade material for commercial fuel is important in the necessary disposition of plutonium. Another processing campaign to start in the fall in H Canyon involves the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel for disposal in improved containment units. The importance of this campaign involves the proper disposal of nuclear waste in order to ensure the safety and well-being of future generations and the environment. As processing proceeds in the fall, H Canyon will have a substantial

  20. Turbid releases from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, following rainfall-runoff events of September 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, Richard A.; Vernieu, William

    2017-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam is a large dam on the Colorado River in Arizona. In September 2013, it released turbid water following intense thunderstorms in the surrounding area. Turbidity was >15 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for multiple days and >30 NTU at its peak. These unprecedented turbid releases impaired downstream fishing activity and motivated a rapid-response field excursion. At 5 locations upstream from the dam, temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and turbidity were measured in vertical profiles. Local streamflow and rainfall records were retrieved, and turbidity and specific conductance data in dam releases were evaluated. Profiling was conducted to determine possible sources of turbidity from 3 tributaries nearest the dam, Navajo, Antelope, and Wahweap creeks, which entered Lake Powell as interflows during this study. We discuss 4 key conditions that must have been met for tributaries to influence turbidity of dam releases: tributary flows must have reached the dam, tributary flows must have been laden with sediment, inflow currents must have been near the depth of dam withdrawals, and the settling velocity of particles must have been slow. We isolate 2 key uncertainties that reservoir managers should resolve in future similar studies: the reach of tributary water into the reservoir thalweg and the distribution of particle size of suspended sediment. These uncertainties leave the source of the turbidity ambiguous, although an important role for Wahweap Creek is possible. The unique combination of limnological factors we describe implies that turbid releases at Glen Canyon Dam will continue to be rare.

  1. El Fondo Monetario Internacional ante la crisis financiera actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Bermejo y Rosana Garciandía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La convulsión financiera iniciada en octubre de 2008 ha reavivado el debate político, social y doctrinal sobre las debilidades del sistema monetario y financiero internacional. Desde su consolidación institucional en la segunda post-guerra mundial, su legitimidad,eficiencia y justicia se han cuestionado constantemente. En estos últimos meses, su incapacidad para prever y evitar crisis como la actual se ha criticado especialmente. La crisis de la deuda de los años ochenta, el “tequilazo” mexicano de 1994 o la crisisasiática de finales de los años noventa ponen de manifiesto la existencia de elementos que dichas instituciones no han sido capaces de controlar. La cadena de infortunios financieros de los últimos meses lo corrobora y hace necesaria una profunda reflexión en términos económicos, jurídicos y también institucionales.El Fondo Monetario Internacional constituye, junto con el Banco Internacional de Reconstrucción y Fomento, el núcleo del sistema monetario y financiero internacional. Creado por los acuerdos de Bretton Woods en diciembre de 1945, el Fondo debía encargarse en su origen de favorecer la estabilidad financiera y el crecimiento económico de los Estados, poniendo a disposición de éstos sus recursos. Con el paso de los años, su cometido se ha ampliado abarcando cada vez más aspectos como la supervisión de las políticas económicas de los países miembros o la influencia en las políticas macroeconómicas nacionales. Esa extensión de sus facultades va unida, sin lugar a duda, a una creciente responsabilidad por el cumplimiento satisfactorio de su misión.Teniendo esto en cuenta, el actual debate sobre la necesidad de una nueva arquitectura financiera internacional debe ahondar en las fortalezas y debilidades del Fondo, por su papel fundamental en la misma. En este sentido, la reforma iniciada en 2005 bajo ladirección del español Rodrigo Rato se ha enfrentado a la evaluación más exigente: una crisis

  2. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments

  3. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS

  4. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-06-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS.

  5. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  6. B-Plant Canyon Ventilation Control System Description; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Project W-059 installed a new B Plant Canyon Ventilation System. Monitoring and control of the system is implemented by the Canyon Ventilation Control System (CVCS). This document describes the CVCS system components which include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) coupled with an Operator Interface Unit (OIU) and application software. This document also includes an Alarm Index specifying the setpoints and technical basis for system analog and digital alarms

  7. A novíssima China e o Sistema Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo G. Fagundes Visentini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A chegada da China à periferia em desenvolvimento, com uma agenda política e econômica abrangente, inaugura um novo estágio na projeção internacional chinesa e no próprio sistema mundial. Quais são os objetivos dessa Novíssima China em termos de política internacional? Não são poucos os que identificam nas ações chinesas aspirações ambiciosas de dominação mundial, sucedendo os Estados Unidos como liderança do planeta. Em uma manifestação que beira a sinofobia (como outrora o "perigo amarelo", argumentam que seu desenvolvimento almeja concentrar a riqueza mundial em suas mãos, quebrando com a economia das demais nações. Tomando como base as relações estabelecidas com o continente africano, defendemos a hipótese de que Pequim inaugura uma nova etapa na grande política internacional e suplanta a fase em que a Nova China lutava para recuperar sua soberania e desenvolvimento, começando a Novíssima China a transformar o próprio sistema mundial. Para tal, argumentamos que a China busca evitar as hegemonias, tanto a dos Estados Unidos como a dela própria, pois nesse último caso, poderia ter a mesma sorte que a Alemanha nas duas guerras mundiais. Não se trata de uma tarefa fácil, pois a China move-se em meio à fluidez diplomática do período posterior à Guerra Fria e ao envelhecimento do capitalismo contemporâneo em seus centros históricos.

  8. O novo Direito Internacional Privado e o conflito de fontes na cooperação jurídica internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Ramos, André de

    2013-01-01

    O Direito Internacional Privado contemporâneo possui na cooperação jurídica internacional uma de suas áreas de maior dinamismo. A existência de fontes internacionais e internas da cooperação jurídica internacional exige uma análise da solução dos conflitos de fontes. The current Private International Law treats the international legal cooperation as one of its most dynamic subjects. However, the existence of both international and national law sources of legal cooperation requires a study ...

  9. Is Canyon Width a Diagnostic Indicator of the Discharge of Megafloods on Earth and Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G.; Lamb, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    On Earth, large floods have carved steep-walled and amphitheater-headed canyons from the Pleistocene (e.g. Box Canyon, ID) through the Holocene (e.g. Asbyrgi Canyon, Iceland), to historic times (e.g. Canyon Lake Gorge, TX). The geologic record on Mars suggests that similar floods have carved canyons by waterfall retreat about 3.5 billion years ago, when the red planet was wetter and possibly warmer. We currently lack robust paleo-hydraulic tools to reconstruct the discharge of ancient floods, especially on Mars where sediment sizes are obscured from observation. To address this issue, we hypothesize that the width of canyon escarpment is controlled by the hydraulics of the canyon-carving flood due to focusing of the flood into the canyon head. We compiled field data from multiple canyons and floods on Earth and Mars and show that there is a correlation between estimated flood discharge and canyon headwall width. To explore what sets this relationship, we identified five important parameters using dimensional analysis: the Froude number, the ratio of backwater length to canyon length, the ratio of backwater length to flood width, the ratio of canyon width to flood width, and the topographic slope upstream of the canyon. We used the hydraulic numerical modeling suite ANUGA to simulate overland flow over different canyon geometries and flood parameters to systematically explore the relative bed shear stresses along the canyon rim as a metric for flow focusing. Results show that canyons that exceed a certain length, scaling with the hydraulic backwater length, have shear stresses at their heads that are significantly higher than near the canyon mouth. Shear stresses along the rim of the canyon sidewalls are limited, in comparison to stresses along the canyon head, when the flood width is of the order of the backwater length. Flow focusing only occurs for subcritical flow. Together, these results suggest that canyons may only grow from a perturbation that is large

  10. [Effect of greenbelt on pollutant dispersion in street canyon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Jia; Xing, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2012-02-01

    The effect feature of greenbelt on flow field and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyon was researched. The greenbelt was assumed as uniform porous media and its aerodynamics property defined by the pressure loss coefficient. Subsequently, the pollutant dispersion in the street canyon of which there was greenbelt in the middle was simulated with the steady-state standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model and species transport equation. The simulated results agreed well with the wind-tunnel data. Compared with the treeless case, it finds that the street canyon contain a clockwise vortex, the pollutant concentration of the leeward was several times than the windward and the growth rate of pollutant concentration was 46.0%. The further simulation for the impact of tree crown position on the airflow and pollutant dispersion finds that the height of major vortex center in the street canyon increases with the height of tree crown and gradually closes the top of windward building This causes that the average wind speed in the street canyon decreases. Especially when the top of tree crown over the roof and hinder the air flow above the street canyon, the average pollutant concentration increases with the height of tree crown rapidly.

  11. El contrato de franquicia en el comercio internacional (Tema Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Peñafiel, Lorena del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    El artículo destaca el rol trascendente que desempeña el contrato de franquicia en el mundo globalizado de hoy y su proyección jurídica en el comercio internacional. A tal efecto, parte del estudio de temas generales, tales como su origen, concepto, características, elementos y clasificación, para luego examinar, a profundidad, los rasgos que determinan su naturaleza jurídica, su aproximación a otros tipos contractuales y el régimen conflictual aplicable, analiza, así mismo, la incidencia de ...

  12. Medio ambiente y desarrollo: su implicancia nacional e internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lestard, Pablo

    1992-01-01

    Cuando el Presidente de la Comisión Mundial sobre el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo, el Sr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Primer Ministro de Noruega, presentó el reporte "Nuestro Futuro Común" a la Asamblea General de la ONU en 1987, fue el momento en que se dio a conocer, ante el foro mundial, la idea del "desarrollo sostenible". Según Lloyd Timberlake, editor principal en el Instituto Internacional para el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo (Londres), el reporte "extremista" únicamente en cu...

  13. Terrorismo internacional: rasgos esenciales de su configuración

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Herrera, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    El hecho de que el terrorismo sea internacional no altera la esencia de su significación antijurídica, pues la conducta se agotará con independencia de sus dimensiones territoriales, siendo en todo caso indispensable que, por lo menos, se verifique la existencia de tres elementos, esto es, el empleo de la violencia, la amenaza de llevarla a cabo —primer elemento— con objeto de generar terror, miedo o incertidumbre —segundo elemento— y con ello un estado de inestabilidad en el orde...

  14. 22 de marzo: Día Internacional del Agua

    OpenAIRE

    Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales

    2013-01-01

    Con la excusa del día internacional del agua, nos parece importante compartir con ustedes algunos conceptos importantes. ¿A qué se denomina agua potable? Agua potable es aquella que, bien en su estado natural o después de un tratamiento adecuado, es apta para el consumo humano y no produce ningún efecto perjudicial para la salud. Es limpia, transparente, sin olores o sabores desagradables y está libre de contaminantes. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales

  15. Presentación: Departamento de Seguridad Internacional y Defensa

    OpenAIRE

    Tello, Ángel Pablo; Rial, Juan Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Este año 2015 presenta, en una dimensión quizás más preocupante que en 2014, una creciente escalada en lo que a la seguridad internacional se refiere. Irak, Siria, Afganistán, Libia, el Golán, la Franja de Gaza y Estado Islámico, por mencionar a los escenarios más relevantes, nos colocan frente a la realidad de la inobservancia recurrente o bien directamente la negación, de los principios que dieron nacimiento a la Organización de las Naciones Unidas en 1945. Nuevos sistemas de armas con capa...

  16. La codificación de la costumbre internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette Irigoin Barrenne

    2015-01-01

    La codificación es el enunciado de las normas y prácticas consuetudinarias por escrito y de una manera sistemática. La conveniencia de "codificar" el derecho consuetudinario se ha ido haciendo más evidente debido a la necesidad de precisar su contenido, teniendo presente la intensificación de las relaciones internacionales, las que exigen una regulación más precisa de las normas jurídicas que deben aplicar los sujetos de Derecho Internacional. (...)Contenido: Introducción. La formación de la ...

  17. Agricultura brasileira no Mercosul e no mercado internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, José Sidnei; Instituto de Economia Agrícola

    2011-01-01

    O mercado internacional vem passando por profundas mudanças no período recente, mudanças que trazem preocupações efetivas para as economias latino-americanas, em especial as do Hemisfério Sul, pois nesse cenário é mais provável que os países industrializados construam uma nova ordem mundial com base nas potências industriais do Hemisfério Norte: Estados Unidos da América (EUA), União Européia (EU) e Japão.

  18. Competitividad sectorial internacional. Caso: sector del cuero y del calzado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Villegas Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito se origina en un trabajo de investigación cuya pretensión fue indagar sobre el nivel de competitividad internacional (C.I, del sector del cuero y del calzado colombiano, mediante la aplicación de indicadores que, a partir de la información estadística de las variables de comercio exterior permiten establecer ciertas relaciones que dan cuenta de la importancia del producto en los mercados de los países de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN, seleccionados para la comparación.

  19. Centro internacional para windsurfistas, playa de Vargas, Gran Canaria

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Sosa, Isacó

    2006-01-01

    El proyecto propone realizar un centro internacional que reúna tanto las instalaciones necesarias para realizar competiciones de windsurf como un albergue, un gimnasio de mantenimiento e instalaciones para otras actividades acuáticas o de ocio complementarias. El edificio se desarrollará en tres construcciones bajas longitudinales que se adaptaran al terreno empotrándose a él y abriéndose hacia el mar. Originando éstas terrazas se sigue la forma común tradicional de asentamiento sobre el ter...

  20. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  1. El contrato internacional de construcción: Aspectos generales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rodríguez Fernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Contratos Internacionales de Construcción y las relaciones jurídicas que se generan gracias a su ejecución son motivo de estudio y evaluación por parte de diferentes instituciones y académicos a lo largo y ancho del planeta, e interpretados desde el punto de vista jurisprudencial y arbitral por las diferentes cortes y tribunales de diferentes países. Ese desarrollo y estudio ha generado la creación de unos usos, prácticas y reglas propias aplicables a este tipo de contratos, que se reflejan particularmente en los contratos modelos creados por diferentes instituciones como FIDIC. Estas reglas usos y prácticas es lo que la doctrina ha denominado Ius Ingeniorum o la Lex Mercatoria de los contratos internacionales de construcción. A través del presente documento pretendo hacer una breve introducción al tema de la construcción internacional como actividad creadora de reglas autónomas e independientes en el ámbito internacional. Igualmente, haré mención a algunas de las cláusulas que considero más relevantes a este tipo de contratos, tomando como base de estudio la perspectiva que nos ofrecen los contratos modelo o tipo creados por FIDIC.

  2. El contrato internacional de construcción: Aspectos generales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rodríguez Fernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los Contratos Internacionales de Construcción y las relaciones jurídicas que se generan gracias a su ejecución son motivo de estudio y evaluación por parte de diferentes instituciones y académicos a lo largo y ancho del planeta, e interpretados desde el punto de vista jurisprudencial y arbitral por las diferentes cortes y tribunales de diferentes países. Ese desarrollo y estudio ha generado la creación de unos usos, prácticas y reglas propias aplicables a este tipo de contratos, que se reflejan particularmente en los contratos modelos creados por diferentes instituciones como FIDIC. Estas reglas usos y prácticas es lo que la doctrina ha denominado Ius Ingeniorum o la Lex Mercatoria de los contratos internacionales de construcción. A través del presente documento pretendo hacer una breve introducción al tema de la construcción internacional como actividad creadora de reglas autónomas e independientes en el ámbito internacional. Igualmente, haré mención a algunas de las cláusulas que considero más relevantes a este tipo de contratos, tomando como base de estudio la perspectiva que nos ofrecen los contratos modelo o tipo creados por FIDIC.

  3. Vitoria y Suárez: el Derecho Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo J. Sánchez Hidalgo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende mostrar la convivencia de dos estructuras de pensamiento en la escolástica española y, especialmente, en Suárez. Vitoria presenta una visión comunitaria del orden internacional y sus enseñanzas serán transmitidas a Suárez, quien, al contrario, presenta una visión societaria del orden internacional. Esta diferencia no es una casualidad, sino un auténtico cambio de paradigma en el sabio granadino, que hace de él un autor más próximo a la modernidad que a la tradición escolástica. Gracias a un estudio comparado mostraremos el punto de inflexión que supone Suárez en el tránsito hacia la modernidad y su idea de un orden mundial fundado en una sociedad de Estados.

  4. Redes sociales: herramienta de marketing internacional en el sector hotelero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Miranda Zavala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo identificar las estrategias de marketing internacional en redes sociales que realizan los hoteles de cuatro y cinco estrellas de la ciudad de Tijuana, Baja California, México. Así mismo, la revisión de las características y contenidos de las redes sociales de este sector, reconociendo la importancia en el marketing internacional como medio de comunicación con los huéspedes. De este modo, se propone caracterizar los atributos que consideran esenciales los huéspedes de los hoteles y que hacen que el visitante incremente su confianza en la utilización de dichos medios. La investigación ha contemplado un análisis cualitativo de las redes sociales de 16 hoteles registrados en la Secretaría de Turismo (SECTUR y la Asociación de Hoteles del Noroeste (ASHONO para identificar la manera en que llevan a cabo su estrategia de marketing a través de esos medios. Asimismo, se aplicaron encuestas a 267 huéspedes de los hoteles con la finalidad de identificar los atributos que consideran importantes que aparezcan en la red social del hotel, que habrían de incrementar la eficiencia de los resultados de la estrategia de marketing con redes sociales.

  5. Los grupos armados ante el Derecho Internacional contemporáneo. : Obligaciones y responsabilidad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inigo Alvarez, L.

    2016-01-01

    Los grupos armados no estatales no son un fenómeno nuevo. Sin embargo, el incremento de los conflictos armados internos desde el final de la Guerra Fría así como el surgimiento del terrorismo internacional han abierto el debate sobre la eficacia del Derecho Internacional Humanitario (DIH)y del

  6. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  7. Cooperação jurídica internacional e dever geral de cooperar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Stefanone Alle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available O direito internacional clássico oferta argumentos à resistência dos Estados à cooperação jurídica internacional, especialmente em matéria criminal. Nesse sentido, o ponto principal é a necessidade indispensável de tratado, sob um viés voluntarista extremado. Entretanto, a atual ordem onusiana e a primazia dos direitos humanos deslocam o eixo do voluntarismo extremado a pautar o direito internacional. Evidencia-se, nessa linha, que o dever de cooperação jurídica internacional é um princípio previsto em convenções internacionais e que, além disso, decorre de princípios gerais de direito internacional, inclusive da igualdade soberana entre os Estados, e princípios de direitos humanos.

  8. Competitividad internacional, productividad y costos laborales unitarios en la industria manufacturera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Cuevas Ahumada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se investigan los efectos de la productividad laboral, el tipo de cambio real y otras variables, sobre la competitividad internacional (ci manufacturera durante el período 1996-2008. Para ello, se construye un índice de competitividad internacional y se estiman dos modelos var generalizados. La evidencia sugiere que la productividad laboral influye más sobre la competitividad internacional que el tipo de cambio real. Así mismo, la competitividad internacional aumenta cuando los costos laborales unitarios descienden; es decir, cuando la productividad de los trabajadores crece por encima de los salarios. En este contexto, un paquete de políticas sectoriales de estímulo a la productividad laboral fortalecería más la competitividad internacional que una depreciación cambiaria.

  9. Davis Canyon noise analysis: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    A study was performed as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to quantify the level and effect of noise from the various major phases of development of the proposed potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository site at Davis Canyon, Utah. This report contains the results of a predictive noise level study for the site characterization, repository construction, and repository operational phases. Included herein are graphic representations of energy averaged sound levels, and of audibility levels representing impact zones expected during each phase. Sound levels from onsite and offsite activity including traffic on highways and railroad routes are presented in isopleth maps. A description of the Environmental Noise Prediction Model used for the study, the study basis and methodologies, and actual modeling data are provided. Noise and vibration levels from blasting are also predicted and evaluated. Protective noise criteria containing a margin of safety are used in relation to residences, schools, churches, noise-sensitive recreation areas, and noise-sensitive biological resources. Protective ground motion criteria for ruins and delicate rock formation in Canyonlands National Park and for human annoyance are used in the evaluation of blasting. The evaluations provide the basis for assessing the noise impacts from the related activities at the proposed repository. 45 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs

  10. Geology of the Nine Canyon Map Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.G.; Landon, R.D.

    1978-09-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and structure of a 175-square kilometer area (the Nine Canyon Map Area) along the southern margin of the Pasco Basin have been studied to help assess the feasibility of a nuclear waste terminal storage facility. Detailed mapping shows that uplift of the Horse Heaven Hills began prior to extrusion of the Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group. Both the Pomoma and the Elephant Mountain members (Saddle Mountains Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group) are wide-spread throughout the basin, but thin considerably along the Horse Heaven Hills in the vicinity of Wallula Gap. The Ice Harbor Member is present only along the northern margin of the map area and possibly occupies a paleo-channel. The Rattlesnake Hills-Wallula Gap Lineament trends north 60 degrees west and intersects the older Horse Heaven Hills anticline in Wallula Gap. Four faults of short length and small vertical displacement are located along this structure. Within the map area, the intensity of folding increases, and the style of faulting changes from normal to reverse with proximity to the Wallula Gap area. No evidence for Quaternary deformation was found

  11. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of the mid and outer continental shelf, head of De Soto Canyon, northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Meyer, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    The mid to outer continental shelf off Mississippi-Alabama and off northwest Florida were the focus of US Geological Survey (USGS) multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping cruises in 2000 and 2001, respectively. These areas were mapped to investigate the extent of "deep-water reefs" first suggested by Ludwick and Walton (1957). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama were initially described in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwick and Walton, 1957) but the 2000 mapping found reef and hardgrounds to be much more extensive than previously thought (Gardner et al., 2001). The persistent trend of reef-like features along the outer shelf of Mississippi-Alabama suggested the trend might continue along the northwest Florida mid and outer shelf so a MBES-mapping effort was mounted in 2001 to test this suggestion. It is critical to determine the accurate location, geomorphology, and types of the ridges and reefs that occur in this region to understand the Quaternary history of the area and to assess their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. The 2001 survey found a series of shelf-depth platforms with ridges (possibly reefs) constructed on their surfaces (Gardner et al., 2002). The area known as the "head of De Soto Canyon" is the large unmapped region between the 2000 and 2001 mapped areas. The head of De Soto Canyon is an outer shelf zone with a relatively steep western wall and a much gentler eastern wall. It was unknown prior to this cruise whether the reefs of the Mississippi-Alabama shelf continue eastward into the head of De Soto Canyon and connect with the ridges and reefs mapped on the northwest Florida outer shelf. The existence of carbonate-cemented latest Quaternary to Holocene sandstones along the western wall of the head of De Soto Canyon (Shipp and Hopkins, 1978; Benson et al., 1997; W.W. Schroeder, personnel comm., 2002) is of interest because of the potential benthic habitats they may represent. Precisely georeferenced high-resolution mapping of

  12. A IMPORTÂNCIA DO AEROPORTO INTERNACIONAL DE VIRACOPOS PARA AS ESTRATÉGIAS EMPRESARIAIS NO MERCADO INTERNACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josmar Cappa, José Henrique Souza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa o Aeroporto Internacional de Viracopos como infra-estrutura de apoio logístico integrado às operações industriais de empresas instaladas no Brasil que atuam no comércio internacional. A análise conta com o referencial teórico da Economia Industrial, Estratégias de Administração e Logística Industrial, além da recuperação do papel institucional da Infraero na gestão dos aeroportos. Assim, o movimento de mercadorias no país permite entender o caráter estratégico de Viracopos. O trabalho conclui a ampliação do aeroporto em desarmonia com uma política nacional de transporte pode gerar problemas de aglomeração, redução da qualidade de vida e dificuldades para consolidar Viracopos como centro cargueiro da América Latina.

  13. Fish Passage Center : Fish Passage Center of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority; Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, Michele

    1999-01-01

    The 1998 operations of the Columbia and Snake rivers system illustrated that there was potential flexibility in the operation of the hydrosystem to improve fish passage for juvenile salmon and increase the degree to which the NMS Biological Opinion measures could have been implemented successfully. This additional flexibility was not exercised. Some measures of the Biological Opinion were not implemented. The 1998 operation showed that the Hells Canyon Complex, operation, the Upper Snake River operation and Non-treaty storage operation could have provided flexibility to meet early spring and later summer flows

  14. Perfil del viajero internacional: el trabajo como motivo de viaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Belén Robles García

    Full Text Available Objetivos: describir la población a estudio y comparar el motivo de viaje laboral con el motivo turístico y con la Visita de Amigos o Familiares (VFRs para estimar si existe un perfil de riesgo diferente. Metodología: estudio de las variables edad, género, duración, motivo, destino y recomendación de quimioprofilaxis en viajeros que acuden al Centro de Atención Pre-viaje Internacional de Asturias (España entre 2008 y 2016. Un total de 9. 527 (89,83% viajeros cumplieron el criterio de inclusión (edad >18 años. Resultados: en 2013 el motivo laboral constituyó el 43,85% de todas las causas de viaje internacional. La mayoría de los trabajadores (70,89% fueron hombres (p=0,00, más jóvenes que los turistas (38 vs 40 años; p=0,00 o que los VFRs (38 vs 39 años; p=0,03. Además, los trabajadores viajaban durante más tiempo que los turistas (91 vs 23 días; p=0,00 o que los VFRs (91 vs 50 días; p=0,00. África Subsahariana fue la región más visitada por el motivo profesional (35,89%. Se recomendó quimioprofilaxis en 39,19% trabajadores vs 38,72% turistas más VFRs (p=0,68. Los desplazamientos laborales internacionales por regiones no mostraron diferencia respecto a la recomendación de quimioprofilaxis vs turistas y VFRs. Conclusiones: en la población estudiada el motivo laboral de un viaje internacional tiene un perfil del viajero específico. Se deben desarrollar iniciativas de salud pública para prevenir riesgos concretos y promover el consejo sanitario individualizado.

  15. 2013 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): San Simeon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  16. 2011 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Los Osos, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  17. On the escape of pollutants from urban street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, J.J.; Kim, J.J. [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Pollutant transport from urban street canyons is numerically investigated using a two-dimensional flow and dispersion model. The ambient wind blows perpendicular to the street and passive pollutants are released at the street level. Results from the control experiment with a street aspect ratio of 1 show that at the roof level of the street canyon, the vertical turbulent flux of pollutants is upward everywhere and the vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward or downward. The horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow at the roof level of the street canyon is downward and its magnitude is much smaller than that by turbulent process. These results indicate that pollutants escape from the street canyon mainly by turbulent process and that the net effect of mean flow is to make some escaped pollutants reenter the street canyon. Further experiments with different inflow turbulence intensities, inflow wind speeds, and street aspect ratio confirm the findings from the control experiment. In the case of two isolated buildings, the horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward due to flow separation but the other main results are the same as those from the control experiment. (author)

  18. Cold-water coral ecosystems in Cassidaigne Canyon: An assessment of their environmental living conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fabri, Marie-claire; Bargain, Annaelle; Pairaud, Ivane; Pedel, Laura; Taupier-letage, I.

    2017-01-01

    The Cassidaigne canyon is one of the two canyons (together with Lacaze-Duthiers) of the French Mediterranean coast in which cold-water corals have settled and formed large colonies, providing a structural habitat for other species. Nevertheless, the communities settled in the Cassidaigne canyon are physically impacted by discharges of bauxite residues. New information on the distribution of the species Madrepora oculata and the associated species diversity in Cassidaigne canyon was provid...

  19. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect ratios subjected to various wind directions and also for street canyons with tree-avenues. The database includes concentration data of tree-avenue configurations of different tree arrangement, tree...

  20. A economia solidária: Um movimento internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Laville

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo mostra como em diferentes contextos nacionais e continentais se gerou um movimento de economia solidária. A diversidade de práticas no seio da sociedade civil local e internacional merece ser sublinhada. Esta geração de iniciativas, simultaneamente políticas e econômicas surgidas nas últimas décadas, prolonga e renova a economia social, oferecendo, assim, propostas concretas para uma outra economia, num período de crise capitalista. Como tal, não pode ser ignorada na busca de um modelo económico e de uma acção pública renovada.

  1. La ayuda humanitaria internacional en casos de desastres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Zeballos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Los desastres naturales y antrópicos generan enormes pérdidas para los damnificados y afectan el desarrollo de los países, la comunidad internacional siempre ha respondido de manera espontánea y solidaria para asistir a los damnificados en las etapas más críticas proporcionando asistencia médica, alimentación y abrigo. En este artículo se revisa en particular la respuesta del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, la participación de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud en el terremoto de Pisco, Perú y las limitaciones y dificultades para una ayuda humanitaria efectiva.

  2. México en el mercado internacional de aguacate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Macías Macías

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El mercado internacional de aguacate ha sufrido importantes modificaciones durante las dos últimas décadas. Por un lado, aunque se trata de una fruta exótica, cada vez es más consumida en el mundo Por otro, surgen nuevas potencias exportadoras que desplazan a anteriores naciones líderes: México, principal productor y consumidor de la fruta, es, a partir de la década de 1990, en el máximo exportador, como resultado de la apertura del mercado de los Estados Unidos. Al mismo tiempo, países sudamericanos como Chile y Perú, cada vez tienen mayor presencia en el mercado europeo, desplazando relativamente a Israel, Sudáfrica, España, Kenia o Ecuador. Finalmente, se emergen nuevos vendedores como Australia o se reafirman otros como República Dominicana.

  3. El Papa Benedicto XVI y el ámbito internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Petschen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Benedicto XVI, en el conjunto de los papas de los dos últimos siglos, es un papa eminentemente pastoral, poco diplomático. En algunas ocasiones le faltó tacto para manejar sus relaciones con los musulmanes y con los judíos. No le gustaba la política. Como gran pensador de carácter teórico la preocupaba más bien la profundidad de la filosofía que imperaba en Europa, 'la dictadura del relativismo'. Y también los problemas económicos (el egoísmo del capitalismo financiero y el medio ambiente que no son política internacional aunque sean contenidos que interesen por sí mismos.

  4. Entre normas e fatos: desafios e dilemas da ordem internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Sebastião C. Velasco e

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinam-se os limites e o significado da controvérsia entre "realistas" que invocam fatos e "cosmopolitas" que invocam normas, com referência às perspectivas da ordem internacional após 11 de setembro de 2001. Contra a idéia da retomada pelos EUA do multilateralismo, ou do seu oposto, a idéia dos EUA como sede de um verdadeiro império mundial, propõe-se um "cenário de transição", marcado por turbulências inter- e intra-estatais, sem prejuízo da possibilidade real de uma configuração mais equilibrada no futuro.

  5. La Cooperación Internacional entre Servicios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulido Gragera, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los nuevos requerimientos en materia de seguridad que la comunidad internacional tiene que asumir como consecuencia de las nuevas amenazas y riesgos, obligan a que los Servicios de Inteligencia y de Información, objeto de análisis de este artículo, incrementen y mejoren la colaboración y cooperación entre ellos. En este sentido la aspiración de los Estados por poseer el máximo nivel de seguridad cediendo el mínimo de soberanía, se constituye como uno de los objetivos principales de los mismos, dificultad que se presenta, en la actualidad, para poder lograr una efectiva coordinación multilateral.…

  6. Migración internacional y derechos fundamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Castro, Elisabetta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To raise the matter of international migration it is necessary to start from the process of globalization and the current world order. After outlining some of the principal aspects of this process and order in which the increase of the migratory phenomenon is manifested –and on which the organization into a hierarchy of the national States and their corresponding citizenships stands out–, the necessity of the defense of the fundamental rights of the migrants is considered. This defense must be from a global perspective –beyond the States and the citizenships put into a hierarchy–, aiming to reach the establishment of the necessary international instruments that guarantee the application of these rights institutionally. In this sense, this article concludes with the raising of the appropriateness and urgency of global migratory politics that allow the governability of international migration.

    Para el abordaje del tema de la migración internacional se requiere partir del proceso de globalización y del orden mundial vigente. Después de delinear algunos de los principales aspectos de este proceso y orden en el que se manifiesta el incremento del fenómeno migratorio, y en el que se destaca especialmente la jerarquización de los Estados-nación y sus correspondientes ciudadanías, se plantea la necesidad de la defensa de los derechos fundamentales de los migrantes. Esta defensa debe ser a su vez desde una perspectiva global, más allá de los Estados y las ciudadanías jerarquizadas, con el fin de que se puedan llegar a establecer los instrumentos internacionales necesarios que garanticen institucionalmente el accionar de esos derechos. En este sentido, el artículo concluye con el planteamiento de la pertinencia y urgencia de una política migratoria global que permita la gobernanza de la migración internacional.

  7. Influence of the Nazaré Canyon, central Portuguese margin, on late winter coccolithophore assemblages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro, C.; Sá, C.; de Stigter, H.; Oliveira, A.; Cachão, M.; Cros, L.; Borges, C.; Quaresma, L.; Santos, A.I.; Fortuño, J.-M.; Rodrigez, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a first attempt to characterize coccolithophore assemblages occurring in the context of an active submarine canyon. Coccolithophores from the upper-middle sections of the Nazaré Canyon (central Portuguese margin) – one of the largest canyons of the European continental margin –

  8. The urban canyon and building energy use: Urban density versus daylight and passive solar gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn; Sattrup, Peter Andreas

    2011-01-01

    .It was found that the geometry of urban canyons has an impact on total energy consumption in the range of up to +30% for offices and +19% for housing, which shows that the geometry of urban canyons is a key factor in energy use in buildings. It was demonstrated how the reflectivity of urban canyons plays...

  9. 77 FR 8895 - Jimbilnan, Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and Bridge Canyon..., Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and Bridge Canyon Wilderness Areas, Lake Mead... wilderness character; providing for reasonable use of Spirit Mountain and adjacent areas in a manner meeting...

  10. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect

  11. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon

  12. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu...

  13. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  14. BLANCO MOUNTAIN AND BLACK CANYON ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral survey of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas, California indicated that areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential exist only in the Black Canyon Roadless Area. Gold with moderate amounts of lead, silver, zinc, and tungsten, occurs in vein deposits and in tactite. The nature of the geological terrain indicates little likelihood for the occurrence of energy resources in the roadless areas. Detailed geologic mapping might better define the extent of gold mineralization. Detailed stream-sediment sampling and analysis of heavy-mineral concentrations could better define tungsten resource potential.

  15. Are amphitheater headed canyons indicative of a particular formative process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A. J.; Whipple, K. X.; Johnson, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Tributary canyons with amphitheater-shaped heads have previously been interpreted as evidence for groundwater seepage erosion, particularly in environments where fluvial processes are assumed to be negligible. However, some have questioned whether this canyon morphology is truly diagnostic of a particular formative process. We seek to determine the relative roles of fluvial and groundwater-related processes and the strength of stratigraphic control on the Colorado Plateau through a combination of fieldwork and GIS analysis. Amphitheater valleys may have overhanging or steep-sided headwalls with a semicircular plan-view pattern. It is reasonable to assume that this form is a result of focused erosion at the base of the headwall (i.e. sapping). Two frequently cited agents may lead to undermining: plunge-pool scour at the base of waterfalls and seepage induced weathering and erosion where the groundwater table intersects the land surface. Both processes are enhanced where weaker, less permeable layers underlie stronger cap rock. We conducted preliminary fieldwork in two locations on the Colorado Plateau, where there are many classic examples of amphitheater headed canyons. The Escalante River landscape is highly variable with a range of canyon and valley-head forms, many of which cut through the thick Navajo Sandstone into the underlying shale and sand of the Kayenta Formation. Northeast of Escalante National Monument, at the base of the Henry Mountains, is Tarantula Mesa. The canyons there are also considerably variable, with nearly all containing at least one abrupt amphitheater knickpoint at the valley head or farther downstream. Our observations are presented here with an analysis of the canyon profiles, surrounding topography, and potential structural controls. We have found that nearly all amphitheaters in both locales show signs of groundwater seepage weathering and plausibly seepage erosion. However, many also contain plunge pools and evidence of substantial

  16. Review of the Diablo Canyon probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, G.E.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Bohn, M.P.; Sabek, M.G.; Ravindra, M.K.; Johnson, J.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report details the review of the Diablo Canyon Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DCPRA). The study was performed under contract from the Probabilistic Risk Analysis Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Research, USNRC by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The DCPRA is a full scope Level I effort and although the review touched on all aspects of the PRA, the internal events and seismic events received the vast majority of the review effort. The report includes a number of independent systems analyses sensitivity studies, importance analyses as well as conclusions on the adequacy of the DCPRA for use in the Diablo Canyon Long Term Seismic Program

  17. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  18. Tendencias de la economía internacional y elementos para una estrategia de comercio exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Schuldt, Jürgen

    1994-01-01

    La experiencia reciente de economías que han logrado insertarse dinámicamente a los flujos de intercambio internacional y las lecciones de la nueva teoría del comercio internacional, nos servirán de pilares para diseñar algunos principios rectores que podría adoptar el Ecuador. Como tal se trata de un cuestionamiento del paradigma ortodoxo de apertura e inserción internacional y de las políticas actualmente en curso en el país; propuestas convencionales que, por lo demás, resultan estériles p...

  19. LA LEX MERCATORIA EN LOS LAUDOS DE LA CÁMARA DE COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Grande

    2008-01-01

    En el derecho internacional es muy conocida la controversia sobre la existencia de un ordenamiento jurídico regulador del comercio internacional, también denominada doctrina de la lex mercatoria. Los diferentes argumentos de la doctrina en debate se presentan como irreconciliables, sin embargo, todos ellos se basan en postulados comunes. Este artículo está dedicado a explicar el consenso que aparece en la disputa y confrontarlo con la práctica arbitral internacional para averiguar si dicho ac...

  20. Modelos de reputação internacional e paradigmas de política externa

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros,Sabrina Evangelista

    2011-01-01

    Reputação internacional é um objeto do direito internacional cujo valor se dá pela atribuição positiva ou negativa a respeito de um Estado pelos demais ou, de outro modo, pela capacidade de um determinado Estado agir de acordo com seus compromissos, frequentemente chamada de confiabilidade. Dessa forma, os imperativos da política externa de um país são qualificadores de sua recepção pela comunidade internacional entre graus variáveis de confiança e desconfiança. Este artigo tem como finalidad...

  1. A crise Armada Colômbia-Equador no contexto da Guerra contra o Terrorismo Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA WAISBERG

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A recente crise armada entre Colômbia e Equador trouxe a América do Sul ao foco da mídia internacional. As FARC representam o maior barril de pólvora da América Latina, além de um determinante ator a ser combatido na luta contra o terrorismo internacional. Nesse sentido, o presente artigo busca analisar, sob o prisma da segurança e do direito internacional o papel das FARC em âmbito global e as maneiras segundo as quais elas são combatidas.

  2. El Derecho internacional y el sistema jurídico mexicano: problemas actuales

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Torres, Luis Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Para el desarrollo de este trabajo de investigación, partimos de una idea originaria para el proceso de investigación sobre la problematicidad entre el Derecho internacional y el sistema jurídico mexicano, que hila nuestra empresa cognitiva: el ordenamiento jurídico internacional y los ordenamientos jurídicos nacionales mantienen una ínsita, simbiótica e inextricable conexión. En ésta interrelación el Derecho internacional determina al Derecho nacional en tanto que para que aquel sea eficaz e...

  3. Distribution and movement of Big Spring spinedace (Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis) in Condor Canyon, Meadow Valley Wash, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Big Spring spinedace (Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis) is a cyprinid whose entire population occurs within a section of Meadow Valley Wash, Nevada. Other spinedace species have suffered population and range declines (one species is extinct). Managers, concerned about the vulnerability of Big Spring spinedace, have considered habitat restoration actions or translocation, but they have lacked data on distribution or habitat use. Our study occurred in an 8.2-km section of Meadow Valley Wash, including about 7.2 km in Condor Canyon and 0.8 km upstream of the canyon. Big Spring spinedace were present upstream of the currently listed critical habitat, including in the tributary Kill Wash. We found no Big Spring spinedace in the lower 3.3 km of Condor Canyon. We tagged Big Spring spinedace ≥70 mm fork length (range 70–103 mm) with passive integrated transponder tags during October 2008 (n = 100) and March 2009 (n = 103) to document movement. At least 47 of these individuals moved from their release location (up to 2 km). Thirty-nine individuals moved to Kill Wash or the confluence area with Meadow Valley Wash. Ninety-three percent of movement occurred in spring 2009. Fish moved both upstream and downstream. We found no movement downstream over a small waterfall at river km 7.9 and recorded only one fish that moved downstream over Delmue Falls (a 12-m drop) at river km 6.1. At the time of tagging, there was no significant difference in fork length or condition between Big Spring Spinedace that were later detected moving and those not detected moving. We found no significant difference in fork length or condition at time of tagging of Big Spring spinedace ≥70 mm fork length that were detected moving and those not detected moving. Kill Wash and its confluence area appeared important to Big Spring spinedace; connectivity with these areas may be key to species persistence. These areas may provide a habitat template for restoration or translocation. The lower 3.3 km of

  4. Passive air exchanges between building and urban canyon via openings in a single facade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrios, K.; Hunt, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The results of an experimental study examining the steady exchange of air and heat between a building and an urban canyon are presented. The focus is on the effect of the canyon aspect ratio on the airflow through openings made exclusively in one side of the building. The interaction of the external wind flow and the internal thermally-driven flow was shown to depend upon the ratio of the building height H b to the canyon width W (distance between buildings forming the canyons). The trends observed as this aspect ratio (H b /W) was varied allow for identification of canyon geometries that yield reduced or enhanced building ventilation airflow rates

  5. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  6. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, K.A.; Mazurek, M.A.; Cass, G.R.

    1992-05-01

    The problem of visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon due to fine organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere has become an area of increased environmental concern. Aerosol particles can be derived from many emission sources. In this report, we focus on identifying organic aerosols derived from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon. These aerosols are expected to be significant contributors to the total atmospheric organic aerosol content. Aerosol samples from living vegetation were collected by resuspension of surface wax and resin components liberated from the leaves of vegetation common to areas of the Grand Canyon. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Probable identification of compounds was made by comparison of sample spectra with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral references and positive identification of compounds was made when possible by comparison with authentic standards as well as NIST references. Using these references, we have been able to positively identify the presence of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid homolog series in the surface waxes of the vegetation sampled. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified also as possible biogenic aerosols which may contribute to the total organic aerosol abundance leading to visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon

  7. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group...

  8. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buccolieri, R.; Gromke, C.B.; Sabatino, Di S.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant

  9. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  10. INMIGRACIÓN INTERNACIONAL Y POBREZA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Trejos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discuten las posibles causas explicativas del estancamiento de la pobreza, tanto en la incidencia, intensidad y severidad, durante los últimos siete años (1994-2000, poniendo especial atención al efecto de la inmigración internacional, particularmente la procedente de Nicaragua. Para realizar el análisis se sigue la definición oficial de pobreza, como una situación de ingresos corrientes insuficientes, y se hace uso de las encuestas de hogares del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. Pese a que las encuestas tienen limitaciones para captar adecuadamente la inmigración internacional, particularmente la no regularizada, la información disponible sugiere que su contribución al estancamiento de la pobreza puede ser limitada hasta el presente. El aún reducido peso población, junto a una disminución en la incidencia de la pobreza entre los inmigrantes, apoya esta conclusión. No obstante, esta convergencia de la pobreza entre los inmigrantes y no inmigrantes, los primeros muestran un amplio dinamismo poblacional, una segregación geográfica, más no ocupacional, y un amplio, aunque discriminado, acceso a los servicios públicos en general y sociales en particular. Un crecimiento económico limitado y concentrado en pocas actividades con reducido impacto en los trabajadores menos calificados, junto a un menor capital humano en los nuevos contingentes de población activa, parecen ofrecer un mayor poder explicativo del fenómeno. Por el contrario, la desigualdad en la distribución de los ingresos parece tener un efecto neutro. De ser este el caso, un mayor y balanceado crecimiento económico, junto a una agresiva política social para revertir el deterioro del capital humano, surgen como las acciones prioritarias para reiniciar el descenso de la pobreza.

  11. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathy Bennett; Sherri Sherwood; Rhonda Robinson

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  12. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Kathy; Sherwood, Sherri; Robinson, Rhonda

    2006-08-15

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  13. Seminari Internacional: e-Learning around the World: Achievements, Challenges and Broken Promises

    OpenAIRE

    Planell Estany, Josep A.

    2013-01-01

    Discurs del rector de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Josep A. Planell Estany, amb motiu del Seminari Internacional: e-­Learning around the World: Achievements, Challenges and Broken Promises. Discurso del rector de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Josep A. Planell Estany, con motivo del Seminario Internacional: ¿e­-Learning around the World: Achievements, Challenges and Broken Promises. Speech by the president of the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Josep A. Planell Estany, on t...

  14. Fish pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  15. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  16. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  17. Thermal bioclimate in idealized urban street canyons in Campinas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Harbich, Loyde V.; Labaki, Lucila C.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Among several urban design parameters, the height-to-width ratio (H/W) and orientation are important parameters strongly affecting thermal conditions in cities. This paper quantifies changes in thermal comfort due to typical urban canyon configurations in Campinas, Brazil, and presents urban guidelines concerning H/W ratios and green spaces to adapt urban climate change. The study focuses on thermal comfort issues of humans in urban areas and performs evaluation in terms of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), based on long-term data. Meteorological data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation over a 7-year period (2003-2010) were used. A 3D street canyon model was designed with RayMan Pro software to simulate the influence of urban configuration on urban thermal climate. The following configurations and setups were used. The model canyon was 500 m in length, with widths 9, 21, and 44 m. Its height varied in steps of 2.5 m, from 5 to 40 m. The canyon could be rotated in steps of 15°. The results show that urban design parameters such as width, height, and orientation modify thermal conditions within street canyons. A northeast-southwest orientation can reduce PET during daytime more than other scenarios. Forestry management and green areas are recommended to promote shade on pedestrian areas and on façades, and to improve bioclimate thermal stress, in particular for H/W ratio less than 0.5. The method and results can be applied by architects and urban planners interested in developing responsive guidelines for urban climate issues.

  18. Savannah River Site: Canyons and associated facilities utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, D.; Dickenson, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company was asked by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to study options for utilization of Savannah River Site (SRS) Canyons and Associated Facilities to support existing and potential future material stabilization and/or disposition missions. This report is WSRC's response to that request. It includes: (1) A compilation of pending DOE material stabilization and/or disposition decisions involving utilization of SRS canyons and associated facilities, including discussion of quantities and expected availability of materials for which SRS handling and/or processing capability is a reasonable alternative under consideration. (2) A description of SRS canyons and associated facilities affected by pending DOE material stabilization and/or disposition decisions, including discussion of material handling and/or processing capabilities and capacities. (3) A comparative evaluation of three proposed scenarios for SRS canyon utilization with respect to startup and operating schedules; annual and life cycle costs; impacts on completion of commitments in the DOE Implementation Plan (IP) for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1; SRS ability to support alternatives under consideration in pending DOE materials stabilization and/or disposition decisions; and timing for potential transition to deactivation. (4) The sensitivity of the comparative evaluation of the three canyon utilization scenarios to the effect of the selection of other alternatives for individual stabilization missions or individual new missions. Briefings on the scope of this study have been presented to key representatives of several SRS public stakeholder groups. Briefings on the major conclusions from this study have been presented to WSRC Management, DOE-SR, EM-60, EM-1, and the DNFSB

  19. LA LEX MERCATORIA EN LOS LAUDOS DE LA CÁMARA DE COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Grande

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el derecho internacional es muy conocida la controversia sobre la existencia de un ordenamiento jurídico regulador del comercio internacional, también denominada doctrina de la lex mercatoria. Los diferentes argumentos de la doctrina en debate se presentan como irreconciliables, sin embargo, todos ellos se basan en postulados comunes. Este artículo está dedicado a explicar el consenso que aparece en la disputa y confrontarlo con la práctica arbitral internacional para averiguar si dicho acuerdo alcanza para justificar la lex. Con ese propósito analizamos los laudos de la Cámara de Comercio Internacional relativos a la elección del derecho aplicable al fondo del litigio y en los cuales los árbitros no contaban con facultades para pronunciarse ex aequo et bono. El resultado principal del estudio es que la existencia de la lex mercatoria no puede ser demostrada por la práctica arbitral bajo las condiciones comunesde la doctrina. La única certeza en los laudos es la remisión a los usos del comercio internacional, y el reconocimiento de principios generales establecidos en instrumentos universalmente aceptados. En conclusión, la lex mercatoria necesita fundamento dogmático y fáctico. Es la filosofía del derecho quien debe indagar la legitimidad y estructura del derecho comercial internacional.

  20. Fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  1. Las mujeres, las guerras y el derecho internacional humanitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Postigo Asenjo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La violencia sexual se emplea como instrumento de intimidación, castigo y terror, e incluso coadyuvante de limpieza étnica, en los conflictos armados. En las últimas décadas, se han producido importantes avances en la inclusión de la violación entre los crímenes contra el derecho internacional humanitario. Sin embargo, aún son necesarias acciones más eficaces para evitar que se produzcan violaciones sistemáticas en las zonas en conflictos y post-conflicto. Este trabajo destaca la importancia que tiene la lucha por la igualdad y la incorporación de las mujeres en los procesos de toma de decisiones para combatir esta lacra y asegurar la paz y la estabilidad.  Sexual violence has long been used as a weapon of war, with the purpose of intimidating, injuring and punishing civilians, and even as an ethnic cleansing adjuvant, in armed conflicts. In the last decades, though, there have been important advances towards the definition and prosecution of rape as a crime against international humanitarian law. Notwithstanding, more effective measures are needed to protect women from this heinous crime in the conflict zones and post-conflict. This article stresses the need to keep struggling for gender equality and improving women’s participation in decision making processes to achieve peace and stability

  2. La Normalización Nacional e Internacional de cementos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria Santamaría, Francisco

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief exposition of the situation and tendencies of the cement industry to contemplate its incidence in the development of norms of the conglomerates. Comments are made on the historical development of the norms of cements in Spain and the present situation of the national norms at a world level. Justifying the necessity of an international norm, the participation of ISO and other Bodies is required, emphasizing the requirement of work to be carried out by the Committee TC/51 of the CEN (European Committee of Standardization, in order to achieve a European standard on cements.

    Se hace una breve exposición de la situación y tendencias de la industria cementera para contemplar su incidencia en el desarrollo de la normativa de los conglomerantes. Se comenta el desarrollo histórico de la normativa de cementos en España y la situación actual de las normas nacionales a nivel mundial. Justificada la necesidad de una normativa internacional, se cita la participación de ISO y otros Organismos, destacando y precisando la labor llevada a cabo por el Comité TC/51 del CEN (Comité Europeo de Normalización, para conseguir una norma europea sobre cementos.

  3. Dificultades actuales del sistema internacional de derechos humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Lindgren-Alves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Los derechos humanos, después de alzcanzar el punto culminante de popularidad en la Conferencia de Viena de 1993, entraron en uma fase de descrédito, que aún perdura. Eso ocurrió por varios motivos, algunos de los cuales están al interior del propio sistema estabelecido para promocionarlos. Los factores principales advienen de la contradicción entre la aserción verbal de los derechos fundamentales de todos y el “consenso” neoliberal simultaneamente impuesto a la esfera económica. Otros son inherentes al activismo fragmentario, sin noción de causa y efecto, desvinculado de la realidad en vuelta. Los problemas de segundo tipo son corregibles si para eso hubiese coherencia y destemor de críticas en las atitudes de los actores influyentes. El texto examina los componientes de ese sistema internacional e identifica las razones de su presente desvaluación.

  4. Environmental analysis of Lower Pueblo/Lower Los Alamos Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Becker, N.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-12-01

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, Pueblo Canyon, and Los Alamos Canyon found residual contamination at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of residual radioactivity is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. However, residual radioactivity does not exceed proposed cleanup criteria in either lower Pueblo or lower Los Alamos Canyons. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to construct a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon to prevent further transport of residual radioactivity onto San Ildefonso Indian Pueblo land, and (3) to clean the residual radioactivity from the canyon system. Alternative 2, to cleanup the canyon system, is rejected as a viable alternative. Thousands of truckloads of sediment would have to be removed and disposed of, and this effort is unwarranted by the low levels of contamination present. Residual radioactivity levels, under either present conditions or projected future conditions, will not result in significant radiation doses to persons exposed. Modeling efforts show that future transport activity will not result in any residual radioactivity concentrations higher than those already existing. Thus, although construction of a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon is a viable alternative, this effort also is unwarranted, and the no-action alternative is the preferred alternative

  5. Environmental analysis of Lower Pueblo/Lower Los Alamos Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Becker, N.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-12-01

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, Pueblo Canyon, and Los Alamos Canyon found residual contamination at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of residual radioactivity is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. However, residual radioactivity does not exceed proposed cleanup criteria in either lower Pueblo or lower Los Alamos Canyons. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to construct a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon to prevent further transport of residual radioactivity onto San Ildefonso Indian Pueblo land, and (3) to clean the residual radioactivity from the canyon system. Alternative 2, to cleanup the canyon system, is rejected as a viable alternative. Thousands of truckloads of sediment would have to be removed and disposed of, and this effort is unwarranted by the low levels of contamination present. Residual radioactivity levels, under either present conditions or projected future conditions, will not result in significant radiation doses to persons exposed. Modeling efforts show that future transport activity will not result in any residual radioactivity concentrations higher than those already existing. Thus, although construction of a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon is a viable alternative, this effort also is unwarranted, and the no-action alternative is the preferred alternative.

  6. Canyon formation constraints on the discharge of catastrophic outburst floods of Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Lamb, Michael P.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.

    2016-07-01

    Catastrophic outburst floods carved amphitheater-headed canyons on Earth and Mars, and the steep headwalls of these canyons suggest that some formed by upstream headwall propagation through waterfall erosion processes. Because topography evolves in concert with water flow during canyon erosion, we suggest that bedrock canyon morphology preserves hydraulic information about canyon-forming floods. In particular, we propose that for a canyon to form with a roughly uniform width by upstream headwall retreat, erosion must occur around the canyon head, but not along the sidewalls, such that canyon width is related to flood discharge. We develop a new theory for bedrock canyon formation by megafloods based on flow convergence of large outburst floods toward a horseshoe-shaped waterfall. The model is developed for waterfall erosion by rock toppling, a candidate erosion mechanism in well fractured rock, like columnar basalt. We apply the model to 14 terrestrial (Channeled Scablands, Washington; Snake River Plain, Idaho; and Ásbyrgi canyon, Iceland) and nine Martian (near Ares Vallis and Echus Chasma) bedrock canyons and show that predicted flood discharges are nearly 3 orders of magnitude less than previously estimated, and predicted flood durations are longer than previously estimated, from less than a day to a few months. Results also show a positive correlation between flood discharge per unit width and canyon width, which supports our hypothesis that canyon width is set in part by flood discharge. Despite lower discharges than previously estimated, the flood volumes remain large enough for individual outburst floods to have perturbed the global hydrology of Mars.

  7. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  8. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background.

  9. Status and trends of the rainbow trout population in the Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, 1991–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinster, Andrew S.; Persons, William R.; Avery, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    The Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River, a 25-kilometer segment of river located immediately downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, has contained a nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sport fishery since it was first stocked in 1964. The fishery has evolved over time in response to changes in dam operations and fish management. Long-term monitoring of the rainbow trout population downstream of Glen Canyon Dam is an essential component of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. A standardized sampling design was implemented in 1991 and has changed several times in response to independent, external scientific-review recommendations and budget constraints. Population metrics (catch per unit effort, proportional stock density, and relative condition) were estimated from 1991 to 2009 by combining data collected at fixed sampling sites during this time period and at random sampling sites from 2002 to 2009. The validity of combining population metrics for data collected at fixed and random sites was confirmed by a one-way analysis of variance by fish-length class size. Analysis of the rainbow trout population metrics from 1991 to 2009 showed that the abundance of rainbow trout increased from 1991 to 1997, following implementation of a more steady flow regime, but declined from about 2000 to 2007. Abundance in 2008 and 2009 was high compared to previous years, which was likely the result of increased early survival caused by improved habitat conditions following the 2008 high-flow experiment at Glen Canyon Dam. Proportional stock density declined between 1991 and 2006, reflecting increased natural reproduction and large numbers of small fish in samples. Since 2001, the proportional stock density has been relatively stable. Relative condition varied with size class of rainbow trout but has been relatively stable since 1991 for fish smaller than 152 millimeters (mm), except for a substantial decrease in 2009. Relative condition was more variable for larger

  10. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide ( 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background

  11. Are deep-sea organisms dwelling within a submarine canyon more at risk from anthropogenic contamination than those from the adjacent open slope? A case study of Blanes canyon (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Samuel; Fernández, Pilar; Company, Joan B.; Huertas, David; Solé, Montserrat

    2013-11-01

    Due to their geomorphological structure and proximity to the coastline, submarine canyons may act as natural conduit routes for anthropogenic contaminants that are transported from surface waters to the deep-sea. Organisms dwelling in these canyon environments might thus be at risk of experiencing adverse health effects due to higher pollution exposure. To address this question, chemical and biochemical analyses were conducted on two of the most abundant deep-sea fish species in the study area, namely Alepocephalus rostratus and Lepidion lepidion, and the most abundant deep-sea commercial decapod crustacean Aristeus antennatus sampled inside Blanes canyon (BC) and on the adjacent open slope (OS). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels, including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and derivatives, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in muscle tissue of selected samples from 900 m and 1500 m depth. Potential effects resulting from contaminant exposure were determined using hepatic biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), catalase (CAT), carboxylesterase (CbE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels (LP). L. lepidion and A. antennatus tissues exhibited higher POP levels inside BC compared to the OS at 900 m depth. These findings were consistent with biomarker data (i.e. enzymatic response to presence of contaminant agents). Elevated xenobiotic-metabolizing (EROD and PROD) and antioxidant enzymes (CAT and GPX) indicated higher contaminant exposure in both species caught within BC. No difference in POP accumulation between sites was observed in L. lepidion at 1500 m depth, nor in biomarker data, suggesting that the pollution gradient was less pronounced at greater depths. This trend was further corroborated

  12. 2008 High-Flow Experiment at Glen Canyon Dam-Morphologic Response of Eddy-Deposited Sandbars and Associated Aquatic Backwater Habitats along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Andersen, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    of higher monthly volume. Similarly, there was greater habitat availability associated with lower monthly volume fluctuating flows (post-HFE through mid-April) compared to higher monthly volume fluctuating flows (after mid-April 2008). The sites monitored for this study represent about 20 percent of the 569 estimated number of potential sand-bounded backwaters that occur in eddies below Glen Canyon Dam in Grand Canyon National Park. Data from fish sampling in backwaters, by seining, demonstrates that both native and nonnative species were present in the backwaters monitored for this study.

  13. El proyecto kantiano en la teoría legal internacional moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Capps

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los desarrollos en los últimos cincuenta años sobre la naturaleza del derecho internacional y la situación política que éste regula han llevado a un resurgimiento de la posición kantiana con respecto a la teoría legal internacional. Los argumentos de Kant requieren, primero, que se haga una distinción entre Estados injustos y justos, para regular el derecho internacional, y segundo, que el derecho internacional deba estar institucionalizado para que las disputas se resuelvan pacíficamente. La filosofía del derecho internacional de Fernando Tesón -la cual es objeto de esta reseña­ representa una defensa total de la teoría kantiana del derecho internacional. Se argumenta en este escrito que el trabajo de Tesón contiene dos problemas: primero, Tesón no defiende las bases metodológicas y justificatorias de la teoría kantiana, la cual, en la mayoría de los casos, es el imperativo categórico en sí mismo. Adicionalmente, su alusión a una metodología empírica es problemática. Segundo, Tesón no desarrolla suficientemente la segunda de las 'más importantes tesis de Kant, esto es, el mantenimiento de la paz mediante instituciones internacionales legales. De hecho, el argumento de Tesón puede ser mejor entendido como un relato sobre la aproximación kantiana a una política exterior de carácter moral, en vez de una concepción kantiana del derecho internacional.

  14. El “margen protector” de la Corte Penal Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Abello Jiménez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La CPI fue creada con el fin de acabar con la impunidad y prevenir los crímenes más atroces contra la humanidad. Para desempeñar sus funciones, depende en gran medida de la cooperación de los Estados parte, lo cual la obliga a actuar con cierta prudencia, pero sin abstenerse de investigar y juzgar. Desde que Palestina reconoció la jurisdicción de la CPI, en enero de 2009, su población civil ha sufrido violencia sistemática y a gran escala en las operaciones Plomo fundido (2009, Pilar defensivo (2012 y Margen protector (2014 del Ejército israelí. En abril de 2012, la Fiscalía de la CPI decidió no abrir una investigación, porque correspondía a la Asamblea General de la ONU determinar si Palestina tenía o no la condición de Estado. Meses después, la propia Asamblea General reconoció a Palestina como Estado no miembro observador de la ONU, tras su previo reconocimiento por la Unesco y la Corte Internacional de Justicia. Con ello se despejaron los últimos obstáculos para que la CPI ejerciera su jurisdicción sobre una situación que continúa dejando miles de víctimas, pues, ¿qué sentido tiene que exista una Corte que contemple, sin inmutarse, la sucesión de delitos atroces?

  15. Effects of water temperature and fish size on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow trout and brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan

    2015-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Diet studies of Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species do eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable, depending on prey size, predator size, and the water temperatures under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile native fish changes in response to fish size and water temperature using captivity-reared Humpback Chub, Bonytail, and Roundtail Chub. Juvenile chub 45–90 mm total length (TL) were exposed to adult Rainbow and Brown trouts at 10, 15, and 20°C to measure predation vulnerability as a function of water temperature and fish size. A 1°C increase in water temperature decreased short-term predation vulnerability of Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout by about 5%, although the relationship is not linear. Brown Trout were highly piscivorous in the laboratory at any size > 220 mm TL and at all water temperatures we tested. Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered Humpback Chub is critical in evaluating management options aimed at preserving native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park.

  16. Canyon air flow measurement utilizing ASME standard pitot tube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces nuclear materials for national defense. In addition to nuclear reactors, the site has separation facilities for reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel. The chemical separation of highly radioactive materials takes place by remote control in large buildings called canyons. Personnel in these buildings are shielded from radiation by thick concrete walls. Contaminated air is exhausted from the canyons and contaminants are removed by sand filters prior to release to the atmosphere through a stack. When these facilities were built on a crash basis in the early 1950's, inadequate means were provided for pressure and air flow measurement. This presentation describes the challenge we faced in retrofitting a highly radioactive, heavily shielded facility with instrumentation to provide this capability

  17. Hydraulics of outburst floods spilling over a steep-walled canyon: Implications for paleo-discharges on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, Mathieu; Lamb, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Canyons carved by outburst floods are common landforms on Earth and Mars. These canyons are generally found in fractured basalts and jointed sedimentary rocks. Flood-carved canyons commonly have steep headwalls and a roughly constant width, and are often thought to have formed from upstream headwall propagation due to waterfall erosion. Because morphology is readily available from satellite imagery, these canyons offer a unique opportunity to quantify the discharge of rare, catastrophic paleo-floods on Earth and Mars. However, mechanistic relationships that relate canyon size to flood discharge have yet to be developed. We propose that the width of a canyon headwall in fractured rock is set by the spatial distribution of erosion around the rim of the canyon, which is controlled by the distribution of shear stresses induced by the overflowing water as it is focused into the canyon head. We test this hypothesis by performing a series of numerical simulations of flood-water focusing using ANUGA Hydro, a 2D-depth averaged, fully turbulent, hydraulic numerical modeling suite allowing for Froude-number transitions. The numerical simulations were designed to explore five dimensionless variables: the aspect ratio of the canyon (length normalized by width), the canyon width to flood-water width ratio, the canyon width to normal-flow depth ratio, the Froude number, and the topographic gradient upstream of the canyon. Preliminary results show that flow focusing leads to increased shear stresses at the canyon head compared to the sides of the canyon for subcritical floods and higher canyon aspect ratios. This suggests that proto-canyons start growing from a topographic defect in all directions until they reach a critical length for the side walls to dry. Once this critical length is attained, canyons focus most of the flood waters into their heads, and propagate upstream only, maintaining roughly constant widths. Preliminary results suggest that canyon width may be used to

  18. Geomorphic characterization of four shelf-sourced submarine canyons along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obelcz, Jeffrey; Brothers, Daniel S.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Ross, Steve W.; Brooke, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Shelf-sourced submarine canyons are common features of continental margins and are fundamental to deep-sea sedimentary systems. Despite their geomorphic and geologic significance, relatively few passive margin shelf-breaching canyons worldwide have been mapped using modern geophysical methods. Between 2007 and 2012 a series of geophysical surveys was conducted across four major canyons of the US Mid-Atlantic margin: Wilmington, Baltimore, Washington, and Norfolk canyons. More than 5700 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and 890 line-km of sub-bottom CHIRP profiles were collected along the outer shelf and uppermost slope (depths of 80-1200 m). The data allowed us to compare and contrast the fine-scale morphology of each canyon system. The canyons have marked differences in the morphology and orientation of canyon heads, steepness and density of sidewall gullies, and the character of the continental shelf surrounding canyon rims. Down-canyon axial profiles for Washington, Baltimore and Wilmington canyons have linear shapes, and each canyon thalweg exhibits morphological evidence for recent, relatively small-scale sediment transport. For example, Washington Canyon displays extremely steep wall gradients and contains ~100 m wide, 5–10 m deep, v-shaped incisions down the canyon axis, suggesting modern or recent sediment transport. In contrast, the convex axial thalweg profile, the absence of thalweg incision, and evidence for sediment infilling at the canyon head, suggest that depositional processes strongly influence Norfolk Canyon during the current sea-level high-stand. The north walls of Wilmington, Washington and Norfolk canyons are steeper than the south walls due to differential erosion, though the underlying cause for this asymmetry is not clear. Furthermore, we speculate that most of the geomorphic features observed within the canyons (e.g., terraces, tributary canyons, gullies, and hanging valleys) were formed during the Pleistocene, and show only

  19. Study of line source characteristics for 2-D physical modelling of pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meroney, Robert N. [Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Program, Civil Engineering Department, Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO (United States); Pavageau, Michel; Rafailidis, Stilianos; Schatzmann, Michael [Meteorologisches Institut, Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    The University of Hamburg initiated a wind tunnel study of car exhaust dispersion from street canyons in an urban environment to investigate how pollution dispersion is affected by street geometry. Particular emphasis at the beginning of this work was put on the design of a line source to represent traffic exhaust. Pollution dispersion was studied in two dimensions (i.e., infinite-length streets were assumed). The case of an isolated street canyon in open country was examined first. The same street canyon geometry was subsequently studied in an urban environment, i.e., with additional canyons of similar geometry upstream and downstream of the test street. The dynamic and dispersion characteristics of the flow in the two cases were quite different. In the canyon amidst open country we observed better canyon ventilation than in the urban roughness case

  20. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W., III

    2014-01-01

    luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry...... dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL......While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated...

  1. A simple model for calculating air pollution within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Laura E.; Mazzeo, Nicolás A.; Dezzutti, Mariana C.

    2014-04-01

    This paper introduces the Semi-Empirical Urban Street (SEUS) model. SEUS is a simple mathematical model based on the scaling of air pollution concentration inside street canyons employing the emission rate, the width of the canyon, the dispersive velocity scale and the background concentration. Dispersive velocity scale depends on turbulent motions related to wind and traffic. The parameterisations of these turbulent motions include two dimensionless empirical parameters. Functional forms of these parameters have been obtained from full scale data measured in street canyons at four European cities. The sensitivity of SEUS model is studied analytically. Results show that relative errors in the evaluation of the two dimensionless empirical parameters have less influence on model uncertainties than uncertainties in other input variables. The model estimates NO2 concentrations using a simple photochemistry scheme. SEUS is applied to estimate NOx and NO2 hourly concentrations in an irregular and busy street canyon in the city of Buenos Aires. The statistical evaluation of results shows that there is a good agreement between estimated and observed hourly concentrations (e.g. fractional bias are -10.3% for NOx and +7.8% for NO2). The agreement between the estimated and observed values has also been analysed in terms of its dependence on wind speed and direction. The model shows a better performance for wind speeds >2 m s-1 than for lower wind speeds and for leeward situations than for others. No significant discrepancies have been found between the results of the proposed model and that of a widely used operational dispersion model (OSPM), both using the same input information.

  2. Canyon Creek: A late Pleistocene vertebrate locality in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Florence R.; Hamilton, Thomas D.; Hopkins, David M.; Repenning, Charles A.; Haas, Herbert

    1981-09-01

    The Canyon Creek vertebrate-fossil locality is an extensive road cut near Fairbanks that exposes sediments that range in age from early Wisconsin to late Holocene. Tanana River gravel at the base of the section evidently formed during the Delta Glaciation of the north-central Alaska Range. Younger layers and lenses of fluvial sand are interbedded with arkosic gravel from Canyon Creek that contains tephra as well as fossil bones of an interstadial fauna about 40,000 years old. Solifluction deposits containing ventifacts, wedge casts, and rodent burrows formed during a subsequent period of periglacial activity that took place during the maximum phase of Donnelly Glaciation about 25,000-17,000 years ago. Overlying sheets of eolian sand are separated by a 9500-year-old paleosol that may correlate with a phase of early Holocene spruce expansion through central Alaska. The Pleistocene fauna from Canyon Creek consists of rodents (indicated by burrows), Mammuthus primigenius (woolly mammoth), Equus lambei (Yukon wild ass), Camelops hesternus (western camel), Bison sp. cf. B. crassicornis (large-horned bison), Ovis sp. cf. O. dalli (mountain sheep), Canis sp. cf. C. lupus (wolf), Lepus sp. cf. L. othus or L. arcticus (tundra hare), and Rangifer sp. (caribou). This assemblage suggests an open landscape in which trees and tall shrubs were either absent or confined to sheltered and moist sites. Camelops evidently was present in eastern Beringia during the middle Wisconsin interstadial interval but may have disappeared during the following glacial episode. The stratigraphic section at Canyon Creek appears to demonstrate that the Delta Glaciation of the north-central Alaska Range is at least in part of early Wisconsin age and was separated from the succeeding Donnelly Glaciation by an interstadial rather than interglacial episode.

  3. The down canyon evolution of submarine sediment density flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Barry, J.; Clare, M. A.; Cartigny, M.; Chaffey, M. R.; Gales, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Maier, K. L.; McGann, M.; Paull, C. K.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E. J.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine density flows, known as turbidity currents, transfer globally significant volumes of terrestrial and shelf sediments, organic carbon, nutrients and fresher-water into the deep ocean. Understanding such flows has wide implications for global organic carbon cycling, the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, seabed infrastructure hazard assessments, and interpreting geological archives of Earth history. Only river systems transport comparable volumes of sediment over such large areas of the globe. Despite their clear importance, there are remarkably few direct measurements of these oceanic turbidity currents in action. Here we present results from the multi-institution Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) which deployed multiple moorings along the axis of Monterey Canyon (offshore California). An array of six moorings, with downward looking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) were positioned along the canyon axis from 290 m to 1850 m water depth. The ADCPs reveal the internal flow structure of submarine density flows at each site. We use a novel inversion method to reconstruct the suspended sediment concentration and flow stratification field during each event. Together the six moorings provide the first ever views of the internal structural evolution of turbidity current events as they evolve down system. Across the total 18-month period of deployment at least 15 submarine sediment density flows were measured with velocities up to 8.1 m/sec, with three of these flows extending 50 kms down the canyon beyond the 1850 m water depth mooring. We use these novel data to highlight the controls on ignition, interval structure and collapse of individual events and discuss the implications for the functioning and deposits produced by these enigmatic flows.

  4. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, L.; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 2 (2016), s. 259-284 ISSN 0006-8314 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1554; GA ČR GA15-18964S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : Coherent structures * line source * pollution flux measurements * street canyon * wind tunnel Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.573, year: 2016

  5. LES of flow in the street canyon

    OpenAIRE

    Brechler Josef; Fuka Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model) and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment) are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  6. LES of flow in the street canyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechler Josef

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  7. Basic repository source term and data sheet report: Lavender Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is one of a series describing studies undertaken in support of the US Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. This study contains the derivation of values for environmental source terms and resources consumed for a CRWM repository. Estimates include heavy construction equipment; support equipment; shaft-sinking equipment; transportation equipment; and consumption of fuel, water, electricity, and natural gas. Data are presented for construction and operation at an assumed site in Lavender Canyon, Utah. 3 refs; 6 tabs

  8. Basic repository source term and data sheet report: Davis Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is one of series describing studies undertaken in support of the US Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. This study contains the derivation of values for environmental source terms and resources consumed for a CRWM repository. Estimates include heavy construction equipment; support equipment; shaft-sinking equipment; transportation equipment; and consumption of fuel, water electricity, and natural gas. Data are presented for construction and operation at an assumed site in Davis Canyon, Utah. 6 tabs

  9. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon center axis. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released from a line source embedded in the street surface, simulating vehicle exhaust emissions. The influence of various tree planting arrangements on ...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF BUOYANCY ON FLOW AND POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN STREET CANYONS

    OpenAIRE

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Pulvirenti, Beatrice; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Britter, Rex

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, the effect of buoyancy on flow and pollutant dispersion within street canyons is studied by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations. We consider a neutral boundary layer approaching a 3D street canyon assuming a wind direction perpendicular to the street canyon. The Boussinesq hypothesis for incompressible fluids is chosen for modelling buoyancy. We distinguish three cases: leeward, ground and windward wall heating. Thermal effects on both the flow ...

  11. Partly standing internal tides in a dendritic submarine canyon observed by an ocean glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rob A.; Aslam, Tahmeena; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2017-08-01

    An autonomous ocean glider is used to make the first direct measurements of internal tides within Whittard Canyon, a large, dendritic submarine canyon system that incises the Celtic Sea continental slope and a site of high benthic biodiversity. This is the first time a glider has been used for targeted observations of internal tides in a submarine canyon. Vertical isopycnal displacement observations at different stations fit a one-dimensional model of partly standing semidiurnal internal tides - comprised of a major, incident wave propagating up the canyon limbs and a minor wave reflected back down-canyon by steep, supercritical bathymetry near the canyon heads. The up-canyon internal tide energy flux in the primary study limb decreases from 9.2 to 2.0 kW m-1 over 28 km (a dissipation rate of 1 - 2.5 ×10-7 Wkg-1), comparable to elevated energy fluxes and internal tide driven mixing measured in other canyon systems. Within Whittard Canyon, enhanced mixing is inferred from collapsed temperature-salinity curves and weakened dissolved oxygen concentration gradients near the canyon heads. It has previously been hypothesised that internal tides impact benthic fauna through elevated near-bottom current velocities and particle resuspension. In support of this, we infer order 20 cm s-1 near-bottom current velocities in the canyon and observe high concentrations of suspended particulate matter. The glider observations are also used to estimate a 1 °C temperature range and 12 μmol kg-1 dissolved oxygen concentration range, experienced twice a day by organisms on the canyon walls, due to the presence of internal tides. This study highlights how a well-designed glider mission, incorporating a series of tide-resolving stations at key locations, can be used to understand internal tide dynamics in a region of complex topography, a sampling strategy that is applicable to continental shelves and slopes worldwide.

  12. Evolution and Submarine Landslide Potential of Monterey Canyon Head, Offshore Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Johnson, S. Y.; Hart, P. E.; Hartwell, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Monterey Canyon, offshore central California, incises the shelf from near the shoreline to 30 km seaward where axial water depths approach 2,000 m. It is one of the world's most studied submarine canyons, yet debate continues concerning its age, formation, and associated geologic hazards. To address these issues, the USGS, with partial support from the California Seafloor Mapping Program, collected hundreds of kilometers of high-resolution, mini-sparker, single-channel (2009 and 2011 surveys) and multichannel (2015 survey) seismic-reflection profiles near the canyon head. The seismic data were combined with multibeam bathymetry to generate a geologic map of the proximal canyon, which delineates numerous faults and compound submarine landslide headwall scarps (covering up to 4 km2) along canyon walls. Seismic-reflection data reveal a massive ( 100 km2 lateral extent) paleochannel cut-and-fill complex underlying the proximal canyon. These subsurface cut-and-fill deposits span both sides of the relatively narrow modern canyon head, crop out in canyon walls, and incise into Purisima Formation (late Miocene and Pliocene) bedrock to depths of up to 0.3 s two-way travel time ( 240 m) below the modern shelf. We propose that the paleochannel complex represents previous locations of a migrating canyon head, and attribute its origin to multiple alternating cycles of fluvial and submarine canyon erosion and deposition linked to fluctuating sea levels. Thus, the canyon head imaged in modern bathymetry is a relatively young feature, perhaps forming in the last 20,000 years of sea-level rise. The paleocanyon deposits are significantly less consolidated than bedrock in deeper canyon walls, and therefore, are probably more prone to submarine landsliding. Nearby mapped faults occur within the active, distributed, San Andreas fault system, and earthquake-generated strong ground motions are likely triggers for past and future submarine landslides and potential associated tsunamis.

  13. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  14. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  15. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  17. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  18. Human rhinovirus capsid dynamics is controlled by canyon flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisdorph, Nichole; Thomas, John J.; Katpally, Umesh; Chase, Elaine; Harris, Ken; Siuzdak, Gary; Smith, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative enzyme accessibility experiments using nano liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry combined with limited proteolysis and isotope-labeling was used to examine the dynamic nature of the human rhinovirus (HRV) capsid in the presence of three antiviral compounds, a neutralizing Fab, and drug binding cavity mutations. Using these methods, it was found that the antivirals WIN 52084 and picovir (pleconaril) stabilized the capsid, while dansylaziridine caused destabilization. Site-directed mutations in the drug-binding cavity were found to stabilize the HRV14 capsid against proteolytic digestion in a manner similar to WIN 52084 and pleconaril. Antibodies that bind to the NIm-IA antigenic site and penetrate the canyon were also observed to protect the virion against proteolytic cleavage. These results demonstrate that quantifying the effects of antiviral ligands on protein 'breathing' can be used to compare their mode of action and efficacy. In this case, it is apparent that hydrophobic antiviral agents, antibodies, or mutations in the canyon region block viral breathing. Therefore, these studies demonstrate that mobility in the canyon region is a major determinant in capsid breathing

  19. The Influence of Roof Material on Diurnal Urban Canyon Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhegazy, Mohamed; Yaghoobian, Neda

    2017-11-01

    Improvements in building energy use, air quality in urban canyons and in general urban microclimates require understanding the complex interaction between urban morphology, materials, climate, and inflow conditions. Review of the literature indicates that despite a long history of valuable urban microclimate studies, more comprehensive approaches are needed to address energy, and heat and flow transport in urban areas. In this study, a more comprehensive simulation of the diurnally varying street canyon flow and associated heat transport is numerically investigated, using Large-eddy Simulation (LES). We use computational modeling to examine the impact of diurnal variation of the heat fluxes from urban surfaces on the air flow and temperature distribution in street canyons with a focus on the role of roof materials and their temperature footprints. A detailed building energy model with a three-dimensional raster-type geometry provides urban surface heat fluxes as thermal boundary conditions for the LES to determine the key aero-thermodynamic factors that affect urban street ventilation.

  20. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality in Sandia Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.

    1994-05-01

    In 1990, field studies of water quality and stream macroinvertebrate communities were initiated in Sandia Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies were designed to establish baseline data and to determine the effects of routine discharges of industrial and sanitary waste. Water quality measurements were taken and aquatic macroinvertebrates sampled at three permanent stations within the canyon. Two of the three sample stations are located where the stream regularly receives industrial and sanitary waste effluents. These stations exhibited a low diversity of macroinvertebrates and slightly degraded water quality. The last sample station, located approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from the nearest wastewater outfall, appears to be in a zone of recovery where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams in the Los Alamos area. A large increase in macroinvertebrate diversity was also observed at the third station. These results indicate that effluents discharged into Sandia Canyon have a marked effect on water quality and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities

  1. Late Holocene earthquake history of the Brigham City segment of the Wasatch fault zone at the Hansen Canyon, Kotter Canyon, and Pearsons Canyon trench sites, Box Elder County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRoss, Christopher B.; Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; McDonald, Greg N.; Briggs, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Of the five central segments of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) having evidence of recurrent Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes, the Brigham City segment (BCS) has the longest elapsed time since its most recent surface-faulting event (~2.1 kyr) compared to its mean recurrence time between events (~1.3 kyr). Thus, the BCS has the highest time-dependent earthquake probability of the central WFZ. We excavated trenches at three sites––the Kotter Canyon and Hansen Canyon sites on the north-central BCS and Pearsons Canyon site on the southern BCS––to determine whether a surface-faulting earthquake younger than 2.1 ka occurred on the BCS. Paleoseismic data for Hansen Canyon and Kotter Canyon confirm that the youngest earthquake on the north-central BCS occurred before 2 ka, consistent with previous north-central BCS investigations at Bowden Canyon and Box Elder Canyon. At Hansen Canyon, the most recent earthquake is constrained to 2.1–4.2 ka and had 0.6–2.5 m of vertical displacement. At Kotter Canyon, we found evidence for two events at 2.5 ± 0.3 ka and 3.5 ± 0.3 ka, with an average displacement per event of 1.9–2.3 m. Paleoseismic data from Pearsons Canyon, on the previously unstudied southern BCS, indicate that a post-2 ka earthquake ruptured this part of the segment. The Pearsons Canyon earthquake occurred at 1.2 ± 0.04 ka and had 0.1–0.8 m of vertical displacement, consistent with our observation of continuous, youthful scarps on the southern 9 km of the BCS having 1–2 m of late Holocene(?) surface offset. The 1.2-ka earthquake on the southern BCS likely represents rupture across the Weber–Brigham City segment boundary from the penultimate Weber-segment earthquake at about 1.1 ka. The Pearsons Canyon data result in a revised length of the BCS that has not ruptured since 2 ka (with time-dependent probability implications), and provide compelling evidence of at least one segment-boundary failure and multi-segment rupture on the central WFZ. Our

  2. Characteristics of flow and reactive pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Minjoong J.; Park, Rokjin J.; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effects of aspect ratio defined as the ratio of building height to street width on the dispersion of reactive pollutants in street canyons were investigated using a coupled CFD-chemistry model. Flow characteristics for different aspect ratios were analyzed first. For each aspect ratio, six emission scenarios with different VOC-NOX ratios were considered. One vortex was generated when the aspect ratio was less than 1.6 (shallow street canyon). When the aspect ratio was greater than 1.6 (deep street canyon), two vortices were formed in the street canyons. Comparing to previous studies on two-dimensional street canyons, the vortex center is slanted toward the upwind building and reverse and downward flows are dominant in street canyons. Near the street bottom, there is a marked difference in flow pattern between in shallow and deep street canyons. Near the street bottom, reverse and downward flows are dominant in shallow street canyon and flow convergence exists near the center of the deep street canyons, which induces a large difference in the NOX and O3 dispersion patterns in the street canyons. NOX concentrations are high near the street bottom and decreases with height. The O3 concentrations are low at high NO concentrations near the street bottom because of NO titration. At a low VOC-NOX ratio, the NO concentrations are sufficiently high to destroy large amount of O3 by titration, resulting in an O3 concentration in the street canyon much lower than the background concentration. At high VOC-NOX ratios, a small amount of O3 is destroyed by NO titration in the lower layer of the street canyons. However, in the upper layer, O3 is formed through the photolysis of NO2 by VOC degradation reactions. As the aspect ratio increases, NOX (O3) concentrations averaged over the street canyons decrease (increase) in the shallow street canyons. This is because outward flow becomes strong and NOX flux toward the outsides of the street canyons increases

  3. Influence of cetane improvers on the air quality in an urban street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Akutsu, Y.; Arai, M.; Tamura, M.

    2000-01-01

    The concentration distributions of NO x , PM, HC and CO in an urban street canyon have been estimated using a two-dimensional air quality numerical model based on the k-e turbulent model and the atmospheric convection diffusion equation when various cetane improvers were used in diesel fuels. A wind vortex can be found within the street canyon, and the pollutants emitted from the bottom of the street canyon tend to follow the course of the wind field, moving circularly. The addition of cetane improvers can improve the air quality in a street canyon, all of the pollutants were found to decrease with increasing cetane number. (Author)

  4. UV Radiation in an Urban Canyon in Southeast Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, A. R.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has the possibility to both harm and to benefit human beings when unprotected exposure occurs. After receiving small amounts of UV our bodies begin to synthesise vitamin D, which is essential for maintaining healthy bones, however excessive UV exposure can result in a variety of damaging outcomes ranging from sunburn to skin cancer and cataracts. For this reason it is very important to understand the different environments in which people encounter UV so as to better prepare the public to make smart and healthy sun exposure decisions. Each day more and more people are moving into large cities around the world and spending their time inside the urban canyon, however UV measurements are generally taken at scientific stations in open areas or on top of tall buildings, meaning that at times the environmental characteristics measured may not accurately represent those found at street-level in these highly urbanized areas. Urban canyons are home to both very tall buildings and tropospheric air pollution, each of which reduces the amount of UV reaching street-level. This study measured the varying difference between UV measurements taken at street-level and at a standard UV monitoring site on top of a building outside of the urban canyon. Investigation was conducted in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia, which models the CBDs of large cities around the world in that it boasts a great number of tall buildings, including many skyscrapers. Data was collected under clear sky conditions at five different street-level sites in the CBD (on either side of two streets running perpendicular to one another (four sites) and in a public square) and then compared to that obtained on the same day at the Queensland University of Technology's Australian Sun and Health Research Laboratory (ASHRL), which is located 2.5 kilometres outside Brisbane's CBD. Minimum erythemal dose (MED) data was collected at each location and it was found that

  5. El factor internacional en la transición española: la influencia del contexto internacional y el papel de las potencias centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos PEREIRA CASTAÑARES

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La transición española hacia la democracia ha sido objeto de numerosos estudios; sin embargo, en la mayoría de los casos la transición se ha analizado desde el punto de vista interno o de los protagonistas nacionales. En nuestra investigación analizamos, por el contrario, la influencia del factor internacional en ese proceso de transición. Entendemos el factor internacional desde dos perspectivas: la incidencia de este factor hacia el interior, es decir, la influencia del contexto internacional y sus actores; por otro lado, hacia el exterior, es decir, cómo se produce también una transición en el proceso de formulación, decisión y ejecución de la política exterior del autoritarismo a la democracia. Se presenta en este trabajo unos primeros resultados de la investigación sobre la influencia del contexto internacional, planteando una propuesta teórico-metodológica que se aplica al caso español. Por último, nos centramos más concretamente en la intervención de Francia, Alemania y Estados Unidos, como potencias centrales en esa influencia internacional. Palabras clave: Transición Española, Contexto Internacional, Francia, Alemania, Estados Unidos ABSTRACT: The Spanish Transition to democracy has been the aim of many studies, but the majority of the cases the transition has been analysed from the inside point of view or from the perspective of national actors. In our reserach we study, on the other hand, the International Factor in this process of transition. We consider the International Factor from two perspectives: on the one hand, the impact of this factor toward the domestic affairs, the influence of International Context and its actors; and, on the other hand, toward outside, the way of transition in the process of formulation, decision and execution of the foreign policy from authoritarianism to democracy. We show in this work a first results of the research about the influence of the International Context and

  6. FUNCIONAMIENTO Y DISCAPACIDAD: LA CLASIFICACION INTERNACIONAL DEL FUNCIONAMIENTO (CIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Fernández-López

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Clasificación Internacional del Funcionamiento, de la Discapacidad y de la Salud (CIF constituye el marco conceptual de la OMS para una nueva comprensión del funcionamiento, la discapacidad y la salud. Es una clasificación universal que establece un marco y lenguaje estandarizados para describir la salud y las dimensiones relacionadas con ella. Abarca tres componentes esenciales: funciones corporales/estructuras, actividad y participación, integrados bajo los términos "funcionamiento" y "discapacidad", que dependen de la condición de salud y de su interacción con factores contextuales. Los componentes están clasificados mediante categorías. Hoy por hoy consta de 1.424 categorías organizadas en una estructura jerárquica de 4 niveles de menos preciso a más. En el caso de los factores contextuales la cuantificación de las categorías mediante calificadores establece en qué medida un factor actúa como barrera o facilitador. La instrumentalización de la CIF con fines prácticos ha llevado al desarrollo de grupos de categorías (núcleos básicos útiles para la clínica práctica, la provisión de servicios o la investigación. Los núcleos básicos son abreviados o extensos según la intención sea estudiar condiciones específicas o realizar aplicaciones integrale multidisciplinares. Existen núcleos básicos para enfermedades muy prevalentes según la fase del proceso: aguda, postaguda, crónica o comunitaria, cubriendo todo el proceso de enfermedad y toda la cadena sanitaria. Su aplicación clínica mejora la comunicación médico-paciente y el establecimiento de objetivos terapéuticos integrales. Asimismo, sirve para la evaluación multidisciplinar en medios clínicos, legales y de programas. La CIF logra la superación de conceptos de amplia utilización sanitaria, como bienestar, estado de salud o calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y abre una nueva línea de enseñanza estudiantil en todas las especialidades y de

  7. Of travertine and time: otolith chemistry and microstructure detect provenance and demography of endangered humpback chub in Grand Canyon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limburg, Karin E.; Hayden, Todd A.; Pine, William E.; Yard, Michael D.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a geochemical atlas of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and in its tributary, the Little Colorado River, and used it to identify provenance and habitat use by Federally Endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha. Carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) discriminate best between the two rivers, but fine scale analysis in otoliths requires rare, expensive instrumentation. We therefore correlated other tracers (SrSr, Ba, and Se in ratio to Ca) to δ13C that are easier to quantify in otoliths with other microchemical techniques. Although the Little Colorado River’s water chemistry varies with major storm events, at base flow or near base flow (conditions occurring 84% of the time in our study) its chemistry differs sufficiently from the mainstem to discriminate one from the other. Additionally, when fish egress from the natal Little Colorado River to the mainstem, they encounter cold water which causes the otolith daily growth increments to decrease in size markedly. Combining otolith growth increment analysis and microchemistry permitted estimation of size and age at first egress; size at first birthday was also estimated. Emigrants < 1 year old averaged 51.2 ± 4.4 (SE) days and 35.5 ± 3.6 mm at egress; older fish that had recruited to the population averaged 100 ± 7.8 days old and 51.0 ± 2.2 mm at egress, suggesting that larger, older emigrants recruit better. Back-calculated size at age 1 was unimodal and large (78.2 ± 3.3 mm) in Little Colorado caught fish but was bimodally distributed in Colorado mainstem caught fish (49.9 ± 3.6 and 79 ± 4.9 mm) suggesting that humpback chub can also rear in the mainstem. The study demonstrates the coupled usage of the two rivers by this fish and highlights the need to consider both rivers when making management decisions for humpback chub recovery.

  8. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  9. An individual-based model for population viability analysis of humpback chub in Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, William Pine; Healy, Brian; Smith, Emily Omana; Trammell, Melissa; Speas, Dave; Valdez, Rich; Yard, Mike; Walters, Carl; Ahrens, Rob; Vanhaverbeke, Randy; Stone, Dennis; Wilson, Wade

    2013-01-01

    We developed an individual-based population viability analysis model (females only) for evaluating risk to populations from catastrophic events or conservation and research actions. This model tracks attributes (size, weight, viability, etc.) for individual fish through time and then compiles this information to assess the extinction risk of the population across large numbers of simulation trials. Using a case history for the Little Colorado River population of Humpback Chub Gila cypha in Grand Canyon, Arizona, we assessed extinction risk and resiliency to a catastrophic event for this population and then assessed a series of conservation actions related to removing specific numbers of Humpback Chub at different sizes for conservation purposes, such as translocating individuals to establish other spawning populations or hatchery refuge development. Our results suggested that the Little Colorado River population is generally resilient to a single catastrophic event and also to removals of larvae and juveniles for conservation purposes, including translocations to establish new populations. Our results also suggested that translocation success is dependent on similar survival rates in receiving and donor streams and low emigration rates from recipient streams. In addition, translocating either large numbers of larvae or small numbers of large juveniles has generally an equal likelihood of successful population establishment at similar extinction risk levels to the Little Colorado River donor population. Our model created a transparent platform to consider extinction risk to populations from catastrophe or conservation actions and should prove useful to managers assessing these risks for endangered species such as Humpback Chub.

  10. 36 CFR 7.92 - Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Wyoming Game and Fish Department Residence on the Pond 5 road northeast to the Kane Cemetery. North along the main traveled road past Mormon Point, Jim Creek, along the Big Fork Canal, crossing said canal and... designated routes is prohibited. (c) Fishing. Unless otherwise designated, fishing in any manner authorized...

  11. Ordem jurídica, desordem mundial. Um contributo para o estudo do Direito Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Pureza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O ensino e o estudo do Direito Internacional aqui e neste tempo são, neste texto, objecto de um duplo esforço de contextualização. Por um lado, relacionando-os com o que tem sido a sua trajectória singular em Portugal. Esse primeiro exercício confere visibilidade não só ao descompasso entre a “nossa” agenda substantiva do Direito Internacional e a que tem sido internacionalmente desenvolvida, como também aos défices teóricos e práticos dessa agenda „nacional”. Por outro lado, contextualização pela dinâmica de transformação do próprio Direito Internacional, que conduziu do tradicional direito vestefaliano ao direito da humanidade.

  12. The pan-americanist imaginary and O Cruzeiro Internacional (1957-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Regina Meyrer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The article aims to identify the main ideas that supported the launch of the magazine O Cruzeiro Internacional (1957-1965, Brazilian journal published in Spanish and distributed throughout Latin America, Spain and areas of the United States. It tries to understand how these ideas have permeated the diffusion of a specific pan-American imaginary on certain groups and/or governments that guided through texts and photographic images a set of social representations on Latin America. These, in general, were selected for the defense of a Latin American unity under the economic, political and cultural hegemony of Brazil, at the regional level and the of USA worldwide.   Keywords: Photojournalism – Latin America; O Cruzeiro Internacional; Journals - Brazil.   Original title: O imaginário pan-americanista e O Cruzeiro Internacional (1957-1965.

  13. Compilation of PRF Canyon Floor Pan Sample Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wahl, Jon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, Lawrence R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bryan, Samuel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scheele, Randall D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Garrett N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clark, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    On September 28, 2015, debris collected from the PRF (236-Z) canyon floor, Pan J, was observed to exhibit chemical reaction. The material had been transferred from the floor pan to a collection tray inside the canyon the previous Friday. Work in the canyon was stopped to allow Industrial Hygiene to perform monitoring of the material reaction. Canyon floor debris that had been sealed out was sequestered at the facility, a recovery plan was developed, and drum inspections were initiated to verify no additional reactions had occurred. On October 13, in-process drums containing other Pan J material were inspected and showed some indication of chemical reaction, limited to discoloration and degradation of inner plastic bags. All Pan J material was sealed back into the canyon and returned to collection trays. Based on the high airborne levels in the canyon during physical debris removal, ETGS (Encapsulation Technology Glycerin Solution) was used as a fogging/lock-down agent. On October 15, subject matter experts confirmed a reaction had occurred between nitrates (both Plutonium Nitrate and Aluminum Nitrate Nonahydrate (ANN) are present) in the Pan J material and the ETGS fixative used to lower airborne radioactivity levels during debris removal. Management stopped the use of fogging/lock-down agents containing glycerin on bulk materials, declared a Management Concern, and initiated the Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis determination process. Additional drum inspections and laboratory analysis of both reacted and unreacted material are planned. This report compiles the results of many different sample analyses conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on samples collected from the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) floor pans by the CH2MHill’s Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Revision 1 added Appendix G that reports the results of the Gas Generation Rate and methodology. The scope of analyses requested by CHPRC includes the determination of

  14. Nuevamente sobre la segmentación internacional de la producción

    OpenAIRE

    Minian, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo aborda un aspecto fundamental de la globalización: la segmentación internacional de la producción y el correspondiente crecimiento en el comercio internacional de productos manufacturados intermedios. En esta óptica se estudia la lógica económica que subyace al proceso de segmentación, en especial aquella que tiene lugar entre países avanzados y países emergentes. Un factor primordial de este fenómeno radica en la organización modular de la producción manufacturera en país...

  15. Empresas multinacionales y estructura del comercio internacional : España

    OpenAIRE

    Criollo Galindo, Yuri Lizeth

    2014-01-01

    Inicialmente se estudia el comercio internacional haciéndose una revisión de sus teorías y la estructura del comercio exterior para el caso de España. Posteriormente se analiza el papel desempeñado por las empresas multinacionales, resaltando la importancia de la inversión extranjera directa. Finalmente se realiza un modelo explicativo para el comercio, evaluando el impacto de los flujos de entrada de capitales en España sobre el comercio internacional de nuestro país. Departamento de Fund...

  16. La cooperación internacional entre los organismos electorales de América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Sobrado González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ensayo sobre la relación de cooperación internacional entre los órganos electorales de los países latinoamericanos y los órganos de cooperación internacionales y regionales que contribuyen a esta cooperación horizontal. El artículo inicia con una reseña breve de los antecedentes de los procesos electorales, desarrolla seguidamente las características generales de la cooperación internacional y los órganos de cooperación que coadyuvan a estas relaciones entre los organismos electorales de la región

  17. EL DESARROLLO DE LA COMPETENCIA INTERNACIONAL. PRIMEROS APORTES DESDE NÜREMBERG Y TOKIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Sandoval Mesa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza las experiencias para la construcción de la justicia penal internacional que desde los Tribunales de Nüremberg y Tokio construyeron y adicionaron los principales factores de competencia que sirven de base en la actualidad para la realidad que se representa en la Corte Penal Internacional. A través del presente documento se pretende mostrar que antes de abordar la cuestión de admisibilidad contemporánea ante la CPI, es importante conocer como se han construido sus bases y de donde devienen sus principales instituciones.

  18. Sistema Político Internacional e Globalização: Continuidade ou Rotura?

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu Varanda, Artur Jorge

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho realizado no âmbito da unidade currucular - Teoria da relações internacionais - 4º Ano procura identificar os efeitos das Globalização no Sistema Político Internacional. Para tal, é primeiro definido o conceito de Sistema Político Internacional, partindo do conceito de Sistema para chegar à definição de Kenneth Waltz, inserida no Realismo Estruesturalista, sendo ainda explorada a complexidade do sistema. Em seguida, é caracterizada a evolução do Sistema Político Internacio...

  19. Aproximación al concepto de fuentes del derecho internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gerardo Monroy-Cabra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace un análisis de las diferentes fuentes del derecho internacional, bajo dos perspectivas, la primera, una visión clásica señalando las diferentes fuentes del artículo 38 del Estatuto de la Corte Internacional de justicia; y la segunda, señalando aquellas fuentes que, sin encontrarse en el artículo 38, han sido desarrolladas por la jurisprudencia  y la doctrina.

  20. Efectos del comercio internacional sobre la distribución de la renta

    OpenAIRE

    Conde González, Noelia

    2017-01-01

    Desde el inicio del mercantilismo hasta nuestros días, ha existido controversia entre los defensores del libre comercio y los que se posicionan a favor del proteccionismo. El presente trabajo pretende esclarecer qué factores motivan el comercio internacional y para ello, se realiza una revisión de los modelos teóricos. Asimismo, se analiza de qué manera el comercio internacional incide sobre el crecimiento económico y sobre la distribución de la renta. Se hace especial hincapié en el teorema ...

  1. Elementos de la soberanía y del tribunal penal internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Scalquette, Rodrigo Arnoni

    2007-01-01

    Com o título de Elementos da Soberania e do Tribunal Penal Internacional procuramos demonstrar a ligação e pontos conflitantes entre o poder soberano e a Corte Internacional Criminal. No capítulo I, abordamos o conceito de soberania e seu enfoque de concepção política, realizado por Jean Bodin. Vimos o Estado-Leviatã de Thomas Hobbes e a soberania inalienável e indivisível de Jean-Jacques Rousseau. A relação entre Umberto Campagnolo e seu professor, Hans Kelsen, também foi abordada, nota...

  2. Una reconstrucción milliana del modelo ricardiano de comercio internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffo López Leonardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se desarrolla una reconstrucción completa de la parte real del modelo ricardiano de comercio internacional. Esta permite demostrar que la participación de la demanda de cada bien en el gasto total y el tamaño relativo de las economías son los factores clave en la determinación de los términos de intercambio de equilibrio y de las ganancias relativas de los países. Adicionalmente, se prueban algunas de las ideas de John Stuart Mill en torno al comercio internacional.

  3. Enquadramento regulamentar do comércio internacional de medicamentos: o papel das autoridades reguladoras

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Maria Margarida Freire Leitão Candeias Silva, 1975-

    2010-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Regulação e Avaliação de Medicamentos e Produtos de Saúde, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia, 2010 As exigências cada vez maiores do comércio internacional dos medicamentos levam a pensar sobre qual a melhor forma de actuação das autoridades de saúde, para se conseguir atingir um melhor e eficaz controlo do mesmo. Neste sentido, é proposto um modelo de intervenção para a autoridade reguladora, no contexto do comércio internacional de medicamentos, proceden...

  4. Letramento digital e letramento informacional na literatura nacional e internacional em língua inglesa

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Alberto José Ferreira de

    2012-01-01

    Na última década, constata-se o crescente interesse pelos estudos voltados ao letramento informacional e letramento digital na literatura nacional e internacional em língua inglesa, o qual se reflete, principalmente, no número de publicações sobre esses temas. O propósito deste estudo é comparar na produção acadêmica nacional e internacional em língua inglesa as concepções, os usos e as relações entre letramento digital e letramento informacional. A fim de atingir os objetivos propostos ...

  5. DERECHO INTERNACIONAL, DIVERSIDAD CULTURAL Y RESISTENCIA SOCIAL: EL CASO DE LA LEY GENERAL FORESTAL EN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla-Maldonado, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    El derecho internacional ha sido reiteradamente cuestionado por su carácter excluyente y sus usos imperiales. Estas críticas describen de manera precisa muchas de sus estructuras y dinámicas. Sin embargo, el derecho internacional puede ser un instrumento útil para proteger los intereses legítimos de los Estados del Sur Global, en general, y de los distintos grupos sociales y culturales que los componen, en particular. El uso estratégico de sus normas y procedimientos puede contribuir eficient...

  6. La filosofía de la integración económica internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Villegas Galarza

    1969-09-01

    Full Text Available Son muchos los estudios consagrados a definir el concepto de "integración económica internacional". La definición debe plantear tres preguntas, a las cuales trataremos de hallar respuesta, o, a lo menos, encontrar algunos elementos de definición. Ellas son: 1 ¿Existen mecanismos de integración internacional? 2 ¿Cómo se resuelve el problema del comando económico en un conjunto de vías de integración? 3 ¿Qué representa la idea de integración para la actual economía del mundo?

  7. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  8. JUS COGENS E A VALIDADE NORMATIVA: RUPTURA AO PARADIGMA DAS TRADICIONAIS FONTES NA TEORIA DO DIREITO INTERNACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonam Baesso da Silva Liziero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo problematizará o papel do jus cogens como uma fonte do direito internacional público, de reconhecimento posterior ao estabelecido pelo Estatuto da Corte Internacional de Justiça. Neste aspecto, é necessário se discutir o que representa o denominado jus cogens dentro da atual configuração do direito internacional público. Inicialmente será debatido a respeito de uma nova visão das fontes do direito internacional público que, a partir de 1945 com o advento do sistema Nações Unidas e posteriormente com a implementação das normas internacionais humanitárias e de proteção aos direitos humanos, é necessária para a compreensão da sociedade internacional contemporânea. O que se defende é a obsolescência do direito internacional composto apenas pelas fontes reconhecidas pelo Estatuto da Corte Internacional de Justiça. Posteriormente será discutido o lugar que ele ocupa no direito internacional, se é fonte ou apenas um critério de resolução de antinomias.

  9. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  10. A refined Astronomically Calibrated 40AR/39Ar age for Fish Canyon Sanidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, T.A.; Storey, M.; Zeeden, C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Kuiper, K.F.

    2011-01-01

    Intercalibration between the astronomical and radio-isotopic dating methods provides a means to improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty of an integrated, multi-chronometer geologic timescale. Here we report a high-precision

  11. Support for the Astronomically Calibrated 40Ar/39Ar Age of Fish Canyon Sanidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Zeeden, Christian

    2011-01-01

    al. (2008) determined an astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar age of 28.201 0.046 Ma (2), relative to the indirect astronomically tuned Moroccan Melilla Basin Messâdit section. Here, we provide independent verification for the Kuiper, et al. (2008) FCs age using sanidines extracted from the A1 tephra...

  12. 77 FR 59607 - Black Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Environmental Site Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14110-001] Black Canyon Hydro, LLC; Notice of Environmental Site Review On Wednesday, October 3, 2012, at 3 p.m., Commission staff will be participating in an environmental site review for the proposed Black Canyon Hydroelectric Project. All interested participants should mee...

  13. 75 FR 10308 - Fire Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Record of Decision, Grand Canyon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Fire Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact... Statement for the Fire Management Plan, Grand Canyon National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... the Record of Decision for the Fire Management Plan, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. On January...

  14. Effects of trees on the dilution of vehicle exhaust emissions in urban street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the natural ventilation and air quality of urban street canyons with trees, boundary layer wind tunnel studies at a small-scale model have been performed. Concentrations in street canyons with a tracer gas emitting line source at the ground level and one row of trees arranged

  15. A Numerical Simulation of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposures in Urban Street Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Fu, X.; Tao, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban street canyons are usually associated with intensive vehicle emissions. However, the high buildings successively along both sides of a street block the dispersion of traffic-generated air pollutants, which enhances human exposure and adversely affects human health. In this study, an urban scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed with the consideration of street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. Vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows will first disperse inside a street canyon along the micro-scale wind field (generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model) and then leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing, China. We found that an increase of building height along the streets leads to higher pollution levels inside streets and lower pollution levels outside, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, street canyons with equal (or highly uneven) building heights on two sides of a street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry in consideration of traffic demand as well as local weather pattern may significantly reduce the chances of unhealthy air being inhaled by urban residents.

  16. Strategic guidelines for street canyon geometry to achieve sustainable street air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Andy T.; So, Ellen S.P.; Samad, Subash C. [Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the motion of air within the urban street canyon and is directed towards a deeper understanding of pollutant dispersion with respect to various simple canyon geometries and source positions. Taking into account the present days typical urban configurations, three principal flow regimes 'isolated roughness flow', 'skimming flow' and 'wake interference flow' (Boundary Layer Climates, 2nd edition, Methuen, London) and their corresponding pollutant dispersion characteristics are studied for various canopies aspect ratios, namely relative height (h{sub 2}/H{sub 1}), canyon height to width ratio (h/w) and canyon length to height ratio (l/h). A field-size canyon has been analysed through numerical simulations using the standard k-{sup {epsilon}} turbulence closure model. It is found that the pollutant transport and diffusion is strongly dependent upon the type of flow regime inside the canyon and exchange between canyon and the above roof air. Some rules of thumbs have been established to get urban canyon geometries for efficient dispersion of pollutants. (Author)

  17. Captured in Stone: Women in the Rock Art of Canyon de Chelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Tara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the pictographs (painted images on stone) and petroglyphs (pecked images on stone) found in the Canyon de Chelly National Monument in Arizona. Canyon de Chelly includes one of the largest concentrations of American Indian rock art in the southwest. Discusses the depiction of women in these images. (MJP)

  18. 75 FR 27550 - Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION... would be generated from their proposed Juniper Canyon I Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) in Klickitat...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position 35...

  20. Draft environmental assessment: Lavender Canyon site, Utah. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Lavender Canyon site in Utah, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Lavender Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations contained in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Lavender Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is contained in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Davis Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Davis Canyon site rather than the Lavender Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization

  1. 75 FR 26788 - Public Land Order No. 7742; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Manning Canyon Tailings Repository; UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... 79765] Public Land Order No. 7742; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Manning Canyon Tailings Repository... period of 5 years to protect the integrity of the Manning Canyon Tailings Repository and surrounding... withdrawal is to protect public health and safety and the Federal investment in the Manning Canyon Tailings...

  2. 76 FR 14745 - Notice To Rescind a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement, Ada and Canyon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement, Ada and Canyon Counties, ID AGENCY: Federal Highway... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a proposed highway project in Ada and Canyon County, Idaho... Highway 44 from Exit 25 at Interstate 84 in Canyon County to Ballantyne Lane in Ada County. The project is...

  3. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  4. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Gromke, Christof; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ruck, Bodo

    2009-09-15

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant morphology, positioning and arrangement. We extend our previous work in this novel aspect of research to new configurations which comprise tree planting of different crown porosity and stand density, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H=2 with perpendicular approaching wind. Sulfur hexafluoride was used as tracer gas to model the traffic emissions. Complementary to wind tunnel experiments, 3D numerical simulations were performed with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT using a Reynolds Stress turbulence closure for flow and the advection-diffusion method for concentration calculations. In the presence of trees, both measurements and simulations showed considerable larger pollutant concentrations near the leeward wall and slightly lower concentrations near the windward wall in comparison with the tree-less case. Tree stand density and crown porosity were found to be of minor importance in affecting pollutant concentration. On the other hand, the analysis indicated that W/H is a more crucial parameter. The larger the value of W/H the smaller is the effect of trees on pedestrian level concentration regardless of tree morphology and arrangement. A preliminary analysis of approaching flow velocities showed that at low wind speed the effect of trees on concentrations is worst than at higher speed. The investigations carried out in this work allowed us to set up an appropriate CFD modelling methodology for the study of the aerodynamic effects of tree planting in street canyons. The results obtained can be used by city planners for the design of tree planting in the urban environment with regard to air quality issues.

  5. Geo-hazard by sediment mass movements in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaith, Afif; Fakhri, Milad; Ivaldi, Roberta; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Submarine mass movements and their consequences are of major concern for coastal communities and infrastructures but also for the exploitation and the development of seafloor resources. Elevated awareness of the need for better understanding of the underwater mass movement is coupled with great advances in underwater mapping technologies over the past two decades. The seafloor in the Nahr Ibrahim and Saida regions (Lebanon) is characterized by deep canyons, reaching one thousand meters depths in proximity of the coast. Signs of submarine mass movement instability related to these canyons create a connection between shallow and deep water. The presence of these canyons in a tectonically active area generates a particular drained mechanism to the sediment in form of mass movement and slumping. Identification of potential areas where slope movements could be triggered requires data with high spatial resolution. Since this area is poorly explored, in the framework of an international project between Lebanese Navy, Lebanese National Center for Marine Sciences, University of Ferrara and Italian Hydrographic Institute, we analyse the morpho-bathymetric and sedimentological characters of the coastal and shelf sectors. Multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler acoustic systems calibrated with ground truths (sediment grab and core samples) allow us to characterize the nature of seafloor and sub-seafloor with particular detail to the geotechnical properties of sediments and high resolution seismic stratigraphy of the shallow layers. The detection of particular undersea features provides detail maps which are in support to littoral morpho-dynamics, coastal transport and sediment budget. Multilayer hydro-oceanographic map, referring to the seafloor dynamics in connection with deep water environment and drainage system, in accordance to the International Hydrographic Standards and nautical supports, are produced. This high resolution multibeam bathymetry dataset, integrated

  6. Marble Canyon 10 x 20 NTMS area Arizona: data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, J.D.

    1980-07-01

    Results of ground water and stream/surface sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Marble Canyon 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. The target sampling density for all media collected was one site per 12 square kilometers. This resulted in 884 sediment samples being collected; however, dry conditions and sparse population resulted in the collection of only 2 ground water samples. Grand Canyon National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and much Indian tribal land in the southern half of the quadrangle were not sampled. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements for sediment samples are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Data from ground water include: water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); physical measurements (water temperature, and scintillometer readings); and elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, He, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include: water chemistry measurements (where available) for pH, conductivity, and alkalinity; and elemental analyses(U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Histograms, cumulative frequency, and areal distribution plots for most elements; Log U/Th, Log U/Hf, and Log U/(Th + Hf) ratios; and scintillometer readings are included

  7. Populating a Control Point Database: A cooperative effort between the USGS, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center and the Grand Canyon Youth Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. M.; Fritzinger, C.; Wharton, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center measures the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the resources along the Colorado River from Glen Canyon Dam to Lake Mead in support of the Grand Canyon Adaptive Management Program. Control points are integral for geo-referencing the myriad of data collected in the Grand Canyon including aerial photography, topographic and bathymetric data used for classification and change-detection analysis of physical, biologic and cultural resources. The survey department has compiled a list of 870 control points installed by various organizations needing to establish a consistent reference for data collected at field sites along the 240 mile stretch of Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. This list is the foundation for the Control Point Database established primarily for researchers, to locate control points and independently geo-reference collected field data. The database has the potential to be a valuable mapping tool for assisting researchers to easily locate a control point and reduce the occurrance of unknowingly installing new control points within close proximity of an existing control point. The database is missing photographs and accurate site description information. Current site descriptions do not accurately define the location of the point but refer to the project that used the point, or some other interesting fact associated with the point. The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) resolved this problem by turning the data collection effort into an educational exercise for the participants of the Grand Canyon Youth organization. Grand Canyon Youth is a non-profit organization providing experiential education for middle and high school aged youth. GCMRC and the Grand Canyon Youth formed a partnership where GCMRC provided the logistical support, equipment, and training to conduct the field work, and the Grand Canyon Youth provided the time and personnel to complete the field work. Two data

  8. Ancho Canyon RF Collect, March 2, 2017: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junor, William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Layne, John Preston [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gamble, Thomas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Bobby Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Snelson-Gerlicher, Catherine Mary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goorley, John Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    We report the results from the March 2, 2017, Ancho Canyon RF collection. While bright electromagnetic signals were seen nearby the firing point, there were no detections of signals from the explosively-fired fuse at a collection point about 570m distant on the East Mesa. However, "liveness" tests of the East Mesa data acquisition system and checks of the timing both suggest that the collection system was working correctly. We examine possible reasons for the lack of detection. Principal among these is that the impulsive signal may be small compared to the radio frequency background on the East Mesa.

  9. Late Holocene sea ice conditions in Herald Canyon, Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C.; O'Regan, M.; Rattray, J. E.; Hutchinson, D. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Gemery, L.; Barrientos, N.; Coxall, H.; Smittenberg, R.; Semiletov, I. P.; Jakobsson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean has been in steady decline in recent decades and, based on satellite data, the retreat is most pronounced in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Historical observations suggest that the recent changes were unprecedented during the last 150 years, but for a longer time perspective, we rely on the geological record. For this study, we analyzed sediment samples from two piston cores from Herald Canyon in the Chukchi Sea, collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 Arctic Ocean Expedition. The Herald Canyon is a local depression across the Chukchi Shelf, and acts as one of the main pathways for Pacific Water to the Arctic Ocean after entering through the narrow and shallow Bering Strait. The study site lies at the modern-day seasonal sea ice minimum edge, and is thus an ideal location for the reconstruction of past sea ice variability. Both sediment cores contain late Holocene deposits characterized by high sediment accumulation rates (100-300 cm/kyr). Core 2-PC1 from the shallow canyon flank (57 m water depth) is 8 meter long and extends back to 4200 cal yrs BP, while the upper 3 meters of Core 4-PC1 from the central canyon (120 mwd) cover the last 3000 years. The chronologies of the cores are based on radiocarbon dates and the 3.6 ka Aniakchak CFE II tephra, which is used as an absolute age marker to calculate the marine radiocarbon reservoir age. Analysis of biomarkers for sea ice and surface water productivity indicate stable sea ice conditions throughout the entire late Holocene, ending with an abrupt increase of phytoplankton sterols in the very top of both sediment sequences. The shift is accompanied by a sudden increase in coarse sediments (> 125 µm) and a minor change in δ13Corg. We interpret this transition in the top sediments as a community turnover in primary producers from sea ice to open water biota. Most importantly, our results indicate that the ongoing rapid ice retreat in the Chukchi Sea of recent decades was unprecedented during the

  10. Some Research-Based Issues and Recommendations Expressed at the Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ernesto M.

    The first Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue (International Seminar on Bilingual Education), under the aegis of the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Mexican secretary for public education, brought together professionals from Canada, the United States, and Mexico in Oaxtepec, Mexico in November 1986 to share…

  11. Regulating Smart Cities, 11º Congreso Internacional de Internet, Derecho y Política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Balcells

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available El 11º Congreso Internacional de Internet, Derecho y Política (IDP 2015, organizado por los Estudios de Derecho y Ciencia Política de la UOC, estuvo dedicado a la regulación de las smart cities (ciudades inteligentes.

  12. Impact of roof height non-uniformity on pollutant transport between a street canyon and intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Jurčáková, Klára; Kellnerová, Radka; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an extension of our previous wind-tunnel study (Nosek et al., 2016) in which we highlighted the need for investigation of the removal mechanisms of traffic pollution from all openings of a 3D street canyon. The extension represents the pollution flux (turbulent and advective) measurements at the lateral openings of three different 3D street canyons for the winds perpendicular and oblique to the along-canyon axis. The pollution was simulated by emitting a passive gas (ethane) from a homogeneous ground-level line source positioned along the centreline of the investigated street canyons. The street canyons were formed by courtyard-type buildings of two different regular urban-array models. The first model has a uniform building roof height, while the second model has a non-uniform roof height along each building's wall. The mean flow and concentration fields at the canyons' lateral openings confirm the findings of other studies that the buildings' roof-height variability at the intersections plays an important role in the dispersion of the traffic pollutants within the canyons. For the perpendicular wind, the non-uniform roof-height canyon appreciably removes or entrains the pollutant through its lateral openings, contrary to the uniform canyon, where the pollutant was removed primarily through the top. The analysis of the turbulent mass transport revealed that the coherent flow structures of the lateral momentum transport correlate with the ventilation processes at the lateral openings of all studied canyons. These flow structures coincide at the same areas and hence simultaneously transport the pollutant in opposite directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fish Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  15. Fish cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  16. Fish hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  17. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  18. Computer-aided performance monitoring program at Diablo Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.; Glynn, R. III; Kessler, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal performance monitoring program at Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company's (PG ampersand E's) Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant. The plant performance monitoring program at Diablo Canyon uses the THERMAC performance monitoring and analysis computer software provided by Expert-EASE Systems. THERMAC is used to collect performance data from the plant process computers, condition that data to adjust for measurement errors and missing data points, evaluate cycle and component-level performance, archive the data for trend analysis and generate performance reports. The current status of the program is that, after a fair amount of open-quotes tuningclose quotes of the basic open-quotes thermal kitclose quotes models provided with the initial THERMAC installation, we have successfully baselined both units to cycle isolation test data from previous reload cycles. Over the course of the past few months, we have accumulated enough data to generate meaningful performance trends and, as a result, have been able to use THERMAC to track a condenser fouling problem that was costing enough megawatts to attract corporate-level attention. Trends from THERMAC clearly related the megawatt loss to a steadily degrading condenser cleanliness factor and verified the subsequent gain in megawatts after the condenser was cleaned. In the future, we expect to rebaseline THERMAC to a beginning of cycle (BOC) data set and to use the program to help track feedwater nozzle fouling

  19. Following the canyon to reach and remove olfactory groove meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefini, Roberto; Zenga, Francesco; Giacomo, Esposito; Bolzoni, Andrea; Tartara, Fulvio; Spena, Giannantonio; Ambrosi, Claudia; Fontanella, Marco M

    2017-04-01

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) represent approximately 10% of all intracranial meningiomas. They arise in the olfactory fossa, a variable depression delimited by the lateral lamella and perpendicular plate. The cribriform plate with the lateral lamella and ethmoidal and orbital roof could be viewed as a 'canyon' with the frontal sinus as the main entrance. Between January 2000 and December 2013, 32 consecutive patients underwent removal of OGMs through this 'canyon' at the Department of Neurosurgery of Brescia and Turin. Complete removal was achieved in all patients with this trans-frontal sinus subcranial approach (Simpson grade I; mean lesion volume, 46.6 cm3). Five patients (15.6%) experienced nasal CSF leakage, treated with external lumbar drain positioning for 4 days and resolved in all cases but one, which was re-operated. Two patients (6.2%) during the CSF leakage experienced meningitis at day 7 after surgery, both successfully treated by intravenous antibiotic therapy. After one month, one patient developed hydrocephalus, treated with a ventricular peritoneal shunt. In one patient, traction on the OGM caused bleeding of the callosomarginal artery, which was coagulated with superior frontal gyrus ischemia without neurological consequences. Glasgow Outcome Scale Score at 6 months was V in 29 patients, IV in one patient, and I in two patients. Advantages with this approach may include easy and early control of blood supply from its insertion in the skull base, minimal frontal lobe retraction, preservation of the frontal veins draining to the sagittal sinus, and a satisfactory aesthetic outcome.

  20. An Improved Simulation of the Diurnally Varying Street Canyon Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobian, Neda; Kleissl, Jan; Paw U, Kyaw Tha

    2012-11-01

    The impact of diurnal variation of temperature distribution over building and ground surfaces on the wind flow and scalar transport in street canyons is numerically investigated using the PArallelized LES Model (PALM). The Temperature of Urban Facets Indoor-Outdoor Building Energy Simulator (TUF-IOBES) is used for predicting urban surface heat fluxes as boundary conditions for a modified version of PALM. TUF-IOBES dynamically simulates indoor and outdoor building surface temperatures and heat fluxes in an urban area taking into account weather conditions, indoor heat sources, building and urban material properties, composition of the building envelope (e.g. windows, insulation), and HVAC equipment. Temperature (and heat flux) distribution over urban surfaces of the 3-D raster-type geometry of TUF-IOBES makes it possible to provide realistic, high resolution boundary conditions for the numerical simulation of flow and scalar transport in an urban canopy. Compared to some previous analyses using uniformly distributed thermal forcing associated with urban surfaces, the present analysis shows that resolving non-uniform thermal forcings can provide more detailed and realistic patterns of the local air flow and pollutant dispersion in urban canyons.

  1. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-01-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited

  2. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, R.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited.

  3. Predictive Temperature Equations for Three Sites at the Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katrina Marie Neitzel

    Climate data collected at a number of automated weather stations were used to create a series of predictive equations spanning from December 2009 to May 2010 in order to better predict the temperatures along hiking trails within the Grand Canyon. The central focus of this project is how atmospheric variables interact and can be combined to predict the weather in the Grand Canyon at the Indian Gardens, Phantom Ranch, and Bright Angel sites. Through the use of statistical analysis software and data regression, predictive equations were determined. The predictive equations are simple or multivariable best fits that reflect the curvilinear nature of the data. With data analysis software curves resulting from the predictive equations were plotted along with the observed data. Each equation's reduced chi2 was determined to aid the visual examination of the predictive equations' ability to reproduce the observed data. From this information an equation or pair of equations was determined to be the best of the predictive equations. Although a best predictive equation for each month and season was determined for each site, future work may refine equations to result in a more accurate predictive equation.

  4. Actinide speciation in the shallow aquifer of Mortandad Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Polzer, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Treated waste effluent at Los Alamos has been released to the environment in Mortandad Canyon since 1963. A study has been initiated to investigate the relative mobilities of the actinides in the shallow aquifer of Mortandad Canyon. Speciation of radionuclides and their adsorption by sediment are important parameters in the evaluation of those mobilities. Plutonium concentrations and oxidation states were measured in water collected from four test wells (MCO 4, 5, 6, 7.5). A regular decrease in 239 240 Pu concentration was observed with increasing distance from the discharge point. The large difference between the concentrations discharged (30 to 1000 pCi/l for period 1977-1982) and those in the wells (0.02 to 5.4 pCi/l) suggests that progressive loss of plutonium from the water as it moves through the alluvium is probably more important in regulating the concentrations than the variability of concentrations in the discharged effluent. The K/sub D/s for 228 Th were also determined and found to be similar to those for plutonium. The factors regulating the concentration of dissolved plutonium are probably the same as those regulating 228 Th. In contrast the K/sub D/s of 241 Am decrease regularly with distance from the discharge point and are about 100 times lower than those of plutonium and thorium for water in wells farthest from the discharge point

  5. Pollutant Concentrations in Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratio with Avenues of Trees for Various Wind Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2012-07-01

    This study summarizes the effects of avenues of trees in urban street canyons on traffic pollutant dispersion. We describe various wind-tunnel experiments with different tree-avenue models in combination with variations in street-canyon aspect ratio W/ H (with W the street-canyon width and H the building height) and approaching wind direction. Compared to tree-free street canyons, in general, higher pollutant concentrations are found. Avenues of trees do not suppress canyon vortices, although the air ventilation in canyons is hindered significantly. For a perpendicular wind direction, increases in wall-average and wall-maximum concentrations at the leeward canyon wall and decreases in wall-average concentrations at the windward wall are found. For oblique and perpendicular wind directions, increases at both canyon walls are obtained. The strongest effects of avenues of trees on traffic pollutant dispersion are observed for oblique wind directions for which also the largest concentrations at the canyon walls are found. Thus, the prevailing assumption that attributes the most harmful dispersion conditions to a perpendicular wind direction does not hold for street canyons with avenues of trees. Furthermore, following dimensional analysis, an estimate of the normalized wall-maximum traffic pollutant concentration in street canyons with avenues of trees is derived.

  6. Fluctuating helical asymmetry and morphology of snails (Gastropoda in divergent microhabitats at 'Evolution Canyons I and II,' Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available Developmental instability of shelled gastropods is measured as deviations from a perfect equiangular (logarithmic spiral. We studied six species of gastropods at 'Evolution Canyons I and II' in Carmel and the Galilee Mountains, Israel, respectively. The xeric, south-facing, 'African' slopes and the mesic, north-facing, 'European' slopes have dramatically different microclimates and plant communities. Moreover, 'Evolution Canyon II' receives more rainfall than 'Evolution Canyon I.'We examined fluctuating asymmetry, rate of whorl expansion, shell height, and number of rotations of the body suture in six species of terrestrial snails from the two 'Evolution Canyons.' The xeric 'African' slope should be more stressful to land snails than the 'European' slope, and 'Evolution Canyon I' should be more stressful than 'Evolution Canyon II.' Only Eopolita protensa jebusitica showed marginally significant differences in fluctuating helical asymmetry between the two slopes. Contrary to expectations, asymmetry was marginally greater on the 'European' slope. Shells of Levantina spiriplana caesareana at 'Evolution Canyon I,' were smaller and more asymmetric than those at 'Evolution Canyon II.' Moreover, shell height and number of rotations of the suture were greater on the north-facing slopes of both canyons.Our data is consistent with a trade-off between drought resistance and thermoregulation in snails; Levantina was significantly smaller on the 'African' slope, for increasing surface area and thermoregulation, while Eopolita was larger on the 'African' slope, for reducing water evaporation. In addition, 'Evolution Canyon I' was more stressful than Evolution Canyon II' for Levantina.

  7. Derecho internacional privado español y pensión compensatoria entre cónyuges

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Giménez, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    La pensión compensatoria entre cónyuges en el ámbito del Derecho internacional privado español es fiel reflejo del proceso de codificación internacional en la materia desarrollado en los tres ámbitos tradicionales: competencia judicial internacional, ley aplicable y reconocimiento y ejecución de las relaciones en esta materia. La compleja situación que ha existido hasta el momento en esta materia se ha resuelto gracias al Reglamento 4/2009 (y al Protocolo de La Haya 2007). En u...

  8. Geomorphic Thresholds of Submarine Canyons Along the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, D. S.; ten Brink, U. S.; Andrews, B. D.; Chaytor, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Vast networks of submarine canyons and associated channels are incised into the U.S. Atlantic continental slope and rise. Submarine canyons form by differential erosion and deposition, primarily from sedimentary turbidity flows. Theoretical and laboratory studies have investigated the initiation of turbidity flows and their capacity to erode and entrain sedimentary material at distances far from the shelf edge. The results have helped understand the nature of turbidite deposits on the continental slope and rise. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the linkages between down-canyon sediment transport and the morphology of canyon/channel networks using mesoscale analyses of swath bathymetry data. We present quantitative analysis of 100-m resolution multibeam bathymetry data spanning ~616,000 km2 of the slope and rise between Georges Banks and the Blake Plateau (New England to North Carolina). Canyons are categorized as shelf-indenting or slope-confined based on spatial scale, vertical relief and connection with terrestrial river systems during sea level low stands. Shelf-indenting canyons usually represent the trunk-canyon of submerged channel networks. On the rise, shelf-indenting canyons have relatively well-developed channel-levees and sharp inner-thalwag incision suggesting much higher frequency and volume of turbidity flows. Because of the similarities between submarine canyon networks and terrestrial river systems, we apply methods originally developed to study fluvial morphology. Along-canyon profiles are extracted from the bathymetry data and the power-law relationship between thalwag gradient and drainage area is examined for more than 180 canyons along an ~1200 km stretch of the US Atlantic margin. We observe distinct thresholds in the power-law relationship between drainage area and gradient. Almost all canyons with heads on the upper slope contain at least two linear segments when plotted in log-log form. The first segment along the upper slope is flat

  9. Evaluation of turbulence from traffic using experimental data obtained in a street canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeo, N.A.; Venegas, L.E. [Univ. of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, National Scientific and Technological Research Council

    2004-07-01

    High air pollution levels have been observed in street canyons. Within these streets, pedestrians, cyclists, drivers and residents are likely to be exposed to pollutant concentrations exceeding current air quality standards. Airflow and dispersion in street canyons are very complicated. Depending on the synoptic wind three main dispersion conditions can be identified: a) low wind conditions, b) perpendicular or near perpendicular flow for winds over 1.5-2.0 m/s blowing at an angle of more than 30 to the canyon axes, c) parallel or near parallel flow for winds over 1.5-2.0 m/s blowing from all other directions. Under condition b), airflow in canyons with H/W{approx}1 (H is the height and W is the width of the canyon) is characterised by the formation of a single vortex within the canyon. The dispersion of gaseous pollutants in a street canyon depends generally on the rate at which the street exchanges air vertically with the above roof-level atmosphere and laterally with connecting streets. There is evidence that when the synoptic wind speed is low, the mechanical traffic-produced turbulence (TPT) might place a significant role in dispersion of traffic-generated pollutants. In this paper, we analyse interactions between wind and traffic induced dispersive air motions. Data from full-scale measurements in Goettinger Strasse (Hannover, Germany) are used for application of parameterisation proposed by Di Sabatino, S. et al. (2003) and Kastner-Klein, P. et al. (2003). (orig.)

  10. Experimental simulation of air quality in street canyon under changes of building orientation and aspect ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F; Ohba, Masaake

    2012-09-01

    To assist validation of numerical simulations of urban pollution, air quality in a street canyon was investigated using a wind tunnel as a research tool under neutral atmospheric conditions. We used tracer gas techniques from a line source without buoyancy. Ethylene (C(2)H(4)) was used as the tracer gas. The street canyon model was formed of six parallel building rows of the same length. The flow and dispersion field was analyzed and measured using a hot-wire anemometer with split fiber probe and fast flame ionization detector. The diffusion flow field in the boundary layer within the street canyon was examined at different locations, with varying building orientations (θ=90°, 112.5°, 135° and 157.5°) and street canyon aspect ratios (W/H=1/2, 3/4 and 1) downwind of the leeward side of the street canyon model. Results show that velocity increases with aspect ratio, and with θ>90°. Pollutant concentration increases as aspect ratio decreases. This concentration decreases exponentially in the vertical direction, and decreases as θ increases from 90°. Measured pollutant concentration distributions indicate that variability of building orientation and aspect ratio in the street canyon are important for estimating air quality in the canyon. The data presented here can be used as a comprehensive database for validation of numerical models.

  11. On the pollutant removal, dispersion, and entrainment over two-dimensional idealized street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Ho; Wong, Colman C. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pollutant dispersion over urban areas is not that well understood, in particular at the street canyon scale. This study is therefore conceived to examine how urban morphology modifies the pollutant removal, dispersion, and entrainment over urban areas. An idealized computational domain consisting of 12 two-dimensional (2D) identical street canyons of unity aspect ratio is employed. The large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to calculate the turbulent flows and pollutant transport in the urban boundary layer (UBL). An area source of uniform pollutant concentration is applied on the ground of the first street canyon. A close examination on the roof-level turbulence reveals patches of low-speed air masses in the streamwise flows and narrow high-speed downdrafts in the shear layer. Different from the flows over a smooth surface, the turbulence intensities are peaked near the top of the building roughness. The pollutant is rather uniformly distributed inside a street canyon but disperses quickly in the UBL over the buildings. Partitioning the vertical pollutant flux into its mean and turbulent components demystifies that the pollutant removal is mainly governed by turbulence. Whereas, mean wind carries pollutant into and out of a street canyon simultaneously. In addition to wind speed promotion, turbulent mixing is thus required to dilute the ground-level pollutants, which are then removed from the street canyon to the UBL. Atmospheric flows slow down rapidly after the leeward buildings, leading to updrafts carrying pollutants away from the street canyons (the basic pollutant removal mechanism).

  12. Rapid formation of a modern bedrock canyon by a single flood event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael P.; Fonstad, Mark A.

    2010-07-01

    Deep river canyons are thought to form slowly over geological time (see, for example, ref. 1), cut by moderate flows that reoccur every few years. In contrast, some of the most spectacular canyons on Earth and Mars were probably carved rapidly during ancient megaflood events. Quantification of the flood discharge, duration and erosion mechanics that operated during such events is hampered because we lack modern analogues. Canyon Lake Gorge, Texas, was carved in 2002 during a single catastrophic flood. The event offers a rare opportunity to analyse canyon formation and test palaeo-hydraulic-reconstruction techniques under known topographic and hydraulic conditions. Here we use digital topographic models and visible/near-infrared aerial images from before and after the flood, discharge measured during the event, field measurements and sediment-transport modelling to show that the flood moved metre-sized boulders, excavated ~7m of limestone and transformed a soil-mantled valley into a bedrock canyon in just ~3days. We find that canyon morphology is strongly dependent on rock type: plucking of limestone blocks produced waterfalls, inner channels and bedrock strath terraces, whereas abrasion of cemented alluvium sculpted walls, plunge pools and streamlined islands. Canyon formation was so rapid that erosion might have been limited by the ability of the flow to transport sediment. We suggest that our results might improve hydraulic reconstructions of similar megafloods on Earth and Mars.

  13. Modern landscape processes affecting archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.; Kasprak, Alan

    2017-08-29

    The landscape of the Colorado River through Glen Canyon National Recreation Area formed over many thousands of years and was modified substantially after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Changes to river flow, sediment supply, channel base level, lateral extent of sedimentary terraces, and vegetation in the post-dam era have modified the river-corridor landscape and have altered the effects of geologic processes that continue to shape the landscape and its cultural resources. The Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam hosts many archaeological sites that are prone to erosion in this changing landscape. This study uses field evaluations from 2016 and aerial photographs from 1952, 1973, 1984, and 1996 to characterize changes in potential windblown sand supply and drainage configuration that have occurred over more than six decades at 54 archaeological sites in Glen Canyon and uppermost Marble Canyon. To assess landscape change at these sites, we use two complementary geomorphic classification systems. The first evaluates the potential for aeolian (windblown) transport of river-derived sand from the active river channel to higher elevation archaeological sites. The second identifies whether rills, gullies, or arroyos (that is, overland drainages that erode the ground surface) exist at the archaeological sites as well as the geomorphic surface, and therefore the relative base level, to which those flow paths drain. Results of these assessments are intended to aid in the management of irreplaceable archaeological resources by the National Park Service and stakeholders of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program.

  14. Facies and depositional model of Almada Canyon, Almada Basin, Bahia, Brazil; Facies e modelo deposicional do Canyon de Almada, Bacia de Almada, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Avila, Roberto Salvador Francisco; Souza Cruz, Carlos Emanoel de; Oliveira Filho, Jose Souto; Jesus, Candida Menezes de; Cesero, Pedro de; Dias Filho, Dorval Carvalho; Lima, Claudio Coelho de; Queiroz, Claudia Lima de; Santos, Saulo Ferreira; Ferreira, Eduardo Araripe [PETROBRAS, Santos, SP (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao]. E-mail: rdavila@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    In the continental portion of the Almada Basin outcrops of canyon filling deposits are represented by turbidite channels and associated facies from Urucutuca Formation. The canyon - semi-exhumated - eroded basement and pre-Cenomanian sedimentary rocks. The field study of the outcrops and cores obtained in adjacent perforations lead to the understanding of the facies and processes that controlled the deposition of these channeled turbidite that can be compared to the reservoirs of many oil fields in Brazil. The Almada canyon is a submarine conduct of tectonic origin that was enlarged by the repeated passing of turbidity currents. During the rift phase and the Albian period, compressive events reactivated old N E and N W faults in the basement as trans current fault systems. The continuation of these stresses, from the Cenomanian to the Maastrichtian, developed normal faults that controlled a submarine canyon that connected the continent, where an estuary was formed between the mountains, to the deep marine region of the basin. The canyon has received sediments brought by catastrophic fluvial floods coming from the surrounding mountains, which formed hyperpicnal flows that have evolved as turbidity currents, thus causing erosion of the substrate and carrying a huge volume of sediments to the basin. A part of that load was deposited in the canyon and formed turbidite channels filled by conglomerates, sandstones and shales. These moderately to highly efficient turbidite are intercalated to pro delta pelites and low density turbid plumes deposits, which have mostly been re mobilized as slump and debris flows (chaotic deposits). Pelites were accumulated mainly in the normal fluvial sedimentation phases, when the sandy sediment was retained next to the canyon head and were reworked by the tides on the upper part of the estuary. (author)

  15. Draft environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. Furthermore, the DOE finds that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Having compared the Davis Canyon site with the other four sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the Davis Canyon site is not one of the three preferred sites for recommendation to the President as candidates for characterization

  16. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  17. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plant (LTSP) describes the US Department of energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Project's burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. No ground water monitoring will be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low-yield from the upper-most aquifer

  19. Impact of roof height non-uniformity on pollutant transport between a street canyon and intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Jurčáková, Klára; Kellnerová, Radka; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of our previous wind-tunnel study (Nosek et al., 2016) in which we highlighted the need for investigation of the removal mechanisms of traffic pollution from all openings of a 3D street canyon. The extension represents the pollution flux (turbulent and advective) measurements at the lateral openings of three different 3D street canyons for the winds perpendicular and oblique to the along-canyon axis. The pollution was simulated by emitting a passive gas (ethane) from a homogeneous ground-level line source positioned along the centreline of the investigated street canyons. The street canyons were formed by courtyard-type buildings of two different regular urban-array models. The first model has a uniform building roof height, while the second model has a non-uniform roof height along each building's wall. The mean flow and concentration fields at the canyons' lateral openings confirm the findings of other studies that the buildings' roof-height variability at the intersections plays an important role in the dispersion of the traffic pollutants within the canyons. For the perpendicular wind, the non-uniform roof-height canyon appreciably removes or entrains the pollutant through its lateral openings, contrary to the uniform canyon, where the pollutant was removed primarily through the top. The analysis of the turbulent mass transport revealed that the coherent flow structures of the lateral momentum transport correlate with the ventilation processes at the lateral openings of all studied canyons. These flow structures coincide at the same areas and hence simultaneously transport the pollutant in opposite directions. - Highlights: • The pollutant transport strongly depends on the roof-height arrangement. • The non-uniform canyons also remove the pollutants through their lateral openings. • The higher the upstream wall, the more pollutant is removed through the top. • The lateral coherent structures correlate

  20. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  1. Grain-size evolution in suspended sediment and deposits from the 2004 and 2008 controlled-flood experiments in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.; Schmidt, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the hydrology, sediment supply, and distribution and size of modern alluvial deposits in the Colorado River through Grand Canyon have changed substantially (e.g., Howard and Dolan, 1981; Johnson and Carothers, 1987; Webb et al., 1999; Rubin et al., 2002; Topping et al., 2000, 2003; Wright et al., 2005; Hazel et al., 2006). The dam has reduced the fluvial sediment supply at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park by about 95 percent. Regulation of river discharge by dam operations has important implications for the storage and redistribution of sediment in the Colorado River corridor. In the absence of natural floods, sediment is not deposited at elevations that regularly received sediment before dam closure. There has been a systemwide decrease in the size and number of subaerially exposed fluvial sand deposits since the 1960s, punctuated by episodic aggradation during the exceptional high-flow intervals in the early 1980s and by sediment input from occasional tributary floods (Beus and others, 1985; Schmidt and Graf, 1990; Kearsley et al., 1994; Schmidt et al., 2004; Wright et al., 2005; Hazel et al., 2006). Fluvial sandbars are an important component of riparian ecology that, among other functions, enclose eddy backwaters that form native-fish habitat, provide a source for eolian sand that protects some archaeological sites, and are used as campsites by thousands of river-runners annually (Rubin et al., 1990; Kearsley et al., 1994; Neal et al., 2000; Wright et al., 2005; Draut and Rubin, 2008).

  2. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  3. Diablo Canyon: the challenges of the Californian nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrin, Anne-Perrine; Zweibaum, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the Californian nuclear plant of Diablo Canyon which, due to the shutting down of the two reactors of another plant, could be the last nuclear plant to operate in California as this state voted an interdiction of construction of any new nuclear plant until a permanent solution has been found for radioactive waste storage. It is outlined that this nuclear plant is the most controlled nuclear plant throughout the USA, presents an unchallenged security level despite it is built at the vicinity of seismic fault lines. It outlines that the problem of waste storage is far from being solved in California, and discusses the future role of nuclear energy in California within the context of global warming

  4. Public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors examine the nature of the public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station located in San Luis Obispo, California, from the early 1960s to the present. Four distinct phases of public intervention were discerned, based on change in both plant-related issues and in the nature of the antinuclear constituencies in the region. The level of public concern varied both geographically and temporally and is related to the area's social structure, environmental predispositions, and distribution of plant-related economic benefits. External events, such as the prolonged debate over the risk assessment of the seismic hazard and the Three Mile Island accident were found to be important factors in explaining variation in public concern and political response

  5. Public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    We examine the nature of the public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station located in San Luis Obispo, California, from the early 1960s to the present. Four distinct phases of public intervention were discerned, based on change in both plant-related issues and in the nature of the antinuclear constituencies in the region. The level of public concern varied both geographically and temporally and is related to the area's social structure, environmental predispositions, and distribution of plant-related economic benefits. External events, such as the prolonged debate over the risk assessment of the seismic hazard and the Three Mile Island accident were found to be important factors in explaining variation in public concern and political response. (author)

  6. Microbial ecology of deep-water mid-Atlantic canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The research described in this fact sheet will be conducted from 2012 to 2014 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's DISCOVRE (DIversity, Systematics, and COnnectivity of Vulnerable Reef Ecosystems) Program. This integrated, multidisciplinary effort will be investigating a variety of topics related to unique and fragile deep-sea ecosystems from the microscopic level to the ecosystem level. One goal is to improve understanding, at the microbiological scale, of the benthic communities (including corals) that reside in and around mid-Atlantic canyon habitats and their associated environments. Specific objectives include identifying and characterizing the microbial associates of deep-sea corals, characterizing the microbial biofilms on hard substrates to better determine their role in engineering the ecosystem, and adding a microbial dimension to benthic community structure and function assessments by characterizing micro-eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea in deep-sea sediments.

  7. Public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijawka, K D [Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA)

    1982-08-01

    We examine the nature of the public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station located in San Luis Obispo, California, from the early 1960s to the present. Four distinct phases of public intervention were discerned, based on change in both plant-related issues and in the nature of the antinuclear constituencies in the region. The level of public concern varied both geographically and temporally and is related to the area's social structure, environmental predispositions, and distribution of plant-related economic benefits. External events, such as the prolonged debate over the risk assessment of the seismic hazard and the Three Mile Island accident were found to be important factors in explaining variation in public concern and political response.

  8. Evaluation of air quality and noise impact assessments, Davis Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In this report, several issues are identified regarding the air quality and noise assessments presented in the final salt repository environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Energy for the Davis Canyon, Utah, site. Necessary revisions to the data and methods used to develop the EA impact assessment are described. Then, a comparative evaluation is presented in which estimated impacts based upon the revised data and methods are compared with the impacts published in the EA. The evaluation indicates that the conclusions of the EA air quality and noise impact sections would be unchanged. Consequently, the guideline findings presented in Chapter 6 of the EA are also unchanged by the revised analysis. 50 refs., 16 tabs

  9. Achieving quality excellence at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, S.M.; Taggart, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quality assurance methods at the Diablo Canyon plant were transformed from the then typical industry practices that often alienated professional and technical people, as well as craftsmen and their foremen, to a cooperative method that allowed plant personnel to work together as a team. It has created an attitude to do it right the first time. The roles of quality professionals were expanded to include teaching and coaching to facilitate enhanced communication between and within functional organizations. This included regular presentations to managers and line personnel in an informal group participative atmosphere. These presentations have become widely known at the plant as quality awareness tailboard sessions. These presentations are intended to increase personnel sensitivity to the subject of quality and quality management. Economic achievement of excellence in quality is essential to remain competitive in today's marketplace. The proactive team-oriented approach of quality assurance achieves the bottom line of high quality with concurrently enhanced productivity and cost-effectiveness

  10. Negociación y documentos preliminares en la contratación internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Oviedo Albán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de establecer la relevancia de los principios de la buena fe y de libertad de formas, la doctrina y la jurisprudencia han establecido ciertas pautas que deben tenerse en cuenta en el proceso de formación del contrato internacional, así, en estas páginas se fija el análisis de las negociaciones preliminares en los contratos internacionales, en particular el estudio de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre los Contratos de Compraventa Internacional de Mercaderías, y los Principios de Unidroit sobre los Contratos Comerciales Internacionales, apelando no solo al análisis doctrinal de las disposiciones involucradas, sino también al de los casos relevantes fallados por tribunales estatales y arbitrales.

  11. La política internacional de acceso a los recursos genéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Isabel Gómez Lee

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available La biodiversidad es un asunto político. ¿Por qué es importante el acceso e intercambio de los recursos genéticos, y cómo se relaciona con las controversias sobre propiedad intelectual y con las negociaciones ambientales y comerciales en el ámbito internacional? La respuesta a estos interrogantes pone en evidencia un conjunto de reglas, interrelaciones internacionales y nuevos actores que de- finen la política internacional de acceso a los recursos genéticos. El Convenio sobre Diversidad Biológica establece que la diversidad biológica está sometida a la soberanía nacional. ¿El acceso estará determinado por un sistema multilateral o por acuerdos bilaterales?

  12. Negociación y documentos preliminares en la contratación internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Oviedo Albán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de establecer la relevancia de los principios de la buena fe y de libertad de formas, la doctrina y la jurisprudencia han establecido ciertas pautas que deben tenerse en cuenta en el proceso de formación del contrato internacional, así, en estas páginas se fija el análisis de las negociaciones preliminares en los contratos internacionales, en particular el estudio de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre los Contratos de Compraventa Internacional de Mercaderías, y los Principios de Unidroit sobre los Contratos Comerciales Internacionales, apelando no solo al análisis doctrinal de las disposiciones involucradas, sino también al de los casos relevantes fallados por tribunales estatales y arbitrales

  13. La configuración del orden internacional y el factor religioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petschen Verdaguer, Santiago

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    A lo largo de la historia ha habido unas religiones que han estado muy vinculadas con la tensión política internacionaL Actualmente también ocurre así. Cuando la religión está presente en un conflicto político el problema se intensifica, se extiende geográficamente y perdura temporalmente. Los intentos del siglo XX de contar con un gobierno mundial (Sociedad de las Naciones, ONU, G 8, OTAN, han sido, tras el 11 de septiembre, sustituidos por el poder de los Estados Unidos que lo ejerce en el marco de una tensión Norte-Sur. El Islam en el Sur y el judaismo en el Norte son importantes factores de operatividad en la sociedad internacional a cuya crisis se asoman también las demás religiones.

  14. A encruzilhada brasileira na ordem ambiental internacional das mudanças climáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gamba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um relato sobre a Décima Oitava Conferência das Partes da Convenção-Quadro das Nações Unidas sobre Mudança do Clima (COP-18, realizada entre os dias 26 de novembro e 7 de dezembro de 2012, em Doha, no Emirado do Qatar. Além disso, analisa as posições brasileiras no encontro. Para tal, baseia-se em informações obtidas no evento para analisar as posições brasileiras nas negociações da ordem ambiental internacional das mudanças climáticas. O artigo conclui que o Brasil está em uma encruzilhada: permanecer junto ao grupo G77 + China ou liderar as negociações, com os ônus que ela apresenta, diante de sua posição no sistema internacional.

  15. Paradojas de la migración internacional y el medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo García-Zamora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza la relación entre migración internacional y degradación ambiental, se estudia el caso de Zacatecas. Se identifican tres paradojas: a factores como la degradación ecológica, la escasez de recursos naturales o la presión del crecimiento poblacional no explican la migración internacional; contrariamente, las causas se encuentran en la insostenibilidad social derivada de las relacione de producción; b merced a la migración, la fuerza de trabajo pasa de ser un recurso natural renovable a uno no renovable, en particular para la dinámica socioeconómica de los lugares de origen, y c la migración puede gestar el empoderamiento de las organizaciones de migrantes en tareas vinculadas a la reversión de la degradación ambiental.

  16. Cultura nacional y crecimiento internacional de la empresa: una revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén González-Díaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza una revisión de la literatura existente sobre el papel de la cultura nacional y la diversidad cultural en los procesos de crecimiento internacional de la empresa con el objeto de sistematizar los tópicos ya abordados, los paradigmas dominantes y las conclusiones alcanzadas. Ello ha permitido, asimismo, identificar lagunas, así como resultados contradictorios y evidencias no concluyentes, apuntando a la necesidad de nuevas líneas de investigación al respecto. Para ello se ha llevado a cabo una revisión sistemática de los 171 trabajos publicados en las 26 revistas científicas internacionales de mayor impacto tanto en el ámbito general del management como en el campo específico de la gestión internacional. El periodo objeto de revisión es 2006-2011.

  17. GESTÃO INTERNACIONAL DE PESSOAS: CONSIDERAÇÕES A PARTIR DO AJUSTAMENTO INTERNACIONAL DE EXPATRIADOS NA CHINA E ESPANHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Luciane Scherer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O ajustamento internacional do expatriado é considerado fator preponderante ao desenvolvimento das atividades internacionais da empresa e é definido por Ali (2003 como o grau de conforto do trabalhador no país hospedeiro. O objetivo deste artigo foi avaliar como ocorreu o processo de ajustamento internacional de expatriados brasileiros na China e na Espanha, considerando os dois níveis de análise propostos no modelo de Black, Mendenhall e Oddou (1991: ajustamento antecipado (antes da mudança para o exterior e ajustamento no país hospedeiro. Foi realizado um estudo exploratório de natureza qualitativa com dez expatriados brasileiros: cinco residentes na Espanha e cinco na China. Dentre as principais constatações, percebeu-se a ausência do preparo prévio à expatriação por parte da equipe de Gestão de Pessoas e verificou-se que a diferença psíquica influencia negativamente o ajustamento, mas a avidez a desafios e a mentalidade global do executivo apaziguariam esse fator.

  18. RECALIBRATION OF H CANYON ONLINE SPECTROPHOTOMETER AT EXTENDED URANIUM CONCENTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascola, R

    2008-01-01

    The H Canyon online spectrophotometers are calibrated for measurement of the uranium and nitric acid concentrations of several tanks in the 2nd Uranium Cycle.[1] The spectrometers, flow cells, and prediction models are currently optimized for a process in which uranium concentrations are expected to range from 0-15 g/L and nitric acid concentrations from 0.05-6 M. However, an upcoming processing campaign will involve 'Super Kukla' material, which has a lower than usual enrichment of fissionable uranium. Total uranium concentrations will be higher, spanning approximately 0-30 g/L U, with no change in the nitric acid concentrations. The new processing conditions require the installation of new flow cells with shorter path lengths. As the process solutions have a higher uranium concentration, the shorter path length is required to decrease the absorptivity to values closer to the optimal range for the instrument. Also, new uranium and nitric acid prediction models are required to span the extended uranium concentration range. The models will be developed for the 17.5 and 15.4 tanks, for which nitric acid concentrations will not exceed 1 M. The restricted acid range compared to the original models is anticipated to reduce the measurement uncertainty for both uranium and nitric acid. The online spectrophotometers in H Canyon Second Uranium Cycle were modified to allow measurement of uranium and nitric acid for the Super Kukla processing campaign. The expected uranium concentrations, which are higher than those that have been recently processed, required new flow cells with one-third the optical path length of the existing cells. Also, new uranium and nitric acid calibrations were made. The estimated reading uncertainties (2σ) for Tanks 15.4 and 17.5 are ∼5% for uranium and ∼25% for nitric acid

  19. La globalización y la gestión financiera internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Martínez Fajardo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo constituye una reflexión acerca de la incidencia del proceso de globalización en la evolución reciente de las finanzas internacionales y en la expansión apoyada en la mayor capacidad de gestión de las empresas multinacionales. Dicho proceso se analiza de acuerdo con las pautas derivadas del reordenamiento de la estructura mundial de poder y su incidencia en el sistema financiero internacional.

  20. Competitividad de la administración de las aduanas en el marco del comercio internacional

    OpenAIRE

    América Ivonne Zamora Torres; José César Lenin Navarro

    2015-01-01

    El paso por aduanas es un acto obligado para todos aquellos agentes que buscan participar en el comercio exterior. No obstante, el despacho aduanero y todos los actos aduaneros pueden ser procesos desalentadores para quienes incursionan en nuevos mercados. Por lo tanto, resulta fundamental que las aduanas funjan como facilitadores del proceso comercial brindando seguridad y garantizando la entrega oportuna de las mercancías y la reducción de costos del comercio internacional. Ello conlleva la...

  1. El mensaje de conservacion de las instalaciones restauradas del Instituto Internacional de Dasonomia Tropical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel Lugo; J. Rullan

    2015-01-01

    Durante un periodo de aproximadamente 20 años, el Instituto Internacional de Dasonomía Tropical y sus colaboradores desarrollaron e implementaron un plan de instalaciones que abarcaba tanto las instalaciones nuevas, como las restauradas. Entre las instalaciones restauradas, el edificio histórico de la sede institucional recibió una Certificación Dorada por Liderazgo en...

  2. Actualidad y proyecciones de la maternidad subrogada en el derecho internacional privado argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodsky, Jonathan M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La maternidad subrogada, y en general las técnicas de reproducción humana asistida, son hoy una realidad de la que el derecho interno e internacional no pueden desentenderse. El silencio en la materia de la normativa argentina es insostenible, mas el Proyecto de Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación acierta en hacerse cargo de regular la gestación por sustitución, tanto a nivel interno como en la sección dedicada especialmente al derecho internacional privado. Tras una sucinta evaluación de la (inconveniencia de admitir legislativamente la institución, el presente trabajo se centrará en los requisitos de procedencia exigidos para dicha práctica en el Código proyectado (porque son de orden público internacional, así como en los criterios de atribución de jurisdicción y ley aplicable en la especie, y el reconocimiento de la filiación habiendo nacido el hijo, a través de la maternidad por otro, en un país extranjero (y cuya ley lo permite. Finalmente, se abordará el juego del orden público internacional con el principio del interés superior del niño, y se examinará la aplicación analógica de las soluciones propuestas ante supuestos que se pudieran plantear en la actualidad, frente al actual vacío normativo.

  3. El estado, la soberanía y el marco internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Heber Arbuet Vignali; Luis Barrios

    2014-01-01

    Contenido: La idea de soberanía. Distintas concepciones de la soberanía. Necesidad, origen y desarrollo de la idea de soberanía. Ideas a tener en cuenta para aprehender las esencias de la soberanía. Nuestro concepto de soberanía. Las necesidades de orden, de autoridad y de justificación. Las potestades del soberano en lo interno y en lo internacional.

  4. El principio de cooperacion entre los estados y el Fondo Monetario Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel De la Lama Eggerstedt

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A diferencia del Derecho Internacional clásico que se limitaba a señalar como su objeto fundamentalel mantenimiento de la paz y la seguridad internacionales, el Derecho Internacional contemporáneo enfatiza que el logro de dicho objeto implica el crecimiento económico. Así el Principio de Igualdad Soberana de los Estados es limitado a su acepción de igualdad jurídica, mientras se reconocela desigualdad económica y social existente, y se establecen normas en favor de la categoría especial de "países en desarrollo". Al Principio de Proscripción del uso de la fuerza o de la amenaza del uso de ésta, se añade el Principio de Cooperación que obliga a los Estados a colaborar entre sí para lograr el crecimiento económico, particularmente, de los países en desarrollo. El autor propone el estudio de la vigencia del Principio de Cooperación en la esfera monetaria internacional. Para ello estudia tres aspectos del Fondo Monetario Internacional que han sido especialmente criticados por los países en desarrollo: La distribución del poder votante: la escasa ligazón entre la creación y distribución de Derechos Especiales de Giro y el desarrollo: y la condicionalidad en la utilización de los recursos del Fondo.

  5. EL PROYECTO DE LA OLIMPIADA POPULAR DE BARCELONA (1936, ENTRE COMUNISMO INTERNACIONAL Y REPUBLICANISMO REGIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gounot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los archivos del KOMINTERN en el Centro Ruso de Conservación y Estudio de los Documentos sobre la Historia Contemporánea (CRCRHC de Moscú, recientemente abiertos para el estudio científico, nos ofrecen fuentes documentales fundamentales para entender el desarrollo de la Internacional Deportiva Roja (IDR como una de las organizaciones auxiliares del citado KOMINTERN. Las referidas fuentes documentales han aportado nuevas informaciones y datos sobre la creación en España en 1931, con el establecimiento de la 2ª República, de la Federación Cultural y Deportiva Obrera (FCDO, organización que en 1934 se adhiere a la Internacional Deportiva Roja (IDR, siendo el embrión del nacimiento del Comité Catalán pro Deporte Popular que presentaría el proyecto de la Olimpiada Popular de Barcelona de 1936 como alternativa a la Olimpiada de Berlín de 1936 de Hitler. Por otra parte la Internacional Deportiva Roja (IDR creó a finales de 1935 el Comité Internacional para la defensa de la Idea Olímpica, cuyo objetivo era coordinar los movimientos de oposición a los Juegos de Berlín. También la propia Federación Cultural y Deportiva Obrera (FDCO fundó en 1936 el Comité Español de Defensa del Espíritu Olímpico con este mismo fin. La Olimpiada Popular de Barcelona de 1936 permitió entre otras cosas expresar la nueva alianza entre Comunismo y Olimpismo, construida con discursos contradictorios apoyándose en el universalismo, la paz y la igualdad de razas.

  6. V Congreso Internacional de formación de profesores de ciencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UPN UDFJC UNESP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta toda la información relacionada con el V congreso internacional de formación de profesores de ciencia, este es un evento que se realizara en la Ciudad de Bogotá, los días 26,27 y 28 de octubre de 2011. En el folleto se encontraran los costos, modalidades de participación, condiciones de envió de trabajos, invitados nacionales e internacionales.

  7. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  8. Competitividad de la administración de las aduanas en el marco del comercio internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América Ivonne Zamora Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El paso por aduanas es un acto obligado para todos aquellos agentes que buscan participar en el comercio exterior. No obstante, el despacho aduanero y todos los actos aduaneros pueden ser procesos desalentadores para quienes incursionan en nuevos mercados. Por lo tanto, resulta fundamental que las aduanas funjan como facilitadores del proceso comercial brindando seguridad y garantizando la entrega oportuna de las mercancías y la reducción de costos del comercio internacional. Ello conlleva la optimización de la logística internacional y la ventaja competitiva de las empresas y naciones en la cadena de valor global (Shujie & Zhao, 2009. Este trabajo evalúa, a través del análisis de componentes principales, la competitividad de las aduanas en el marco del comercio internacional. Para ello, se consideraron las variables más importantes que inciden en la competitividad de las aduanas en veintinueve países. Los resultados se muestran a través del indicador denominado índice de competitividad de las aduanas y señalan que los países más competitivos en materia aduanal —de acuerdo con las variables analizadas y en orden descendente— son Panamá seguido de China, India, Alemania, Corea, Suecia, Singapur, Turquía, Tailandia y Chile.

  9. La restitución internacional de menores sustraídos por sus propios padres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyola Blanco-Rodríguez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se identifica como sustracción interparental de menores (SIM aquella acción que realiza uno de los padres de un niño, niña o adolescente, mediante su  sustracción, retención u ocultamiento, para impedir al otro progenitor el ejercicio de sus derechos de visita o de custodia.1 La violación de estos derechos, establecidos a favor tanto de los padres como de los hijos, puede llegar a constituir, en el ámbito internacional, una retención ilícita o traslado ilegal del menor a un país diferente al de su residencia habitual. Esto ha llevado a la mayoría de países a adoptar una legislación interna especializada para el tratamiento de este fenómeno y a adherirse al Convenio de la Haya sobre Aspectos Civiles de la Sustracción Internacional de Menores. En este escrito, a partir del análisis de la situación colombiana, son reseñados los instrumentos comúnmente utilizados en el plano internacional para hacer cesar la violación de estos derechos.

  10. La Cooperacion Argentina en la Lucha contra el Terrorismo en el Contexto Internacional e Interamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Perotti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Frente a las transformaciones y a la compleja dinámica que presenta la sociedad contemporánea, la problemática del terrorismo constituye una grave amenaza para la seguridad nacional, regional e internacional. Por ello, son fundamentales los esfuerzos para prevenir y combatir este tipo de crimen que se ha transnacionalizado, ya que suponen coordinación y requieren de pautas uniformes y de la cooperación regional e internacional para hacerle frente, pues el terrorismo no es sólo un problema de los países que lo engendran o que lo padecen, ya sea directa o indirectamente, sino de todos. En el presente trabajo se abordan de manera sintética diferentes cuestiones vinculadas a la lucha contra el terrorismo, al tratamiento desde el ámbito de la cooperación internacional e interamericana de la temática y a las iniciativas argentinas en la materia en años recientes -en particular, en la Triple Frontera-, para finalmente expresar algunas conclusiones que contribuyan a la reflexión sobre esta plaga.

  11. Los Servicios de Inteligencia ante los retos de la Comunidad Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Muro, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El título de mi contribución a este número de la revista Arbor, «Los Servicios de inteligencia ante los retos de la comunidad internacional", posiblemente debería completarse con la frase, para las que aquéllos deben tener respuesta. Me explico. Es obvio que la comunidad internacional tiene que afrontar retos como el hambre, la pobreza, el cambio climático, que no menciono en mi artículo ya que no entran dentro del ámbito de actuación de los servicios de inteligencia, aunque ningún analista cualificado los ignoraría. No obstante, he creído conveniente centrar mi descripción, necesariamente sucinta, del panorama actual de las relaciones internacionales en aquellos factores que entiendo afectan directamente a la seguridad internacional y, por tanto, a la tarea de los servicios de inteligencia.

  12. Reseña del Primer Encuentro Internacional de Institutos de Medicina Tropical 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O Alarcón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El Primer Encuentro Internacional de Institutos de Medicina Tropical, llevado a cabo en Lima, fue la actividad principal del cincuentenario de la fundación del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrión (1963-2013, de la Facultad de Medicina de la UNMSM. Participaron en su organización las principales instituciones científicas del país relacionadas a la investigación y atención de los problemas de salud que afectan a las regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Asistieron alrededor de mil personas. Los temas tratados fueron salud infantil en los trópicos, salud internacional, VIH/sida, dengue, malaria, leishmaniosis, tuberculosis, enfermedad de Carrión y enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes. Los representantes de los nueve institutos de Medicina Tropical de la región, asistentes al evento, suscribieron una declaración, en la que acordaron, entre otros puntos, promover en sus países las recomendaciones adoptadas en la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud y Organización Panamericana de la Salud en relación a enfermedades desatendidas, investigación en salud y recursos humanos en salud; desarrollar programas de posgrado regionales en medicina tropical, epidemiología y salud pública; articular las acciones de este encuentro con otras iniciativas regionales y subregionales, y realizar el Segundo Encuentro Internacional de Institutos de Medicina Tropical en dos años.

  13. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  14. Formation of Box Canyon, Idaho, by megaflood: implications for seepage erosion on Earth and Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael P; Dietrich, William E; Aciego, Sarah M; Depaolo, Donald J; Manga, Michael

    2008-05-23

    Amphitheater-headed canyons have been used as diagnostic indicators of erosion by groundwater seepage, which has important implications for landscape evolution on Earth and astrobiology on Mars. Of perhaps any canyon studied, Box Canyon, Idaho, most strongly meets the proposed morphologic criteria for groundwater sapping because it is incised into a basaltic plain with no drainage network upstream, and approximately 10 cubic meters per second of seepage emanates from its vertical headwall. However, sediment transport constraints, 4He and 14C dates, plunge pools, and scoured rock indicate that a megaflood (greater than 220 cubic meters per second) carved the canyon about 45,000 years ago. These results add to a growing recognition of Quaternary catastrophic flooding in the American northwest, and may imply that similar features on Mars also formed by floods rather than seepage erosion.

  15. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report for the 221-U Canyon Disposition Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.S.; Oaces, L.E.; Baxter, J.; Brown, T.M.; Enoke, D.E.; Carlson, D.; Rugg, J.E.

    1997-08-01

    The 221-U Canyon Disposition Alternatives Data Quality Objective (DQO) Process identifies the sampling and analytical requirements necessary to support future detailed evaluation of alternatives via the CERCLA process, for final disposition of the 221-U Canyon Facility. Viable alternatives for the disposition of the 221-U Facility have been identified in a CERCLA Phase I Feasibility Study (FS) (DOE-RL 1997) for the Canyon Disposition Initiative (CDI). The scope of this DQO Process is limited to the 221-U Process Canyon Building and equipment contained within the facility. Associated stacks, filters, solvent handling, vaults, and storage facilities external to the 221-U Building are not addressed in this DQO. This DQO focuses on the 221-U Building because it provides the greatest potential source of contaminant volumes and concentrations and the physical structure poses the greatest challenge for disposition decisions

  16. 76 FR 23623 - Backcountry Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...-7945, [email protected] or Rachel Bennett, Environmental Protection Specialist, P.O. Box 129, Grand Canyon, Arizona 86023, 928-638-7326, Rachel[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: If you wish to...

  17. Deepwater Canyons 2012: Pathways to the Abyss on NOAA Ship Nancy Foster between 20120815 and 20121001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mid-Atlantic Deep-Water Canyons project is co-funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (which...

  18. Integrated Project Management Planning for the Deactivation of the Savannah River Site F-Canyon Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, T.G.

    2000-12-01

    This paper explains the planning process that is being utilized by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to take the F-Canyon Complex facilities from operations to a deactivated condition awaiting final decommissioning.

  19. Fire modeling for Building 221-T - T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oar, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report was prepared by Hughes Associates, Inc. to document the results of fire models for building 221-T Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel. Backup data is contained in document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-010, Rev. 0

  20. Lightning protection for the process canyons at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has performed Lightning Studies for the existing Process Canyons at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These studies were initiated to verify the lightning protection systems for the facilities and to compare the installations to the National Fire Protection (NFPA) Standard 780, Lighting Protection Code, 1992. The original study of the F-Canyon was initiated to develop answers to concerns raised by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB). Once this study was completed it was determined that a similar study for H-Canyon would be prudent; followed by an evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Vitrification Building (S-Canyon). This paper will provide an overview of the nature of lightning and the principals of lightning protection. This will provide the reader with a basic understanding of the phenomena of lighting and its potential for damaging structures, components, and injuring personnel in or near the structure

  1. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  2. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  3. Giant landslides and turbidity currents in the Agadir Canyon Region, NW-Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastel, Sebastian; Wynn, Russell B.; Stevenson, Christopher; Feldens, Peter; Mehringer, Lisa; Schürer, Anke

    2017-04-01

    Coring and drilling of the Moroccan Turbidite System off NW-Africa revealed a long sequence of turbidites, mostly sourced from the Moroccan continental margin and the volcanic Canary Islands. The largest individual flow deposits in the Moroccan Turbidite System contain sediment volumes >100 km3, although these large-scale events are relatively infrequent with a recurrence interval of 10,000 years (over the last 200,000 years). The largest siliciclastic flow in the last 200,000 years was the 'Bed 5 event', which transported 160 km3 of sediment up to 2000 km from the Agadir Canyon region to the southwest Madeira Abyssal Plain. While the Moroccan Turbidite System is extremely well investigated, almost no data from the source region, i.e. the Agadir Canyon, are available. Understanding why some submarine landslides remain as coherent blocks of sediment throughout their passage downslope, while others mix and disintegrate almost immediately after initial failure, is a major scientific challenge, which was addressed in the Agadir Canyon source region during RV Maria S. Merian Cruise MSM32 in late 2013. A major landslide area was identified 200 km south of the Agadir Canyon. A landslide was traced from this failure area to the Agadir Canyon. This landslide entered the canyon in about 2500 m water depth. Despite a significant increase in slope angle, the landslide did not disintegrate into a turbidity current when entering the canyon but moved on as landslide for at least another 200 km down the canyon. The age of the landslide ( 145 ka) does not correspond to any major turbidte deposit in the Moroccan Turbidite System, further supporting the fact that the landslide did not disintegrate into a major turbidity current. A core taken about 350 m above the thalweg in the head region of Agadir Canyon shows a single coarse-grained turbidite, which resembles the composition of the Bed 5 event in the Madeira Abyssal Plain. Hence, the Bed 5 turbidite originated as a failure in the

  4. Internal tides affect benthic community structure in an energetic submarine canyon off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Guan-Ming; Chiou, Ming-Da; Jan, Sen; Wei, Chih-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Submarine canyons are major conduits of terrestrial and shelf organic matter, potentially benefiting the seafloor communities in the food-deprived deep sea; however, strong bottom currents driven by internal tides and the potentially frequent turbidity currents triggered by storm surges, river flooding, and earthquakes may negatively impact the benthos. In this study, we investigated the upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC), a high-sediment-yield canyon connected to a small mountain river (SMR) off southwest (SW) Taiwan. By contrasting the benthic meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities within and outside the GPSC, we examined how food supplies and disturbance influenced the benthic community assemblages. The benthic communities in the upper GPSC were mainly a nested subset of the adjacent slope assemblages. Several meiofaunal (e.g. ostracods) and macrofaunal taxa (e.g. peracarid crustaceans and mollusks) that typically occurred on the slope were lost from the canyon. The polychaete families switched from diverse feeding guilds on the slope to motile subsurface deposit feeders dominant in the canyon. The diminishing of epibenthic peracarids and proliferation of deep burrowing polychaetes in the GPSC resulted in macrofauna occurring largely within deeper sediment horizons in the canyon than on the slope. The densities and numbers of taxa were depressed with distinct and more variable composition in the canyon than on the adjacent slope. Both the densities and numbers of taxa were negatively influenced by internal tide flushing and positively influenced by food availability; however, the internal tides also negatively influenced the food supplies. While the meiofauna and macrofauna densities were both depressed by the extreme physical conditions in the GPSC, only the macrofaunal densities increased with depth in the canyon, presumably related to increased frequency and intensity of disturbance toward the canyon head. The population densities of meiofauna, on the

  5. Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area 2003 visitor use survey: Completion report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Phadrea; Gillette, Shana C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    This report represents the analysis of research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The purpose is to provide socio-economic and recreational use information that can be used in the development of a Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area (CCNCA). The results reported here deal primarily with recreation-based activities in four areas: Kokopelli Loops, Rabbit Valley, Loma Boat Launch, and Devil’s Canyon.

  6. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie Keith; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier–Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were valida...

  7. Mortandad Canyon: Elemental concentrations in vegetation, streambank soils, and stream sediments - 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S.

    1997-06-01

    In 1979, stream sediments, streambank soils, and streambank vegetation were sampled at 100 m intervals downstream of the outfall of the TA-50 radioactive liquid waste treatment facility in Mortandad Canyon. Sampling was discontinued at a distance of 3260 m at the location of the sediment traps in the canyon. The purpose of the sampling was to investigate the effect of the residual contaminants in the waste treatment facility effluent on elemental concentrations in various environmental media

  8. Observations on the seasonal distribution of native fish in a 10-kilometer reach of San Bernardino Creek, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. O. Minckley

    2013-01-01

    San Bernardino Creek is a northern tributary of the Río Yaqui that originates in the United States and crosses the International Border just east of Douglas, Arizona/Agua Prieta, Sonora and immediately south of San Bernardino/Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge. Six of eight Río Yaqui native fishes occur in this reach:four minnows, a sucker, and a poeciliid....

  9. Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though

  10. The impact of traffic-flow patterns on air quality in urban street canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaker, Prashant; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different urban traffic-flow patterns on pollutant dispersion in different winds in a real asymmetric street canyon. Free-flow traffic causes more turbulence in the canyon facilitating more dispersion and a reduction in pedestrian level concentration. The comparison of with and without a vehicle-induced-turbulence revealed that when winds were perpendicular, the free-flow traffic reduced the concentration by 73% on the windward side with a minor increase of 17% on the leeward side, whereas for parallel winds, it reduced the concentration by 51% and 29%. The congested-flow traffic increased the concentrations on the leeward side by 47% when winds were perpendicular posing a higher risk to health, whereas reduced it by 17–42% for parallel winds. The urban air quality and public health can, therefore, be improved by improving the traffic-flow patterns in street canyons as vehicle-induced turbulence has been shown to contribute significantly to dispersion. - Highlights: • CFD is used to study impact of traffic-flow patterns on urban air quality. • Facilitating free-flow patterns induce more turbulence in street canyons. • Traffic-generated turbulence alters pollutant levels in urban street canyons. - This study investigates the effect of vehicle-induced-turbulence generated during free-flow traffic pattern in reduction of air pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons.

  11. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie K.; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2010-11-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier-Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were validated against experimental data obtained in wind-tunnel studies before the model was applied to study the detailed turbulence, temperature, and pollutant dispersion characteristics in the street canyon of aspect ratio 1. The effects of different Richardson numbers ( Ri) were investigated. The ground heating significantly enhanced mean flow, turbulence, and pollutant flux inside the street canyon, but weakened the shear at the roof level. The mean flow was observed to be no longer isolated from the free stream and fresh air could be entrained into the street canyon at the roof-level leeward corner. Weighed against higher temperature, the ground heating facilitated pollutant removal from the street canyon.

  12. Validation of a two-dimensional pollutant dispersion model in an isolated street canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.L.; Dong, G.; Leung, C.W.; Cheung, C.S. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Research Centre for Combustion and Pollution Control, Department of Mechanical Engineering; Hung, W.T. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Department of Civil and Structural Engineering

    2002-07-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with a series of standard, Renormalization Group (RNG) and realizable k-{epsilon} turbulence models was developed to simulate the fluid-flow development and pollutant dispersion within an isolated street canyon using the FLUENT code. In the present study, the validation of the numerical model was evaluated using an extensive experimental database obtained from the atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at the Meteorological Institute of Hamburg University, Germany (J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 62 (1996) 37). Among the studied turbulence models, the RNG k-{epsilon} turbulence model was found to be the most optimum turbulence model coupled with the two-dimensional street canyon model developed in the present study. Both the calculated and measured dimensionless pollutant concentrations have been shown to be less dependent on the variation of wind speed and source strength conditions for the studied street canyon aspect ratio of the B/H=1 case. However, the street canyon configuration has significant influence on the pollutant dispersion. The wider street and lower height of the buildings are favorable to pollutant dilution within the street canyon. The fluid-flow development has demonstrated that the rotative vortex or vortices generated within the urban street canyon can transport the pollutants from a line source to the wall surfaces of the buildings. (author)

  13. Effect of stable stratification on dispersion within urban street canyons: A large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex; Norford, Leslie K.

    2016-11-01

    This study employs a validated large-eddy simulation (LES) code with high tempo-spatial resolution to investigate the effect of a stably stratified roughness sublayer (RSL) on scalar transport within an urban street canyon. The major effect of stable stratification on the flow and turbulence inside the street canyon is that the flow slows down in both streamwise and vertical directions, a stagnant area near the street level emerges, and the vertical transport of momentum is weakened. Consequently, the transfer of heat between the street canyon and overlying atmosphere also gets weaker. The pollutant emitted from the street level 'pools' within the lower street canyon, and more pollutant accumulates within the street canyon with increasing stability. Under stable stratification, the dominant mechanism for pollutant transport within the street canyon has changed from ejections (flow carries high-concentration pollutant upward) to unorganized motions (flow carries high-concentration pollutant downward), which is responsible for the much lower dispersion efficiency under stable stratifications.

  14. Event-driven sediment flux in Hueneme and Mugu submarine canyons, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. P.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Noble, M.; Li, A.-C.

    2010-01-01

    Vertical sediment fluxes and their dominant controlling processes in Hueneme and Mugu submarine canyons off south-central California were assessed using data from sediment traps and current meters on two moorings that were deployed for 6 months during the winter of 2007. The maxima of total particulate flux, which reached as high as 300+ g/m2/day in Hueneme Canyon, were recorded during winter storm events when high waves and river floods often coincided. During these winter storms, wave-induced resuspension of shelf sediment was a major source for the elevated sediment fluxes. Canyon rim morphology, rather than physical proximity to an adjacent river mouth, appeared to control the magnitude of sediment fluxes in these two submarine canyon systems. Episodic turbidity currents and internal bores enhanced sediment fluxes, particularly in the lower sediment traps positioned 30 m above the canyon floor. Lower excess 210Pb activities measured in the sediment samples collected during periods of peak total particulate flux further substantiate that reworked shelf-, rather than newly introduced river-borne, sediments supply most of the material entering these canyons during storms.

  15. Impact of aspect ratio and solar heating on street canyon air temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, R.A.; Lal, K.

    2011-01-01

    The results obtained from RNG (Re-Normalization Group) version of k-and turbulence model are reported in this study. The model is adopted to elucidate the impact of different building aspect ratios (i.e., ratio of building-height-to-street-canyon-width) and solar heating on temperatures in street canyon. The validation of Navier-Stokes and energy an sport equations showed that the model prediction for air-temperature and ambient wind provides reasonable accuracy. The model was applied on AR (Aspect Ratios) one to eight and surface temperature difference (delta and theta/sub s-a/)) of 2 -8. Notably, air-temperatures were higher in high AR street canyons in particular on the leeward side of the street canyon. Further investigation showed that the difference between the air-temperature 'high and low AR street canyons (AR) was positive and high with higher delta and theta/sub s-a/) conversely, the AR become negative and low gradually with lower values of delta and theta(/sub s-a/). These results could be very beneficial for the city and regional planners, civil engineers Id HVAC experts who design street canyons and strive for human thermal comfort with minimum possible energy requirements. (author)

  16. Near-inertial motions in the DeSoto Canyon during Hurricane Georges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, Antoni; Wang, Dong-Ping; Hamilton, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Hurricane Georges passed directly over an array of 13 moorings deployed in the DeSoto Canyon in the northern Gulf of Mexico on 27-28 September 1998. Current velocity data from the mooring array were analyzed together with a primitive-equation model simulation with realistic hurricane forcing, to characterize the generation and propagation of the hurricane-generated near-inertial waves. The model successfully reproduces the observed mean (sub-inertial) and near-inertial motions. The upper ocean response is strongly impacted by the canyon 'wall': a strong jet is formed along the slope, and the near-inertial motions on the shelf are rapidly suppressed. The model results moreover suggest that strong near-inertial waves in the mixed layer are mostly trapped in an energy flux recirculating gyre around the canyon. This gyre retains the near-inertial energy in the canyon region and enhances the transfer of near-inertial energy below the mixed layer. Additional simulations with idealized topographies show that the presence of a steep slope rather than the canyon is fundamental for the generation of this recirculating gyre. The near-inertial wave energy budget shows that during the study period the wind generated an input of 6.79 × 10-2 Wm-2 of which about 1/3, or 2.43 × 10-2 Wm-2, was transferred below the mixed layer. The horizontal energy flux into and out of the canyon region, in contrast, was relatively weak.

  17. Earthquakes drive large-scale submarine canyon development and sediment supply to deep-ocean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Joshu J; Howarth, Jamie D; Orpin, Alan R; Barnes, Philip M; Bowden, David A; Rowden, Ashley A; Schimel, Alexandre C G; Holden, Caroline; Horgan, Huw J; Nodder, Scott D; Patton, Jason R; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Gerstenberger, Matthew; Micallef, Aaron; Pallentin, Arne; Kane, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Although the global flux of sediment and carbon from land to the coastal ocean is well known, the volume of material that reaches the deep ocean-the ultimate sink-and the mechanisms by which it is transferred are poorly documented. Using a globally unique data set of repeat seafloor measurements and samples, we show that the moment magnitude ( M w ) 7.8 November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake (New Zealand) triggered widespread landslides in a submarine canyon, causing a powerful "canyon flushing" event and turbidity current that traveled >680 km along one of the world's longest deep-sea channels. These observations provide the first quantification of seafloor landscape change and large-scale sediment transport associated with an earthquake-triggered full canyon flushing event. The calculated interevent time of ~140 years indicates a canyon incision rate of 40 mm year -1 , substantially higher than that of most terrestrial rivers, while synchronously transferring large volumes of sediment [850 metric megatons (Mt)] and organic carbon (7 Mt) to the deep ocean. These observations demonstrate that earthquake-triggered canyon flushing is a primary driver of submarine canyon development and material transfer from active continental margins to the deep ocean.

  18. Transport and deposition of plutonium-contaminated sediments by fluvial processes, Los Alamos Canyon, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1952 the development of nuclear weapons at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, resulted in the disposal of plutonium into the alluvium of nearby Acid and (to a lesser degree) DP Canyons. The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between the disposal sites and the main river, a 20 km link formed by the fluvial system of Acid, Pueblo, DP, and Los Alamos Canyons. Empirical data from 15 yr of annual sediment sampling throughout the canyon system has produced 458 observations of plutonium concentration in fluvial sediments. These data show that, overall, mean plutonium concentrations in fluvial sediment decline from 10,000 fCi/g near the disposal area to 100 fCi/g at the confluence of the canyon system and the Rio Grande. Simulations using a computer model for water, sediment, and plutonium routing in the canyon system show that discharges as large as the 25 yr event would fail to develop enough transport capacity to completely remove the contaminated sediments from Pueblo Canyon. Lesser flows would move some materials to the Rio Grande by remobilization of stored sediments. The simulations also show that the deposits and their contaminants have a predictable geography because they occur where stream power is low, hydraulic resistance is high, and the geologic and/or geomorphic conditions provide enough space for storage. 38 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  19. Bedrock Canyons Carved by the Largest Known Floods on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M. P.; Lapôtre, M. G. A.; Larsen, I. J.; Williams, R. M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Earth is a dynamic and permeable interface where the rocky crust is sculpted by ice, wind and water resulting in spectacular mountain ranges, vast depositional basins and environments that support life. These landforms and deposits contain a rich, yet incomplete, record of Earth history that we are just beginning to understand. Some of the most dramatic landforms are the huge bedrock canyons carved by catastrophic floods. On Mars, similar bedrock canyons, known as Outflow Channels, are the most important indicators of large volumes of surface water in the past. Despite their importance and now decades of observations of canyon morphology, we lack a basic understanding of how the canyons formed, which limits our ability to reconstruct flood discharge, duration and water volume. In this presentation I will summarize recent work - using mechanistic numerical models and field observations - that suggests that bedrock canyons carved by megafloods rapidly evolve to a size and shape such that boundary shear stresses just exceed that required to entrain fractured blocks of rock. The threshold shear stress constraint allows for quantitative reconstruction of the largest known floods on Earth and Mars, and implies far smaller discharges than previous methods that assume flood waters fully filled the canyons to high water marks.

  20. Geologic map and upper Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Marble Canyon area, Cottonwood Canyon quadrangle, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Belasky, Paul; Montañez, Isabel P.; Martin, Lauren G.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Sandberg, Charles A.; Wan, Elmira; Olson, Holly A.; Priest, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This geologic map and pamphlet focus on the stratigraphy, depositional history, and paleogeographic significance of upper Paleozoic rocks exposed in the Marble Canyon area in Death Valley National Park, California. Bedrock exposed in this area is composed of Mississippian to lower Permian (Cisuralian) marine sedimentary rocks and the Jurassic Hunter Mountain Quartz Monzonite. These units are overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary nonmarine sedimentary deposits that include a previously unrecognized tuff to which we tentatively assign an age of late middle Miocene (~12 Ma) based on tephrochronologic analysis, in addition to the previously recognized Pliocene tuff of Mesquite Spring. Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks in the Marble Canyon area represent deposition on the western continental shelf of North America. Mississippian limestone units in the area (Tin Mountain, Stone Canyon, and Santa Rosa Hills Limestones) accumulated on the outer part of a broad carbonate platform that extended southwest across Nevada into east-central California. Carbonate sedimentation was interrupted by a major eustatic sea-level fall that has been interpreted to record the onset of late Paleozoic glaciation in southern Gondwana. Following a brief period of Late Mississippian clastic sedimentation (Indian Springs Formation), a rise in eustatic sea level led to establishment of a new carbonate platform that covered most of the area previously occupied by the Mississippian platform. The Pennsylvanian Bird Spring Formation at Marble Canyon makes up the outer platform component of ten third-order (1 to 5 m.y. duration) stratigraphic sequences recently defined for the regional platform succession. The regional paleogeography was fundamentally changed by major tectonic activity along the continental margin beginning in middle early Permian time. As a result, the Pennsylvanian carbonate shelf at Marble Canyon subsided and was disconformably overlain by lower Permian units (Osborne Canyon and

  1. Fish under exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  2. Meet the surrogate fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  3. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  4. An Investigation of Amphitheater-Headed Canyon Distribution, Morphology Variation, and Longitudinal Profile Controls in Escalante and Tarantula Mesa, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A. J.; Whipple, K. X.

    2014-12-01

    Amphitheater-headed canyons are primarily distinguished from typical fluvial channels by their abrupt headwall terminations. A key goal in the study of river canyons is to establish a reliable link between form and formation processes. This is of particular significance for Mars, where, if such links can be established, amphitheater-headed canyons could be used to determine ancient erosion mechanisms and, by inference, climate conditions. Type examples in arid regions on Earth, such as in Escalante River, Utah, previously have been interpreted as products of groundwater seepage erosion. We investigate amphitheater-headed canyons in Escalante and Tarantula Mesa where variations in canyon head morphology may hold clues for the relative roles of rock properties and fluvial and groundwater processes. In lower Escalante, amphitheaters are only present where canyons have breached the Navajo Sandstone - Kayenta Formation contact. In some canyons, amphitheater development appears to have been inhibited by an abundance of coarse bedload. In Tarantula Mesa, canyons have a variety of headwalls, from amphitheaters to stepped knickzones. Headwall morphology distribution is directly related to the spatially variable presence of knickpoint-forming, fine-grained interbeds within cliff-forming sandstones. Amphitheaters only form where the sandstone unit is undisrupted by these interbeds. Finally, most canyons in Escalante and Tarantula Mesa, regardless of substrate lithology, amphitheater presence, or groundwater spring intensity, are well described by a slope-area power law relationship with regionally constant concavity and normalized steepness indices. This suggests that all channels here are subject to the same erosion rates, independent of groundwater weathering intensity. Thus: 1) variations in canyon headwall form do not necessary relate to differences in fluvial history, 2) stratigraphic variations are clearly of importance in sedimentary canyon systems, and 3) although

  5. Street canyon ventilation control by proper planning and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakin Vladimir Vasil'evich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of street canyon ventilation control in major streets is a tool of air pollution prevention in them, protection of housing areas from excessive wind or preservation and intensification of existing wind speed in case of insufficient ventilation. The maximum permissible concentration of car exhaust pollutants with wind speed within comfortable and permissible values by physiological and hygienic criteria, are ensured as from 40 to 70 % of thoroughfares in major cities. The dependence of air pollution level on wind speed is comparable to its dependence on traffic intensity and ratio of buildings height (H to street width. But one has to take into account that, if the wind blows across the street, vortices form within the street canyon, which results in higher concentration of car exhaust pollutants near the downwind buildings. The objective of this work is to find the functional dependences of wind speed in a major street on its width and density of buildings, and also to find out which street configurations are favorable for formation of closed air circulation within it, resulting in insufficient aeration. The experimental research was done on a site for large-scale modeling of built-up urban territory, using cup anemometers. The coefficients of dependence of wind speed within a street on the types of buildings and on the street width were obtained. Characteristics of street layouts for control of aeration were determined. Building density rates for maximizing or optimizing the wind speed were determined. Street layouts are considered where stable vortices form between the buildings. For example, vortices within the street canyon’s cross-section appear when buildings squarish in ground plan situated far apart are replaced by oblong ones with the minimum allowed intervals of 15 meters between them (for 5-storeyed buildings; or intervals equal to the buildings’ height, or where the buildings are long and close together. With

  6. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Pinon Canyon region, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Erosional features are prominent in this view of southern Colorado taken by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area covers about 20,000 square kilometers and is located about 50 kilometers south of Pueblo, Colorado. The prominent mountains near the left edge of the image are the Spanish Peaks, remnants of a 20 million year old volcano. Rising 2,100 meters (7,000 ft) above the plains to the east, these igneous rock formations with intrusions of eroded sedimentary rock historically served as guiding landmarks for travelers on the Mountain Branch of the Santa Fe Trail.Near the center of the image is the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, a training area for soldiers of the U.S. Army from nearby Fort Carson. The site supports a diverse ecosystem with large numbers of big and small game, fisheries, non-game wildlife, forest, range land and mineral resources. It is bounded on the east by the dramatic topography of the Purgatoire River Canyon, a 100 meter (328 foot) deep scenic red canyon with flowing streams, sandstone formations, and exposed geologic processes.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. Southern slopes appear bright and northern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  7. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  8. Morphology and sediment dynamics of the Capbreton canyon (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, M.; Umr 5805; Ifremer Team

    2003-04-01

    The Canyon of Capbreton extending in the Bay of Biscay (SW France) is the deepest canyon in the world. Its structure and morphology was studied using new multibeam bathymetry, acoustic imagery and high-resolution seismic data. The canyon head appears only 250 m away from the coast line and runs westward parallel to the north coast of Spain for 160 km due to structural control, then turns northward, widens and abruptly disappears in the continental rise by 3500 m water depth. Its northern margin is flat and progrades clearly westward. Conversely the southern margin is steep and progrades towards the north (i.e. towards the canyon). Down to 800 m water depth, the canyon deeply incises the continental shelf and the axial channel is meandering (sinuosity of 1.9). The canyon shows both major and minor stream beds, perched tributary valleys, nested terraces and abandoned meanders. The terraces have three morphologies: (1) flat, (2) with a raised side or (3) with a horseshoe structure. These morphologies have been interpreted as overbank deposits or nested levees (1 and 2) or as the result of meander abandon (3). Terraces of types (1) and (2) contain mainly fine deposits resulting from decantation of the top of turbulent surges that flow in the canyon. Westward (800 to 2000 m water depth) the main talweg remains sinuous (1.7). On the southern margin, several straight or slightly sinuous S-N tributary valleys are followed by alignments of pockmarks that also indicate a structural control. On the northern margin, a single large tributary valley with a sinuous central talweg, flowing from the upper Aquitaine continental slope, is interpreted as a giant slump scar due to sediment instability. This valley is bordered to the west by a topographic high with sediment waves on the external flank that might be interpreted as a sedimentary levee. The canyon recorded a recent turbidite activity. An 18 cm-thick turbidite was deposited at 650 m water depth by a turbidity current

  9. Numerical Simulation of Recent Turbidity Currents in the Monterey Canyon System, Offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsund, S.; Xu, J.; Nemec, W.

    2007-12-01

    The method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used, in the form of a 3D numerical model (Flow- 3D®), to perform a full-scale simulation of turbidity currents measured in December 2002 by three moorings in the Soquel and Monterey canyons. The model was verified by simulation of laboratory flows, and was upscaled to the Monterey Canyon system on the basis of high-resolution bathymetric data and flow measurements. The measured velocity profiles were sufficient to assess the flow thickness, initial velocity and duration in the canyon head zone. A computational grid with a highest feasible resolution was used, and both bathymetry and hydrostatic pressure were accounted for. The volumetric sediment concentration and exact grain- size composition of the flows were unknown, and thus a range of values for the initial concentration and bed roughness were assumed and assessed on a trial-and-error basis. The simulations reveal the behavior of a turbidity current along its descent path, including its local hydraulic characteristics (the 3D field of velocity, sediment concentration, shear stress, strain rate, and dynamic viscosity, as well as the magnitude of velocity and turbulent shear). The results confirm that the velocity structure of turbidity current is highly sensitive to variation in seafloor topography. The December 17th flow in the Soquel Canyon appears to have lost capacity by dilution over a relatively short distance and shown significant velocity fluctuations, which is attributed to the rugged topography of the canyon floor. A major loss of momentum occurred when the flow plunged at high angle into the Monterey Canyon, crashing against its bend's southern wall. The December 20th flow in the Monterey Canyon, in contrast, developed a considerably longer body and strongly accelerated towards the canyon's sharp second bend before crashing against its western wall. The mooring data show a down-canyon decline of velocity and suggest gradual waning, but the

  10. The effects of wildfire on the peak streamflow magnitude and frequency, Frijoles and Capulin Canyons, Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhuis, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    In June of 1977, the La Mesa fire burned 15,270 acres in and around Frijoles Canyon, Bandelier National Monument and the adjacent Santa Fe National Forest, New Mexico. The Dome fire occurred in April of 1996 in Bandelier National Monument, burned 16,516 acres in Capulin Canyon and the surrounding Dome Wilderness area. Both canyons are characterized by extensive archeological artifacts, which could be threatened by increased runoff and accelerated rates of erosion after a wildfire. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the National Park Service monitored the fires' effects on streamflow in both canyons. Copyright 2004 ASCE.

  11. Environmental and human impact on the sedimentary dynamic in the Rhone Delta subaquatic canyons (France-Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantegui, A.; Corella, J. P.; Loizeau, J. L.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Girardclos, S.

    2012-04-01

    Deltas are very sensitive environments and highly vulnerable to variations in water discharge and the amount of suspended sediment load provided by the delta-forming currents. Human activities in the watershed, such as building of dams and irrigation ditches, or river bed deviations, may affect the discharge regime and sediment input, thus affecting delta growth. Underwater currents create deeply incised canyons cutting into the delta lobes. Understanding the sedimentary processes in these subaquatic canyons is crucial to reconstruct the fluvial evolution and human impact on deltaic environments and to carry out a geological risk assessment related to mass movements, which may affect underwater structures and civil infractructure. Recently acquired high-resolution multibeam bathymetry on the Rhone Delta in Lake Geneva (Sastre et al. 2010) revealed the complexity of the underwater morphology formed by active and inactive canyons first described by Forel (1892). In order to unravel the sedimentary processes and sedimentary evolution in these canyons, 27 sediment cores were retrieved in the distal part of each canyon and in the canyon floor/levee complex of the active canyon. Geophysical, sedimentological, geochemical and radiometric dating techniques were applied to analyse these cores. Preliminary data show that only the canyon originating at the current river mouth is active nowadays, while the others remain inactive since engineering works in the watershed occurred, confirming Sastre et al. (2010). However, alternating hemipelagic and turbiditic deposits on the easternmost canyons, evidence underflow processes during the last decades as well. Two canyons, which are located close to the Rhone river mouth, correspond to particularly interesting deeply incised crevasse channels formed when the underwater current broke through the outer bend of a meander in the proximal northern levee. In these canyons, turbidites occur in the sediment record indicating ongoing

  12. Demersal fish assemblages on seamounts and other rugged features in the northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Andrea M.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Singer, Randal; Roa-Varon, Adela; Chaytor, Jason D.

    2017-05-01

    Recent investigations of demersal fish communities in deepwater (>50 m) habitats have considerably increased our knowledge of the factors that influence the assemblage structure of fishes across mesophotic to deep-sea depths. While different habitat types influence deepwater fish distribution, whether different types of rugged seafloor features provide functionally equivalent habitat for fishes is poorly understood. In the northeastern Caribbean, different types of rugged features (e.g., seamounts, banks, canyons) punctuate insular margins, and thus create a remarkable setting in which to compare demersal fish communities across various features. Concurrently, several water masses are vertically layered in the water column, creating strong stratification layers corresponding to specific abiotic conditions. In this study, we examined differences among fish assemblages across different features (e.g., seamount, canyon, bank/ridge) and water masses at depths ranging from 98 to 4060 m in the northeastern Caribbean. We conducted 26 remotely operated vehicle dives across 18 sites, identifying 156 species of which 42% of had not been previously recorded from particular depths or localities in the region. While rarefaction curves indicated fewer species at seamounts than at other features in the NE Caribbean, assemblage structure was similar among the different types of features. Thus, similar to seamount studies in other regions, seamounts in the Anegada Passage do not harbor distinct communities from other types of rugged features. Species assemblages, however, differed among depths, with zonation generally corresponding to water mass boundaries in the region. High species turnover occurred at depths <1200 m, and may be driven by changes in water mass characteristics including temperature (4.8-24.4 °C) and dissolved oxygen (2.2-9.5 mg per l). Our study suggests the importance of water masses in influencing community structure of benthic fauna, while considerably adding

  13. Repercusiones de la crisis internacional en el comercio de artesanías en la región Puno 2007 - 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Quispe Quispe, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación, titulado "REPERCUSIONES DE LA CRISIS INTERNACIONAL EN EL COMERCIO DE ARTESANÍAS EN LA REGIÓN PUNO 2007 - 2009" cuyos objetivos específicos fueron: 1) Estudiar de qué manera ha afectado la crisis internacional al turismo en la región Puno. 2) Estudiar cómo ha afectado la crisis internacional al comercio de artesanías en la región Puno. 3) Explicar cómo ha afectado la crisis internacional en los créditos financieros de los comerciantes de artesanías en la R...

  14. Concepción normológica de la problemática científica del derecho tributario internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Feuillade, Milton César

    2017-01-01

    El Derecho Tributario Internacional se encuentra dentro del horizonte jurídico del Derecho Internacional Privado. Puede hablarse de conflictos de normas en el Derecho Tributario Internacional y de la aplicación de las instituciones propias del Derecho Internacional Privado para su mejor solución. El Derecho extranjero tomado de forma sistémica requiere el tener en cuenta junto al Derecho Civil al Derecho Público, del cual el Derecho Tributario es parte, a efectos de hacer una correcta aplicac...

  15. Trees as environmental modifier to improve street canyon for pedestrian activities in Muscat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhayer, Wael A.; Shaaban, Awni K.; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Street shading efficiency is a function of orientation and profile proportion of its height to width. Under high sun altitude conditions, minimization of solar irradiance within the urban environment may often be a significant criterion in urban design. This reduction in solar irradiance achieved when the obstruction angle is large (high H/W ratio, H=height, W=width). High H/W values often lessen the solar access to streets. The horizontal sprawl of Muscat region is an example of low H/W ratio represented the remarkable challenge that causes the lack of shading rates in the urban street. This characteristic proliferates the negative impact on the pedestrian activities in the urban street. This research aims to improve the morphology of the street to promote the pedestrian behavior. The amendment based on suggesting different configurations of trees to increase effective shading of the urban street in Muscat. The street canyon abstracted into a virtual elongated channel formed of floor and walls of equal heights on both sides. Four street orientations (E/W, N/S, NE/SW, NW/SE) and three H/W ratio (0.5,1 and 2) are considered sufficient representative of street typologies. A mathematical model developed for calculation of shading efficiency of each street canyon. The trees assumed in this study as canyon's modifier to adjust the low H/W ratio of a street canyon to a higher one. Local trees and other plants in Muscat were studied concerning their morphology. The analysis selected two case study in Muscat to investigate the shading performance of their street canyons subsequently propose the modifications to improve it. The research concluded that the suggested changes of the street canyon by using a particular type of trees could increase the H/W ratio of street canyon significantly.

  16. Estimation of health damage due to emission of air pollutants by cars: the canyon effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, J.V. [Ecole des Mines, Centre d' Energetique, Paris, 75 (France); Rabl, A.

    1999-07-01

    Since current epidemiological evidence suggests that air pollution has harmful effects even at typical ambient concentrations and the dispersion is significant over hundreds to thousands of km, the estimation of total health damage involves consideration of local and regional effects. In recent years, several estimates have been published of health damage due to air pollution from cars, in particular by Delucchi et al of UC Davis and by the ExternE Project of the European Commission. To capture the geographic extent of pollutant dispersion, local and regional models have been used in combination. The present paper addresses a potentially significant contribution of the total damage, not yet taken into account in these studies: the increased concentration of pollutants inside urban street canyons. This canyon effect is appreciable only for primary pollutants, the time constants for the formation of secondary pollutants being long compared to the residence time in the canyon. We assumed linearity of incremental health impact with incremental concentration, in view of the lack of epidemiological evidence for no-effect thresholds or significant deviations from linearity at typical ambient concentrations; therefore, only long term average concentrations matter. We use the FLUENT software to model the dispersion inside a street canyon for a wide range of rectangular geometries and wind velocities. Our results suggest that the canyon effect is of marginal significance for total damages, the contribution of the canyon effect being roughly 10 to 20% of the total. The relative importance of the canyon effect is, of course, highly variable with local conditions; it could be much smaller but it is unlikely to add more than 100% to the flat terrain estimate. (Author)

  17. Effects of building roof greening on air quality in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jong-Jin; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Seung-Bu; Ryu, Young-Hee

    2012-12-01

    Building roof greening is a successful strategy for improving urban thermal environment. It is of theoretical interest and practical importance to study the effects of building roof greening on urban air quality in a systematic and quantitative way. In this study, we examine the effects of building roof greening on air quality in street canyons using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that includes the thermodynamic energy equation and the transport equation of passive, non-reactive pollutants. For simplicity, building roof greening is represented by specified cooling. Results for a simple building configuration with a street canyon aspect ratio of one show that the cool air produced due to building roof greening flows into the street canyon, giving rise to strengthened street canyon flow. The strengthened street canyon flow enhances pollutant dispersion near the road, which decreases pollutant concentration there. Thus, building roof greening improves air quality near the road. The degree of air quality improvement near the road increases as the cooling intensity increases. In the middle region of the street canyon, the air quality can worsen when the cooling intensity is not too strong. Results for a real urban morphology also show that building roof greening improves air quality near roads. The degree of air quality improvement near roads due to building roof greening depends on the ambient wind direction. These findings provide a theoretical foundation for constructing green roofs for the purpose of improving air quality near roads or at a pedestrian level as well as urban thermal environment. Further studies using a CFD model coupled with a photochemistry model and a surface energy balance model are required to evaluate the effects of building roof greening on air quality in street canyons in a more realistic framework.

  18. Calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin): Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, C; Oliveira, A; Rodrigues, A; Rosa, F; Cachao, M; Fatela, F

    2009-01-01

    Submarine canyons are assumed to play an important role in oceanic/neritic circulation, marine productivity and sedimentary processes, acting as preferential conduits between the littoral and deep oceanic domain. Here we present first results of a comparative micropalaeontological study on calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera from surface sediments from the surroundings of the upper Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin) and from the shelf north of the canyon. Regardless of the difficulty to distinguish taphonomical from (palaeo)ecological effects in such a complex and still poorly known marine system, the first results suggest that the canyon's hydro-sedimentary dynamic regime act as a prolongation of the shore/inner shelf hydrodynamic conditions towards west, preventing deposition and/or preservation of the smaller and fragile species of calcareous nannoplankton (e.g. E. huxleyi and G. ericsonii) and enhancing the record of the larger and more opportunistic ones (e.g. G. oceanica); and disturbing benthic foraminiferal productivity and/or diversity, or their preservation in the fossil record. Both calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera are more abundant off the canyon's domain, suggesting that its highly energetic thalweg conditions are probably filtering the fossil record in the sediment. Still, preliminary results suggest that the occurrence of persistent physical phenomena related with the canyon's morphology and proximity to the coast (e.g. solitary internal waves) may be locally promoting favourable conditions for calcareous nannoplankton, as shown by high values of nannoliths, chlorophyll a and 19' hexanoyloxyfucoxantine (unpublished data) north of the canyon's head. It is our goal to test this hypothesis in the near future by (a) studying multicore and surficial sediments from more recent surveys, and (b) calibrating the sediment results with water column data presently in process at the Institute of Oceanography (IO).

  19. Calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin): Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C; Oliveira, A; Rodrigues, A [Division of Marine Geology, Portuguese Hydrographic Institute (IH), Rua das Trinas 49, 1249-093 Lisboa (Portugal); Rosa, F [CIACOMAR, Algarve University, Av. 16 de Julho s/n 8700-311 Olhao (Portugal); Cachao, M; Fatela, F [Geology Center and Geology Department, FCUL, Bloco C6, 3o Piso, sala 6.3.57 Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: catarina.guerreiro@hidrografico.pt

    2009-01-01

    Submarine canyons are assumed to play an important role in oceanic/neritic circulation, marine productivity and sedimentary processes, acting as preferential conduits between the littoral and deep oceanic domain. Here we present first results of a comparative micropalaeontological study on calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera from surface sediments from the surroundings of the upper Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin) and from the shelf north of the canyon. Regardless of the difficulty to distinguish taphonomical from (palaeo)ecological effects in such a complex and still poorly known marine system, the first results suggest that the canyon's hydro-sedimentary dynamic regime act as a prolongation of the shore/inner shelf hydrodynamic conditions towards west, preventing deposition and/or preservation of the smaller and fragile species of calcareous nannoplankton (e.g. E. huxleyi and G. ericsonii) and enhancing the record of the larger and more opportunistic ones (e.g. G. oceanica); and disturbing benthic foraminiferal productivity and/or diversity, or their preservation in the fossil record. Both calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera are more abundant off the canyon's domain, suggesting that its highly energetic thalweg conditions are probably filtering the fossil record in the sediment. Still, preliminary results suggest that the occurrence of persistent physical phenomena related with the canyon's morphology and proximity to the coast (e.g. solitary internal waves) may be locally promoting favourable conditions for calcareous nannoplankton, as shown by high values of nannoliths, chlorophyll a and 19' hexanoyloxyfucoxantine (unpublished data) north of the canyon's head. It is our goal to test this hypothesis in the near future by (a) studying multicore and surficial sediments from more recent surveys, and (b) calibrating the sediment results with water column data presently in process at the Institute of

  20. Yuntaishan Global Geopark VS Grand Canyon World Heritage Site A Contrast of Yuntai/Grand Canyon Physiognomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Zhao; Xun, Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Yuntai/Grand Canyon is a result of long-term historical evolution and a rare natural heritage of the world. With its rich heritages of geological physiognomy, systematic geological record, abundant biological fossil combination, long history of structural evolution, they are of contrastive research values worldwide. The Grand Canyon was declared national natural heritage on eleventh January, and in 1979 it was entitled World Natural Heritage Site. Though the two major sites are separated by tremendous seas, they reached agreements in the protection of natural heritages worldwide on account of the shared ideas of society, demonstrating to our children how can we protect the two scenery sites. Keyword:Geopark, Geoheritage, Yuntai Landform, GrandCanyon Mt. Taihang rises from the central part of north China and extends to the west edge of North China Plain. Towering, and with ragged peaks, precarious cliffs, long strips of walls, deep valleys and shaded streams, Mt. Taihang poses impressive sights with its clear water, dense forest and wonderful sceneries. It is indeed the east slope of Qin-Jin Plateau. Indeed things tend to coincide. On the other side of the Pacific Ocean, along the west edge of north America and on the wide and spacious Colorado Plateau, there is a winding and deep valley where there are layers of rocks, extensive sharp cliffs, intercrossing ravines and forests of peaks; it is totally impressive. Both sceneries are known to the world for their beauty. Identical geological conditions and similar history of evolution left two natural sights that resemble each other so much. Geological changes are infinite, and sedimentation works in similar ways on both sights; and the changing ecological environment gives the world two colorful and comparable geological records. Both sights are merely brief periods in the long history of earth development, but they show us how cradles of human proliferation and social civilization had looked. 1,Comparison of two parks

  1. Tracer Flux Balance at an Urban Canyon Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.

    2010-05-01

    Despite their importance for pollutant dispersion in urban areas, the special features of dispersion at street intersections are rarely taken into account by operational air quality models. Several previous studies have demonstrated the complex flow patterns that occur at street intersections, even with simple geometry. This study presents results from wind-tunnel experiments on a reduced scale model of a complex but realistic urban intersection, located in central London. Tracer concentration measurements were used to derive three-dimensional maps of the concentration field within the intersection. In combination with a previous study (Carpentieri et al., Boundary-Layer Meteorol 133:277-296, 2009) where the velocity field was measured in the same model, a methodology for the calculation of the mean tracer flux balance at the intersection was developed and applied. The calculation highlighted several limitations of current state-of-the-art canyon dispersion models, arising mainly from the complex geometry of the intersection. Despite its limitations, the proposed methodology could be further developed in order to derive, assess and implement street intersection dispersion models for complex urban areas.

  2. Pilot RCM application to the Diablo Canyon main stream system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groff, C.R.; Beckham, P.E.; Bych, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company (PG ampersand E) became extremely interested in reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) after the initial review of two successful Electric Power Research Institute sponsored projects. RCM was visualized as a methodology to common sensitize the burgeoning preventive maintenance (PM) program at the Diablo Canyon plant. RCM could further the uses of predictive and condition-monitoring techniques, as well as eliminate maintenance on components whose failures were noncritical. An extensive review of maintenance and operation experience data, in conjunction with plant staff recommendations and a prioritization according to maintenance expenditures and operational/safety significance, produced the selected system: the turbine main steam supply system (main steam). The pilot project segmented the main steam system into eight subsystems to aid in analysis: (a) main steam isolation valves, (b) auxiliary feedwater pump turbine, (c) overpressure protection (steam dump), (d) main feedwater pump turbines, (e) main steam, (f) main turbine, (g) steam blowdown, and (h) moisture separator reheaters. System analysis activities, including the preparation of functional failure analyses, failure modes and effects analyses, and logic model analyses, were conducted in parallel with corrective and preventive maintenance data-gathering activities to maximize project team personnel participation during the project. Results and lessons learned are summarized

  3. June 2017 Ancho Canyon RF Collects: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junor, William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Layne, John Preston [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goglio, Joshua Henry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Bobby Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Snelson-Gerlicher, Catherine Mary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goorley, John Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    We report the results from the June 8, 2017, Ancho Canyon RF collection. While bright, electromagnetic signals were seen close to the firing point, there were no detections of signals from the explosively-fired fuse (EFF) at a collection point about 600m distant on the East Mesa. The East Mesa site was unable to collect data because the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) was exhausted by the time of the shot. We did see signals from the EFF at the Bunker 57 antennas, about 123m distant from the Point 88 firing point. The strength of these signals is consistent with our limited knowledge of the collection antenna performance and the use of the standard model to predict the electric field strength. From our knowledge of the geometry of the EFF loop and the current in the loop in this test, and from measurements at the Bunker 57 site, we predict that we would have seen signals of about 50mV at 3.67MHz in a 100 kHz channel on the Rohde & Schwarz HE010 antennas at the East Mesa location. The noise oor there is about 0.113mV (based on the March 2017 collects). Thus we would have had an SNR of 53 dB from the collect, had the data collection system been running.

  4. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Davis Canyon site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Paradox Basin in Davis Canyon, Utah. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7,020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1,000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collected waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $5.49 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively sound nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7.75 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 50 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  5. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Lavender Canyon site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Paradox Basin in Lavender Canyon, Utah. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $5.51 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPP, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively sound nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7.75 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 51 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  6. Perspectivas y dimensiones de una gobernanza global: el futuro de la Unión Europea como actor internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Castillo Castañeda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo pretende analizar el papel global de la Unión Europea como actor internacional sobre la base de sus componentes de poder, las dimensiones de la gobernanza global y sus perspectivas como proyecto regional para lograr tener una lectura de su participación en el sistema internacional en el futuro. Dentro de estas perspectivas futuras se resaltará el papel que juega el poder blando de la Unión Europea como potencia normativa y civil dentro de una gobernanza global con nuevos actores, intereses y valores divergentes. Este trabajo parte de la hipótesis de que el cambio relacional de poder en la sociedad internacional está ocasionando dinámicas geopolíticas y geoeconómicas contrapuestas a los planteamientos de un multilateralismo eficaz. Se intentará responder o, al menos, brindar algunas luces a interrogantes tales como: ¿Podrá la UE preservar su relevancia como actor internacional en este mundo en cambio? ¿Mantendrá la relevancia en sus valores e intereses como proyecto regional? ¿La estrategia europea de incidencia internacional debe basarse simplemente en el ámbito del poder blando y el multilateralismo eficaz?

  7. DIVERSIFICAÇÃO INTERNACIONAL DE MACROCARTEIRAS EM CONTEXTO DE CRISES FINANCEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Thiago Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo mensurar o grau de correlação entre as bolsas de valores de alguns países considerados emergentes, segundo o Fundo Monetário Internacional (2009, adotando para tal dois períodos distintos, um anterior e outro durante a crise financeira do subprime em 2008, a partir de informações diárias de fechamento dos índices representativos daquelas bolsas. O período está compreendido entre 28 de junho de 2007 a 03 de abril de 2009, totalizando 438 observações para cada bolsa. As técnicas estatísticas abrangem o teste de correlação de Pearson e o teste de correlação móvel, este empregando um período de aproximadamente seis meses. Os principais resultados revelam que, em momentos de instabilidade financeira, tais como o da crise do subprime, em 2008, as correlações entre as bolsas de valores mudam significativamente, convergindo para um valor próximo a um (1, indicando que os mercados caminham de maneira paralela, com poucas opções para a estratégia de diversificação internacional de portfólios de investimento. Palavras-clave: Diversificação internacional. Portfólios de investimento. Correlação. Correlação móvel.

  8. Momentos de transición. El organismo ruso y la intervención internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine David

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde la anexión rusa de Crimea en Marzo de 2014 y el conflicto en curso en Ucrania, han proliferado las especulaciones sobre la posible dirección de la política exterior rusa y sus relaciones con Occidente. Relativamente pocos análisis hasta el momento han situado las acciones de Rusia en un contexto de debate más amplio sobre la intervención internacional y los valores posmodernos, que es lo que este artículo pretende conseguir. Apoyándonos en las ideas del Análisis de Política Exterior sobre los debates organismo-estructura, se argumenta que las acciones recientes de Rusia deben ser consideradas como una respuesta a la evolución a largo plazo de la intervención internacional. Además, se centra en la necesidad de reconocer el impacto de las unidades sobre las estructuras sistémicas y por lo tanto contribuye a la bibliografía sobre la relación organismo-estructura. El presente artículo sitúa la política exterior rusa en el contexto más amplio del pensamiento moderno versus el posmoderno, argumentando que el motor primordial de la política exterior rusa en la actualidad es asegurarse de que el sistema internacional que emerge tras las estructuras de la Guerra Fría es un sistema reformado, en el que Rusia tiene voz y en el que se establecen y se mantienen los principios fundamentales del derecho y del orden internacionales.

  9. Efectos de las Políticas Medio Ambientales en el Comercio Internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Llorente, Elena

    2014-01-01

    El estudio comienza con una explicación de las diferentes teorías sobre el comercio internacional, las cuales han sido ideadas a lo largo de la historia por los diferentes economistas. También se recogen las políticas medio ambientales llevadas a cabo por los gobiernos para proteger al medio ambiente de la contaminación. A continuación, se abordan las consecuencias de las emisiones de gases contaminantes y se procede a la realización de un análisis económico del medio ambiente y el cambio cli...

  10. Las Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil (OSC) y la agenda internacional del desarrollo: escenario latinoamericano

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla Blanco, María Luisa

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la acción de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil latinoamericanas: su evolución y el papel que juegan en la definición de la agenda internacional del desarrollo desde América Latina. Para ello, me detendré en los siguientes puntos: 1. Los hitos más importantes en la generación de consensos sobre los contenidos de esa agenda de desarrollo en lo que va de siglo y el reconocimiento del papel de las OSC. 2. La situación de América Latina en este contexto. ...

  11. La financiarización de las relaciones salariales. Una perspectiva internacional. Madrid, La Catarata, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Requena i Mora, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Para comprender las dimensiones económicas, políticas, ecológicas y, sobre todo, sociales, de la actual 'gran transformación' neoliberal en el sentido que Karl Polanyi le dio a este término, es necesario dar cuenta del proceso de financiarización, así como de sus múltiples y perniciosas consecuencias. En esta dirección se orienta la obra que aquí reseñamos La financiarización de las relaciones salariales. una perspectiva internacional.

  12. La reforma de las enseñanzas universitarias desde el ángulo internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo MARÍN IBÁÑEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Por imperativo legal, en desarrollo de la Ley Orgánica de Reforma Universitaria de 1983 y a la vez de los estatutos de las respectivas universidades, van a ser renovados los planes de estudios. El tema, pues, merece una consideración especial. Nosotros vamos a enfocarlo desde el triple ángulo: los artículos de la Ley que conciernen a nuestro tema; las propuestas formuladas por el Consejo de Universidades; y la reflexión crítica sobre las directrices elaboradas por el Consejo a la luz de la información internacional.

  13. El agua virtual: una oportunidad para la Argentina en el contexto internacional actual

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    En forma recurrente, se considera que el agua desempeñará en el siglo XXI, el rol que tuvo el petróleo en el siglo XX. La diferencia fundamental entre ambos recursos es que el agua es un “recurso finito, vulnerable y esencial para mantener la vida, el desarrollo y el medio ambiente”, según la definición de la Conferencia Internacional sobre el Agua y el Medio Ambiente realizada en la ciudad de Dublin en el año 1992. El agotamiento y la creciente escasez de agua en el mundo, el cambio climátic...

  14. El XIV Congreso Geológico Internacional de 1926 en España

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Carcedo, Francisco Javier; Perejón, Antonio; Puche Riart, Octavio; Jordá Bordehore, Luis

    2005-01-01

    El XIV Congreso Geológico Internacional de 1926 ha sido el único organizado en España. Se exponen las características principales del mismo, a nivel temático y organizativo. Se analizan cuantitativamente el número de asistentes, las lenguas utilizadas, los países representados, las publicaciones, los autores y su productividad. Se muestra así el significado del congreso en la historia de los mismos, el predominio de geólogos franceses y alemanes, el predominio del trabajo individual y el limi...

  15. Kick to kik. Trabajadores offshore desplazados y ley aplicable a la seguridad social internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA VARGAS GÓMEZ-URRUTIA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Offshore workers displaced and applicable law to international social security: lex loci laboris, law of residence of the worker or law of the seat of the employer? Responses to light the matter Kik (STJUE c-266/13, 19.3.2015 Trabajadores offshore desplazados y ley aplicable a la seguridad social internacional: ¿lex loci laboris, ley de la residencia del trabajador o ley de la sede del empleador? Respuestas a la luz del asunto Kik (STJUE C-266/13, de 19.3.2015

  16. La Actio Popularis en el Derecho Internacional Contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Xavier de Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo objetivó enfrentar el problema relacionado a la vigencia, validez y eficacia del instituto de la actio popularis en el derecho internacional contemporáneo, teniendo como punto de intersección, por un lado, las decisiones dictadas por la Corte Internacional de Justicia en los casos Etiopía y Liberia v. África del Sur en los años 1962 y 1966, así como las críticas en relación a la vuelta radical que la Corte promovió entre los juicios de las Cuestiones Preliminares y la segunda fase, teniendo como sustrato teórico la crítica hecha por Egon Schwelb. Para ello, después de establecer las bases de la discusión en el tema relativo a la transición del sistema westfaliano al de la Carta, se discutía sobre el origen del instituto en el derecho romano, teniendo como principal apoyo la obra de Theodor Mommsen. El acto seguido se pasó a la presentación y discusión de las decisiones de la Corte Internacional de Justicia en el caso indicado, para señalar, en líneas posteriores, las críticas que dicha decisión sufrió. En el último tópico se discutió la correlación entre el instituto de la actio popularis con la máxima aut dedere aut judicare, en especial en el régimen indirecto de implementación del Derecho Penal Internacional. Se concluye el trabajo con consideraciones a confirmar la vigencia, validez y condiciones de eficacia y legitimidad de la justicia cosmopolita, cuya fundamentación se encuentra en la actio popularis. El método de abordaje adoptado en el presente trabajo fue el crítico, y el de procedimiento la consulta bibliográfica.

  17. El transporte internacional como factor de competitividad en el comercio exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora Torres, América Ivonne; Pedraza Rendón, Oscar H.

    2013-01-01

    Actualmente casi todos los envíos internacionales necesitan emplear más de un tipo de transporte desde su punto de origen hasta su destino final. Cada uno de los tipos mundiales de transporte de carga y pasajeros ha desempeñado un papel esencial en la facilitación de la diversificación geográfica del comercio. En este trabajo se evalúa, a través del método de Análisis de Componentes Principales, la competitividad del transporte internacional considerando, a su vez, las variables más important...

  18. Herramientas del Marketing: Data Warehousing, Tecnologia necesaria para el Comercio Internacional.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Maria Hernández Lamillar

    2005-01-01

    La Empresa Internacional actual y en particular su área de Marketing se ve obligada a realizar cambios e implantar las nuevas tecnologías de la información El objetivo de este trabajo es introducir y analizar aspectos de las nuevas técnicas de la informática y su repercusión en la empresa: Data warehousing, Data warehouse, Data Marts, OLAP, Data Mining, Business Intelligence. La necesidad de obtener información para una amplia variedad de individuos es la principal razón de negocios que condu...

  19. Fernando Nobre, presidente da Assistência Médica Internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Sofia Teixeira entrevista Fernando Nobre, presidente da Assistência Médica Internacional. «Nada é por acaso na vida. Em 1981, na fronteira entre o Sudão e o Chade cruzeime com uma equipa de jornalistas franceses da revista L`Express. Eles publicaram um artigo onde falavam do meu trabalho no Chade e esse artigo é lido pela equipa da Grande Reportagem da RTP, dirigida pelo José Manuel Barata-Feyo. Localizaram-me e fizeram uma reportagem comigo, no Chade, em 1983. Foi essa reportagem que desen...

  20. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una paz esquiva

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  1. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una nueva estrategia de paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  2. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una paz secuestrada

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  3. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Los momentos de la paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  4. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Siempre es tarde para la paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  5. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Viraje en el proceso de paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  6. Propiedad intelectual y comercio internacional : un límite para el desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Seco Martínez, José María

    2002-01-01

    Los derechos de propiedad intelectual relacionados con el comercio (ADPIC) están arruinando las posibilidades legítimas de desarrollo de los pueblos más rezagados. Desde que entraran en vigor apenas hace una década el desgaste social, ambiental y económico de las zonas más depauperadas del planeta se ha disparado de manera notable. Desde entonces se ha despojado a las regiones más pobres de sus potencialidades comerciales de intervención en igualdad de condiciones en el mercado internacional,...

  7. Análisis de la movilidad estudiantil internacional a nivel pregrado. Un caso de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén Velastegui, Omar Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación da a conocer el análisis de la movilidad estudiantil internacional a nivel de pregrado generada en la Universidad de Cuenca- Ecuador entre instituciones de educación superior durante los años 2015 y 2016, cabe señalar que los procesos formales de intercambio estudiantil favorecen en la formación académica de estudiantes, y las Instituciones de Educación Superior (IES) juegan un rol fundamental para su ejecución; y consecuentemente deben mantenerse en comun...

  8. La evolución reciente del sector vitivinícola internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Portela, Julio

    2013-01-01

    El sector vitivinícola internacional se ha caracterizado por la existencia de un grupo de países dominantes que concentran gran parte de la industria del vino mundial: España, Francia e Italia. Este grupo de países lidera la superficie cultivada de viñedos, la producción de uva, así como la elaboración de vinos. Pero desde hace unas décadas, han aparecido en escena un conjunto de nuevos países emergentes (Estados Unidos, China, Australia, Argentina, etc.) que poco a poco se han ido consolidan...

  9. Cooperación internacional en materia penal en el MERCOSUR: el cibercrimen

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Deluca; Enrique Del Carril

    2017-01-01

    En el Mercosur no existe un derecho penal común, no obstante observarse una creciente corriente orientada a la adopción de normas generales de política criminal tendiente a combatir diversos actos delictivos. Ello se cristaliza en la creación de normas de cooperación internacional en materia penal, con el objeto de lograr la asimilación y adecuación “macro” de las legislaciones penales de los Estados Parte. Es justo reconocer que en este trabajo no se pretende elaborar un corpus iuris por ...

  10. La responsabilidad social corporativa y la compatibilidad electromagnética en un contexto internacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Calderón Patier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo estudia los criterios de certificación internacionales de calidad referidos a la Compatibilidad Electromagnética (CEM, dirigidos a la protección de los sistemas de comunicación. Serán analizados los tres mercados de referencia, el europeo, norteamericano y japonés, que nos permitirán conocer el estádio actual de regulación, así como las posibles tendencias futuras de las diferentes áreas y zonas de producción en un contexto de globalización internacional.

  11. II Congreso Internacional de Investigación en Artes Visuales. |< real | virtual >| ANIAV2015

    OpenAIRE

    Asociación Nacional de Investigadores en Artes Visuales - ANIAV

    2015-01-01

    El II Congreso de Investigación en Artes visuales organizado por ANIAV, tiene como objetivo crear un foro que permita facilitar la visibilidad de la producción de los investigadores en arte a nivel nacional e internacional y el conocimiento mutuo. El eje temático propuesto en esta ocasión debe ser lo suficiente abierto e inclusivo para abarcar en lo posible las distintas manifestaciones y modos de la investigación artística al tiempo que se aproxime a las preocupaciones actuales de las invest...

  12. Observatorio de Política Internacional II. AMERICAS - Elecciones en U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional II. AMÉRICAS (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Nicaragua. Un remedo revolucionario Bolivia. ¿Una o dislocada? Paraguay. El ex obispo presidente Perú. El rojo sangre de sendero luminoso Estados Unidos. Panorama tras las elecciones primarias RECIENTES Año 2007 Argentina. Contundente triunfo de Cristina Fernández Bolivia. Nuevos rumbos ¡no más embrollo! Ecuador. Nueva constitución, nuevo rumbo Guatemala....

  13. Do Reconhecimento de Estado e de Governo no Direito Internacional: considerações sobre a evolução do tema na jurisprudência e prática internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Waisberg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o tema do reconhecimento de Estado e de governo no Direito Internacional sob a perspectiva da jurisprudência e prática internacional.  São apresentados três estágios evolutivos referentes ao assunto, com o objetivo de demonstrar as principais características de cada um deles, e delinear os contornos da prática e jurisprudência internacional relativa ao reconhecimento de Estado e de governo no contexto pós-guerra fria.   This article approaches the subject related to the recognition of states and governments in International Law from a jurisprudential and state practice perspective. It is presented three stages of evolution of this issue in order to describe its main characteristics, and to trace the outline of jurisprudence and state practice related to the recognition of states and government in the post-cold war context.

  14. Sediment transport along the Cap de Creus Canyon flank during a mild, wet winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martín

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cap de Creus Canyon (CCC is known as a preferential conduit for particulate matter leaving the Gulf of Lion continental shelf towards the slope and the basin, particularly in winter when storms and dense shelf water cascading coalesce to enhance the seaward export of shelf waters. During the CASCADE (CAscading, Storm, Convection, Advection and Downwelling Events cruise in March 2011, deployments of recording instruments within the canyon and vertical profiling of the water column properties were conducted to study with high spatial-temporal resolution the impact of such processes on particulate matter fluxes. In the context of the mild and wet 2010–2011 winter, no remarkable dense shelf water formation was observed. On the other hand, the experimental setup allowed for the study of the impact of E-SE storms on the hydrographical structure and the particulate matter fluxes in the CCC. The most remarkable feature in terms of sediment transport was a period of dominant E-SE winds from 12 to 16 March, including two moderate storms (maximum significant wave heights = 4.1–4.6 m. During this period, a plume of freshened, relatively cold and turbid water flowed at high speeds along the southern flank of the CCC in an approximate depth range of 150–350 m. The density of this water mass was lighter than the ambient water in the canyon, indicating that it did not cascade off-shelf and that it merely downwelled into the canyon forced by the strong cyclonic circulation induced over the shelf during the storms and by the subsequent accumulation of seawater along the coast. Suspended sediment load in this turbid intrusion recorded along the southern canyon flank oscillated between 10 and 50 mg L−1, and maximum currents speeds reached values up to 90 cm s−1. A rough estimation of 105 tons of sediment was transported through the canyon along its southern wall during a 3-day-long period of storm-induced downwelling. Following the veering of the wind

  15. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, Charles K.; Ussler, William III; McGann, Mary; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Lundsten, Eve M.

    2013-01-01

    While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry into the canyon head while the 14C ages of benthic foraminifera record the deposition of hemipelagic sediments that bound the sand horizons. We use both single-grain and small (∼2 mm area) single-aliquot regeneration approaches on vibracore samples from fining-upward sequences at various water depths to demonstrate relatively rapid, decadal-scale sand transport to at least 1.1 km depth and more variable decadal- to millennial-scale transport to a least 3.5 km depth on the fan. Significant differences between the time sand was last exposed at the canyon head (OSL age) and the timing of deposition of the sand (from 14C ages of benthic foraminifera in bracketing hemipelagic sediments) are interpreted as indicating that the sand does not pass through the entire canyon instantly in large individual events, but rather moves multiple times before emerging onto the fan. The increased spread in single-grain OSL dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL ages that are consistent with a sub-decadal recurrence frequency while the fining-upward sand sequences on the fan indicate that the channel is still experiencing events with a 150

  16. Food-web dynamics and isotopic niches in deep-sea communities residing in a submarine canyon and on the adjacent open slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demopoulos, A.W.J.; McClain-Counts, J.; Ross, S.W.; Brooke, S.; Mienis, F.

    2017-01-01

    Examination of food webs and trophic niches provide insights into organisms’ functionalecology, yet few studies have examined trophodynamics within submarine canyons, wherethe interaction of canyon morphology and oceanography influences habitat provision and fooddeposition. Using stable isotope

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer

  18. Thermal effects on vehicle emission dispersion in an urban street canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaomin Xie; Zhen Huang; Jiasong Wang; Zheng Xie [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China)

    2005-05-15

    The impact of the thermal effects on vehicle emission dispersion within street canyons is examined. The results show that heating from building wall surfaces and horizontal surfaces lead to strong buoyancy forces close to surfaces receiving direct solar radiation. This thermally induced flow is combined with mechanically induced flows formed in the canyon where there is no solar heating, and affects the transport of pollutants from the canyon to the layer aloft. The relative influence of each of these effects can be estimates by Gr/Re{sup 2}. When the windward wall is warmer than the air, an upward buoyancy flux opposes the downward advection flux along the wall; if Gr/Re{sup 2} > 2, the flow structure is divided into two counter-rotating cells, and pollutants are accumulated on the windward side of the canyon. When the horizontal surface is heated, and Gr/Re{sup 2} > 4, the flow structure is divided into two counter-rotating cells by upward buoyancy flux. Pollutants are accumulated at the windward side of the canyon. When the leeward side is heated, the buoyancy flux adds to the upward advection flux along the wall strengthening the original vortex and pollutant effects of transport compared to the isothermal case. (Author)

  19. Effects of Building‒roof Cooling on Flow and Distribution of Reactive Pollutants in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. J.; Choi, W.; Kim, J.; Jeong, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of building‒roof cooling on flow and dispersion of reactive pollutants were investigated in the framework of flow dynamics and chemistry using a coupled CFD‒chemistry model. For this, flow characteristics were analyzed first in street canyons in the presence of building‒roof cooling. A portal vortex was generated in street canyon, producing dominant reverse and outward flows near the ground in all the cases. The building‒roof cooling increased horizontal wind speeds at the building roof and strengthened the downward motion near the downwind building in the street canyon, resultantly intensifying street canyon vortex strength. The flow affected the distribution of primary and secondary pollutants. Concentrations of primary pollutants such as NOx, VOC and CO was high near the upwind building because the reverse flows were dominant at street level, making this area the downwind region of emission sources. Concentration of secondary pollutant such as O3 was lower than the background near the ground, where NOX concentrations were high. Building‒roof cooling decreased the concentration of primary pollutants in contrasted to those under non‒cooling conditions. In contrast, building‒roof cooling increased O3 by reducing NO concentrations in urban street canyon compared to concentrations under non‒cooling conditions.

  20. Study of traffic-related pollutant removal from street canyon with trees: dispersion and deposition perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakinyo, Tobi Eniolu; Lam, Yun Fat

    2016-11-01

    Numerical experiments involving street canyons of varying aspect ratio with traffic-induced pollutants (PM 2.5 ) and implanted trees of varying aspect ratio, leaf area index, leaf area density distribution, trunk height, tree-covered area, and tree planting pattern under different wind conditions were conducted using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, ENVI-met. Various aspects of dispersion and deposition were investigated, which include the influence of various tree configurations and wind condition on dispersion within the street canyon, pollutant mass at the free stream layer and street canyon, and comparison between mass removal by surface (leaf) deposition and mass enhancement due to the presence of trees. Results revealed that concentration level was enhanced especially within pedestrian level in street canyons with trees relative to their tree-free counterparts. Additionally, we found a dependence of the magnitude of concentration increase (within pedestrian level) and decrease (above pedestrian level) due to tree configuration and wind condition. Furthermore, we realized that only ∼0.1-3 % of PM 2.5 was dispersed to the free stream layer while a larger percentage (∼97 %) remained in the canyon, regardless of its aspect ratio, prevailing wind condition, and either tree-free or with tree (of various configuration). Lastly, results indicate that pollutant removal due to deposition on leaf surfaces is potentially sufficient to counterbalance the enhancement of PM 2.5 by such trees under some tree planting scenarios and wind conditions.

  1. Effectiveness of green infrastructure for improvement of air quality in urban street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Thomas A M; Mackenzie, A Robert; Whyatt, J Duncan; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2012-07-17

    Street-level concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM) exceed public health standards in many cities, causing increased mortality and morbidity. Concentrations can be reduced by controlling emissions, increasing dispersion, or increasing deposition rates, but little attention has been paid to the latter as a pollution control method. Both NO(2) and PM are deposited onto surfaces at rates that vary according to the nature of the surface; deposition rates to vegetation are much higher than those to hard, built surfaces. Previously, city-scale studies have suggested that deposition to vegetation can make a very modest improvement (street canyons. This study shows that increasing deposition by the planting of vegetation in street canyons can reduce street-level concentrations in those canyons by as much as 40% for NO(2) and 60% for PM. Substantial street-level air quality improvements can be gained through action at the scale of a single street canyon or across city-sized areas of canyons. Moreover, vegetation will continue to offer benefits in the reduction of pollution even if the traffic source is removed from city centers. Thus, judicious use of vegetation can create an efficient urban pollutant filter, yielding rapid and sustained improvements in street-level air quality in dense urban areas.

  2. Influence of local parameters on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Malki-Epshtein, Liora; Martin Hyde Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    Ventilation within urban cities and street canyons and the associated air quality is a problem of increasing interest in the last decades. It is important for to minimise exposure of the population to traffic-related pollutants at street level. The residence time of pollutants within the street canyons depends on the meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, geometry layout and local parameters (position of traffic lane within the street). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of traffic lane position on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within different street canyons geometries: symmetrical (equal building heights on both sides of the street), non-symmetrical (uniform building heights but lower on one side of the street) and heterogeneous (non-uniform building heights on both sides of the street) under constant meteorological conditions. Laboratory experiments were carried out within a water channel and simultaneous measurements of velocity field and concentration scalar levels within and above the street canyons using PIV and PLIF techniques. Traffic -related emissions were simulated using a line emission source. Two positions were examined for all street geometries: line emission source was placed in the centre of the street canyon; line emission source was placed off the centre of the street. TSI Incorporated.

  3. Parametric study of the dispersion aspects in a street-canyon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsourakis, N.; Neofytou, P.; Venetsanos, A.G.; Bartzis, J.G. [NCSR Demokritos (Greece). Environmental Research Lab.

    2004-07-01

    Continuously increasing vehicles' fleet is still considered to be the main emission factor in urban environments, despite the enormous progress of modern catalytic technology. Under that perspective, calculation of transportation induced pollutant dispersion is of augmented importance, especially within street canyons, where poor ventilation can result in awkward concentration levels. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies have been conducted in the past by Neofytou, P. et al, so as to define appropriate locations for measuring-instrument placement by numerically simulating the flow and pollution dispersion fields in the vicinity of the measuring site taking into account the wind rose of the area and selecting locations of high pollution concentrations so that non-zero indications are assured. Vardoulakis, S. et al, provides a general overview of the street-canyon studies concerning both modelling and experimental investigations and offers plenty of references on air quality within street canyons. Besides air-quality, street canyon CFD studies have also been performed to evaluate accident consequences and hydrogen safety, Venetsanos A. et al. The current study examines a real street canyon in Thessaloniki, Greece. It was performed in order to examine dispersion patterns for different parameters' scenarios and help deciding where to place actual pollutant measurement instruments to better capture traffic pollution data. Various wind directions and speeds are examined and height influence on concentration levels is investigated. Complex area geometry is a key factor of the whole study. (orig.)

  4. Study on the wind field and pollutant dispersion in street canyons using a stable numerical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ji-Yang; Leung, Dennis Y C

    2005-01-01

    A stable finite element method for the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations was used for studying the wind flow and pollutant dispersion within street canyons. A three-step fractional method was used to solve the velocity field and the pressure field separately from the governing equations. The Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method was used to get stable numerical results. Numerical oscillation was minimized and satisfactory results can be obtained for flows at high Reynolds numbers. Simulating the flow over a square cylinder within a wide range of Reynolds numbers validates the wind field model. The Strouhal numbers obtained from the numerical simulation had a good agreement with those obtained from experiment. The wind field model developed in the present study is applied to simulate more complex flow phenomena in street canyons with two different building configurations. The results indicated that the flow at rooftop of buildings might not be assumed parallel to the ground as some numerical modelers did. A counter-clockwise rotating vortex may be found in street canyons with an inflow from the left to right. In addition, increasing building height can increase velocity fluctuations in the street canyon under certain circumstances, which facilitate pollutant dispersion. At high Reynolds numbers, the flow regimes in street canyons do not change with inflow velocity.

  5. Determining the flux of methane into Hudson Canyon at the edge of methane clathrate hydrate stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinsten, A.; Navarrete, L; Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Weber, T.C.; Leonte, M.; Kellermann, M.; Arrington, E.; Valentine, D.L.; Scranton, M.L; Kessler, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Methane seeps were investigated in Hudson Canyon, the largest shelf-break canyon on the northern US Atlantic Margin. The seeps investigated are located at or updip of the nominal limit of methane clathrate hydrate stability. The acoustic identification of bubble streams was used to guide water column sampling in a 32 km2 region within the canyon's thalweg. By incorporating measurements of dissolved methane concentration with methane oxidation rates and current velocity into a steady-state box model, the total emission of methane to the water column in this region was estimated to be 12 kmol methane per day (range: 6 – 24 kmol methane per day). These analyses suggest this methane is largely retained inside the canyon walls below 300 m water depth, and that it is aerobically oxidized to near completion within the larger extent of Hudson Canyon. Based on estimated methane emissions and measured oxidation rates, the oxidation of this methane to dissolved CO2 is expected to have minimal influences on seawater pH. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Coupling dynamics and chemistry in the air pollution modelling of street canyons: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2016-07-01

    Air pollutants emitted from vehicles in street canyons may be reactive, undergoing mixing and chemical processing before escaping into the overlying atmosphere. The deterioration of air quality in street canyons occurs due to combined effects of proximate emission sources, dynamical processes (reduced dispersion) and chemical processes (evolution of reactive primary and formation of secondary pollutants). The coupling between dynamics and chemistry plays a major role in determining street canyon air quality, and numerical model approaches to represent this coupling are reviewed in this article. Dynamical processes can be represented by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The choice of CFD approach (mainly the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) models) depends on the computational cost, the accuracy required and hence the application. Simplified parameterisations of the overall integrated effect of dynamics in street canyons provide capability to handle relatively complex chemistry in practical applications. Chemical processes are represented by a chemical mechanism, which describes mathematically the chemical removal and formation of primary and secondary species. Coupling between these aspects needs to accommodate transport, dispersion and chemical reactions for reactive pollutants, especially fast chemical reactions with time scales comparable to or shorter than those of typical turbulent eddies inside the street canyon. Different approaches to dynamical and chemical coupling have varying strengths, costs and levels of accuracy, which must be considered in their use for provision of reference information concerning urban canopy air pollution to stakeholders considering traffic and urban planning policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Jurassic section along McElmo Canyon in southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    In McElmo Canyon, Jurassic rocks are 1500-1600 ft thick. Lower Jurassic rocks of the Glen Canyon Group include (in ascending order) Wingate Sandstone, Kayenta Formation and Navajo Sandstone. Middle Jurassic rocks are represented by the San Rafael Group, which includes the Entrada Sandstone and overlying Wanakah Formation. Upper Jurassic rocks comprise the Junction Creek Sandstone overlain by the Morrison Formation. The Burro Canyon Formation, generally considered to be Lower Cretaceous, may be Late Jurassic in the McElmo Canyon area and is discussed with the Jurassic. The Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the subsurface underlies, and the Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone overlies, the Jurassic section. An unconformity is present at the base of the Glen Canyon Group (J-0), at the base of the San Rafael Group (J-2), and at the base of the Junction Creek Sandstone (J-5). Another unconformity of Cretaceous age is at the base of the Dakota Sandstone. Most of the Jurassic rocks consist of fluviatile, lacustrine and eolian deposits. The basal part of the Entrada Sandstone and the Wanakah Formation may be of marginal marine origin.

  8. Fault tree analysis of Project S-4404, Upgrade Canyon Exhaust System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, E.V.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Project S-4404, Upgrade Canyon Exhaust Systems, is a $177 million project with the purpose of upgrading the Exhaust Systems for both F and H Canyon Facilities. This upgrade will replace major portions of the F and H-Canyon exhaust systems, downstream of their respective sand filters with higher capacity and more reliable systems. Because of the high cost, DOE requested Program Control ampersand Integration (PC ampersand I) to examine specific deletions to the project. PC ampersand I requested Nuclear Processes Safety Research (NPSR) to perform an analysis to compare failure rates for the existing F ampersand H Canyon exhaust systems with the proposed exhaust system and specific proposed exhaust system alternatives. The objective of this work was to perform an analysis and compare failure rates for the existing F ampersand H Canyon exhaust systems with the proposed project exhaust system and proposed project alternatives. Based on fault tree analysis, two conclusions are made. First, D ampersand D activities can be eliminated from the project with no significant decrease to exhaust system safety. Deletion of D ampersand D activities would result in a cost savings of $29 million. Second, deletion of DOE Order 6430.1A requirements regarding DBAs would decrease exhaust system safety by a factor of 12

  9. Numerical Study of Traffic Pollutant Dispersion within Different Street Canyon Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Miao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to numerically study flow and traffic exhaust dispersion in urban street canyons with different configurations to find out the urban-planning strategies to ease the air pollution. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model used in this study—Open Source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM software package—was firstly validated against the wind-tunnel experiment data by using three different k-ε turbulence models. And then the patterns of flow and dispersion within three different kinds of street canyon configuration under the perpendicular approaching flow were numerically studied. The result showed that the width and height of building can dramatically affect the pollution level inside the street canyon. As the width or height of building increases, the pollution at the pedestrian level increases. And the asymmetric configuration (step-up or step-down street canyon could provide better ventilation. It is recommended to design a street canyon with nonuniform configurations. And the OpenFOAM software package can be used as a reliable tool to study flows and dispersions around buildings.

  10. Feral Cattle in the White Rock Canyon Reserve at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, Charles D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-27

    At the request of the Los Alamos Field Office (the Field Office), Los Alamos National Security (LANS) biologists placed remote-triggered wildlife cameras in and around the mouth of Ancho Canyon in the White Rock Canyon Reserve (the Reserve) to monitor use by feral cattle. The cameras were placed in October 2012 and retrieved in January 2013. Two cameras were placed upstream in Ancho Canyon away from the Rio Grande along the perennial flows from Ancho Springs, two cameras were placed at the north side of the mouth to Ancho Canyon along the Rio Grande, and two cameras were placed at the south side of the mouth to Ancho Canyon along the Rio Grande. The cameras recorded three different individual feral cows using this area as well as a variety of local native wildlife. This report details our results and issues associated with feral cattle in the Reserve. Feral cattle pose significant risks to human safety, impact cultural and biological resources, and affect the environmental integrity of the Reserve. Regional stakeholders have communicated to the Field Office that they support feral cattle removal.

  11. Cooperación Sur-Sur: Análisis de su impacto en la transformación del régimen internacional de la OCDE en materia de cooperación internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Reyes, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Las relaciones de cooperación Sur-Sur revoluciona las lógicas tradicionales que dieron base al régimen de la cooperación internacional expedido desde la OCDE. La diferencia entre los donantes llamados “DAC” y los socios “No-DAC” en referencia a los Estados miembros del Comité de Asistencia al Desarrollo establece dos lógicas de cooperación internacional que se contraponen en sus dinámicas pero comparten un objetivo: el desarrollo. Estos dos tipos de relaciones de cooperación se diferencian en...

  12. Deep Sea Shell Taphonomy: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, Ocean Networks Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Mairi; Purser, Autun

    2015-04-01

    In order to quantify and track the rates and processes of modification of biogenic carbonate in gas hydrate environments, and their possible environmental/ecological correlates, ongoing observations of experimentally deployed specimens are being made using a remotely controlled crawler with camera and sensors. The crawler is connected to NEPTUNE Canada, an 800km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, northeastern Pacific, part of Ocean Networks Canada. One of 15 study areas is an environment of exposed hydrate mounds along the wall of Barkley Canyon, at ˜865m water depth. This is the home of a benthic crawler developed by Jacobs University of Germany, who is affectionately known as Wally. Wally is equipped with a range of sensors including cameras, methane sensor, current meter, fluorometer, turbidity meter, CTD, and a sediment microprofiler with probes for oxygen, methane, sulphide, pH, temperature, and conductivity. In conjunction with this sensor suite, a series of experiments have been designed to assess the cycling of biogenic carbon and carbonate in this complex environment. The biota range from microbes, to molluscs, to large fish, and therefore the carbon inputs include both a range of organic carbon compounds as well as the complex materials that are "biogenic carbonate". Controlled experimental specimens were deployed of biogenic carbonate (Mytilus edulis fresh shells) and cellulose (pieces of untreated pine lumber) that had been previously well characterized (photographed, weighed, and numbered, matching valves and lumber kept as controls). Deployment at the sediment/water interface was in such a way to maximize natural burial exhumation cycles but to minimize specimen interaction. 10 replicate specimens of each material were deployed in two treatments: 1) adjacent to a natural life and death assemblage of chemosynthetic bivalves and exposed hydrate on a hydrate mound and 2) on the muddy seafloor at a distance

  13. Influencia de la cooperación internacional Norte-Sur sobre la agenda ambiental en Colombia (Tema Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Burbano Galeano, Mario Ediñho

    2013-01-01

    La política ambiental de Colombia se centra en mecanismos e instrumentos de protección ambiental y desarrollo sostenible sobre los cuales se sustenta el crecimiento económico del país; además, establece medidas para la adaptación del país al cambio climático. Tal política se articula en el desarrollo de la agenda internacional de cambio climático, en cuya sincronía –entre la política internacional y política doméstica– contribuye la cooperación internacional (Norte-Sur), ahora que ha existido...

  14. La Convención de Viena sobre la compraventa internacional de mercancías como lex mercatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Marín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, desarrollado en el marco de una conferencia sobre la materia, tiene como finalidad mostrar el papel que juega la Convención de Viena de 1980 sobre la compraventa internacional de mercancías en el desarrollo del comercio internacional y su aplicación en los diferentes ordenamientos nacionales, bien sea directamente como una ley positiva o como una costumbre mercantil o lex mercatoria. Todo ello para mostrar que si bien existen muchos Estados que aún no han ratificado esta Convención, eso no es óbice para que la misma no pueda ser aplicada de una forma subsidiaria en el evento de que estemos en presencia de un litigio que tenga las características exigidas para los casos de compraventa internacional de mercancías.

  15. Respuestas del derecho internacional ante la transformación del régimen de asilo en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Gil Bazo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Los países de la Unión Europea se enfrentan a uno de los mayores retos de nuestro tiempo. El flujo cada vez mayor de inmigrantes hacia Europa en un momento de crisis en todos los órdenes (económico, político, y social comporta nuevos problemas e interrogantes que deben ser solucionados desde una perspectiva a largo plazo y de respeto a los valores democráticos y los derechos humanos. En este contexto, el proceso de integración europea supone que la cooperación en temas de inmigración adquiera carácter prioritario, y deba ser tratada a nivel internacional entre los Estados que forman la Unión Europea. El momento de transformaciones restrictivas en el contexto internacional europeo de extranjería y asilo obliga a la reflexión sobre el estatus en Derecho internacional del derecho de asilo, que viene dado no sólo por los instrumentos específicos relativos a la protección de refugiados, sino también por otros instrumentos internacionales de protección  de derechos humanos, y por el propio Derecho internacional consuetudinario. Es esta una vertiente con frecuencia soslayada cuya importancia se acrecienta ante las restricciones cada vez mayores impuestas por los países de la Unión Europea al régimen específico del asilo. Así, el presente artículo tiene por objeto el análisis del derecho internacional de asilo y el modo en que éste puede hoy ser complementado por el derecho internacional de los derechos humanos para dar respuesta a las modificaciones introducidas en las legislaciones europeas.

  16. LA ECONOMÍA BRASILEÑA: SU NUEVO PAPEL EN EL SISTEMA FINANCIERO INTERNACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André MOREIRA CUNHA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En abril de 2008, en medio de las perturbaciones internacionales de la crisis inmobiliaria de los EE.UU., la agencia de evaluación de riesgo Standard & Poors elevó la nota de la deuda externa brasileña para el grado de inversión. Esa nueva situación aproximó a Brasil a otras economías emergentes que ya disponían de este estatus de grado de inversión. Además, ha repercutido en los medios académicos, políticos y mediáticos como la confirmación de que, finalmente, el «gigante durmiente» de América del Sur habría despertado de un largo periodo de semiestancamiento, de problemas de solvencia externa y fiscal y, finalmente, de una debilidad institucional en el cumplimiento de compromisos financieros externos. Este artículo tiene por objetivo analizar las perspectivas de la economía brasileña, considerando este cambio de percepción de la comunidad financiera internacional. El punto de partida es la reciente economía política del desarrollo brasileño, buscando evaluar en qué medida el buen desempeño actual refleja cambios internos o transformaciones más estructurales de orden político y económico internacional.

  17. Tratamiento contable de las stock options según la normativa contable internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Merino Madrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La retribución que hacen las empresas a sus directivos y empleados mediante la entrega de opciones sobre acciones (stock options se ha convertido en una práctica habitual en muchos países del mundo. Hasta fechas recientes no existía un consenso sobre el tratamiento contable que se debía dar a este tipo de transacciones; sin embargo, en la actualidad parece que tal consenso se ha alcanzado al exigir tanto el International Accounting Standards Board (iasb como el Financial Accounting Standards Board (fasb, en la International Financial Reporting Standard, ifrs 2 (niif 2, Norma Internacional de Información Financiera y Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (sfas 123 (R respectivamente, que se reconozca la remuneración basada en la entrega de opciones sobre acciones como un gasto en los estados financieros. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el tratamiento contable aplicable de acuerdo con la normativa contable internacional o de información financiera (nic/niif.

  18. La Nueva Ruta de la Seda y la diplomacia internacional de negocios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lemus Delgado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza la diplomacia internacional de negocios en el contexto de la Nueva Ruta de la Seda, la iniciativa geoeconómica más importante del gobierno chino. Se parte del supuesto teórico de la Interdependencia Compleja de Kohane y Nye, para señalar la magnitud de los obstáculos que se deberán solventar. Asimismo, se plantea como mecanismo complementario la participación directa de actores no estatales en la resolución de los conflictos y se sugiere que las empresas chinas con una participación en los proyectos de la Nueva Ruta de la Seda intervengan directamente en defensa de sus propios intereses comerciales, sin depender de su gobierno o de la diplomacia tradicional. Se debe recurrir a la diplomacia internacional de negocios para acercar las posiciones de las partes involucradas y aumentar las probabilidades de éxito del proyecto.

  19. Core sets da Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Riberto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde (CIF propõe um modelo de entendimento da funcionalidade humana que integra aspectos biomédicos, sociais e pessoais, além de homogeneizar a terminologia que descreve as condições incapacitantes relacionadas à saúde. Todavia, em virtude de sua complexidade e da grande quantidade de aspectos contemplados, foi necessário desenvolver instrumentos práticos baseados nela. Os core sets da CIF são conjuntos de categorias da CIF que descrevem a funcionalidade de pessoas com determinadas condições de saúde. Eles vêm sendo desenvolvidos em processos de consenso com representação multiprofissional e internacional. Os core sets podem ser resumidos ou abrangentes, conforme o uso por apenas um ou mais profissionais. Seu uso permite ao profissional de saúde avaliar aspectos não contemplados por qualquer outro instrumento de avaliação funcional, como os fatores ambientais.

  20. Garantías independientes y cartas de patrocinio: las mejores alternativas para el comercio internacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando García Vásquez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La contratación mercantil se desarrolla con preponderancia en el contexto internacional. Ello impone a los agentes contratantes la obligación de constituir mecanismos de garantía eficaces, que les brinden certeza sobre le ejecución de sus derechos de garantía, sin depender para dichas ejecuciones de la incertidumbre y costos que entraña debatir los derechos al interior de un proceso judicial. De igual manera, los establecimientos de crédito precisan de la constitución a su favor de mecanismos de garantía idóneos para conceder crédito a los grupos económicos. Las garantías independientes y las cartas de patrocinio son mecanismos de garantía que satisfacen las necesidades de eficacia y eficiencia que demanda el tráfico mercantil internacional en la constitución de garantías para sus relaciones contractuales, las primeras porque basta el requerimiento del beneficiario para hacer exigible la obligación del garante, y las segundas por la confianza que las matrices generan al mercado financiero para conceder créditos a sus filiales.